<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Staff changes
 Report of the dean for researc...
 Capital improvements
 Theses and dissertations
 International programs
 Report of the administrative...
 Grants and gifts
 Agricultural economics departm...
 Agricultural engineering depar...
 Agronomy department
 Animal science department
 Botany department
 Dairy science department
 Editorial department
 Entomology and nematology...
 Food science department
 Forestry department
 Fruit crops department
 Microbiology department
 Ornamental horticulture depart...
 Plant pathology department
 Poultry science department
 Soil science department
 Statistics department
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science department
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida experiment...
 Citrus experiment station
 Everglades experiment station
 Gulf Coast experiment station
 North Florida experiment stati...
 Plantation field laboratory
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Range cattle experiment statio...
 Ridge ornamental horticultural...
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley experiment...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Weather forecasting service
 West Florida experiment statio...
 Index


UF FLAG



Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005147/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Abbreviated Title: Annu. res. rep. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida>
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1970
Publication Date: 1968-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Biological abstracts
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000429247
oclc - 01408984
notis - ACH8451
lccn - 73646057 //r862
issn - 0071-609X
System ID: UF00005147:00003
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report.
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Map
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Staff changes
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Report of the dean for research
        Page 18
    Capital improvements
        Page 19
    Theses and dissertations
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    International programs
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Grants and gifts
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Agricultural economics department
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agricultural engineering department
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Agronomy department
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Animal science department
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Botany department
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Dairy science department
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Editorial department
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Entomology and nematology department
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Food science department
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Forestry department
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Fruit crops department
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Microbiology department
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Ornamental horticulture department
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Plant pathology department
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Poultry science department
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Soil science department
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Statistics department
        Page 135
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Veterinary science department
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 148
    Central Florida experiment station
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Citrus experiment station
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
    Everglades experiment station
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
    Gulf Coast experiment station
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 196
            Page 197
    North Florida experiment station
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Marianna unit
            Page 205
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Range cattle experiment station
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Ridge ornamental horticultural laboratory
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Suwannee Valley experiment station
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    Weather forecasting service
        Page 232
    West Florida experiment station
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
    Index
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
Full Text








ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1970












ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1970











WEST FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT STATION /
WEST FLORIDA
DAIRY RESEARCH UNIT
MARIANNA UNIT


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Ct


NORTH FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT STATION


SUWANNEE VALLEY ~
EXPERIMENT STATION Broc

BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE
RESEARCH STATION
FEDERAL-STATE WEATHER
FORECASTING SERVICE
STRAWBERRY AND VEGETABLE
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY L
GULF COAST "Bradei
EXPERIMENT STATION


)TATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY



WATERMELON GRAPE
IINESTIGAT/ONS LABORATORY
CENTRAL FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT STATION
RIDGE ORNAMENTAL
HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY

CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION

SINDIAN RIVER
FIELD LABORATORY


RANGE CATTLE J
EXPERIMENT STATION


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT

STATIONS


EVERGLADES
'EXPERIMENT STATION


FIELD LABORATORY



SUB-TROPICAL
EXPERIMENT STATION


o- I ------










CONTENTS

Page

ADMINISTRATION
Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff . . . 4
Staff Changes . . . . . . 15
Report of the Dean for Research . . . . 18
Capital Improvements . . . . ... . 19
Theses and Dissertations . . . . ... . 19
International Programs . . . . . 24
Report of the Administrative Manager . . . . 31
Grants and Gifts . . . . ... ....... 33

MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics . . . . ... . 38
Agricultural Engineering . . . . ... .46
Agronomy . . . . ... . . . 51
Animal Science . . . . ... . .... 58
Botany . . . . ... . . .. 68
Dairy Science . . . . ... . .. 71
Editorial . . . . . . . 76
Entomology and Nematology . . . . . 91
Food Science . . . . ... . . .. 96
Forestry . . . . . . . 103
Fruit Crops . . . . ... . . 108
Microbiology . . . . . . ... 111
Ornamental Horticulture . . . . . 113
Plant Pathology . . . . . . 117
Poultry Science . . . . ... . .122
Soil Science . . . . ... . . .. .126
Statistics . ....... . . . . . 135
Vegetable Crops . . . . ... . .136
Veterinary Science . . . . ... . .141

BRANCH STATIONS
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory .. . ....... .145
Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station . . . 148
Central Florida Experiment Station . . . . 149
Citrus Experiment Station . . . . ... .. .155
Indian River Field Laboratory . . . . 168
V Everglades Experiment Station . . . . .. .171
Indian River Field Laboratory . . . . 182
Gulf Coast Experiment Station . . . . .. .185
VSouth Florida Field Laboratory . . . . 193
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory . . . 196
North Florida Experiment Station . . . . .. .198
Marianna Unit . . . . . . 205
c/Plantation Field Laboratory . . . .. .. .206
Potato Investigations Laboratory . . . . .. .208
Range Cattle Experiment Station . . . ... .211
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory . . .. .216
t Sub-Tropical Experiment Station . . . . .. .219
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station . . . . 225
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory . . 228
Weather Forecasting Service . . . . ... .232
West Florida Experiment Station . . . . .. .233

INDEX . . . . . . . . 238




The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.










AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

December 31, 1970


BOARD OF REGENTS

Burke Kibler, Lakeland, Chairman
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa
Julius F. Parker, Tallahassee
Mayhew Dodson, III, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando, Vice Chairman
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Elizabeth A. Kovachevich, St. Petersburg
Milton N. Weir, Jr., Boca Raton
Mrs. E. D. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
R. B. Mautz, Chancellor, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION

Stephen C. O'Connell, President, University of Florida
E. T. York, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant Dean
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Dean
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A. B., Administrative Manager
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Maintenance Superintendent II, Field Services


Academic Staff

The following abbreviations after name and title of research faculty
indicate cooperation with other organizations:

Coll.--University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.--University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service
DC--Florida Department of Citrus
DPI--Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
FAMU--Florida A8M University, Tallahassee
Fla.-Ga. WS--Florida-Georgia Wildlife Service
NWS--National Weather Service, United States Department of Commerce
USDA--United States Department of Agriculture
USFS--United States Forest Service

NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named individuals,
represent responsibility for coordination, planning and conduct of
cooperative research with the department indicated.


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE (Zip Code 32601)

Agricultural Economics Department, 1157 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1826

K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist) and Chairman; also Coll. and
Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)
C. L. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Area Farm Management Specialist); also
Ext., Lake Alfred
H. D. Brodnax, M.S., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Economics), USDA
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Veg. Crops
J. R. Brooker, M.S.A., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Economics), USDA
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Economics), FCC
J. C. Cato, M.S., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Economics), USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist), Coll.
J. R. Conner, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
C. G. Davis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
J. K. Dow, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
B. R. Eddleman, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)
R. D. Emerson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
Carl Farler, M.S., Int. Instructor (Int. Asst. in Agr. Economics)
K. C. Gibbs, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also
Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., L.L.B., Prof. (Agr. Economist); also Coll.
G. T. Harris, M.S., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Economics), USDA











T. S. Hipp, M.Ag., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Area Farm Management Specialist); also
Ext., Bradenton
M. R. Langham, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); also Coll.
W. B. Lester, Ph.D., Prof. (Research Economist), DC
E. T. Loehman, Ph.D., Assot. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
W. K. McPherson, M.S. Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
W. W. McPherson, Ph.D., Graduate Research Professor
W. T. Menasco, M.Ag., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Area Farm Management Specialist); also
Ext., Quincy
L. H. Myers, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist), DC
J. E. Mullins, B.S., Prof. (Agr. Statistician), USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist); liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist), USDA
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist)
A. Prato, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
F. J. Prochaska, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
G. N. Rose, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist), Orlando
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Orn. Hort.; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Fruit Crops
F. H. Tyner, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)
R. W. Ward, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Research Economist), FCC

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture.)


Agricultural Engineering Department, 7 Frazier Rogers Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1864

E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Engineer) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
L. O. Bagnall, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
C. D. Baird, M.S.E., Int. Research Instructor
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Industrial Engineer), USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Engineer); liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Engineer); liaison with Ani. Sci.
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Engineering), USDA
F. E. Henry, B.I.E., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Industrial Engineer), USDA
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Engineer)
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Engineer); liaison with Agron.
R. A. Nordstedt, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
A. R. Overman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
L. N. Shaw, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Animal Science,
Soils.)


Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1811

D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
Fred Clark, M.S.A., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Agr. Engineering
W. G. Duncan, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Plant Path.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Assoc. in Plant Physiology
W. W. Hanna, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist), USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Entomology
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Agr. Economics
E. B. Knipling, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA
G. O. Mott, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor (Assoc. Agronomist)
C. B. Owens, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist), FAMU
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); liaison with Soils
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist), Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); liaison with Forestry
R. L. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Prof. (Geneticist), USDA; liaison with Plant Path.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Physiologist), USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Engineering,











Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils.)


Animal Science Department, 2103 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1911

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Poultry;
also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
F. W. Bazer, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Physiologist); also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Meat Scientist); also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist), liaison with Agr. Eng.;
also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Director, Division of
Biological Sciences
J. F. Easley, M.S. Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); also Coll.
D. E. Franke, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Geneticist); also Coll.
J. C. Glenn, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Physiologist)
J. F. Hentges Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
D. E. Koch, Ph.D., Int. Asst. Prof. (Int. Asst. Meat Scientist); also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Geneticist); liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman); liaison with Vet.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
E. A. Ott, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Prof. (Meat Scientist); liaison with Food Sci.; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman); also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Vet. Sci.; Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Physiologist); liaison with Poultry; also
Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Forestry, Soils, Veterinary
Science.)



Botany Department, 2175 McCarty Hall 32601
Phone 904, 392-1891


Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Prof. (Botanist) and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); also Coll.
J. Beckner, B.S.A., Research Associate
J. H. Davis, Ph.D.,,Prof. Emeritus (Botanist Emeritus); Coll.
J. S. Davis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Botanist); also Coll.
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Prof. (Botanist); also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Physiologist); also Coll.
T. E. Humphreys Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); also Coll.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Mycologist); Coll.
J. T. Mullins, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Botanist); also Coll.
R. C. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Botanist); also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Botanist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Department of Plant Pathology.)


Dairy Science Department, Dairy Science Building, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1981

Dairy Research Unit, Hague
Phone 904, 462-1016

H. H. Van Horn, Ph.D., Prof. and Chairman
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Dairy Husbandman Emeritus)
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Dairy Technologist Emeritus)
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Physiologist); also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Dairy Technologist); liaison with
Food Science; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Prof. (Nutritionist); liaison with Agron.; also Coll.1
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Prof. (Microbiologist); also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Microbiologist); also Coll.











W. W. Thatcher, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Physiologist); also Coll.
J. B. White, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Diary Husbandman)
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist); also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Food Science, Veterinary Science.)


Editorial Department, G022 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1774

Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Prof. (Editor) and Chairman; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor); also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor)
C. T. Woods, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor)


Entomology and Nematology Department, 3103 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1901

W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. L. Bailey, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist), USDA
L. Berner, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Biological Sciences; Coll.
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., (Entomologist); Coll.
W. A. Bruce, Ph.D., Research Assoc., USDA
J. F. Butler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
W. T. Calaway, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist); Coll.
M. M. Cole, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
H. L. Cromroy, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); Radiology; Coll.
D. A. Dame, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA
G. W. Dekle, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); DPI
H. A. Denmark, M.S., Prof. (Entomologist); DPI
R. P. Esser, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist); DPI
A. G. P. Fairchild, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
I. H. Gilbert, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
I. H. Gouck, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); liaison with Orn. Hort.; also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.
Coll.
G. C. LaBrecque, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
K. R. Langdon, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist); DPI
W. J. Lewis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA, Tifton, Ga.
D. A. Lindquist, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
P. Lingren, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA, Quincy, Fla.
J. E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
C. F. Lofgren, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
R. E. Lowe, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
F. O. Marzke, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
M. S. Mayer, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
F. W. Mead, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); DPI
E. P. Merkel, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Olustee
P. B. Morgan, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
G. A. Mount, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Coll.
J. L. Nation, Ph.D, Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
J. H. O'Bannon, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist), USDA, Orlando, Fla.
B. J. Patterson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Prof. (Nematologist); liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
W. L. Peters, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist), FAMU
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Apiculturist)
J. A. Seawright, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA
D. Silhacek, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist); liaison with Soils;
also Coll.
W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
B. J. Smittle, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist), USDA, Canal Point
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Entomologist Emeritus)
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Biological Sciences; Coll.
H. V. Weems, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); DPI
D. E. Weidhaas, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); USDA, Gainesville
M. J. Westfall, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); Biological
Sciences; also Coll.











W. H. Whitcomb, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); liaison with
Forestry
B. R. Wiseman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA, Tifton, Ga.
R. E. Woodruff, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), DPI


Food Science Department, McCarty Hall, North Building, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1991


R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist); also Coll.
H. Appledorf, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nutritionist); also Coll.
R. P. Bates, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist); also Coll.
R. H. Dougherty, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist); also Coll.
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemist); also Coll.
J. A. Koburger, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Microbiologist); also Coll.
V. T. Mendenhall, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist): also Coll.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); also Coll.
N. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist)
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist)
W. B. Wheeler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, Dairy Science.)


Forestry Department, 305 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1792


J. L. Gray, D.F., Prof. (Forester) and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
C. W. Bengston, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester), TVA, Muscle Shoals,
Alabama; also Coll.
R. H. Brendemuehl, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester), USFS; also Coll.
G. W. Cornwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
V. D. Cunningham, B.S., Instructor (Assistant in Forestry), Fla.-Ga. WS;
also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist) also Coll.
J. 8. Huffman, D.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Prof. (Forester); also Coll.
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); also Coll.
R. A. Schmidt, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); liaison with Plant
Pathology; also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); liaison with Soils; also Cdll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester), USDA, Olustee: also Coll.
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Prof. (Forest Physiologist); also Coll.
K. R. Strickland, M.S.F., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); liaison with Ag. Econ.;
also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester); also Coll.
L. H. White, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering Agronomy, Entomology, Soils.)


Fruit Crops Department, 1189 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1996

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist) also Coil.
D. W. Buchanan, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
W. B. Sherman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.
J. Soule, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
W. J. Wiltbank, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils.)










Microbiology Department, 1053 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1906

Max E. Tyler, Ph.D., Prof. (Bacteriologist) and Chairman; also Coll.
A. S. Bleiweis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
D. E. Duggan, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist); also Coll. and
Biological Sciences
E. M. Hoffmann, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
D. S. Nasser, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
J. F. Preston, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll-.
E. P. Previc, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.


Ornamental Horticulture Department, 105 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1831

J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist); liaison with Soils;
also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist); also Coll.
S. E. McFadden Jr.. Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist);
liaison with Plant Path.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
C. E. Whitcomb, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soils.)


Plant Pathology Department, Building 833, Radio Road, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1861

L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
J. A. Bartz, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
H. C. Burnett, M.S., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Veg. Crops
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Orn. Hort.
S. M. Garnsey, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist), USDA
E. Hiebert, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Agronomy, USDA
C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist); liaison with
Agronomy
J. W. Miller, Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Orn. Hort.
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Virologist)
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); Coll.
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
C. P. Seymour, M.S., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
F. W. Zettler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Virologist)



(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Forestry, Ornamental
Horticulture.)


Poultry Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1931

R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Prof. (Poultry Nutritionist) and Chairman; also Coll. and
Ext.
B. L. Damron, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nutritionist); also Coll.
C. R. Douglas, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Poultryman); also Ext.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Prof. (Poultry Products Technologist); also Coll. and Ext.
D. A. Roland, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Poultry Scientist)
R. A. Voitle, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Poultry Physiologist)
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Poultry Physiologist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Animal Science, Food Science,
Soils, Veterinary Science.)










Soils Department, 106 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1804

E. '. Eno, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Microbiologist) and Chairman; also Coll.,and Ex
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist); also Coll.
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist); also Coll.
C. L. Coultas, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist), FAMU
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Fruit Crops; also Col
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Physicist); liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
and collaborator with USDA
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
D. H. Hubbell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Microbiologist); also Coll.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Surveyor)
R. S. Mansell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Physicist); also Coll.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Forestry; also Coll.
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Agronomy
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Microbiologist); liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Orn. Hort.; also Coll.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemist)
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist)
L. W. Zelazny, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Animal Science,
Entomology, Forestry, Ornamental Horticulture.)


Statistics Department, G175 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1941

William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Prof. (Statistician) and Chairman
J. A. Cornell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Statistician)
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Statistician)
J. I. Thornby, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Statistician)


Vegetable Crops Department, 3026 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1794

G. A. Marlowe, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
M. J. Bassett, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils.)


Veterinary Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1841

G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Prof. (Veterinarian) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Parasitologist); liaison with
Animal Science; also Coll.
P. T. Cardeilhac, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Pharmacologist); also Coll.
D. E. Cooperrider, D.V.M., M.S., Prof. (Parasitolotist), Fla. Dept. Agriculture
D. J. Forrester, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Parasitologist)
E. C. Harland, D.V.M., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Veterinarian); liaison with Animal Sci.
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Pharmacologist); liaison with
Food Sci.; also Coll.
C. A. Holden, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Microbiology)
R. F. Jackson, D.V.M., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Veterinarian), Veterinary Practice
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Veterinarian); liaison with Dairy Sci.;
also Coll.
J. T. Neilson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Parasitologist)
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Prof. (Pathologist); liaison with Poultry Sci.;
also Coll.











W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Microbiologist), Fort
Lauderdale
F. H. White, Ph.D., Prof. (Bacteriologist); liaison with Dairy Sci.; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Department of Animal Science.)


BRANCH STATIONS

BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY, Rt. 3, Box 213 B, Monticello 32344
Phone 904, 997-2597

H. W. Young, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist) and Head
S. S. Fluker, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
W. J. French, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. T. Rease, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA


BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE RESEARCH STATION, Brooksville 33512
Phone 904, 796-3385

W. C. Burns, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Husbandman) and Head, USDA



CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771
Phone 305, 322-4134

J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist)
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
J. O. Strandberg, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


CITRUS STATION, P.O. BOX 1088, Lake Alfred 33850
Phone 813, 372-1151

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Head
L. G. Albrigo, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Professor (Chemist), DC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Prof. (Chemist), DC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Instructor (Assistant in Chemistry), DC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Mechanical Engineer), DC
R. J. Braddock, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist)
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist), DC
B. S. Buslig, M.S., Research Associate, DC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Prof. (Agicultural Engineer), DC
D. L. Deason, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemical Engineer), DC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist)
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Technologist), DC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. F. Fisher, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), DC
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Instructor (Assistant in Chemistry)
William Grierson, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist)
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist)
Pamela K. Hearon, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Librarian)
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist), DC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), DC
M.A-R. Ismail, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist), DC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Prof. (Chemist)
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Industrial Bacteriologist)
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist), DC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Instructor (Assistant in Chemistry), DC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Prof. (Chemist), DC










M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Prof. (Biochemist)
D. R. Petrus, M.S., Research Associate, DC
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
R. L. Reese, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Prof. (Chemist)
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist)
H. R. Sumner, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer), USDA
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Prof. (Nematologist)
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist), DC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Chemist)
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
J. O. Whiteside, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agricultural Engineer)
W. C. Wilson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), DC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Prof. (Chemist), DC


Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-4371, 464-6017

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Physicist), USDA


EVERGLADES STATION, P.O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430
Phone 305, 996-3062

D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Head
R. J. Allen Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
R. D. Berger, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer)
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Geneticist)
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agricultural Engineer)
G. J. Gascho, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Nutritionist)
W. G. Genung, M.S., Prof. (Entomologist)
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
B. W. Hayes, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)
M. J. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Physiologist)
F. M. Pate, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)
G. J. Raleigh, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist), Fla. Lettuce, Inc.
G. H. Snyder, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist)
B. G. Volk, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soils Chemist)
H. D. Wittemore, B.S.A.E., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
T. A. Zitter, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-6193

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Prof. (Entomologist)
J. B. Brolmann, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
R. M. Sonada, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Head
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant'Physiologist)


GULF COAST STATION, 5007 60th St. East, Bradenton 33505
Phone 813, 755-1568

W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
J. P. Crill, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
A. W. Engelhard, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)











F. J. Marousky, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist), USDA
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist)
S. L. Poe, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
J. C. Raulston, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)
G. J. Wilfret, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Geneticist)


South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33934
Phone 813, 657-2835

P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
C. H. Blazquez, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Phone 813, 752-7649

E. E. Albregts, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. M. Howard, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, P.O. Box 470, Quincy 32351
Phone 904, 627-9236

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Prof. (Agronomist) and Head
J. B. Aitken, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Prof. (Animal Husbandman)
R. D. Barnett, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
D. R. Davis, A.B., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
G. L. Greene, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
k. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
F. M. Rhoads, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist)
R. L. Stanley, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
N. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)


Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446
Phone 904, 594-3241

D. W. Gorbet, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)

PLANTATION FIELD LABORATORY, 3205 S.W. 70th Avenue, Fort Lauderdale 33314
Phone 305, 584-6992

B. L. James, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist) and Head
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist), USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
A. E. Dudeck, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)
J. A. Reinert, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
W. H. Speir, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Hydraulic Engineer), USDA
K. K. Steward, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA
D. L. Sutton, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Microbiologist)



POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY, Box 728, Hastings 32045
Phone 904, 692-1792

D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist) and Head
J. R. Shumaker, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist)
D. P. Weingartner, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)


RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona 33865
Phone 813, 735-3121

H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Head
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist)
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Animal Scientist Emeritus)
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
F. M. Peacock M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman)










RIDGE ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY,
Rt. #1, Box 980, State Rd. 437, Apopka 32703
Phone 305, 889-4161



J. F. Knauss, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
R. T. Poole, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof..(Assoc. Plant Physiologist)


SUP-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Homestead 33030
Phone 305, 247-4624

R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist)
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. T. McMillan Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist)
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
Y. W. Young, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)


SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060
Phone 904, 362-1725

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist) and Head
R. H. Houser, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)


WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY, Box 388, Leesburg 32748
Phone 904, 787-3423



J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
Carlos Balerdi, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Prof. (Entomologist)
G. W. Elmstrom, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
D. L. Hopkins, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist)


WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 682-4221

J. G. Georg, B. S. Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist) and Head, NWS
L. L. Benson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
G. R. Davis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
R. H. Dean, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
G. W. Leber, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
W. F. Mincey, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
O. N. Norman, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS
R. L. Wooten, (Meteorological Technician), NWS
H. E. Yates, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), NWS


WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215 & 994-7373

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist) and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Scientist)
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
R. A. Kinloch, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist)
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
R. L. Smith, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)










STAFF CHANGES


Appointments

Charles Everitt Powe, Research Associate, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 1, 1970
Howard Spencer Potter, Associate Professor (Associate Plant Pathologist), Gulf
Coast Station, Jan. 1, 1970
Jane Crane Harder, Int. Director English Language, Res. Administration, Jan. 1,
1970
David Woodrow Parvin, Int. Research Associate, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 1, 1970
James Edward Pollard, Research Associate, Fruit Crops, Jan. 1, 1970
Albert E. Dudeck, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist),
Plantation Lab., Jan. 1, 1970
Larry Dale White, Assistant Professor (Assistant Forester), Forestry Dept.,
Feb. 1, 1970
Roy Douglas Bond, Int. Research Associate, Soils Dept., Feb. 1, 1970
Clarence Vinton Plath, Int. Professor (Int. Ag. Economist), Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Mar. 1, 1970
James Passmate Barrett, Research Associate, Statistics, Mar. 1, 1970
Richard Hart Houser, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ani. Nutritionist), Suwannee
Valley Station, Mar. 16, 1970
Ronald David Barnett, Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), North Fla.
Station, April 1, 1970
David Lee Sutton, Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), Plantation Field
Lab., April 15, 1970
Ronald Wayne Ward, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ag. Economist), Ag. Econ.
Dept., April 15, 1970
David Alfred Roland, Sr., Assistant Professor (Assistant Poultry Scientist),
Poultry Sci., May 1, 1970
Mark Julian Bassett, Assistant Professor (Assistant Horticulturist), Vegetable
Crops, May 4, 1970
Timothy Stephen Hipp, Assistant Professor (Asst. Area Farm Management Specialist),
Ag. Econ. Dept., June 1, 1970
Ronald P. Muraro, Instructor (Int. Asst. in Ag. Econ.), Ag. Econ. Dept.,
June 8, 1970
Gene T. Harris, Instructor (Assistant in Ag. Econ.), Ag. Econ. Dept., June 16,
1970
Wayne William Hanna, Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), Agronomy Dept.,
June 16, 1970
Salvatore A. Alfieri, Associate Professor (Associate'Plant Pathologist), Plant
Pathology Dept., July 1, 1970
John A. Koburger, Assistant Professor (Assistant Food Microbiologist), Food
Sci. Dept., July 1, 1970
George Joseph Raleigh, Professor (Horticulturist), Everglades Station, July 1,
1970, Courtesy
Findlay M. Pate, Assistant Professor (Assistant Animal Nutritionist), Everglades
Station, July 1, 1970
Bryson Lemoine James, Professor (Orn. Hort.) and Head, Plantation Lab., July 1,
1970
James Lamar Nation, Associate Professor (Associate Entomologist), Ent. Dept.,
July 1, 1970
Edna T. Loehman, Assistant Professor (Int. Asst. Ag. Econ.), Ag. Econ. Dept.,
July 1, 1970
Lucian W. Zelazny, Assistant Professor (Assistant Soil Chemist), Soils Dept.,
July 1, 1970
James Lynn Overman, Associate in Entomology, Ent. Dept., July 1, 1970
Lewis Berner, Professor (Entomologist), Entomology Dept., July 1, 1970
James Edward Pollard, Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1970
Bob Garth Volk, Assistant Professor (Assistant Soils Chemist), Everglades Station
July 1, 1970
Robert James Braddock, Assistant Professor (Assistant Food Scientist), Citrus
Station, July 1, 1970
Edgar Alton Ott, Associate Professor (Associate Animal Nutritionist), Ani. Sci.
Dept., July 1, 1970
Vernon C. McKee, Director of Program Planning, Ag. Econ., July 1, 1970
William Cleve Christiansen, Associate Professor (Associate Ani. Nutritionist),
Ani. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1970
Frederick J. Prochaska, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ag. Economist), Ag. Econ.
Dept., July 1, 1970
Gene T. Harris, Instructor (Assistant in Ag. Econ.), Ag. Econ. Dept., July 16,
1970
Richard Hart Houser, Assistant Professor (Assistant Animal Nutritionist),
Suwannee Valley Station, Sept. 1, 1970
Carlton G. Davis, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ag. Economist), Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Sept. 1, 1970
Harold Ralph Sumner, Assistant Professor (Assistant Agricultural Engineer),
Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1970









William D. Bell, Assistant Professor (Assistant Plant Physiologist), Central
Florida, Sept. 1, 1970
Daniel Wayne Gorbet, Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), Marianna Unit,
Sept. 15, 1970
Janes A. Reinert, Assistant Professor (Assistant Entomologist), Plantation Lab.,
Oct. 1, 1970
Harold H. Van Horn, Professor and Chairman, Dairy Science, Oct. 15, 1970
Vimla Vasil, Associate in Plant Path., Agronomy Dept., Oct. 1, 1970
P. E. Vipperman, Jr., Assistant Professor, (Assistant Animal Nutritionist),
North Florida, Dec. 1, 1970
Robert D. Emerson, Assistant Professor (Assistant Ag. Econ.), Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Dec. 1, 1970



Promotions


R. T. Poole, Associate Professor (Associate Plant Physiologist), Feb. 13, 1970
M. R. Langham, Professor (Agr. Economist), Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1, 1970
C. B. Ammerman, Professor (Animal Nutritionist), Ani. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1970
W. N. Smith, Associate Professor (Associate Forester), Forestry, July 1, 1970
J. L. Fry, Professor (Poultry Products Technologist), Poultry Dept., July 1, 1970
T. A. Wheaton, Associate Professor (Associate Horticulturist), Citrus Station,
July 1, 1970
T. W. Casselman, Associate Professor (Associate Ag. Engineer), Everglades,
July 1, 1970
William Genung, Professor (Entomologist), Everglades, July 1, 1970
J. P. Jones, Professor (Plant Pathologist), Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1970
D. R. Hensel, Professor (Soil Chemist) and Head, Potato Lab., July 1, 1970
C. W. Campbell, Professor (Horticulturist), Sub-Tropical Station, July 1, 1970
R. B. Marlatt, Professor (Plant Pathologist), Sub-Tropical Station, July 1, 1970
W. E. Waters, Professor (Horticulturist) and Head, Gulf Coast Station,
Dec. 1, 1970


Resignations


Robert Henry Busch, Asst. Pathologist, Veterinary Sci. Dept., Jan. 13, 1970
Kenneth Harold Hart, Int. Assistant in Ag. Econ., Econ. Dept., Feb. 28, 1970
G. R. Hollis, Asst. Professor, Suwannee Valley Station, April 8, 1970
Ernest Ross, Visiting Professor, Poultry Sci., June 1, 1970
James Edward Pollard, Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., Aug. 31, 1970
W. M. Colwell, Asst. Professor, Veterinary Sci. Dept., Sept. 9, 1970
W. F. Edwards, Asst. Professor, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 30, 1970
R. B. Reneau, Jr., Assoc. Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., Sept. 30, 1970
W. M. Morton, Asst. Orn. Hort., Plantation Lab., Dec. 31, 1970


Transfers


C. R. Douglas, Asst. Poultry Scientist to Assoc. Poultryman for Extension
Service, Jan. 1, 1970
C. L. Greene, Asst. Entomologist, from Central Fla. to North Fla., July 1, 1970


Retirements

W. O. Johnson, Meteorologist and Head, Weather Forecasting Service, July 2, 1970
E. L. Fouts, Dairy Technologist, Dairy Dept., Aug. 31, 1970
Ralph W. Lipscomb, Associate Agronomist, Marianna Unit, Sept. 30, 1970
Seton N. Edson, Assoc. Professor of Soils, Soils Dept., Aug. 31, 1970

Deaths

Lyle W. Weldon, Associate Agonomist, Plantation Lab., Feb. 1, 1970
Rudolph Hendrickson, Associate Chemist, Citrus Station, Sept. 30, 1970


Retirements Prior to 1970
(Continued on Emeritus Status)

Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech and Nutr., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958










P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
J. Francis Cooper, Editor And Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Science Dept., 1963
Arther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Potato Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30, 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head of Dept., Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30, 1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Assoc. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station,
June 30, 1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon & Grape Lab., June 30,
1965
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Fla. Station, June 30, 1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 30, 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Associate Entomologist, Ent. Dept., June 30, 1966
Russell Willis Wallace, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, Sept. 30,
1966
William Conway Price, Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Dec. 31, 1966
Frederick Burean Smith, Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., June 30, 1967
Rowland Barnes French, Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967
Benjamin Franklin Whitner, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Central Fla. Station
June, 30, 1967
John Runyon Large, Associate Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., June 30, 1967
Leonard Erwin Swanson, Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1967
Joseph Riley Beckenbach, Director, Ag. Exp. Station, Nov. 30, 1967
Ernest Leavitt Spencer, Soils Chemist and Head, Gulf Coast Station, May 31, 1968
Ralph Wyman Kidder, Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, June 30, 1968
William Thomas Forsee, Jr., Chemist and Head, Everglades Station, June 30, 1968
Dorsey Addren Sanders, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 30, 1968
William Gordon Kirk, Animal Scientist, Range Cattle Station, June 30, 1968
Ruth O. Townsend, Assistant in Nutrition, Food Sci. Dept., Feb. 28, 1969
Henry Clayton Harris, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., June 30, 1969
Eugene G. Kelsheimer, Entomologist, Gulf Coast Station, June 30, 1969









REPORT OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH

Research is one of the major divisions of the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. Working closely with the extension and resident
instruction division, the agricultural research program is an extensive
statewide responsibility that no other University has in Florida. Not only
does the program perform large programs of research in the production, pro-
cessing, and distribution of farm and forest products, but also has a respon-
sibility in the graduate research programs on and off the campus, and in co-
operation with the extension division extends the new research knowledge and
information to all segments of the industry and society.
Within the IFAS research program there are 19 departments at the University
of Florida in Gainesville and 21 branch stations located throughout the state.
The many locations make possible research on different soils, under varying
climatic conditions, and on many commodities such as citrus, vegetables field
crops, pastures, livestock, ornamentals, tropical fruits, forests, and others.
While production research receives the most attention, much time also is devoted
to research in processing, handling, marketing, utilization, engineering, and
economics, including basic research in all disciplines.
Two highlights for 1970 may be mentioned here. One was a major effort in
terms of limited support to establish a new horse research unit located seven
miles north of Ocala. Land has been obtained, cleared and fenced, and a care-
taker's home constructed. Some staff and faculty are continuing developmental
work, and research planning is in process. An outstanding research center is
anticipated when additional funds for facilities are released.
Also during the year a major effort was made in a University-wide self
study. This was an extensive effort by many people who examined critically
the present and future programs for the next decade. Much valuable information
and useful guidelines were developed to chart our research course for the years
ahead.
The entire research program of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
is planned and conducted by use of formal written and approved projects which
document all research. This system provides a great deal of flexibility, which
is highly desirable in a research program. This provides the opportunities needed
to work on new problems as they occur. The research program is primarily a mis-
sion-oriented effort aimed at solving the problems of agriculture. As problems
arise, new projects are initiated. When problems are solved, projects are termi-
nated. Some are revised periodically and continue as long as there is a need.
At the present time there is a continuing trend toward greater team effort than
in the past. Problems are more difficult and require the interdisciplinary
approach for best results. As new problems arise and new projects are planned,
they are carefully screened and reviewed before activation. Maximum coordination
now is achieved by close working relations within the entire system of main sta-
tion departments and numerous branch stations located throughout the state.
During the year a serious effort was made to shift some resources from pro-
duction research to environmental improvement and to human resource development.
Agricultural research must be especially concerned about use of natural resources
and connecting and improving of all areas where agriculture is contributing to
environmental pollution.
The current research is reported to the public in many ways, primarily
through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much research
is reported at conferences, and meetings. Within the organization many field
days, short courses, and conferences are held, to which the public is invited.
These are held throughout the year at various departments, branch stations,
and field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.
We trust you will find this report informative and useful.



John W. Sites
Dean for Research










CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

As of December 1970, the following major buildings were either complete or
under contract:

Everglades Experiment Station
Belle Glade Equipment and storage building Complete

Horse Research Center
Lowell Residence 15%




THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

1970

Agricultural Economics Department

John Lewis Bieber. "Diversification Opportunities and Effects of Alternative
Policies on Costa Rican Coffee Farms." Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1970.
W. W. McPherson, Chairman.

David Woodrow Parvin, Jr. "Effects of Weather on Orange Supplies." Ph.D.
Dissertation. June, 1970. M. R. Langham, Chairman.

Hans Patrick Peterson. "Effects of Resource Reallocation on Crop Income from
Medium Size Farms in Jamaica." M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1970. W. W. McPherson,
Chairman.

Harry Gene Witt. "Broilers, Dairy Cattle, Fed Beef Cattle, Layers and Swine:
Differences Between Actual Production with an 'Optimum' Economic Utilization of
Feed in Eleven Regions of the United States, 1965." Ph.D. Dissertation. June,
1970. W. K. McPherson, Chairman.


Agronomy Department

Richard Marion Browning. "Investigations of the Effects of DDT on Hordeum
vulgare L." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. S. H. West, Chairman.

John William Carmichael. "Microsporogenesis, Megasporogenesis, and Embryo Sac
Development at Five Ploidy Levels in Digitaria." Ph.D. Dissertation. December,
1970. S. C. Schank, Chairman.

