<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Staff changes
 Report of the dean for researc...
 Capital improvements
 Theses and dissertations
 International programs
 Report of the administrative...
 Grants and gifts
 Agricultural economics departm...
 Agricultural engineering depar...
 Agronomy department
 Animal science department
 Bacteriology department
 Botany department
 Dairy science department
 Editorial department
 Entomology and nematology...
 Food science department
 Forestry department
 Fruit crops department
 Ornamental horticulture depart...
 Plant pathology department
 Poultry science department
 Soils department
 Statistics department
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science department
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida experiment...
 Citrus experiment station
 Everglades experiment station
 Gulf Coast experiment station
 North Florida experiment stati...
 Plantation field laboratory
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Range cattle experiment statio...
 Ridge ornamental horticultural...
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley experiment...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Weather forecasting service
 West Florida experiment statio...
 Index


UF FLAG



Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005147/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Abbreviated Title: Annu. res. rep. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida>
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1969
Publication Date: 1968-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Biological abstracts
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000429247
oclc - 01408984
notis - ACH8451
lccn - 73646057 //r862
issn - 0071-609X
System ID: UF00005147:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report.
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Map
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Staff changes
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 14
    Report of the dean for research
        Page 17
    Capital improvements
        Page 17
    Theses and dissertations
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    International programs
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Grants and gifts
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Agricultural economics department
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agricultural engineering department
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Agronomy department
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Animal science department
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Bacteriology department
        Page 65
    Botany department
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Dairy science department
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Editorial department
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Entomology and nematology department
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Food science department
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Forestry department
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Fruit crops department
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Ornamental horticulture department
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Plant pathology department
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Poultry science department
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Soils department
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Statistics department
        Page 129
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Veterinary science department
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 140
    Central Florida experiment station
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Citrus experiment station
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 160
    Everglades experiment station
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 173
    Gulf Coast experiment station
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 181
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 185
            Page 184
    North Florida experiment station
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Marianna unit
            Page 193
            Page 192
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Range cattle experiment station
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Ridge ornamental horticultural laboratory
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Suwannee Valley experiment station
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Weather forecasting service
        Page 221
    West Florida experiment station
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Index
        Page 227
        Page 228
Full Text









ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1969













ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1969





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CONTENTS

Page
ADMINISTRATION
Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff . . . 4
Staff Changes . . . . . . 14
Report of the Dean for Research . . . ... 17
Capital Improvements ....................... 17
Theses and Dissertations . . . . ... .. 18
International Programs . . . . . 22
Report of the Administrative Manager . . ... ..... 28
Grants and Gifts . . . . .. . 30

MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics . . .. .. . 36
Agricultural Engineering . . . .. ... 46
Agronomy ........................ ..... 50
Agronomy . . . . . . . 50
Animal Science ......................... .. 57
Bacteriology ....... .................... 65
Botany . . . . . . ..... 66
Dairy Science .......................... 69
Editorial . . . . . . 76
Entomology and Nematology . . . . 91
Food Science . . . . . . 98
Forestry . . .. .. . . . 102
Fruit Crops . . . . . ... .. 106
Ornamental Horticulture . . . . .. 109
Plant Pathology ............. ............ 112
Poultry Science. ..... .................. 117
Soils . . . . . 120
Statistics . . . .. . . 129
Vegetable Crops ......................... .. 130
Veterinary Science . . .... . . 134

BRANCH STATIONS
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory . . . .. 138
Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station . . .. 140
Central Florida Station . . .... ...... 141
Citrus Station . . . . . ....... 148
Indian River Field Laboratory . . . .. .160
Everglades Station ................... ..... 163
/Indian River Field Laboratory . . ..... 173
Gulf Coast Station .................. ...... 176
V/South Florida Field Laboratory . . . . 181
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory . . 184
North Florida Station . . . . . 186
Marianna Unit ............. ........ .. 192
i/Plantation Field Laboratory . . ... 194
Potato Investigations Laboratory . . . . 196
Range Cattle Station ................... ... 199
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory . . .. 204
'-Sub-Tropical Station .. . . . . . 206
Suwannee Valley Station . . . . . 214
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory . . .. 217
Weather Forecasting Service ..... .. ........... 221
West Florida Station ....... .. .............. 222

INDEX . . . . .. .. .. . . 227




The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.













AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

December 31, 1969


BOARD OF REGENTS

Burke Kibler, Lakeland, Chairman
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa
Julius F. Parker, Tallahassee
Mayhew Dodson, III, Pensacola
Louis C. Murrary, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
Mrs. E. D. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
R. B. Mautz, Chancellor, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
Telephone University of Florida, Area Code 904

Stephen C. O'Connell, President of University, 392-1311
E. T. York, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, 392-1971
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research, 392-1784
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, 392-1787
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Dean, 392-1786
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, 392-1748
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager, 392-1733
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Maintenance Superintendent II, Field Services,
392-1984
A. E. McIntyre, Manager, Florida Foundation Seed Producers, 392-1821



Academic Staff

The following abbreviations after name and title of research faculty
indicate cooperation with other organizations:

Coll.--University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.--University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service
DPI--Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
FAMU--Florida AM University, Tallahassee
FCC--Florida Citrus Commission
Fla.-Ga. WS--Florida-Georgia Wildlife Service
USDA--United States Department of Agriculture
USFS--United States Forest Service
USWB--United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce

NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named individuals,
represent responsibility for coordination, planning, and conduct of coopera-
tive research with the department indicated.



1AIN STATION, GAINESVILLE (Zip Code 32601)

Agricultural Economics Department, 1157 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1826

K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)
C. L. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Assistant Area Farm Management Specialist);
also Ext., Lake Alfred
W. K. Boutwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Associate Agr. Economist)
H. D. Brodnax, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Agricultural Economics), USDA
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Veg. Crops
J. R. Brooker, M.S.A., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics), USDA
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics), FCC
J. C. Cato, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics), USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist), Coll.
J. R. Conner, Ph.D., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics)
B. R. Eddleman, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)
W. F. Edwards, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics)
K. C. Gibbs, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., L.L.B., Prof. (Agr. Economist); also Coll.
G. C. Jones, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Agr. Economics), USDA














W. B. Lester, Ph.D., Prof. (Research Economist), FCC
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
W. T. Menasco, M. Agr., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Area Farm Management Specialist);
also Ext., Quincy
L. H. Myers, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist); FCC
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Prof. (Agr. Statistician), USDA, Orlando
C..E. Murphree, C.P.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist); liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, M.S. Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist), USDA
J. O. Phillips, Jr., M.S., Int. Asst. Prof. (Asst. Area Economist)
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist)
A. Prato, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Economist)
G. N. Rose, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist), Orlando
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Orn. Hort.; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Economist); liaison with Fruit Crops
F. H. Tyner, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Economist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Forestry, Ornamental
Horticulture.)

Agricultural Engineering Department, 7 Frazier Rogers Hall
Phone 904, 392-1864

E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Engineer) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
L. O. Bagnall, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
C. D. Baird, M.S.E., Int. Research Associate
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Industrial Engineer), USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Engineer); liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agr. Engineer); liaison with Ani. Sci.
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Instructor (Asst. in Agr. Engineering), USDA
F. E. Henry, B.I.E., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Industrial Engineer), USDA
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Prof. (Agr. Engineer)
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Prof. (Agr. Engineer); liaison with Agron.
R. A. Nordstedt, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
A. R. Overman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
L. N. Shaw, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Animal Science, Soils.)



Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall
Phone 904, 392-1811

D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D, Prof. (Agronomist)
Fred Clark, M.S.A., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Agr. Eng.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Agr. Econ.
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist), USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist); liaison with Entomol.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Asst. (Agronomist); liaison with Agr. Econ.
E. B. Knipling, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA
J. E. Mickelson, A.B., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Climatologist), USDA
G. 0. Mott, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor (Assoc. Agronomist)
C. B. Owens, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist), FAMU
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc, Agronomist); liaison with Soils
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist), Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist); liaison with Forestry
Aziz Shiralipour, Ph.D., Research Associate
R. L. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Prof. (Geneticist), USDA,; liaison with Plant Path.
S. H. West Ph. D. Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Physiologist), USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils.)



Animal Science Department, 2103 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1914

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.














C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Nutritionist); liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
F. W. Bazer, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Physiologist); also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Meat Scientist); also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Agr. Eng.; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Director, Division of
Biological Sciences
J. F. Easley, M.S. Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); also Coll.
D. E. Franke, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Geneticist); also Coll.
J. C. Glenn, Ph.D., Int. Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Physiologist)
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
D. E. Koch, Ph.D., Int. Asst. Prof. (Int. Asst. Meat Scientist); also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Geneticist); liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman); liaison with Vet.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D, Prof. (Meat Scientist); liaison with Food Sci.; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman); also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist); liaison with Vet. Sci.; Coel.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Physiologist); liaison with Poultry; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Forestry, Soils, Veterinary
Science.)



Bacteriology Department, 1053 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1906

Max E. Tyler, Ph.D., Prof. (Bacteriologist) and Chairman; also Coll.
B. A. Blaylock, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
A. S. Bleiweis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
F. M. Bordeaux, B.S., Research Associate; also Coll.
D. P. Chynoweth, Ph.D., Instructor (Asst. in Bacteriology)
D. E. Duggan, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist); also Coll. and
Biological Sciences
E. M. Hoffmann, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
D. S. Nasser, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Bacteriologist); also Coll.
P. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist); also Coll.


Botany Department, 2177 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1891

Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Prof. (Botanist) and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); also Coll.
J. Beckner, B.S.A., Research Associate
J. S. Davis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Botanist); also Coll.
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Prof. (Botanist); also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Physiologist); also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate or Agronomy
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); also Coll.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Mycologist); also Coll.
J. T. Mullins, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Botanist); also Coll.
R. C. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Botanist); also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Botanist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Department of Plant Pathology.)



Dairy Science Department, Dairy Science Building
Phone 904, 392-1981

C. B. Browining, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Dairy Husbandman Emeritus)
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Prof. (Dairy Technologist)
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Physiologist); also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Dairy Technologist); liaison with Food
Science; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Prof. (Nutritionist); liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Prof. (Microbiologist); also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Microbiologist); also Coll.
W. W. Thatcher, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Physiologist); also Coll.











C. J. Wilcox, Assoc. Prof.'(Assoc. Geneticist); also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Prof. (Dairy Husbandman); also Coll.


