For Financial Year
Ending fJue 30thb
W. F Yocuse, Director.
Hil Pnrimu Compur.
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
DR. SHELTON STRINGER ...._............- ........ Brooksville
Judge E. J. VANN __._ ---. ----------------------._ .__. Madison
Hon. A. B. HAGEN ..........------ ____...__.....-------Lake City
Hon. F. E. HARRIS ---........ ..---------------- ---- ..Ocala
Hon. F. R. OSBORNE.....----.......--------- --__..___DeLand
Hon. WILLIAM FISHER .........._.__.__ .-Pensacola
Hon. F. L. REES.. __ ........... _____...._ .. Live Oak
W. F. YOCUM, A. M.,
P. H. ROLFS, M. S.,
Horticulturist and Biologist.
A. A. PERSONS, M. S.,
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE, Ph. D.,
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S.,
Assistant in Biology.
J. P. DAVIES, B. S.,
Assistant in Chemistry.
W. P. JERNIGAN,
Auditor and Book-keeper.
D. S. BUTLER,
JOHN F. MITCHELL,
Foreman on Farm.
JOHN H. JEFFERIES,
Foreman on Grden.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
HON. W. D. BLOXHAM, GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA:
SIR:-I have the honor to transmit herewith the Annual
Report of the Florida Agricultural ExperimentStation for the
year ending June 30, 1898, together with abFinancial Statement
for year closing June 30, 1897.
Very respectfully yours,
W. F. Yoctm, DireAr.
LAKE CITY, E.A., OCTOBER I, 1898.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
The present report covers the year ending June 30, 1898.
By this change the report year is made to coincide with the
fiscal year in accordance with instructions from the office of
Experiment Stations at Washington.
For convenience of comparison the Financial Report covers
the years ending June 3o, 1897, and June 30, 1898-thelex-
pcnditures for the two years being in adjacent columns.
CHANGES IN STAFF.
In August, 1897, 0. Clute, LL. D., who for four years had
filled the offices of President of the College and Director of the
Station, resigned his position and the present incumbent was
elected to fill the vacancy. (y. e. 0c Cj
At the same time the Chair of Agriculture was separated
from that of Chemistry, with which it had been combined for
six years. Horace E. Stockbridge, Ph. D., was elected
fessor of Agriculture and to be Agriculturist on the Station.
DISCONTINUANCE OF SUB-STATIONS,
Under decisions from the Department of Agriculture at
Washington, the continuance of the Sub-station at De Funiak
Springs and Fort Myers was considered to be of doubtful
legality, and it was decided to make no further appropriations
for experiments at those places.
The lands used for experiment purposes have reverted to
the donors after reasonable compensation was made for im-
provements and for trees and plants growing thereon.
On the night of January 29, 1897, the residence of the
Director was totally destroyed by fire. The furniture, library
and personal effects of Dr. Clute and family were a complete
loss. The losses were promptly adjusted and paid by the
insurance companies which held the risks. The net loss to the
Station was about 1, 200.
In October of the same year the house of the foreman was
burned to the ground. More ready means of communication
with the city fire department would have saved the building.
The loss was complete, though not heavy. The insurance
companies promptly paid the amount covered by the policy.
Electric fire alarms have now been put in and the water
pipes replaced by larger ones.
The Director's house has not been rebuilt. The foreman's
house has been replaced by a neater and more convenient cot-
The legal requirement as to the number of Bulletins annu-
ally has been somewhat exceeded. Following are the titles
and the number of pages of the Bulletins published during the
No. 38, Tobacco in Florida, F. B. Moodie, pp. 54.
No. 39, Strawberry Culture, S. Powers, pp. 45.
No. 40, Fall Army Worm, Southern Grass Worm, A. L.
Quaintance, pp. 8.
No. 41, Fungus Disease of the San Jose Scale, P, H.
Rolfs, pp. 31.
No. 42, Some Strawberry Insects, A. L. Quaintance,
No. 43, A Chemical Study of Some Typical Soils of the
Florida Peninsula, A. A. Persons, pp. 120.
No. 44, Cane Syrup and Sugar, H. E. Stockbridge, pp. 47.
No. 45, Bean Leaf Roller, Corn Delphax, Canna Leaf
Roller, A. L. Quaintance, pp. 22.
A complete list of all Bulletins issued from this Station is
appended to this repoi t.
Following is the financial statement covering the years
ending June 30, 1897, and June 30, 1898:
FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERI-
FOR THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30. 1897 AND 198.
Year 16%-7. Yea 1597-4
Salaries---------------------------$ 505668 $ 4,799.64
Postage and stationery------------
Freight and express--------------
Heat, light and water -----------
Chemical supplies --------------
Seeds, plants and sundry supplies ---
Tools, implements and machinery---
Furniture and fixtures-----------
Live stock----------------- ----
Traveling expenses ----------------
Buildings and repairs----------
Deficit July 1, 897---------,,
Appropriation Experiment Station
Received for sales from Farm------
State Appropriation Fund----------
Deficit June 30, 1897-----------
Deficit June 30, 1898-----------
REPORT OF THE AGRICULTURIST,
DR. W. F. YocUM, DIRECTOR :
SIR:-Recognition of a distinct Department of Agriculture
in the work of the Station and the appointment of the writer
to the position of Agriculturist having only taken place Oct. i,
1897. the work here reviewed has, therefore, covered but part
of a year and no entire growing season, so that my report must
necessarily be brief.
My efforts have chiefly been directed toward getting the
Station farm into proper condition for the inauguration of a
systematic course of field-crop investigations, and to the elab-
oration of a scheme of experiments adapted to our soil and
climatic conditions which should tend to solve some of the
problems having practical bearing upon the cultivation of
The Station farm, owing to its variable, uneven and irreg-
ular character, is, at best, but illy adopted to the securing of
reliable results. Additional, or differently located, land, how-
ever, being unattainable, it was decided to take into cultivation
a portion of the hammock lying south of the main farm,
which was sufficiently level and even of aspect to meet the
requirements of careful observation reasonably well. A field
consisting of ten acres has, therefore, been entirely relieved of
its timber growth, consisting chiefly of oak, hickory, bay and
long leafed pine, entirely cleared of all the stumps of the same
and thoroughly broken and brought into satisfactory a state of
cultivation. So far as possible, all roots of trees were either
removed at the time of breaking, or during subsequent culti-
vation, so that the field to-day possesses a clear surface, is all
under cultivation, and during the coming year will have become
so thoroughly subjugated as to admirably meet the require-
ments of field experimentation.
DIVISION OF THE FARM.
With the removal of the more elaborate system of field
experiments to the new field thus secured, the desirable
division of the farm and its crops into two separate an i more
or less distinct classes of work has become desirable. The
accurate and systematic investigation of agricultural problems
by means of crops grown upon small plots to be continued for
a series of years, will hereafter be entirely conducted upon the
ten acres of land now ready for the purpose. With this class
of crops the experiment, rather than the crop, is the result
sought and the work may not infrequently be conducted
wholly irrespective of economic returns. The balance of the
farm, however, it is intended shall be conducted in accordance
with the most approved methods of farm practice where the
crop, rather than any practical or scientific results to be
attained, shall be the chief object sought. Of course, all
crops upon this portion of the farm are subject to observation
and may have experimental value, although only such crops
as the adaptations of the farm and its business requires, will
CHARACTER OF EXPERIMENTS CONTEMPLATED.
With the present division and arrangement of work, a
material change in the character of the crops grown upon the
farm has been inaugurated, resulting chiefly from my personal
conviction that the most feasible means for assisting the farm-
ers of the State, and, therefore, our most useful line of work,
consists in improved methods of producing and utilizing
standard farm crops ivith which the public is already perfectly
familiar, rather than any attempt toward the introduction of
novelties, new crops or products, which present the disadvan-
tage of unfamiliarity. It is believed, for instance, that the
people of Florida would be far more benefitted by new methods
whereby the yield of cotton per acre could be materially in-
creased or the cost of the same radically diminished, rather than
by investigation of the adaptations of such a crop as ramie,
which, however well it might thrive on our farms, must still be
introduced to public favor and seek a market as yet undeveloped.
In the elaboration of this plan and the inaugurating of a per-
manent system of investigation, the standard crops, the adap-
tation of which to our soil and climate has been long recognized
and with which every farmer of Florida is perfectly familiar,
occupy chief attention.
SCHEME OF PLOT EXPERIMENTS.
The ten acres to be devoted to plot experiments have been
in crop the present season, indeed the crops upon some plots
have already been harvested and the results preserved. The
field has been divided into plots consisting of one-twentieth of
an acre each, the divisions between which will be permanently
maintained that the identity of plots may be secured. The
crops which are to occupy these plots are tobacco, cotton, Irish
potatoes, sweet potatoes, hemp, tomatoes, cassava, corn, cane,
pinders, velvet beans and cow peas.
The different experiments to which these crops will be
devoted are fertilizing, varieties, cultivation, rotation and
effects of legumes.
The fertilizing expe; inents will embrace quantities if
plant-food, proportions of plant-food ingredients, sources of
plant-food ingredients and methods and time of application.
Variety experiments will be limited to the testing of varie-
ties .seeming to possess special promise or to a comparison of
varieties already acknowledged as adapted to Florida condi-
tions. No attempt whatever, in the line of cataloging or
testing the almost innumerable varieties of each crop is con-
templated, it being believed that such work appropriately de-
volves upon seedsmen and finds no proper position in the work
of a scientific institution.
The cultivation experiments will include the best methods
of planting, cultivation, harvesting, storing and marketing of
the crops grown.
Rotation experiments will be devoted chiefly to the study of
the economy of the succession of general farm crops, as well as
the ultimate effects upon soil fertility.
Legume experiments will be undertaken for the purpose of
studying the relative merits of the different leguminous plants
thriving in Florida as nitrogen gatherers and soil renovators.
The scheme of fertilizer experiments as conducted with
the tobacco plots is incorporated below as illustrating the plan
followed in attempting to learn the food requirements of the
more important Florida crops. Attention is particularly di-
.rected to the fact that both the effects of different proportions
of plant food, and of the form of supply are considered and in-
vestigated independently. Each plot includes one-twentieth of
an acre, so that the application per plot must be multiplied by
20 to indicate the equivalent quantity per. acre:
PLANT-FOOD EXPERIMENTS WITH TOBACCO.
FIRST SERES-4PROPOR1OMNS OF PLANT-FOOD).
5.9 lbs. 33.8 Ibs. 8.8 lbs.
1. Acid Phos. (Normal), Nitrogen (Normal). Sul. of Potash (Nor
8.i lbs. W0.7 Ibs. 12 lbs.
2. 1% Normal. 1) Normal. 1 Normal.
11.80 lbs. 67.6 Ibs. 17.2 lbs.
3. 2 Normal. 2 Normal. 2 Normal.
2.9 Ibs. 38.8 Ibs. 8.6 lbs.
4. % Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. Normal Potash.
.9 lbs. 1.9 lbs. 8.6 bs.
5. Normal Phos. Acid. % Normal Nitrogen. Normal Potash.
5.9 Ibs. 38.8 Ibs 4.8 lbs.
6. Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. % Normal Potash.
118 lbs. 33.8 lbs. 86 lbs.
7. 2 Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. Normal Potash.
9 lbs. 6.7 bs. 88 bs.
8. Normal Phos. Acid. 2 Normal Nitrogen. Normal Potash.
5.9 lbs. 33.8 lbs. 17.2 Ibs.
9. Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. 2 Normal Potash.
SECOND SERES-(FOlMS OF PLANT-FOO).
7.2 lbs. 33.8 bs. U8 lbs.
10. Thomas Slag. Normal Nitrogen. Normal Potash.
59 lbs. 18.9 Ibs. 8. Ib.
11. Phos. Acid. Nitrate of Soda. Normal Potash.
5.9 Ibs. 9.4 lbs. 6 Ibs.
12. Normal Phos. Acid. % Nitrate o Soda.
Y Cotton Seed Meal. Normal Potash.
5.9 lbs. l.8 lb. 8.6 Si.
13. Normal Phos. Acid. ul.of Ammonia. Normal Potash.
5.9 Ibs. 8.8 lbs. 20.7 lbs.
14. Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. Carbonate of Pota
5.9 lbs. 8.8 Ibs. 17.2 lbs.
15. Normal Phos. Acid. Normal Nitrogen. Silicate of Potash.
16. Check Plot (no fer ixer).
N. B.-Plot No. 1 is the standard for comparison and is fertilized with what i
called the "normal" application, which Is based on the actual composition of the
entire tobacco plant as grown In Florida. In other words, therefore the "nor
mal" application supplies the same quantity and proportion of each of the
plantfood ingredients which an average acre of Florida tobacco actually remove~
fom the soil.
The "normal" consists of U9.4 lbs. Phosphate, 619.5 bs. Cotton Seed Meal and
M.4 lbs. Sul. of Potash, supplying .8 Ibs. Phos. Acid, 47.00 lbs. Ntrogen and U80
lbs. Potash per acre.
Although climatic and other conditions in Florida render
the problems of feeding and breeding, which confront Northern
stockmen, of little importance in our State, and though with
our climatic conditions dairying must necessarily be conducted
by radically different methods from those in vogue where the
herd must be housed, with artificial feed, during more than
one-half the year, still I feel confident that there is no section
of country offering greater probability of profitable returns
from the stock and dairy industry than the State of Florida,
and experiments looking towards the more economical utiliza-
tion of our advantages along this line, have been inaugurated.