Vernon Edward Gracen, Jr. "Physiological and Ultrastructural Studies of Oat
Membranes Treated with Helminthosporium victoriac Toxin." Ph.D. Dissertation.
March, 1970. S. H. West, Chairman.

Hipolito A. A. Mascarenhas. "The Growth and Mineral Content of Soybeans (Glycine
max (L.) Merrill) as Influenced by Soil pH, Zinc, Magnesium, and Other Elements."
M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. K. Hinson, Chairman.

Arthur Joseph Myles. "The Effect of Level of Feeding Upon the Nutritive
Evaluation of Pangolagrass Hay In Vivo." M.S.A. Thesis. December 1970. G. O.
Mott, Chairman.

Gary Eugene Pepper. "The Response of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench)
to Shading at Different Stages of Growth." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. G. M.
Prine, Chairman.

Leonard Reid. "Effects of Two Herbicides and Five Dates of Planting on
Germination and Establishment of Cool Season Grasses Overseeded on 'Tifdwarf'
Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.)." M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970. O. C. Ruelke,
Chairman.


Animal Science Department

Leone Edgard Caielli. "The Use of In Vitro Residual Cellulose to Estimate Forage
Intake with Sheep." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. R. L. Shirley, Chairman.

Mao Chiang Chen. "Nutritional Evaluation of Citrus Molasses Distillers Solubles
for Ruminants." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. C. B. Ammerman, Chairman.

Dianne Sue Dickens. "Reproductive Phenomena in Mice Selected for Body Weight on
Two Planes of Nutrition." M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970. M. Koger, Chairman.










CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

As of December 1970, the following major buildings were either complete or
under contract:

Everglades Experiment Station
Belle Glade Equipment and storage building Complete

Horse Research Center
Lowell Residence 15%




THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

1970

Agricultural Economics Department

John Lewis Bieber. "Diversification Opportunities and Effects of Alternative
Policies on Costa Rican Coffee Farms." Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1970.
W. W. McPherson, Chairman.

David Woodrow Parvin, Jr. "Effects of Weather on Orange Supplies." Ph.D.
Dissertation. June, 1970. M. R. Langham, Chairman.

Hans Patrick Peterson. "Effects of Resource Reallocation on Crop Income from
Medium Size Farms in Jamaica." M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1970. W. W. McPherson,
Chairman.

Harry Gene Witt. "Broilers, Dairy Cattle, Fed Beef Cattle, Layers and Swine:
Differences Between Actual Production with an 'Optimum' Economic Utilization of
Feed in Eleven Regions of the United States, 1965." Ph.D. Dissertation. June,
1970. W. K. McPherson, Chairman.


Agronomy Department

Richard Marion Browning. "Investigations of the Effects of DDT on Hordeum
vulgare L." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. S. H. West, Chairman.

John William Carmichael. "Microsporogenesis, Megasporogenesis, and Embryo Sac
Development at Five Ploidy Levels in Digitaria." Ph.D. Dissertation. December,
1970. S. C. Schank, Chairman.

Vernon Edward Gracen, Jr. "Physiological and Ultrastructural Studies of Oat
Membranes Treated with Helminthosporium victoriac Toxin." Ph.D. Dissertation.
March, 1970. S. H. West, Chairman.

Hipolito A. A. Mascarenhas. "The Growth and Mineral Content of Soybeans (Glycine
max (L.) Merrill) as Influenced by Soil pH, Zinc, Magnesium, and Other Elements."
M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. K. Hinson, Chairman.

Arthur Joseph Myles. "The Effect of Level of Feeding Upon the Nutritive
Evaluation of Pangolagrass Hay In Vivo." M.S.A. Thesis. December 1970. G. O.
Mott, Chairman.

Gary Eugene Pepper. "The Response of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench)
to Shading at Different Stages of Growth." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. G. M.
Prine, Chairman.

Leonard Reid. "Effects of Two Herbicides and Five Dates of Planting on
Germination and Establishment of Cool Season Grasses Overseeded on 'Tifdwarf'
Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.)." M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970. O. C. Ruelke,
Chairman.


Animal Science Department

Leone Edgard Caielli. "The Use of In Vitro Residual Cellulose to Estimate Forage
Intake with Sheep." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. R. L. Shirley, Chairman.

Mao Chiang Chen. "Nutritional Evaluation of Citrus Molasses Distillers Solubles
for Ruminants." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. C. B. Ammerman, Chairman.

Dianne Sue Dickens. "Reproductive Phenomena in Mice Selected for Body Weight on
Two Planes of Nutrition." M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970. M. Koger, Chairman.










George Marvin Herrick. "Factors Involved in the Measurement and Utilization of
Xanthophylls in Broilers." Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1970. J. L. Fry,
Chairman.

Richard Hart Houser. "Physiological Effects of Supplemental Nitrogen and Energy
in Sheep Fed Low-Quality Roughage." Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1970. J. E.
Moore, Chairman.

Alan Robert Lewis. "Dietary Calcium and Phosphorus Requirements of Gerbils."
M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970. L. R. Arrington, Chairman.

Ernest William Lucas. "The Effect of Diethylstilbestrol and Methyltestosterone
on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Nitrogen Retention of Growing Swine."
Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. H. D. Wallace, Chairman.

Rollin Harris McNutt. "Three Month vs. Year-Round Breeding Season with Brahman
and Santa Gertrudis Cattle." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. A. C. Warnick,
Chairman.

John Wilburn Merkley. "Dietary Factors Affecting Blood Spot Incidence and
Changes in the Vascular Systems of the Hen." Ph.D. Dissertation. December,
1970. Jack L. Fry, Chairman.

Dennis Robert Morrison. "Cellular Mechanism of Beta Radiation Inhibition of
Corneal Wound Healing." Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1970. G. K. Davis, Chairman.

Belursrirangachar Keshava Murthy. "Newcastle Disease Virus Inhibition by 2-
Thiouracil." Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1970. P. T. Cardeilhac, Chairman.

Jorge Roman. "Genetics of Milk Production in Ecuador." Ph.D. Dissertation.
August, 1970. C. J. Wilcox, Chairman.

Juan Jose Salazar. "Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Performance of
Three Holstein Herds in Colombia." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. M. Koger,
Chairman.

Shivaram Narayan Shetty. "Liver Microsomal Enzyme Induction in Sheep." Ph.D.
Dissertation. March, 1970. G. T. Edds, Chairman.

Richard Herbert Smith. "Bull Mating Behavior in the Tropics." M.S.A. Thesis.
June, 1970. A. C. Warnick, Chairman.

James Francis Standish. "Effect of Level and Source of Dietary Iron on Growth
and Tissue Composition of Ruminants and Swine." Ph.D. Dissertation. March,
1970. C. B. Ammerman, Chairman.

Omar Gerardo Verde. "Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Production
in Florida DHIA Cattle." Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1970. C. J. Wilcox,
Chairman.

Anthony Francis Walsh. "Experimentally Induced Vibrio fetus Var. Venerealis
Infection in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus L.)" Ph.D. Dissertation. August,
1970. F. H. White, Chairman.

Larry Thomas Watson. "Manganese Utilization by Ruminants and Poultry." Ph.D.
Dissertation. December, 1970. C. B. Ammerman, Chairman.

Roger Lawrence West. ."Porcine Muscle Quality as Influenced by Intramuscular
Injections of Vitamin E During Growth and Finishing." M.S.A. Thesis. December,
1970. A. Z. Palmer, Chairman.


Botany Department

Robert Converse Hare. "Physiology and Biochemistry of Pine Resistance to the
Fusiform Rust Fungus, Cronartium fusiform." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970.
R. G. Stanley, Chairman.

Beverly Sue Hoodless. "Effect of Water Stress on Rubidium Uptake by Excised
Corn Roots." M.S. Thesis. August, 1970. R. C. Smith, Chairman.

Robert Lee Knauft. "An Ultrastructural Investigation of Symbiotic Seedling
Development in Epidendrum conopseum." M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. H. C. Aldrich,
Chairman.

Julia Barth Reiskind. "The Role of Translation in the Hormonal Induction of
Sexual Morphogenesis in Achlya." M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. J. T. Mullins,
Chairman.










Fredric Paul Riech. "Assimilation, Production and Evolution of Internal Carbon
Dioxide in Pine Shoots." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. R. G. Stanley,
Chairman.

Samuel Curry Snedaker. "Ecological Studies on Tropical Moist Forest Succession
in Eastern Lowland Guatemala." Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1970. H. L.
Popenoe, Chairman.


Dairy Science Department

James Eric Palmer. "Genetic Trends in Milk Production in the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd." M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1970.
C. J. Wilcox, Chairman.

Sharad Vishnupandit Pilkhano. "Chemical Changes of Cultured Buttermilk and
Yoghurt During Fermentation and.Storage." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970.
K. L. Smith, Chairman.


Entomology and Nematology Department

John Francis Carroll. "Role of Ants as Predators of the Sugarcane Borer,
Diatraea saccharalis." M.S. Thesis. December, 1970. W. H. Whitcomb, Chairman.

Brian Anthony Federici. "The.Cytopathology of a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus in
Aedes triseriatus (Say)." Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1970. F. S. Blanton,
Chairman.

Norman Ivan Greer. "The Effects of Ciodrin Insecticide on Blood Cholinesterase
when Applied to Cattle for Control of the Horn Fly Haematobia irritans
(Linnaeus)." M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. M. Murphey, Chairman.

Donald William Hall. "The Pathobiology of a Mosquito Virus in Aedes
taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann)." Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1970. F. S. Blanton,
Chairman.


Robert Tso-Ho Ing. "The Reduviida (Insecta Hemiptera) of Alachua County,
Florida." M.S. Thesis. August, 1970. L. A. Hetrick, Chairman.

Lloyd Jackson Lee. "Toxicity of Certain Chemosterilants to the Late Aquatic
Stages of Culex nigripalpus Theobald." M.S. Thesis. December, 1970. W. W.
Smith, Chairman.

Danny Richard Minnick. "Behavioral and Toxicological Studies of a Drywood
Termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) Kalotermitidae: Isoptera)." Ph.D.
Dissertation. August, 1970. R. C. Wilkinson, Chairman.

James Lynn Overman. "Relationship of Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L.) to Two
Related Species of Pyralidae: Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Zeadiatraea
lineolata (Wlk)." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. D. A. Habeck, Chairman.

William Craig Stevens. "Nutritional Studies Including Quantitative Mineral
Requirements of the Almond Moth, Cadra Cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1970. R. E. Waites, Chairman.


Food Science Department

Arlene Prince Weinsier. "The Effect of Thermal Processing on the Availability
of Amino Acids from Soybeans." M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1970. R. C. Robbins,
Chairman.

Lawrence Chou-Tsen Wu. "Lipid-Protein Films for Human Consumption." M.S.A.
Thesis. December, 1970,. R. P. Bates, Chairman.


Forestry Department

David Eugene LaHart. "The Ecology and Population Parameters of the Florida
Duck, Anas platyrhynchos fulvigula, Ridgway." M.S.F. Thesis. June, 1970. G. W.
Cornwell, Chairman.

James Earl Miller. "Nesting Sites Selected by Bobwhite Quail in South Florida
Flatwoods." M.S.F. Thesis. March, 1970. S. L. Beckwith, Chairman.











Mohamed Abdel-Rahman. "Modification of Flowering, Sex Expression, and Fruiting
of Selected Cucurbits by Growth-Regulating Chemicals." Ph.D. Dissertation.
August, 1970. B. D. Thompson, Chairman.

Allen Edward Snart. "The Effects of Heat on Mallard Embryos." M.S.F. Thesis.
June, 1970. G. W. Cornwell, Chairman.


Fruit Crops Department

Fouad Mohamed Basiouny. "Absorption and Translocation of Iron in Citrus." Ph.D.
Dissertation. December, 1970. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

Howard Donovan Brown. "Hand Pollination Tests and Field'Evaluation of
Pollinators for Citrus." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. A. H. Krezdorn, Chairman.

Bela Stephen Buslig.. "Biochemical Basis of Acidity of Citrus Fruit." Ph.D.
Dissertation. December, 1970. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

Terry Warren Edwards. "The Morphology of Fruit Development in Blueberry[Clones."
M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. W. B. Sherman, Chairman.

James William Gooding, III. "Effects of Fertilization on Crown, Stem, and Wood
Properties of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii Var. Elliottii Engelm.)." M.S.F.
Thesis. August, 1970. W. H. Smith, Chairman.

Alfred Brooks Humphrys. "Thinning of 'Flordasun' Peach (Prunus persica) with
Ethrel." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. D. W. Buchanan, Chairman.

Clayton Elbert Hutcheson. "Leaf Freezing Points and Cold Hardiness of Citrus."
M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. W. J. Wiltbank, Chairman.


Microbiology Department

Peter John Shuba. "Growth of Methanogenic Bacteria in Pure and Mixed Cultures."
M.S. Thesis. August, 1970. P. H. Smith, Chairman.

Janice Marie Felesky Ward. "The Microbial Ecology of Estuarine Methanogenesis."
M.S. Thesis. December, 1970. P. H. Smith, Chairman.


Ornamental Horticulture Department

Stanley Gail Dean. "Effects of Four Southern Turfgrasses on Establishing Woody
Ornamentals with Three Degrees of Competition." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970.
J. N. Joiner, Chairman.

Robert Norman Jones. "Effects of Three Levels each of Iron, Manganese andlZinc
on Growth and Chemical Content of Chrysanthemum mofifolium 'No. 3 Indianapolis
White'." M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1970. J. N. Joiner, Chairman.


Plant Pathology Department

Michael Joseph Foxe. "Susceptibility of Greenhouse-Grown Slash Pine Seedlings
to Cronartium fusiforme Hedge. & Hunt ex Cumm. as Affected by N, P, K, and
Inoculation Technique." M.S. Thesis. August, 1970. R. A. Schmidt, Chairman.


Poultry Science Department

Thomas Lewis Andrews. "Influence of Diet Composition on Availability of
Phosphorus to the Chick." M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. R. H. Harms, Chairman.


Soils Department

Patrick Gatch Hunt. "Effects of Composted Municipal Refuse on Plant Seed
Germination and Soil Organisms." Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1970. C. F. Eno,
Chairman.

SJalil Pourzadeh-Boushehri. "A Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Study of
Selected Soils from West Florida." M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1970. R. E. Caldwell,
Chairman.










Graham Shannon Smith, Jr. "Effects of Aerification Frequencies and Nitrogen
Sources on Tifdwarf Putting Greens." Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1970. G. M.
Volk, Chairman.


Vegetable Crops Department

Craig Harrison Lampe. "Response of Tomato Fruits to Certain Growth Regulators
with Emphasis on Pectolytic Enzymes, Cellulase and Ethylene." Ph.D. Dissertation
December, 1970. C. B. Hall, Chairman.

Alfredo Montes. "Physiological Responses of Tomato Fruits 'Lycopersicon
esculentum' Mill., Subjected to Chilling Temperatures." Ph.D. Dissertation.
December, 1970. B. D. Thompson, Chairman.

Adriano Ariola Navarro. "Effect of Population Density, Row Arrangement and
Fertilizer Rate on the Growth and Single-Harvest Yield of Fresh-Market
Tomatoes." M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1970. S. J. Locascio, Chairman.

Horace Arthur Smith, Jr. "Effects of Several Harvesting Methods on the
Subsequent Dry Matter Content and Storage Quality of Onions (Allium cepa L.)."
M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1970. V. F. Nettles, Chairman.

William James Southam. "The Effects of Certain Growth Regulating Chemicals on
the Maturity of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)." Ph.D. Dissertation.
August, 1970. V. F. Nettles, Chairman.

Jimmy Edward Wyatt. "Cytological Investigation of Developmental Progress toward
Diploidization in Late Generation Amphidiploids from the Cross Phaseolus Lunatus
L. x P. polystachyus (L.) B.S.P." Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1970. A. P.
Lorz, Chairman.


Veterinary Science Department

Michael Earle Goodrich. "The Effect of 2-Thiouridylic Acid on the Activity of
Aspartate Transcarbamylase." M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. P. T. Cardeilhac,
Chairman.

Tirath Singh Sandhu. "Evaluation of Serological Methods for the Detection of
Leptospira pomona and Leptospira canicola Antibodies in Bovine Serum." M.S.
Thesis. June, 1970. F. H. White, Chairman

Edward Charles Schroeder. "Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Cats, Rats, Pigs, and
Chicks." M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. P. T. Cardeilhac, Chairman.

Michael Lee Warren. "Cryobiological Studies of Dog Semen." M.S. Thesis. March
1970. Fred C. Neal, Chairman.

David Joseph Weiner. "The Hemogram and Certain Serum Protein Fractions of
Beagle Dogs Before and After Experimental Infection with Dirofilaria immitis."
M.S. Thesis. June, 1970. R. E. Bradley, Chairman.










INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS


All activities which build or strengthen the international dimension of
IFAS are administered by the office of International Programs. Major activities
include administration of contract and grant technical assistance, training of
foreign nationals, and supporting research in tropical agriculture.
The Center for Tropical Agriculture, as a major component of the office of
International Programs, helps carry out policy and coordination within
IFAS of tropically oriented research and service projects. It provides research
and travel grants to faculty and graduate students, assists academic departments
in curricula development, supports development of library and laboratory
facilities, and publishes and disseminates results of tropical research,
International Programs serves as a liaison office for IFAS with the State
Department of Agriculture and Florida agribusiness in carrying out international
activities that complement State programs. Projects administered by
International Programs develop technology applicable to Florida, attract
agriculturally oriented industry to the State, open agribusiness investment
opportunities for Florida private enterprise, and expand markets for Florida's
goods and services.
IFAS is increasingly being called on to advise in the production, marketing,
and processing of agricultural products in the tropics. Participation in
international research programs strengthens expertise in these areas. In
solving many of the problems it is beneficial to use an interdepartmental
approach. For example, in carrying out research on tropical and subtropical
livestock production and pasture improvement under a Ford Foundation Grant,
scientists from the Departments of Animal Science, Agronomy, Agricultural
Economics, Soils, and Veterinary Medicine are cooperating. It is anticipated
that much of the tropical research in the future will require a multidisciplinary
systems approach. IFAS, through its office of International Programs, is
well prepared to accept this challenge.
Research and training was conducted under nine contracts and one grant
during 1970. Staff from almost all units of the Institute participated in some
phase of these activities.
Three contracts were with the Agency for International Development and
involved technical assistance for educational institution building in Costa
Rica, El Salvador, and Vietnam. A research project, funded by the Office of the
War on Hunger, was continued to develop feed composition tables for South and
Central America. This project is complementary to the Ford Foundation grant.
Additional Projects included a small contract with the Central Bank of
Nicaragua for technical assistance on tropical crops and beef cattle production,
a curriculum development contract with the Jamaica School of Agriculture,: funded
under a loan from the World Bank, and assistance for an agricultural sector
study of Ghana as part of a consortium of private firms and public institutions
under the auspices of the Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. of Washington, D. C.
Technical assistance to upgrade the agricultural production of Guyana and'to
assist in the establishment of a research facility at the Ebini Livestock!
Station in that country was continued under an AID grant.
These international research and service programs supplement and reinforce
State programs. Florida agriculture derives many direct benefits. For example,
IFAS scientists are screening Digitaria crosses from the Florida grass breeding
program for pangola stunt-virus resistance. This dangerous disease already
has completely destroyed pangola grass in two South American countries. While
it is not yet in Florida, the State's livestock industry is in jeopardy until
scientists can develop a stunt-virus resistant grass. A very practical way to
do this is to test breeding lines in the area where the virus exists. IFAS is
doing this in Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. Already, Florida scientists have
lines which show stunt-virus resistance. Other crop varieties are also being
tested in similar fashion.
Most of the grasses and legumes used for pasture and forage in the tropical
and subtropical areas of the United States, including Florida, Puerto Rico, and
Hawaii, originated in tropical Africa, Latin America, and the Far East. There
remains in these areas a vast pool of unexploited varieties and strains of|
forage species which may be useful in future forage-livestock production systems.
U. S. agriculture stands to gain as much or more than the developing countries
from a comprehensive evaluation scheme that would include collections for these
unexplored regions.
About 80% of the state's feeder cattle are shipped out of Florida for
finishing because energy and protein feeds are not available. Development of
tropical crops as feed for livestock would greatly enhance the efficiency of the
industry in this region. Future programs in these areas could have great impact
on agricultural income in the State of Florida.











PROJECT A02: COSTA RICA (AID/la-261)

Source of Funds: U. S. Agency for International Development

Objectives: To provide the services of technical personnel in advisory
assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture, the National Planning Office, the
University of Costa Rica, the Institute of Lands and Colonization, the National
Production Council, the Export-Investment Promotion Center and the USAID Mission
to Costa Rica for the primary purpose of assisting Costa Rica to achieve the
basic objectives of the agricultural portion of the National Economic Development
Plan.

Personnel:

Kretschmer, A. E. Jr. Chief of Party and Agronomist
Muller, A. S. Agricultural Education Specialist

Publications:

Kretschmer, A. E., Jr., "Use of Tropical Legumes for Pasture Improvement,"
August, 1970.
Muller, A. S., "End of Contract Report on Agricultural Education," March 31, 1970
Contract AID/la-261, "Final Report," August, 1970.


PROJECT A38: COSTA RICA

Source of Funds: Agency for International Development


Objectives: To provide technical advice and assistance to the Government of
Costa Rica in implementation of an Agricultural Technical School, establishment
of a Food Technology Laboratory, and on short-term consulting basis as may be
agreed upon.

Personnel:

Muller, A. S. Chief of Party and Education Specialist
Bates, R. P. Food Scientist
Eastwood, R. A. Agricultural Economist

Publications: None


PROJECT A33: EL SALVADOR (AID/la-586)

Source of Funds: U.S. Agency for International Development

Objectives: To render technical advice and assistance to the Government of
El Salvador for the purpose of improving the quality of graduates of the
National School of Agriculture and to assist the school in its eventual
integration into CENTA--envisioned as a coordinated National Center for Teaching,
Research and Extension in Agriculture.

Personnel:

Peirce, H. E. Chief of Party and Education Specialist
Malo, S. E. Horticulturist
Perry, V. G. Nematologist
Smith, Rex L. Agronomist
Harms, R. H. Poultry Scientist
Wing, J. M. Dairy Scientist
McCaleb, J. E. Agronomist
Prine, G. M. Agronomist
Smith, Ralph L. Agronomist
Kuitert, L. C. Entomologist
Miller, C. R. Plant Pathologist
Rogers, C. J. Agricultural Engineer
Allison, R. V. Fiber Technology Emeritus

Publications:

Allison, Robert V., "The Future Place of the Bast of Soft Fiber Plants, Ramie
and Kenaf, in the Agricultural and Industrial Economy of El Salvador,"
June, 1970.
Harms, Robert H., "El Salvador Recommendations to Upgrade the Teaching and
Practices of Poultry Production at the 'National School of Agriculture'
with some Observations on the Country's Present Poultry Production,"
June, 1970.











Malo, S. E., "El Salvador Recommendations to Upgrade the Teaching and Field
Practices of Tropical Fruit Horticulture at the National School of
Agriculture, with Brief Observations on the Country's Present Fruit
Production, Its Needs and Possibilities," March 1970.
McCaleb, J. E., "Temporary duty as Consultant on Forages and Pastures to
Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, El Salvador," September 1970.
Perry, V. G., and Miller, C. R., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Plant
Pathology & Nematology)," October 1970.
Prine, G. M., "AID Project Consultant's report (Corn and Sorghum),"
November 1970.
Rogers, C. J., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Agricultural Engineering),"
September 1970.
Smith, Ralph L., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Soybean and Weed Control),"
November 1970.
Smith, Rex L., "Report of Visit and Genetics Course Outline for the National
School of Agriculture," July 1970.
Wing, J. M., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Dairy Science) June 1970.
Wing, J. M., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Dairy Science)," September 1970.
Peirce, H. E., "Semi-annual Report," March 1970.
Peirce, H. E., "Semi-annual Report," August 1970.
Perry, V. G., "AID Project Consultant's Report (Nematology)," April 1970.


PROJECT A31: FEED COMPOSITION STUDY

Source of Funds: U.S. Agency for International Development

Objectives: To find low cost feeds--(1) survey of existing data and analysis
of feeds, fodder and agricultural by-products; (2) analysis of other available
feeds; and (3) development of a cattle feeding trials and development systems
using indigenous feeds that fill in the gaps of existing research.

Personnel:
Christiansen, W. Project Leader; Animal Scientist
Mexico, Brazil, Paraguay
Glenn, J. C. Tropical Livestock Project Leader
Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia
Moore, J. E. Puerto Rico, Trinidad
Shirley, R. L. Guatemala, Jamaica
Koger, M. Guyana

Publications:

Christiansen, W. C., "Latin American Feed Composition Project" progress Report,
December 1970.
McPherson, W. W., "Summary of National Policies and Programs Affecting Beef!
Production in Tropical Areas of Latin America", September 1970.
Glenn, J. C., "The Interrelationship of the Varied Programs in Tropical
Livestock Production," November 1970.
Harris, L. E. Ed., "Compilation of Data to Prepare Feed Composition Tables
for the Latin American Tropics," 1970.


PROJECT A27: GHANA (RRNA)

Source of Funds: Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.

Objectives: To provide a professional effort to Robert R. Nathan Associates
in conducting an agricultural sector study in Ghana, including practical planning
of future projects leading to import reduction and export expansion and to I
establish priorities for these projects in conjunction with the other areas of
the economy.

Personnel:

Ross, J. E. Chief of Party and Agricultural
Economist
Edson, S. N. Soils Specialist

Publications:

Edson, S. N., "Managing Ghana's Tropical Soils," March 1970.
Edson, S. N., "Soil Capability Report and Map of Ghana Based on Great Soil
Groups," March 1970.
Edson, S. N., "Report on Maize Production in Ghana," March 1970.
Edson, S. N., "Report on Rice Production in Ghana," March 1970.











Ross, J. E., "Ghana Sector Studies: Processing Selected Agricultural Products,"
March 1970.
Ross, J. E., "Ghana Sector Studies: Grain Marketing, Transport and Storage,"
March 1970.

PROJECT A23: GUYANA (GOG)

Source of funds: AID grant to Government of Guyana

Objectives: To provide technical assistance to the Government of Guyana in
its efforts to diversify and develop its agricultural economy.


Personnel:

Mott, G. O.
Koger, M.
Schank, S. C.
Ammerman, C. B.
Whitty, E. B.
Franke, D. E.
Glenn, J. C.
Prine, G. M.
Norden, A. J.
McCloud, D. E.
Sites, J. W.
Marlowe, G. A.
Lorz, A. P.
Gull, D. D.
Geraldson, C. M.
Greenman. J. R.
Shaw, L. N.
Eddleman, B. R.
Hinson, K. (USDA)
Bashaw, E. C.

Publications:


Ebini Livestock Project Leader
Ebini Station Research
Crops Research
Ebini Station Research
Ebini Station Research
Ebini Station Research
Ebini Station Research
Sorghum and Crop Research at Ebini
Peanut Research
Crop Research at Ebini
Administrative Visit
Vegetable Crops Research
Vegetable Crops Research
Vegetable Crops Research
Fertilizer Survey
Fertilizer Survey
Fertilizer Survey
Agricultural Economist
Crop Research at Ebini
Consultant on Grasses and Legumes


Grigsby, Shaw E., "Agricultural Extensibn Training in Guyana, December 1969.
Geraldson, C. M., Greenman, J. R., and Shaw, L. N., "Fertilizer Use and
Distribution in Guyana," October 1970.
Mott, G. O., "Ebini Livestock Research Station-Annual Report 1970"


PROJECT A16: JAMAICA (JSA)

Source of Funds: World Bank
Objectives: To assist the Jamaica School of Agriculture in the expansion and
improvement of its present program by supplying technical assistance as may be
agreed upon.

Personnel:

Farnworth, E. G. Entomologist (Teaching)
Arrington, L. R. Animal Scientist
Nettles, V. F. Vegetable Crops Specialist
Kuitert, L. C. Entomologist
Calvert, D. V. Soil Scientist
Carlisle, V. W. Soil Scientist
Himes, J. A. Veterinary Scientist
Green, V. E., Jr. Agronomist
McPherson, W. K. Agricultural Economist
Boyd, F. T. Agronomist

Publications:
Arrington, L. R., "Report to Jamaica School of Agriculture Regarding Animal
Nutrition Courses" February 1970.
Nettles, V. F., "Course Outline in Vegetable Production," April 1970.
Boyd, F. T. and Green, V. E., Jr., "Lecture Outlines for the Field and Forages
Crops Course," December 1970.
Carlisle, V. W. and Calvert, D. V., "Lecture and Laboratory Outline for the
Soil and Water Management Course," (Final Report), December 1970.
"Progress Report Jamaica School of Agriculture," December 31, 1970.
Himes, J. A., "Course Outline in Animal Reproduction and Breeding," July 1970.


PROJECT A24: NICARAGUA (CB)

Source of Funds: Central Bank of Nicaragua










Objectives: To provide technical advice and assistance to the Central Bank of
Nicaragua in the improvement and/or development of tropical fruits,
investigations on tropical beef cattle, and such additional areas as may be
agreed upon.

Personnel:

McCaleb, J. R. Tropical Livestock Production
Chapman, D. L. Tropical Livestock Production
Glenn, J. C. Tropical Livestock Production
Christiansen, W. C. Tropical Livestock Production
Publications:

Glenn, J. C., McCaleb, J. R., and Christiansen, W. C., "Feasibility of Beef
Cattle Production in the Rio San Juan Area of Nicaragua," November 1970.


PROJECT A18: VIETNAM (AID/vn-24)

Source of funds: U.S. Agency for International Development

Objectives:. To provide technical advice and assistance to the National
Agricultural Center to strengthen the Center and to insure basic economic and
rural development in Vietnam.

Personnel:

Carpenter, J. W. Acting Chief of Party and Animal Scientist
Llewellyn, W. R. Soils and Horticulture Specialist
Marvel, M. Chief of Party and Vegetable Crops
Specialist
Roberts, E. G. Forestry Specialist

Publications:

Carpenter, J. W., "Semi-Annual Report (2nd)," February 1970.
Carpenter, J. W., "Semi-Annual Report (3rd)," August 1970.


PROJECT A22: TROPICAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Source of Funds: Ford Foundation

Objectives: To conduct research and training in tropical animal production.

Projects supported.by the grant include:

1. Title: Determination of Mineral Composition of Livestock Feeds in
Venezuela.
Location: Central University and Ministry of Agriculture, Maracay,
Venezuela.
Objectives: To gather existing data on feed composition and conduct analyses
where data is incomplete and publish the information obtained in a usable form.
Survey liver and blood composition of cattle from contrasting environmental
regions of Venezuela. Conduct mineral balance trials on cattle using common
feedstuffs.
Investigators: Ray Shirley, Claudio Chicco, Jose Perdomo.
Status: Pastures are in production. Drying and digestability facilities
purchased or built. First digestability trial underway.

2. Title: Nutritive supplementation of tropical and subtropical forages for
cattle.
Location: Ministry of Agriculture, Maracay, Venezuela.
Objectives; To develop feeding supplements and supplementation programs
which will improve the performance of cattle grazing tropical and subtropical
forages during periods when they provide inadequate nutrient intake.
Investigators: C. B. Ammerman, C. Chicco and others including Miss Olga!
Fresnillo, lab assistant, hired under the grant but who subsequently received
an FAO scholarship.
Status: In progress, some data published.

3. Title: Nutritive evaluation of tropical and subtropical forages.
Locations: Central University of Venezuela, Maracay Venezuela, University
of Zulia, Ministry of Agriculture and University of Florida.











Objective: To determine the voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility of
various tropical and subtropical forages harvested or grazed under various
conditions in Florida and the tropics. To refine laboratory methods for
estimating forage nutritive value.
Investigators: J. E. Moore, G. O. Mott, C. Chicco
Status: In progress.

4. Title: Evaluation of alternative cattle-forage-concentrate systems in the
wet/dry tropics.
Location: Four sites in Venezuela--one dry, one wet and two wet-dry.
Objectives: To evaluate the productive capacity of several pasture-cattle
management systems of low, intermediate and high levels of intensity from a
technical and economic point of view.
Investigators: G. O. Mott, B. R. Eddleman, D. H. Timm (graduate student)
Status: In progress at University of Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela.

5. Title: Effect of Lime, Potassium and Environmental Factors on the Phosphorus
Nutrition of Tropical Legumes.

Location: Lake Izabal, Guatemala
Objective: To provide some of the basic information that will be needed to
develop leguminous forages for livestock in the tropics.
Investigator: V. M. Urrutia (graduate student)
Status: Dissertation being written.


6. Title: Minimum Resource Requirements for Specified Levels of Income on
Crops-Livestocks Farms in the Sinu Valley, Department of Cordoba, Colombia.
Location: Colombian Agrarian Reform Institute, Monteria, Colombia
Objective: Determine the nature of enterprise organization and the magnitude
of resource levels needed to obtain specified income levels to crops-livestock
farms in the Sinu Valley of Colombia. Factors to be considered include farm
product prices, capital availability and cost, land quality and managerial
ability of the farm operator.
Investigators: B. R. Eddleman, N. L. Meyer (graduate student)
Status: Study has been completed, thesis written and submitted with 1970
report to the Ford Foundation.


7. Title: Pasture Grazing Trials.
Objective: Two trials are to be conducted (now being planted) at
Carrasquero and El Guayabo, state of Zulia, Venezuela. At Carrasquero the
pastures being studied are Elephant Grass, Guinea and Para. At Carrasquero
Guinea, Para and Alema will be included in the test.
Investigators: D. H. Timm, G. O. Mott, J. C. Glenn, Euro Rimcon,
C. F. Chicco.
Status: In progress.


8. Title: An analysis of marketing services and regions for beef cattle in
Quesada and Liberia, Costa Rica.
Location: Cantons of Quesada and Liberia, Costa Rica.
Objective: To compare the evolution of beef cattle marketing and related
systems to two culturally and environmentally different regions of Costa Rica.
Quesada is a new ranching area in the humid tropics populated by recently
immigrated settlers from the highlands and Liberia is a wet/dry tropical area
with a long history of cattle raising.
Investigator: V. Smith (graduate student)
Status: Dissertation written. Beef Cattle Production and Marketing in
Guanacaste, Costa Rica.


9. Title: The beef industry of Roraima territory, Brazil.
Location: The Roraima savannas of Brazil's northern frontier zone.
Objective: To assess the present state of the beef cattle industry in the
Roralma savannas; numbers of cattle, production, quality, limiting factors and
marketing systems.
Investigator: T. F. Kelsey (graduate student)
Status: Dissertation being written.


10. Title: Breeding and Management Systems for Beef Production in Central
America
Location: Pan American Agricultural School, Zamorano, Honduras.
Objective: To compare the fertility rate, pre-weaning growth, post-weaning
growth and carcass characteristics of various breed groups, including Brahman-
European crisscrosses.











Investigators: M. Koger, D. A. Franke, J. C. Glenn, Ing. Candellaro Rios.
Status: In progress.
11. Title: Management and Reproductive Performance of Brahman and Brahman
Crossbred Cattle.
Location: Ministry of Agriculture Experiment Station, Calabozo, Venezuela.
Objective: To determine the best crossbreeding system for the Llanos of
Venezuela using pure-bred and Criollo stock currently available locally, and to
obtain data on production levels with various systems of management.
Investigators: M. Koger, R. Smith, (graduate student), Dieter Plasse,
Tiburcio Linares.
Status: Terminated.


12. Additional graduate student research currently in progress that is directly
related to the grant project includes: (a)M. W. Silvey on zinc uptake by a
grass-legume combination under varying levels of other nutrients in the soil
in the Darien of Panama; (b)A. V. Downer on the nutrient status and productive
capabilities of representative soils of the savanna region of Guyana; (c)
F. Calderon on an evaluation of tropical feedstuffs; (d)L. Watson on utilization
of manganese by ruminants and poultry; and (e)J. Fichel on factors affecting
the reproduction of beef in the tropics.