Dairy Research Unit, Hague
Phone 904, 462-1016


West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
Phone 904, 638-0544

J. B. White, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Dairy Husbandman)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics, Agronomy,
Food Science, Veterinary Science)


Editorial Department, G022 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1774

Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Prof. (Editor) and Chairman; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor); also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor)
C. T. Woods, M.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Editor)


Entomology and Nematology Department, 3103 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1901

J. W. Barnett, Ph.D., Int. Asst. Prof. (Int. Asst. Insect Physiologist)
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Coll.
W. A. Bruce, Ph.D. Research Associate, USDA
J. F. Butler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
W. T. Calaway, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist); Coll.
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); liaison with Orn. Hort.; also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.
J. E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist); Biological Sciences; Coll.
E. P. Merkel, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), USDA, Olustee
Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Coll.
J. L. Nation, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); Biological Sciences; Coll.
J. H. O'Bannon, Ph.D., Prof. (Nematologist), USDA, Orlando
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Prof. (Nematologist); liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
W. L. Peters, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist), FAMU
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Apiculturist)
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist); liaison with Soils;
also Coll.
W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); Coll.
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist), USDA, Canal Point
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Prof. Emeritus (Entomologist Emeritus)
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist); Biological Sciences; Coll.
W. H. Whitcomb, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist); liaison with Forestry
R. E. Woodruff, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist), DPI f

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Soils)



Food Science Department, McCarty Hall, North Building
Phone 904, 392-1991

R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ehmed, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist); also Coll.
H. Appledorf, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nutritionist); also Coll.
R. P. Bates, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Technologist); also Coll.
R. H. Dougherty, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist); also Coll.
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemist); also Coll.
J. A. Koburger, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Microbiologist); also Coll.
V. T. Mendenhall, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Scientist); also Coll.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist); also Coll.
N. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist)











C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist)
W. B. Wheeler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Biochemist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Engineering, Animal
Science, Dairy Science)


Forestry Department, 305 Rolfs Hall
Phone 904, 392-1792

J. L. Gray, D.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester) and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
G. W. Bengtson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester), TVA, Muscle Shoals, Alabama;
also Coll.
R. H. Brendemuehl, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester), USFS; also Coll.
G. W. Cornwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
V. D. Cunningham, B.S., Instructor (Assistant in Forestry), Fla.-Ga.WS; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist); also Coll.
J. B. Huffmann, D.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Prof. (Forester); also Coll.
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); also Coll.
D. R. Roberts, Ph.D., Research Associate
R. A. Schmidt, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); liaison with Plant Pathology;
also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Forester); liaison with Soils;
also Coll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester), USDA, Olustee; also Coll.
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Prof. (Forest Physiologist); also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S.F., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Forester); liaison with Ag. Econ.;
also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Prof. (Forester); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Engineering, Agronomy, Entomology, Soils)


Fruit Crops Department, 1189 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1996

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); also Coll.
D. W. Buchanan, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Prof. (Climatologist); also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
W. B. Sherman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.
J. Soule, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
W. J. Wiltbank, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils)


Ornamental Horticulture Department, 105 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 392-1831

E. C. Roberts, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll. and
Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist); liaison with Soils; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist); also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist); liaison i
with Plant Path.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
C. E. Whitcomb, M.S., Research Associate

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics, Entomology,
Plant Pathology, Soils)


Plant Pathology Department, Building 833, Radio Road
Phone 904, 392-1861

L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
S. A. Alfieri, Jr. Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
J. A. Bartz, Ph. D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)












H. C. Burnett, L.S., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)," DPI
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Veg. Crops
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Prof. (Pathologist)
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Orn. Hort.
S. M. Garnsey, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist); USDA
E. Hiebert, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Agronomy, USDA
C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist); liaison with Agron.
J. W. Miller, Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Otn. Hort.
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Virologist)
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); Coll.
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
C. P. Seymour, M.S., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist); liaison with Veg. Crops; Coll.
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist), DPI
F. W. Zettler, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Virologist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Forestry, Ornamental
Horticulture)


Poultry Science Department, Archer Road
Phone 904, 392-1931

R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Prof. (Poultry Nutritionist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
B. L. Damron, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nutritionist); also Coll.
C. R. Douglas, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Poultry Scientist)
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Poultry Products Technologist); also Coll.
E. Ross, Ph.D., Visiting Professor (Poultry Nutritionist)
R. A. Voitle, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Poultry Physiologist)
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Poultry Physiologist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Animal Science, Food Science, Soils,
Veterinary Science)


Soils Department, 106 Newell Hall
Phone 904, 392-1804

C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Microbiologist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist); also Coll.
C. L. Coultas, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist), FAMU
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist); liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Fruit Crops
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Physicist); liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
D. H. Hubbell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Microbiologist)
R. F. Humphreys, M.S., Research Associate
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Surveyor)
R. S. Mansell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Physicist)
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Forestry
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Agron.
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Microbiologist); liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist); liaison with Orn. Hort.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemist)
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemist)

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agronomy, Animal Science Entomology,
Forestry, Ornamental Horticulture)


Statistics Department, G175 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1941

William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Prof'. (Statistician) and Chairman
J. A. Cornell, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Statistician)
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Statistician)
J. I. Thornby, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Statistician)











Vegetable Crops Department, 3026 McCarty Hall
Phone 904, 392-1794

G. A. Marlowe, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
'L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist); also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Departments of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils)


Veterinary Science Department, Archer Road
Phone 904, 392-1841

G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Prof. (Veterinarian) and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.VM., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Parasitologist); liaison with
Animal Sci.; also Coll.
R. H. Busch, D.V.M., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Pathologist); also Coll.
P. T. Cardeilhac, D.V.M., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Assoc. Pharmacologist); also Coll.
W. M. Colwell, D.V.M., M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Microbiologist)
D. E. Cooperrider, D.V.M., M.Sci., Prof. (Parasitologist), Fla. Dept. Agriculture
D. J. Forrester, M.S., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Parasitologist)
E. C. Harland, D.V.M., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Veterinarian); liaison with Animal Science
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Pharmacologist); liaison with
Food Sci.; also Coll.
C. A. Holden, M.S., Instructor (Assistant in Microbiology)
R. F. Jackson, D.V.M., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Veterinarian), Veterinary Practice
K. C. Nair, M.S., Visiting Prof. (Asst. Pharmacologist)
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Veterinarian); liaison with Dairy Sci.;
also Coll.
J. T. M. Neilson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Parasitologist)
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Prof. (Pathologist); liaison with Poultry Sci.; also
Coll.
W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Microbiologist), Fort Lauderdale
F. H. White, Ph.D., Prof. (Bacteriologist); liaison with Dairy Sci.; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in Department of Animal Science)


BRANCH STATIONS


BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY, Box 539, Monticello 32344
Phone 904, 997-2597

S. S. Fluker, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist) and Head
W. J. French, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. T. Raese, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA

BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE RESEARCH STATION, Brooksville 33512
Phone 904, 796-3385

W. C. Burns, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Husbandman) and Head, USDA


CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771
Phone 305, 322-4134

J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soils Chemist)
G. L. Greene, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist)
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
J. O. Strandberg, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)


CITRUS STATION, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred 33850
Phone 813, 372-1151

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Head
L. G. Albrigo, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)

10










C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof." (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
C. D. Atkins, B.S, Professor (Chemist), FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Instructor (Assistant in Chemistry), FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Mechanical Engineer), FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist) FCC
B. S. Buslig, M.S., Research Associate, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Prof. (Agricultural Engineer), FCC
D. L. Deason, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agr. Engineer)
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Chemical Engineer), FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Research Associate
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Food Technologist), FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. F. Fisher, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), FCC
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Research Associate
William Grierson, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist)
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Biochemist)
Pamela K. Hearon, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Librarian)
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
Rudolph Hendrickson, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist)
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist), FCC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), FCC
M.A-R. Ismail, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist), FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Prof. (Chemist)
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Bacteriologist)
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Assistant Horticulturist), FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Instructor (Assistant in Chemistry), FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Prof. (Chemist), FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist)
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Prof. (Biochemist)
D. R. Petrus, M.S., Research Associate, FCC
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
R. L. Rackham, M.S., Research Associate
R. L. Reese, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Prof. (Chemist)
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist)
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Prof. (Nematologist)
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Prof. (Biochemist), FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Chemist)
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
J. O. Whiteside, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agricultural Engineer)
W. C. Wilson, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), FCC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist), FCC


Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451
Phone 305, 461-4371

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist)
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Physicist), USDA


EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430
Phone 305, 996-3063

D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Head
R. J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
R. D. Berger, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Prof. (Soils Chemist)
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agricultural Engineer)
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Geneticist)
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agricultural Engineer)











G. J. Gascho, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soil Chemist)
W. G. Genung, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
B. W. Hayes, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)
M. J. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
F. leGrand, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)
G. H. Synder, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soils Chemist)
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agricultural Engineer), USDA
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Prof. (Horticulturist)
T. A. Zitter, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-6193

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Prof. (Entomologist)
J. B. Brolmann, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
R. M. Sonoda, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


GULF COAST STATION, 5007 60th St. East, Bradenton 33505
Phone 813, 755-1568

J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
J. P. Crill, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
A. W. Engelhard, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
C. H1. Geraldson, Ph.D., Prof. (Soil Chemist)
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant.Pathologist)
F. J. Marousky, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist), USDA
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist)
S. L. Poe, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Entomologist)
J. C. Raulston, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)
G. J. Wilfret, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Geneticist)
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Physiologist)


South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33934
Phone 813, 657-2835

P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Prof. (Soils Chemist)
C. H. Blazquez, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Phone 813, 752-7649

E. E. Albregts, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. M. Howard, M.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, P. O. Box 470, Quincy 32351
Phone 904, 627-9236

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Prof. (Agronomist) and Head
J. B. Aitken, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Prof. (Animal Husbandman)
D. R. Davis, A.B., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
F. H. Rhoads, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soils Chemist)
R. L. Stanley, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Agronomist)
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)


Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446
Phone 904, 482-8061

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)










PLANTATION FIELD LABORATORY, 3205 S.W. 70th Avenue, Fort Lauderdale 33314
Phone 305, 584-6992

R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist), USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist)
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Prof. (Ornamental Horticulturist)
A. E. Dudeck, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)
W. M. Morton, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist)
W. H. Speir, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Hydraulic Engineer), USDA
K. K. Steward, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist), USDA


POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY, Box 728, Hastings 32045
Phone 904, 692-1792

D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soils Chemist) and Head
J. R. Shumaker, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
D. P. Weingartner, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)


RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona 33865
Phone 813, 735-3121

H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Prof. (Animal Nutritionist) and Head
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soils Chemist)
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Prof. (Agronomist)
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Husbandman)


RIDGE ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY,
Rt. #1, Box 980, State Rd. 437, Apopka 32703
Phone 305, 889-4161

W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist) and Head
J. F. Knauss, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
R. T. Poole, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Physiologist)

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 28th Street, Homestead 33030
Phone 305, 247-4624

R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Horticulturist)
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Chemist)
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Plant Pathologist)
R. T. McMillan, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Soils Chemist)
B. Villalon, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Prof. (Entomologist)
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Prof. (Horticulturist)


SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060
Phone 904, 362-1725

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist) and Head
G. R. Hollis, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Animal Nutritionist)


WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY,
Box 388, Leesburg 32748
Phone 904, 787-3423

J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Prof. (Plant Pathologist) and Head
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist)
Carlos Balerdi, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Prof. (Entomologist)
G. W. Elmstrom, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Horticulturist)
D. L. Hopkins, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist)
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Geneticist)










WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 682-4221

W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Prof. (Meteorologist) and Head, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
J. G. George, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. H. Deen, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
G. W. Leber, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
W. P. Mincey, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. L. Wooten, (Meteorological Technician), USWB
H. E. Yates, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB


WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Prof. (Soils Chemist) and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Scientist)
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
R. A. Kinloch, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist)
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soils Chemist)
R. L. Smith, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)


STAFF CHANGES

Appointments

Gary William Elmstron, Asst. Horticulturist, Watermelon & Grape Lab., Jan. 1, '1969
William Watters Thatcher, Asst. Animal Physiologist, Dairy Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Robert Henry Busch, Asst. Pathologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
John C. Glenn, Assoc. Animal Physiologist, Ani. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Vernon Doyle Cunningham, Forester, Forestry Dept., Jan. 1, 1969, Courtesy
Benigno Villalon, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station, Jan. 1, 1969
Howard Appledorf, Asst. Nutritionist, Food Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
John Andrew Cornell, Int. Asst. Statistician, Statistics Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Robert Allen Voitle, Asst. Poultry Physiologist, Poultry Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Ernest Heibert, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Jan. 5, 1969
Robert R. Terry, Int. Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 6, 1969,
Orlando
Jerzy Makowski, Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., Jan. 20, 1969
James Frederick Knauss, Int. Asst. Plant Pathologist, Ridge Orn. Hort. Lab.
Feb. 1, 1969
Ernest C. Harland, Asst. Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., Feb. 1, 1969
Allen Ray Overman, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Feb. 1, 1969
Larry O. Bagnall, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969
James Frederick Fisher, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, Mar. 1, 1969, FCC
John Bernardus Brolmann, Asst. Agronomist, Indian River Lab., Mar. 1, 1969
James Carey Cato, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969, USDA
Anthony Alfred Prato, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969
James Chester Raulston, Asst. Orn. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, May 1, 1969
David Peter Weingartner, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Potato Lab., May 16, 1969
Kenneth Charles Gibbs, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., May 16, 1969
Duane Elmer Koch, Int. Asst. Meat Scientist, Ani. Sci. Dept., June 1, 1969
John William Barnett, Int. Asst. Insect Physiologist, Entomology Dept.,
June 1, 1969
Gary Joe Wilfret, Asst. Geneticist, Gulf Coast Station, June 18, 1969
Roger Arlo Nordstedt, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., July 1, 1969
Carroll Reece Douglas, Asst. Poultry Scientist, Poultry Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
William Maxwell Colwell, Asst. Microbiologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
John A. Koburger, Asst. Food Microbiologist, Food Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
Donald Ray Roberts, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1969, Courtesy
K. C. Nair, Asst. Pharmacologist (visiting professor), Vet. Sci. Dept.,
July 1, 1969
David Lynn King, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 21, 1969
Ronald Masahiro Sonoda, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Indian River Lab., August 1, 1969
George Albert Marlowe, Horticulturist and Chairman, Veg. Crops Dept.,
August 1, 1969
Reginald F. Humphreys, Research Associate, Soils Dept., August 1, 1969
Von Thatcher Mendenhall, Asst. Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., Aug., 15, 1969
Robert Lamar Rackham, Research Associate, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1969
Donald Lee Hopkins, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape Lab.,
Sept. 1, 1969
Sidney Lamarr Poe, Asst. Entomologist, Gulf Coast Station, Sept. 1, 1969