The stock upon the farm at the time it came under my charge
consisted, in addition to its work teams, simply of a single pair
of full-blood Jerseys, one nondescript milch cow and a
herd of excellent Red Duroc Jersey swine and a trio of young
Poland Chinas. A storage room has been transformed into
a dairy, supplied with running hot and cold water, separator,
churn, butter worker, milk cooler, and other appliances for
butter making, while experiments in the feeding and cross-
breeding of swine are now in progress. A herd of five com-
mon milch cows has been purchased with the intention of
developing a grade Jersey dairy herd, it being believed that
such a herd is not only better adapted to Florida conditions
than the pure bred, but that procuring the same in the way
described is within the reach of every Florida farmer, so that
the results will be applicable to Florida conditions.
Although many crops have been harvested within the
present year, most of them only grown for experimental pur-
poses, belong to a series not yet complete, so that present
publication of results would be previous. I may mention the
fact, however, that with Irish potatoes and tobacco results
deemed of sufficient importance to justify early publication
have been secured. Such publication, however, is reserved for
the future issues of Bulletins which may properly go into
One Bulletin only has been published during the present
year, viz.: on "Cane, Syrup, Sugar." Although the usual
edition was published the same has become so nearly exhausted
that it is believed appropriate to here include a resume of its
contents, particularly as it is believed that the results obtained
are of such a nature as to meet with probable use at the hands
of the recipients of this report.
The facts regarded as of special importance were enumer-
ated as follows:
x. The Soil and Climate of Florida are Better Adapted
to the Successful Production of Sugar-cane and its Products
than is any other part of the United States.
2. Nitrogen is the Chief Manurial requirement of the
Cane Crop. Planting on Bottom Lands, Turning Under of
Cow-peas or of Velvet Beans, and 'Cowpenning' are the most
economical means for securing this essential. On Florida
Soils, Potash stands next to Nitrogen as a food requirement
3. Narrow rows and two lines of Seed Cane are the
desirable forms of Planting.
"4. Thorough Breaking and Shallow Cultivation, with
Cultivator instead of Plow, produce best results.
5. The longest Possible Period of Growth should be
allowed. Delaying Harvest ten days from Nov. 2oth increased
the sugar content 1.2 per cent., and twenty days delay adds
4.39 per cent. to the amount of Sugar in the Cane.
6. Great Variations in the Thickness of Syrup injure
its market value. When the thickness is determined by Judg-
ment or Experience variations of 5 degrees are possible by the
most Expert Syrup Boilers.
"7. A Simple Syrup Tester may be made, by any one
without expense, which Determines the Thickness with Abso-
lute Accuracy and Prevents the Possibility of variation.
8. Red Cane is Hardier than Green and Matures
Earlier. For Large Areas and for Sugar the Red Variety is
best. For Small Areas and Syrup the Green Cane is prefer-
"9. Uplands Produce the Sweetest Cane. Bottom Lands
Produce the Heaviest Yields and the Largest Total Product
o1. The Impurities in Cane Juice are Chiefly Physical
and may be Removed by thorough Straining or Filtering.
1i. Dry Spanish Moss is the Best Known Filter for
Cane Juice, and its Use results in Superior and Well-keeping
Syrup, and Light Colored Dry Sugar.
12. Two Evaporators, Pans or Kettles are desirable.
The First for Purifying, the Second for Finishing.
13. Syrup of Superior Appearance and Flavor can be
made to Keep Indefinitely.
14. Good Domestic Sugar may be Made by Simple
Home Means, and is Marketable at a Profit."
It is a recognized fact by all syrup makers that the chief
drawback to the highest degree of success in the industry con-
sists in the prevalent "variations in density or thickness of
syrup" which prevent its recognition as a staple product in the
market. In the experiments conducted by us it was shown
that with these variations, even where the syrup was made by
a single individual, and with precautions as to care, amounted
to differences of five degrees Beaume, even in the runs of a
single day. Of the desirability of a simple means whereby
results might be controlled, this variation prevented and a reg-
ular product assured, there could be no question.
In the laboratory apparatus for achieving such results is,
of course, accessible. The demand of the practical syrup
maker, however, was for an instrument so simple as to be util-
izable by ordinary workmen, so cheap as to be within the
reach of all, and so easily secured as to be everywhere acces-
sible. It is believed that after patient investigation and the
discarding of many results n6t meeting the above require-
ments, a "simple syrup tester" was devised, meeting all the re-
quirements of the situation.
"MAKING A SIMPLE SYRUP TESTER,"
The above mentioned apparatus may be construct-
ed as follows: Take any ordinary glass bottle of a capacity
not less than one pint. "Take a straight, dry, thorough-
ly seasoned hardwood stick about one-quarter of an inch
in diameter and from twelve to fifteen inches long. Fill the
bottle with syrup. Roll a narrow piece of sheet lead around
one end of the stick, or introduce a few shot into a hollow in
the bottom of the same. Drop the stick into the bottle filled
with syrup and increase or decrease the amount of lead used
until the stick floats upright in the syrup with at least two
inches of space between its lower end and the bottom of the
bottle. The apparatus is now complete except for supplying
its scale or gauge. To do this, make a run of syrup carefully
and continue the boiling until by cooling a small quantity you
are positive that it has attained the degree of thickness that is
perfectly satisfactory, and which you are willing to accept as a
sample or standard for your entire product. Then fill the bot-
tle with this syrup while boiling, drop the weighted stick into
the syrup and let it settle carefully until it has reached equil-
ibrium. Mark the place upon the stick at the line reached by
the surface of the syrup, preferably by cutting a notch therein
or by a black thread tied about the stick. The apparatus is
now completed and is ready for use. Test every drawing of
syrup, or different drawings, sufficiently often to give a fair
sample of the whole, continuing the boiling until our impro-
vised saccharometer, or "syrup tester," sinks into the syrup
to the mark or notch made. By this means every sample of
syrup drawn or thus tested will be of same density or
thickness as the original sample used as a standard, and there
will be no variation in quality as far as the density is con-
cerned, but the entire output will be uniform with scientific
The interest which has been aroused and the favor with
which the announcement of this instrument was received, seem
to demand a reproduction of its description, as well as the il-
lustration accompanying the same.
After continued and extensive experience with this crude
and simplest possible piece of apparatus, I am convinced that
its universal use by the makers of Florida syrup would give
our product a fixed position in the market and very materially
increase the demand and value of this profitable Florida
In broaching this subject I feel that an actual statement of
conditions is necessary, although experiencing some hesitancy
lest an expression of actual opinion might possibly be inter-
preted as criticism upon past management of the Station. It is
a fact, however, that farm equipment, in all the essentials for
Experiment Station work, was almost entirely lacking. There
were no teams, tools, implements or apparatus adequate to the
conducting of even the simplest field operations with either
farm economy or scientific accuracy. There was not even the
means for weighing the farm products and the knives of a
mowing machine, which had been in use on the Station farm
for nine years, had never been ground or sharpened. I make
these statements simply to illustrate the difficulties under
which my work has been undertaken and as demonstrating the
fact that it was found necessary in most respects to begin at
the very beginning. Fortunately, however, the Board of Con-
trol has manifested a willingness to meet all requirements to
the extent of its financial ability, and though the additions
to the equipment have been numerous, and have already in-
creased the effectiveness of the Station and its possibilities of
achievement, they are still lamentably insufficient to meet the
reasonable demands of the work, and I deem additional re-
sources as absolutely indispensable to anything like satisfac-
tory future success. While the general equipment of the
farm is thus ridiculously deficient, real effectiveness has been
secured in several particular directions. Particularly is this
true so far as concerns the line of special tobacco investigations
which have been inaugurated and in which it is my expecta-
tion that the Station will develop a specialty. A curing barn
has been erected and equipped for the express purpose of a
careful, practical, scientific investigation of the principles con-
trolling successful tobacco curing. The barn contains moist
and dry curing rooms, a sweat room and a laboratory, all
under the same roof, and provided with an automatically regu-
lated heating plant for the dry curing room and sweat room,
in both of which even temperatures may be secured. This
curing barn completes the equipment whereby the series of to-
bacco investigations inaugurated will be conducted from seed-
bed to field, from field to curing barn, from curing barn to
sweat room, from sweat room to laboratory and final cigar,
with scientific control of observation upon every point. It is
believed that these tobacco investigations embrace the most
complete series of tobacco studies yet undertaken at any Ex-
periment Station, and from them something of value is be-
lieved to have already been obtained, and much promise for
future achievement is entertained. Very Respectfully,
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE. Agriculturist.
REPORT OF THE CHEMIST.
DR. W. F. YOCUM, DIRECTOR.
Sr :-The following is a statement of the work completed
in the Chemical Department for the year ending December 31,
As in the past, the work of the department has been
largely of a miscellaneous character, embracing analyses of
soils, waters for both sanitary and boiler purposes, mucks,
fertilizers, phosphate rocks, lime rocks, clays, ashes, sugar-
A tabulated record of the number of samples analyzed is
Soils- ---------------------------- 6o
Waters------------ -- -------- ---- 19
Mucks -------------------__----- _
Fertilizers------------- ------------- 6
Phosphate rocks-- -- ------------ 2
Lime rocks -- --------------.--- 2
Clays......-------------- ..--________- 2
Ashes----------.-------- --------.--- 2
Sugar-cane ------ ------------------- 3
Miscellaneous.--------------- -------- 4
Total-------- ------------------ to4
Complying with a suggestion from the Director of the
Office of the Experiment Stations, of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, beginning with the current year, we have
ceased to do work of a miscellaneous character in this labora-
tory. It has been thought best to confine ourselves in the
future to systematic work in connection with the Experiment
Station-work that will be of benefit to the agricultural pro-
fession at large. In this way it will be possible to conform
more closely to the law establishing Experiment Stations and
prescribing the character of the investigations that were de-
signed to be carried out. Heretofore, it has been the practice
to analyze all samples, either of local or general value, that
were sent here by any citizen of the State for that purpose. If
there were no other reason for discontinuing this practice, the
limited chemical force available for carrying on analyses would
make it impracticable to continue to do so in the future. In
the past, it has been the case that far the largest portion of the
available time of the analytical chemist has been consumed in
making analyses of this nature, and, as a result, very little
opportunity has been afforded for carrying on chemical work
of an original order. From the present time, therefore, no
analyses of purely local value will be made, and it is hoped
that in the future the work accomplished in this department
will be of a more practical character and thus better calculated
to produce results more far-reaching, and which will redound
more to the general agricultural interests of the State. In
addition to the miscellaneous work to which I have referred,
during the past year, at such times as it has been found prac-
ticable to carry it on, a systematic study of the typical soils of
the Florida Peninsula has been in progress. Bulletilt No. 43,
entitled, "A Chemical Study of Some Typical Soils of the
Florida Peninsula," issued from the department September ist,
shows the progress that has thus far been made in this especial
field of original research. It is hoped that this investigation
can be further prosecuted during the present year. Before
abandoning this line of research it is the intention to complete
a chemical study of the typical soils of Florida. The field for
original investigation in Chemistry in Florida is very large,
and excellent opportunities are presented for accomplishing
much of practical value to the agriculturists of the State if
only the necessary chemical force is at hand for carrying it on.
The chief obstacle in the past has been a lack of this force.
In the early days of the Station in addition to the regular Pro-
fessor in charge of the department there was an Assistant
Chemist, who devoted'all of his time to making analyses in
connection with the Experiment Station. The Professor, as
well as the Assistant, found time to do a great deal of analyti-
cal work so that it was possible to accomplish more in that
line than is the case at present. While the sphere of the Sta-
tion has necessarily enlarged since that time and the demand
for work in each department increased accordingly, the addi-
tional collegiate work that both the Professor and Assistant are
now called on to do makes it necessary for at least half of the
time of each to be given to duty purely of a collegiate charac-
ter. I recommend that in the future the Assistant Chemist be
excused from all collegiate duties so that he may devote his
entire time to analytical work. Under present conditions two
terms of the College session claim practically his entire atten-
tion as Instructor in Physics, and the only time, therefore,
that is available for him to carry on analytical work in con-
nection with the Station is during the third term of the College
session and a part of the Summer months. It is manifest that,
under such conditions, it is not possible for the Chemical De-
partment of the Station to accomplish all that might otherwise
be expected of it. If it can be so arranged that the Assistant
Chemist will be relieved of Professorial duties, I am sure that
the work that he will be able to do in the Chemical Laboratory
will early demonstrate the wisdom of confining his labors en-
tirely to it.
Only the soil analyses that were reported in Bulletin No.
43 are deemed of sufficient general importance to warrant pub-
lication, either in a Station Bulletin or in the Annual Report.