Personnel:


Blue, W. G.
Burgess, F. L.


Caldwell, R. E.
Ah Chu, R.
Christiansen, W. C.
Dickey, J. R.


Dow, J. K.
Dow, J. K.
Eddleman, B. R.


Glenn, J. C.
Glenn, J. C.

Koger, M.
McCloud, D. E.
Ammerman, C. B.
Dow, J. K.
Eddleman, B. R.
Glenn, J. C.
Glenn, J. C.

Moore, J. E.
Wilkowske, H. W.
Byers, B. A.
Schank, S. C.
Mott, G. O.


Guyana
Honduras


Guyana
Guyana
Nicaragua
Honduras


Ecuador
Venezuela
Venezuela, Guyana,
Ecuador, El Salvador
Costa Rica.
Venezuela, Ecuador
Nicaragua,
El Salvador
Honduras
Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela,Colombia
Venezuela,Colombia
Venezuela
Venezuela, Honduras
Panama
Venezuela
Venezuela
Honduras
Venezuela
Venezuela












REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of State Funds 1969-70


Salaries, Wages and Fringe Benefits

Travel

Transportation and Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Maintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and Obligations

Supplies and Materials

Equipment

Land and Buildings

Transfers

Special Appropriation-Building Fund

TOTAL STATE FUNDS


Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station
General Revenue
Funds

$8,806,833.27 $

213,628.68

117,262.18

209,852.19

73,786.00

85,236.89

56,428.74

63,150.28

16,809.56

771,914.83

314,535.00

51,329.91

-0-

64 .470.06


Incidental
Funds

;179,564.01

19,641.84

10,916.74

19,968.46

1,611.31

12,925.38

9,706.68

32,356.76

5,286.20

443,669.62

96,060.03

31,306.23

113,000.00

-0-


$10,785,237.59 $976,013.26


Grants and
Donations
Funds

$583,264.16

60,612.24

3,025.64

5,692.75

7,966.01

19,248.74

32,397.43

6,982.89

309.31

152,923.83

131,153.05

118,481.27

-0-

-0-


$1,122,057.32


Total
State
Funds

$9,569,661.44

293,882.76

131,204.56

235,513.40

83,363.32

117,411.01

98,532.85

102,489.93

22,405.07

1,308,850.28

541,748.08

201,117.41

113,000.00

64,470.06

$12,883,308.17


,_















REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of Federal Funds 69-70


Regional Total
Hatch Research McIntire Federal
Funds Funds Stennis Funds

Salaries & Wages $595,853.97 $94,847.08 $80,254.41 $770,955.46

Travel 446.13 4,161.30 3,466.22 8,073.65

Transportation & Communication 100.05 1,256.73 1,661.02 3,017.80

Utilities 76.33 7,270.27 3,047.52 10,394.12

Printing 750.50 276.43 93.60 1,120.53

Repairs & Maintenance 490.45 615.06 1,096.64 2,202.15

Contractual Services 705.34 79.13 982.43 1,766.90

Rentals -0- -0- 1.50 1.50

Other Current Charges 6 Obligations -0- -0- 35.00 35.00

Materials & Supplies 20,055.60 18,458.34 9,114.11 47,628.05

Equipment 91,513.29 4,019.93 4,584.70 100,117.92

Land & Buildings 13,117.15 -0- -0- 13,117.15

TOTAL FEDERAL EXPENDITURES $723,108.81 $130,984.27 $104,337.15 $958,430.23










GRANTS AND GIFTS

1970


Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending December 31, 1970. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.

ABBOTT LABORATORIES
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$2,000
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$2,500
Veterinary Science Department--$2,500
Central Florida Experiment Station, Citrus Experiment Station
and Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$2,350
AMERICAN POULTRY AND HATCHERY FEDERATION
Poultry Science Department--$1,000
APPLIED BIOCHEMISTS, INC.
Plantation Field Laboratory--$4,000
ARMOUR AND COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$7,500
ATLAS CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, INC.
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
MR. GEORGE AVERY
Botany Department--$960
H. J. BAKER & BRO, INC.
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
GEORGE J. BALL, INC.
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,343.50
MR. & MRS. L. M. BALTZELL
Botany Department--$2,400
BASIC CHEMICALS
Everglades Experiment Station $600
BASIC INCORPORATED
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,000
THE BIG "B" RANCH
Veterinary Science Department--$5,000
BERKSHIRE CHEMICALS, INC.
Plant Pathology Department--$700
THE BORDEN CHEMICAL CO Smith-Douglass Division
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,700
BROGDEX COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$7,000
MRS. WILLIAM C. BRUMBACH
Botany Department--$707
BRUNSWICK PULP & PAPER CORPORATION
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
BUCKEYE CELLULOSE CORPORATION
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY
Food Science Department--$5,000
MRS. PAUL M. CASSEN
Botany Department--$568
CELLUPONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$8,100
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$600
CHEMSALT CORPORATION,BERKSHIRE CHEMICALS, FRENCH POTASH 8
IMPORTS & POTASH IMPORT & CHEMICAL CORP.
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,000
CHEMAGRO CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
North Florida Experiment Station--$350
Plant Pathology Department--$350
CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY Ortho Division
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$500
Entomology-Nematology Department--S1,000
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$250
0. H. CLAPP & COMPANY
Fruit Crops Department--$2,000
COMMERCIAL SOLVENTS CORPORATION
Animal Science Department--$3,000










CONTAINER CORPORATION OF AMERICA
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
CONTINENTAL CAN CO., INC.
Forest Resources S Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
CROOKHAM COMPANY
Everglades Experiment Station--$425
DIAMOND SHAMROCK CORPORATION
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$500
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory--$500
DOVER CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$500
THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,950
Entomology-Nematology Department--$3,200
Food Science Department--$2,000
E. I. duPONT de NEMOURS & CO., INC.
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,500
Entomology-Nematology Department--$200
Food Science Department--$325
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
DISTILLERS FEED RESEARCH COUNCIL
Poultry Science Department--$2,000
EAGLE MACHINE CO., LTD. Canada
Suwannee Valley Station--$500
MR. L. ECCLESTONE, Lost Tree Club
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,201
ESSO RESEARCH & ENGINEERING COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station
and Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
CHARLES F. FAWSETT, JR. Citrus Management
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
FLINT RIVER MILLS, INC.
Animal Science Department--$500
FMC CORPORATION Niagara Chemical Division
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Plant Pathology Department--$500
FLORIDA FRESH PRODUCE EXCHANGE
Vegetable Crops Department--$3,600
FLORIDA GAME & FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION
Agricultural Engineering Department
and Animal Science Department--$7,000
Food Science Department--$10,000
Veterinary Science Department--$4,870
FLORIDA FOUNDATION SEED PRODUCERS, INC.
Research Administration--$13,541
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
FLORIDA SUGAR CANE LEAGUE, INC.
Entomology-Nematology Department--$8,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$5,000
FOREMOST FOODS COMPANY
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
GEIGY AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS CIBA Geigy Chemical Corp.
Agronomy Department--$2,500
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,500
Citrus Experiment Station--$4,500
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Food Science and Soil Science Departments--$4,500
North Florida Experiment Stations--$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$2,000
GOLF COURSE SUPERINTENDENTS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$500
GRO-PLANT INDUSTRIES
North Florida Experiment Station--$795.55
HECTOR SUPPLY COMPANY
Veterinary Science Department--$13,316
HECTOR TURF 6 GARDEN, INC.
Plantation Field Laboratory--$95
HERCULES, INC.
Soil Science Department--$3,107
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY MARKETING COMMISSION
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$4,000
HOFFMANN-LaROCHE, INC.
Animal Science Department--$5,000











Poultry Science Department--$2,500
HUDSON PULP & PAPER CORPORATION
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
THE HUMAC COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,000
North Florida Experiment Station--$405
INTERNATIONAL MINERALS & CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Soil Science Department--$1,500
INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
Soil Science Department--$3,107
ITT RAYONIER, INC.
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
ELI LILLY & COMPANY
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
THE LILLY RESEARCH LABORATORIES
Bacteriology--$2,000
MRS. WILLIAM L. McCART
Botany Department--$400
MERCK CHEMICAL DIVISION Merck & Company, Inc.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1000
Plant Pathology Department--$550
Veterinary Science Department--$1,000
MILLER CHEMICAL & FERTILIZER CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
3M COMPANY Central Research Laboratories
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$1,000
Plantation Field Laboratory--$3,000
MOBIL CHEMICAL COMPANY
Agronomy Department--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
West Florida Experiment Station--$300
MONSANTO COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
LEW MONTGOMERY GOLF CARTS COMPANY
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$350
MOORMAN MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$9,000
NATIONAL FEED INGREDIENTS ASSOCIATION
Animal Science Department--$9,000
THE NESTLE COMPANY, INC.
Animal Sciehce Department--$2,000
ROBERT W. NEUGEBAUER
Dairy Science Department--$6,000
NORRIS CATTLE COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$100
MRS. PHYLLIS M. OUTERBRIDGE, Bermuda
Botany Department--$1,515
OWENS ILLINOIS
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
JOHN C. PELOT
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$700
S. B. PENICK & COMPANY
Entomology-Nematology Department--$2,500
Veterinary Science Department--$1,500
PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS INDUSTRIES
Ridge Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory--$2,000
PROCTER AND GAMBLE COMPANY
Agronomy Department--$1,000
EDW. RENNEBURG & SONS COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$1.000
R. J. REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY
Agronomy Department and Agricultural
Engineering Department--$4,000
RING AROUND PRODUCTS, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,050










ROHM AND HAAS COMPANY
Plant Pathology Department--$750
SANDOZ WANDER, INC.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$10,000
SCOTT PAPER COMPANY
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
G. D. SEARLE AND COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$12,600
SHELL CHEMICAL COMPANY
Entomology-Nematology Department--$1,950
Central Florida Experiment Station,
Everglades Experiment Station,
Sub-Tropical Experiment,
Potato Investigation Laboratory and
Vegetable Crops Department--$4,000
SHELL DEVELOPMENT COMPANY
Ornamental Horticulture Department and
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory--$1,000
SIERRA CHEMICAL COMPANY
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory--$1,000
MRS. G. DEXTER SLOAN
Citrus Experiment Station--$20
A. O. SMITH HARVESTORE PRODUCTS, INC.
North Florida Experiment Station--$2,000
West Florida Experiment Station--$1,500
X. S. SMITH, INC.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$600
THE SMITHERS COMPANY
Ridge Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory--$1,000
SOUTH FLORIDA GOLF COURSE SUPERINTENDENTS ASSOCIATION
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,000
SOUTHEASTERN MINERALS, INC.
Animal Science Department--$1,000
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Plantation Field Laboratory--$5,000
STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$19,560
Soil Science Department--$6,841.20
ST. JOE PAPER COMPANY
Soil Science Department--$3,107
ST. REGIS PAPER COMPANY
Forest Resources & Conservation--$2,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
STAUFFER CHEMICAL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Entomology-Nematology Department--$1,000
Plantation Field Laboratory--$250
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
Vegetable Crops Department--$500
SUCREST CORPORATION
Entomology-Nematology Department--$1,000
SUN OIL COMPANY Sunoco Division
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
TENNESSEE CORPORATION
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Plant Pathology Department--$1,000
Soil Science Department--$3,107
THOMPSON-HAYWARD CHEMICAL COMPANY
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
TWIN RIVERS SADDLE CLUB
Veterinary Science--$400
UNION CAMP CORPORATION
Soil Science Department--$3,107
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Plant Pathology Department--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
UNIROYAL INC.
North Florida Experiment Station--$250
THE UPJOHN COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$81.62
U. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
Entomology-Nematology Department--$1,000
VESICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$400
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,500











WESTVACO CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,000
MRS. RUTH WEST
Botany Department--$325
THEODORE W. WINSBERG
Everglades Experiment Station--$550
YODER BROS, INC.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,040


Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as follows:

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
Agronomy Department--$7,540
Botany Department--$4,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
Bacteriology--$19,998
Bacteriology--$19,700
Bacteriology--$24,532
Bacteriology--$28,331
Citrus Experiment Station--$16,262
Veterinary Science Department--$14,909
Veterinary Science Department--$20,842
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Entomology-Nematology Department--$32,000
Veterinary Science Department--$22,500
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Economics Department--$47,500
Agricultural Engineering Department, Citrus
Experiment Sation, Agronomy Department
and Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$35,000
Agronomy and Plant Pathology Departments--$45,000
Citrus Experiment Station and Agricultural
Engineering Department--$1,000
Entomology-Nematology Department--$33,055
Entomology-Nematology Department--$20,000
Entomology-Nematology Department--$20,000
Entomology-Nematology Department and
Everglades Experiment Station--$20,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT--$33,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT--$15,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT--$15,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT--$25,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT--$25,000
ENTOMOLOGY-NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT and
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION--$50,000
FOOD SCIENCE DEPARTMENT--$58,992
GULF COAST EXPERIMENT STATION--$8,000
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION--$1,000
SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT--$2,000
SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT--$4,000
SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT; CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
and EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION--$65,000










AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT



Research was conducted on 36 projects. Work in 11 of those projects was
cooperative with other departments in IFAS. Three projects were closed. The
department continued coordinating its research program with the Florida Citrus
Commission in the area of economics and marketing of citrus fruit.
New research initiated included studies of possibilities for expanded
economic development in north and west Florida, implications of trends in the use
of agricultural labor, ownership distribution of rural lands by counties, and a
new index of Florida farm prices. During the year 3 bulletins, 14 Agricultural
Economics Reports, and 6 journal articles were published by our staff.
Personnel changes included the resignations of W. F. Edwards andlD. W.
Parvin. Newly appointed were C. Powe, T. S. Hipp, C. G. Davis, D. R. Fox,
F. J. Prochaska, L. A. Reuss, J. E. Giles, G. C. Moses, R. P. Muraro, P. J.
Hooker, C. Farler, R. W. Ward, E. T. Loehman, and C. Walker.


FLA-AS-00001 TEFERTELLER K R

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
1. Florida Agricultural Production Index. New index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production in Florida by commodities and by groups
of products from 1924 to 1968 have been brought up to date by adding 1969 data.
The base period is 1957-59. In 1969 total farm production was 53 percent higher
than the 1957-59 average, crops were 49 percent higher and livestock and!
livestock products were 61 percent higher. 2. Ad Valorem Tax Policy. The
Alachua County, Florida tax toll for 1970 was analyzed to determine what
standard types of quantitative data could be obtained from tax assessors offices
to facilitate the inventory of real property and a realistic estimate oflits
value to assist in developing an acceptable ad valorem tax policy for Florida.
3. Optimum Water Allocation Model. A dynamic linear programming model was
developed to allocate the water among alternative uses within the upper
sub-watershed of the Kissimmee basin and between time periods within that
sub-watershed. Preliminary results indicate maximum annual net returns to
agricultural and recreational uses in the area studied of $1.6 million. 4.
Import Competition in Floricultural Products. Despite major increases in
imports from Latin America, domestic producers, particularly those in
California, have been the major sources of the large increases in flower
supplies in recent years.


FLA-AS-00627 GREENE R E L

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in intensities
of fertilization and level of management in terms of forage production, soil
nutrient balance and rate and economy of beef production. The present
experiment contains one grass-clover program, one grass-clover program with
temporary grazing and one grass-clover program about half of which is irrigated
with seepage irrigation. Data have not been summarized for the 1969-70 season.
However, in each of the last three seasons, Program 1, which has the lowest rate
of fertilization, has been the program with the least cost of producing beef and
the highest net returns.

FLA-AS-00970 BROOKE D L

LABOR, MATERIALS, COSTS, AND RETURNS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Costs and returns for vegetable crops were summarized for 14 different
vegetables in one or more of nine major producing areas of the state. Yields
were generally lower in 1968-69 than a year earlier because of prolonged cold
through the winter and early spring period. Tender crops such as cucumbers,
squash, tomatoes, and snap beans suffered most. Per unit costs of production
were higher for two-thirds of the crops and areas in 1968-69 over a year
earlier. Increased costs for labor and lower yields reducing labor efficiency
in harvesting were responsible for moderate increases in harvesting and packing
costs. Some container costs also were higher. Harvesting costs on ground
tomatoes increased about 25 percent and on vine-ripes about 15 percent overia
year earlier. Net returns per unit of product were lower in 1968-69 over
previous seasons for snap beans, cabbage, peppers, radishes, vine-ripe tomatoes
and watermelons. Data for the 1969-70 season have been obtained and are being
summarized.











FLA-AS-00977 MCPHERSON W K

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO MULTIPLE FARROWING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The cost data collected for this project were not recorded in sufficient detail
to establish the physical input-output coefficients needed to determine costs of
alternative systems. Cost data published by co-leaders are essentially all that
can be obtained from the study. The study will be terminated this year.

FLA-AS-00995 GREENE R E L

AGE OF BEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The objective of this experiment is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred first at one versus two years of age. Selected replacement heifers
from the beef research herd are randomized each year into two groups. Group I
is bred as yearlings and Group II at two years of age. The project has gone
through two phases. In Phase I, at the beginning of the second breeding season
for Group I heifers, when the calves were about two months old, they were taken
from their mothers and sold as veal calves. The net cost to raise a heifer to
about 27 months of age was about the same for each group when the value of the
veal calves was credited to the Group I heifers. The experiment is now in Phase
II in which the calves are being left on the Group I heifers to the normal
weaning period. Supplemental feed cost for the pregnant heifers is about $20
more per year than for the open heifers. The physical and economic data for
this experiment will be summarized during the coming year to show the net
returns for the two groups of heifers.
FLA-AS-01027 GREENE R E L

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF STEERS ON PASTURE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Four lots of 20 steers each were confined to 8.4 acre lots of Roselawn St.
Augustine grass pasture. They were fed supplemental feeds at the rate of 0, .5,
1.0, and 1.5 percent of body weight. Each lot was carried on pasture until the
steers averaged approximately 850 pounds in weight, then full fed in drylot
until they reached a slaughter weight of 1,050 pounds. To minimize pasture
differences, the groups were rotated among pastures every four weeks. The
steers receiving no supplemental feed on pasture had the highest returns over
the cost of supplemental feeds. The returns over costs of supplemental feeds
decreased as the amount of supplemental feeds on pasture increased. The Group I
steers were on the experiment 610 days compared to 486, 415, and 376 days for
the Group 2, 3, and 4 steers, respectively. Three trials have been conducted in
which different levels of feed have been fed to steers on pasture according to a
percentage of their body weight. No additional trials will be conducted.

FLA-AS-01133 ROSE G N

FORECASTING FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED PERIODS AND AREAS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Objective: To provide current and historic production statistics for commercial
vegetables, strawberries, melons a marketing service and basis for economic
research. Work performed cooperatively under Memo of Understanding with SRS,
USDA, at Orlando. Production statistics developed from list sample surveys for
acreage and yield for each of 17 crops, in 30 seasonal groups. Current
information in series of 10 one and two-page weekly and monthly reports.
Post-harvest surveys provided acreage utilization, yield, production and price
statistics for historic estimates. Most data summarized E.A.M. Data collection
process a combination of mailed inquiries and personal interviews. Three
full-time statisticians, 4 full-time USDA fieldmen and services of 4 industry
fieldmen devoted to collection of data. Project personnel cooperated with
Market News Service, industry committees, and IFAS to supply background
statistics. Two new acreage reports, cabbage and eggplant-peppers, started.


FLA-AS-01162 MCPHERSON N K

OPTIMAL ADJUSTMENTS OF SOUTHERN GRAIN MARKETING FACILITIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This research was based on the hypothesis that the demand for feed ingredients
(feed grains, etc.) is derived from the demand for the nutrients contained in
the diets fed to livestock. In addition to results previously reported, the
work demonstrated the mobility of feed ingredients and (2) the role of computers
in formulating livestock diets. Early in 1969, a seminar was held to evaluate










the livestock nutritional data used in diet formulation. As a result of this
seminar, the research effort was focused on developing a program for the least
cost formulation of diets that animal nutritionists not trained in econometrics
can use. This program and a manual describing its use is nearing completion and
will be used in a workshop in March, 1971.

FLA-AS-01234 SPURLOCK A H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND LIFE SPAN
OF DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Records of disposals, and replacements of dairy cows were continued on five
dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously accumulated to
determine useful lifespan, depreciation rate and reasons for replacements. The
lifespan of 6,049 replaced cows averaged 6.3 years or about 4.3 years in the
milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the first year in the
herd and after three years only 63 percent of the original animals remained.
After five years only 35 percent were still in the herd. Cows reaching age 6
(4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of 2.6 additional years and averaged
8.6 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7 years of life expectancy and
averaged 11.7 years of life. Live disposals from the herd were principally for
low production, 33.0 percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 23.5
percent; and reproductive trouble, 19.8 percent. These three reasons or
combinations of them were responsible for 81.5 percent of the live disposals.
About 6 percent of the live disposals were for unstated reasons. Deaths from
all causes accounted for 9.0 percent of all disposals.


FLA-AS-01243 SPURLOCK A H

ESTABLISHING GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS BY FIRMS MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
No additional research has been done on this project in 1970. The Fresh
Vegetable Packing Handbook has been published summarizing all data on assembly,
grading and packing of selected fruits and vegetables in the South. The project
will be closed June 30, 1971.

FLA-AS-01244 ALLEGER D E

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND MOBILITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
All analytical work on this project has been completed. A manuscript is being
readied for departmental and station approval. The initial draft was reviewed
by members of the S-61 Technical Committee, and a review committee of three
persons has recommended its publication. The consensus of the S-61 Committee is
that it should be considered for publication as a regional bulletin. The
manuscript, Anomia and Differential Success, submits evidence that anomia
(abject depression) is more prevalent among rural members of lower economic
classes where security is a major concern than among other ruralities, and that
the factors producing anomia may differ from one social level to another. 'In
general anomia and success were shown to be inversely related, with education at
the high school level or above being the major attribute of success.
FLA-AS-01259 SMITH C N

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WOODY ORNAMENTAL INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Completion of analysis and manuscript preparation on the retail nursery phase of
the regional project was the major focus of effort during the year. This
researcher analyzed regional data and prepared it for publication. Of the three
major types of retail nursery establishments in Florida, plant items made up 70,
62 and 14 percent, respectively, of the marketing by sales yards, landscape
nurseries and garden centers. The average number of nursery suppliers per retail
firm rose from 7.2 in 1962 to 11.5 in 1967 with two-thirds of purchases made
from three major suppliers. Major methods of negotiating purchases of nursery
stock were telephone calls from retailers to suppliers and buying trips to
suppliers' nursery. The level of previous sales and the availability of plants
were the most important reasons in retail nurseymen's decisions to buy plants.
Another phase of research related to woody ornamental nursery products sold by
mass marketers. Data collected were sketchy because many grocery and department
stores did not cooperate. Trained personnel to care for and merchandise woody
plants in their sales areas was listed as a major need by mass market handlers.
The regional project was closed June 30. The state project was extended for; a
year to permit further analysis and publication of Florida data.













COSTS OF HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Costs were analyzed by operation, 1968-69 season, for 29 firms harvesting and
transporting citrus, 40 firms packing fresh and 18 firms processing citrus into
various products. Costs for picking and loading averaged 58 cents per 1 3/5
bushel for oranges, 43 cents for grapefruit and $1.21 for tangerines. Hauling
roadside to plant cost an additional 12 cents per box. Labor costs for picking
were approximately 85 percent of the total cost and for hauling were 33 percent.
Total costs per 1 3/5 bushel equivalent for fresh packing and selling oranges
averaged $1.64 for the 4/5 bushel fiberboard box, $1.94 for the 4/5 bushel
wirebound box, $2.14 for the 5 Ib polyethylene bag in master containers and
$0.93 for oranges loaded bulk in truck. Packing and selling costs for all fruit
and all packs ranged by packinghouses from 20 percent below average to 34
percent above. Fourteen of the 40 houses were within 5 percent of the average
cost. Packing cost was affected by volume of fruit handled, with larger houses
having lower costs. Costs for processing, warehousing and selling typical
citrus products averaged for single strength orange juice per 12/46 oz. case,
sweetened, $1.97; canned grapefruit sections, 24/303, $3.66; chilled orange
juice, 12/32 oz. (glass) unsweet, $1.54; frozen orange concentrate 45, 48/6 oz.,
unsweet, $2.24 or 52 cents per gallon in drums. Processing of citrus feed cost
$23.86 per ton. Fruit cost is excluded from all product costs.

FLA-AS-01365 GREENE R E L

USES OF FORAGE STORED IN OXYGEN-FREE STRUCTURES IN BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The purpose of this experiment is to determine if various oxygen-free structures
can be economically utilized in cattle production in Central and South Florida.
Initial experiments under this project have two purposes. Information is being
obtained to compare the performance of cows, weanling calves and steers that are
fed forage from upright oxygen-free structures with that of similar cattle
grazing on pasture. Secondly, upright oxygen-free structures will be compared
with horizontal plastic oxygen-free structures for weanling calves. Various
physical production data are being collected on the experiment. Working with
the project leaders, a preliminary economic analysis will be attempted during
the coming year.

FLA-AS-01386 GREENE R E L

POST-WEANING MANAGEMENT FOR BEEF CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This project is designed to develop economical programs for producing feeder and
slaughter steers from weaned calves produced in Florida. The initial experiment
is being conducted with four groups of weanling steers grazing pangolagrass and
receiving various levels of supplemental feed. The feed mixture is primarily
citrus pulp, molasses and a protein source. The animals are receiving
supplemental feeds at the rate of 0, .5, 1.0, and 1.5 percent of body weight.
Economic evaluations will be based on the performance from weaning to the time
the steers go to the feedlot or to slaughter as well as the relation of the
treatment upon performance of the animals in the feedlot. These evaluations
will be made by comparing rate of gain on all animals, value of carcass of
animals when slaughtered and relative expense of each program. This is the
first year of the experiment. A preliminary economic analysis will be made when
a phase is completed.

FLA-AS-01397 GREENE R E L

MARKET ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICES FOR POTATOES IN THE HASTINGS AREA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The objectives of this project are to: 1. Describe and evaluate changes in the
Hastings potato industry over the past decade in market organization, grower and
shipper practices, and in the quantities of potatoes shipped to processors; 2.
Determine changes in opinions and attitudes of growers and shippers relative to
market organization and practices; and 3. Evaluate the probable effects of
alternative proposals for improving the marketing of potatoes in the Hastings
area.


FLA-AS-01340


SPURLOCK A H











MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BEEF COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The purpose of this experiment is to compare production performance of beef'cows
on various forage and supplement management systems in Peninsular Florida and
determine the relative economies of each. Comparisons are being made for eight
experimental groups of cattle using different systems of management.
Fertilization and lime practices are in accord with recommendations for
intensive use. The experimental group of cattle are equally divided in respect
to age and relative production of females. A 90-day breeding season is being
used, starting approximately February 15 of each year. Cows are palpated 60 to
90 days after the bulls are removed and all open cows replaced by 2-year-old
heifers. Calves are weighed at approximately 205 days of age, but weaning age
of the calves is determined by the milking ability of the cows as affected by
management systems and ranges from 210 to 300 days of age. Data collected
include chemical analysis of feeds and forage, labor, equipment and other
expense records, weaning weights and percentages, sales receipts, cows per
treatment and other production data. This experiment is in its third year.
Working with the project leaders, a preliminary economic summary will be
attempted during the coming year.

FLA-AS-01430 LANGHAM M R EDWARDS W F

MAXIMIZING A MEASURE OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AGRICULTURAL USE OF PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This project was concerned with the economic externalities created by the use of
agricultural pesticides and the implications of such externalities on social
welfare. A non-linear programming model was used to determine the effect of
banning the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the winter vegetable area of Dade
County, Florida. The long-run environmental effects of low-level exposure to
persistent pesticides are not measurable at this time and the model effectively
included only short-run externalities. Results indicated that a 50 percent
reduction in chlorinated hydrocarbons would reduce social welfare (as defined)
about 1 percent. Whereas, a virtual ban would reduce welfare as much as 3.7
percent. These costs provide a measure of how much society has to trade off
against potential long-run benefits from reducing or eliminating the usage of
persistent pesticides. A final report for this project has been prepared and is
being reviewed.

FLA-AS-01431 EDDLEMAN B R

STRATEGIES FOR OPERATING BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN CENTRAL FLORIDA FOR FIRM i
BUSINESS GROWTH

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Work was continued on developing enterprise budgets for beef cattle and other
enterprises associated with beef cattle. These budgets were based on improved
production practices. Budgets for the various improved pasture programs
in Central Florida included both establishment,and maintenance costs. Per acre
costs of establishing pangola grass-clover pasture were estimated to be $64.29,
including costs of clearing and preparing land for seeding. Annual maintenance
costs were estimated at $15.35 per acre. With seepage irrigation these costs
increased to $96.77 per acre and $35.82 per acre, respectively, due to increased
fertilization rates and cost of vells, ditches and irrigation equipment.
Further work was continued on the development of the mathematical
programming-simulation model to evaluate production alternatives for beef cattle
producers with regard to business growth objectives, tenure, and tax
management structures. The model has been constructed so that an evaluation of
alternative land leasing practices, alternative land and income taxation
policies, and alternative capital utilization practices on ranching efficiency
and firm growth processes can be made.

FLA-AS-01436 EDDLEMAN B R

DETERMINANTS OF THE RATE OF GROWTH IN EMPLOYMENT OF THE NORTH FLORIDA AREA
ECONOMY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Work during the past year was directed toward the development of data concerning
population attributes, income, employment and economic activity for every county
in Florida. These data became variables used in a preliminary analysis of
employment variations among counties for every major type of manufacturing
industry (SIC two-digit level) and for agriculture. Depending upon the industry
being considered from 20% to 70% of the variation in industry employment was
explained. Consistent variables that were significantly related to industry!


FLA-AS-01403


GREENE R E L










employment changes included: Federal and State educational expenditures per
pupil in each county, labor productivity changes in the industry, industry wage
levels and changes in the number of firms in the industry. Variables affecting
firm production possibilities functions and labor supplies appear to be more
important in accounting for industry employment changes than variables affecting
product demands or the supplies of area natural resources. These variables also
tend to explain a much greater proportion of the variation in total employment
(i.e., agricultural plus manufacturing plus trade and services employment) among
counties than for the separate individual industries.
FLA-AS-01443 LANGHAM M R POPOPOLUS L POWE C E

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE ORANGE SUBSECTOR OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The objectives of this project are to develop a simulation model of the orange
subsector which reflects the interests of each group of participants in the
subsector system and to use the model for aiding public and private decision
makers in improving system performance. Emphasis in 1970 was placed on building
a third generation model of the subsector. Some time was spent appraising
alternative simulation languages--GPSS, SYNSCRIPT, and DYNAMO--for this purpose.
The DYNAMO language was used in the first and second generation models and
current plans are to continue with this language. Interviews with a few key
industry personnel and reviews of recent research on various components of the
industry were conducted to provide a more adequate description of the industry
for modelling purposes. The third generation model will emphasize alternative
strategies for allocating the orange crop among products and markets. Interest
is in ways to allocate the crop so as to provide greater benefits to
participants of the system.

FLA-AS-01449 REYNOLDS J E

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FARM REAL ESTATE VALUES IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The purpose of this project is to identify and estimate the effects of important
factors affecting farm real estate values in Florida. A regression analysis of
Census data for each county indicated that gross farm income, nonfarm population
density and the percentage of farmland in fruits and nuts were the most
important factors affecting the variation in farm real estate values among
Florida counties. Data on government program payments have been collected and
will be used in the analysis to determine the effect of government program
payments on farmland values. Time-series data have been collected for Florida
and the Southeast region. These data will be used to estimate the coefficients
for a two-equation recursive model of the farmland market for the period 1949 to
1969. The purpose of the time-series analysis is to identify and estimate the
effects of important variables affecting the value of farmland over time.
FLA-AS-01450 MURPHREE C E

LAND OWNERSHIP AND AGRICULTURAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
To establish a relationship between land ownership and the distribution of
agricultural income in the study area, land is considered as representing
property and income is visualized as from three sources: (1) personal services,
(2) property ownership, and (3)income transfers. Annual income estimates from
these sources are released by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research,
University of Florida and, in addition, an income to proprietors which is a
combined return to both property and personal services. Moreover, proprietors'
income which reflects earnings in agriculture and forestry has been
approximately one-half total income since 1950. To allocate proprietors'income
between personal services and property ownership, the output of each
agricultural product of the study area will be obtained from the 1969
Agricultural Census. Using estimates of output per man-hour of labor for each
product, the total use of labor Agriculture will be calculated; when man-hours
of hired labor used are subtracted form the total, labor supplied by the farm
operator and unpaid family members will be revealed. Using an imputed return,
the value of personal services included in proprietors'income will be estimated
and the residual will be treated as an income from property to be distributed to
residents and non-residents based on land ownership.

FLA-AS-01456 DOW J K BROOKE D L

THE IMPACT OF MECHANICAL HARVESTING ON THE DEMAND FOR LABOR IN THE FLORIDA
CITRUS INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The study was completed and accepted by the Manpower office, U.S. Department of










Labor. The possible impact of the adoption of mechanical harvesting of citrus
on labor demand was analyzed and the number of workers required was projected
for 1975 and 1980. The report concludes that fewer workers will be required to
harvest a larger crop in 1980 than to harvest the current crop: the main impact
of mechanization, however, will be the need for a different kind of labor force
with more skilled workers and fewer unskilled pickers required.
FLA-AS-01472 PRATO A A

MARKET ORGANIZATION, POWER AND POLICY AND PROGRAMS IN THE DAIRY INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
An econometric model of the U.S. dairy industry has been formulated and
secondary data assembled. Estimation of the econometric model is the next
phase. Work has begun on a simulation model of the Florida dairy industry. The
simulation model is designed to analyze the effects on industry operations and
performance of various types of reorganization, e.g. backward and forward
integration, and alternative pricing arrangements for whole and filled milk.

FLA-AS-01473 EDDLEMAN B R

REGIONAL INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS OF INVESTMENTS IN NATURAL RESOURCES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Work during the past year has consisted of the collection of data concerned with
employment and unemployment, composition of economic activity, income,
distribution of income, population and other indicators suitable for relative
comparisons for all counties in Florida and their contiguous counties containing
natural resource investment projects, including watershed projects, forestry and
timberland development projects, land development projects, and investments in
recreation facilities. These data were developed for the period 1950-70. An
analysis of the variation in employment changes in major types of industries
among the delineated areas was carried out. The results of the analysis
provided little support for the hypothesis that natural resource investments are
effective means for accelerating employment growth of areas.
FLA-AS-01482 GREENE R E L

COSTS AND RETURNS ANALYSIS FOR MAJOR CROP AND LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES IN NORTH
AND WEST FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The purpose of this project is (1) to determine labor and material requirements
in producing specified crops and livestock products and (2) to apply cost rates
and prices to the data collected to calculate estimated costs of production and
returns. During the past year, 30 records each were collected for corn,
flue-cured tobacco, peanuts for nuts and soybeans and 21 records for wheat.
Data collected included the amounts and kind of seed, fertilizer, insecticides
and pesticides, labor and machine time for producing each of the individual
crops. The individual record for each crop has been summarized. The records
for the different crops will be summarized to show normal labor and machine time
and costs and returns per acre of producing these crops. Data also will be
summarized to show normal costs of operating various items of farm equipment.