James Richard Connor, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 1, 1969
Ernest Ross, Poultry Nutritionist (visiting professor), Poultry Dept.,
Sept. 1, 1969
Francis M. Bordeaux, Research Associate, Bacteriology Dept., Sept. 1, 1969
David Heuston Hubbell, Asst. Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., Sept. 1, 1969
Douglas Louis Deason, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1969
David P. Chynoweth, Asst. in Bacteriology, Bacteriology Dept., Sept. 16, 1969
Richard Haines Dougherty, Asst. Food Scientist, Food Sci. Dept., Sept. 23, 1969
Kenneth Harold Hart, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 29, 1969
Lawrence Neil Shaw, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Oct. 1, 1969
Archibald Edward McIntyre, Manager Fla. Foundation Seed Producers, Oct. 15, 1969
William Alvin Bruce, Research Associate, Entomology Dept. Nov. 1, 1969
Willie Travis Menasco, Farm Management Specialist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Nov. 3, 1969
Jerry Allen Bartz, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Nov. 15, 1969
Sam Spruill Fluker, Asst. Entomologist, Big Bend Lab., Nov. 16, 1969
Stephen Michael Garnsey, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept.,
Dec. 1, 1969, Courtesy
John Stanley Norton, Assoc. Professor, Ag. Engineering Dept., Dec. 1, 1969,
Courtesy


Promotions

Richard Conard Fluck, Associate Agricultural Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., July 1, 1969
Bobby Ross Eddleman, Associate Agricultural Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1,
1969
Don Elwood Purciful, Associate Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., July 1, 1969
Richard Eugene Bradley, Associate Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
Donald Stafford Burgis, Associate Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1969
Joe Richard Crockett, Associate Animal Geneticist, Everglades Station, July 1,
1969
Vincent Nils Schroder, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1969
James Albert Himes, Associate Pharmacologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
James Walter Strobel, Plant Pathologist and Head, Gulf Coast Station, July 1,
1969
John Francis Gerber, Climatologist, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1969
Robert Chung Jen Koo, Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1969
Robert Hilton Biggs, Biochemist, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1969
Charles Edgar Dean, Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 1, 1969
Carroll Morton Geraldson, Soil Chemist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1969
Salvadore Joseph Locascio, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept., July 1, 1969


Resignations

Margaret Sosebee Merkley, Food Science Dept., Jan. 18, 1969
James Alwyn Winchester, Associate Nematologist, Everglades Station, Apr. 17, 1969
Karl Johnson Stone, Asst. Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30, 1969
Floyd Lavon Newby, Research Associate, Forestry, June 30, 1969
Winfred Carl Rhoades, Entomologist, North Florida Station, Sept. 30, 1969
Thomas C. Mathews, Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., Oct. 31, 1969
David Lynn King, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Nov. 30, 1969
Antonio Gayoso, Research Associate, Ag. Econ. Dept., Dec. 8, 1969
Jerzy Makowski, Research Associate, Fruit Crops, Dec. 15, 1969
Thomas Leslie Stringfellow, Asst. Entomologist, Plantation Lab., Dec. 16, 1969


Leave of Absence

W. G. Eden, Entomologist and Head, Entomology Dept. (Faculty Development),
from Feb. 1, 1969 to April 30, 1969
Albert E. Kretschmer, Agronomist, Indian River Lab. to Costa Rica from March 1,
1969 to March 1, 1970
Paul Leighton Pfahler, Assoc. Agronomist, Agronomy, to Nymegen, Netherlands
(Faculty Development), from April 1, 1969 to June 30, 1969
Frank Albert Robinson, Assoc. Epiculturist, Ent. ept. to Cornell University
(Faculty Development) from June 1, 1969 to Sept. 1, 1969
Merrill Wilcox, Assoc. Agronomist, Agronomy (Faculty Development) from June 16,
1969 to Sept. 15, 1969
James Woodford Carpenter, Assoc. Meat Scientist, Ani. Sci. Dept. to Vietnam
from July 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970
Armen Charles Tarjan, Nematologist, Citrus Station (Faculty Dev.) from July 1,
1969 to Dec. 14, 1969
Harry Wogaman Ford, Horticulturist, Citrus Station (Faculty Dev.) from July 1,
1969 to Sept. 30, 1969
John F. Gerber, Assistant Climatologist, Fruit Crops (Faculty Dev.) from
July 1, 1969 to Sept. 1, 1969










Transfers

Chesley B. Hall, Horticulturist, from Food Sci. Dept. to Veg. Crops, July 1,i1969
Robert K. Showalter, Horticulturist, from Food Sci. Dept. to Veg. Crops,
July 1, 1969
Willard Hall Whitcomb, Entomologist, from Big Bend Lab. to Ent. Dept., July 1,
1969
Paul H. Everett, Soil Chemist, from South Florida Lab. to Plantation Lab.,
Nov. 1, 1969


Retirements

Ruth O. Townsend, Assistant in Nutrition, Food Sci. Dept., Feb. 28, 1969
Henry Clayton Harris, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., June 30, 1969
Eugene G. Kelsheimer, Entomologist, Gulf Coast Station, June 30, 1969


Retirements Prior to 1969
(Continued on Emeritus Status)

Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958
Littian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Dept. 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept., 1963
Arther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Potato Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head, Ag. Econ. Dept., 1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, 1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Assoc. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, 1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon Lab., 1965
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Florida Station, 1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Associate Entomologist, Entomology Dept., 1966
Russell Willis Wallace, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, 1966
William Conway Price, Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1966
Frederick Burean Smith, Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., 1967
Rowland Barnes French, Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., 1967
Benjamin Franklin Whitner, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Central Florida Station,
1967
John Runyon Large, Associate Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., 1967
Leonard Erwin Swanson, Parasitologist; Vet. Sci. Dept., 1967
Joseph Riley Beckenbach, Director, Ag. Exp. Station, 1967
Ernest Leavitt Spencer, Soils Chemist and Head, Gulf Coast Station, 1968
Ralph Wyman Kidder, Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, 1968
William Thomas Forsee, Jr., Chemist and Head, Everglades Station, 1968
Dorsey Addren Sanders, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1968
William Gordon Kirk, Animal Scientist, Range Cattle Station, 1968
Frank Stover Jamison, Horticulturist and Chairman, Veg. Crops Dept., 1968










WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 682-4221

W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Prof. (Meteorologist) and Head, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
J. G. George, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. H. Deen, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
G. W. Leber, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
W. P. Mincey, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB
R. L. Wooten, (Meteorological Technician), USWB
H. E. Yates, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Meteorologist), USWB


WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Prof. (Soils Chemist) and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Animal Scientist)
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)
R. A. Kinloch, Ph.D., Asst. Prof. (Asst. Nematologist)
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soils Chemist)
R. L. Smith, M.S., Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Agronomist)


STAFF CHANGES

Appointments

Gary William Elmstron, Asst. Horticulturist, Watermelon & Grape Lab., Jan. 1, '1969
William Watters Thatcher, Asst. Animal Physiologist, Dairy Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Robert Henry Busch, Asst. Pathologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
John C. Glenn, Assoc. Animal Physiologist, Ani. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Vernon Doyle Cunningham, Forester, Forestry Dept., Jan. 1, 1969, Courtesy
Benigno Villalon, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station, Jan. 1, 1969
Howard Appledorf, Asst. Nutritionist, Food Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
John Andrew Cornell, Int. Asst. Statistician, Statistics Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Robert Allen Voitle, Asst. Poultry Physiologist, Poultry Dept., Jan. 1, 1969
Ernest Heibert, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Jan. 5, 1969
Robert R. Terry, Int. Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 6, 1969,
Orlando
Jerzy Makowski, Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., Jan. 20, 1969
James Frederick Knauss, Int. Asst. Plant Pathologist, Ridge Orn. Hort. Lab.
Feb. 1, 1969
Ernest C. Harland, Asst. Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., Feb. 1, 1969
Allen Ray Overman, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Feb. 1, 1969
Larry O. Bagnall, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969
James Frederick Fisher, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, Mar. 1, 1969, FCC
John Bernardus Brolmann, Asst. Agronomist, Indian River Lab., Mar. 1, 1969
James Carey Cato, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969, USDA
Anthony Alfred Prato, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Mar. 1, 1969
James Chester Raulston, Asst. Orn. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, May 1, 1969
David Peter Weingartner, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Potato Lab., May 16, 1969
Kenneth Charles Gibbs, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., May 16, 1969
Duane Elmer Koch, Int. Asst. Meat Scientist, Ani. Sci. Dept., June 1, 1969
John William Barnett, Int. Asst. Insect Physiologist, Entomology Dept.,
June 1, 1969
Gary Joe Wilfret, Asst. Geneticist, Gulf Coast Station, June 18, 1969
Roger Arlo Nordstedt, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., July 1, 1969
Carroll Reece Douglas, Asst. Poultry Scientist, Poultry Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
William Maxwell Colwell, Asst. Microbiologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
John A. Koburger, Asst. Food Microbiologist, Food Sci. Dept., July 1, 1969
Donald Ray Roberts, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1969, Courtesy
K. C. Nair, Asst. Pharmacologist (visiting professor), Vet. Sci. Dept.,
July 1, 1969
David Lynn King, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 21, 1969
Ronald Masahiro Sonoda, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Indian River Lab., August 1, 1969
George Albert Marlowe, Horticulturist and Chairman, Veg. Crops Dept.,
August 1, 1969
Reginald F. Humphreys, Research Associate, Soils Dept., August 1, 1969
Von Thatcher Mendenhall, Asst. Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., Aug., 15, 1969
Robert Lamar Rackham, Research Associate, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1969
Donald Lee Hopkins, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape Lab.,
Sept. 1, 1969
Sidney Lamarr Poe, Asst. Entomologist, Gulf Coast Station, Sept. 1, 1969










REPORT OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH

The research program is a major division of the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. Working closely with the extension and resident instruc-
tion divisions, the research program is an extensive statewide effort of signifi-
cant economic importance. Research responsibilities relate to problems in
agricultural production, processing and distribution of farm and forest products,
environmental enhancement, and human development. It is concerned with the
graduate research programs on and off the Gainesville campus, and in cooperation
with the extension division it helps extend new research knowledge and infor-
mation to all segments of the industry and society. In terms of the newly
initiated PPBS program, the research responsibility encompasses 1) Commercial
Agriculture, 2) Natural and Renewable Resources and Environment Quality,
3) Human Resources and Quality of Life, 4) Fundamental Activities, and
5) General Support.
A new feature of this year's annual report is the inclusion of a report
on the research activities of the Center for Tropical Agriculture. As a part
of our overall responsibilities, we attempt to coordinate our internal and
international programs of research for the mutual benefit of Florida as well
as cooperating foreign countries. This report has been ably prepared by
Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director of IFAS International Programs.
Within the IFAS research program there are 19 departments at the
University of Florida in Gainesville and 21 branch stations located throughout
the state. These locations make possible conducting research on different
soils, under varying climatic conditions, and on many crops and commodities
such as citrus, vegetables, field crops, pastures, livestock, ornamentals,
tropical fruits, forests, and others. While production research receives the
most attention, much time also is devoted to research in processing, handling,
marketing, utilization, engineering, economics, and basic research in all
disciplines.
The entire research program of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
is planned and conducted by use of formal written and approved projects which
document all research. This system provides flexibility and encourages needed
work on new problems as they occur. The research program is primarily a
mission-oriented effort aimed at solving the problems of agriculture. When
problems are solved, projects are terminated; some are periodically revised
where there is a need. At the present time there is a continuing trend toward
greater team effort in meeting research needs. Problems are more difficult and
require the interdisciplinary approach for best results. Maximum coordination
now is achieved by close working relations within the entire system of main
station departments and branch stations located throughout the state.
The current research results are reported to the public in many ways,
primarily through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much
research is reported at conferences, field days, and short courses to which the
public is invited. These are held throughout the year by various departments,
branch stations, and field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.
We trust you will find this report informative and useful.