In addition to work in College classes the Station Chemist
finds it necessary to carry on quite a large correspondence with
the farmers of the State on subjects pertaining to agricultural
Chemistry, and it is believed that this correspondence is pro-
ductive of much. benefit to the agricultural population, for the
character of the information sought is indicative of the fact
that farmers are giving more and more attention all the while
to the scientific side of their vocation. The correspondence of
the department is constantly increasing, and the various letters
of inquiry that are daily being received are of such a character
as to make it apparent that, as a bureau of information, the
Chemical Department of the Station is giving the farmers
material assistance. Respectfully submitted,
A. A. PERSONS, Chemist Exp. Station.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST AND HOR,
To THE DIRECTOR EXPERIMENT STATION OF FLORIDA AG-
SIR:-Herewith I hand you annual report of the Depart-
ment of Biology and Horticulture. This report is mainly in
the work of Horticulture and Botany. The work in Ento-
mology will be reported by the Assistant Biologist, Mr.
Quaintance. Respectfully, P. H. ROLFS,
Biologist and Horticulturist.
DR. W. F. YocUM, Director.
During the last six years the correspondence of the De-
partment has been constantly growing, until now a very con-
siderable portion of the time has to be used in answering
private letters. This is, without doubt, one of the best
methods of instructing people and giving them concise and
definite information when it is obtainable. It is also a very
good index to what particular lines of work are the most im-
portant to the various agriculturists of the State. During the
past year replies to about 500 letters have been sent out.
While many of these inquiries could be answered by sending
Bulletins, a very considerable number of them required more
than a page or even more than two pages for answering the
Much of the Entomological correspondence is in connec-
tion with identifying species. It is a well-known fact to Ex-
periment Station workers that no amount of illustrations or
descriptions will enable persons unfamiliar with species to
determine them correctly. Consequently this portion of the
work is of great importance to the inquirer.
Nearly every letter inquiring into the name of the species
also inquires into the remedy for that particular animal, or if it
chances to be a useful one they wish to know of what use it is,
consequently this question must be looked into and this neces-
sitates more or less office work.
During the past year a number of letters, regarding phar-
maceutical specimens or specimens of plants supposed to have
medicinal qualities, have been received. While every effort is
made to answer these questions correctly and to give the in-
quirer the information desired we must acknowledge that our
library and herbarium are not fitted up for this line of work,
which no one regrets more than we do. While the letters in-
closing such material are not of sufficient number to warrant a
special outlay in this particular branch of work, this need is
constantly kept in mind in making collections.
Many correspondents also inclose specimens of agricultural
importance, either noxious weeds or beneficial plants. In all
of such cases we have been able to identify these corr ctly,
where a sufficient amount of the plant was present to allow it
to be done, our library and herbarium being especially pre-
pared for this line of work.
In connection with plant diseases a great many specimens
of fungi are sent to us either for determination or to know the
relation they bear to cultivated plants. In nearly all of these
cases we have been enabled to give the scientific and common
names of the specimens sent to us, besides being enabled to
give the most approved remedies.
The greater amount of correspondence in connection with
the horticultural work has been regarding the planting of
orchards and small fruits. Judging from the correspondence
there is a lively interest taken in the planting and developing
of the fruit industry in Florida. Together with the questions
for planting came also questions for pruning and fertilizing.
While no one of these has been reduced to an exact science it
is still possible to get at the opinions of the best horticulturists
and fruit growers of Florida and other States.
The library in the Department of Biology and Horticulture
is now fairly complete in the line of horticulture. It contains
most of the modern books in this branch of this industry, and
a considerable number have been added to the Entomological
section, also to the Botanical, but this particular portion of it
is not so well supplied as the two former. The accessions
have been almost entirely of books of the economic phase.
The library contains about 600 volumes of books and a nearly
complete set of Experiment Station Bulletins, together with a
more or less complete set of publications from the Department
During the past season the atmospheric conditions have
been favorable to the growers of fruit and agricultural crops,
and no widespread destructive diseases of plants has occurred.
TOMATO BLIGHT (Fungus).
This disease, which has been studied for a number of
years at the Experiment Station, was by no means as severe
as it has been in the past five years, yet specimens have been
received repeatedly showing that it is still present in a great
many sections of the State. It is not probable that we shall
ever be entirely free from it. As better methods are being
employed in cultivating crops and caring for the land when
no crops are being cultivated, this fungus will continue to be-
come less. No remedy has yet been found which is thought
to be better than the one reported in the last Annual Report,
viz: "The reader will learn from the foregoing discussion
that tomato blight fungus lives in the soil and attacks plants
from this place, consequently any preventive applied to the
foliage will be almost useless for this disease. This point has
been fully substantiated by experiments, and is discussed at
length in Bulletin No. 21 (see pages 31 to 36) of the Florida
Experiment Station. It is desirable, however, to repeat,
briefly, the directions for treating this disease.
"Spray the ground for six inches around the stem of the
tomato or other plant, and also the stem of the plant. If
leaves or vines are in contact with the ground, the ground at
these points should be sprayed also. Use Eau Celeste, ammo-
niacal solution of copper carbonate, or Bordeaux mixture.
For the preparation of these fungicides refer to Bulletin No.
23 of the Florida Experiment Station."
BACTERIAL TOMATO BLIGHT.
(Bacillus Solanacearum, S.)
This disease, which attacks tomato plants, egg plant, Irish
potato and several species, including several weeds, has been
found to be present in several fields in Florida, the introduc-
tion of which cannot be traced to any particular source. It
has, however, been found by Dr. Smith in South Carolina and
near Washington, D. C. This disease was brought to the Ex-
periment Station here at Lake City and specimens of tomato
inoculated with it. The disease continued to destroy tomatoes
and egg-plants throughout the summer and up to the time of
cold weather. It seems to work most rapidly and with great-
est effect on tomatoes. While egg-plants suffer quite severely,
they seem to be more resistant than tomatoes. Peppers that
were planted in adjoining plots passed through the epidemic
without the loss of a single specimen, while none of the toma-
toes lived through it. Some potatoes on the Experiment Sta-
tion were carefully treated with fungicides, but no good result
could be seen from the use of this material.
TOMATO RUST (Macrosporium Solani).*
This disease of the tomato plant, so prevalent in Florida,
was reported from a great many Stations, but since the
remedy is so well known among the prominent tomato grow-
ers, it no longer destroys the tomatoes to such an extent as it
did formerly. The sovereign remedy for this disease is Bor-
deaux mixture (see Bulletin No. 23).
FUNGUS DISEASE OF THE SAN JOSE SCALE.
(Sphaerostilbe Coccaphila, Tul).
During the past year considerable work has been done in
the orchards with the fungus disease of the San Jose scale
which was found near DeFuniak, Fla. Bulletin No. 41 hav-
ing been published, a brief resume is all that is necessary. By
referring to the literature on the San Jose scale one is assured
that such a disease must have been prevalent in various parts
of the country and that various Entomologists and other
people have attempted to find the cause of dying out of the
San Jose scale. During 1895 it was discovered that some of
the infested orchards at DeFuniak were rapidly becoming free
of the San Jose scale. A considerable effort was made at the
time to ascertain the cause of this diminution in number of
the scale, but for some inexplicable reason the search proved
fruitless. Not having further occasion to visit this section
until a year later the subject had to be dismissed for the time
being, but in 1896 it was decided to co-operate with Dr. Smith
in introducing insects from California to reduce the number of
scales. Diligent search was again instituted, and this was
found which had been visibly in operation during the year
elapsing since the visit. This time the labor was fully re-
warded by the finding of the parasitic, which can be credited
with all the conditions observed in these orchards. After a
tiorauer contends that this should be written Alternarla solani, which has
been followed by several American authors. Frank thinks he has better grounds
for calling It Spordesmlum solani (see Centrib, L Bak. Parislt. k u. Infek. k. IV:
few weeks specimens of this fungus weresent to Prof. J. B.
Smith of New Jersey Experiment Station and to Dr. S. A.
Forbes of Illinois Experiment Station. This material has
been used in latitudes and climates so different from ours that
the results could not be foretold. Dr. Smith has found that
the fungus has become established in at least one orchard, and
the only question left to be settled is that will it be able to
pass the winter in that latitude. If it should prove to survive
it will be useful to the orchards in that section.
Horticultural Journals of the United States have given
this a very extensive notice, and the fungus is now being tried
in fourteen different States and Canada. No reasons are now
apparent why it should not be of great value to the fruit grow-
erdof the Pacific coast, especially where the climate is warm
and'moist. Specimens of this fungus have been sent from
Alabama, Texas and also from Georgia. In the latter State it
has made its appearance in quite a number of orchards. As an
inference from this fact we have no doubt but that it will prove
of inestimable value to the peach growers of Georgia. In
Florida the fungus is widely and thoroughly disseminated,
occurring on several different scale hosts. It has been re-
ceived on specimens from as far south as Manatee county and
as far west as DeFuniak. From the fact that all the calls for
fungus from Florida can 1e supplied by means of cuttings
from trees infested with the obscurus scale which bear this
fungus, no laboratory cultures are sent out and the propaga-
tion of it in this way has been discontinued. Should it be-
come desirable to supply this in large quantities to citizens of
Florida the material can be prepared in unlimited quantities in
a few weeks' time. While every effort has been made to sup-
ply as much of the fungus to people of other States, it has
sometimes been difficult to get all that was asked for by corre-
spondents, and hence some letters have been considerably
delayed. While this has been unavoidable, we nevertheless
regret it very. much. This being the natural method of com-
bating these insects, it must have certain limitations. In the
first place we must not expect the fungus to destroy all the
scales in a few months. This is quite contrary to the usual
work of Nature. On the other hand, we have the advantage
of the work being done most thoroughly when once com-
pleted. The length of time elapsing between infection and
the death of the last insect will vary with the extensiveness of
the infection, atmospheric conditions and the quantity of in-
sects to be infected.
This disease of the San Jose scale is present on at least
three continents and in many countries. In several instances
it is recorded as an important factor in controlling scale in-
It is doubtless native to Florida, as it occurs on a native
scale (Aspidiotus obsnarus) in our hammocks.
This fungus may be transferred to trees affected with San
Jose scale and a disease produced among the scales.
Large quantities of material may be produced in the lab-
oratory in a short time and at slight expense.
The laboratory-grown material may be applied success-
fully by fruit growers.
This fungus cleared the orchards more effectively of San
Jose scale than could have been done by many sprayings.
It is now being tested in the North and West.
CELERY BLIGHT (Cercospoa apii).
Mention was made of this blight on page 35 of the An-
nual Report for i896. During the present year this fungus
made its appearance in the plant-bed. It seems quite well
established that this fungus will live through the entire Sum-
mer in a cold-frame. This information will be of considerable
value to celery growers, inasmuch as the refuse of celery
should not be composted for celery fertilizer, and after the field
has been pretty thoroughly infested with the celery blight,
spraying should be begun the next year before the blight
makes its appearance or the field planted to some other crop.
Several fungicides were used in connection with an at-
tempt to control this blight. Dry Bordeaux proved to be
nearly worthless. Several other fungicides, Bordeaux freshly
prepared, Eau Celeste, Ammoniacal solution copper carbonate
did more or less good when applied at intervals of a week, but
from the conditions of the plant it was quite apparent that
spraying, to be thoroughly successful, must be repeated at
shorter intervals, especially if the fungus is quite abundant.
One of the best fungicides, though somewhat expensive, is
potassium sulphide or liver of sulphur. This was used at the
rate of one ounce to two gallons of water. The solution was
then applied with a fine spray nozzle and the plant thoroughly
wetted. When this was applied twice a week and begun be-
fore the disease had become severe it was almost a complete
control. Several other fungicides were of about equal value in
controlling the fungus, but they had the disadvantage of col-
oring the celery more or less, thus reducing its value as a mar-
ketable crop. The potassium sulphide is also a mild insect-
The fact that this fungus may live in the field or cold-
frame from one crop to the other makes it very necessary to de-
stroy or remove from the field all diseased portions of the plant
at whatever time they may be present. It is also highly im-
portant that a control of this disease be begun early in its
career, at least as early as the first appearance of it is known
to be in the field. It would be well to begin spraying as soon
as the plants are set to the field. In some cases it makes its
appearance in the plant-bed; then the plants should be treated
there and continued until the crop is ready to be marketed.
This disease of the pear is also known as fire blight or
twig blight. In the beginning of pear growing in Florida
it was generally stated that this disease would not destroy
trees in Florida. Unfortunately, this information was not
founded on fact, as the pear growers from one end of Florida
to the other will testify. Prof. M. B. Waite, Assistant Veg-
etable Pathologist in the Division of Vegetable Pathology and
Physiology, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C., has, for several years past, given this disease
almost exclusive attention. No one else has given this disease
so careful and extended investigations as he, and since this
work has been done so thoroughly, it has not been thought
best for our Experiment Station to enter upon the investiga-
tions of the pear blight. If the work should be begun, it is
not probable that new or more practical results would be ob-
tained than those indicated by Prof. Waite.
A great deal of space has been devoted in agricultural
papers to the treatment of this disease by means of calomel,
sulphur and other substances being placed within the trunk of
the tree, thus supposing that it would enter the circulation
and prove beneficial. While this has been tried repeatedly in
Florida, experiments have always resulted in the negative,
either in killing the trees or the blight taking its own course
just as though trees had not been treated.