FLA-AS-01490 TYNER F H

PLANNING FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Completed manuscript dealing with the changing economic structure of 29 counties
in North and West Florida. Analyzed changes in population, income, and
employment; agriculture; education; forest resources; and recreation and tourism
with reference to implications for further growth prospects. This is a
first-phase study intended to stimulate critical appraisal of current
opportunities and needs. In publication process. Linear programming study of
minimum land requirements for farms in the nine counties with greatest
agricultural potential. Analyses of farm organization and resulting land
requirements were obtained for income levels of $3-6 and $9,000 with and without
allotment crops, with and without livestock activities, with hired labor varied,
and with operator equity at 50% and 100%. Proceeding with study of optimum
grouping of counties to meet selected standards in provision of health,
educational, police, welfare, and transportation services. Regression analysis
used as aid to identifying relationships between county expenditures for such
services and the level of service provided. All counties in Florida are being
used in selecting guidelines for standard levels of services. Proceeding with
an interindustry analysis of the economy of Florida. Forty-five processing and
resource sectors and five final demand sectors defined. Major emphasis to date
on the assembly and enumeration of secondary data to construct interindustry
flow table. Gross output estimates developed for all sectors, as well as some
agricultural flows.










FLA-AS-01492 MURPHREE C E

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL WAGE LABOR USE IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A tentative list of the agricultural products of Florida has been completed and
the literature surveyed for information on the output per man-hour of labor for
each of the products. The proposed procedure for estimating the annual use of
labor since 1950 was tested for vegetable crops with satisfactory results.
However, two major problems were encountered with the products of the general
farming area of North Florida. Especially with livestock, many products serve
as agricultural inputs. This led to a decision to limit estimates of labor use
to agricultural products which are purchased for use as factors by the nonform
sector. A second problem was encountered when an attempt was made to allocate
total labor use to each of the counties on an annual basis. For such an
allocation, output per man-hour is divided into the output of a county.
However, for many products the annual output per county does not exist in the
literature. Therefore, unless an unpublished source of information can be
found, county estimates will be limited to the information available in the
Agricultural Census.

FLA-AS-01499 BROOKE D L

COSTS AND RETURNS IN CITRUS PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Operating costs per acre on groves over 10 years of age showed an increase of
nearly 18 percent in 1968-69 over the previous season. An over 40 percent
increase in yield per acre in 1968-69 over 1967-68 lowered per box cost from
84 to 66 cents. Labor, power and equipment costs were up 22 percent, fertilizer
21 percent, spray and dust materials 17 percent and state and county taxes
increased 13 percent over the previous season. Returns from fruit averaged $1.52
per box and returns above operating costs were $0.86 per box. Net returns to
growers were $0.56 per box in 1968-69.
FLA-AS-01500 MCPHERSON W K

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF VERTICAL COORDINATION IN THE
LIVESTOCK-MEAT INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The literature is being searched for information that will contribute to the
design of hypothetical systems for marketing calves produced in Florida.
Special emphasis is being placed on evaluating or formulating projects designed
to evaluate the efficiency with which information is translated through
alternative marketing systems.

FLA-AS-01503 ALLEGER D E

THE DISTRIBUTION OF OWNERSHIP OF RURAL LANDS IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One field trip was taken during July to secure the cooperation of the county tax
assessors in northern Florida in the conduct of this study. Since then some
data have been gathered. The purpose is to tabulate all large-scale rural
holdings (1,000 acres or over) according to location (township, range), acreage,
name and address of owner. The securing of names and addresses will permit the
making of cross-county tabulations. The largest owners are. generally
corporations engaged in various phases of the forest industry (pulp, paper, and
lumber). To date, data have been obtained from 8 counties.

FLA-AS-01514 BROOKE D L SPURLOCK A H ROSE G N

INDEX OF FLORIDA FARM PRICES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Monthly Florida farm prices have been gathered from USDA and other reliable
sources for 5 citrus items, 12 field crops, 14 livestock items, 2 livestock
products, and avocadoes for the years 1940-41 through 1969. Similar prices have
been obtained on 17 vegetable crops for fresh market from 1954 through 1969.
Price relatives have been computed for all the above prices as well as base
period weights (1953-57) and base period prices (1957-59). There remains the
task of obtaining prices on vegetables from 1940-41 to 1954 and constructing the
individual commodity indexes and the group indexes. This will proceed in the
summer of 1971.










AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted under 15 formal projects with additional preliminary
work in eight areas. One project was terminated. The Department is placing
research emphasis on problems related to mechanization, water resources management
and irrigation, waste management and pollution control, and processing.
Mechanization of many agricultural operations where the present labor
requirement is excessive remains a major goal for several of our engineering
projects. An equally important area of emphasis concerns animal waste management
and pollution control, where there has been a significant increase in research
activity and accomplishments.
New work of major importance which has been started includes work on
vegetable precooling, mechanization of the flower and ornamental foliage industry,
disposal of municipal waste water, and processing of aquatic weeds for animal
feed.
The Department is still partly in temporary quarters after the fire of
November 1969, but the building has now been essentially repaired so laboratories
can be reestablished.



FLA-AG-00001 SMERDON E T

PRELIMINARY AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Feasibility of municipal waste water renovation and nutrient removal is being
studied in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee. Effluent is applied to 1/4
acre plots of oats by sprinkler irrigation at rates of 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 inches per
week. Renovation and ground water recharge is also being studied by cyclic
flooding and drying in a 1/4 acre basin. Studies of the practicability of
pasteurizing soil media in a direct fired rotating drum'have been started.
Sample materials are being inoculated with organisms that are harmful to Florida
foliage industry and treatment effectiveness determined by laboratory examination
and observation of plants growing on treated material. A project statement
"Forced Air Precooling of Vegetable" is ready for submission. Construction of
experimental facilities for this project are 75% complete. Tests have been
conducted to find the drying characteristic of water hyacinth and Florida elodea.
Sufficient quantities of these materials have been processed to supply beef and
swine feeding trials. Pelleting requirements have been investigated and an
experimental processor (screw pressdryer) and citrus pulp pilot plant feed mill
used in the dehydrating studies.


FLA-AG-00627 MYERS J M

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This report covers the fourth year of a five year study on cow-calf production
responses to several different pasture production programs. One of the pasture
programs includes seepage irrigation as a cultural practice. Approximately one
half of the acreage in this program is subjected to irrigation. The program
using irrigation is compared to other pasture production programs of different
levels of intensification but without irrigation. Water is applied in
sufficient quantities to prevent the water table from receding below 24 inches
during winter and spring and 30 inches during summer and fall. Rainfall during
the annual period (October 69 September 70) was above normal. There was only
one significant drought period which occurred during late spring. Two
applications totaling 7.7 inches of water were applied during the annual period.
The pasture program on which irrigation is used has produced about 400 pounds of
calf per acre annually during the 4 year period. This is about 10% more than
the best nonirrigated pasture program. Irrigation as practiced in this
experiment has not proved to be economical;ihowever, the topography and subsoil
characteristics of the experimental area are poorly suited for seepage
irrigation.




FLA-AG-01034 MYERS J M ROSS I J CLARK F

CONTINUOUS HARVESTING-CURING SYSTEM FOR BRIGHT-LEAF TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Aligning machine harvested tobacco leaves for curing is difficult. Tobacco
buyers prefer the leaves aligned, while it is not essential to cigarette










manufacturers. It is a generally accepted belief that tobacco can be cured
better in bulk in an aligned leaf arrangement than in a random or tangled
arrangement. Two experiments were conducted on this problem, measuring effects
of loading density of nonaligned leaves on quality of the cured leaf and
evaluating the difference in quality of leaves cured in an aligned arrangement
and in a tangled arrangement. Each experiment included tobacco from two curings
and treatments were replicated in each curing. Treatment differences were
measured by market value based on official grades and relative amount of scalded
tobacco found in the cured samples. Densities tested were 16.0, 21.5 and 27.0
pounds of uncured tobacco per square foot. The incidence of scald was low for
all treatments. Highest density contained the greatest amount of scald while
lover densities were approximately equal. Density effect in terms of market
value was Small; however, the trend favored the higher densities. In the
comparison of aligned and tangled leaf arrangement, it was found that average
value was 80.45 and 78.35 cents per pound, respectively. The level of scalded
tobacco was low for both treatments; however, the incidence was 2 times greater
for the tangled leaf arrangement.


FLA-AG-01203 FLUCK B C

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A cabbage trimmer to cut excess stem and leaves from mechanically harvested
cabbage was designed, constructed and successfully tested. One person manually
orienting heads and passing them along a slot above a powered rotary blade can
easily trim 15 heads per minute. Such a trimmer could be used either on the
harvester on in a packinghouse. Slot width of 3 1/2 inches over the blade
mounted 1/4 inch below the slot provided optimum trim. With such a component in
the harvesting system, control of cutting height would be simplified or
eliminated. Initial work toward the eventual development of a selective
fresh-market strawberry harvester included the obtaining of spectral response
data for the berries and development of a mechanism for lifting the berries,
while attached to the plant, to a position for selection and detachment.


FLA-AG-01212 MIERS J M CHOATE R E

TEMPORARY LININGS FOR WATERWAYS AND EMBANKMENTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
The application of temporary linings or covers to retard erosion while
vegetation is developing is a common practice associated with construction of
earthen slopes. A wide selection of cover materials are available and selection
is generally based on judgement and empirical approaches. More fundamental
design criteria would facilitate development with less cost. Studies during the
year were devoted to evaluating a laboratory technique for developing design
criteria. The technique involved simulation of woven materials by using steel
rods of similar diameters and spacings to correspond to thread (cord) diameters
and spacings for woven cover materials. The primary test apparatus was a small
hydraulic channel 10 feet long with cross section 4 1/2 inches wide and 3 inches
deep. The study produced considerable evidence that a laboratory facility where
the physical set up can be controlled and described is useful for evaluating
cover materials in terms meaningful as design criteria. In the experiment where
jute mesh fabric was simulated by steel rods of appropriate diameter and spacing
the permissible tractive force was measured to be 0.087psf while the results of
6 trials with the fabric indicated a mean permissible tractive force of O.O8psf
with a range of 0.061 to 0.109.





FLA-AG-01250 CHOATE R E

WATER CONTROL FOR FORESTRY PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
In periods of high rainfall extensive areas of Florida's flatwoods forest lands
are inundated. These studies are designed to evaluate the effect of surface and
internal drainage upon tree development and to establish criteria for minimum
acceptable drainage practices for forest lands on flatwoods soils. Three
drainage treatments are under study: 2 feet, 5 feet and no artificial drainage.
Water table levels have been recorded, on a weekly basis, since February 1969.
Seedling trees were planted during the winter of 1968. The effect of these
treatments upon water table fluctuations and upon tree growth will be evaluated
during 1971.












GENETICS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HEAT TOLERANCE IN LAYING HENS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Prior to this year's work a considerable amount of information has been obtained
concerning genetic and environmental factors affecting heat tolerance in laying
hens. These tests have been conducted using the survival time of 5 week old
White Leghorn chicks in a controlled high heat stress environment as the index
to heat tolerance. After 4 generations of selection, high (RHT) and low (LHT)
heat tolerance lines have been obtained. D.W. Maclaury at the Kentucky station
has made tests on oxygen consumption and has obtained high (HOC) and low (LOC)
lines. Eggs from oxygen consumption lines and heat tolerance lines were
exchanged and tests were conducted to determine whether a correlation existed
between the two. There was a trend for HOC and HHT to be related, although the
relationship was not close. Heat tolerance by line in descending order was HHT,
HOC, LOC, and LRT, while oxygen consumption by line in descending order was HOC,
HHT, LHT, and LOC. In future work it is hoped that this correlation can be more
clearly defined since it would provide a more desirable index to heat tolerance
as well as giving information concerning a physiological basis for heat
tolerance.




FLA-AG-01296 MYERS J M CHOATE R E

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Water conservation, distribution of chemicals through irrigation water and the
increasing popularity of low application rate irrigation systems are all
important factors pointing up the need for more precision in irrigation
management which in turn is dependent upon accurate estimates of expected
evaporation losses. Data have been obtained to predict the independent effect
of water application rate, air (wind) velocity, water temperature and dry bulb
and dew point temperature of the ambient air on evaporation losses by water
droplets in transit (spray) and by plant intercepted water. By far the most
important influential factor on evaporation losses is the rate of application.
Results indicate evaporation losses are about 60% for low application rates
(0.15iph) with climatic conditions typical of Florida in the summer and when
plant foliage is present to intercept most of the applied water. Evaporation of
water droplets in motion is relatively insignificant in comparison to losses
from extensive wetted surfaces afforded by dense vegetation. It is unlikely
that evaporation by water droplets in transit could amount to more than 5% of a
water application. The independent effect of these climatic and physical
factors on evaporation losses was determined and has been presented in
manuscript form for publication.






FLA-AG-01406 FLUCK R C BAGNALL L O SHAM L N

VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR
FRESH MARKET TOMATOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Simulated sand penetration tests indicated a general decrease of resistance to
penetration with increasing fruit maturity as well as definite varietal
differences. Simulated sand abrasion tests indicated possible differences among
varieties in discoloration and desiccation after abrasion. Bulk handlingitests
showed that mature green tomatoes can be handled dry in 8x8x2 foot containers
and unloaded into water by dumping without appreciable mechanical damage,
proving feasible some aspects of a potential bulk handling system. A model of a
rotating brush cleaning and conveying system was built, tested and proven
feasible for removing sand from tomatoes. Damage caused by the brushes was
minimal, even on ripe tomatoes. The brush conveyor-cleaner would be one
component of a fresh market tomato harvester and would eliminate the necessity
of cleaning and handling fruit in water for reduction of injury caused by
presence of sand on the fruit. An apparatus was built and tested to train
tomato vines to grow in a more compact formation to facilitate mechanical ;
harvesting. Preliminary trials indicated satisfactory performance. An analog
computer simulation of tomato fruit response to vibratory harvesting compared
reasonably well to experimental results reported for fruit detachment by
vibration.


FLA-AG-01251


BAIRD C D










MYERS J M KINARD D T


MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF TEA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Tests with experimental harvester were continued to determine optimum cyclic
rates of harvester bar as related to angular pitch of harvester bar and forward
speed of the harvester. Efficiency in harvesting was 90 percent or more of
desired material at rates of 400 plus cycles per minute. Harvest did contain
more trash than desired and this needs further attention. Conventional balanced
head sickle mower mounted in front of the machine was used effectively as a
pruning device to shape the plants. First manufactured prototype harvester
failed to equal performance of the experimental harvester. Specifications for a
new prototype are essentially complete.




FLA-AG-01458 OVERMAN A R

DISPOSAL OF DAIRY FARR WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Dairy wastes from the University Dairy Research Unit was applied to crops
through sprinkler irrigation. Application rates for oats were 1/4, 1/2 and 1
inch per week and were 1/2, 1 and 2 inch per week for sorghum. Vegetation was
harvested for green crop. Yields were analyzed in terms of the Mitscherlich
concept of fertility, where emphasis is placed upon percent of optimum yield
rather than absolute yields. Plant samples were collected from the sorghum
plots during growth to determine moisture content and plant element composition.
Similar analyses will also be performed on the manure slurry, which has about
0.2 percent solids. Efficiency of nutrient uptake can then be calculated.




FLA-AG-01468 OVERMAN A R

NUTRIENT & WATER INPUTS & OUTGO FROM THE ORGANIC & MINERAL SOILS IN THE LAKE
APOPKA AREA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
An area of approximately 450 acres was selected for study of groundwater
recharge for possible disposition of drainage water from the Zellwood Muck Farms.
Rainfall was followed with a recording rain gage. Fluctuations in levels of
ponded water were monitored with a water stage recorder, weekly measurements of
piezo-metric head were obtained at a well on the same property. Correlations of
these data should allow estimates of groundwater recharge and permeability of
the upper strata.




FLA-AG-01478 MYERS J M OVERMAN A R ROGERS J S

SYSTEMS FOR TILE DRAIN SLUDGE CONTROL FOR CITRUS WITH HIGH WATER TABLE IN
FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Ineffective functioning of drains as a result of precipitation of ferrous
sulfide sludge in the soil in the vicinity of the drain is a serious problem in
some flatwood soils. The Department of Agricultural Engineering is a member of
the interdisciplinary team that is attacking this problem. Agricultural
Engineering has major interest in the magnitude and direction of subsurface
water movement. Development of the experimental site, including ditches,
pumping stations, enclosed drains, flow measuring instrumentation, soil
preparation and tree planting has essentially been completed. The major
remaining facility to be installed is the irrigation system. Data on drain
outflow, water table levels and piezometric pressures are being collected.
Measurements from tensiometers installed along a boundary ditch indicate that
most of the water above the spodic layer moves laterally along the top of the
layer during drainage. There are indications that entrapped air is present
under the spodic layer, thus reducing the rate of vertical flow beneath the
horizon. Laboratory tests of a system for scanning soil water potential with a
pressure transducer and twelve-port rotary valve were conducted. The system was
connected to porous cups in a soil column. Water potential was monitored during
infiltration and drainage. Time response of the transducer was on the order of
seconds in saturated sand, but becomes longer with decreasing water content.


FLA-AG-01411












DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A MULTI-STAGE LAGOON SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF DAIRY
FARM WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Construction was completed on the lagoon system in April, 1970, and sampling of
influents, effluents and groundwater samples commenced at that time. Results
from the first five months of operation indicate an average influent BOD(5) of
543 mg/1 at a flow rate of approximately 60,000 gal/day. BOD(5) reductions of
89%, 54% and 8% in the first, second and third lagoons, respectively, have been
achieved for a total reduction of 95%. Algal blooms have occurred frequently in
the third lagoon and have resulted in a very small net reduction of BOD(5).
Chemical and bacteriological tests of groundwater in the vicinity of the lagoons
are being conducted but are not conclusive at this time. Results of groundwater
analyses are quite variable and appear to be related to rainfall and resulting
fluctuations of the groundwater table.






FLA-AG-01495 FLUCK R C AHMED E M

CHARACTERIZATION OF THEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Compression tests of whole fruits of peaches, strawberries and tomatoes
indicated that they softened due to irradiation and ripening. Softening due to
ripening of peaches and tomatoes was more pronounced than that caused by'
irradiation. Smaller forces were required to penetrate fruit slices obtained
from irradiated peaches and tomatoes as compared to the non-irradiated fruits.
Maximum forces of penetration occurred at shallower depths for the irradiated
fruits. Compression and penetration force measurements agreed favorably with
the sensory evaluation of peach, strawberry and tomato firmness. Cyclic loading
tests showed that irradiated strawberries and both irradiated and ripened
peaches and tomatoes were less capable of recovering from applied stresses.
Creep tests showed that irradiated peaches deformed, under a dead load, to
lesser extents than non-irradiated fruit. Deformation increased as the fruit
advanced in ripening. Stress relaxation tests indicated increased relaxation
times due to irradiation and progressive compression cycling of peach fruit.
Ripened peaches exhibited shorter stress relaxation times than those for firmer
fruit.


FLA-AG-01493


NORDSTEDT R A










AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

Agronomic research at Gainesville was conducted under 26 projects. Some
highlights of agronomic research in 1970 are as follows:
The high yield potential and improved quality of the new Florunner peanut,
developed by Dr. A. J. Norden, made it the most widely planted runner peanut in
the southeast U. S.
Drs. E. S. Horner, H. E. Warmke, and J. R. Edwardson have evaluated
available sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for use in southern corn hybrids.
Dr. G. B. Killinger has discovered a new plant, a grass Hemarthria, which
has properties similar to tea and which shows promise for a beverage.
Dr. F. T. Boyd has evaluated the nematode resistance of several new forage
grasses and has several which show considerable promise.
Dr. O. C. Ruelke and G. J. Gascho have shown that cold treatment of
sugarcane planting canes adversely affects the crop grown from that planting
material.



FLA-AT-00374 HORNEE E S

CORN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A new race of the fungus Helainthosporium maydis, which causes southern leaf
blight of corn, complicated the 1970 results because all hybrids containing the
Texas source of male sterile cytoplasm were extremely susceptible to the blight.
Yield losses due to the disease ranged from 20% to 50%, depending on the hybrid
involved. This variation in yield reduction due to the disease indicates that
genes which tend to counteract the cytoplasmic effect are available. Perhaps
they could be concentrated by recurrent selection to the point that resistant
hybrids could be obtained even with the Texas cytoplasm. The first six cycles
of selection for combining ability with F44xF6 were evaluated by crossing
remnant seed of each selected population with the tester and growing these
crosses at five locations. The results indicate that a 20% increase in yield
was obtained in the first five cycles, but there was an apparent negative
response for the sixth cycle of selection. There were also significant gains in
standability and lover plant height during the course of the experiment. Fifty
new inbred lines were evaluated in crosses with 5B Synthetic, the male parent of
Florida 200A. Bany of the testcrosses had significantly better standability,
yield, and lower ear height than Fla. 200A, indicating that some may be good
enough to replace F6 and F44 in the seed parent of the Pla. 200A.

FLA-AT-00627 KILLINGER G B

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SISTERS FOB BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Yields of oven-dry clover-grass forage produced under three pasture program
systems, involving moderate fertilization, moderate fertilization and
renovation, and heavier fertilization with seepage irrigation were 6848, 6260,
and 5430 pounds per acre for the year. Prolonged winter cold, early spring
and late summer drought limited season production. Quality of the forage was
good, as evidenced by the condition of the cattle. Late fall drought in 1970
has delayed clover seed germination and growth of perennial plants for the
spring of 1971. Low phosphorus or sulfur or both may be contributing to low
forage yields.


FLA-AY-01087 WILCOX L

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Field Corn. Helminthosporium maydis prevented meaningful data from field corn
this year. Soybeans. Prometryne plus alachlor at 1+1.5 lb/A controlled all
weeds at commercially acceptable levels. The following treatments failed to
control nutsedge but were otherwise satisfactory: DCPA plus linuron, 8+1 lb/A,
amiben ester plus dinoseb 3+2 Ib/A, and maloran plus preforan 1.5+1.5 Ib/A.
These three preemergent treatments did not damage the soybeans. Flue-Cured
Tobacco. Treatments involving diphenamid, benefin and either vernolate or
pebulate controlled most weeds for most of the season, but yields were greater
in terms of either Ib/A or $/A where there was one cultivation. Sorghum. The
best treatments included VCS-438 either preemergent or postemergent directed.
Haloran at 4 lb/A or linuron plus propazine at 1+1 lb/A, both preemergent, were
less effective but better than the remaining treatments.









EDWARDSON J R WARMKE H E


THE ROLE OF THE CYTOPLASM IN HEREDITY OF HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Studies of interactions between Petunia atkinsonia fertility restoring genes and
P. hybrid cytoplasmic sterility factors are continuing. Inheritance studies of
chlorophyll abnormalities in several solanaceous species are continuing.
Studies of viruses and virus-induced inclusions are continuing with light and
electron microscopy. Crystalline bodies in healthy and virus infected tissues
are being studied cytologically. Cytological comparisons of normal and
cytoplasmic male sterile tissues and tissues from irradiation inactivated
sterility in corn lines are in progress. Cytological comparisons of maintainer
and cytoplasmic sterile tissues from several species are being conducted.
Asexual transmission of sterility factors in Vicia faba is being examined with
grafting techniques. Cooperative stuides are in progress using tissue culture
and gel electrophoresis techniques to compare fertile and male-sterile plants.



FLA-AY-01135 EDWARDSON J R

BREEDING FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE IN LUPINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Evaluations of sweet, cold resistant, disease resistant blue lupine (Lupinus
anqustifolius) selections are continuing. Capacity for increased (over Frost
blue lupine) seed production is evident in some selections, while early
flowering and increased branching occur in other selections.




FLA-AY-01154 HORNER E S

WHITE CLOVER AND ALFALFA BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
WHITE CLOVER: Selection for increased summer persistence and extended grazing
season was continued. Seeds were collected from selected plants in a
spaced-plant nursery that had been established in the Fall of 1969 and also from
plots that had been established in 1968. New plantings for further selection
were made. ALFALFA: selection for persistence and productivity was continued.
New plantings of several populations were established, including (1) derivatives
of introductions reported to be tolerant of the alfalfa weevil; (2) bulkedi
selections of California strains resistant to root rot; (3) bulked selections
from introductions from India and collections from several places in Florida;
(4) a large planting of a mixture of several previously selected populations;
and several smaller tests. Very little seed was produced during 1970, probably
because of unusually high aphid populations and frequent rains during the spring
months, especially March and April. This is not considered a loss, however,
because a large enough number of plants will have survived to enable us to
harvest adequate amounts of seed of selected plants in 1971, provided the
weather is favorable.




FLA-AY-01166 KILLINGER G B

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES FOR ECONOMIC USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A replicated regional sunflower (Helianthus annus) test was planted July 20th on
a Jonesville sandy loam. Lack of rainfall in late August and September caused
all varieties to die before maturity. Six varieties of kenaf (Hibiscus
cannabinus L.) planted in April on a Leon fine sand produced from 14,000 to
18,000 pounds per acre of oven-dry stem suitable for paper-pulp. Everglades 41
and 71 varieties continue to produce more dry stem than others. Pigeonpeas
(Cajanus cajan) PI 218066, 'Norman' variety produces seed yields of 500 to 2000
pounds per acre with loss from insects responsible for the lower seed yields.
One-hundred PI's 346083-346182 from India, planted in April, were sensitive to
daylength (Photoperiod) and only six introductions produced seed before frost in
November. Hemarthria altissima introductions 299993, 299994, 299995 exhibit
cold hardiness and all appear to have tea-like properties. Nine new Hemarthria
introductions were received in mid-summer. Frequent killing frosts during
1969-70 winter months severely damaged all Brassica spp. plantings.


FLA-AY-01134










BOYD F T PINE G M


EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES FOR PASTURE, FORAGE AND OTHER
USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Evaluation of forage grasses was continued in a statewide program. Two
digitaria hybrids and three hemarthria introductions have been largely
destroyed, the first from low temperatures, and the latter from nematode feeding
on Arredondo sand. Two digitarias, P.I.299601 and P.I.299637 have shown
greatest resistance to sting nematode. Two Chloris gavana introductions,
P.I.298982 and P.I.317352, are both spreading types and are being increased.
The first of these is nematode resistant and remains vegetative throughout most
of season, heading only in late fall. The other shows somewhat more cold
tolerance. Interspecific crosses are being attempted between selected Chlori
gayana, and more cold resistant Chloris caribaea and Chloris cuculiata.
Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) introductions from South America produce
good quality and quantity of forage; however, seed quality (harvested) is poor
as evidenced by low germination. Stylosanthes humilis introductions from
Australia, early types, have reproduced from natural seeding for two seasons,
but are slow to germinate in the spring and season growth is poor. A more
vigorous early strain is needed if this legume is to prosper in North Central
Florida. Arb (P.I.118457) and GS-1 perennial peanuts harvested twice during the
season had hay yields of slightly over 5 tons per acre. Forage evaluations were
initiated on 50 new wild peanut accessions.







FLA-AY-01227 SCHANK S C

IMPROVEMENT BY INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION WITHIN THE GENUS DIGITARIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Cytogenetical research was emphasized with the completion of a Ph.D.
dissertation entitled "Microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis, and embryo sac
development at five ploidy levels in Digitaria" by John W. Carmichael. Breeding
lines were also investigated cytogenetically in the CSIRO Cunningham Laboratory
during the first 4 months of 1970 while I was on Faculty Development Leave
there. Chromosome root tip procedures were learned, and many other cytological
procedures were investigated and utilized while I was in Australia with the
Division of Tropical Pastures. winter hardiness studies received major emphasis
due to the extremely cold weather in Quincy and Gainesville, Florida, during the
1969-70 winter. Ninety breeding lines were under test at the two locations, and
results of these experiments were reported at the Soil and Crop Science meetings
held in Clearwater, Florida, in December 1970. Hybridizations from other winter
hardy Digitarias were accomplished and evaluation of hybrid progeny continues.
Nurseries for evaluation of stunt virus resistance or tolerance were visited and
evaluated in Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela in December 1970. There is
excellent cooperation in evaluation of breeding lines. Without question,
certain Digitarias, Brachiarias, and Remarthrias exhibit resistance to the
stunting symptoms which characterize pangolagrass in these regions.










FLA-AY-01260 CLARK F

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One hundred ten selections, which were developed by pedigree backcross and from
interspecific and F(1) hybrids, were tested on heavily infested blackshank and
nematode soil. There is a continuing accumulation of favorable unidentifying
genes resulting from selection under extreme disease conditions. A selection
was submitted for regional testing in 1970 which rated high in disease
resistance and physical appearance; however, complete data is not available as
to its acceptability at this time. Over thirty commercial varieties were grown,
and use of them produced satisfactory yields and quality on disease free land.


PLA-AY-01167












PLANTING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON THE YIELD OF CORN, SOYBEANS, SORGHUM,
AND SMALL GRAINS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
*Florida 200A' corn, 'Titan R' forage sorghum, and 'Everglades 41' kenaf were
grown in mixture at 1/2 population of each crop in pure stands. The three crops
were quite compatible with each other in mixtures. Forage sorghum-corn mixtures
had grain yields between the highest and lowest grain yield of the two crops.
When the southern leaf blight severely damaged corn in mixtures, the forage
sorghum increased in grain and forage production. The forage sorghum-corn
mixture shows promise of giving more uniform production of grain and forage than
either crop alone for the first harvest, and in addition, a ratoon crop is
possible from sorghum stubble. Grain sorghum and forage sorghum varietyltrials
were conducted. Thirty-six hybrids were compared in the grain sorghum trial and
18 hybrids in the forage (silage) sorghum trial. The five highest yielding
grain sorghums were Funk BR 79, Ga. 615, Bird-Go, McNair 652, and Bird-Off with
yields of 5960, 5770, 5470, and 5430 pounds of grain per acre, respectively.








FLA-AY-01286 PRINE G M SCHEODER V N RUELKE O C

MICROCLIMATIC INFLUENCES ON FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Extremely high and low temperatures during germination of sugarcane seed pieces
have a significant influence on emergence, growth rate, number of stalks per
stool, yield per stool and yield of sugar per stool. The most significant
finding was that low temperatures at germination (11C) reduced the number and
height of stalks in the first ratoon, indicating that the harmful effect carried
over into the second year and may be a cause of yield decline of sugarcane
germinated on colder land. Exposure of seedling sugarcane to -40C for 4 hours
for 0, 1, 2 and 3 times reduced the first year yields, but ratoon yields were
not significantly reduced. Shading studies with BR 64 and Bird-Go grain
sorghums indicate a critical period 5 to 15 days before flowering when plants
are particularly sensitive to low light intensities. Growth of warm season
pasture grasses was studied in the greenhouse using normal light, ambient air
temperature, and controlled soil temperature in a gradient tank. Most favorable
range for root growth of Pensacola bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass and
Pangolagrass was from 20 to 350C, with almost no root growth below 150C, and very
little at 400C. Top growth did not decline as rapidly as root growth.







FLA-AY-01302 WEST S H

A BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH OF HIGHER
PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The mechanism by which low temperatures (100C) causes dormancy in tropical
plants has been investigated. This dormancy may cause serious economic losses.
The reduced growth shown in this study to occur at low temperatures was
associated with reduced photosynthetic rates. Chemical and electron micrograph
analyses indicate that low night temperatures prevent the starch grains that
accumulate during the warm day in the chloroplasts in tropical plants from being
dissipated. Continued photosynthesis and low night temperatures caused more
starch to accumulate in the chloroplasts until organelle injury occurred. Some
proof that injury occurred was shown by the reduction in the ability of the
chloroplasts from the low temperature-treated plants to perform the Hill
reaction portion of photosynthesis. Studies on nucleic acid turnover or
synthesis also suggested injury. The finding that a warm day-cold night
treatment restricted growth to only 60% of that in plants that received a cold
day-warm night treatment supports the conclusion that reduced growth in tropical
plants may be caused by starch accumulation in the chloroplasts and subsequent
injury to the chloroplasts. Plants that grew well in low temperatures did not
accumulate starch.


FLA-AY-01262


PRINE G M












VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF PEANUTS (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
An early maturing Virginia bunch line (F459B) and a runner line (F420-100) have
exceeded Florigiant and Florunner in yield tests conducted at Gainesville during
the past three years. Florunner, released in 1969, is stimulating a shift
toward more runner type peanuts in the Southeast. It was grown on 50,000 acres
in 1970 and is expected to replace 3/4 of the Early Runner acreage as well as
from 10 to 30% of the Spanish and Virginia type acreage in 1971. Processing
tests were conducted with one-ton lots of each of five experimental lines and
three varieties. The processing and flavor qualities of the Virginia bunch
lines F393-6 and F427B rated equal or superior to Florigiant, whereas the
blanchability and flavor of F393-9 rated inferior to Florigiant. Line F427B has
some resistance to Cercospora leaf spot disease. The commercial runner lines,
F439-6 and F439-17, sister lines of the Florunner variety hut with upright
growth habit, were rated superior in processing qualities and flavor to Early
Runner but were not generally superior to Florunner. In cooperative studies
with the Pesticide Research Laboratory, the dieldrin insecticide content of
peanuts and peanut hay were found to be proportional to the level of dieldrin in
the soil in which the peanuts were grown. The only varietal differences
detected were in the shells of Plorunner which contained greater levels of
dieldrin than did the shells of Starr Spanish or Florigiant. These results
indicate that it should be possible to predict dieldrin levels in peanuts when
soil residue levels are known.


FLA-AT-01358 KILLINGER G B RUELKE O C

PASTURE AND LEGUME VARIETY EVALUATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Twelve white clover, 13 red clover, and 12 ryegrass varieties (commercial) were
seeded in four replicate randomized block design experiments, with PTE 503
(fritted trace elements) superimposed on half the replicates. Oven-dry white
clover yields ranged from 2418 to 5030 lbs/A with Tillman, Ladino, Gigante
Lodigano, and Louisiana S-1 varieties most productive. Oven-dry red clover
yields ranged from 2516 to 6797 Ibs/A with Kenland, Pennscott, and Chesapeake
varieties most productive. Oven-dry ryegrass yields ranged from 1417 to 5330
Ibs/A with Florida rust resistant, 3-in-1 mix, and magnolia varieties most
productive. yields of white and red clover increased by 14 and 12 percent
respectively from the application of 20 lbs/A of FTE 503. Gahi-1 pearlmillet
and three sorghum-sudangrass hybrids were harvested at 30 inch, 48 inch, and
boot stages of growth, over a two-year period. Significantly higher total
yields were obtained when harvests were at the boot stage. Gahi-1 pearlmillet
produced significantly higher yields of dry matter, in vitro digested dry and
organic matter, and crude protein than did the three sorghum-sudangrass hybrids
tested. -Yields of Florida 66 alfalfa of 6.1 and 5.3 tons per acre were
harvested in 1969 and 1970 from the application of 1000 lbs/A of 0-10-20.
Fertilizer rates of 2000 and 3000 lbs/A slightly increased yielas and persistence.
Highest yields were obtained,from alfalfa cut 1 1/2 inches above the soil at the
first bloom stage.



FLA-AY-01359 HINSON K

SOYBEAN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A decision on releasing P63-4000 (1969 CRIS report) was delayed until 1971
pending the outcome of comparisons between it and a subline. Data on both
continue to justify release. They are similar to Hampton in maturity and yield,
but have higher protein and are more resistant to rootknot nematodes. Another
strong possibility for release is F66-1166 (Hardee maturity and growth type).
It yielded 16% more than Hardee in 1969 regional tests at 20 locations, is more
resistant to rootknot nematodes and maintains seed viability better. Nearly 700
breeding lines were evaluated for yield, agronomic traits and disease reaction
in 1970. About one-half will be evaluated for protein. Prospects for
independent gains in yield and protein are encouraging. Prospects for
concurrent gains in both are questionable. About 660 new lines were selected
from 4000 plant rows, heterozygous populations were advanced, and new crosses
were made. About 200 Florida breeding lines were grown in Guyana, South
America. Few had adequate height but yields of these ranged up to 40 bu/A. In
one series of fertilizer experiments we measured the effect of nitrogen on
nodulation and yield. In another we compared the response of three varieties to
four elements. Variety differences in response to potassium was indicated.