ohn W. Sites
Dean for Research





CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

As of December 31, 1969, the following major buildings were either
complete or under contract:

Everglades Station Library-Conference Bldg. Complete
Belle Glade

Everglades Station Equipment-Storage Bldg. 75% Complete
Belle Glade

Gulf Coast Station Headhouse-Farm Equip. Bldg. Complete










REPORT OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH

The research program is a major division of the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. Working closely with the extension and resident instruc-
tion divisions, the research program is an extensive statewide effort of signifi-
cant economic importance. Research responsibilities relate to problems in
agricultural production, processing and distribution of farm and forest products,
environmental enhancement, and human development. It is concerned with the
graduate research programs on and off the Gainesville campus, and in cooperation
with the extension division it helps extend new research knowledge and infor-
mation to all segments of the industry and society. In terms of the newly
initiated PPBS program, the research responsibility encompasses 1) Commercial
Agriculture, 2) Natural and Renewable Resources and Environment Quality,
3) Human Resources and Quality of Life, 4) Fundamental Activities, and
5) General Support.
A new feature of this year's annual report is the inclusion of a report
on the research activities of the Center for Tropical Agriculture. As a part
of our overall responsibilities, we attempt to coordinate our internal and
international programs of research for the mutual benefit of Florida as well
as cooperating foreign countries. This report has been ably prepared by
Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director of IFAS International Programs.
Within the IFAS research program there are 19 departments at the
University of Florida in Gainesville and 21 branch stations located throughout
the state. These locations make possible conducting research on different
soils, under varying climatic conditions, and on many crops and commodities
such as citrus, vegetables, field crops, pastures, livestock, ornamentals,
tropical fruits, forests, and others. While production research receives the
most attention, much time also is devoted to research in processing, handling,
marketing, utilization, engineering, economics, and basic research in all
disciplines.
The entire research program of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
is planned and conducted by use of formal written and approved projects which
document all research. This system provides flexibility and encourages needed
work on new problems as they occur. The research program is primarily a
mission-oriented effort aimed at solving the problems of agriculture. When
problems are solved, projects are terminated; some are periodically revised
where there is a need. At the present time there is a continuing trend toward
greater team effort in meeting research needs. Problems are more difficult and
require the interdisciplinary approach for best results. Maximum coordination
now is achieved by close working relations within the entire system of main
station departments and branch stations located throughout the state.
The current research results are reported to the public in many ways,
primarily through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much
research is reported at conferences, field days, and short courses to which the
public is invited. These are held throughout the year by various departments,
branch stations, and field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.
We trust you will find this report informative and useful.








ohn W. Sites
Dean for Research





CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

As of December 31, 1969, the following major buildings were either
complete or under contract:

Everglades Station Library-Conference Bldg. Complete
Belle Glade

Everglades Station Equipment-Storage Bldg. 75% Complete
Belle Glade

Gulf Coast Station Headhouse-Farm Equip. Bldg. Complete










THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

1969

Agricultural Economics Department

Charles Lamar Anderson Use of Labor and Labor Management Practices on
Florida Dairy Farms. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969. R. E. L. Greene, Chairman.

Manuel J. Carvajal An Analysis of Agricultural Resource Allocation in
Selected Areas of Costa Rica. M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1969. J. E. Reynolds,
Chairman.

Wen-Shyong Chern Determination of the Optimum Number, Size, and Location of
Orange Packing and Processing Plants in Florida. M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969.
L. Polopolus, Chairman.

Andrian Fajardo Christen Demand for Honey Dew Melons in the New York City
Wholesale Market, with Special Reference to the Potential Market for Supplies
from Peru. M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1969. W. W. McPherson, Chairman.

Juan M. Clark Social Patterns of Rural Family Income. M.S.A. Thesis.
March, 1969. D. E. Alleger, Chairman.

Mohamed Ismail Farh Evaluation of Development Planning and Economic Growth
in Egypt, U.A.R. Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969. W. W. McPherson,
Chairman.

Edward Lowe McClelland Optimal Allocation of the Florida Citrus Industry's
Generic Advertising Budget. Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969. L. Polopolus,
Chairman.

Sai Myint Lwin Physical Impairments and Medical Care Costs: Comparisons
Between Rural People in Five Southern States and Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation.
August, 1969. R. E. L. Greene, Chairman.

Neil Larry Meyer Minimum Resource Requirements for Specified Levels of Income
on Crop-Livestock Farms in the Sinu River Valley of Colombia. M.S.A. Thesis.
December, 1969. B. R. Eddleman, Chairman.

Galen C. Moses Cooperative Rural Electrification in Costa Rica. M.S.A.
Thesis. December, 1969. J. E. Reynolds, Chairman.

Robert Henry Priscott Demand for Citrus Products in the European Market.
M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1969. L. Polopolus, Chairman.

Kit Sims Taylor The Dynamics of Underdevelopment in a Plantation Economy:
The Sugar Sector of Northeastern Brazil. M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1969.
W. W. McPherson, Chairman.

Ron Horn Tseng A Cross-Section Analysis of Farmland Values in Florida.
M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1969. J. E. Reynolds, Chairman.


Agronomy Department

Walter Leon Beers, Jr. Factors Contributing to the Herbicidal Resistance of
Black Titi(Cliftonia monophylla). Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969.
S. H. West, Chairman.

Donovan C. Forbes Self and Cross Incompatibility in Black Cherry (Prunus
serotina). Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969. E. S. Horner, Chairman.

Wayne C. Mixson Fertilizer Placement for Flue-Cured Tobacco by Sprinkler
Irrigation. M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969. F. Clark, Chairman.

Mary Ann Overman Cytology of Anther Development in Maintainer Stocks of
Sorghum bicolor L. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969. H. E. Warmke, Chairman.

Vicente A. Rodriguez Genetics of Innter Seed-Cost Color in Peanuts (Arachis
hypogaea L.) Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969. A. J. Norden, Chairman.

Ralph D. Sanders Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Nodulation and Root
Development of Soybeans. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969. K. Hinson, Chairman.










Animal Science Department

Hiram Russell Cross Pork Carcass Muscling Score, Length, Backfat Thickness
and Other Indices of Fat, Lean and Bone PerCentages. M.S.A. Thesis. March,
1969. A. Z. Palmer, Chairman.

Everardo Gonzalez-Padilla Evaluation of Criss Cross Breeding Systems Involving
Angus, Hereford and Brahman for Beef Production in the Everglades. M.S.A.
Thesis. March, 1969. M. Koger, Chairman.

Hernando Gutierrez De La R. Differential Physiological Responses of Beef
Cattle to Prolonged Temperature Stress. Ph. D. Dissertation. August, 1969.
A. C. Warnick, Chairman.


Botany Department

Taye Bezuneh Anatomy and Histology of Seeds and Seedlings of False Banana,
Ensete Spp. Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1969. E. S. Ford, Chairman.

Amare Getahun Developmental Anatomy of Seedlings and Tubers of Anchote,
Coccinia abyssinica (Cucurbitaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969.
E. S. Ford, Chairman.

Rolando T. Parrondo Airborne Algae of the Gainesville Area. M.S. Thesis.
December, 1969. Joseph S. Davis, Chairman.


Bacteriology Department

Clare Crabtree Bailey Isolation of Potentially Pathogenic Atypical Myco-
bacteria From Florida Soils. M.S. Thesis. August, 1969. M. E. Tyler,
Chairman.

Nancy Virginia Hamlett Fermentation of One-Carbon Compounds by Butyribacterium
rettgeri and Clostridium Sp. M.S. Thesis. August, 1969. B. A. Blaylock,
Chairman.

Donald Wayne Salter Allosteric Control of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate
7-Phosphate Synthetase in the Marine Organism Vibrio MB-22. M.S. Thesis.
August, 1969. D. Nasser, Chairman.

Dairy Science Department

Omar G. Verde Factors Affecting Milk Production in Three Venezuelan Herds.
M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969. C. J. Wilcox, Chairman.


Entomology and Nematology Department

Nayeem Uddin Ahmed Phytotoxicity of Six Organophosphorous Insecticides.
M.S. Thesis. August, 1969. M. Murphey, Chairman.

Ernest Brad Fagan Bionomics and Control of the Two-Lined Spittlebug, Prosapia
bicincta, on Florida Pastures and Notes on Prosapia plagiata in Costa Rica,
(Homoptera: Cercopidae). Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969. L. C. Kuitert,
Chairman.

Kovit Kovitvadhi Feeding Preference of Prodenia Species on Sweetpotato
Varieties. Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1969. D. H. Habeck, Chairman.

Richard Levy A Description and Key to the Prodenia Larvae (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae) of Florida. M.S. Thesis. August, 1969. D. I. Habeck, Chairman.

James Weldon Mackley The Sorption of Carbon-14 Labeled DDT by Three African
Soils. M.S. Thesis. June, 1969. F. S. Blanton, Chairman.

James Frank Matta The Characterization of a Mosquito Iridescent Virus in
Aedes taeniorhynchus (Weidemann). Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969.
F. S. Blanton, Chairman.

Jesse Allen Prescott, III Effect of Temperature on the Immature Stages of
Anastrepha syspensa (LOEW). M.S. Thesis. December, 1969. S. H. Kerr,
Chairman.

Niphan Chanthawanich Ratanaworabhan An Illustrated Key for the Genera of
Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) of the World. Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1969.
F. S. Blanton, Chairman.










Sawart Ratanaworabhan Pathogenicity of the Nematodes Rotylenchulus
reniformis, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni to Shade
Tobacco. Ph.D. Dissertation. March, 1969. G. C. Smart, Jr., Chairman.

James Sturgeon Richeson Fatty Acid Composition of Ips Calligraphus (Germar)
During Postembryonic Development. M.S. Thesis. December, 1969. R. C.
Wilkinson, Chairman.

Jack Arlyn Seawright A Genetic Study of Apholate Resistance in Aedes aegypti
(L). Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969. F. S. Blanton, Chairman.

Arthur Harris Tomerlin, Jr. The Influence of Organic Amendments on Numbers
of Nematodes and Other Microorganisms in the Soil. Ph.D. Dissertation.
August, 1969. G. C. Smart, Jr., Chairman.

James Judd Whitesell Biology of United States Coneheaded Katydids of the
Genus Neoconocephalus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). M.S. Thesis. June, 1969.
T. J. Walker, Chairman.

David F. Williams Chemosterilization, Dispersion and Population Densities
of the Eye Gnat Hippelates Pusio Loew. Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969.
L. C. Kuitert, Chairman.

Francis Mark Williams Swarming and Mating Behavior of Culex pipiens quinque-
fasciatus Say. M.S. Thesis. June, 1969. F. S. Blanton, Chairman.

Daniel Phillip Wojcik Mating Behavior of Certain Stored-Product Beetles
(Coleoptera: Dermestidae, Tenebrionidae, Cucujidae) With a Literature Review
of Beetle Mating Behavior. M.S. Thesis. March, 1969. T. J. Walker,
Chairman.


Food Science Department

Reinaldo F. Gomez Processing and Storage Characteristics of Freeze-Dried
Avocade Puree and Guacamole. M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969. R. P. Bates,
Chairman.

George Franklin Green An Automatic Sampling System for the Measurement of
Respiratory Gases of Irradiated Fruits. M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969.
E. M. Ahmed, Chairman.

Karen Gaye R. Taylor The Protein of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
and its Potential Contribution to Human Nutrition. M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1969.
R. C. Robbins, Chairman.