While this disease has been known to exist in the United
States for nearly a hundred years, there is no remedy which is
equal to that of using the knife vigorously, and even this can-
not be said to be fully successful in all cases. It has been
thoroughly proven that this bacterium is carried about by
various forms of insects, and consequently the disease may be
carried as far as the insects fly. It is therefore not sufficient
to see that one's own orchard is entirely free of this blight, but
he must also be sure that his neighbors for miles about have
left no twigs affected with it. It is, therefore, a long way
from a simple problem to control this blight. It did not occur
in Lake City until last year. As remedial methods the follow-
ing may be suggested : Cut off all twigs affected with blight a
foot below where the line of demarcation between healthy and
blighted occur. Immediately after the portions are cut off it
is well to remove them from the orchards and burn at once.
(If the excised shoots contain live pear blight, insects are
liable to visit them on the ground and carry it to the healthy
wood in the trees). The time of greatest danger in spreading
this disease is from early Spring until the fruit is set. After
this there is less danger from its being disseminated, but, as
a rule, the disease does not make its appearance strikingly
until several weeks later and the orchardists will be liable to
suppose that the disease had been disseminated but a few
days before the great amount of blight appeared in the trees.
Thoroughly hardened trees are less subject to it than
those that are growing vigorously. It seems well, therefore,
not to push trees with cultivating and fertilizing beyond a nor-
mal growth. It is also well to use plenty of potash and phos-
phate to harden and ripen the tree up well.
The object of the work of the Horticultural Department is
to do such work as we cannot ordinarily expect a farmer or
vegetable grower to do for himself, as, for example, the testing
of the effects of blight on different varieties of tomatoes, or a
systematic method of spraying. The testing of varieties has
not been entered upon. This can manifestedly be done better
by a fruit grower or vegetable grower than by any Station.
It is a well known fact that a variety of strawberries which
may do well at Lake City might prove a failure fifty miles
away. A variety of peaches that gives good returns at Lake
City does very poorly at Madison or Tallahassee, though the
latitude is the same. A variety of oranges that would be a
success at Lake City might not be at all remunerative at San-
ford. So that after all the work of testing varieties had been
completed at Lake City, this must all be done over again at
any other point before we can be certain as to which variety
will succeed or fail at that point.
We have also tried to keep from having a model garden or
orchard. While no pains are spared in keeping exact data
and knowing exactly what is going on upon every piece of
land, it is decidedly unwise and unprofitable for an Experi-
ment Station to spend its money in keeping up a garden or
orchard for exhibition purposes. This can be done best by
our nurserymen, to whom the work belongs. Any one who
has attempted it knows that it is a very expensive luxury and
more for pleasure than of real scientific advantage.
The peach orchard is now nearly three years old. Twen-
ty-nine varieties have been planted, including about three
hundred and fifty trees. The land selected was an old field.
A portion of the peach orchard happens to have been on an
old cattle yard. Out of the entire number of trees 137 are
alive, about 60 per cent. Fifty per cent. of these are on the
old cattle yard, though this contains less than one-fourth of
the entire area of the orchard.
Beggar weed has been sown among the trees to keep the
soil from leeching during the rainy season and to add nitrogen.
The cost of labor, trees and fertilizers amounted to $299.
Further report on this orchard will be made in a bulletin to be
published during the year..
It would pay any one who contemplates planting a peach
orchard on old land to make a trip to the Experiment Station
and see that it should not be done.
This vegetable has been given another year's trial with no
greater encouragement than heretofore. On very rich soil
that is well fertilized some very fine canes are formed, but they
lack a great deal of being as nice as those raised in Northern
gardens, besides costing many fold as much to produce.
While many people in Florida are very anxious to grow aspar-
agus, they will doubtless have to console themselves with the
fact that it cannot be grown profitably for market under our
This form of the cabbage tribe so nearly related to cauli-
flower was tested as to its merits for a Summer crop. It is
considered coarser and hardier than cauliflower, and hence
thought to be better for Summer use. Seeds of the White
Cape were sown at intervals until Jan. 28th, 1897. Those
sowed after Dec. Ioth, 1896, were too late to produce a crop..
The long-continued warm weather during April and May
seemed to work against this plant and did not allow it to ma-
ture. While all the conditions of moisture, fertilizer and free-
dom from insects and diseases were thrown about the crop,
the plants failed to produce a crop and remained stunted.
This year's tests, with evidence from former years, lead
me to believe that the temperature of the air and soil are not
conducive to the growing of Broccoli during the summer.
Fourteen varieties of plums have been planted in an old
field. There seems to have been very little detrimental effect
from this fact upon the plum trees. These seem to be hardy,
and from present indications there is no reason why one
should not attempt to plant these on fields that have been
Seed of this vegetable were sown at intervals until Jan.
25th, 1897. From the experiments at hand it is shown that
this plant wants a heavy, rich soil and will mature a crop later
than Broccoli. While insect pests are quite severe on this. it
is quite frv. from attack of fungus diseases.
Early Paris.-This is the second generation from seed
grown on the Experiment Station, and no essential difference
could be detected between these plants and those raised from
seed said to -e imported. Seed has been saved from these
plants and other crops will be grown from it. No attempt is
made to grow it on a commercial scale, but we wish to dis-
cover what objects are in the way of this enterprise, if any
exist. There are several insect and fungus enemies that com-
mit considerable depredations on the crop. but these can be
controlled. We have the great advantage over Northern and
European growers in that our seed may be grown in the field
where the crop grew. We do not have to harvest the crop
and then set it out again as is the case in colder climates.
The seed sown Sept. i5th produced marketable heads Jan.
toth, and the seed was ready for gathering during April and
Of all the garden seed received by the Horticulturist none
were more mixed and had a lower germinating power than
those of cauliflower. The cheaper varieties were more uni-
form than the high priced. The reason for this is not clear,
inasmuch as there was much less trouble in former years.
Golden Self-Bleaching, White Plume, Boston Market and
Giant Pascal were used for experimental purposes.
The plots were prepared to test irrigation, but the blight
(Cer cospora apii, see page 35, Annual Report, 1896) made its
appearance and the plots were given over to the study of this
fungus. For more extended discussion of this see Celery
Blight on another page.
Considerable of the celery matured, but none could have
been considered first-class for market. The seed was sown in
cold-frames Aug. 4th. and the last of the crop removed from
the ground April i5tlh.
In this latitude it is necessary to provide the celery field
with some kind of protection to keep the plants from freezing
during the sudden cold spells. It is usually sufficient to cover
the plants with the strippings of cane or similar material.
Early White Spine. Early Chester and Early Frame were
planted in flower pots as recommended in Bulletin 31, page
171. The seeds were sown in pots on Feb. 12th, and on April
28th cukes had matured to be marketable, while the same
varieties planted in the field at once were thirty days later in
The vines which had been planted in pots matured just as
good cukes as the ones not so treated. That is, no disadvan-
tage could be detected in the amount or quality of the crop
from treating the plants in this way. It should be borne in
mind, however, that the plants were not allowed to become
stunted or diseased in the propagating house.
These cucumber vines continued to grow until July 28th,
when they were removed from the field. By continuing to
plow and making repeated applications of fertilizers the vines
may be grown a long time beyond the usual season. Insects
became exceedingly troublesome after the field had produced
a crop for a month or six weeks. The most troublesome in-
sect to the young vines was the cucumber, or cotton aphis.
(A brief discussion of the methods of treating this insect will
be found on another page under Entomology). For family
use it will pay best to combat insect and fungus diseases, to
continue to fertilize and to cultivate the plot into July or even
later. The heavy Summer rains were quite detrimental to the
growth, but by keeping the soil well plowed vines continued
to grow and produce cukes as late as August 5th.
Roots of this plant were set out during January and given
better than ordinary care. They were treated to a consider-
able quantity of compost, together with a well-balanced fertil-
izer. The plants made good growth and produced fine stalks.
This year the fungus was kept off more or less thoroughly,
but the plants finally succumbed, not from fungus disease but
apparently from general exhaustion, without any of the leaves
having been taken for ordinary purposes. Those who wish to
raise this plant for home use will have no difficulty by import-
ing roots every year. Possibly a variety may be originated
that will make a good market variety for Florida, but it may
require many years to do it.
This plant remains established in the rtu at the end of
the garden. Those people who like its pungent taste will
have no difficulty in raising all they and their neighbors care
to eat. A five-cent packet of good seed may be sown along
and in a run supplied by a small spring. Sow the seed in No-
vember and the cress will be ready for use the following
The following table has been compiled from the books
kept at the garden, the data having been noted each time as
the work progressed. The motto "whatever is worth doing is
worth recording" is adhered to as strictly as possible, conse-
quently some very interesting facts are brought out by the re-
corded data. For example, we note that the same variety of
cabbage when sown in July required nearly twice as much
time to mature as when planted in January. Of course the
unfavorable climatic conditions are entirely responsible for the
retardation of the plants during the summer and fall, while
the advantageous conditions for growth during the winter and
spring forced the cabbage ahead much more rapidly.
Nae of Variety
Improved Ited Valentine ...-. Marelh I, W197
Improved Red Valentine. ...--- May -, 1857
Valentine Wax --------
Bush l --.- -----
Goldeu Wax ..... "----
Valentine Wax ------.... .Man-112. ai
lied Valentine Wax -...- 1- *
Valentinie Wax .-------....-- March- 21, 1818
Date of Sowni Rea fr Mtet fr of Days Fir
seell to Gatrlb
.ov 17, I0
Aprill l 8
May 24H. I8t
Blood Turnip ------- t. I(7 De. 21, 1I9;7
Impnrv l Mitchle ..-..i.---- July 19. 1i97 Nov. 2: 187W
First of All-.......-----
First of All..... .
Fa-rly Adains..-.-- -
March 21, IMIS May 27. 19DS
M\ay 7. IMk .Illy 4, 18W
Ju.Inei 181 Aug.i 159
Earl Drumhead -..... --Aug 21, 1hi7
All Head ........ A.... ""*
All Head -.------..... Aug. ;1I, Mr9
Charlesion Wakeleld.-- Ag. M30, 187r
Early Suinmer -.-----
Emerald King- --. ..-
YFlrila DrunimliC ......
Jersey Waketieldl ... ----Au. g :-, I1T
Iarga Drunihell ..........
The Lupton ...---
Worlhl Beater... _----..--
Danish Bald Head -.....
New Extra Early fromn .'otland
late Flat Dutch ------------
Snowball --. Jan. 14. IS
Early Paris- ----------
Early olndon ----.....- .
Early Dwarf Erfurt -. ......
Early Paris. -.........-- July 19, 1897
G011it lEdge --.- ---- .......
Early London .......
Earliest Snow Stormn----- ---- g. 20. 17
Early Snowball -......--
D)reers Selected Dwarf Erfurt -
Early Dwarf Erfurt.....-..
Puget Sound ..-.. ... ...... i
Dnnver Half Long Scarlet..- Oct. 2. .1897
Danver Half Long Scarlet..-... Dec. 23, 1897
Jan.- I, 181'
Jlan. 15, 19
l)ec 2, 8
.Iian. I: 1598
May 15. 18V08 121
May 17. 1S :3la
Mav 15, I S 121
Dec. 15, 187 149
Dec. 17, 189 111
iJan I, 1808 91
;March 2, 18 92
Name of Variety.
Date of Sowin
Ready for Market N o Da
Scedib to Gatheriln
Early White Spine-..--..-..- Feb. 12, 189W April 28, 1897
(In flower pot)
Farlv Cluster.-_--. ---.-----
Early Fraine -. -- --....-----. .
Jersey Pickle- ..---------. May 14, 1117 July 10, 18W
Early White Spine- ..-. "1
Early (luster --------..-------- "
Early C'luster ..-- --. eb. 2.5, A118 une 1, 181
White spine.---..-..... "
Farly Framie ----- --..--. '
Early White Spine -.- IFeb. :, 189 April 2, 18H
(In flower pot I
Early fluister ..---. ..'F,'h. 3, I.r8 April 21, 18l(
Livingston ..--- -. .- --- ... April *S, June 11.1818
I In field)
Early l uster -----.--.-... April -2, 18,8 .June 6, 1 8
Trne Soutllenr---...------.. ... Feb. 2, 1t-
True Southern .--..- Itn. 14, 1818
White reand -_.....-- Foeb. -2, 8I7;
White llela ....--.....------- Jn. 14. I
Extra Curied -- --.--..-- Sept- It. Wt
Extra curleld ... .. Nov. 24. lH7
Large Rootedl -.--------- Oit.7, I7
Iarge Rooted__. -.. Nov. 13, 187i
Curled Cherville. .._ --_t.. ol 7. 187
July 18. 1,4
Jtly 1A, IMH7
May 32, a189
tct. 1, 187
Dec. 15. 1897
June :, 188
uv.ll 1, I18?