FLA-AY-01303


NORDEN A J












EFFECT OF CULTURAL MANAGEMENT ON BLACK SHANK AND ON QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The introduction of cropping sequences into the tobacco blackshank nursery in
1969 and the evaluation of several tobacco varieties under fumigated conditions
were tested in 1970 to determine if satisfactory control of balckshank could be
obtained. Significant improvement in the disease index ratings were obtained by
the cropping sequences, and by fumigants in these tests. There were differences
in the varieties tested; however, a high interaction was noted with fumigants as
compared with the susceptible check variety, Hicks. Agel TG-67, polyram, Telone
C, and Vortex were the chemicals tested. Agel TG-67 at 4 gallons per acre and
Telone C at 15 gallons per produced the best overall results.








FLA-AY-01376 CLARK F

PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO AS INFLUENCED BY PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Herbicides: Five chemicals were tested, four singularly and five in
combinations for weed control in 1970. A combination of 3.0 pounds Diphinamid +
1.5 pounds vernolate + 0.75 pounds of Benefin gave excellent weed control of
pursley, crabgrass, and nutsedge with a slightly reduced plant vigor index,
Pebulate 4.0 pounds PPI + Diphinamid 4.0 pounds POT (post plant) produced
excellent control of all weed species with a high plant vigor rating. Plant
growth, yields and quality were excellent for these treatments. Sucker Control:
Five chemicals were tested for their efficiency in the control of axillary
sucker contgrowth in flue-cured tocacco, as compared to two control treatments,
hand suckered, and a combination treatment of Maleic hydrazide and Penar. One
chemical was slightly phytotoxic and one was moderately phytotoxic; these
compared favorably with the combination treatment for control of suckers.,
Fourteen new chemical formulations were tested and these will be evaluated for
further testing depending on their agronomic performance. Fumigation: Liquid
vs. non-liquid fumigants were tested for control of nematodes in a heavily
infested area. Several of the non-liquid or contact fumigants were superior to
the commonly used liquid type fumigant. The non-liquid or contact type control
agents are easier to apply and there is no waiting period between application
and transplant time.







FLA-AY-01377 PFAHLER P L

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC STUDIES IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One of the primary assumptions inherent in quantitative genetic models is that
random mating is present within the species being considered. If substantial
deviations from a random mating scheme are present, false predictions and more
importantly, a lack of improvement in the species will result. Previous in
vitro and in vivo studies with corn have indicated that pollen genotype
influences fertilization ability and therefore, the random mating assumption is
not valid in all cases. Further investigations were made to identify possible
biochemical mechanisms associated with these differences resulting from pollen
genotype. Since various mutants alter the carbohydrate content and the amino
acid balance and content in the endosperm, biochemical analyses of the pollen
grains containing the mutants, waxy, sugary-1 and shrunken-2, were made. These
mutants significantly altered the water-soluble polysaccharides and the amino
acid content of the pollen grains. No specific relationship between pollen
biochemistry and fertilization ability could be established. However, pollen
genotype can apparently influence both the biochemistry and fertilization
ability of the pollen grains. In vitro germination characteristics were altered
by the alleles at the Rf(1) locus whose only known function is the restoration
of fertility in male sterile cytoplasm.


FLA-AY-01375


CLARK F











WILCOX n RAY B R


BIOCHEMISTRY OF HERBICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Two new families of herbicides have been discovered which are especially active
against grasses. Terbacil has been found to translocate through rhizomes of
nutsedge plants to daughter plants. Untreated daughter plants contained 10% as
much dicamba as did the treated mother plants. Thus terbacil, which controls
nutsedge well, is translocated to a greater extent than was dicamba (which is
ineffective) reported to be last year. (In cooperation with W.B. Wheeler and
N.P. Thompson, Pesticide Research Laboratory). A new compound has shown high
citrus abscission activity without phytotoxicity.





FLA-AY-01458 PRINE G M

LAND DISPOSAL OF DAIRY FARM WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The primary manure disposal areas were planted in a rotation consisting of oats
seeded in the fall followed by sorghum-sudangrass in the spring. The manure
residue and crop stubble were plowed under and a good seed bad prepared before
each crop was planted. Both oats and 'Grazer S' sorghum-sudangrass grew well at
all rates of manure-water application: 0, 1, and 2 inches per week. It was
necessary to divert the manure and water to other areas for a short time during
land preparation and until the seedlings had emerged.





FLA-AY-01475-TBD MOTT G 0 RUELKE 0 C

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROPERTIES OF SOUTHERN FORAGES AND ANIMAL RESPONSE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
(1) Pangolagrass hay was fed to sheep at levels equalling from 107 to 203% of
daily intake. Voluntary intake was not affected by level of feeding,but the
sheep selected a diet higher in organic matter and crude protein and lower in
cell wall constituents at the higher levels of feeding. The increased crude
protein intake was offset by an increased fecal excretion of crude protein. (2)
Several modifications of the Tilley and Terry two-stage in vitro digestion
technique were evaluated. The technique adopted for routine work utilizes (a)
100 ml opaque palstic tubes (Nalgene), (b) prior treatment of samples by adding
5 ml H(2)0 to the samples in the tubes and applying vacuum to wet the particles,
(c) direct acidification of the media after the microbial fermentation, and (d)
recovery of the residues by filtration. No centrifugation is required in this
technique. (3) Correlation coefficients (r) between in vivo organic matter
digestibility of 10 bahiagrass hays and several laboratory tests were: in vitro
organic matter digestion, 0.97; acid detergent fiber, -.94; crude protein, 0.87;
cell wall constituents, -.77; cellulose, -.76; lignin, -.63; and hemicellulose,
0.11. (4) Pangolagrass hays harvested after 4, 6, 8.5 and 11 weeks regrowth
were fed to sheep with and without 75 gm soybean meal daily. Voluntary intake
without supplement was 72.3, 65.0, 39.7 and 45.8 gm organic matter per kg
metabolic weight (MW) for the four hays, respectively. When fed with
supplement, intake varied from 54.0 to 58.7 gm/kg MW and was not different among
hays.






FLA-AY-01478 KNIPLING E B WEST S H

SYSTEMS FOR TILE DRAIN SLUDGE CONTROL FOR CITRUS WITH HIGH WATER TABLE IN
FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Land preparation and installation of a drainage system and citrus grove on a
sixty acre site at the Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, was
completed in 1970. Preliminary observations of the soil chemical and water
budgets were initiated in 1970.


FLA-AY-01444











ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

During the past year research was conducted on 41 projects. The Department
has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other Departments and six Branch
Stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics, feeding, meats, and
management studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered over a thousand animals for
carcass and meat quality studies in cooperative projects. The Nutrition
Laboratory likewise made thousands of determinations for over 30 different
substances in feeds, blood, and other animal tissues and excretions in cooperative
studies.
During the past year the faculty in Animal Science published 128 scientific
and professional articles. The faculty participated in many national and
international conferences and meetings.
Physical improvements included a start in developing the Horse Research
Center at Lowell. The Swine Center at Gainesville is moving to a new location
near the campus and will soon be located in one area only. Continued development
occurred in moving part of the Purebred Beef Experimental Unit to an area near the
Dairy Unit at Hague.

FLA-AL-00627 KOGER M

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Pasture programs being investigated include: (1) clover-grass fertilized at the
rate of 300 lbs. of 0-10-20 per acre annually, (2) comparable pastures with one
fourth of the area being renovated annually by fall plowing and planting to
winter cereal pastures (oats and ryegrass), and (3) clover-grass pastures one
half of which is identical to program (1) and the remaining half irrigated by
seepage and fertilized at the rate of 500 lbs. of 0-10-20 annually. All
pastures are grazed by cows and calves. Annual calf production per cow has
averaged 509, 491, and 511 pounds, respectively, for the three programs.
Production per acre averaged 365, 336 and 387 pounds, respectively. Lowered
productivity of program 2 is explained by requirement of more than a year for
renovated areas to return to full production. Cattle breeding systems initiated
in 1957 include: (1) grading to British bulls (Angus and Hereford) and three
2-breed-of-sire rotations, including (2) Angus-Hereford, (3) Angus-Brahman and
(4) Hereford-Santa Gertrudis. Foundation females were Brahman-British-Native
crosses. Production per 1000 Ibs. of cows bred from 1965-1969 has averaged 397,
420, 391 and 390 pounds, respectively, for the four systems.

FLA-AL-00629 KOGER M

SELECTION OF BEEF CATTIE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This project was cooperative between the USDA and terminated effective 6-30-70.
The original objectives were to compare different breeds and types of beef
cattle and to select foundation herds for improved production under Florida
conditions. The stocks evaluated include the Brahman, two British breeds (Angus
and Hereford) and two groups selected from Brahman-British crossbred foundations
(Santa Gertrudis and Brahman-Angus essentially comparable to Brangus). In
general, the Brahman and crossbred foundation breeds had substandard weaning
rates with good growth rate while the British breeds had normal fertility rate
and poor growth to weaning. Apparent progress was made in all groups other than
the Brahman. The relative ranking of straightbred and crossbred progeny of
individual sires was comparable, suggesting that within-breed selection for
specific combining ability would not be effective, and pounds of calf weaned per
cow bred was 295, 190, 289, 262 and 297 respectively for Angus, Brahman,
Brangus, Hereford and Santa Gertrudis. Respective values per 1000 lbs. of cow
maintained were 350, 213, 313, 307 and 301. First cross Brahman-Angus cows had
higher fertility and heavier weaning rates than either of the parent breeds.

FLA-AL-00738 COMBS G E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED AT AN EARLY AGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Consumption of diets containing vitamin A in excess of established requirements
has reportedly stimulated rate and efficiency of gain with swine. However the
most efficacious level as well as the effects of massive quantities of dietary
vitamin A when provided deliberately or accidently need to be further defined.
Pigs weaned at two weeks of age were fed a starter diet composed essentially of
corn and soybean meal for a 42 day period. The average daily intake of vitamin
A for the four treatment groups was 3,000, 12,000, 48,000 and 184,000 I.U. The
daily gain, daily feed consumption and feed efficiency was similar for all
treatment groups. Although the experimental period was of relatively short
duration it was evident that the addition of large quantities of vitamin A did











not adversely influence growth performance. Fifty pigs weaned at two weeks of
age were housed at one of the following temperatures: (F) 60; 70; 80; 90; or
ambient. During the eight week experimental period the average maximum and
minimum ambient temperatures were 83 and 570 F respectively. For the overall
period no differences were found among treatments for either rate or efficiency
of gain. These data would indicate that the young pig will grow satisfactorily
when exposed to a wide range of environmental temperatures.


FLA-AL-00755 AMMEBRAN C B LOGGINS P E MOORE J E

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
1. The nutritive value of citrus molasses distillers solubles to ruminants was
studied. The first experiment was a feeding trial including 40 steers in which
solubles replaced either citrus pulp or ground shelled corn at levels of 0, 7,
14 and 21% of the total diet. In the second experiment 18 lambs were assigned
to three diets containing 0, 10 and 20% of the total dry matter as solubles to
determine nutrient utilization. The average daily gains of the steers in
Experiment 1 were 2.23, 2.27, 2.25, 2.32 pounds for the citrus pulp diets and
2.38, 2.22, 2.23, 2.14 pounds for corn diets which contained 0, 7, 14 and 21%
solubles, respectively. These data were not significantly different. In the
second experiment, organic matter and dry matter of the solubles were as
digestible as that from corn. Protein digestion was depressed when large
amounts of solubles were fed. 2. A supplement containing biuret plus an energy
feed and cottonseed meal were compared as sources of nitrogen for sheep fed
low-quality hay (4.6% protein). Compared to no supplementation, both treatments
increased voluntary hay intakes and nutrient digestibility to an equal extent.


FLA-AL-00809 NARNICK A C BAZER F W

EFFECT OF HORMONES ON PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The occurrence of estrus and fertility in 40 cycling crossbred beef heifers was
determined following estrous synchronization and artificial insemination. Four
groups of 10 heifers were randomly allotted into: (1) control no hormone
treatment but handled; (2) two Norethandrolone subcutaneous implants (500 mg
total) and removed on day 10 plus 5 mg estradiol valerate I.M. on day one; (3) -
same as group 2 plus 2 mg FSH-P subcutaneous injection on day 8 and at implant
removal, day 10; (4) same as group 2 plus 2 mg FSR-P on day 8 and day 10 and 1
mg estradiol-17 beta I.M. on day 10. Heifers were observed twice daily for
estrus and were inseminated only at first estrus post treatment. The % showing
estrus and % pregnant at 90 days were: (1) 98, 70; (2) 80, 30; (3) 80,
40; and (4) 100, 90. No multiple pregnancies were detected. MGA was fed
daily to 52 nonpregnant beef cows and 32 crossbred beef heifers for 14 days (.5
mg head/day) with single injections of 6 mg FSH, and 8 mg in either saline or
oil suspension given at the end of NGA feeding. Percentage estrous
synchronization was very low in the cows and varied from 64 to 90% in the heifer
groups. Percentage cows with multiple ovulation and multiple embryos was very
variable and low when females were killed at either 8, 20 or 37 days post
FSH-injection. Using subcutaneous injections of Norethandrolone in Brahman,
Charolais and Santa Gertrudis cows with estradiol valerate (IM) there were large
variable responses to estrous synchronization. More basic work in regard to
progestin and PSH on synchronization, multiple ovulation and uterine physiology
are being studied.


FLA-AL-00938 WARNICK A C BAZER F W KOGER M

CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE AND REPRODUCTION IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Regular monthly palpations of the ovaries of Brahman and Santa Gertrudis cows
indicate a marked influence of season on activity of the ovary. There is a
sharp increase in occurrence of corpus luteum and large follicles beginning
around April 1. There is a direct correlation of ovarian activity with ambient
temperature during the months of December through May. However, the effects of
ambient temperature, rainfall and forage production on ovarian activity have not
been separated. Many Brahman x British crossbred heifers that had a corpus
luteum or a large follicle on the ovaries in South Florida in mid-November went
into anestrous without ovarian activity when moved to Gainesville (180 miles
North). It is not known if this failure of ovarian activity was due to the
stress of trucking or a change in temperature or other environmental'factors.
These variables need detailed study. mating behavior of 18 bulls of the Brown











Swiss, Brahman, Charolais and Criollo breeds was studied during daylight hours
in the tropics of Calabozo, Venezuela. Twenty-eight percent of the time was
spent in sexual activity with 27 teases per cow in estrus, 1.09 mounts before
mating and 1.29 matings per estrous cow. Average interval between matings was
approximately 1 hour. A small percentage of the total matings (based on
calving data) were observed and bull dominance greatly influenced.sexual
behavior in 2-sire herds.



FLA-AL-00975 PALMER A Z CARPENTER J W

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEEF TENDERNESS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Two hundred and thirty-three U.S. Standard, Good and Choice carcasses from
straightbred and crossbred steers ranging from 14 to 20 months of age provided
shortloin steaks for Warner-Bratzler Shear tenderness comparisons among sires
and breed groups. These tenderness data are being combined with the previous 5
years' data for a more complete statistical analysis of beef tenderness
heritability and indices of tenderness such as marbling.




FLA-AL-00977 WALLACE H D COMBS G E KOGER M

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO MULTIPLE FARROWING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The work initiated three years ago involving the feeding of 2,2-dichlorovinyl
dimethyl phosphate to gestating sows has been completed. This compound has been
shown to stimulate carbohydrate metabolism in the animal organism,and since
hypoglycemia is often a complicating aspect of early baby pig survival and
performance, it was theorized that this sow treatment might benefit the young pig
during the critical period of metabolic adjustment. A total of 112 control
litters and 112 treated litters were involved. Control sows farrowed an average
of 9.76 live pigs per litter, treated sows 10.42. Fetal deaths and term pigs
born dead were similar for the two groups. Since the feeding treatment was
imposed only during the final 30 days of pregnancy the substantial difference
observed in live pigs born cannot be attributed to treatment. Birth weights of
pigs were 2.98 and 2.92 pounds respectively for control and treated sows. In
keeping with the larger litters farrowed, treated sows also weaned more pigs per
litter (8.14 vs. 8.66) but percent survival to weaning was almost identical for
the two groups. Pigs from control litters averaged 7.87 pounds at two weeks of
age compared to 7.59 for pigs from treated litters. In summary, it is evident
that sow performance was not improved by feeding the compound. Work under this
project has been largely curtailed because of relocation and construction work
which has been underway for several months.



FLA-AL-00995 KOGER M

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
From 1958-1967, one half of the heifers at the Beef Research Unit were bredias
yearlings to calve first at 2 years of age (1) while the remaining half were
bred to calve first at three years of age (2). The pounds of calf weaned by
two-year old heifers has amounted to 281 pounds per heifer bred with death loss
in heifers being comparable to that for heifers which were not bred until two
years of age. Production per cow subsequent to two years of age has averaged
420 Ibs. for (1) and 395 lbs. for (2). In 1970 the net economic advantage for
(1) amounted approximately to $62 for each two-year-old and $7.50 for each older
cow in the herd.



FLA-AL-00999 COMBS G E

FLORIDA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Although most research indicates that the pig has limited ability to utilize
non-protein nitrogen (NPN), the present and predicted world shortage of protein
requires that every possibility of alleviating this situation continue to be











researched. A study was initiated with 60 growing-finishing pigs to evaluate
the effects of diammonium phosphate (DAP) on growth and nutrient digestibility.
The diets contained either 15 or 17X total protein and at each of these levels
DAP contributed 0, 3 or 5% NPN protein. Overall the results show that the
groups receiving 15% protein gained more slowly than the groups fed 17% protein.
The gains of pigs fed 5% NPN protein at either protein level was markedly
depressed. A comparison of the 0 and 3A NPN protein groups showed no
differences at either level of protein. Dry matter digestibility decreased with
increasing levels of NPN protein. Neither ether extract nor protein
digestibility were affected by protein level or by quantity of dietary NPN.
Blood urea nitrogen was highest in the pigs given the 3 and 5% levels of dietary
NPN. The overall response of the groups given 0 or 34 NPN would indicate that
the rate and efficiency of gain was similar enough that economics may make NPN
usage a feasible situation. To determine the nutritional value of corn grain
from blight (Helminthosporium maydis) infested fields and to make
recommendations for its usage in swine diets two experiments were initiated.
The test with finishing swine was for a three week period and the results show
that rate and efficiency of gain were similar for the control and "blight corn"
groups. The experiment with young pigs is presently in progress but the results
for an eight week feeding period indicate that the growth rate of the control and
"blight corn" groups are comparable. On the basis of present data it would
appear that "blight" corn of the quality used in these experiments should not
adversely influence growth performance.


FLA-AL-01002 WALLACE H D

THE EVALUATION OF FEED ADDITIVES FOR SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
In previous work a combination of diethylstilbestrol and methyltcstosterone
added to the diet of finishing gilts and barrows improved feed conversion and
carcass leanness but imparted an undesirable odor and flavor to carcasses of
some of the treated animals. During this past summer nitrogen balance studies
were conducted to determine if the improved leanness was a true protein anabolic
effect. The data obtained do not substantiate such an effect. It appears that
the greater leanness of treated pigs may be largely the result of reduced feed
intake and reduced rate of gain. In another study a total of 84
growing-finishing pigs were utilized to test the supplementary value of 125 ppm
copper as copper sulfate. Copper supplemented pigs ate more feed and gained
slightly faster, in both dirt lots and on concrete, than control pigs. Work
under this project has been significantly curtailed during this year due to the
relocation of research facilities.



FLA-AL-01010 WARNICK A C BAZER F W WALLACE H D

EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The effect of source of protein (soybean oil meal vs. fish meal) on gains and
nitrogen metabolism is being studied in growing crossbred pigs. Also, the effect
of soybean oil meal vs. fish meal protein source on embryonic development and
uterine biochemistry is being studied.at 20 and 60 days postbreeding in 16 cross-
bred gilts. Embryos, fetuses, uterine venous and arterial blood are obtained by
laporatomy at these two stages. Levels of total protein, protein profiles and
amino acids will be determined on the bloods, fetal fluids and embryos to compare
the effects of stage of gestation and protein source on uterine biochemistry,
physiology and fetal development. The diets are isocaloric and contain
comparable amounts of vitamins and minerals.



FLA-AL-01045 ARRINGTON L R

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DIETARY FACTORS OF INTEREST IN THE NUTRITION OF
LIVESTOCK USING LABORATORY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Purified soybean protein and casein were compared as sources of protein for
growing gerbils. With 12% dietary protein from each source, casein was superior
to soybean protein as measured by weight gain and feed efficiency. Diets with
14% casein promoted growth approximately equal to diets with 18% soybean
protein. With diets containing 21% protein from either source, growth was
approximately equal. Supplementation of the diet containing 12% soybean protein
with 0.3% DL methionine resulted in weight gain which was greater than that of
gerbils fed an equal amount of casein.













MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
1. The interrelationship of dietary Fe and P was studied with steer calves of
beef breeding. The treatments consisted of two diets containing 100 ppm Fe and
either 0.23 or 0.46% P and two diets containing 1,000 ppm Fe in combination with
the two P levels. Average daily gain was depressed (P<0.05) with the high-iron
diets and was not affected significantly by increasing dietary P at either Fe
level. High dietary Fe significantly increased Fe in the liver, spleen, heart
muscle and kidney, and decreased copper and zinc in the liver. Host of the Fe x
P interaction effects on animal performance and tissue mineral composition
suggested that increased P alleviated some of the effects of excess dietary Fe.
2. The potential mineral contamination of feed samples by grinding was studied.
Nineteen dried citrus pulp samples were each divided into equal parts and one
part of each sample ground through a 2-mm bronze sieve in a standard Wiley mill.
Grinding had no effect on the amounts of Ca, K, Mg, and P. Iron, Zn, Cu, Mn and
Na were higher (P<0.05) in the ground samples. Increases expressed on a
percentage basis for the above minerals were 43, 56, 61, 15 and 11 respectively.
Contamination with the micro minerals can be explained by their presence in the
metal in significant quantities.




FLA-AL-01117 MOORE J E

INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF RATION, RUMEN BIOCHEMISTRY AND ANIMAL PERFORMANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
(1) Sheep were fed low quality pangolagrass hay (3.7% crude protein) and graded
levels of soybean meal (0-125 g/day). Voluntary hay intake, rumen volatile
fatty acids, rumen ammonia and blood urea were increased with increasing levels
of soybean meal. (2) Pangolagrass was treated with 0, 2.24 and 4.48 kg/ha of
Maleic Hydrazide (MH), harvested as hay and fed to sheep. Voluntary dry matter
intake was increased (P<.05), organic matter digestibility was unaffected and
cellulose digestibility was decreased (P<.05) by MH treatment. (3) Cellulose
remaining after 72 hr in vitro rumen fermentation was called In Vitro Residual
Cellulose (IVRC). Forage, orts and feces from 36 digestion trials were analyzed
for IVRC. Fecal recovery of ingested IVRC was 97.3 10.8%. IVRC was used as
an internal indicator for estimating intake by the ratio technique. Estimated
intake values were 91.3 + 9.2% of actual intake values. The correlation
coefficient (r) between estimated and actual intake values was 0.94 (P<.01).
(4) Estimates of dry matter digestibility of pangolagrass and Slenderstem
digitgrass were made by in vitro dry matter digestion (IVDMD), lignin ratio and
in vitro residual cellulose (IVRC) ratio techniques. IVDMD gave good estimates
for both hays, lignin ratio gave good estimates for pangola only and IVRC ratio
gave poor estimates for both hays.





FLA-AL-01186 KOGFR M

A STODY OF RESPONSE TO SELECTION AND GENETIC-ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTION IN
HEREFORD CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Reciprocal exchanges of cattle from unrelated lines developed at Brooksville,
Fla. and Miles City, Montana were made during the period 1962-1964. Thus, two
genotypes (lines) are being compared in each of two environments (locations).
Highly significant genotype x environment interactions (GEI) have been observed
for birth weight, weaning weight and post-weaning gain on pasture. These
interactions occurred for both foundation cattle, half of which had been
transferred, and in subsequent generations where all cattle were born and reared
at the location where comparison was made. Interestingly, there was no GEI for
feed-lot gain where the cattle were not on pasture. In addition to the above
trial with unrelated lines, the comparison is being repeated with closely
related lines selected in each of the two environments. The foundations for
these related lines were random samples from an inbred group, Montana Line 1.
Confirmation of the above preliminary indications of GEI in traits of economic
importance would have significant implications for genetic improvement of
cattle, especially in the use of bulls in AI studs. The level of circulating
blood thyroid hormone was determined on 260 head of cattle at the two locations
during 1968-1969. Both locations and origin of cattle (lines) had significant
effects with the Brooksville classifications being high in both cases.


FLA-AL-01079


AMMERMAN C B










FLA-AL-01204 CARPENTER J W PALMER A Z

QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS STEERS AND HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One hundred and nineteen grade Angus bull, steer and heifer weanling calves, by
a single sire, were fed to slaughter at 11, 14, 17 and 20 months of age.
Dressing percent were similar for all groups at each age. At all ages, bull
carcasses had a higher estimated percent yield (P<.01) and by cut-out a higher
percent (P<.01) of fat-trimmed, boneless retail cuts: steer and heifer carcasses
were similar. Meat quality variations were small at 11 months but at older
ages, the bull carcasses had darker, less firm, coarser textured lean (P<.01)
than the steers and heifers. At 14, 17 and 20 months, steer and heifer
carcasses had more marbling than the bulls (P<.01). Tenderness comparisons of
T-bone steaks showed that the bull carcasses were less tender (P<.01) than the
steer and heifer carcasses at all ages, a difference explained in part by lower
carcass grades of bulls; however juiciness and flavor scores were similar for
all groups. With braised top-round, no differences in panel tenderness,
juiciness and flavor were found between groups at any age. Warner-Bratzler
Shear values of braised bottom round steak were similar among groups at all
ages. Warner-Bratzler Shear values on deep fat fried eye-of-round steaks
revealed no differences in tenderness among the groups as 11 and 14 months; at
17 and 20 months, differences were not significant between steaks from bull and
heifer carcasses but steaks from bulls and steers differed significantly
(P<.05). Blade chuck roast tenderness was similar for all groups at all ages.



FLA-AL-01205 PALMER A Z

PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING OF CATTLE AND CARCASS MATURITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Twenty grade Angus weanling calves of similar breeding were allocated to
slaughter ages of 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 60, 72 and 84 months. To date,
fourteen steers, heifers and cows have been slaughtered up through 60 months of
age. Remaining animals will be slaughtered as they reach the desired ages.
Blood hemoglobin, (gm./100 ml.) hematocrit (%) and blood serum calcium,
phosphorus and magnesium are being determined on samples taken at slaughter.
Color, firmness and texture of lean is being determined. Carcass grade,
maturity, ossification of sacral, lumbar and thoracic vertebra data are being
developed. When all animals have been slaughtered, these indices of
physiological aging will be studied relative to chronological age and relative
to palatability of steaks and roasts.



FLA-AL-01211 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

TOXICITY OF NITRATES IN FORAGE FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
During the year samples of Florida feeds suspected of being too high in nitrate
for livestock consumption were analyzed and the following values were obtained,
expressed as percent KNO(3) on the dry weight basis: corn silage from Suwannee
County, 0.03; three samples of rye from Alachua County, 0.27, 0.37 and 0.83;
oats from Mayo County, 0.21 rye from Mayo County, 0.12; and ground corn from
Halton County, 0.08. One water sample from Columbia County had 17 ppm present.



FLA-AL-01245 WARNICK A C

THREE-VERSUS TWELVE-MONTH BREEDING SEASONS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A summary of 4 years calving percentage in the purebred Brahman and Santa
Gertrudis herds at the Brooksville Station showed 67% in the 3-month group and
85% in the year-round groups. The average calf crop born in the combined groups
of the Brahman was 77% and the Santa Gertrudis was 75%. Of cows that were
pregnant in the 3-month group 53% conceived during the first 30 days, 36% during
the second 30 days and only 11% during the last 30 days. In the year-round
group less than 8% conceptions occurred in Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec.
and 72% of the conceptions occurred during the March 15 to June 15 dates.
Ovarian activity was closely related to the cow body weight which was related
to pasture forage production. Many complications in herd management occur with
the year-round breeding season. It is recommended that the breeding season
length and time be regulated according to forage production.










FLA-AL-01313 LOGGINS P E

SELECTION FOR RESISTANCE IN SHEEP TO ABOMASAL PARASITIC NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Four lamb crops have been produced from the selection study on resistance to
internal nematodes in the Florida Native and Rambouillet ewe flocks (R =
Rambouillet, N = Native, H = High, L = Low resistance groups). The heavy death
losses in both RH and RL groups has made it necessary to continue routine
anthelmentic treatments in order to maintain the more susceptible groups; The
percent lamb crop in 1970 were 29, 58, 100 and 91 for RH, RL, NH and NL
respectively. Twenty-seven parasite-free lambs were raised from the 1970
lambing season and challenged with known number of Haemonchus contortus (H.c.)
infective larvae. The lamb hemoglobin types by breed groups were N11(A), N5(B),
N3(AB) and R2(B) and R6(AB). A high level of infection was obtained in the
experimentally challenged lambs and resulted in significantly higher packed cell
volume for the NHb(A) than RHb(B) or (AB). At necropsy significantly fewer
adult H. were recovered from N than R lambs. The larvae counts were
significantly higher indicating N resistance to normal H.c. development.
Hemoglobin types were not significantly correlated with infection levels;
however, trends were observed that adult H.c. females were smaller (and larvae
counts were higher) in the lambs with Hb(A) type.



FLA-AL-01384 SHIRLEY P L EASLEY J F

VARIOUS PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS FOR BALANCING CAICIUM:PHOSPHORUS (CA:P) RATIO IN
FLORIDA-PRODUCED FEEDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
During the year 65 blood plasma samples from cows on this project were analyzed
for phosphorus. Values ranged from 3.3 to 8.8 mg per 100 ml. plasma.




FLA-AL-01404 ARRINGTON L R SHIRLEY R L

ECONOMIC, NUTRITIONAL AND DISEASE FACTORS IN RABBIT PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Growth, efficiency of feed utilization and nutrient digestibility in rabbits fed
diets with 10% fat and 15 or 18% protein were compared to similar responses of
rabbits fed diets with 2.5% fat and 15% protein. Efficiency of feed utilization
was significantly improved with the increased dietary fat. Weight gain was
variable among rabbits and not significantly improved. Addition of purified
soybean protein to the diet high in fat did not result in improved feed
efficiency or weight gain. Preliminary nutrient digestibility data indicate
that fat digestion was improved with increased fat intake, but protein digestion
was not.affected.




FLA-AL-01442 PALMER A Z

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF SWINE RAISED IN CONFINEMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Forty-eight barrows and gilts were allotted in a 4 x 3 x 2 factorial design,lby
weight, litter and sex to three rations (wheat, barley, corn) and four vitamin E
treatment groups: controls, one injection of 500 IU 28 days prior to slaughter,
two injections of 500 IU at 28 and 56 days prior to slaughter and three
injections of 500 10 at 28, 56 and 84 days prior to slaughter. While vitamin E
treated groups had significantly higher longissimus (LD) muscle pH values at 1
and 3 hr postmortem, no significant (P<.05) differences in 5 and 48 hr pH or
ultimate (48 hr) muscle quality (LD color, structure, marbling or transmission
value) were observed. Also vitamin E injections has no significant effect on
muscle total myoglobin and succinic dehydrogenase activity, serum glucose and
lactic acid, feedlot performance or carcass traits. Barley-fed pigs had
significantly higher LD muscle pH at 1, 3 and 48 hr postmortem and darker,
firmer muscles with higher myoglobin level than corn-or wheat-fed pigs.
Corn-fed pigs gained faster than the barley- or wheat-fed pigs. While there was
a difference in muscle temperature at 3 and 5 hr postmortem, no significant
(P<.05) muscle quality differences were observed between right side (held at
300C for 5 hr before chilling) and left side (conventionally chilled). Barrows
and gilts had similar muscle quality.












TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HYACINTHS AND OTHER WATER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Thirty Long-Evans strain female rats at weaning were allocated equally to three
dietary groups; each fed diets that contained 50% hyacinth (Eichhornia
crassips), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and commercial alfalfa meal,
respectively. The remainder of the diets consisted of the following substances
and percentages: casein, 13; corn oil, 5; NaCI, 5; vitamin mixture, 2; and
sucrose, 25. After 12 weeks the average gains for the hyacinth, hydrilla and
alfalfa groups were 156, 142 and 170 g., respectively. The rats were bred and
the groups littered 44, 48 and 48 offspring, respectively. Samples of hydrilla
were obtained at monthly intervals from a lake in Orange County and a drainage
ditch in Sarasota County from March through December and analyzed for various
nutrient and toxic constituents. The average values on the dry weight basis
were: protein, 13.4 (5.4 to 20.7); fiber, 12.4 (3.5 to 27.5); ether extract,
1.1 (0.2 to 1.9); ash, 33.1 (17.9 to 64.9). Carotene concentration was 10.1
(0.0 to 27.0) mg per kg; xanthophyll, 355 (92 to 645) mg per kg; dicoumarin,
39 (0.04 to 111) mug per g; cyanide, 16 (5 to 35) mug per g; and nitrate, 0.002
(0.0 to 0.01 percent.

FLA-AL-01462 BAZER F W WARNICK A C WALLACE H D

UTERINE FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT AND CORPUS LUTEUM FUNCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Restriction of swine embryos to the oviducal environment led to their
degeneration by day-5 after onset of estrus whereas embryos allowed to enter the
uterus on the opposite side of the reproductive system continued to develop
normally. These data indicate that the uterine environment is essential for
continued development of pig embryos. A study of protein components of swine
uterine secretions for days 2 through 18 and day 20 of the estrous cycle
indicated the following total protein values for day 2 (1.3 0.75 mg), day 8
(6.4 f 0.7 mg), day 15 (44.7 t 6.5 mg) and day 18 (6.8 3.7 mg). Furthermore,
five protein fractions were isolated by Sephadex gel filtration. Molecular
weights for fractions I, II, III, IV and V were 400,000, 200,000, 90,000, 45,000
and 20,000 respectively. Fractions I, II and III are present each day of the
estrous cycle, whereas Fraction IV, a purplish glycoprotein which is basic, is
present only on days 12 through 16 and Fraction V is present only on days 9
through 16. Electrophoresis indicated that Fraction IV migrated toward the
cathode whereas proteins from all other fractions were acidic. Fraction V
proteins had Pf values of .910, .840, .800, .740 and .190 with the proteins at
.840 and .740 being glycoproteins. Immunological studies indicated at least 15
antigenic substances in swine uterine secretions of which 12 do not cross react
with anti-porcine serum. Present work is designed to develop an assay for these
uterine secretions with respect to embryonic development and corpus luteum
function.

FLA-AL-01463 BAZER F W WARNICK A C WALLACE H D

FETAL SURVIVAL TO 105 DAYS GESTATION IN SWINE ON VARIOUS HORMONAL AND
NUTRITIONAL REGIMES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This study dealt with mechanisms which may control the availability of
substrates which affect fetal and placental development in swine. By means of
catheters chronically implanted in the aorta and one main uterine vein, blood
samples were collected to analyze for oxygen content, respiratory gas pressures
and pH. Observations were made on gilts between 30 and 102 days of gestation.
Mean arterial values were: po(2) 93; pCO(2) 38; pH 7.476. Mean uterine vein
values were: pO(2) 72; pCO(2) 40 and pH 7.455. Ninety percent of the values
for arterial-uterine vein oxygen content differences were between 0.50 and 0.85
mM/1 which represented about 10% of the arterial oxygen content. There was a
tendency for this value to increase near 100 days of gestation. The rate at
which oxygen is made available is high relative to the utilization rate.
Average fetal weight and average placental length changes were studied in
control and superovulated gilts at 40, 60 and 80 days gestation. Average fetal
weight was 12.5, 128.5 and 424.0 gm for PMS treated gilts and 13.9, 110.8 and
424.0 gm for controls at 40, 60 and 80 days gestation, respectively. Average
placental length was 428.2, 706.3 and 600.7 for PMS treated gilts and 546.9,
583.8 and 635.9 for controls, and average placental weight was 61.4, 182.5 and
169.7 gm for PMS treated gilts and 62.0, 157.9 and 201.8 gm for controls on the
same respective days. An overall correlation coefficient of 0.692 between fetal
weight and placental weight indicated the importance of placental size in fetal
growth. However, there is little change in either placental weight or length
after 60 days gestation, while the most rapid fetal growth occurs after that
time.