Forestry Department

Alan Phelps Ammann Nutritional Studies of Deer and Deer Browse in Northern
Florida. M.S.F. Thesis. December, 1969. S. L. Beckwith, Chairman.

Michael Robert Lennartz Forest Policy in Mexico. M.S.F. Thesis. June, 1969.
V. L. Harper, Chairman.

C. Frederick Lotter Habitat Requirements and Procedures for Measuring Various
Population Parameters of the Florida Duck, Anas platyrhynchos fulvigula Ridgway.
M.S.F. Thesis. June, 1969. G. W. Cornwell, Chairman.

Lloyd Garner Stith Deer Damage to Citrus Trees and Control with Repellent
Sprays. M.S.F. Thesis. June, 1969. S. L. Beckwith, Chairman.

Richard Clarke Winslow Consistency in Aesthetic Ratings for Forested Road-
sides of Florida. M.S.F. Thesis. December, 1969, K. R. Swinford, Chairman.


Fruit Crops Departnent

Charles Rice Barmore Chemical Alteration of Abscission of Explants. M.S.A.
Thesis. March, 1969. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

James Aloysius Blake, Jr. Chemical Thinning of Florida Peaches. M.S.A. Thesis.
December, 1969. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

Talbert Cooper, Jr. The Macronutrient Status of 'Orlando" Tangelos in
Relation to Fertilizer Practices. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969. D. W. Buchanan,
Chairman.

Abdel-Hamid A. Kassem The Use of Ionizing Radiation for the Hydrolysis of
Pectins and the Effect on the Properties of the Extraced Pectins. Ph.D.
Dissertation. March, 1969. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

20










George Frederick Martin Influence of Certain Growth Regulators on Ripening
Florida Maygold Peaches. M.S.A. Thesis. August, 1969. D. W. Buchanan,
Chairman.

James Edward Pollard Enzymological Aspects of Abscission in Valencia Sweet
Orange (Citrus sinensis, L.) and Calamondin (Citrus madurensis, LOUR).
Ph.D. Dissertation. December, 1969. R. H. Biggs, Chairman.

Ibrahim Bin Mohamad Yusof The Growth and Mineral Composition of Avocados
and Mangos Under Three Soil Temperature Regimes. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969.
D. W. Buchanan, Chairman.


Ornamental Horticulture Department

William Edward Knoop Correlation Between Macro Element Deficiency Symptomology
and Chemical Composition of Major Warm Season Turfgrasses. M.S.A. Thesis.
December, 1969. E. C. Roberts, Chairman.


Plant Pathology Department

Milton C. Archer, Jr. Hill Reaction Rates of Chloroplasts From Virus-Infected
Tobacco (Nioctiana tabacum L.). Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969. D. A. Roberts,
Chairman.

Ieuan Rhys Evans Comparative Aphid and Mechanical Transmissibility of Bean
Yellow Mosaic Virus Isolates. Ph.D. Dissertation. August, 1969.
F. W. Zettler, Chairman.

Chow Fong Loh Effects of Meloidogyne Javanica (Treub) Chitwood, M. Incognita
(Kofoid and White) Chitwood, and Phytophthora Parasitica Dast. Var.
Nicotianae (Breda de Haan) Tucker on Varieties of Tobacco Resistant to Root-
Knot and Black-Shank. M.S. Thesis. March, 1969. C. R. Miller, Chairman.

Marvin Edward Miller Lethal Yellowing of Cocnut Palms. I. Review of
Investigations. II. Mechanical Transmission. M.S. Thesis. March, 1969.
D. A. Roberts, Chairman.


Poultry Science Department

Rafael S. Moreno Relationship of Dietary Protein and Methionine Levels to
the Laying Cycle of the Laying Hen. M.S.A. Thesis. June, 1969. R. H. Harms,
Chairman.


Soils Department

Rufo Bazan The Coastal Pine Ridge Soils of British Honduras and Their
Fertility Status. Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1969. W. G. Blue, Chairman.

Ricardo Ah Chu A Study of Selected Soils in Eastern Panama in Relation to
Their Potential Use For Pastures. M.S.A. Thesis. December, 1969.
R. E. Caldwell, Chairman.

Paul Joseph James Eberhardt Factors Influencing Foliar Absorption of
Nitrogen by Pinus Elliottii. M.S.A. Thesis. March, 1969. W. L. Pritchett,
Chairman.

Leandro Navarro Lucas Phosphorus Availability in Alluvial Rainforest Soils
from Costa Rica as Affected by Phosphorus Fertilization and Soil Amendments.
Ph.D. Dissertation. June, 1969. W. G. Blue, Chairman.

Raymond B. Reneau, Jr. Selected Soil Properties and Composition of Associated
Roots in Eastern Panama. Ph. D. Dissertation. December, 1969. J. G. A. Fiskell,
Chairman.


S Vegetable Crops Department

William Martin Stall Cytological Confirmation of Phenotypes Derived From
the Cross Phaseolus Lunatus L. X P. Polystachyus (L.) B.S.P. M.S.A. Thesis.
August, 1969. A. P. Lorz, Chairman.


Veterinary Science Department

Eric Wayne Baldwin The Effects of Selected Chemical Agents on Leptospira
canicola. M.S. Thesis. August, 1969. F. H. White, Chairman.


21











INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS


All activities which build or strengthen the international dimension
of IFAS are included in International Programs. The office administers
contract and grant technical assistance, training of foreign nationals,
foreign assignment orientation of Florida scientists, consultant and
advisory services to U.S. and foreign agencies and institutions. The
office also acts as liaison between the University and the State
Department of Agriculture and Florida agribusiness in carrying out activities
that complement State programs by developing tropical technology applicable
to Florida, attracting agriculturally oriented industry to the State,
opening agribusiness investment opportunities for Florida private enterprise,
and expanding international markets for Florida goods and services.
In addition, the office of International Programs administers the
Center for Tropical Agriculture. The Center determines policy, direction,
and coordination within IFAS of tropically oriented projects, provides
research grants to faculty and students, assists academic departments in
curricula development supported by adequate library and laboratory
facilities, assists departments in attracting outstanding faculty and
graduate students, publishes and disseminates results of tropical research,
maintains liaison with national and international educational research
and granting institutions and administers contract and grant research and
education programs.
IFAS is increasingly being called on to advise in the production,
marketing and processing of agricultural products in the tropics.
Participation in international research programs strengthens expertise in
these areas. In solving many of the problems it is beneficial to use an
interdepartmental approach. For example, in carrying out research under
the Ford Foundation Grant, scientists from the Departments of Animal
Science, Agronomy, Agricultural Economics, Soils and Veterinary Medicine
are cooperating. It is anticipated that much of the tropical research in
the future will require a multidisciplinary systems approach. IFAS,
through its office of International Programs, is well prepared to accept
this challenge.
Florida should benefit both directly and indirectly from the growing
participation of the IFAS in international research and service. Because
much of the State's climate is subtropical, research on management
practices, plants and disease and pest control problems in the tropics
may, in fact, have helped Florida agriculturists. Improved agriculture
in the tropics requires many heretofore unused inputs such as fertilizer,
pesticides, machinery and improved animals. Many of these inputs are
either produced in Florida or shipped through Florida ports. In addition,
there is a certain satisfaction in helping neighboring countries achieve
a better life for their people.
Research and training was conducted under nine contracts and one
grant during 1969. Staff from almost all units of the Institute
participated in some phase of these activities.
The majority of the contracts were with the Agency for International
Development and involved technical assistance to the Governments of
Costa Rica, Jamaica, El Salvador and Vietnam. A new project, funded by the
Office of the War on Hunger, was initiated to survey the economics of
current livestock production systems in Latin America and to begin work on
feed composition tables for South and Central America. This project is
complementary to our current Ford Foundation grant for research on tropical
and subtropical livestock production and pasture improvement.
Additional projects included a small contract with the Central Bank
of Nicaragua for economic evaluation of pilot projects, a curriculum
development contract with the Jamaica School of Agriculture, funded under
a loan from the World Bank and an agricultural sector study of Ghana as
part of a consortium of private firms and public institutions under the
auspices of the Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. of Washington, D.C.
Technical assistance to upgrade the agricultural production of
Guyana and to assist in the establishment of a research facility at the
Evini Livestock Station in that country was continued.
Publications resulting from the contract work are given under the
contract, along with the names of individuals involved in the projects.











AID/la-410

GOVERNMENT OF JAMAICA

To provide assistance to the Government in developing extension programs for
local farmers, to procure young dairy heifers from Florida for the improvement of
local dairy herds, development of educational materials for local use and contin-
uation of the pilot dairy herd project.

Short term technical assistance visits:

Reaves, C. W. Dairy 18 days
Palmer, A. Z. Meats 30 days

AID/la-261

GOVERNMENT OF COSTA RICA

To provide an educational advisor to assist the Government of Costa Rica in
establishing a technical school of agriculture and short term consultants for
continuation of the corn and bean campaigns, improvement of pasture grasses,
coffee diversification and to institute trial programs for a variety of crops.

Contract personnel:

Ross, J. E. Chief of Party; Agricultural Economist 3 months
Kretschmer, A. E., Jr. Chief of Party; Agronomist 11 months
Muller, A. S. Educational Advisor 12 months
Bieber, J. S. Coffee Diversification project 12 months

Short term assistance visits:

Jamison, F. S. Fruit and Vegetable Production 6 weeks
Tefertiller, K. F. Administrative Visit 6 days
Moses, G. C. Rural electrification 2 months
Malo, S. E. Fruit Production 1 month
Peterson, G. W. Short course in Spanish offered to
all IFAS campus staff
Chapman, H. D., Jr. Pasture Improvement--sponsored by 10 days
the Guanacaste's Beef Producers Assn.
and Costa Rican Ministry of Agric.

Publications:

Bieber, J. S., "Diversification Opportunities and Effects of Alternative
Policies on Costa Rican Coffee Farms" Dissertation, 1970.
Chapman, II. L., Jr., "Summary of Trip to Costa Rica to Evaluate the Need for
Supplemental Feeding of Beef Cattle on Pastures in the Guanacaste Province
Costa Rica," April, 1969.
Eastwood, R. A., "Economics of the Dairy Industry in Costa Rica," 1969.
Jamison, F. S., "Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Needs in Costa Rica," April,
1969.
Malo, S; E., "Potential Importance of Fruit Producing Areas in Costa Rica,"
April, 1969.
Moses, G. C., "Cooperative Rural Electrification in Costa Rica," thesis, 1969.
Ross, J. E., "Technical Assistance for Development of Agribusiness in Costa Rica,"
April, 1969.
Ross, J. E. and J. J. Castro, "Factors Affecting Agribusiness Investment in
Costa Rica," March, 1969.

AID/la-586

GOVERNMENT OF EL SALVADOR (Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Industries)

To provide an educational advisor to the National School of Agriculture
to assist in expansion and improvement of the school, curriculum and
course planning and teacher training.

Contract personnel:

Pierce, H. E. Chief of Party; Educational Advisor 5 months

AID/vn-24

GOVERNMENT OF VIETNAM (Ministry of National Education)

To provide technical assistance and advice to the Ministry for establishing
a new college of agriculture at Thu Due, Vietnam specifically for selection of
course materials, curriculum development, library materials and the initiation











of an extension service. U. S. training is contemplated for qualified Vietnamese
students and faculty and technical short courses are to be offered the faculty
and staff of the new school.

Contract personnel:

Carpenter, J. W. Acting Chief of Party; Animal Scientist 11 months
Llewellyn, W. R. Soils; Short Course Advisor 12 months
Gimenez, D. M., Jr. Swine program (graduate student) 8.6 months
Eden, W. G. Initial administrative assistance 3 months

Publications:

Carpenter, J. W., "Semi-annual Report," August, 1969.

AID/csd-2498

OFFICE OF WAR ON HUNGER (Agency for International Development)

Literature search for published data and personal interviews for unpublished
data through Central and South America on livestock production. Studies are
underway of the economics of current production systems in Latin America and the
national policies and infrastructural systems affecting the livestock industry.
Feeding trials are being conducted, research priorities for production programs
are being established and effective methods for dissemination of research results
to the local producer are being studied. Ultimately, feed composition tables
will be developed for the tropical and subtropical areas that are comparable to
the U. S.-Canadian Feed Tables.