Nov. 13, LiW
White --.....- ---.-.. ... ._ an. I 187 A pril 1, 1S
Oreen Curled-..----------- ..Sept ., 18) Nov 20, 1817
White .-.. ... -
Premium (enl ....-- ... Feb. 10.18 April 17,
First of All -_-- --.- OcL2, Ma97 lv. Z, 1sr
John L .... ... "
Early LonePurple ..-- _-- April 36. 187 Aug. 2, IfB
large Purile Thornless Sept. 20, I7
Blk P n...... Aug. 21, 18t7
Name of Variety. Date of Sewlb Reay for MarketS of Day
Seedli to oatelag
Large Purple------ -- Jan. 28, 187 June 18, 187 141
W h ite P earl -.. . ..-------- - ,
LaMre Plrple Thornless .-.- June 4, 1897 17
W white pearl............. .... '12'7
Lrc Purple Thornless..-.. Feb. 11, 1887 113
White Pearl.i-. ....---------- 118
Earliest Frame Green Vienna- Aug. 20, 18r Nov. 20, 187 92
Earliest Frame Green Vienna.- Aug. 26 1897 Nov. 1, 187 67
Earliest Frame Green Vienna-. Oct. 23, 18W7 Jan. 10, 1808 70
Imperial Hanson -------- .an. 14, 186 April 0, 188 82
Prize Head ..------------ 82
BlackSeeded Simpson..------- 82
All Year Round.- --..---. 2
Salamander -- --------- 82
Extra Curled Simpsoni..----- 82
Drumhead White Cubbage-. D ec. 10, 1897 March 10, 18
Philadelphia Butter.-- ---- - 84
Salamander --------- ------------- "" 84
Extra Curled Simp-. n ---.- M-arch- 1, 1 8so
All Year Round -- ------ ." March 10, 189l I
Prize Head..---------------.. March 15, it 8
Black Seeded Simpson.--_ March 12, 11 86
Improved Purple Top ---.. Dec. 21, 1897 April 25, 1898 125
American PurpleTop Rutiaa g April 25, 18h8 125
Extra Early Milan ---.... .... Dec.21, 1807 April 1, 1818 71
White French -- --------------- 125
Budlong's Improved Breadstone April 1, 188 71
Purple %op G(obe- ..- ....-- 71
Red Fild Beauty. ------ April 6, 187 Aug. 12, 1897 128
Red Field Benuty........ .an. 4, 1897 June 1, 1808 148
Red Field Beauty -..-- ..--..- Feb. II, 187W May 31, 1897 109
Long Keeper---............. 109
Long Keeper--..._. ... July 1, 1897 Nov. I, 1897 111
Long Keeper.--- Feb. Il, 1897 May 3. 1897 109
Perfection .--- ---..... April 2, 1897 Aug. 1, 197 108
Favorite-__ ........ ....... p. ,1897 1%
Prese:rving- --...-- .--.::: Feb. 2, 1898 JunEe 14, 1898 1
Dwarf GO lden Champion. June 16, 1898 113
Fordhook Fancy -- ---- June 14, 1898 111
New Combination .--..... June 13, 1898 110
Faxcon -- -- -- Feb. 12, 187 June 15, 1897 123
Early Bush----.........---------- April 2, 1897 June 1, 1897 39
Namef Vrlety. Daet ot SeS Read for Nart of O f
seelm te Gaheum
New lass ...... Feb. 7. 1898 March 14, 189 85
Wood's Early Frame .- March 12, 18M 38
Long White Vienna ..__ Malrch I5 1598 .8
Chlnese Rose .-.-...-.. 8as
Rose Gem -----.... -.-- Jan. 1, 1888 Feb. 15, 1888 2
Philadelphia White Box--.- 82
Early Long rSarlet Short Top Feb. 28188 45
Chastin. -.. "- Feb. 21,8 88
Chinese Rose .--....---.. Feb.2 1898 45
Scarlet Button---__ Feb. 1888 85
Earliest Carmine_ Feb. 1 158 88
French Breakfast- 32
Neweom ..._--... N--. 2, 1897 Dec. 2S, 1l7 61
Early Crimson ._ Nov.2, 1897 28
French Breakfast----.... Nov. 187 2
Scarlet Button- 22
Ronsy (;e Nov. 28, 1807 2
New White Str-burg __..... Nov. 10, 1897 Dec. 1, 1897 84
Oltss .-..--. ---.. Dec.7,1897 27
Wood's Earl Fraime -------. 27
Early -i og Scarlet .....--- 27
California Mmiunoth White-- Jan. 1898 57
Long White Vienna .....-. Dec. 14.1897 84
Early Scarlet Turnip Rooted .- April 21, 1897 May 2 1897 ~
Early Scarlet Globe---.....- 2
Glass .------- ---- 2
Ea larl ret lobe __ Sept. 3, 1897 Oct 13, IEg 20
Early Scarlet Turnip Rooted.- 20
White Strmssburg... Oct. 20, 1897 27
Glass Oct. 5,1897
White -Strasbn--------- Oct. S7 Nov. 10. 197 3s
Early &-arlet Turnip Rooted. N ov.5, 1897 20
Wood's Lon- Red. Feb. 5 1897 March 10, 1891 8
Wonderful lilf Ln .o 88
Glass ........ ... --.-- - 3
Early arlet Turnip Rooted.-- 88
Early S~carlet Gilbe .--- s" 8
White Stnissburg __-. -- 88
Glass .a ......... ..... M hl 26. 1897 April 15, 897 2
Whllte Strabsshurg ._ 2
Early Scarlet -.-------... "- 20
Early Scarlet Turnip---..---. 2
Crookneck Semlnole--..... t'eb. 1, 188 Aug.10,1898 190
Seminole Pumpkin.--- Feb 1,88 1g
Crookneck Seminole----_ April 27,1898 ig
Large Bell or Bull Nose.... Jan. 28, 187 March 1, 187 82
Little Gem .-_. July 24, 189r Sept. 28,1897 86
Peeklu's Manimoth .--._ 66
Name of Variety. Date of Sowiln Realy for MarettiN or of Days From
I See to GatUerkl
Bermuda White ....._... Jan. !.$ 1897 April 20, laI
Bermuda Red ..-----. 87
Bermuda White, Sets ........ April 26, 1897 June 2!, 1897 58
Bermuda led. Sets 8
Pineapple Winter ... -...... Feb. 3. 1W IJuly 1, 15, 89 la
Pineapple Winter ...- ......- April I.S8 July 28, 189 I"l
Burpee's Golden Eagle.. April 8, 189 July 1, 188 1
Cole's Early Winter-- .... Feb. :, l~80 June20, It" 137
Cole's Early Winter .......- March 3. 188 100
Cole's Early Winter --- --- April 28, 1898 iJuly 1, 1898 84
Two years ago the Experiment Station began some work
in connection with the cultivation and fertilization of straw-
berries. The following varieties were purchased in sufficient
nuriber to make the experiment more or less conclusive:
( -' Arkansas Traveller, (26) Lanah,
i 2) Aroma, (27) Lady Thompson,
( 3) Beder Wood, (28) Louisiana Seedling,
S4) Burch's No. 5, (29) Michel,
( 5 Bismark, (30) Mary,
(6) Brandywine, (31) Murray's Extra Early,
( 7 Bissel, (32) Marshall,
( 8 Barton, (33) Meek's Early,
( 9) Beecher 134) Newnan,
(io) Belle. (35) North Carolina Seedling,
(II) Clyde, (36) Greenville,
(12) Crescent. (37) Princess,
(13) Columbian, (38 Phenomenal,
(14) Cloud. (39) Shuckless,
(15) Eleanor, (40) Splendid,
(16) Enormous, (41) Shuster's Gem,
(17) Equinox, (42) Tubb's,
(t8) Gaudy, (43) Timbrell,
(19) Glen Mary, (44) Van Deman,
(20) Gandy Belle, (45) Woolverton,
(21) Hoffman, (46) West Lawn,
(22) Haverland, (47) William Belt,
(23) Ivanhoe, (48) Arizona Everbearing,
(24) Improved Westbrook, (49) Smeltzer's.
In addition to the above varieties, a considerable number
of varieties were sent in for testing. These were placed in the
field, but ordinarily the number of plants sent out is so few
that it is not fair to the variety to report failures, nor safe to
speak highly of apparent success.
The soil was not what would have been called good
strawberry soil, and therefore the testing upon the varieties
was somewhat more severe than under ordinary conditions.
The inferiority of the soil was in part compensated for by the
presence of sufficient water for irrigation. Though this can-
not take the place of good soil, it in a measure helps one out
of the difficulty. Every application of fertilizer was a com-
plete formula, so that there should be enough of all of the ele-
ments present in the soil.
FIPTEI MOST HARDY VARIETIES
As this field is now two years old and has not been reset
in the meantime, we can, in a measure, judge as to the hardi-
ness of these different varieties. The following is the order of
the hardiness of the varieties tested:
( ) Newnan,
( 3) Murray's Extra Early,
( 4) Aroma,
( 3) Michl,
(6) Beder- Wood,
( 8) Barton,
( 9) Tubb's,
(to) Lady Thompson,
(11) Improved Westbrook,
(12) Burch's No. 5,
(15) Louisiana Seedling.
TM MOST PROLIFIC VARIETIES
In regard to the total crop produced, there was a very
considerable variation, from an insignificant to what was really
a very excellent yield. The total amount of yield, of course,
is very largely affected by the hardiness of the plant. If the
plants are not able to withstand the seasons from one year to
another, there would be no plants for the second year. As
a result of this, some plants that did very well the first year
proved to be almost failures the second year. The following
is the order of the ten most prolific bearers:
( i) Murray's Extra Early,
( 2) Improved Westbrook,
( 3) Newnan,
( 5) Beder Wood,
(6) Louisiana Seedling,
( 7) Crescent,
( 8) Columbian,
(9) Lady Thompson,
In case we should not take into consideration the hardi-
ness of the plant, and would wish to reset our field from year
to year, this order would be very considerably changed. The
ten most prolific varieties, when we take them plant by plant,
are as follows:
( i) Murray's Extra Early, ( 6) Cloud,
( 2) Haverland, ( 7) Arkansas Traveller,
( 3) Equinox, ( 8) Louisiana Seedling.
( 4) Hoffman, 4 9) Crescent,
( 5) Improved Westbrook, (0o) Marshall.
By taking into consideration that price received for straw-
berries by the strawberry growers of Florida during the last
two years, and supposing that there were refrigerator accom-
modations for transporting them to Northern markets, it would
be found that only the following six varieties would have
proven profitable or paying expenses during the last two years:
(t) Murray's Extra Early, (4) Lady Thompson,
(2) Michel, (5) Louisiana Seedling,
(3) Crescent,. (6 Newnan.
The last named variety bore just sufficient to bear the ex-
pense of raising, shipping, etc., and the first variety would
have made a handsome profit. In this connection there are,
however, certain things to be taken into consideration. In the
first place it would have been necessary to have had several
acres of strawberries, and in the second place. the varieties
would have had to produce crops similar to the one produced on
the small scale. Every one who has been working with hor-
ticultural products knows that a small plot is not always a safe
guide for planting out at a wholesale. There are many condi-
tions which we do not understand that cause a variation in
the product, so that when we should have had a pleasing pro-
fit, it turns out to be an expense.
The pineapple industry of Florida has grown to be one of
the most important horticultural undertakings in the State.
The profits have been very good in this branch of work. A
general feeling has been prevailing among pineapple grow-
ers that no one was very certain as to what form of fertilizer
would prove the most satisfactory. As a result of this condi-
tion the Experiment Station has decided to undertake a more
or less elaborate series of experiments with a view of obtaining
some information on this subject. During December of 1897,
a careful examination was made of several pineapple fields
offered for experimentation, and it was found that one located
near Jensen, and owned by Ballentine and Moore, would be the
most suitable one when all conditions were taken into consid-
eration. In undertaking this work it was desired to get infor-
mation on two points only, the first one being as to what fer-
tilizer, among those that.are now offered on the market, would
be the most profitable to apply. Second, in what quantity it
should be applied to the usual East Coast pineapple land. In
outlining these experiments and making up the formulas for
the various plots, cotton seed meal, nitrate of soda, ammonium
tsulphate and blood were used as materials from which am-
monia was obtained. High grade sulphate of potash, low
grade sulphate of potash, kainit, muriate of 'potash and car-
bonate of potash-magnesia were used as sources of potash.
Bone meal and acid phosphate were used as sources of phos-
phoric acid. The above chemicals do not include all the fer-
tilizers that are on the market from which the different elements
may be obtained, but it was thought that the above kinds would
represent the ordinary ones on the market and those that are
most largely employed, except in the case of carbonate of
potash. While the Experiment Station" recognizes the desira-
bility of including all of the fertilizers that are now offered
on the market and experimenting with these, its means did
not permit us to use more than the above kinds.
The field was divided into hundredths and twentieth acre
plots as nearly as the original field would permit. Where an
incomplete fertilizer was applied the plot was limited to one-
hundredth acre. Where the fertilizer was complete the plots
were made a twentieth of an acre.
The application of fertilizers was made at such times when
the applications are usually made. In other words, the Ex-
periment Station simply furnishes the different chemicals for
the experiments and superintends theit application. The time
and method of applying are carried out entirely as would be
done by the owner of the pineapple field It would indeed be
very desirable to duplicate the above set of experiments, but at
the present time, it was not thought that the Experiment Sta-
tion could bear any greater expense in connection with this
work, and it was far better to have the experiments started at
this one place than to omit them altogether. The entire field
under experimentation includes about two acres.
PLOT 1. 1-100 ACRE.-Cotton Seed Meal .. .-..-At rate of 800 ls. perw a
PLOT 2. 1-100 ACiRE.-coIton teed Sle e --- .. At rate of O Itbs. pease
Sulphnle of ,Pouti.s-. low grade.... 00
PLOT 3.1-20 ACRE.-rCto.s llS mi Meanl .....-- -.Atrateof IC0 bx. per acre.