FLA-AL-01460


SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F


HENTGES J F












EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL DIETARY PESTICIDES ON RATS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Since findings showed that low levels of pesticides in the diet do not affect
rats adversely, effects of higher levels are being studied. Three groups of
female rats were maintained from weaning to 105 days of age on diets containing
DDT, Sevin, and Parathion at 10, 100 and 500 times the level in the average
human diet in the United States. A fourth group, serving as controls, was fed
no added pesticides. At 105 days of age (after 77 days on the diets) the rats
were bred and allowed to go to term. Liver, muscle and fat samples were taken
from maternal rats and full-term fetuses for analysis. Neither feed consumption
nor weight gains of the female rats were affected by diets containing pesticides
at 10 or 100 times human dietary levels. For the respective groups,control, 10
X and 100 X, feed consumption per rat averaged 741, 739 and 776 grams in 77
days, and weight gains averaged 167, 166 and 168 grams. Hemoglobin values were
14.8, 14.5 and 15.0 grams per 100 ml. blood. The diet containing 500 times the
concentration in the average human diet resulted in death to 4 of the 10
females, 2 dying after 12 days on the diet, 1 after 13 days and 1 after 16 days.
The remaining 6 females showed increased feed consumption (average 920 grams per
rat), normal hemoglobin (14.5 grams), but decreased weight gains (average 141.8
grams.). Nonetheless, these 6 females conceived when bred and bore young which
were of normal size and appearance: thus among those which lived, reproduction
was apparently unaffected by the very high pesticide intake. Analysis of tissue
samples for concentrations of DDT is being begun at this time.







FLA-AL-01471 FRANKE D E

BEEF AND DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION IN NORTHERN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One year of data has been collected from this project. Although more data are
needed before conclusions are possible, results from the one year tend to
support previous research in other states. Results from the one year were;as
follows: 1. Although conception rate in virgin F(1) dairy x beef cross heifers
approached 100%, breed back during the second breeding season was less than 25%
as opposed to above 80% for contemporary Angus and Hereford heifers. 2. An
approximate 25 pound advantage in 205 day adjusted weaning weight was realized
by F(1) calves over straightbred British calves.






FLA-AL-01475 MOORE J E

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROPERTIES OF SOUTHERN FORAGES AND ANIMAL RESPONSE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
(1) Pangolagrass hay was fed to sheep at levels equalling from 107 to 203% of
daily intake. Voluntary intake was not affected by level of feeding but the
sheep selected a diet higher in organic matter and crude protein and lower in
cell wall constituents at the higher levels of feeding. The increased crude
protein intake was offset by an increased fecal excretion of crude protein. (2)
Several modifications of the Tilley and Terry two-stage in vitro digestion
technique were evaluated. The technique adopted for routine work utilizes (a)
100 ml opaque plastic tubes (Nalgene), (b) prior treatment of samples by adding
5 ml H(2)0 to the samples in the tubes and applying vacuum to wet the particles,
(c) direct acidification of the media after the microbial fermentation, and (d)
recovery of the residues by filtration. No centrifugation is required in this
technique. (3) Correlation coefficients (r) between in vivo organic matter
digestibility of 10 bahiagrass hays and several laboratory tests were: in vitro
organic matter digestion, 0.97: acid detergent fiber, -.94; crude protein, 0.87;
cell wall constituents, -.77; cellulose, -.76, lignin -.63; and hemicellulose
0.11. (4) Pangolaqrass hays harvested after 4, 6, 8.5 and 11 weeks regrowth
were fed to sheep with and without 75 gm soybean meal daily. Voluntary intake
without supplement was 72.3, 65.0, 39.7 and 45.8 gm organic matter per kg
metabolic weight (MW) for the four hays, respectively. When fed with
supplement, intake varied from 54.0 to 58.7 gm/kg MW and was not different among
hays.


FLA-AL-01467


FEASTER J P











FLA-AL-01480 HENTGES J F JR

NUTRITION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF BEEF AND DAIRY X BEEF CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One objective of this project is to measure postweaning growth rate, estimate
carcass quality and determine efficiency of utilization of high-concentrate vs
high-silage diets offered ad libitum to beef and crossbred dairy x beef calves.
A comparison was made of calves with four breed backgrounds: straightbred
Hereford or Angus, crossbred Hereford x Angus, Holstein x Hereford or Angus and
Brown Swiss x Hereford or Angus. Differences among breed groups were small for
feed intake, gain and efficiency of diet utilization when high-silage diets were
fed. Differences among breed groups were marked on the high-concentrate diets
with Brown Swiss crossbreds ranking highest. Holstein crossbreds gained faster
than crossbred Hereford x Angus,which gained faster than the straightbred
calves. Carcass quality differences were recorded but all breed groups met
acceptability standards without discrimination.








FLA-AL-01481 HENTGES J E JR SHIRLEY R I COMBS G E JR

PROCESSED AQUATIC PLANTS FOR ANIMAL NUTRITION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
One objective of this project is to obtain data on the acceptability and
productive value of processed aquatic plants in the diets of cattle. Two
species of plants, the floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the
submersed Florida elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) were harvested from freshwater
sites and processed into meal and pellets. The nutrient content of dried
aquatic forage was reduced by pressing during processing and by a low water
nutrient content. The consumption of aquatic forage in diets was increased by
grinding and pelleting the aquatic forage and by adding supplemental ingredients
to the diets: namely, molasses, oil meal protein, starchy energy sources and
mineral mixture. No apparent toxic effects were observed in cattle fed diets
containing dried water hyacinths and Florida elodea for nine months.
Experiments are underway to measure the digestibility by yearling steers of
completely pelleted diets containing about one-third dried aquatic forage.










BOTANY DEPARTMENT

During this year research was carried out on nine numbered projects. These
were concentrated in the areas of plant physiology, taxonomic studies, morphology
and taxonomy of ascomycetes, and biological control of mosquitoes by certain
fungal parasites. Non-projected research was also conducted in these and
additional areas such as environmental quality, hydrobiology of salt evaporative
ponds, and entomogenous fungi.
Grant or contract support has been received for work on ion uptake and
transport, and for certain floristic studies. Progress is continuing on
acquisition of equipment to enhance the capabilities of our research laboratories.



FLA-BT-00001 SHANOR L

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN BOTANY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/08 70/12
At the completion of this project the purpose of the study, which was to devise
means to increase the living organisms in the brine ponds of the Diamond Crystal
Salt Company, was realized. By the judicious use of fertilizers and vitamins,
these organisms now are present in sufficient quantity to both color brine and
to produce a multilayered bottom mat. This has resulted in increased solar
absorption, increased evaporation, and bottom sealing. The salt works, through
this study, is now able to accomplish its purpose--the production of salt from
sea water. The results of this study are of great practical value to the solar
salt industry, for companies possessing non-productive salt works are now able
to use the living organisms naturally growing in the salt ponds to help improve
salt production. Our results have already been used to improve salt production
not only at the place where this study was conducted (Long Island, Bahamas), but
also at Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, Port Hedland, Australia, and Shark Bay,
Australia.




FLA-BT-01042 FRITZ G J

METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN BY PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This research project has as its goal the demonstration of in vivo addition of
oxygen gas to cellular constituents. Actually very little is known about this
type of oxygen reaction in plant tissues. In fact, it has been only lately that
I have been led to believe that O(2)-fixation has an important role in lignin
formation. Certain well-known precursors of lignin, specifically cinnamic and
p-coumaric acids, are reported in the literature to be hydroxylated (in vitro)
by atmospheric oxygen (to p-coumaric and caffeic acids respectively). Thus, to
demonstrate oxygen-18 labelling in these acids (isolated from plant tissue after
incubation of the tissue in an atmosphere labeled with 180(2)) would provide
strong evidence of the participation of 0(2)-fixation in lignin formation. For
the past two years procedures for the isolation of caffeic and p-coumaric acids
have been perfected in this laboratory. Within recent weeks sunflower seedlings
were incubated for several days in an atmosphere labeled with 10 atom per cent
oxygen-18. Caffeic acid isolated from these seedlings was shown by mass
spectrometry to be labeled (in the oxygen atoms in the hydroxyl groups). Thus,
for the first time oxygen gas in the atmosphere has been shown to be essential
for lignin formation. Similar experiments are now in progress for p-coumaric
acid.





FLA-BT-01118 WARD D B

A FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Continued attention was given to several grass genera. The genus Cenchrus and
the closely related genus Pennisetum (Gramineae) were studied carefully, with
resultant changes in the names and distribution of Florida species. A northern
coastal species, C. tribuloides, which has previously been considered to extend
around the entire Florida coastline, was tentatively restricted to northeastern
Florida and the western Gulf coasts, reflecting a post-Pleistocene interruption
of a littoral environment across northern Florida. The peninsular coastal
vicariant is distinguished by several morphological features and has been











recently described as C. bambusoides. Another species, previously recognized as
C. incertus and found in disturbed areas throughout the state, appears to
consist of two reasonably distinct taxa, the second under the name C.
pauciflorus. The increasingly important forage grass Brachiaria was surveyed,
and identifications made of several recently introduced species. An effort was
made to obtain stability in the name of the widely grown Paragrass, with the
conclusion that this central African species should be known as Brachiaria
purpurascens.





FIA-BT-01191 ANTHONY D S

BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Earlier studies on this project invalued growing pea (Pisum sativum) plants at
approximately optimal temperature (190 night, 250 day) and under supraoptimal
temperatures (310 night, 31 day). The uptake of C14 labeled amino acids and
their incorporation into proteins in excised whole plant tops was studied.
Because such wide individual variations resulted within a given treatment, this
technique was abandoned in favor of one involving pea stem end leaf sections.
The past year was spent primarily in developing this technique and in beginning
to amass data. When sufficient data have been accumulated to permit definite
conclusions, it is expected that this project will be terminated with
publication of the results.





FLA-BT-01226 KIMBROUGH J W

TAXONOMY OF SPECIES OF THE TRIBE THELEBOLEAE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
All genera of the tribe Theleboleae are currently placed in the family
Thelebolaceae of the Pezizales. Important type collections were examined from
the University of Toronto and Farlow Herbarium. Among the Farlow collections an
unidentified Ascophanus from Ceylon proved to be a new species of Iodophanus,
currently being published as I. crystallinus. Cultures of four species of
Iodophanus were obtained during the past year. Comparative cytological and
developmental features are being studied. Cytological development is also being
studied in Thelebolus stercoreus, Lasiobolus ciliatus, and Thecotheus cinereus.
Most of the nomenclatural problems encountered with Coprotus and some of its
species have been resolved. A manuscript on North American species of Coprotus
is nearing completion. Additional fresh collections of lasiobolus, and type
specimens from several herbaria, are currently being sought. Cultural,
microscopic, and microchemical features will be studied in Lasiobolus in
preparation of a monograph of this genus.



FLA-BT-01287 WARD D B

THE LEGUME FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The genus Lupinus (Papilionoideae) was studied, with particular emphasis on the
species native to Florida. The native species of the Southeast fall into two
groups. One group consists of species with deciduous palmate leaves. It is
primarily northern and western, only marginally extending into Florida. Lupinus
nuttallii is widespread north of central Florida, but L. perennis, which is
usually considered extensive in Florida, was found to be represented only by a
few stations with more widespread indications of gene exchange with L.
nuttallii. The second group is of species with simple evergreen leaves, whose
only close relatives are in southern Brazil. Apparently five species are in
Florida, sharply delimited in leaf, flower, and fruit characters. One of them,
endemic to central Florida, has not previously been recognized and described.
Of the five species, three are restricted to Florida. The large genus Galactia
(Papilionoideae) was surveyed in an effort to delimit the Florida species and to
resolve nomenclatural questions. In the Southeast the genus consists of an
extensive series of closely related forms well represented in all parts of
Florida. Further field work will be necessary to circumscribe the morphological
limits of several of the taxa, as well as to determine their range and
ecological amplitudes.













CULTIVATION OF COELOBOMYCES, A FUNGAL PARASITE OF MOSQUITOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Field collections of mosquitoe larvae infected with the fungus Coelomomyces have
again been made during this period in the Gainesville, Florida, area. The
fungus has persisted in the same locations for the forth consecutive summer
season and becomes apparent when larvae of the mosquitoe genus Psorophora are
produced. It is hoped that this field infection data will provide a basis for
specific efforts directed toward determining the mode of infection and means of
propagation in nature. In the search for clues to methods of cultivating the
fungus additional assays of certain glycolytic enzymes fron non-infected and
infected mosguitoe larvae have been made. No significant differences have been
detected and we tentatively assume that no unusual glycolytic pathways are
utilized by the fungus during its growth in the larvae. Other nutritional
pathways are being examined with the idea of finding a means of growing the
fungus in the absence of its host.








FLA-BT-01401 HUMPHREYS T E

CARBOHYDRATE SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The mechanisms of sugar uptake in plant tissue are difficult to unravel because
at least two membranes may be involved (plasma membrane and tonoplast) and
because it is not usually possible to experimentally differentiate their
separate involvements. In the corn scutellum we have used uranyl nitrate to
distinguish sugar transport at the two membranes. Uranyl nitrate (1.5 x 10-' M)
completely inhibited the storage of exogenous sucrose in slices of the corn
scutellum, but had no effect on the storage of intracellularly synthesized
sucrose. Sucrose production from glucose or fructose was inhibited by 15 and 35
percent, respectively, and the inhibitions were not increased by a 10-fold
greater uranyl ion concentration. Essentially the same degrees of inhibition
were obtained when the slices were incubated with uranyl ion and sugar as when
the slices were pretreated in uranyl ion and then washed and placed in sugar
solutions. In the latter case, the inhibition was shown to be completely
reversed by hydrogen ion or partially reversed by certain metal cations. ( ranyl
ion also strongly inhibited the exchange of sucrose between the bathing solution
and the storage compartment of the cell. These results are consistent with a
scheme which includes two sucrose transport membranes, one at the cell exterior
for exogenous sucrose and the other at the cell interior between the sucrose
synthesis and storage compartments, and a membrane containing hydrophylic pores
through which hexose molecules can freely diffuse from the cell exterior into
the synthesis compartment. The plasma membrane also appears to contain a
transport system for hexses.











FLA-BT-01410 WARD D B

ECOLOGICAL RECORDS ON ARB RESERVATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Work was completed on the portion of this project funded by the Air Force. A
final report was prepared and submitted, summarizing the entire three year
program and covering in detail the more recent activities. The report included
a checklist of the 830 species of vascular plants known to occur on the Eglin
Reservation with an identification key and an annotated listing of the
distribution and frequency of the 200 woody species. A publication on the
earlier quantitative measurement of the effects of the Air Force aerial
herbicide sprays is in preparation, and a further publication on the flora of
the area is planned, as an expansion of the final report described above.


FLA-BT-01387


MULLINS J T











DAIRY SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Dairy research was conducted on 19 projects relating to dairy production
and dairy foods. Two new projects were initiated during the year. One studied
physiological and biochemical responses of dairy cows to corticoid hormones; the
other evaluated post-milking teat dipping with a disinfectant solution and dry cow
medication for mastitis control.
This is the last year that research from the West Florida Dairy Unit will
be reported (Project 575--West Florida Dairy Unit). This unit is being closed out
and the cattle are being merged with the Dairy Research Unit at Gainesville.
Project 1352, reported herein, was terminated effective December 31, 1970.
Dr. H.H. Van Horn was appointed as Chairman of the Department during the
year.



FLA-DY-00213 WING J M

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Twenty-four cows were randomized into two comparable groups for a double
reversal trial during the 200 day period following the peak of lactation. A
complete feed of dry ingredients was compared to a chemically similar ensiled
ration of kenaf and ground corn. Criteria were body weight, general health,
milk production and composition with respect to fat, titratable acidity,
protein, choloride, and solids not fat. The only significant difference was a
decline in milk production averaging 7 lb. per cow daily when the ration was
changed to kenaf. Before ration changes, production was comparable, and no
increase occurred when the change was from kenaf to dry feed. Replication is
planned to include comparison with a corn silage based complete ration.




FLA-DY-00575 WILCOX C J HEAD H H THATCHER W W

PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION OF THE FLORIDA STATION DAIRY HERD

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Major efforts were directed toward studies of birth weights during the year.
Weights of 2,125 Jersey calves born in the Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. dairy herd from
1929 to 68 were subjected to a series of analyses to estimate maternal effects.
Average birth weight was 24.3 kg; gestation length 279.3 days; age of dam 55.8
months. Data were adjusted for month and year of birth, sex and age of dam
(curvilinear) by constants from least squares analyses which included sire and
gestation length of calf in the model. Several genetic parameters were estimated
from adjusted data. Represented were 701 dams, 46 sires, 86 maternal grandsires,
and 1,682 dam-daughter pairs. The phenotypic variance in birth weight was 16.2
kg,consisting of nonmaternal additive genetic variance 8.5, maternal additive
genetic variance 13.6, maternal and nonmaternal additive genetic covariance -8.1,
maternal environmental variance -3.4 and random environmental variance 5.5.
Nonmaternal heritability of birth weight was 0.52, maternal 0.84, and total
0.15.





FLA-DY-01047 WILCOX C J KRIENKE W A HEAD H H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPON COMPOSITION OF MILK

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A number of genetic aspects of milk composition and yield of the five major
dairy breeds were quantified in the interregional investigation. Response
variables included yields of milk, fat, SNF, TS, protein and LM, and the
appropriate percentages, as well as the ratios of yields of SNF to fat and
protein to fat. Estimates of direct and correlated response from selection were
obtained for all measurements. Results suggested that attempts to increase
protein percentage by direct selection would increase protein percentage but
result in considerable correlated loss in milk yield, and slight gain (slight
loss in Jerseys) in protein yields. However, direct selection for milk yield
would result in correlated response in protein yield which averaged 92% as
efficient as direct selection for protein yield. Likewise, similar results
would be obtained by direct selection for SNF percentage, although with not as
great a loss in yields. Estimates obtained should be useful in the design of
efficient selection programs which would fit varying economic situations.











FLA-DY-01137 WILCOX C J

VARIATIONS OF MILK AND FAT YIELDS OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Studies of sire x herd interactions were carried out on DHIA milk production
records adjusted for year, season, age at calving and lactation length, using a
series of least squares constants. Sources of variation included were: herd,
sire, herd x sire and remainder. Expectations of the mean squares were obtained
by using Henderson's method of 1953. By equating the mean squares to their
expectations and solving the system of equations obtained, negative sire x herd
interaction components were observed in most of the analyses. Results suggested
that the interaction component of variance was negligible or zero. The
practical consequences of these results are that there is little need to
concentrate the daughters of A.I. bulls, on which evaluations are based, in
higher producing herds. Further, daughter records from all herds can be used,
irrespective of the level of production, with equal confidence. These results
then give no support to the suggestion that it would be much easier to detect
genetic differences at a high level of management. Another conclusion, based on
neglibible genotype-environmental interaction components, is that in the process
of improving the genetic composition of dairy cattle, choice of bulls to be used
should depend exclusively on their genetic merit without taking into
consideration their origin.






FLA-DY-01185 MARSHALL S P SMITH K L

FEEDING SYSTEMS, NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH OF DAIRY CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
During the past several years data have been collected concerning the caloric
intake by young Jersey calves and the resulting weight gains. A wide range of
caloric intakes has been achieved by altering the composition of the milk diets
offered the calves. Caloric intakes were lowest on a whole milk diet fed at the
rate of 4.5% of body weight twice daily and highest on milk containing 9% fat
and fed ad libitum. From all the data collected to date it appears that the
energy intake (above that required for resting metabolism) to produce a gram of
weight gain increases linearly as the energy intake above resting metabolism
requirement increases. When all of the diets studied were adjusted for level of
caloric intake, there were no differences among the diets in efficiency ofl
utilization for weight gain except for the colostrum diet, which was used less
efficiently. An attempt is being made to quantify this data and to develop a
prediction equation for the relationship between body weight, caloric intake and
weight gain.






FLA-DY-01213 HEAD H WILCOX C J

GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN EFFECTS ON THE METABOLISM OF GLUCOSE AND ACETATE IN
DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Studies to elucidate short-term effects of Growth Hormone (GH, 0.2 mg kg/body
wt) injection on blood metabolite levels have been extended. A replicated 4 x 4
Latin Square to determine GH and fasting effects on blood metabolite levels has
been completed. Results confirm earlier findings that GH had little effect on
blood metabolite levels except plasma NEFA which was elevated. Eight male
calves (5 months old) were used in a single reversal trial to determine GH
effects during an extended fast and period of relative metabolite insufficiency.
Four calves were given a single intravenous injection of GH (0.2 mg/kg body wt)
and four calves saline 72 hr after feeding. Two weeks later the treatment
sequence was reversed. Fasting and GH effects on blood metabolite levels were
evaluated. Fasting blood and plasma glucose levels declined from 53.30 + 1.50
and 81.69 + 2.01 (4 hr) to 35.65 + 1.29 and 51.41 + 1.08 mg/100 ml (96 hr),
respectively. Plasma NEFA levels increased from 144 + 11 (4 hr) to 1260 + 88 mu
eg/L (96 hr), and plasma free amino acid-nitrogen levels remained unchanged.
Rapid intravenous injection of GH (13-20 mg) did not produce an insulin-like
phase or significant alterations in these blood metabolites in the fasted
animal.










FLA-DY-01234 WILCOX C J

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTION OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Efforts continued to be directed toward the collection of data concerning vital
statistics of Florida dairy cattle, five herds with over 1000 cows represented,
and toward the transfer of the data bank into punched cards. Progress in the
latter continues with approximately 20,000 of 30,000 observations transferred.
One herd ceased operation during the year. Present objectives are to quantify
non-additive genetic effects, if such exist, on several measures of reproductive
performance (life spar, age at first calving, service interval, gestation length
and calving interval). It is doubtful that preliminary statistical analyses can
be started during 1971, but such should be initiated in 1972.




FLA-DY-01255 WING J 8

ENERGY SOURCE AFFECTING DIGESTIBILITY OF CELLULOSE, PROTEIN, & RUMEN
FERMENTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Effects of citrus pulp on rumen fermentation patterns were studied in two
replications of a 4 x 4 Latin Square balanced for carry-over effects using
rumen-fistulated steers. Dry matter of corn silage was replaced at levels of 0,
33, 67 and 100 percent by citrus pulp in rations rendered isonitrogeneous with
soybean meal. As citrus pulp varied from 100% to 67, 33 and 0% of the ration,
molar percentages of acetic propionic and butyric acids varied as follows:
65.1, 13.9, 21.6; 68.8, 13.5, 16.8; 62.1, 12.8, 23.5; 70.8, 11.5, 16.3. The
only difference of significance was between the acetic/propionic ratios in rumen
liquor of animals receiving 67 or 100 percent citrus pulp at 2 and 4 hours after
feeding. similar work is in progress on use of pelleted and conventional citrus
pulp as a replacement for corn in complete feeds for dairy cattle.





FLA-DY-01264 WILCOX C J

VITAL STATISTICS OF BEEF AND DAIRY SIRES USED IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
No analyses were completed during the year. Data collection continues with
nearly every U.S. and Canadian stud cooperating (all major studs cooperate) by
providing records of AI beef and dairy bulls. The annual survey was completed
as scheduled in 1970 as will be the 1971 survey. The next scheduled statistical
analysis will be carried out in 1972. Results of research completed on this
project to date have been published and presented in earlier annual progress
reports.




FLA-DY-01271 HEAD H H

GLUCOSE AND FREE FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN THE IMMATURE RUMINANT

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Chemical and statistical analyses to estimate age and diet effects on glucose
utilization and concentration have been completed. Age and body weight were
more important than plasma glucose concentration in accounting for within animal
variability of glucose utilization. Glucose utilization rates in milk-fed
calves remained higher than in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. Further sample
collection, chemical and statistical analyses have been performed to estimate
age and diet effects on nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism and
concentration. Weekly fasting (16 hr) blood samples obtained from 18 calves
have been analyzed for blood and plasma glucose and for various blood lipid
fractions (cholesterol, cholesterol esters, total esterified fatty acids, NEFA,
and triglycerides) and the data are currently being analyzed to determine age
and diet effects on these components and their interrelationships as energy
sources for the growing calf. Thirty palmitic acid-1-*C constant infusion
isotope dilution experiments conducted on 6 of the calves (16 hr fast) at 20,
40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 days of age have been performed and chemical analyses,
radioactive assay and compositional analyses are currently in progress.











PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CONCENTRATED MASSES OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING
BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Four pilot trials for making cottage cheese with concentrated masses of lactic
acid bacteria were completed. In each case the cell content of the vat
containing the harvested cells was higher than that of the vat containing
commercial culture prepared in the usual way. In two trials, one vat of milk
inoculated with harvested cells contained 2.88 x 107 cells per ml with an
initial pH of 6.8. After 22.5 hours the pH was 5.4. The other vat contained
4.2 x 108 cells, initial pH 6.5 and final pH 4.8 after 16 hours. Coagulation
did not occur in either case. In other trials one vat inoculated with harvested
cells contained 6.5 x 108 cells per ml compared to a control vat with 3.4 x 10m
cells per ml. The vat with harvested cells required 20 hours for pH change 6.5
to 5.4 while the control vat required 6.3 hours for pH change 6.8 to 4.8. In
another trial one vat inoculated with harvested cells contained 1.66 x 10' cells
per ml and the control 1.89 x 10a cells per ml. The vat with harvested cells
required 17 hours for pH change 6.5 to 5.1 while the control changed from pH 6.4
to 4.9 in 7 hours. Approximately 70% recovery of cells from growth medium was
obtained in each case.


FLA-DY-01399 MARSHALL S P VAN HORN H H

COMPLETE RATIONS FOR LACTATING COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The suitability of pelleted sugar cane bagasse as a source of roughage is
being studied in a continuous type feeding experiment with lactating cows.
A complete ration containing 25 percent of cottonseed hulls is serving as
the standard, and pelleted sugar cane bagasse is being tested as a replacement
for the cottonseed hulls at 0, 50, and 100 percent levels. Observations are
being recorded on feed intake, milk production, milkfat test, body weight
changes, and animal health. Analyses are being conducted on the pelleted
bagasse for cellulose, lignin, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Si, Al, Ba, Cr,
Ce, K, Li, Na, Rb, Sn, and Sr.



FLA-DY-01408 WILCOX C J

QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF MILK PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Research on genetic aspects of productive and reproductive traits in tropical
and subtropical areas continues. Some 1390 reproductive records of threelICA
experimental purebred Holstein herds under different environmental conditions of
Colombia were studied. Data included information form 1955-67. Least squares
analyses of variance were carried out for each herd separately. Overall means
for the three herds, respectively, were: for calving interval 433, 419, and 436
days; for interval from calving date to first heat, 86, 63, and 93 days; for
first heat to first service, 18, 29, and 6 days; for first service to
conception, 61, 60, and 98 days; for gestation length, 280, 279, and 281 days:
for birth weight, 38, 36, and 38 kg. The average number of services per
conception was 2.0 for the three herds. Pooled heritabilities were 0.10 or less
for all variables studied except gestation length and birth weight, where
nonmaternal heritabilities were 0.28 and 0.22, respectively.



FLA-DY-01409 WILCOX C J HEAD H H THATCHER W W

SELECTION FOR MILK YIELD IN JERSEYS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
This selection project is still in its early stages. Objectives are to place
major emphasis in selection upon a single trait, milk yield, and to establish
the maximum amount of genetic progress which can be made. At the same time,
changes in other traits of economic importance, which are ignored in the
selection, will be measured. This is a cooperative project with the experiment
stations of Georgia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee. A number of
routine measurements are being taken at each station to characterize various
aspects of production, reproduction, mastitis, general health and growth. No
analyses of data are contemplated for 1971, but efforts among the five
cooperating experiment stations will continue to ensure the compatability of
data for the final analyses.


FLA-DY-01352


MULL L E SMITH K L


KRIENKE W A










FLA-DT-01422 WILCOX C J LANE C B

EFFECTS OF METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND HANDLING OF BILK UPON DEVELOPMENT OF
LIPOLYTIC RANCIDITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Previously collected data have been transposed to electronic data processing
cards for summarization during 1971.


FLA-DY-01458 WING J R

LAND DISPOSAL OF DAIRT FARH WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Composition of oats forage from waste management and control areas were:
neutral detergent fiber 43.1 and 47.1, acid detergent fiber 25.1 and 28.2,
cellulose 21.7 and 23.2, protein 13.5 and 12.7, organic matter as percent of dry
matter, 92.7 and 92.5, carotene in parts per million 11.9 and 10.3; energy in
calories per gram 4132 and 4125. Waste disposal did not affect acceptability of
the forage which was digested percentagewise as follows: Dry matter .58.4,
Protein 60.2 and energy 71.1. Consumption per 1000 lb. body wt. was forage
1361, dry matter 37.2, digestible protein 3.9 lb; and energy 58.7 calories.
Work in progress will delineate similar data for ensiled oats and fresh and
ensiled sudan-sorghum.



FLA-DT-01488 THATCHER W W HEAD H H WILCOX C J

LACTATIONAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF DAIRY COWS TO CORTICOID
HORMONES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Twenty five cows, receiving either-0.0 mg or 0.010 mg of a synthetic corticoid
once daily, have completed a 305 day lactation period. Daily milk production
and feed intake, bi-weekly samples of milk and blood, and monthly measurements
of body weight have been collected. In addition, bi-weekly blood sampling was
continued to parturition to further characterize hormone changes associated with
pregnancy. Blood samples currently are being analyzed for metabolite and
hormone levels. With completion of blood determinations, statistical analyses
will be initiated to quantify the effect of a synthetic corticoid, stage of
lactation, and stage of pregnancy on silk production and composition, feed
intake, and body weight; and to determine any interrelationships of these
productive units with metabolite and hormone response variables. Sensitive and
quantitative methods were developed to measure bovine plasma cortisol and
corticosterone using sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and competitive
protein binding analyses. High blanks or inhibition to competitive protein
binding analyses, encountered with the use of silica gel thin layer
chromatography, was eliminated using sephadex LH-20.



FLA-DY-01525 THATCHER W W SMITH K L WILCOX C J

POST-MILKING TEAT DIP AND DRY COW MEDICATION FOR MASTITIS CONTROL

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/11 70/12
This is a new experiment initiated on 7-27-70 in which the effectiveness of an
iodine post milking teat dip solution and dry cow medication is being evaluated
as a practical mastitis control program. Spectrophotometric measurements of
Feulgen-DNA reflectance of milk were related to Direct Microscopic Somatic Cell
Count (DMSCC) and udder infection status. Average DMSCC per ml of 119 selected
individual milk samples (5 major dairy breeds represented) was 1,560,000;
average percent reflectance was 86.6%; Over 90% of the variation in reflectance
values was associated with variation in DMSCC (R-0.95). The DMSCC per ml can
be predicted by the relationship Y = 4327 108.036X + 0.08806X2 0.002269X3,
where Y is estimated DMSCC per ml (coded 10-4) and X is percent reflectance.
The average reflectance value of 905 individual daily composite samples taken
routinely in the herd was 90.4% (806,958 somatic cells per ml). Reflectance
measurements of 1765 quarter milk samples indicated a higher (P 0.01) incidence
of somatic cells in milk from rear quarters than fore quarters. Average
reflectance values for quarter milk samples containing organisms classified as
hemolytic staphylococcus, non-hemolytic staphylococcus, non-hemolytic
streptococcus and negative, after incubation on bovine blood agar for 24 hours
at 37 C were: 70.2% (n = 85), 89,0% ( n = 82), 84.1% (n = 205), and 92.5% (n =
1102), respectively.









EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

During the year a new offset duplicator was added, which permitted quicker
service to the researchers' duplicating needs.
A technique for preparing sound slide presentations was developed, which
enriched the showing of research information. Plans are underway to make wide
use of this visual method.
News and feature stories were furnished to all media outlets in Florida
quoting researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. These averaged about
nine releases per week, and reached an estimated 2,208,000 listeners, viewers,
and readers per month.




Publications

The Editorial Department printed 63,200 copies of ten new research
bulletins totaling 344 pages and 72,000 copies of eight new research circulars
totaling 128 pages. One bulletin and one circular were reprinted. These
totaled 20,000 copies and 40 pages. During the year four 16-page issues of
The Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report were printed and distributed
to 8,000 subscribers.

Publications printed were:
Number
Pages Printed
Bul. 734 Silage Investigations in Florida. R. B.
Becker, J. M. Wing, P. T. D. Arnold, J. T.
McCall, C. J. Wilcox........................... 32 7,500

Bul. 735 Production Performance and Blood and Bone
Composition of Cows Grazing Pangolagrass
Pastures Receiving Different Phosphate
Fertilizers. W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley,
E. M. Hodges, G. K. Davis, F. M. Peacock,
J. F. Easley, F. G. Martin...................... 56 7,500

Bul. 736 Market Allocation of Florida Orange Production
for Maximum Net Returns. D. E. Weisenborn,
L. Polopolus, W. W. McPherson.................. 36 5,000

Bul. 7371 Demand for Florida Orange Products in Foodstore,
Institutional, and Export Market Channels.
D. E. Weisenborn, W. W. McPherson, L. Polopolus. 36 5,000

Bul. 738 A Model for Selecting Sugarcane Varieties.
F. le Grand, F. G. Martin....................... 24 5,000

Bul. 739 Citrus Products in Cattle Finishing Rations:
A Review of Research at Range Cattle Station
1946-1960. W. G. Kirk, M. Koger............... 36 7,800


Bul. 740 Production Response and Economic Returns from
Five Pasture Programs in North Central Florida:
Beef Research Unit Report No. 2. M. Koger,
W. G. Blue, G. B. Killinger, R. E. L. Greene,
J. M. Myers, N. Gammon, Jr., A. C. Warnick,
J. R. Crockett..................................

Bul. 741 Cattle Gains Fed and Injected with Vitamin A.
W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
F. M. Peacock...................................

Bul. 742 Maintenance Feeding of Different Grades of
Steer Calves. W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock,
A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter..................

Bul. 743 Water Table Control and Fertilization for
Pine Production in the Flatwoods. E. H.
White, W. L. Pritchett ........................

Cir. S-203 Flordabelle, A Peach for Central Florida.
R. H. Sharpe ...................................

Cir. S-204 Flordared Peach. R. H. Sharpe..................

Cir. S-205 The Climate of the Belle Glade Area.............


48 5,000



16 5,400



16 10,000



44 5,000


11,000

11,000

5,000









Cir. S-206 Vegetable Variety Trial Results for 1967-1968
and Recommended Varieties. M. E. Marvel,
V. L. Guzman....................................

Cir. S-207 Earlibelle, A New Early Blight Resistant
Celery. E. A. Wolf............................

Cir. S-208 June-Belle, A New Early Blight Resistant
Celery for Late Spring Harvest in South
Florida. E. A. Wolf...........................

Cir. S-209 Bluegem Blueberry. R. H. Sharpe, W. B.
Sherman... .....................................

Cir. S-210 Zipper Cream, A High Producing Fresh Market
Southern Pea with Processing Potential.
A. P. Lorz......................................