Trips for data collection and establishment of feeding trials were:

Glenn, J. C. Tropical livestock project leader 27 days
Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras,
Panama, and Nicaragua
Wilcox, C. J. Peru, Ecuador 8 days
Hentges, J. F., Jr. Costa Rica 17 days
Roman, J. Peru, Ecuador 8 days
Ammerman, C. B. Colombia 15 days
Salazar, J. J. Colombia 15 days

CENTRAL BANK OF NICARAGUA

A cooperative agreement with the Central Bank of Nicaragua in Managua to provide
consultants for evaluating the economic data and feasibility of pilot projects
for investment purposes.

Short term technical assistance visits:

Male, S. E. Tropical Fruit Production 17 days
Krezdorn, A. H. Tropical Fruit Production 18 days

Publication:

Male, S. E., "Nicaragua--A Survey of the Country's Tropical Fruit Production and
the Evaluation of Areas Best Suited for Their Cultivation," 1969.
Krezdorn, A. H., "Nicaragua--Existing and Potential Production of Citrus," 1969.

JAMAICA SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE (Funded by the World Bank)

To provide assistance in the upgrading of curriculum and course content at the
Jamaica School, while providing an opportunity for U of F graduate student
teaching experience and short term faculty consulting assignments in agricultural
economics, animal science, agricultural engineering, entomology and fruit and
vegetable crops.

Contract personnel:

Peterson, H. P. Agricultural Economist (Teaching) 8.3 months

Short term technical assistance visits:

Caldwell, R. E. Soil Scientist 20 days
Spinks, D. O. Administrative visit 6 days

Publications:

Peterson, H. P., "Report on the Jamaica School of Agriculture," September,
1969.
Caldwell, R. E., "Course outline for Soils and Water Management Course," 1969.










ROBERT R. NATHAN ASSOCIATES, INC. (Nathan Consortium Studies--Ghana)

An agricultural sector study for development of Ghana agriculture including
practical planning of future projects leading to import reduction and export
expansion and to establish priorities for these projects in conjunction with
the other areas of the economy.

Contract personnel:
Ross, J. E. Chief of Party; Agricultural Economist 9 months
Edson, S. N. Soils and Fertilizers 9 months

Short term technical assistance visits:
Wilkowske, H. H. Initial administrative visit 1 month
Norden, A. J. Oilseed crops 3 months
Campbell, C. W. Fruit and Vegetable Crops 3 months
Giles, G. W. Outside consultant-agriculture 3 months
engineering

Publications:
Ghana Sector Studies Reconnaissance Report: Part I Coordination and Administra-
tion; Part II Agriculture, prepared for the Ministry of Economic Affairs by
the Nathan Consortium for Sector Studies, May, 1969.
Wilkowske, H. H., "Progress Report of Ghana Program," February, 1969.
Norden, A. J., "Vegetable Oil Production in Ghana," December, 1969.
Giles, G. W., "Developmental Agricultural Mechanization in Ghana," December,
1969.
Ross, J. E., "An Analysis of Government Participation in Ghana's Agro-
Industrial Development, Section 1: Fruit and Vegetable Processing," June,
1969.
Campbell, C. W., "Fruit and Vegetable Production in Ghana," December, 1969.

GOVERNMENT OF GUYANA (Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources)

To provide short term technical assistance to the Ministry in its attempts to
diversify and develop the Guyana agricultural economy in livestock production,
soils, crops, vegetables, pasture improvement, and to provide specialized edu-
cation for Guyanese students and professional individuals in Florida. Emphasis
is also being given to planning research and training in Guyana and to
development of the Ebini Livestock Station.

Short term technical assistance visits:
Mott, G. O. Ebini Livestock Station Project 18 days
leader
Eddleman, B. R. Agricultural Economics 3 days
Grigsby, S. E. Agricultural Education (extension) 23 days
Schank, S. C. Crop Research 4 days
Norden, A. J. Peanut Research 5 days
Whitty, E. B. Ebini Station Research 18 days
Prine, G. M. Sorghum and crop research at Ebini 7 days
Koger, M. Livestock program at Ebini 19 days
Ammerman, C. B. Livestock program at Ebini 7 days
Moore, J. E. Livestock program at Ebini 4 days
Glenn, J. C. Livestock program at Ebini 12 days
Herbert,J. H., Jr. Soil Conservation 18 days
Blue, W. G. Soil Conservation 11 days
Myers, M. Agricultural machinery at Ebini 6 days
Shell, E. W. Outside consultant--fisheries 22 days

Publications:
Herber, J. H., Jr., "Report of Investigations Concerning Agricultural Schemes
in Guyana," 1969.
Norden, A. J., "Peanut Research at the Ebini Crop Station and Sorghum Trials at
Mon Repos, Guyana, S. A.," 1969.
Shell, E. W., "A Review of Guyana's Program in Brackishwater and Freshwater
Fisheries," June,1969.
Research and Development at the Ebini Livestock Station, University of Florida
Technical Team, March, 1969.

FORD FOUNDATION GRANT--Research and Training in Tropical Livestock Production

Research projects supported for both graduate students and faculty at the
University of Florida are listed below:

Glenn, J. C., Tropical Livestock Project Leader, 32 days-Venezuela, Costa Rica

SShirley, Ray and Perdomo, Jose (graduate student)

To gather existing data on feed composition and conduct analyses
where data is incomplete and publish the information obtained in











a usable form. Survey liver and blood composition of cattle from
contrasting environmental regions of Venezuela. Conduct mineral
balance trials on cattle using common feedstuffs.
Status: in progress

Ammerman, C. B.

To develop feeding supplements and supplementation programs which
will improve the performance of cattle grazing tropical and sub-
tropical forages during periods when they provide inadequate
nutrient uptake.
Status: in progress
Travel: 4 days in Trinidad

Moore, J. E. and Mott, G. O.

To determine the voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility of
various tropical and subtropical forages harvested or grazed under
various conditions in Florida and the tropics. To refine laboratory
methods for estimating forage nutritive value.
Status: in progress
Travel: Dr. Moore spent 18 days in Venezuela, Trinidad, and Puerto
Rico

Mott, G. 0. and Timm, D. H. (graduate student)

To evaluate the productive capacity of several pasture management
systems of low, intermediate and high levels of intensity from a
technical and economic point of view.
Status: in progress
Travel: D. H. Timm spent 7 days in Venezuela

Mott, G. 0. and Glenn, J. C.

To determine the effect of supplemental jaragua forage and molasses
feeding upon the performance of steers during a 12-month period in-
cluding one dry season. To determine the amount of supplemental feed
required in the various systems and estimate the cost of providing
supplemental feed and the returns to be expected.
Status: planning stage
Travel: Dr. Mott 16 days Venezuela, Trinidad, Puerto Rico

Urrutia, V. M. (graduate student)

To provide some of the basic information that will be needed to dev-
elop legumious forages for livestock in the tropics.
Status: field research in progress.

Eddlemen, B. R. and Meyer, N. L. (graduate student)

Determine the nature of enterprise organization and the magnitude
of resource levels needed to obtain specified income levels to
crops-livestock farms in the Sinu Valley of Colombia. Factors to be
considered include farm product prices, capital availability and
cost, land quality and managerial ability of the farm operator.
Status: Study has been completed.
Travel: Eddleman, B. R. 23 days in Colombia and Venezuela
Meyer, N. L. 15 days in Colombia
Dow, K. K. 11 days in Colombia
Publication: Minimum resource requirements for specified levels
of income on crop-livestock farms in the Sinu Valley
of Colombia, Thesis, 1969.

Garcia, L. (graduate student)

To assess production alternatives on farms in humid tropical low-
lands of CostaRica using a linear programming model.
Status: Thesis has been written.

Smith, V. (graduate student) (Geography)

To compare the evolution of beef cattle marketing and related systems
in two culturally and environmentally different regions of Costa
Rica. Quesada is a new ranching area in the humid tropics populated
by recently immigrated settlers from the highlands and Liberia is a
wet/dry tropical area with a long history of cattle raising.
Status: in progress














Kelsey, T. F. (graduate student) (Geography)

To assess the present state of the beef cattle industry in the Roraima
savannas; numbers of cattle, production, quality, limiting factors
and marketing systems.
Status: in progress

Koger, M. and Glenn, J. C.

To compare the fertility rate, pre-weaning growth, post-weaning
growth and carcass characteristics of various breed groups, including
Brahman-European crisscrosses.

Koger, M. and Smith, R. (graduate student)

To determine the best crossbreeding system for the Llanos of Vene-
zuela using pure-bred and Criollo stock currently available locally,
and to obtain data on production levels with various systems of
managements.
Status: in progress
Travel: M. Koger --7 days in Honduras
R. Smith 107 days in British Honduras, Venezuela

Data Collection Trips:

Calderon 20 days in Costa Rica
Schank, S. C.- 16 days in Venezuela, Trinidad, Puerto Rico
Wilcox, C. J.- 7 days in Venezuela
















REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of Federal Funds 1969-70


Item

Salaries and Wages

Travel

Transportation and Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Maintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and Obligations

Materials and Supplies

Equipment

Land and Buildings

TOTAL FEDERAL EXPENDITURES


Hatch


Hatch
Funds

$ 548,423.40

798.65

183.30

273.74

134.98

412.72

923.43

719.86

22.00

12,662.48

80,667.82

4,374.13


Regional
Research
Funds

$ 82,348.12

4,641.09

1,794.37

7,972.85

-0-

610.63

284.78

74.00

14.75

20,425.52

3,533.89

104.30


McIntyre Total
Stennis Federal Funds

$ 76,180.37 $ 706,951.89

2,834.32 8,274.06

1,405.71 3,383.38

3,638.22 11,884.81

264.09 399.07

422.75 1,446.10

2,060.55 3,268.76

-0- 793.86

-0- 36.75

8,316.87 41,404.87

11,993.97 96,195.68

-0- 4,478.43


$649,596.51 $ 121,804.30 $ 107,116.85 $ 878,517.66


--












Summary of Expenditures of State Funds 1969-70


Item

Salaries and Wages $

Fringe Benefit Matching

Travel

Transportation and Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Maintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and Obligations

Supplies and Materials

Equipment

Land and Buildings

Revolving and Working Funds

Special Appropriation-Building Fund


TOTAL STATE FUNDS $10,847,186.15 $813,410.16 $3,099,581.53 $12,760,177.84


Fla. Agriculture
Experiment Static
General Revenue
Funds

7,317,885.05

539,109.62

204,383.82

111,154.75

170,065.95

69,447.59

68,169.55

57,509.22

66,689.35

12,901.80

665,861.63

241,209.18

55,766.40

-0-*

1,267,032.24


TOTAL STATE FUNDS


$10,847,186.15


$813,410.16 $1,099,581.53 $12,760,177.84


on Grants and
Incidental Donations
Funds Funds

$144,676.67 $ 575,550.72 $

-0- 33,321.78

16,165.33 48,151.95

9,045.48 2,440.27

13,334.65 7,079.08

977.33 4,012.39

11,503.19 13,416.36

5,055.02 17,141.36

21,212.52 3,643.08

4,903.63 1,769.80

359,902.48 127,087.88

105,421.46 101,865.48

86,212.40 54,027.00

35,000.00 -0-

-0- 110,074.38


L


Total
State
Funds

8,038,112.44

572,431.40

268,701.10

122,640.50

190,479.68

74,437.31

93,089.10

79,705.60

91,544.75

19,575.23

1,152,851.99

448,496.12

196,005.80

35,000.00

1,377,106.62













GRANTS AND GIFTS

1969

Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending December 31, 1969. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.

ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$300
Vegetable Crops Department--$500
AMDAL COMPANY Abbott Laboratories
Central Florida Experiment Station--$400
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,100
Everglades Experiment Station--$400
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$400
Potato Investigations Laboratory--$400
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF RAILROADS
School of Forestry--$100
AMERICAN CAN COMPANY
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,500
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
Department of Animal Science--$2,500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
AMERICAN HOECHST CORPORATION
Department of Poultry Science--$2,000
Department of Poultry Science--$3,000
Department of Poultry Science--$2,000
AMERICAN OIL COMPANY
Department of Soils and
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station--$25,500
AMERICAN ORCHID SOCIETY
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$2,000
THE AMERICAN POTASH INSTITUTE, INC.
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station--$500
AMERICAN POULTRY & HATCHERY FEDERATION
Department of Poultry Science--$1,000
ATLAS CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, INC.
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
H. J. BAKER & BROTHERS, INC.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Department of Poultry Science--$2,000
BASIC INCORPORATED
Citrus Experiment Station--$4,000
BERKSHIRE CHEMICALS, INC.
Department of Plant Pathology--$700
BIO-DYNAMICS, INC.
Department of Veterinary Science--$559
BIRD OF MONTICELLO, INC.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-- 4540
BORDEN CHEMICAL COMPANY Smith-Douglass Division
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$2,500
Department of Poultry Science--$3,000
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,500
BRANDT CHEMICAL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$700
BRUNSWICK PULP & PAPER COMPANY
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
BUCKEYE CELLULOSE CORPORATION
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY
Department of Plant Pathology--$3,000
CHEMAGRO CORPORATION
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$300
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$400
Central Florida Experiment Station--$750
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$300
Department of Plant Pathology--$500











CHEMSALT CORPORATION;BERKSHIRE;FRENCH POTASH;
POTASH IMPORT; and GREAT SALT LAKE
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,000
CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,300
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
Department of Plant Pathology--$250
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$1,000
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,500
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
0. H. CLAPP AND COMPANY
Departments of Agricultural Engineering
and Fruit Crops---------------------------$9,700
CONTAINER CORPORATION OF AMERICA
School of Foresty--$800
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
CONTINENTAL CAN COMPANY, INC.
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
CROOKHAM COMPANY
Everglades Experiment Station--$375
DIAMOND SHAMROCK CHEMICAL COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory--$700
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
MRS. M. S. DILLON
Department of Veterinary Science--$3,500
DISTILLERS FEED RESEARCH COUNCIL
Department of Poultry Science--$2,000
THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,200
School of Forestry--$100
E. I. DuPONT de NEMOURS & COMPANY, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,100
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
North Florida Experiment Station--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
MR. K. D. EATMON
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$3,000
MR. PAUL ECKE, JR.
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$275
ESSO RESEARCH & ENGINEERING COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
Department of Fruit Crops--$500
FLORIDA FOUNDATION SEED PRODUCERS, INC.
Administrative--$12,241
FLORIDA GAME & FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION
School of Foresty--$4,000
School of Forestry--$2,760
Department of Veterinary Science--$3,850
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL & CONSUMERS SERVICE
School of Forestry--$2,000
FLORIDA STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$15,840
Department of Soils--$5,592
FLORIDA SUGARCANE LEAGUE, INC.
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$8,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$6,500
Everglades Experiment Station--$5,000
FLORIDA TURF-GRASS ASSOCIATION
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$1,500
FMC CORPORATION Niagara Chemical Division
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
Department of Plant Pathology--$500
GEIGY AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS Division of Geigy Chemical Corp.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$1,000
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,350
Department of Plant Pathology--$11,330











Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
GERICKE INDUSTRIES, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
GREAT SALT LAKE MINERALS & CHEMICALS CORPORATION
Department of Soils--$500
HERCULES INCORPORATED
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$1,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY MARKETING COMMISSION, INC.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$3,500
HOFFMANN-LaROCHE, INC. Roche Chemical Division
Department of Poultry Scienqe--$2,500
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$4,000
HUDSON PULP & PAPER CORPORATION
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
IMPROVED VARIETY RESEARCH INC.
West Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
INTERNATIONAL MINERALS & CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Department of Animal Science--$4,000
Department of Soils--$1,500
INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
Department of Soils--$3,625
CHARLES JACQUIN et Cie, Inc.
Department of Animal Science--$3,000
KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$592.60
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
LAUDERDALE LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE ASSOCIATION
Plantation Field Laboratory--$300
LILLY RESEARCH LABORATORY Division of Eli Lilly Company
Department of Animal Science--$5,000
Department of Bacteriology--$950
MALLINCKRODT CORPORATION
Department of Plant Pathology--S350
Department of Plant Pathology--$8,000
S. E. MASSENGILL COMPANY
Department of Veterinary Science--$6,350
MERCK & COMPANY, INC. Merck Chemical Division
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,200
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
MERCK, SHARP & DOHME RESEARCH LABORATORIES
Department of Veterinary Science--$1,800
METROPOLITAN WASTE CONVERSION CORPORATION
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
MILLER CHEMICAL & FERTILIZER CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Staiton--$1,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$4,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
3M COMPANY Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company
Plantation Field Laboratory--$2,376.80
Plantation Field Laboratory--$2,500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
MOBIL CHEMICAL COMPANY Industrial Chemicals Division
Department of Agronomy--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--S500
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
MORTON CHEMICAL COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ANIMAL BREEDERS
Department of Dairy Science--$1,000
NOR-AM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,600
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,500
OLIN CORPORATION
Department of Fruit Crops--$1,000
OSBORNE EQUIPMENT COMPANY
Plantation Field Laboratory--$100
OSCEOLA COUNTY Board of County Commissioners
Department of Soils--$2,000
ORCHIDS ORLANDO
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$58,075
OSMOSE WOOD PRESERVING CO., OF AMERICA, INC.
School of Forestry--$25.00












OWENS ILLINOIS, INC.
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
PALM BEACH-BROWARD COUNTIES Board of Country Commissioners
Department of Soils--$4,000
WILLIAM D. PAWLEY
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
PHELPS DODGE REFINING CORPORATION
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,500
Everglades Experiment Station--$2,500
PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY
Department of Agronomy--$1,000
ITT RAYONIER, INC.
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE
Department of Agriculture Economics--$10,000
R. J. REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY
Department of Agronomy and
Agricultural Engineering--$4,000
RHODIA INC. Chipman Divison
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,100
RHOM AND HAAS COMPANY
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$2,000
Department of Ornamental Horticulture--$1,000
Department of Plant Pathology--$700
THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION
Department of Vegetable Crops--$250
SANDOZ PHARMACEUTICALS Division of Sandoz, Inc.
Department of Veterinary Science--$3,060
SCHERING CORPORATION
Department of Veterinary Science--$3,060
SCOTT PAPER COMPANY
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
G. D. SEARLE & COMPANY
School of Forestry--$5,000
SHELL CHEMICAL COMPANY
Department of Animal Science--$5,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,350
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,100
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$750
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$1,000
Department of Food Technology--$5,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Potato Investigations Laboratory--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$3,000
Department of Agronomy--$500
Watermelon & Grape Investigations Laboratory--$500
A. O. SMITH HARVESTORE PRODUCTS, INC.
West Florida Experiment Station--$2,000
North Florida Experiment Station--$2,000
SNYDER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.
Department of Veterinary Science--$650
SOUTH & CENTRAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
Department of Agricultural Economics--$62,263
SOUTH FLORIDA'S GOLF COURSE SUPERINTENDENT ASSOCIATION
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
SOUTH FLORIDA VEGETABLE EXCHANGE
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$5,200
SOUTHERN FOREST DISEASE & INSECT RESEARCH COUNCIL
School of Forestry--$3,000
SPOT HEATERS, INC.
Department of Fruit Crops--$1,500
ST. REGIS PAPER COMPANY
School of Forestry--$2,000
Department of Soils--$3,625
STAUFFER CHEMICAL COMPANY
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
Plantation Field Laboratory--$250
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment. Station--$500
SUGARCANE GROWERS CCCi'LtATIVE OF FLORIDA
Everglades Experiment Station--$750













SUN OIL COMPANY Sunoco Division
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
SYNTEX CORPORATION
Department of Dairy Science--$1,000
Department of Dairy Science--$7,500
TALL TIMBERS RESEARCH STATION
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$300
TENNESSEE CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
Department of Soils--$3,625
Department of Plant Pathology--$750
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY
Department of Soils--$15,000
THOMPSON-HAYWARD CHEMICAL COMPANY
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,000
UNION CAMP CORPORATION
Department of Soils--$3,625
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$750
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory--$1,000
UNITLD STATES SUGAR CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$17,000
THE UPJOHN COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,100
Department of Entomology-Nematology--$500
VESICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Department of Agronomy--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$525


Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as follows:

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
Department of Agronomy .. . . . .$ 3,106

DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR Bureau of Mines
Department of Soils ...... . . . 8,766

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
Department of Bacteriology. . . . .. 20,145
Department of Bacteriology. . . . .. 19,153
Citrus Experiment Station . . . ... 56,091
Citrus Experiment Station . . . ... 9,659
Department of Entomology-Nematology . . ... 46,621
Department of Food Technology . . ... 76,439
Department of Soils . . . . ... 16,715
Department of Veterinary Science. . . ... 17,171
Department of Veterinary Science. . . . 24,943
Department of Veterinary Science .. . ...... 17,193
Department of Veterinary Science. ............. 18,610
Department of Veterinary Science. . . ... 23,747

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Department of Plant Pathology . . ... 5,000

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Department of Agronomy ....... .. . .$ 500
Department of Agriculture Economics . . .. 74,000
Department of Agriculture Economics and
Citrus Experiment Station . .. . .. 5,000
Department of Botany . . . . 20,000
Citrus Experiment Station . . . .. 15,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station . .. .. . 4,000
Department of Agricultural Engineering; Citrus
and Everglades Experiment Stations ...... ... 35,000
Department of Entomology-Nematology ... . .. 20,000
Department of Entomology-Nematology ... . 35,000
Department of Entomology-Nematology . . .. 32,400
Department of Entomology-Nematology .. . .. 28,325
Department of Entomology-Nematology . .. . 44,000
Department of Entomology-Nematology . . .. 20,000












Department of Entomology-Nematology and
North Florida Experiment Station ...... .. .. 1,000
Department of Entomology-Nematology and
Everglades Experiment Station . .. .. . 20,000
School of Forestry . . . . 1,250
Department of Soils; Plantation Field Laboratory;
Citrus and Everglades Experiment Stations . .. 55,000
Department of Veterinary Science. . ... .. 8,795

UNITED STATES ARMY
SDepartment of Entomology-Nematology .. . . 9,960

UNITED STATES NAVY
Department of Entomology-Nematology . ... .. 6,747













AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted under 37 projects. Work in 12 of those pro-
jects was cooperative with other departments in IFAS. Ten projects were
closed. The department continued coordinating its research program with the
Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and marketing of citrus
fruit.
New research initiated included studies of land ownership and income
distribution, regional income and employment effects of investments in natural
resources, and optimum water allocation for the Kissimmee River basin. During
the year 3 bulletins, 1 circular, 17 Agricultural Economics Reports, 2 research
articles, and 11 journal articles were published by our staff.
Personnel changes were the resignation of L. A. Reuss and A. Gayoso.
M. R. Langham returned from professional leave. Newly appointed were
J. R. Brooker, J. C. Cato, J. R. Conner, J. C. Gibbs, W. T. Menasco, and
A. A. Prato.


FLA-AS-00186 BROOKE D L
A
FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Thirty-nine additional groves were added to the sample over 10 years of age in
1967-68. Operating costs were down about 10 percent from a year earlier.
Growers apparently reacted quickly to low returns for fruit in 1966-67 and cut
the use of fertilizers and spray materials in groves. A 35 percent drop in
yield per acre in 1967-68 over 1966-67 was largely responsible for an increased
per box cost from 61 to 84 cents. Returns for fruit in 1967-68 were $1.87 per
box. Returns above operating costs were $1.03 per box.



FLA-AS-00001 TEFERTILLER K R

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
(1) Planning for Economic Development in North and West Florida. Twenty-nine
counties of North and West Florida having symptoms of lagging economic
development are being studied in an attempt to evaluate the probable
effectiveness of alternatives for attaining economic growth. Costs of county
government in general and by function have been related by regression analysis
to economic, demographic and geographic variables. Several significant
relationships between expenditures for services and population, income and age
have been found. (2) Labor and Material Requirements for Gladiolus and
Chrysanthemums. Field schedules were obtained from growers and summarized to
show normal labor and material requirements for the production and harvesting of
aladiclus and chrysanthemums in two areas of Florida. (3) Florida Agricultural
Production Index. New index numbers measuring the total volume of agricultural
production in Florida by commodities and by groups of products from 1924 to 1968
have been prepared using a 1957-59 base period. In 1968 total farm production
was 40 percent higher than the 1957-59 average, crops were 32 percent higher and
livestock and products were 58 percent higher. (4) Competition from Latin
American Floricultural Industry. Current floricultural imports are less than
the $2.6 million in annual exports. Conditions are favorable for expansion of
floricultural production in Latin America and increasing competition is
anticipated.