8llllutlle of Pol'Otti, low grade.-- '* 400
Bolle Meal 1000 "
PLOT 4. 1-0O ACRE.- tCotton Seed MoI......- ACa of 100 lib. I~r aire..
ItOn Mltral ... ....... .- .. 100 .
PLOT 5.1-20 ACRE.--ottoll Swxe Meal.... .......At rated 100 lb. per ere.
StilIlulhas of illtash, low grade_. 400
Aicd Phollsplae ...........- O0
PLOT 6.1-100 ACRE.-Colon Seed Memnl.... .. -- ..At rate of 800 lbs. I rnacre.
Acid Plhoplate-....-.. i" 00
PLOT 7,1.100 AG1RE.--Cottln Seed Mienl ..- ......At rate of SU lbs. per acre'
MlurlaUU okf 'otluh i..... .... 0
PLOT 8.1-20 ACE.-Cotton Seed M)l.-At rate of 140 lbs. per acre.
.Murlate of 1'otash ....- .... .. 10
tone Mleal .....--.._.... ... 100M "
PLOT 9,1-20 ACRE.-Cotton Seed Meal.__--- At rate of 800 lbs. per acre.
Muritnu of Potash ....... 100
Acid Phosphate-..- ..... 00 "
PLOT 10.1-100 ACRE.- ('otton Seed Meial - -.At rate of 800 lbs. per ace.
Kalnit -...... --.. -- ... 00
PLOT II.1-20 ACRE.-Cotton Seed entl......------.-.At rate of 100 lbs. per acre
Bone Meal ..." t100
PLOT 12.1-20 ACRE.-Cotton Seed 3Mal .. _..... At rate of 800 ill. per acre.
Kallilt. .--.. 00
Acid Phlosphate...--- 000 -
LAND s Continued.
rLOT 13, 10I0 AE.-Cotton Seed Meal- At rate of 800 Ibs. p are.
Potassium Carbonate ....._ 00
LOT 14 .-20 ACE.-Cottdn Seed Meal ____ -At rate of 00 Ibs. per acre.
Carbonate Potash.....-_ 500
Bone Meal .. ... o11 "
POT 15.1-20 ACRE.-Cotton Seed Meal.. ---- At rate of 800 lbs. per acre
Potassium Carbonate.---.. 00
Acid Phosphate.........- 600 "
PLOT 1, 1100 ACRE-Coton Seed Meal .----..........At rate of 100 Ibs, per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade._ 200
PLOT 17.1-20 ACIE.-Cotton Seed Meal -..... .------At rate of 100 Ibs. per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade 180
Bone Meal-_ _.. .... .o--- 1800 "
PLOT 18,1-20 ACRE.--'otton Seed Meal .--....-.......At rate of 8i0 lbs. per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade 110
Acid Phosphate --.--_" 600 "
IW i,- -100 ACE.--Sulphate Ammonia ..-.......At rate of 200 lbs. per acre.
PLOT 20,1-100 ACR .-ulphate Ammonia ..___ At rate of 200 Ibs. per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade 200
PLOT 21.1-20 ACR.-Sulphate Ammonia.. .. At rate of 40 Ibs. pr acre.
Sulphate Potash. high grade.- 180
BooeM l-eal --100 "
LOT 22.1-20 ACRE.-Ammuonlum -sulpmte -.- At rate of 40 lbs. per acre.
Murlate Potash -.. .--....." ll
lone Meal_ ....... 1600 "
PLOT 23JI-20 ACEL--Ammonium Sulphate-.. --- At rate of 200 Ihs. per acre.
Muriate Potash .-....--- 1110
Acid Phosphate--- ...-.- U100 "
PLOT 24,1-20 ACRE.-Ammonlum Sulphate --._- At rate of 40 Ibs. per acre
Kaninlt -__. .... X10
Bone lMeal- .... -.- *- 10
PLOT 25, 1-20 ACEL-Ammonlum Sulphate.--- --At rate of 200 lbs. per acre.
Kal-lit B- W
AcId Phosplmate..--.---.. ---..... tO1
PLOT 26,1-20 ACRE.-Ammonlum Sulphate. -- .At rate of 200 lb& per acre.
Potassium Carbonate--_-_ 5 00
Acid Phosphate .......- 600 "
OT 27, 1-100 ACRE.-odlum Nitrate-.......- -.... At rate of 100 lbs. per acre.
nOT 28 I-100 ACRE.-Sodium Nitrate........-. -At rate of 300 Ibs. per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade- 200
LAND 5. Continued.
PLOT 29.1-20 ACRE.-Nitrate of da----. __ --.At rate of 280 lbs. per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade.- 10
Acid Phnsphate-- __ -- 600
PLOT 30,1-20 ACRE.-Ntrate of Soda-- ..-----.At rateof 280 lbs. per are.
M uriate of Potashl .... 160
Acid Phosphate._- __- _- 800 -
PLOT 31.1-20 ACIM.-NitrateofSoda---. ... At rteof 280 lbs. per are.
Sulphate Potauh, low grade- 00
Acid Phosphate -.-----...- --" I0 "
PLOT 32,1-20 ACRE.-Nitrate of Soda.--- .- .At rate of 2F0 lbs. per cre.
Klnlnt ---.._--______ 800
Arid Phosphate. .. -..___.. "
PLOT 33,1-20 ACRE.-Nltrate of Soda.--- -.- At rate of 280 lbs. peracre.
n'arlnmat Pouasl----.... .--- O
Acid Phosphate_-- W.---- -. O "
PLOT 34.1-20 ACRE.-Blood and Bone...--.-- --.At rate of 880 lbs. per acre.
PLOT 35.1-20 ACRE.-Blood and Bone. ...... .._.. At rate of 680 lbs. par acre.
Sllphate Potash. high grade..- 10
PLOT 36.1-20 ACRE.-lBloo and Bone-.. .._ At rateof 6801)s. peracre.
Sulphate Potash. low grade-. -- m 00
PLOT 37,1.20 ACR.--BHlno and Bone ----..._ At rate of 680 lbs. per aire.
Kaintl ------- 800
PLOT 38,1-20 ACRE.-Blood anilt Bone- ..- .. Atrate of 680 lb. per acre.
Murtate Potasli.- ___ 100
PLOT 39.1-20 ACRE.-Blood and Hone -..-..--- .At rateof 00 lbs. per acre
(Crbonate Potash-..-..--~..- 00
I.A D 8.
PLOT 40,1-100 ACRE.-Cotton Seed Meal .--..---..At rate of 00 lbs. er acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade--.. 200
Acid Phosphate_-_._---_. 00 "
Limue, atr sicked ..- 100 "
PLOT 41.1-100 ACRE.--Nilnte of oda..-At rate of 200 Ibs. pr acre.
Acid Phosplhate.. D000
Ilme. air slntcked_-..__. ___ 100 "
PLOT 42 1-400 ACRE.-Sulphate Anmola-.- .-_---.. At rate of 200 lbs. per acre.
Sulphlte Potash, high grade.--. 200
Acid Phosphate..- _.--.-..... 800 "
Lime,. air slacked -- _-- 100
PLOT 43. 1400 ACE.--Blood and Hone.-_ -At rate of OOlbs. per acre.
(arbonate Potash. --.... 00
Acid Phosphante ..--... .- 000 "
Lime, air slacked -.-- -- 1000 "
LAND 8. Continued.
PLOT 44, 1-100 ACRE.--Cottt Seed Meal ........ -At rate of 800 lbs per acre.
Sulphate Potash, high grade... 200
Acid Phosphate... ...- .. -0 "
Muck. air dried -.......... ... 10000 "
PLOT 45, 1400 ACRE.--Nitrate ioda....----- -...-At mteof 9 0lbs. peracre.
KaliIt ...--..------- ..-- -OO
Acid Phosphte -------.....------.... 00
Muck, air dried-..---.......-- .. 10000 "
PLOT 46, 1-100 ACRE.-Sulphaite Ammonia .............. At rate of 20 Ilbs. per cre.
Sulphate PIotash. high gnrde --- 200
Acid Phosphte -----------.... ....-- OO "
luck, air dried..-----.---.-. ...---- 10000
PLOT 47, 1400 ACRE.-Hl-lhd and Bone............ .. At rnte of 700 Ili. per acre.
Potas.iuman Carbonate--...---....--. -
Acid Phosphate ......-- .....--. 01 "
Muck, air dried.....-----..-.... ,' 10000 "
PLOT 48. 1-100 ACRE.-Sulphlte Aminlonia .--.. ...--.At nte of 40 lbs. peracre.
Potassium (anrbonate ......... .510
Bone Meal ...-.--... ........ 10 "
Lime, nir :lcked-----..... -.. -0- "
Muck, air dried -------- ..-------- lOiO
PLOT 49, 1-20 ACRE.$-ulphate Ammonia -...........Atl te of a0 Ibs. per acre.
Sull)hte Pottah, low grade -.- 4100
Acid Phospih .te ........... 00 "
PLOT 50.1-20 ACRE.-Sulphate Ammu .lnnti .. At r-teof 10 Itb. peracre.
Sulphite lPotash. low gnode..... I0
B41ne Meal ... ......---....-... I-'
PLOT 51. 1-20 ACE.--tlplhtc Amuin ----- .. .----..At nlte ofr 20 Ibs. per acre.
Sulphate Potish, low grade 00
Acid P'h sphlte -....-......-" 0.1
The tsults of this experiment will be publilsledl in a Bulletin soon aftnr ile
first rop matures.
P. H. RoiLs,
Biologist and Horticulturist.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT BIOLOGIST.
To DR. W. F. YoccM, DIRECTOR.
SIR:- I he work of the entomologist has continued along
the usual lines. Much attention has been given to a detailed
study of the life histories of a number of important insects,
and to experiments with different insecticides. During the
past winter, a pest-house. of fine wire fencing, has been built,
on the Horticultural grounds. to accommodate a considerable
number of fruit and other trees, upon which it was proposed
to grow various species of injurious scale insects, in order that
a careful biologic study of them might be made. A number
of very important scale insects are now well established in this
pest house, and their study begun.
To the entomological library several valuable additions have
been made, as Green's "Coccidae of Ceylon," Signoret's "Essai
surlesCochenilles," Buckton's" Monographof British Aphids,"
and Uzil's Monographie der-Ordnung Thysanoptera:" The
files of Aime ican entomological periodicals have been in nearly
all cases, completed, and the subscription list for current peri-
odical, considerably enlarged.
The insect collection has been steadily growing, and has
proven to be a most helpful adjunct in our work, well warrant-
ing much more attention than we'have been able to give it.
I have the honor to submit a paper on some Injurious In-
sects, for publication in the Annual Report. You may note
that the data, as to the time of occurrence of some of these in-
sects, would not properly fall within the limits of the Annual
Report for this ) ear. But it seemed best to use this data in
order that the discussions might be the more complete.
Yours truly, A. L. QUAINTANCE,
Oct. I, 1898. Assistant Biologist.
SOME INJURIOUS INSECTS.
r A. L OUAINTANCE
THE SWEET POTATO PRODBIA.
Prodenia commelina, S. & A
This insect seems not to have been of much importance
economically, up to the present time. Dr. Riley, in his first
Annual Report as State Entomologist of Missouri, writes of
the larva of this insect, with other naked caterpillars, as feed-
ing on a number of different herbs, but not in sufficient abund-
ance as to attract much attention. Only occasional references
have been made to this specie, since Dr. Riley's note, and it
seems to be one of those that ordinarily develops only in mod-
erate numbers. It is interesting, therefore, to note that this
insect has occasioned considerable damage in Florida during
the fall of 1896 and the summer of 1898. On the 29th of Sep-
tember, 1896, larvae of this insect were observed in considerable
abundance feeding on tomato and Irish potato vines. The
young were to be found on the lower surface of the leaves.
more or less congregated, frequently as many as twenty-five or
thirty on a single leaf. In such cases, small holes were eaten
from the lower surface, to the epidermis of the upper surface of
the leaf. while the larger insects, half grown, or over. were
solitary, and were to be found quite promiscuously over the
plant. Older larva feed upon the leaves, quite devouring
them. These larvae were to be found infesting tomato and
potato vines as late as last of November. By December r6th
nearly all had disappeared. During the past summer, 1898,
the insect has been much more abundant than in r896, and has
been quite widespread in its occurrence. The writer has ob-
served them infesting sweet potato vines at DeLand, Lakeland,
Lake City and Ormond. Reports have come in from corre-
spondents of their ravages, at Green Cove Springs and Palatka.
They made their appearance during the last of July and caused
considerable damage to the sweet potato crop throughout the
regions infested. In most cases the foliage was quite devoured.
After the foliage had been eaten, the larvae were observed in
several cases to migrate from these fields in considerable num-
Figure 1, Larva of Prodenia commeline : also showing their work on leaf of sweet potato.
Figure 2, Chinaspis minor, on China tree.
bers, and attack various plants surrounding They were ob-
served eating crab grass, wild coffee plant, partridge pea, toma-
toes, okra and tobacco. Figure i, Plate I, illustrates a sweet
potato leaf as partially eaten by this insect. The larva is also
shown, somewhat less than natural size.