Publications reprinted were:

Bul. 536B Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional
Sprays for Citrus ..............................

Cir. S-172 Azalea Culture. R. D. Dickey..................


2,000


10,000



10,000


15,000


12 8,000


5,000

15,000


Technical Journal Articles

Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large
numbers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a
few in foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded
to the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered
for distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
4,000 listings.

Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed.

2475 Reproductive behavior of Bos indicus females in a subtropical
environment. II. Length of estrous cycle, duration of estrus,
time of ovulation, fertilization and embryo survival in grade
Brahman heifers. D. Plasse, A. C. Warnick, M. Koger. J. Anim.
Sci. 30:1:63-72. Jan. 1970.

2783 Condideration for the development of a primary nematology research
program. A. C. Tarjan. Symp. on Trop. Nematology 147-155. July
1969.

2968 Physical endurance of rats increased by rutin. K. M. Brooks and
R. C. Robbins. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 33:2:119-23. June 1970.

3015 Production of the Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia tanaka) in Florida.
C. W. Campbell. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1:183-192. 1968.

3036 Fertilizing slash pine on sandy soils of the lower coastal plain.
W. L. Pritchett and W. H. Smith. North Amer. Forest Soils Conf.
19-41. Aug. 1968.

3081 B-Aminopropionitrile-induced dissecting aneurysms of turkeys:
treatment with propranolol. C. F. Simpson, J. M. Kling, and R. F.
Palmer. Toxicol. and Appl. Pharmacol. 16:143-153. 1970.

3092 Sources of nutrients and their reactions in forest soils. W. H.
Smith and W. L. Pritchett. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:149-158. -1969.

3147 Evaluation of composted municipal refuse as a plant nutrient source
and soil amendment on Leon fine sand. C. C. Hortenstine and D. F.
Rothwell. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:312-319. 1969.

3168 P fertilization of pasture and composition of cow bone. R. L.
Shirley, J. F. Easley, J. T. Perdomo, W. G. Kirk, G. K. Davis, and
E. M. Hodges. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 33:2:111-118. June 1970.

3172 In vitro germination and pollen growth of maize (Zea mays L.)
pollen. III.. The effect of pollen genotype and pollen source vigor.
P. L. Pfahler. Canadian J. of Bot. 48:1:111-115. 1970.










3182 Fertilizer nitrogen uptake by Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)
from Leon fine sand, a spodosol. W. G. Blue. Internat. Grasslands
Cong. 389-392. 1970.

3183 Vitamin A and B-carotene in liver and blood of cows grazing
pangolagrass and fed cattle. W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
and F. M. Peacock. J. of Range Management 23:2:136-139. March 1970.

3184 Blood components of range cows: phosphorus, calcium, hemoglobin and
hematocrit. W. G. Kirk and George K. Davis. J. of Range Management
23:4:239-243. July 1970.

3189 Performance of an oscillating, forced-air concept for removing citrus
fruits. J. D. Whitney. Amer. Soc. Agri. Eng. 13:5:653-660. 1970.

3197 Stimulation of pollen growth in vitro by ethylene. R. W. Search
and R. G. Stanley., Plant Physiology 27:1:35-39. 1970.

3239 Experimental production of soft tissue calcification in guinea pigs
by a plant (Solanum malacoxylon). H. R. Camberos, G. K. Davis,
M. I. Djafar, and C. F. Simpson. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 31:4:685-696.
Apr. 1970.

3241 Head measurements and weights of the bean leaf roller, Urbanus proteus
(Hesperiidae). G. L. Greene. J. Lepidopterists Soc. 24:1:47-51.
Mar. 1970.

3252 Recent approaches to the treatment of tumors in animals. P. T.
Cardeilhac. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156:3:355-364. Feb. 1970.

3254 Fine structure of Haemobartonella bovis in the blood and liver of
splenectomized calves. C. F. Simpson and J. N. Love. Amer. J. Vet.
Res. 31:2:225-231. Feb. 1970.

3255 Hatching of Bean leaf roller eggs as influenced by insect diet
components. G. L. Greene. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 63:1:321. Feb. 1970.

3261 Registration of Florida 66 alfalfa. E. S. Horner. Crop Sci. 10:456.
July-Aug. 1970.

3268 Avocado polyphenoloxidase: purification and fractionation on Sephadex
thin layers. N. S. Dizik and F. W. Knapp. J. Food Sci. 35:282-285.
1970.

3270 Abnormalities of erythrocytes and kidney tubules of chicks poisoned
with lead. C. F. Simpson, B. L. Damron, R. H. Harms. Amer. J. Vet.
Res. 31:3:515-523. Mar. 1970.

3272 Irradiation-induced changes in the volatile constituents of 'Valencia'
oranges. R. J. Braddock, R. W. Wolford, R. A. Dennison, E. M. Ahmed.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:4:437-441. July 1970.

3273 Experimental absorption of dieldrin by chlorella. W. B. Wheeler.
J. Agri. and Food Chem. 18:3:416-419. May-June 1970.

3277 Relationship of potassium to a leaf spot of Ficus elastic 'Decora'.
R. B. Marlatt and P. G. Orth. Phytopathology 60:2:255-257. Feb. 1970.

3278 Biochemical and serologic relationships of Vibrio fetus isolants
from man. F. H. White and A. F. Walsh. J. Infectious Dis.
121:5:471-474. May 1970.

3279 Cytogenesis in 'Maygold' peach. W. B. Sherman, D. W. Buchanan,
J. B. Aitken. Amer. Soc. Short. Sci. 5:1:41. Feb. 1970.

3282 Occurrence of gray leafspot on peppers in Florida. C. H. Blazquez.
Plant Dis. Reporter 53:9:76. Sept. 1969.

3283 The transport of auxin and regeneration of xylem in okra, pea and
peanut stems. N. P. Thompson. Amer. J. Bot. 57:4:390-393. Apr. 1970.

3289 Effect of different milks and levels of intake upon growth of young
dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 53:11:1622-1626.

3293 Effects of added nitrogen on the availability of phosphorus to slash
pine on two lower coastal plain soils. M. Maftoun and W. L.
Pritchett. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34:4:685-690. July-Aug. 1970.










3294 Growth retardation of citrus by quaternary ammonium derivatives of
(+)-Limonene. A. P. Pieringer and W. F. Newhall. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 95:1:53-55. Jan. 1970.

3295 Determination of carbaryl as an amide derivative by electron-capture
gas chromatography. R. L. Tilden and C. H. Van Middelem. J. Agri.
and Food Chem. 18:1:154-158. Jan.-Feb. 1970.

3298 Suberin and periderm formation in dieffenbachia. R. B. Marlatt.
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:1:32-33. Jan. 1970.

3299 Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on growth and Xanthomonas
disease of Philodendron oxycardium. R. W. Harkness and R. B.
Marlatt. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:1:37-41. Jan. 1970.

3305 An automatic sampling system for respiratory gases and respiratory
response of irradiated citrus fruits. G. F. Green, E. M. Ahmed,
and R. A. Dennison. Institute of Food Technol. 34:627-629. 1969.

3314 Reproductive characteristics of Zea mays L. plants produced from
gamma-irradiated kernels. P. L. Pfahler. Radiation Bot. 10:329-335.
1970.

3327 Pork carcass muscling: fat, lean and bone ratios. H. R. Cross,
J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer. J. Anim. Sci. 30:6:866-871. June 1970.

3328 Biochemical mechanism of photosynthesis and growth depression in
Digitaria decumbens when exposed to low temperatures. S. W. West.
Proc. Internat. Grassland Congress 514-517. 1970.

3331 Evaluation of insecticides for control of the two-lined spittlebug
on Florida pastures. E. B. Fagan and L. C. Kuitert. J. Econ.
Entomol. 63:3:716-719. June 1970.

3332 Effects of iron and copper ions in promotion of selective abscission
and ethylene production by citrus fruit and the inactivation of
indoleacetic acid. S. Ben-Yehoshua and R. H. Biggs. Plant Physiol.
45:604-607. May 1970.

3335 Swarming and mating behavior in Culex pipens quinquefasciatus Say.
F. M. Williams and R. S. Patterson. Mosquito News 29:4:662-666.
Dec. 1969.

3336 Control of budworms on sweet corn in central and south Florida.
G. L. Greene and M. J. Janes. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:2:579-582.
Apr. 1970.

3349 Nysius raphanus attacking tobacco in Florida and Georgia. W. B.
Tappan. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 63:2:658-660. Apr. 1970.

3350 Influence of protamone and dienestrol diacetate on bone fragility
of caged layers. L. O. Rowland, Jr., and R. H. Harms. Poultry
Sci. 49:1:128-131. Jan. 1970.

3353 Salt and acid effects on citrus leaf abscission. C. R. Barmore
and R. H. Biggs. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:2:211-213. 1970.

3355 The distribution of tryamine, N-Methyltryamine, hordenine, octopamine,
and synephrine in higher plants. T. A. Wheaton and Ivan Stewart.
Lloydia 33:2:244-254. June 1970.

3356 Endosperm cytokinesis in 'Early Amber' peach. W. B. Sherman and
D. W. Buchanan. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:255-257. Nov. 1969.

3357 An epidemiological comparison of downy mildew and gummy stem blight
diseases on watermelon. N. C. Schenck. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:
151-154. Nov. 1969.

3358 Gel-coated ready-to-serve grapefruit halves. A. H. Rouse, E. L.
Moore, C. D. Atkins, W. Grierson, D. S. Bryan. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 82:227-229. Nov. 1969

3359 Maturity changes in pectic substances and citric acid of Florida
lemons. A. H. Rouse and L. C. Knorr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
81:208-212. Nov. 1969.

3360 Peel oil content of 'Valencia' oranges. R. Hendrickson, J. W.
Kesterson, and S. V. Ting. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:191-196.
Nov. 1969.










3361 Sub-tropical peaches and nectarines. R. H. Sharpe. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:303-306. Nov. 1969.

3362 Tree Heet for frost protection of peaches. J. F. Gerber, D. W.
Buchanan, and G. R. Davis. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:265-270.
Nov. 1969.

3363 Post-bloom thinning of Florida peaches with 2-chloroethylphosphonic
acid. J. A. Blake, R. H. Biggs, and D. W. Buchanan. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:257-268. Nov. 1969.

3364 Phytotocixity to purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and soil
persistence of some hormone type herbicides. D. S. Burgis. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:143-146. Nov. 1969.

3365 Response of iron chlorotic avocado trees on Rockdale soil to certain
iron treatments. T. W. Young. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:328-
333. Nov. 1969.

3366 Seed size and planting depth effects on two tomato cultivars. L. H.
Halsey. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:118-120. Nov. 1969.

3367 Blossom removal in the strawberry winter nursery. E. E. Albregts.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:146-148. Nov. 1969.

3368 Mineral composition of Florida mango leaves. T. W. Young and R. C.
J. Koo. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:324-328. Nov. 1969.

3369 A celery early blight spray program based on disease forecasting.
R. D. Berger. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:107-111. Nov. 1969.

3370 Response of direct seeded cabbage using different spacings and
planting and thinning methods. J. R. Shumaker. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:112-115. Nov. 1969.

3371 The distribution and pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkholder
et al. to Syngonium podophyllum Schott. J. F. Knauss and C. Wehlburg.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:370-323. Nov. 1969.

3372 Control of Botyrytis cinerea disease on cut flowers of gladiolus by
sublimation of fungicides. R. O. Magie. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 82:385-388. Nov. 1969.

3373 Walter and Tropic -- new tomato varieties for Florida growers. J. W.
Strobel, D. S. Burgis, P. H. Everett, and N. C. Hayslip. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:121-124. Nov. 1969.

3374 Effect of fungicides and insecticides on flower quality of commercial
chrysanthemums in Florida. A. W. Engelhard. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 82:381-385. Nov. 1969.

3375 Control of a leafhopper, Empoasca krameri, by various methods of
applying systemic insecticides to pole beans. R. M. Baranowski.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:134-136. Nov. 1969.

3376 Post-harvest control of Schlerotinia sclerotiorum of pole beans.
R. T. McMillan, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:139-140. Nov.
1969.

3377 Observations on cultivars of commercial chrysanthemums to ascochyta
blight, rust and three petal spot diseases. A. W. Engelhard.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:340-343. Nov. 1969.

3378 Effect of Nu Film 17 on fungicides evaluated for control of
cucumber target spot. C. H. Blazquez and G. T. McGraw. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:141-143. Nov. 1969.

3379 Sources of fertilizer copper for watermelons. P. H. Everett. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:136-139. Nov. 1969.

3380 Response of four celery varieties to levels of gibberellic acid
applied two and four weeks before harvest. V. L. Guzman. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:129-134. Nov. 1969.

3381 Effects of some growth regulating chemicals on earliness and total
yield of cantaloupe and watermelon. M. Abdel-Rahman and B. D.
Thompson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:125-128. Nov. 1969.











3382 Benlate, an experimental post harvest citrus fungicide. A. A.
McCornack and G. E. Brown. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:235-238.
Nov. 1969.

3383 Movement and degradation of herbicides in Florida citrus oils.
D. P. Tucker and R. L. Phillips. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:
72-75. Nov. 1969.

3384 Variation in the abscission response of aging citrus fruit and
leaf explants to ethylene and 2,4-D. A. M. Ismail. J. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 95:3:319-322. May 1970.

3385 Parameters controlling the use of 2-amino-butane fumigation for
decay control in fresh and cannery citrus fruit. W. Grierson. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:238-242. Nov. 1969.

3386 A study of acidity levels and adenosine triphosphate concentration
in various citrus fruits. B. S. Buslig and J. A. Attaway. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:206-208. Nov. 1969.

3387 A comparison of soil and spray applications of four manganese sources
for control of manganese deficiency in 'Valencia' orange trees.
C. D. Leonard. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:12-20. Nov. 1969.

3388 Four years of abscission studies on oranges. W. C. Wilson. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Nov. 1969.

3389 Performance of closely spaced trees. R. L. Phillips. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:48-51. Nov. 1969.

3390 Correcting magnesium deficiency of limes grown on calcareous soils
with magnesium nitrate. R. C. J. Koo and T. W. Young. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:274-278. Nov. 1969.

3391 Effect of slow release and readily available nitrogen sources and
three nitrogen levels on growth, quality and chemical composition
of Ilex opaca 'East Palatka.' R. D. Dickey. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 82:422-424. Nov. 1969.

3392 Effects of accumulation of excess photosynthate in chrysanthemum
leaves. S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:350-353. Nov.
1969.

3393 The nutritional status of the 'Orlando' tangelo (Citrus paradisi
Macf. 'Duncan' x C. reticulata Blanco 'Dancy'). Talbert Cooper, Jr.,
A. H. Krezdorn, and R. C. J. Koo. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
81:36-38. Nov. 1969.

3394 Control of Botrytis cinerea diseases on chrysanthemum, carnation,
rose, snapdragon, petunia and phalaenopsis flowers. R. O. Magie.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:373-378. Nov. 1969.

3395 Hand pollination tests and field evaluation of pollinators for
citrus. H. D. Brown and A. H. Krezdorn. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 82:43-48. Nov. 1969.

3396 Enhancement of color in reconstituted juice by natural means. R. W.
Barron and J. F. Metcalf. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:197-200.
Nov. 1969.

3397 Equivalent color scores for Florida concentrated orange juice.
R. L. Huggart, F. W. Wenzel and F. G. Martin. Proc. Fla State
Hort. Soc. Nov. 1969.

3398 Differential abscission of citrus leaves, mature and immature fruits
by ethylene, Ethrel, and cycloheximide. M. A. Ismail. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:230-234. Nov. 1969.

3399 Peach fruit maturity as influenced by growth regulators. G. F.
Martin, D. W. Buchanan, and R. H. Biggs. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 82:260-265. Nov. 1969.

3400 Multi-purpose gels used in preparing new citrus products. E. L.
Moore, A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins, and E. C. Hill. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:224-227. Nov. 1969.









3401 Some observations on imports and exports of floricultural
products with special reference to Latin America. C. N. Smith
and W. E. Waters. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:429-436. Nov.
1969.

3402 Effects of soil pH and calcium on the growth and mineral uptake
of young citrus trees. C. A. Anderson and F. G. Martin. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:7-12. Nov. 1969.

3403 Rooting response of four ornamental species propagated in various
media. R. T. Poole. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:393-397.
Nov. 1969.

3404 Gladiolus corm dips for root-knot nematode control. A. J.
Overman. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:362-366. Nov. 1969.

3405 Market news reports for florists' products: change and challenge.
E. F. Scarborough, C. N. Smith, and F. H. Beshears. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82:352-361. Nov. 1969.

3406 Nematodes and cover crops in chrysanthemum ranges. A. J. Overman.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:344-350. Nov. 1969.

3407 Detachment force for harvesting snap beans. R. K. Showalter. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:115-118. Nov. 1969.

3408 Distribution of watermelon mosaic viruses 1 and 2 in Florida.
W. C. Adlerz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:161-165. Nov. 1969.

3409 Effects of rate and frequency of fertilizer applications on growth,
yield, and quality factors of young 'Valencia' orange trees.
D. V. Calvert. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:1-7. Nov. 1969.

3410 Radiant heat--some general properties and its production. G. R.
Davis and J. F. Gerber. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:63-69.
Nov. 1969.

3411 Food technology developments related to tropical horticulture in
Florida. R. A. Dennison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:299-302.
Nov. 1969.

3412 Morphological and growth-retarding effects of 1-amino-2-
nitrocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (ANCPA) on certain vegetable
crops. S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:165-167.
Nov. 1969.

3413 Characteristics of retail outlets selling nursery products in
Florida. C. N. Smith. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:388-393.
Nov. 1969.

3414 Importance of plant introductions to Florida agriculture. G. B.
Killinger. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:8-11. 1969.

3415 Small grain crops grazed by supplemented and unsupplemented growing
beef calves. J. E. Bertrand and L. S. Dunavin, Jr. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:203-207. 1969.

3417 Filamentous viruses infecting dasheen and other araceous plants.
F. W. Zettler, M. J. Foxe, R. D. Hartman, J. R. Edwardson, and
R. G. Christie. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 60:983-987. June 1970.

3419 Effect of ratios of NH(4) to NO(3) and levels of N and K on chemical
content of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Bright Golden Ann'. J. N.
Joiner and W. E. Knoop. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 82:403-407.
Nov. 1969.

3420 Mechanical joining of scion to stock in apical grafting of roses
and other plants. S. E. McFadden, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
82:407-411. Nov. 1969.

3422 Lye peeling of Florida tomatoes--effects of time, temperature
and concentration. R. F. Matthews and H. H. Bryan. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:178-181. Nov. 1969.

3423 Effect of tobacco mosaic virus and bacterial infections on
occurrence of graywall of tomato. R. E. Stall, L. J. Alexander,
and C. B. Hall. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:157-161. Nov. 1969.










3424 Evaluation of Florida-grown tomato cultivars and breeding stocks
for thermal processing. R. P. Bates and J. W. Strobel. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:173-177. Nov. 1969.

3425 Processing research with Florida grown grape cultivars. R. P.
Bates and J. A. Mortensen. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:182-186.
Nov. 1969.

3426 Seasonal patterns of citrus bloom. W. A. Simanton. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:96-98. Nov. 1969.

3425 Reliability of the diphenylamine nitrate test for celery and sweet
corn. V. L. Guzman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:57-62.
1969.

3428 Chemical control of nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. C. R. Miller,
F. Clark, V. G. Perry. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:369-392. 1969.

3429 A comparison of Gahi-1 millet and Grazer A sorghum x sudangrass at
several pH levels. L. S. Dunavin. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 29:163-168. 1969.

3430 Measurement of root development of watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris)
using P-32. H. L. Breland, J. G. A. Fiskell, and S. J. Locasclo.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:103-110. 1969.

3431 Effects of burning crop residue and applying nitrogen on the soil
fertility and soybean yields. M. C. Lutrick and W. K. Robertson.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:11-17. 1969.

3432 Strawberry leaf composition and yield. E. E. Albregts and P.
Sutton. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:283-287. 1969.

3433 Stratification in a spodosol. V. W. Carlisle and C. L. Schoon.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 29:332-336. 1969.

3434 Nutritional factors affecting nodal cracking of some celery cultivars.
H. W. Burdine and V. L. Guzman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:351-362. 1969.

3435 Estimates of the voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility of
bahiagrass pasture by grazing steers. J. E. Moore, G. L. Ellis,
C. E. Rios, and M. Koger. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:168-175. 1969.

3436 Row spacing and population effects on pearlmillet and sorghum
sudangrass. 0. C. Ruelke and G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Proc. 29:189-196. 1969.

3437 Ion-activity measurements in soil extracts. J. G. A. Fiskell and
H. L. Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:63-69. 1969.

3438 Effects of soil series and pH on the removal of nine sources of
applied manganese by several extractants. Nathan Gammon, Jr.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Prcc. 29:70-77. 1969.

3439 Slash pine growth during the seven to ten years after fertilizing
young plantations. W. L. Pritchett. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 29:34-44. 1969.

3440 Isolation, inoculation, temperature relations and culture of a
Cercospora pathogenic to Ficus elastica 'Decora'. R. B. Marlatt.
Plant Dis. Reporter 54:3:199-202. Mar. 1970.

3443 Description of the pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus pallens
(Diptera: Culicidae). J. F. Renert. Fla. Entomo L 3:Y:-0.
1970.

3444 The effect of sting nematodes on establishment, yield, and growth
of forage grasses on Florida sandy soils. F. T. Boyd and V. G.
Perry. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:288-300. 1969.

3445 Change in amounts of hesperidin and growth promoters and inhibitors
in healthy and exocortis infected citrus trees. I. A consideration
in exocortis virus diagnosis. R. W. Hanks and A. W. Feldman.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:306-312. 1969.










3446 Celery yield and quality in relation to methods of fertilizer
application and climate. V. L. Guzman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 29:301-305. 1969.

3447 Isozymes as biological markers in plant genetics and breeding.
R. L. Smith and S. C. Schank. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:196-202. 1969.

3448 Energy flow in some tropical ecosystems. A. E. Lugo. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:254-264. 1969.

3449 Flooding experiments for control of wireworms attacking vegetable
crops in the Everglades. W. G. Genung. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:55-63.
1970.

3451 Factors controlling residues of 2-aminobutane in citrus fruits
fumigated for decay control. W. Grierson and F. W. Hayward.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:2:214-218. Mar. 1970.

3452 Crop protection by heating, wind machines, and overhead irrigation.
J. F. Gerber. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 5:5:428-431. Oct. 1970.

3453 Inclusion morphology as a basis for distinguishing tobacco etch
virus from potato Y virus. D. E. Purcifull, J. R. Edwardson, and
S. R. Christie. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 60:5:779-782. May 1970.

3454 The ring nematode, Criconemoides ornatus, on peach and centipedegrass.
S. Ratanaworabhan and G. C. Smart, Jr. J. Nematol. 2:3:204-208.
July 1970.

3455 Benlate, an experimental preharvest fungicide for control of
postharvest citrus fruit decay. G. E. Brown and A. A. McCornack. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:39-43. Nov. 1969.

3456 Evaluation of dienestrol diacetate (Lipamone) supplementation of
broiler finisher feeds on pigmentation, growth characteristics and
market quality. G. M. Herrick, J. L. Fry, B. L. Damron, and R. H.
Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:1:222-225. Jan. 1970.

3457 Host differences among Florida populations of Belonolaimus
longicaudatus, Rau. W. I. Abu-Gharbieh and V. G. Perry.
J. Nematol. 2:3:209-216. July 1970.

3458 Comparative endosperm cytokinesis in two low chilling, short cycle
Peaches and a nectarine. W. B. Sherman, D. W. Buchanan, and
T. W. Edwards, Jr. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 5:2:109-110. Apr. 1970.

3459 Stunted pigs from sows fed crude aflatoxins. P. T. Cardeilhac,
E. C. Schroeder, J. T. Perdomo, G. E. Combs, and G. T. Edds. Toxicol.
and Appl. Pharmacol. 17:548-550. 1970.

3461 Biology of the "love-bug" Plecia nearctica (Diptera: bibionidae).
L. A. Hetrick. Fla. Entomol. 53:1:23-26. 1970.

3462 Ficus elastica infected with Aphelenchoides besseyi via Sporobolus
poiretii as a transmitting agent. R. B. Marlatt. Amer. Phytopathol.
Soc. 60:3:543-544. Mar. 1970.

3463 Reduction of polyphenoloxidae activity in peaches sprayed with alar,
ethrel, or giberellic acid. F. W. Knapp, C. B. Hall, D. W.
Buchanan, and R. H. Biggs. Phytochemistry 9:1453-1456. 1970.

3464 Control of Hydrilla verticillata. R. Blackburn and L. W. Weldon.
Hyacinth Control J. 8:4-9. July 1970.

3465 Nutrient removal potentials of various aquatic plants. K. K.
Steward. Hyacinth Control J. 8:34-35. July 1970.

3467 Demand and supply response to price changes for selected Florida
vegetables. W. F. Edwards and M. R. Langham. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:154-157. Nov. 1969.

3468 Biochemical composition of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen. I. Effect
of the endosperm mutants, waxy, shrunken, and sugary on the amino
acid content and fatty acid distribution. P. L. Pfahler and H. L.
Linskens. Theoretical and Appl. Genetics 40:1:6-10. 1970










3469 The effect of uranyl nitrate on sucrose production and storage in
corn scutellum slices. T. E. Humphrens and L. A. Garrard.
Phytochemistry 9:1715-1723. 1970.

3470 The characterization of a mosquito iridescent virus (MIV). I.
Biological characteristics, infectivity and pathology. J. F. Matta
and R. E. Lowe. J. Invertebrate Pathol. 16:1:38-41. July 1970.

3472 Gahi-l pearl millet and two sorghum x sudangrass hydrids as
pasture for yearling beef cattle. L. S. Dunavin. Agron. J. 62:
375-377. May-June 1970.

3473 Peroxidase polymorphism in cultivated oats, Avena sativa L. and A.
byzantina C. Koch. R. L. Smith. Crop Sci. 10:273-276. May-
June 1970.

3475 Gaseous loss of amonnia from prilled urea applied to slash pine.
G. M. Volk. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34:3:513-516. May-June
1970.

3477 Varietal resistance to three cucumber foliar diseases in southwest
Florida. C. H. Blazquez. Plant Dis. Reporter 54:1:52-55. Jan.
1970.

3481 Soluble protein and enzyme patterns in shoots of slash pine under
different nutritional regimes. D. H. Van Lear and W. H. Smith.
Phytochemistry 9:1929-1932. 1970.

3482 Fusarium wilt (race 2) of tomato: Micronutrients and disease
development. J. P. Jones and S. S. Woltz. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc.
60:5:812-813. May 1970.

3483 Seed and plant size effects on cabbage cultivars. L. H. Halsey,
R. C. Fluck, D. R. Hensel, and J. F. Beeman. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 95:3:310-313. May 1970.

3484 An unusual occurrence of loopers (Noctuidae, Plusiinae) feeding on
sweet corn ears in Florida. M. J. Janes and G. L. Greene. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 63:4:1334-1335. Aug. 1970.

3487 Recent developments in cobalt and copper in ruminant nutrition: A
review. C. B. Ammerman. J. Dairy Sci. 53:8:1097-1107. 1970.

3488 A virus isolated from Desmodium canum: Characterization and electron
microscopy. J. R. Edwardson, D. E. Purcifull, F. W. Zettler, R. G.
Christie, and S. R. Christie. Plant Dis. Reporter 54:2:161-164.
Feb. 1970.

3489 Selective dissolution effects on cation-exchange capacity and specific
surface of some tropical soil clays. R. B. Reneau and J. G. A.
Fiskell. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34:5:809-812. Sept.-Oct. 1970.

3490 The formation and deposition of hydrogen sulfide on a sawdust drain
tile filter. H. W. Ford and D. V. Calvert. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:1-7. 1969.

3493 Cation-exchange capacity and component variations in southeastern
soils. J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 34:5:723-727. Sept.-
Oct. 1970.

3494 Concentrated dust for control of the corn earworm. G. L. Greene.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 63:5:1665. Oct. 1970.

3495 Immunodiffusion tests for potato Y and tobacco etch viruses. D. E.
Purcifull and G. V. Gooding, Jr. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 60:7:1036-
1039. July 1970.

3496 Starch accumulation associated with growth reduction at low term
temperatures in a tropical plant. J. H. Hilliard and S. H. West.
Science 168:494-496. Apr. 1970.

3497 Spectrophotofluorometric and ultraviolet comparisons of Florida,
California, and Arizona citrus oils. II. Orange and grapefruit
oils. J. W. Kesterson, G. J. Edwards, and R. Hendrickson. Amer.
Perfumer and Cosmetics. Oct. 1970.

3498 Structure and development of Laboulbeniopsis termitarius. J. W.
Kimbrough and R. J. Gouger. J. Invertebrate Pathol. 16:2:205-213.
Sept. 1970.










3499 Soil-borne disease problems in Florida. N. C. Schenck. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. (Fla. Proc.). 29:277-282. 1969.

3500 First United States records for a West Indian burrower ug, Amnestus
trimaculatus (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). R. C. Froeschner nd R. M.
Baranowski. Fla. Entomol. 53:1: 1970.

3501 Sound-synchronized, ultra-high-speed photography: A me hod for
studying stridulation in crickets and katydids. T. J. walker,
J. F. Brandt, D. Dew. Ann. Entom. Soc. Amer. 63:3:910-9 2. May
1970.

3504 Lucite--A molding plastic on biological slides. T. W. ESwards, Jr.,
and W. B. Sherman. HortScience 5:2:112. Apr. 1070.

3507 Liquid and dry fertilizer with vegetables. V. F. Nettle and H.
C. Hulburt. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:28-34 1969.

3508 Fungicide evaluations for control of Cercospora leafspot of peanuts
in Florida, 1968-1969. C. R. Miller, D. W. Dickson, and R. W.
Lipscomb. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:273-277. 1969.

3509 Oats and ryegrass for beef production and pasture renovation, Range
Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida. J. E. McCaleb ad E. M.
Hodges. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:214-218. 969.

3510 A three year comparison of infrequent heavy fertilization under
plastic mulch vs. frequent light applications without mul h for
rose production on Immokalee fine sand. G. H. Snyder, T. W. Young,
and N. C. Hayslip. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29 320-331.
1969.

3512 Movement of some fertilizer elements in flatwoods soils. L.
Dantzman and J. E. McCaleb. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. roc.
29:123-130. 1969.

3513 Storage characteristics of freeze-dried avocado puree and guacamole.
R. F. Gomez and R. P. Bates. Inst. of Food Technol. 35:47 -475.
1970.

3514 Manganese response in soybeans. W. K. Robertson and L. G. Thompson.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:86-92. 1969.

3515 Reproductive characteristics in cockerels fed a high level f
iodine. H. R. Wilson and L. 0. Rowland, Jr. Poultry Sci. 9:3:
804-808. May 1970.

3516 Correlation of Al and Fe as extracted by different reagents with
phosphate retention in several soil groups. T. L. Yuan and H. L.
Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:78-86. 196 .

3517 Soil-plant relationships for certain cations in eastern Pan a.
R. B. Reneau, Jr., J. F. Gamble, and J. G. A. Fiskell. Soi and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:131-142. 1969.

3518 Copper solubility in Rockdale and Lakeland soils as a functi n of
pH, cations, and anions. J. G. A. Fiskell and S. E. Malo. oil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:142-148. 1969.

3519 Grain yields of corn and grain sorghum under different plant
populations and row spacings. G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop S i.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:181-189. 1969.

3520 Lactic acid fermentation of outer celery petioles. R. P. Ba es. J,
Food Technol. 35:476-578. 1970.

3522 Aggregation of mineral and organic matter in Rutledge, Ona, a d Leon
fine sands of the southeast Southeastern Coastal Plains. G.
Volk and D. R. Hensel. Soil Sci. 110:5:333-338. Nov. 1970.

3524 Chemical status of some water sources in south central Florid C.
L. Dantzman and H. L. Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. roc.
29:18-28. 1969.

3525 Factors affecting farmland values among Florida counties. J. E.
Reynolds and R. H. Tseng. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:44-48. 1969.




86









3526 Further investigations on control of the corn stem weevil Hyperodes
humilis as a pest of field and sweet corn. W. G. Genung and M. J.
Janes. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:105-108. 1970.

3528 Systems approach to a study of the soil-plant-animal complex in the
tropics. G. O. Mott, B. R. Eddleman, and D. H. Timm. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:238-253. 1969.

3529 Ricoseius loxocheles (Phytoseiidae: Acarina). H. A. Denmark and
M. H. Muma. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:119-121. 1970.

3530 The introduction of Parachasma Opius cereus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
into Florida as a parasite of Anastrepha suspense (Diptera:
Tephritidae). R. M. Baranowski and R. W. Swanson. Fla. Entomol.
53:3:161-162. 1970.

3531 Natural control potential of Galendromus floridanus (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae) on Tetranychidae on Florida citrus trees. M. H.
Muma. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:79-88. 1970.

3533 A laboratory method for cold resistance evaluation of Chloris and
other tropical grasses. R. L. Smith and F. T. Boyd. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:175-180. 1969.

3534 Effects of residual fertilizer, row width and spacing within the
row on soybean (Glycine max) yields and soil fertility. L. G.
Thompson and W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:49-57. 1969.

3535 Corn, sorghum, kenaf and their mixtures for silage. G. E. Pepper
and G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:208-214.
1969.

3536 Aphid and mechanical transmission properties of bean yellow mosaic
virus isolates. I. R. Evans and F. W. Zettler. Amer. Phytophatol.
Soc. 60:8:1170-1174. Aug. 1970.

3537 Reduction of parathion residue on celery. N. P. Thompson. Residue
Rev. 29:39-49. 1969.

3538 Physical and physiological basis for the reflectance of visible and
near-infrared radiation from vegetation. E. B. Knipling. Remote
Sensing of Environment 1:155-159. 1970.

3539 North America Culicoides of the Pulicaris group (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). W. W. Wirth and F. S. Blanton. Fla. Entomol.
52:4:207-243. 1970.

3540 Notes on Brachypogon Keiffer (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), a new
species, and two new neotropical genera of the tribe ceratopogonini.
W. W. Wirth and F. S. Blanton. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:93-104. 1970.

3541 Description of the pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) mitchellae (Diptera:
Culicidae). J. F. Reinert. Fla. Entomol. 53:2:73-77. 1970.

3542 Plasma enzyme changes associated with experimental Dictyocaulus
viviparus infection in rabbits. S. N. Shetty, J. A. Hines, and
G. T. Edds. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 31:12:2251-2260. Dec. 1970.

3543 Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulfate upon urinary excretion of
copper in sheep. N. A. Marcilese, C. B. Ammerman, R. M. Valsecchi,
B. G. Dunavant, and G. K. Davis. J. Nutrition 100:12:1399-1405.
Dec. 1970.

3544 Observations on the ability of some mosquitoes to experimentally
transmit Dirofilaria immitis in Florida. D. J. Weiner and R. E.
Bradley. Mosquito News 36:3:406-410. Sept. 1970.

3546 Etiology and epidemiology of citrus greasy spot. J. O. Whiteside.
Amer. Phytophathol. Soc. 60:10:1409-1414. Oct. 1970.

3547 A comparison of chemical treatments with hot water for the control
of root-knot nematodes in caladium tubers. H. L. Rhoades. Plant
Dis. Reporter 54:5:411-413. May 1970.

3548 Effect of growth hormone on glucose, non-esterified fatty acid and
insulin levels and on glucose utilization in dairy calves. H. H.
Head, M. Ventura, D. W. Webb, and C. J. Wilcox. J. Dairy Sci.
53:10:1496-1501. Feb. 1970.










3549 Dry season deterioration of forage quality in the we -dry tropics.
W. G. Blue and L. E. Tergas. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
29:224-238. 1969.