But little data was obtained as to the life history of this
insect, from press of other work. On Nov. 14th, 1896, several
tomato leaves quite covered with larve. were placed in a breed-
ing case. These were supplied with fresh food at proper inter-
vals. Growth was quite rapid during the early stages, the lar-
vae growing from one-eighth of an inch to nearly one-half an
inch in length during the six days succeeding. By Dec. 8th. ten
or twelve of these larve had apparently reached their growth.
At this tin- they were exceedingly large and fleshy, when the
size of the moth, into which they developed, is taken into con-
sideration. It seems probable, however, that this fleshiness is
not due entirely to fat, but is possibly an inflation, due to air
or other gases. One of the largest of these larve, which
measured two inches in length and one-half inch in thickness,
was found to weigh but 2.65 grams. By Dec. 12th several had
pupated, gradually working below the soil on the bottom of
the breeding case, making a slight cocoon of sand and a silky,
cementing substance. By Jan. 7th three adults appeared.
Several pupe did not develop into adults until the following
spring, which fact seems to indicate the condition in which
they may pass the winter.
The insect has been successfully treated by the use of Paris
green prepared in the following way: Use Paris green at the
rate of i oz. to 1o gallons of water. To this mixture should be
added i oz. of quick lime, previously mixed, with sufficient
water to make it into a thin paste, and strained to remove all
trash that might clog the spray nozzle. This lime is essential,
to destroy the burning effects of the Paris green on the foliage.
Infested vines should be sprayed thoroughly with this mixture,
using some good spray pump, as often as the larvwee appear in
any considerable numbers. In our tests here, one spraying
effectually rid the potato field of these larvae. It will not usu-
ally happen that more than two sprayings will be necessary.
THE SNOWY CHIONASPIS.
Chionaspis minor, Maskell.
This insect was originally described from New Zealand.
It probably made its appearance in Florida from the West In-
dies, where it occurs somewhat promiscuously. The insect
was first observed in Florida at Braidentown, where it was
collected by the writer Sept. i5th, 1897. At Braidentown the
insect was exceedingly abundant upon the China trees, (Aeelia
A-zederach). Many of these trees were apparently quite dead
from the ravages of this insect, and many more were so
badly infested that it seemed but a question of a short time
until they would also die. Since its appearance at Braiden-
town. the insect has been collected at Tampa. Miami and Palm
B.ach. where it has doubtless been distributed on ornamentals.
In New Zealand, the insect occurs on P1ar-onsi' and on Rhipo-
gonum scandens. It has also been recorded from palms, Gos-
sipitum barbadense, Cocoa nucifera. Capsicum, Hibiscus and grape
vine. So far as our observations go, it .eems most destruc-
tive to the China tree and to the Hibiscus, upon which plants
it is very severe.
APPEARANCE OF THE SCALE.
Both the male and female puparia are white; that of the
male is snowy white, while that of the female is somewhat
clouded. The female scale, or puparium, is not more than one-
fifteenth of an inch in length, is rather narrow, and frequently
somewhat bent in the middle. The exuvitum is yellow. The
male puparium is about one-thirtieth of an inch in length,
narrow, elongated and carinated.
In Figure 2, Plate I, is illustrated parts of two twigs taken
from a China tree infested with this insect. By a careful study
of the figure, both the males and the females may be distin-
Until experiments have been made with insecticides against
this insect, it will probably be safer to destroy infested plants.
Where the insect occurs on the China tree. and other decidu-
ous plants, a thorough winter spraying with strong whale oil
soap, or a kerosene and water mixture, might be efficacious.
THE FIG SCALE
Asteiolecanium pushdans, Ckll.
This insect, a native of the Sandwich Islands, has been
known in Florida for several years. At present, it seeins to be
confined mainly to the East Coast region, where it occurs on
fig, mulberry and oleander. The writer has observed the in-
sect at Georgiana, Palm Beach and Miami. To the fig, it is a
very serious pest. upon which it multiplies very rapidly, and
in the course of one or two years, may cause the tree to die.
It is also injurious to the oleander, but these plants seem better
able to withstand it, and on this plant the insect does not de-
velop in such numbers as on the fig. It has not been observed
in any great abundance on the mulberry.
APPEARANCE OF THE INSEC.
In Figure 3. Plate I, is illustrated a portion of a branch of
a fig. infested with this insect. The scale is somewhat circular
in outline and slightly convex, and of a yellowish color. By
examination with a hand lens, the scale is seen to be sur-
rounded with a delicate fringe of a pinkish color. The effect
of the insect on its host plant is quite characteristic, as the
name pustulans indicates. By a study of the figure, the pus-
tules, or pitted prominences, caused by this insect, will be ob-
served, which seem to be a constant accompaniment of it, on
its several food plants.
We have made no experiments with insecticides against
this insect, but reports from correspondents who have treated
it, indicate that it is exceedingly difficult to eradicate. It will
probably be advisable to destroy infested plants by digging up
THE CASSAVA SCALE,
Mytilaspis alba, Ckll.
This scale insect first made its appearance in Florida March
22nd, 1898. The scarcity of cassava canes led growers to im-
port them from Nassau, and this scale was brought over on
these canes from that place. A considerable quantity of in-
fested canes were destroyed under the supervision of Prof.
Rolfs, and the danger of the distribution of the insect was, in
this much, lessened. During July. the writer visited those
fields in which canes from Nassau had been planted, and after
a very carely investigation, was not able to find any trace of
the insect. Its apparent complete extermination is doubtless
accounted for by the fact that the canes, or "seed," are ouite
covered up in the ground in planting, which would, in all piob-
ability, destroy the scales. The excessive drouth of the past
spring greatly retarded the sprouting of these canes, and this
condition was also a factor in bringing about their extermina-
tion. Canes infested with this insect were brought to the pest-
house and were planted in flour pots, leaving two or three
inches sticking out above the earth. All of these canes failed
to sprout but one, upon which there were two or three adult
female scales. From these females were developed numerous
larvae, which matured in the course of thirty-five or forty days.
At this time, Oct. i8th, six months from the hatching of the
first larve, almost the entire cassava plant is quite covered with
these insects in various stages, and their effect upon the plant
is quite marked. In rapidity of development and virulence,
they seem to compare favorably with some of our worst scale
insect pests. Attempts were made to colonize this insect upon
peach and pear, but fortunately it does not seem to be able to
live on these plants any length of time.
APPEARANCE OF THE INSECT.
The insect belongs to the same genus with the oyster shell
scales of the orange and peach, and is of about the same size.
In color, however, it is of a dirty white, with a yellowish ex-
While it is believed that the insect has been quite exter-
k ( )
Figure 1, Tnroliumn ferrgineum: a, adult; b, pupa; c, larva.
Figure 2, Blissus kneopterus, adult.
Figure 3, Nymph of same.
Figure 4, Aleurodes ruborum. pupa-case.
(Figures 1 and 4, from drawings by Nellie M. Quaintance. Figures 2 and 3, from Howard, Bt
letin 17, Div. Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agrl).
minated in the State, yet should it be met with on cassava, or
other plants, it will be wise to immediately burn all infested
plants. It is not known upon what plants it may live in this
State, but it is not improbable that it could adapt itself to many
of our Florida plants, particularly wild Euphorbias. It occurs
in the West Indies on certain undetermined malvaceous plants.
THE RUST-RED FLOUR BEETLE.
Tribolium ferrugincum, Fabr.
This small Tenebrionid is a serious house-hold and
museum pest in Florida. Flour, corn-meal, and similar pro-
ducts, soon become so badly infested, if left exposed, that they
are worthless. In museums, the pest is particularly severe,
especially on dried insects. The insect collection of the Col-
lege is preserved only by constant vigilance. Naturally the
softer bodied insects suffer most, as the Orthoptera, Bombycid
and Noctuid moths, the Odonata and some Coleoptera. The
harder bodied insects, as Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, are less
severely infested. The flat bodies of these small beetles enable
them to crawl through very small cracks, and unless a case is
exceedingly tight, they will find their way within, and soon
bring about the destruction of the specimens. A small speci-
men attacked by an adult of this insect. may be much damaged
in the course of a few days. Larger specimens are eaten into,
eggs deposited. and the soon hatched larvae and adults feed to-
gether within the insect. All the soft tissues within are de-
voured, and numerous holes are eaten out to the exterior.
Specimens thus attacked are almost worthless, a slight jar be-
ing frequently sufficient to shake them to pieces.
Breeding experiments with this insect indicate that during
the summer at least, the life cycle is completed in about thirty
days. The egg state continues for twelve days, the larva
stage for fourteen days, and the pupal stage continues for
about five days. The life of an adult continues in captivity
for from twenty-five to thirty days.
The following description of the larva and pupa will
serve for the recognition of this insect in these stages.
Full-grown Larva--About 6 m m. long; width across the
meta thorax, .8 m m.; width of head, .6 m m.; width of mouth
about m m. Body sub-cylindrical in shape; yellowish
white ventrally, dorsally yellowish brown, deeper caudad.
Legs well developed, each terminating in a single curved claw.
Antennae moderately developed, each terminating in a short
seta. Mandibles yellow, tips almost black. Caudal segment
terminating in two conical, diverging and slightly recurved
horns, brown on tip. Beneath these is a pair of fleshy anal
prolegs. Numerous slender hairs are distributed over body
and head. Under a two-thirds objective the dorsal surface is
seen to be covered with short spines, thicker caudad (see figure
1. pl. II, c.).
Pupa-Length about 4 m m.; width across mesothorax, .8
m m.; color white, slightly yellowish; eyes brown. Mandibles
yellow, darker on tips. Numerous spine-like hairs distributed
over the body, and becoming longer on the caudal and ceph-
alic portions of the body. Wing-covers marked with numer-
ous, parallel, longitudinal, slightly raised lines; caudal tip and
margin of wing cover yellowish. Body terminating caudad in
a pair of conical, diverging spine-like horns, tipped with
On each side of each abdominal segment is an irregular,
blade-like projection, concave distally; on the cephalic and
caudal margins are five to seven brownish-yellow teeth,
usually one or two more on the caudal margin than the ceph-
alic margin. On the first, seventh and eighth segments these
processes are very much reduced. The concavity on the distal
or outer margin of the process is frequently so deep as to reach
to the body of the pupa. On this outer margin are three or
four setae, the longest usually cephalad of the others, and on
the front lobe. Numerous hairs are distributed over the
body, thickest on the dorsum of the prothorax (see figure I,
pl. II., b.).
The Adull-The adult beetle is a small, rust-red insect,
being a little more than an eighth of an inch in length. The
antennae are somewhat enlarged on the tip, which character
serves to separate this species from its near relative, Tribolium
cotnfusum. (See figure i, pl. II.. a.
This, and other insects of similar habits, can best be
treated with carbon bisulphide. For full directions for the de-
struction of insects infesting grain, cereal products, and pre-
served specimens, see Bulletin No. 36. of this Station.
THE CHINCH BUG.
Blissus leucop/erus, Say.
This insect has probably received as much, or more, atten-
tion from the hands of Economic Entomologists as any other
North American species. It is known as a most serious wheat
and corn pest throughout many of the Central and Western
States. In certain years the yields of these crops have been
much reduced, occasioning the loss of millions of dollars in a
single State. Although it is known more in connection with
its injuries to wheat and corn, yet the insect infests many
species of grass, to which it causes more or less damage. It
enjoys a wide distribution in the United States east of the
Rocky Mountains, ranging from Canada to Florida, and it is
mentioned by Uhler in his list of Hemipetra of the region west
of the Mississippi river, as occurring in California. Outside of
the United States, it has been recorded from Cuba and Canada.
In the Southern States, it is probably most destructive in the
Carolinas and Virginia. In Florida, the insect has been col-
lected at various times and from different parts of the State.
Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of the Division of Entomology, at Wash-
ington, has found it very abundant at Biscayne Bay, breeding,
in the wingless form, upon the "sand oats."
During the summer of 1898, several reports came in from
different localities in the State, of a small insect infesting the
St. Augustine grass of the lawns. After some correspondence,
specimens of the insect in question were secured, which
proved to be the chinch bug, so common in the North and West.
During the latter part of July, the insect made its appearance
in the St. Augustine grass on the lawns of the Horticultural
Department of the Experiment Station, and later specimens
were sent in from Belleview, Fla., and from Palatka, Fla., in
which localities the lawns had been quite seriously injured.
At Lake City the insects were found to confine their attack
mainly to the lower portions of the grass, where young and
old were both frequently congregated in considerable numbers.
This insect seems to be of the same variety as that collected by
Mr. E. A. Schwarz, at Lake Worth, Fla., judging from the
color of the antennae, the first three joints of which are honey
yellow, while the last joint, or club, is nearly black. Both the
long and short winged forms were to be found, but the long
wing form occurred in much greater abundance.
DESCRIPTION OF THE ADULT.
The original description of Thomas Say, is herewith ap-
pended: "Blackish; hemelytra white, with a black spot.
Inhabits Virginia. Body long, blackish, with numerous hairs.
Antennae, rather short hairs; second joint yellowish, longer
than the third; ultimate joint rather longer than the second,
thickest; thorax tinged with rinereous before, with the basal
edge piceous: hemelytra white, with a blackish oval spot on
the lateral middle, rostrum and feet honey yellow ; thighs a
little dilated. Length a little less than three-twentieths of an
inch. I took a single specimen on the Eastern shores of Vir-
ginia. The whiteness of the hemelytra, in which is a blackish
spot strongly contrasted, distinguishes this species readily."