3550 A seed disorder of bermudagrass caused by Helminthosp rium
spiciferum. T. E. Freeman. Plant Disease Reporter 5 :5:358-359.
May 1970.

3551 Tobacco seedling production as influenced by plantbed management
practices. W. C. Mixson and F. Clark. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 29:341-351. 1969.

3553 Multiple regression of tobacco black shank, root knot, and coarse
root indexes on soil pH, potassium, calcium, and magne ium. R. R.
Kincaid, F. G. Martin, N. Gammon, H. L. Breland, and L. Pritchett.
Phytopathology 60:10:1513-1516. Oct. 1970.

3554 A new approach to recording the wetting parameter by t e use of
electrical resistance sensors. D. R. Davis and J. E. ughes.
Plant Dis. Reporter 54:6:474-479. June 1970.

3555 Development of Ips calligraphus on foliage-based diets. J. S.
Richeson, R. C. Wilkinson, and J. L. Nation. J. Econ. ntomol.
63:6:1797-1799. Dec. 1970.

3558 Segregates of Ascophanus, Coprotus vs. Leporina (Theleb laceae,
Pezizales). J. W. Kimbrough. Taxon 19:5:779-781. Oct 1970.

3559 Inheritance of inner seed-coat color in peanuts. V. A.
Rodriguez and A. J. Norden. J. Heredity 61:4:161-163. July-Aug.
1970.

3560 Carbohydrate metabolism in tropical plants subjected to ow
temperature. S. H. West. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. roc.
29:264-267. 1969.

3561 Mineral contamination of feed samples by grinding. C. B
Ammerman, F. G. Martin, and L. R. Arrington. J. Dairy S i.
53:10:1514-1515. 1970.

3562 Control of aphids on rutabaga at two locations in Florid R. B.
Workman and G. L. Greene. Fla. Entomol. 53:3:135-137. 970.

3564 Top and root growth of pangolagrass, coastal bermudagrass and
pensacola bahiagrass as affected by maleic hydrazide. V. N.
Schroder. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:336-340. 1969.

3566 Registration of Florida 17 cigar-wrapper tobacco. C. E. ean.
Crop Sci. 10:730. Nov.-Dec. 1970.

3567 Registration of Florida 15 cigar-wrapper tobacco. C. E. ean.
Crop Sci. 10:730. Nov.-Dec. 1970.

3568 Registration of Florida 20 cigar-wrapper tobacco. C. E. an.
Crop Sci. 10:730. Nov.-Dec. 1970.

3569 Registration of Florida 513 tobacco germplasm. C. E. Dean
Crop Sci. 10:732-733. Nov.-Dec. 1970.

3572 Effect of diquat on uptake of copper in aquatic plants. D L.
Sutton, L. W. Weldon, and R. D. Blackburn. Weed Sci. 18:6 703-
707. Nov. 1970.

3573 Rhodanile blue, a rapid and selective stain for Heinz bodi s. C.
F. Simpson, J. W. Carlisle, and L. Mallard. Stain Technol. 45:5:
221-223. 1970.

3574 The effect of wire pens, floor pens, and cages on bone char cteristics
of laying hens. L. O. Rowland, Jr., and R. H. Harms. Poul ry
Sci. 49:5:1223-1225. Sept. 1970.

3575 New Tarsonemid mites associated with citrus in Florida (Acar na,
Tarsonemidae). H. H. Attiah. Fla. Entomol. 53:4:179-201. 970

3577 Fruit development in short and long cycle blueberries. T. W
Edwards, Jr., W. B. Sherman, R. H. Sharpe. Hortscience 5:4: 74-
275. Aug. 1970.




88











3578 Behavioral responses of newly hatched cabbage looper and fall
armyworm larvae to light and gravity (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
G. L. Greene and W. L. Morrill. Entomol. Soc. of Amer. 63:6:
1984-1986. Dec. 1970.

3580 Injury to citrus by the Tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus hoenicis
(Geijskes). L. C. Knorr and H. A. Denmark. J. Econ. Entomol.
63:6:1996-1998. Dec. 1970.

3582 Assimilation and release of internal carbon dioxide by woody
plant shoots. W. Zelawski, F. P. Riech, and R. G. Stanley. Canadian
J. Bot. 48:7:1351-1354. 1970.

3583 Biological responses to antibacterial feed additives in diets of meat
producing animals. H. D. Wallace. J. Anim. Sci. 31:6:1118-1126.
Dec. 1970.

3584 Factors contributing to the restricted occurrence of citrus brown
rot in Florida. J. O. Whiteside. Plant Dis. Reporter 54:7:608-
612. July 1970.

3585 Residues in three peanut varieties grown in dieldrin treated soil.
N. P. Thompson, W. B. Wheeler, and A. J. Norden. J. Agri. and
Food Chem. 18:5:862-863. Sept.- Oct. 1970.

3586 A new genus and species of turtle bug from southern Florida
(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. A. Slater and R. M. Baranowski.
Fla. Entomol. 53:3:139-142. 1970.

3589 Occurrence of the sugar beet nematode, Heterodera schachtii, in
Florida. H. L. Rhoades. Plant Dis. Reporter 54:8:635. Aug. 1970.

3590 Incidence of Serratia marcescens in wild Ips calligraphus
populations in Florida. D. P. Jouvenaz and R. C. Wilkinson. J.
Invertebrate Pathol. 16:2:295-296. Sept. 1970.

3592 Infection of apical initials in tobacco shoot meristems by
tobacco ringspot virus. D. A. Roberts, R. G. Christie, and M. C.
Archer, Jr.- Virology 42:1:217-220. Sept. 1970.

3593 The relationship of long-chain fatty acids in honeybees with respect
to sex, caste and food during development. F. A. Robinson and
J. L. Nation. J. Apicult. Res. 9:3:121-127. 1970.

3594 The cause of change in egg cycle by varying sulfur amino acid
content of the diet. R. S. Moreno, H. R. Wilson, B. L. Damron,
and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:5:1359-1361. Sept. 1970.

3595 Use of the laying cycle as a criterion of dietary protein or
sulfur amino acid adequacy. R. S. Moreno, B. L. Damron, H. R.
Wilson, and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:6:1507-1509. Nov. 1970.

3596 Description of the pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) infirmatus
(Diptera: Culicidae). J. F. Reinert. Fla. Entomol. 53:3:147-
151. 1970.

3598 A comparison of phosphorus assay techniques with chicks. 7.
Comparison of the relative performance of eight phosphate sources.
B. L. Damron and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:6:1541-1545. Nov.
1970.

3600 Biological assay of inorganic manganese for chicks. L. T. Watson,
C. B. Ammerman, S. M. Miller, and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:
6:1548-1554. Nov. 1970.

3601 Current trends in the classification of Discomycetes. J. W.
Kimbrough. Bot. Rev. 36:2:91-161. Apr.-June 1970.

3603 Orange peel topography as affected by a preharvest plastic spray.
L. G. Albrigo and G. E. Brown. HortScience 5:6:470-472. Dec.
1970.

3604 Collections of winged aphids in yellow pans in south Florida. R.
J. Nielsson and D. L. Wolfenbarger. Fla. Entomol. 53:4:249-250.
1970.

3607 The response of chicks to sodium sulfate supplementation of a
corn-soy diet. E. Ross and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 49:6:1605-
1610. Nov. 1970.











3609 Description of the pupae of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) vanduzee and W.
(W.) mitchellii (Diptera, Culicidae). J. F. Reinert. F a. Entomol.
53:3:163-169. 1970.

3615 Symptomatology of orange fruit infected by the citrus gr asy spot
fungus. J. O. Whiteside. Amer. Phytoathol. Soc. 60:1:1 59-1860.
Dec. 1970.

3618 Fungi in Foods. I. Effect on inhibitor and incubation mperature
on enumeration. J. A. Koburger. J. Milk and Food Techno 33:10:
433-434. Oct. 1970.

3626 Environmental factors affecting dieldrin uptake by rye. B.
Wheeler. Bul. Environmental Contamination and Toxicol. 5 5:463-
467. 1970.

3627 A new species of Iodophanus (Pezizaceae) from Ceylon. J. W.
Kimbrough. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 97:6:377-379. Nov.-Dec. 1970.

3628 Lysis of grouped and ungrouped streptococci by lysozyme. E.
Coleman, Ivo van de Rijn, A. S. Bleiweis. J. Infect. and immunity
2:5:563-569. Nov. 1970.

3630 Use of tracheal organ cultures for bioassay of aflatoxins. K. P.,
C. Nair, W. M. Colwell, G. T. Edds, P. T. Cardeilhac. Anal. Chem.
53:1258-1263. Nov. 1970.

3635 2-Thiouridine-5 phosphate and its inhibition of aspartate tans-
carbamylase. M. E. Goodrich and P. T. Cardeilhac. Biochi et
Biophys. 222:3:621-626. 1970.

3639 Infiltration of water into soil columns which have a water-
repellent layer. R. S. Mansall. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. F a. Proc.
29:92-102. 1969

3640 Description of the pupa of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) ruti us
(Diptera, Culcidae). J. F. Reinert. Fla. Entomol. 53:4:2 9-213.
1970.

3645 Comparisons of methods of application, rates and formulation of
nematicides for the control of root-knot nematodes, Meloido ne
incognita, on gardenia plants. H. N. Miller and K. A. Noege
Plant Dis. Reporter 54:11:966-969. Nov. 1970.

3651 A tissue culture technique for studying chilling injury of t opical
and subtropical fruits. N. Vakis, W. Grierson, J. Soule, L. G.
Albrigo. HortScience 5:6:472-473. Dec. 1970.

3669 Artificial diet for rearing various species of ants. A. Bhat ar and
W. H. Whitcomb. Fla. Entomol. 53:4:229-232. 1970.

3674 Description of the pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) dupreei (Dipt ra:
Culicidae). R. J. Reinert. Fla. Entomol. 53:4:243-247. 1971



























90










ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted on 18 regular projects during the year. Dr. J.W.
Barnett resigned and was replaced by Dr. J.L. Nation. Dr. J.E. Lloyd was added to
the faculty, transferring from Biological Sciences. Increased emphasis is being
placed on ecology, physiology, behavior, biochemistry, non-chemical control,
integrated control, and other possibilities for achieving more effective control
without possibilities for environmental pollution.







FLA-EY-00001 EDEN W G

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS IN ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Preliminary investigations were made on survey and identification of Trypanasama
cruzi in wild and vector animals; keys, descriptions, and illustrations of
arctiid larvae of eastern North America; detection of infrared radiation by
blood-sucking arthropods; chemosterilization of Culex niqripalpus; resistance of
sorghum and maize to the corn leaf aphid: biological control of sugarcane and
soybean insects; and behavior and toxicology on the drywood termite,
Cryptoternes brevis.







FLA-ET-00678 KERR S H

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Studies on millipedes around structures emphasized the 2 commonest species,
Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure) and Oxidus racilis (Koch). Large (25 and 35
sq ft) rearing troughs holding damp humus were constructed for laboratory
colonies. Feeding habit studies indicated 0. qracilis could live on damp
cardboard almost as long as on the humus, although it is possible the millipedes
were feeding on microorganisms growing on the wet pulp. The millipedes survived
significantly shorter times on moist filter paper and where no food was offered.
When confined on St. Augustinegrass or young bean plants, the millipedes did not
appear to feed on either above or below ground plant tissues. The millipedes
did not feed satisfactorily on a standardized artificial diet for Heliothis or
on a modification containing ground up leaves. Distribution studies showed that
adults tended to clump randomly in humus during the day and disperse randomly at
night. Toxicological tests involved 15 min exposures to Ig/m2 residual films of
insecticides on glass surfaces. Carbaryl produced complete knockdown within 10
min of exposure and complete kill within 25 hr. The figures for propoxur were
25 min and 74 hr. Diazinon did not cause complete kill. Time-lapse motion
picture records of development have been begun.






FLA-EY-00996 KERR S H

TOXICOLOGY OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Further assays were made on the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), to
establish base lines of susceptibility to new insecticides and to measure
resistance to older materials. Field-collected larvae were tested, and at a
later date, larvae from laboratory reared F(1) descendants of the field
populations were also tested. Log dosage-probit analyses show the LD(50) values
(in ug/g body weight) for 50mg (25 mg) larvae as follows. For Gainesville
field population--Gardona 11.4, methomyl about 5 (Data did not fit equation
adequately), DDT 4,550; F(1) descendants--methonyl 68.8. For Sanford field
population--Gardona about 1.5, DDT 8,129, mevinphos 13.6, carbaryl 126.9; F(1)
descendants--Gardona 92.0, DDT 36,550.










FLA-EY-01098 SMART G C

PLANT NEMATODE PROBLEMS CN TORFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Nemaqon was injected by shanks mounted behind coulters into an rmond
bermudagrass fairway in September, 1969. Rates were 18, 36, an 72.1b/acre a.i.
Turf quality was much improved by all rates with results lastin at least a
year. Minimum damage was done to the turf during application; is method and
fall treatment would appear to be feasible. In 3 different test in which
Nemacur (Bay 68138) was used, it proved to be the best material oth for turf
response and nematode control. The 15 Ib/acre rate provided bet er control than
lesser rates. Nemacur and Furadan were the only nematicides in these tests
which controlled the lance nematode. The sting nematode appears to be the
easiest to control and the lance the most difficult, with the ri g nematode
almost as difficult to control as the lance. Tirpate provides q ick turf
response and good control, at least of the sting nematode, for 1 3 months.
DuPont 1410 controlled the sting nematode well for about 3 month but was
ineffective against the ring and lance nematodes. UpJohn U31852 was effective
against the sting nematode only.

FLA-EY-01228 ROBINSON F A

STERILIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
The twenty-two colonies of bees housed in equipment previously co taminated with
the American Foulbrood organism acillus larvae (White) treated wdth 12%
ethylene-oxide, 88% "Freon-12" sterilizing gas mixture in December 1968, still
show no indication of any reoccurrence of the disease. During the past year,
these colonies were moved and routinely manipulated according to o r standard
procedures and brood rearing and honey production was equal to tha of other
normal colonies in the area. Having remained disease free for 24 months, any
outbreak that may occur in the future would have to be considered s a new
infection and not a reoccurrence.

FLA-EY-01294 PERRY V G SMART G C

FACTORS INFLUENCING SURVIVAL AND PATHOGENICITY OF NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Collections of Meloidoqyne spp. from Florida were continued. Eleve populations
were increased in the greenhouse. These included 8 that appeared t vary from
the normal species and normal populations of M. incognita, M. avon ca and M.
arenaria. Single egg mass isolation of each were made and these ar being
increased for further study. Perineal patterns of the parent female s were
preserved for comparisons with the progenies. Several nematode spe ies were
found in association with stunted pines in North Florida. Hoplolai s galeatus
and Belonolaimus longicaudatus were especially associated with poor oot
development and stunting of the pines.

FLA-EY-01297 ROBINSON F A

POLLEN SUBSTITUTE FOR REARING HONEYBEES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Determinations were made of the long-chain fatty acids in larvae, pup e, and
newly emerged adults of the queen, worker and drone honeybees; and al o of adult
excreta, royal jelly and mixed bee collected pollen. Fourteen acids ere
identified in pollen, 15 in royal jelly and 8 or 9 in the bees. Olei was the
predominant acid in all samples, constituting more than 60% of the to al in
adults, 40% in larvae and up to 58% in queen. In royal jelly palmiti was most
plentiful making up 19% of the total. The fatty acid composition of llen was
not closely correlated with that of the bees themselves. Eight pollen
substitute mixtures were fed to caged colonies of honeybees and their elative
attractiveness determined by the amounts consumed and their nutrition
effectiveness by the amount and duration of brood rearing activity. I the
pollen-free mixtures the use of expellor-processed instead of solvent extracted
soybean flour more than doubled the total amount of food consumed. Af er 21
days the average total consumption per colony was 275g. compared to 12 g. Brood
rearing by all colonies had ceased at the end of 21 days. When 10. wh le pollen
was added to the mixtures the total amount of food consumed increased
significantly, however, the preference of the bees for expellor rather than
solvent extracted soybean flour was still evident. Average total consu ption
per colony after 21 days was 377g. and 242g. respectively. After 42 da s when
the tests were terminated total consumption was 560g. and 360g. per col ny. The
type of sugars used did not affect consumption or brood rearing in eith r test.



92













BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS AND MITES ATTACKING STONE FRUITS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Sampling of white peach scale infestations during the year indicated that the
population levels followed closely that of previous years. The November 21-22
fr-eze seems to have reduced overwintering populations drastically although it
is still too early to assess the status critically. Scale populations in
commercial peach orchards wre very light, suggesting that control programs are
effective. Tests show that the ethion plus oil combination and diazinon sprays
are effective scalicides when appli-d to peaches. Infestations of peach tree
borer and lesser peach tree borer are on the increase,and Thiodan no longer
provides adequate control.




FLA-EY-01308 KUITERT L C

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF THE TWO-LINE SPITTLEBUG PROSAPIA EICINCTA (SAY)

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
The project was inactive during the year except for making light trap
collections to confirm population studies.



FLA-EY-01315 KUITEBT L C

FUMIGANTS AND DIPS FOR CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Experiments involving insecticidal dips were performed as a part of another
experiment including other methods of treatment for controlling coffee
root-mealybug infesting miniature calamondin and other foliage plants. This is
reported under Project EY 01353. The project was inactive during the year.




FLA-EY-01322 WALKER T J

SOUND-PRODUCING ENSIFERAN ORTHOPTES (GRYLLIDAE AND TETTIGONIIAE) OF EASTERN
UNITED STATES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Ultra-high-speed, sound-synchronized photography of the stridulatory movements
of 15 species revealed unsuspectedly complex wing-movement patterns and rates
more than double that usually given as upper limit for the type of muscle
involved. A study of seasonal life histories of more than 80 Florida species
was begun. The principal technique is noting at weekly, biweekly, or monthly
intervals the presence or absence of the characteristic calling songs in 38
selected habitats in south Florida, near Gainesville, and in south Georgia.
More intensive study of two species complexes (Gryllus and Neoconocephalus
tripsps) includes rearing juveniles and the progeny of field-collected females
in outdoor cages under near-natural temperatures and photoperiods and in the
laboratory under controlled temperature (25 1C) and photoperiod (16L: 8D).




FLA-EY-01341 HETRICK L A

LIGHT TRAPS FOR FOREST INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Operation of ultraviolet light traps in pine woodlands has continued on warmer
nights from late April until early October. Populations of more than 20 species
of pine-associated insects have continued at a low level, thus indicating the
effectiveness of natural control factors against these insects. A summary
report for this project, starting in 1966 and continuing through 1970, has been
prepared. The use of light traps at fire tower locations could provide a
continuous survey of injurious insects without disturbance of the environment.
Sorting of the pine-associated insects from the thousands of other insects
collected would Le necessary. Fire tower operators would have the time to do
the sorting. However, they would have to be motivated and trained to recognize
the insects that are potentially injurious to pine trees.


FLA-EY-01307


KUITERT L C










FLA-EY-01353 KUITERT L C POE S L

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS ON ORNAMENTAL P ANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Di Syston (64 Al) applied as a drench at the rate of 1 and 2 qt 100 gallons was
effective in controlling coffee root mealybug, Geococcus coffee Gteen infesting
diffenbachia and Hedera sp. Nine dips, 2 drenches and 4 granula formulations
were applied to several thousand miniature calamondins infested ith coffee root
mealyhug. The dip treatments and active ingredients used per 10 gallons
included Bayer 68138(6), Furadan (14.7), Di Syston (16), Azodrin (12.8), phorate
(16), zinophos (8), Lannate 90W (8) and Dasanit (16). Di Syston Azodrin,
zinophos and phoratp gave excellent control after 4 weeks. Zino hos and dasanit
applied with hose-on applicator at rate of 8 ounces ai in 15 gal ons to 80 sq.
ft. of bench were effective in controlling the mealybugs in the ts but not on
roots extending outside of the 4" pots. The granular formulation, carbofuran
10%, dasanit 10%, phorate 10% and lannate 5% were applied to plot with 45
plants and replicated 3 times. None of the treatments were effec ive. Eight
systemic insecticides (granular) were evaluated for controlling I ather-leaf
fern borer in replicated tests. Furadan 10% applied at 1 lb ai/A gave excellent
control and definite growth response. Other treatments were azod in, Bay 68138,
bidrin, Di Syston, Du Pont 1410 and Thimet. Excellent control of two-spotted
spider mite infestations dn roses was obtained with Galecron appl ed at 8 oz
ai/100 gallons. Benlate, a fungicide controlling blackspot on ro es, was
effective in controlling light two-spotted mite infestations on r ses. An
aerosol aqueous spray insecticide, SB Penick 1382 (0.25%) was ef active in
controlling aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs infesting rose, gardenia, geranium
and ligustrum.






FLA-EY-01379 LLOYD J E

SYSTEMATIC AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON FIREFLIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Field and laboratory studies were made on about 25 species of Flori a, Missouri,
Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin fireflies of the genera Photuris nd Photinus.
Of these 10 or more species are new to science; two or three were d covered by
me this year and the others during previous years. Populations of ur species
that were named by earlier workers from museum material were located in the
field and critical observations made; these were in Missouri and Wis onsin., The
flashed signals of many species were electronically recorded,and pre iminary
morphological studies were made. Specimens from several museum coll actions were
determined to add to knowledge of species distributions in those gro ps where
morphology is dependable for identification.






FLA-EY-01389 WAITES R E

NUTRITIONAL PEQUIREMENTS FOR LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALMOND MOTH, DRA
CAUTELLA (WALKER)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Mineral deletion studies and spectrophotometric analysis of carcass t issue were
used to determine the mineral requirements for eight cations in the d et of the
almond moth. Tests of ten replicates for each graded mineral level s owed the
following mineral levels to be optimal: (mg/100 g dry diet) potassium .325;
calcium 1.0; sodium .002; iron .01; zinc .0001; magnesium .100 and co per .005.
No relationship is indicated between mineral concentration in carcass tissue and
dietary requirements. Low levels of zinc, potassium and magnesium pr uced a
high percent survival. The need for iron in the diet was not distinct Low
calcium levels in diets reduced percent survival except in the presence of high
sodium levels. The need for magnesium is reduced when potassium is in luded at
a high level. A high mortality among larvae occurred when the total m neral
concentration exceeded 3%. Graded levels of 13 amino acids were teste for the
almond moth. A distinct need was shown for arginine, lysine, leucine nd
phenylalanine in the diet. Cystine, tryptophan, methionine, glycine,
isoleucine, leucine, valine and glutamic acid are essential in the die of the
almond moth, but to a lesser degree. Histidine was required in relati ely low
amounts.


94











FLA-EY-01438 BUTLER J F WAITES R E

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF ARTHROPOD PARASITES OF LIVESTOCK

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
PURPOSE: To survey and study the bionomics of arthropods affecting livestock in
Florida. To develop control measures for the important parasites. IMPORTANCE:
Arthropod damage to Florida livestock (est. at $12,600,000) includes morbidity,
reduced efficiency, mortality and disease transmission. APPROACH: Surveys were
made with determinations on species, population numbers and effect on the host.
Ecological studies were continued on horn flies, common cattle grubs, cattle
tail lice, triatoma bugs and horse biting lice. Control evaluations were made
on horn flies, house flies, stable flies and cattle tail lice. Treatments
included, residual sprays oils and dusts, feed additive insecticides and
repellents. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bionomics on major pest species were
compiled. Horn fly populations reached 5000 flies per animal by June 25 with
low numbers of 30 per animal in the winter months. Cattle tail lice occurred at
high numbers throughout the season. The common cattle grub had lower numbers in
1970 but was also found infesting horses. Arthropod control experiments gave
winter cattle tail louse control (100%) with sprays of Rabon .25% or Korlan
.25% or Ciovap .25% or toxaphene lindane .5%. Summer tail louse control
(100-97%) with 2% malathion was achieved with self-applicating dust bags and
oilers. Horn fly control (94%) with 2% malathion in self-applicating dusters
was effective but a 2% in oil in oilers gave poor control. Feed additive
experiments of Atgard at 2.5 grams per day per animal gave 99% control of horn
fly larvae in manure. Rabon at 10 to 5 ppm gave 98-63% mortality of larvae.
Repellents tested against horn flies on dairy animals lasted only one day.









FLA-EY-01489 NATION J L

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Adult virgin Anastrepha suspense flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) are being studied
to determine if a sex pheromone is involved in mating. Male flies exhibit a
positive movement toward virgin females 6-12 days old over a distance of 60 cm
when released in a 2 cm x 60 cm glass tube at 30 C. A diverticulum of the gut
exists in both sexes of A. suspense. Dye mixed with the food enters the
diverticulum as well as the main part of the gut. Amylase has been detected in
the diverticulum. Sterols have been extracted from worker honeybees, drones,
queens, and royal jelly and separated by gas liquid chromatography on 3% OV-1
and 3% XE-60, both on gas chrome Q 100-120 mesh. Three peaks having retention
times (relative to cholestane = 1) of 2.27, 2.63, and 2.94 on 3% OV-1 at 230 C
occur in all samples. No cholesterol has been detected in any samples from free
flying colonies. The peak with retention 2.27 has been identified tentatively
as 24-methylene cholesterol, as previously found in bees. Atomic absorption
spectroscopy has been used to determine the quantities of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe,
Mn, and Zn in royal jelly, adult worker bees, and corn, citrus, loblolly and
longleaf pine, and mixed, bee collected pollens. Adult bees can concentrate K,
Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn from their food. They avoid much of the Ca in their food,
either by non-absorption or rapid excretion, or both. Based on the analyses of
minerals in bees and their food, a salt mixture was formulated and fed in an
artificial diet for 8 weeks. The new salt was as good as Wesson's salt mixture
for bees.










FOOD SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Nine new projects were initiated, and research continued u der 10 other
projects. New areas of investigation involved the microbiology, quality changes,
and product development of marine species; the processing and pro uct development
of legume vegetables and sub-tropical fruits; the determination o flavor
components from citrus and sub-tropical fruits; the development o methodology for
texture measurements; and thiamin overnutrition. Studies with se foods provided
information for an industry that had not been included in previous programs. The
development of new food products from by-products offered some pr mise for
reducing the extent of the waste disposal problem. The data on p sticide residue
levels in foods and feeds answered many of the questions asked ab t the safety
of the food supply.









FLA-FS-00001 DENNISON R A

PRELIMINARY EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN FOOD SCIENCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Studies for enumerating fungi in foods included the effect of (1) ihibitors and
incubation temperatures and (2) acidulants. Four types of legumes ere tested
for inhibitory effect on'trypin, ficin and fungal proteolytic enzym s. All
exhibited an inhibitory effect but not to the same extent for each enzyme.
Heating did not completely overcome the enzyme actions. Methods we e developed
for producing films for several protein-lipid systems. Acceptable ickledland
sardine-style products were prepared from thread herring. Smoked h rring was not
acceptable due to the presence of small bones. Major factors influencing the
toughness of cocktail shrimp were pH and duration of refrigerated-s orage.
Crawfish muscle increased in toughness as cooking time was prolonged from 5 to
25 minutes. In nutritional composition studies the moisture, satura ed fatty
acid, unsaturated fatty acid, protein, carbohydrate, and mineral con ent of
franchise food items were determined. Liver, brain, intestine, fat nd cecal
tissue from chicks fed p, p', DDT were analyzed for p,pl, DDT and th
metabolites DDE and DDD. Residues were found in all tissues, increa ing.with
increased level in the diet. 10 ppb ametryne reduced the incorporate on of
1*CO(2) in Chlorella pyrenoidosa 40% after 4 hours and 60% after 20 ours
exposure. DDT exhibited no photosynthetic inhibition at levels of 1 0 ppb.







FLA-FS-01007 ROBBINS R C

PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND METABOLISM OF BIOFLAVONOIDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A serial erythrocyte sedimentation procedure was developed which shows a high
sensitivity to effect of drugs on the suspension stability of blood a
aggregation of the formed elements. The serial procedure is based on
maintaining blood in vitro in thermal (body temperature) and flow equi ibrium,
and following changes in sedimentation rate at 20 min intervals. This procedure
enabled in vitro confirmation of the in vivo observed effects of quini e on
blood cell aggregation. A delayed effect of quinine on aggregation co responded
to in vivo observations that blood cell aggregation is first affected to 12!hr
after the drug is administered. Using the above procedure, the first onclusive
proof was obtained that flavonoids act on the suspension stability of lood and
blood cell aggregation. The flavonoids showed a delayed effect on agg nation
which has caused their effect to be overlooked with the usual sedimenta ion
procedures. The order of activity of flavonoids on disaggregation was rom
least to greatest: rutin, quercetin, hesperidin and tangeretin. arin in
accelerated aggregation. The demonstration of an effect by flavonoids n
suspension stability of blood and aggregation, phenomena which are asso iated
with pathology, provided the basis for a theory which explains action a ainst
abnormal capillary permeability and fragility, therapeutic benefits in variety
of pathological conditions and offers an explanation for the inconsiste t action
which has dominated clinical and experimental research on action of fla noids
in the body.


96












INDICATORS OF DIETARY ADEQUACY FOR INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
Work was done to devise a method tor applying the limiting amino acids, lysine
and threonine, to whole, polished rice grains and to protect the amino acids
from processing loss. To be rutritionally effective, amino acids had to be
added at weight levels approximately 30 times that for vitamins and iron
fortification. A 70-30 methanol-water solution was superior to water for
application ot the amino acids to whole grains. A high methanol content for the
amino acid solvent promoted rapid evaporation of the solvent and minimized
cracking of the rice grains. The solvent containing 4 g of L-lysine monohydride
and 4 q of L-thrronine per 100 ml of solution was applied to whole rice grains
to give a fortification level of 0.8 g of each amino acid per 100 g rice using
an a-rosol spray and a mixing device which gave a tumbling action to the rice
grains. Protective coatings investigated consisted of 2% zein in methanol, 0.4%
methyl cellulose in methanol and 1% dextran (77,000 M.W.) in water. These
substances were tried separately and in combination as a protective coating for
the amino acid fortified rice grains. The most effective protection was
provided by two dextran and zein coatings applied in alternate layers. This
multiple coating resisted a 2 minute washing with water.



FLA-FS-01106 VAN MIDDELEM C H

PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 70/12
A single 3 lb/Acre spray application of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was applied to the
soil under orange and grapefruit trees to control perennial vine weeds.
Approximately 0.02 ppm 2,4-D was detected in the fresh orange peel and orange
peel fruits. However, no 2,4-D was detected in the washed fresh orange peel,
pulp and finisher pulp or in the fresh grapefruit peel. Approximately 0.02 ppm
2,4,5-T was detected in fresh grapefruit peel. Less than 0.5 ppm Azodrin was
detected in field-trimmed head lettuce which had been sampled several hours
after th- seventh weekly application of 1 and 2 lbs active ingredient per acre.
Based on the whole watermelon, Azodrin residues were found to be less than 0.1
ppm on mature melon samples taken a few hours after the seventh weekly
application of 0.5 and 1.0 Ib active pesticide per acre.




FLA-FS-01242 THOMPSON N P

REDUCTION OR ELIMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON FOOD AND FEED PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Work applying radiolabeled parathion to celery ribs was repeated using
ethyl-C-14 parathion. Results of C-14 and S-35 labeled parathion studies are
similar, that is, radio activity could be detected within the plant cuticle.
Methods included freeze sectioning, freeze drying sections on microscope slides,
coating slides with Kodak NTB-2 liquid emulsion, developing emulsion, cover
slipping slides and observation with a phase interference microscopy.




FLA-FS-01421 BATES R P

EVALUATION OF TOMATO LINES FOR THERMAL PROCESSING

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
In limited trials machine harvested fruit experienced 17-38% transportation and
handling damage prior to processing compared to 5-11% with hand harvested fruit.
Varietal differences were masked by harvest method field condition
interactions. Of secondary importance to machine harvestability is ease of lye
peeling, as tomato cultivars with high shoulders and large stem scars
(representing many of the fresh market cultivars) required an inordinate amount
of handling and trimming during peeling operations. Hand harvested breeding
lines from STEP trials at Bradenton produced tomato juice comparable or superior
to commercial packs in flavor, pH, acidity, and consistency; superior in color,
but about 1% lower in soluble solids. Green tomato field rejects from machine
harvest trials have been prepared in whole, quartered, and sliced form as
fermented dills and quick pickled dills. Calcium firming improved fruit texture,
and the fermented product had the best flavor.


FLA-PS-01057


ROBBINS R C










FLA-FS-01433 BATES R P

PROCESSED JUICE PRODUCTS FROM FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROG pSS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Tomato-celery juice blends were prepared using tomato and celery juices, 5 ppm
volatile celery oils or combinations of celery oil and juice. A though 16.5%
celery juice reduced the color and consistency of the tomato jui a base;
acceptability ratings indicated no significant preferences betwe n treatments or
between experimental packs and commercial tomato based products. Grape
cultivar E 12-59 was vastly superior in color and flavor to all unch grapes
undergoing process evaluation,and juice quality studies will acco pany expanded
cultivation of this line. A 2 step juice extraction and nylon ab option
process was developed to overcome the problem inherent in color a traction from
the skins of red muscadine grapes. Juice processed in this manner possessed
typical red color and muscadine flavor in contrast to untreated s mples, which
were harsh and astringent. Color stability in red and white wine. has been
improved by rapid juice handling and must pasteurization. Between 25 and 35%
amelioration was necessary to correct the general high acid and I w sugar
content of Florida grape cultivars. Lactic fermentation of juice and slices
from celery, radish and carrots produced sauerkraut-type products. The
utilization of such products as acid packing fluids and juice blen s is under
investigation.







FLA-FS-01434 BATES R P

FREEZE-DRYING AND CRYOGENIC FREEZING OF SELECTED FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
Freezing tomato slices cryogenically has been investigated, employ g liquid
nitrogen and Freon 12 as the cryogenic fluids and blast freezing as the control.
Zero storage time studies indicated that the critical factors influ ncing thawed
slice quality were: slice thickness, locular volume and pericap thi kness,
initial slice temperature, fruit variety, maturity, and immersion time.
Application of calcium-containing solutions was useful in improving texture.
Some storage abuse studies initiated with frozen avocado paste indic te that, to
date, samples stored at 150F are comparable to controls stored at -3 oF for 5
weeks.








FLA-FS-01469 VAN MIDDELEM C H MOYE H A THOMPSON N P

PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES AND ENVIRONMENTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 70/01 70/12
A gas chromatographic procedure was developed for the analysis of
N-methylcarbamate pesticides utilizing reaction gas chromatography, as phase
reactions of organophosphates with alcohols were studied. Carbofuran nd
3-hydroxycarbofuran residues were determined on field-treated lettuce xtracts
following transesterification and AFID gas chromatography. The degree of
breakdown of ethyl and methyl parathion residues on sweet corn was stu ied
following 31 and 59 weeks of minus 10oF storage. After 31 and 59 week of -100F
storage, there was a significant loss of methyl parathion and following 59 weeks
storage, approximately 30% of the original ethyl and methyl parathion esiduei
could not be detected. To assess pesticide losses during storage, par thion-
and DDT-fortified soils were stored at 35OF for 12 weeks; every two we ks
samples were extracted and analyzed. After two weeks of storage, pesticide
levels dropped 10% but throughout the remaining period no further chan es
occurred. Four radioactive metabolites of conjugates extracted from r ots of
laboratory-grown corn plants treated with 2,4-D-C-14 were separated by hin
layer chromatography. Identification work is planned,as none of the co pounds
appeared at the R(f) of 2,4-D-C-14. Pegs from peanut plants grown in f asks in
non-contaminated soil were allowed to develop in Dieldrin-C14 treated s il.
Dieldrin-CI* appeared in peanuts,illustrating that dieldrin can move di ectly
from soil into developing fruit without being translocated through aeri 1
tissue.


98