See Figures 2 and 3, Plate II, illustrating this insect.
The life history of the chinch bug in Florida probably does
not differ essentially from its life history in other States, except
possibly in the number of broods. We have made no study of
this insect in Florida, and consequently must make general
statements, such as would apply to the insect in the North.
There are probably two annual generations throughout
the Northwest. Thomas states that a third brood may occur
in Southern Illinois and Kentucky. There seems to be no
question but that the insect has three broods in North Caro-
lina, as Prof. Atkinson found them hall-grown on crab grass
about the first of October. By Nov. 17th most of the insects
found in this same locality were fully grown. It seems proba-
ble from the above, that the number of broods increases as
they occur nearer the tropics. Doubtless in Florida there are
three or four broods yearly. The chinch bug hibernates dur-
ing the winter in the mature form. Upon the approach of cold
weather, they leave their food plants and seek shelter, collect-
ing in trash, leaves, mulching, fence cracks, in fact, in almost
any place that will offer them the desired protection. In the
latitude of Lake City, doubtless the insects hide away during
colder days of winter, but in the latitude of Tampa, the winter
would rarely be sufficiently cool to cause more than a tempo-
rary cessation of their activities. These insects are reported
to be able to sustain extreme cold. Dr. Thomas mentions a
case in which the bugs were frozen into ice, were thawed, and
when warm, manifested signs of life, moving about as in the
It will probably not often happen that the chinch bug will
be seriously destructive in Florida, owing to the amount of wet
weather that occurs in this State. There seems to be no doubt
but that the insect thrives best during dry seasons. The
drouth of the past spring has been very favorable to the de-
velopment of these insects, and their abundance seems to de-
pend to a considerable extent upon the nature of the season,
particularly the early spring.
Many experiments have been made with reference to the
suppression of this serious pest. Irrigation, where practicable,
may be employed with success against this insect. Prof. Riley
recommends that fields be inundated with water for a couple of
days to destroy them. Much can be done by collecting and
burning all infested grass that is found; or, the distribution of
the insect on the lawn should be definitely determined, and
then this area should be covered with straw and burned. Ob-
servations are wanting as to the practicability of exterminating
these insects by spraying under the conditions that have pre-
vailed in Florida, but doubtless very many of them could be
killed by thoroughly spraying infested lawns with kerosine
emulsion or whale oil soap. It is not probable that these in
secticides would injure the grass, but this should be determined
by experiment before it is accepted.
THE RUBUS WHITE-FLY,
Aleurodes ruborum, Ckll.
This insect was first noticed in November, 1896, infesting
several of the varieties of Rubus 'rivialis, on the horticultural
grounds of Dr. J. F. Appell. The small "white flies" were
observed in great abundance, flying about, and resting on the
leaves. A closer inspection revealed the presence of the scales
of the larvae and pupae in great abundance, on both the upper
and lower surfaces of the leaves, more abundant, however, on
the lower surface. A study of a leaf under a lens revealed that
the scales were of varying ages, from those recently hatched, to
fully mature larvae and pupe. A few eggs were observed
fastened.mainly to the margin of the leaf.
The presence of these scales in such numbers, sucking out
the sap, must necessarily be a serious drain upon the plant; at
the time that the insect was first observed, it did not seem im-
probable that we had a new "white fly pest in Forida. The
insect has been observed quite closely since its discovery, how-
ever, and there seems to be no occasion for regarding it as of
much economic importance. At no time has it become more
abundant than when first observed. The pupae are subject to
the attack of a small hymenopterous parasite of the genus
Alaptus. This parasite was bred out in large numbers, and at
various times. A study of the pupae on several different leaves
indicated that about 65 per cent. are thus destroyed. Under
ordinary circumstances, this parasite will probably serve to
hold the Aleurodes from undue increase. The Aleurodes is
probably a native of Florida, as it has been taken in several
widely separated localities, on both Rubus Irivalis and R.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT STAGES.
Adull.-The original descrip of the adult and pupae is
herewith given as published in the Journal of the New York
Entomological Society, Vol. V., No. II., p. 96, by Prof.
Cockerell. Female: Very minute about or hardly am m.
long; body and legs pale lemon yellow; wings pure white,
spotless. The main nervure appears to fork as in Aleutodicus,
but only the lower branch is a real nervure. the nervure bend-
ing at the apparent fork, which is only a little more than half
way from the base of the wing; the apparent upper fork is
simply a fold. The second nervure arises from the main ner-
vure nearly at the base of the wing. The margins of the
wings, after maceration in caustic soda, appear delicately
beaded. Eyes not completely divided. Antenuse 7-jointed,
second joint excessively stout, its breadth at top, which is ob-
liquely truncate, being at least as great as that of basal portion
of femur. Third joint long, cylindrical, coarsely ringed
throughout; fourth, short and oval, broader thn the third;
fifth, narrow, cylindrical, a little longer than fourth, and very
much narrower; sixth, cylindrical, almost or quite as long as
4 <5; seventh, shorter than sixth but longer than fitth; third,
about as long as 4 M 5 x 6. Anterior tibia very slender, its
distal end swollen. Middle and hind tibiae not nearly twice as
long as their tarsi. Genitalia ordinary."
"Pupa-About 4-5 m m. long, oval, flat, delicately trans-
versely ribbed, with a delicate fringe of long, glassy rods,
easily broken off; the longest of these rods may be almost or
quite as long as the breadth of the pupa. Color of pupa,
black; by transmitted light after boiling in caustic soda, ex-
tremely dark vandyke brown. Margin presenting at intervals
round, clear orifices, about fourteen on each side. Vasiform
orifice an elongate triangle, the base about two-thirds the
length of a side; operculum heart-shaped, or approximately so,
with the corners rounded, and the base about as long as a
side; lingua projecting only a little beyond the projecting por-
tion, semicircular in outline, showing some tendency to crenu-
lation, after the manner of A. erigeronhis." (See figure 4,
Larva- Length of young larva, .6 mm.; width, .23 m m.;
elliptical in shape, yellowish in color, slightly tinged with
green. Fringe absent; no fringe appears until the approach
of the pupa state. At this time the fringe of lateral filaments,
and the vertical fringe extending toward the leaf begin to
form, and their further development continues somewhat pro-
portionately. By the time the lateral filaments have reached
their maximum length, the vertical fringe is of about full
length, and the black body of the now formed pupa case is
raised quite up from the surface of the leaf.
Eggs-Greenish-yellow in color, very small; pedicel very
short, egg being almost sessile.
The following table, furnished by Prof. Cockerell, will be
of value in separating the adults of the genus Aleurodes found
TABLE OF ALEURODES FOUND ON RUBUS.
A. Imago marked with black, wings with a spot-rubi, Signo-
B. Imago yellow, wings immaculate, white.
a. Posterior tibia twice as long as tarsus; 4th antennal
joint half length of 5th.-rubicola, Douglass (Eu-
b. Posterior tibia not nearly twice as long as tarsus;
4th antennal joint nearly as long as 5th.-ruborum,
(This species is also distinguished by the black pupa with a
conspicuous glossy fringe.)
THE RAMIE LEAF ROLLER,
(Pyrausta theseusalis, Walk.)
For the past two years larve of this insect have been
found infesting the leaves of the Ramie-plant (Boehmeria
nivea) grown on the Experiment Station. In a plat of about
one-quarter of an acre, fully fifty per cent. of the leaves were
infested. The leaves are rolled up from one side, forming a
hollow tube nearly half an inch in diameter (see figure I, plate
III). Within these tubes the larvae feed, eating along the
rolled up, and covered, margin, or sometimes eating the distal
end of the tube. Usually not more than one nearly grown
larva is to be found within a tube, but it may frequently con-
tain several small larvae. Inside of the roll numerous threads
are spun here and there, probably protecting somewhat from
intruders. As a result of these threads, considerable of the
excrement becomes lodged, and the lower part of the roll may
sometimes be quite closed in this way.
The insects have not yet been observed earlier than July
infesting ramie plants, and they seem to be most abundant
about the middle of September. Specimens of young larvae
placed in breeding cases grew to adult larvae in about twenty
days: these pupated within the rolled up leaves, and devel-
oped into adults in twenty-three days. Several attempts to
secure eggs from moths bred in confinement were fruitless,
and hence this stage, and the early larval stages, were not
studied. Making due allowance for the egg state, the life
cycle is probably not shorter than fifty days. But further ob-
servations are necessary on this point. In the field, the pupal
state may be passed in the rolled up leaves, or, as is very fre-
quently the case, in the fruit cluster of the plant. In one case
as many as twenty pupae were taken from a fruit cluster,
where the larvae had evidently crawled in order to pupate. In
pupating, a very light web of silk is spun, lining the tube, or,
in the case of a fruit cluster, a quantity of the seed is fastened
together, thus forming a protection.
Adult-The moth has a wing expanse of about one and
one eighth inches, and measures from head to tip of abdomen
about five-eights of an inch. Body rather small, abdomen
tapering gradually back to a point, segments of abdomen quite
distinct. Color of wings and body above, dark, shining yel-
lowish-gray; under favorable light a decided purple sheen is
seen on the wings, deeper on the front part. Three zigzag
lines of dusky hue extend across the wings of each side, divid-
ing the primaries approximately in fourths. Under surface
uniformly lighter; dusky bands of upper surface visible be-
low; purple sheen noticeable on under surface of first pair of
wings. Ventral surface of body and abdomen lighter than
under surface of wings, becoming on thorax shining white.
Eyes, brownish-black; antennae, somewhat rufous; palpi,
brown. (See figure 2, plate III, from a photograph slightly
Pupa-Length about nine-sixteenths of an inch; width
across thorax, two-sixteenths of an inch; color, dark, shining
chocolate, the wings a shade lighter. Abdomen gradually
tapering to a horny point; head, bluntly rounded. (See figure
4, plate III, illustrating a pupa separated out from its case of
Larva-Length, about one and one-fourth inches. Body
cylindrical in shape and slender; thoracic legs well developed,
prolegs cylindrical, rather long. In color the larva is green-
ish-yellow above, lighter below. This color seems to be due
to the food to a considerable extent, as the skin itself is almost
colorless. The body is somewhat transparent, so that the pul-
sations of the dorsal tube may be plainly observed. Head,
brownish above, mottled with dark brown. Prothoracic shield
well developed, colored dark brown laterally, but greenish-
yellow dorsally. Numerous slender hairs are distributed over
the body. The larvae are exceedingly active, usually wrig-
gling out of the tube when disturbed and falling to the
ground. (See figure 3, plate III, from a photograph illustrat-
ing a larva slightly enlarged.)
Probably the best treatment for this pest will be to pick
off and burn the rolled up leaves as soon as observed. The
larvae begin rolling the leaf at an early age, and could hardly
do any considerable harm before detection. The use of Paris
green, or some other arsenous insecticide, might be of value,
but from the fact that the larvae feed to a considerable extent
Pyrameis cardui.-1, adult; 2, pupa; 3, larva; 4, work of larva on prickly comfrey leaves. (j
within the roll, many would escape poisoning. No observa-
tions have been made as to the natural food plant of this in-
sect, consequently we can make no recommendations tending
to reduce them by the destruction of their usual food plants.
PYRAMEIS CARDUI, LINN.
The larva of this insect, the Cosmopolitan Butterfly, has
been observed for the past two years upon prickly comfrey
plants, grown on the Station grounds. Usually but a single
larva is to be found in a leaf. The leaf is folded somewhat.
and a web of silk spun, under which it passes a considerable
portion of its time. The damage consists in eating the leaves
so that, if the attack is at all severe, it is hardly profitable to
gather them for forage. (See Figure 4, Plate IV. illustrating
their way of feeding). The insect has always been more or less
common in Florida, but its larvae have attracted no particular
attention. Since the introduction of prickly comfrey. however,
it seems to have found this a very acceptable food plant, and it
has become quite a pest. This year. 1898. the foliage of the
prickly comfrey has been almost entirely destroyed by them.
This insect probably enjoys a wider distribution than most of
our other insects. It occurs in most parts of the world, with
the exception of the Arctic regions and South America. Its
natural food plants are several species of thistles. and it proba-
ably rarely happens, that it becomes of economic importance
anywhere throughout the area of its distribution.
APPEARANCE OF THE INSECT.
The adult of this insect is illustrated in Figure i, Plate IV,
somewhat reduced. The wings expand from two and one-half
to two and three-fourths inches. The wings are tawny above,
tinged with rose red, and spotted with black and white. Be-
neath, the hind wings are marbled, with a triangular white
spot in the middle and a row of five eye-like spots within the
margin. The caterpillar may be recognized from Figure 3,
Plate IV, which is also somewhat reduced. A full grown
larva measures about one and one-half inches in length. The
head is black, the feet reddish. The body is striped with black
and yellow interrupted lines. There are about seven branched
spines n each of the segments excepting the first. The pupa
varies considerably in color, but is probably most often brown,
with golden spots on the side and back. Figure 2, Plate IV,
illustrates this stage.
To rid plants of this insect it will probably be sufficient to
thoroughly spray them with Paris green at the rate of one
ounce to ten gallons of water. Much could be done by remov-
ing the infested leaves and burning them.