FLA-AS-00627 GREENE R E L

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in intensities
of fertilization and level of management in terms of forage production, soil
nutrient balance and rate and economy of beef production. The present
experiment contains one grass-clover program, one grass-clover program with
temporary grazing and one grass-clover program about half of which is irrigated
with seepage irrigation. As has been true in the other two phases of the
experiment. Program 1. which has the lowest rate of fertilization, continues to
be the program with the least cost of producing beef and the highest net
returns. In the 1968-69 season, the cost mer pound of beef produced was 20.20
cents on Program 1, 21.21 cents on Program 2 and 24.26 cents on Program 3. The
return per pound of beef was 26.87 cents on Program 1, 28.37 cents on Program 2
and 27.62 cents on Program 3.













FLA-AS-00701 GREENE R E L

ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A study was completed for 59 dairy farms ith 125 or more cows on the "Use of
Labor and Labor Management Practices on Florida Dairy Farms." The objectives of
the study were (1) to describe the later force and organization, (2) to
S determine management practices with respect to recruiting, training.
supervision. payment of fringe benefits and other incentives, and (3) to relate
organization and management practices to labor efficiency. When the schedules
were studied, it was evident that there were almost as many different labor
management practices as there were dairies. Most of the dairymen interviewed
felt that labor was going to become more of a problem in the future, and most
were trying to do something about it. It is reasonable to conclude from the
study that the ability of the operator to lead or motivate people is the one
factor which influences efficiency of dairy workers more than any other.



FLA-AS-C0970 BBROOKE D L

LABOR. MATERIALS. COSTS. AND RETURNS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Costs and returns for vegetable crops in Florida were summarized for 14
different vegetables in one or more of nine major producing areas of the state.
Labor costs per acre were generally 15 percent higher in 1967-68 than a year
earlier. This was reflected in a general increase of that amount or more in
total production costs per unit of product where yields were comparable.
Increased costs for labor and shipping containers resulted in increases in
harvesting and marketing costs at the farm level averaging about 10 percent.
Net returns per acre in 1967-68 were generally satisfactory for most vegetable
crops. Notable exceptions were sweet corn and green tomatoes.



FLA-AS-00995 GREENE B E I

AGE OF BEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred first at one versus two years of age. Selected replacement heifers
from the Beef Research herd are randomized each year into two groups. Group I
is bred as yearlings and Group II at two years of age. In Phase I of the
experiment at the beginning of the second breeding season for Group I heifers,
when the calves were about two months old they were taken from their mothers and
sold as veal calves. The net cost to raise a heifer to about 27 months of age
was about the same for each group when the values of the veal calves were
credited to the cost of the Group I heifers. The experiment is now in Phase II
in which the calves are being left on the Group I heifers to the normal weaning
period. Various physical production data are being collected for Phase II of
the experiment. Sufficient data are not yet available for an economic analysis.



FLA-AS-01027 GREENE R B I

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF STEERS ON PASTURE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic returns for
several methods of handling sticker steers in growing them to market weight.
Four lots of 20 steers each that averaged about 551 pounds were confined to 8.4
acre lets of Roselawn St. Augustine pasture. They were fed supplemental feeds
at the rate of 0, .5, 1.0 and 1.5 percent of body weight. All groups were kept
on pasture until the steers averaged approximately 850 pounds in weight, then
full fed in drylot until they reached a slaughter weight of 1,050 pounds.
Steers receiving no supplements were fed on pasture 308 days and in drylot 114
days for a total of 422 days. Steers supplemented at the rate of 1.5 percent of
body weight were on pasture 199 days and in drylot 90 days for a total of 289
days. The returns over costs of supplemental feeds was $57.19 per head for
steers receiving no supplements, $22.89 per head for steers supplemented at the
rate of .5 percent of body weight. -13.87 and -$20.21 per head for steers
supplemented at the rate of 1.0 and 1.5 percent of body weight, respectively.












FLA-AS-01078 SMITH C N

MARKET DEVELOPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Final analysis of data obtained on purchase patterns and consumer preferences
from 197 residents of Gainesville, Florida was completed. The 141 schedules in
which data on family income, education of wife and age of wife were delineated
were studied in more detail. An analysis of the consumer characteristics of
this group was completed. A test of differences between means showed
significant differences, at the 95 percent level of probability, in the average
expenditure for flowers, living foliage plants and artificial flowers and
foliage plants by consumer units with wives in the under 30, 30 to 44 and 45 and
over age groups. With four exceptions, purchases of fresh flowers, living
foliage plants and artificial flowers and foliage all increased with rises in
family income, the attainment of higher levels of education for the wife and
shifts to the next higher age group for the wife. These and similar findings
have implications for merchandising practices of the floricultural industry.
Results of the study of the opinions and practices of savings and loan
associations, personnel and real estate agencies were utilized in planning
for a landscape nursery finance seminar. This seminar, cancelled in 1969
because of a strike affecting the building industry, is being scheduled for
1970 in south Florida.



FLA-AS-01127 SPURLOCK A H

HANDLING FRESH CITRUS FRUIT IN PALLET BOXES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The project has been inactive this year following submission of a manuscript to
the U. S. Department of Agriculture for review and publication. The manuscript
is now in process of clearance by the Agricultural Experiment Station here.



FLA-AS-01129 SMITH C N

MARKET ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIAGE PLANT INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Field visits were made to contact foliage plant producers who had failed to return
schedules previously mailed. The 47 usable schedules obtained on market outlets and
product composition accounted for 73.6 percent of the estimated sales of the
industry in 1967. The major shifts in market outlets from 1956 to 1967 were a rise
from 7 to 15 percent in the proportion of the foliage plants sold to retail florists
and a decrease from 10 to 5 percent in that sold to local growers. Changes in the
product mix grown were more marked. In 1967 only 20.1 percent, as compared with 34
percent in 1956, of Florida foliage plants sold consisted of Philodendron cordatum.
Sales of Sansevieria declined from 15.8 percent in 1956 to 5.6 percent in 1967.
Decreases were also registered in Nepthythytis, Pothos and other plants.
Combinations of mixed varieties rose from a zero level in 1956 to 10.8 percent of
the total in 1957. Many new species gained in importance. During the past!13 years
the foliage plant industry has tended to concentrate in the Apopka area. The
industry has also experienced, after riding a sales plateau, a rising level'of sales 4
in the past two years. These and other trends delineated by the recent University
of Florida survey and basic industry data from the Census, the Crop Reporting Board
and other sources were brought together in a Mimeo Report.



FLA-AS-01133 ROSE G N

FORECASTING FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED PERIODS AND AREAS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Collaborating with Florida Field Office, Statistical Reporting Service, USDA,
1222 Woodward St., Orlando, work performed was under direction Stat-in-Charge.
Oblective: Supplementina USDA. work performed provided detailed current,
historic data as marketing service and for economic research. Leader, vegetable
section head, supervising activities 6 SRS fieldmen-statisticians, clerical
assistants: directed activities 4 industry fieldmen related work. Collected,
analyzed, basic data re vegetables, potatoes, strawberries, melons: ultimate
goal: acreage, production, by counties, areas: valuation. Current data were
released weekly, provided acreage and/or production inventories covering Dade
County pole beans. South Florida sweet corn, all celery, tomatoes. Informative













notes on these and other vegetables released concurrently in weekly
Weather-Crop. Press releases, weekly during shipping season, published by
National and State produce publications: one known radio station. Advanced
information provided farmers intentions to plant, several malor crops, proved
very realistic. Preliminary estimates of acreage and forecasts of production
followed monthly: covered 15 commodities or 30 seasonal groups. End-of-season
surveys provided data for final adjustments on sub-state geographic basis.
Information obtained throughout season plus shipments used for "other crops"
estimates.



FLA-AS-01162 MCPHERSON W K

OPTIMAL ADJUSTMENTS OF SOUTHERN GRAIN MARKETING FACILITIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The analysis is essentially complete and a PhD thesis presenting the results is
in final draft. The model developed in this study provides economists with a
means of evaluating the several sources of animal nutrients used to produce
different classes of animals and animal products in geographic areas. The costs
of all diets were higher when feed stuffs were allocated among the various
classes of animals simultaneously than when allocated independently. There is a
sharp change in the costs of livestock diets in a region when the supply of
indigenous feed stuffs is exhausted, especially in the cost of ruminants in the
animal diets. It is estimated the use of the optimum amount of urea up to 1.5
percent of the diet would have replaced the equivalent of almost 4 million tons
of soybean meal or approximately 25 percent of the soybean meal and cake produced
in the year studied. A bulletin manuscript will be based on the thesis when
accepted.



FLA-AS-01190 MCPHERSON W K

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENT OF BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A statistical analysis of the data collected under SM-27 was completed and the
final manuscript is ready for review. The following variables were found to
influence significantly the price of the various classes and grades of cattle
and calves: (a) location, (t) season, (c) type of buyer. Prices paid by packers
on direct sales were significantly higher than prices farmers received at
auctions for the same class and grade animal. The number of animals traded in
many sub-areas was not sufficiently large to establish a price that could be
related to the national price. However, in sub-areas in which a relatively
large number of animals were traded it was possible to identify the
relationships with the national price.



FLA-AS-01204 MCPHERSON W K

THE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS. STEERS AND
HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
All of the calculations for the statistical analysis of the data on bulls,
steers and heifers killed at four ages have been completed. Among other things,
the data indicate there is a significant difference between the evaluations
consumers place on meat produced from different animals. Data are being further
analyzed and the results will be summarized in a bulletin manuscript. It is
possible that the data say also provide a basis for a quantitative description
3f how various consumer groups evaluate the various retail cuts of beef.



FLA-AS-01234 SPURLOCK A H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPORDUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND LIFE SPAN OF
DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Records of disposals and replacements of dairy cows were continued on five dairy
herds. Data were combined with results previously accumulated to determine useful
lifespan, depreciation rate and reasons for replacements. The lifespan of 5,791
replaced cows averaged 6.3 years or about 4.3 years in the milking herd. The











disposal rate increased rapidly after the first year in the herd and after three
years only 63% of the original animals remained. After five years only 36% were
still in the herd. Cows reaching age 6 (4 years in the herd) hadca life expectancy
of 2.6 additional years and averaged 8.6 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had
1.7 years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7 years of life. Live disposals from
the herd were principally for low production, 33.0%; mastitis or some form of udder
trouble, 24.0%; and reproductive trouble, 19.0%. These three reasons or combinations
of them were responsible for 81.0% of the live disposals. About 6% of the live
disposals were for unstated reasons. Deaths from all causes accounted for 13% of
all disposals.



FLA-AS-01243 SPURLOCK A H

ESTABLISHING GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS BY FIRMS MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
No additional research has teen performed cn this project in 1969. Complete
tables summarizing the results of this work were submitted to the coordinator in
1968 and a handbook has been prepared for publication of the data from all the
states on each commodity studied. The project will be closed after publication
of the handbook.



FLA-AS-01244 ALLEGER D E

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND MOBILITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Sirmly stated, the implied objective of this study is to explore the adaptation
of families to changing socio-economic conditions. The data examined were drawn
from one Florida agricultural county and selected counties of Alabama,
Mississippi. North Carolina and Tennessee. Analyses center upon family incomes
and abject depression anomiaa). Selected indicators of socio-economic change in
Jackson County, Florida. over a generation of time (1934 to 1966, inclusive) are
under review. During this period the number of farms declined by 53%, the
number in the labor force employed in agriculture fell from over two-thirds to
less than one-fourth, farm tenantry largely disappeared, farm power shifted from
horses and mules to tractors, the average per farm size doubled, the average
rural family dropped from approximately 5 to 3 persons, families headed by
females became common, and levels of education and income rose substantially.
Poverty, according to accepted standards of definition, was largely associated
with families removed from the labor force (widows, retirees, the disabled.
etc.). Five-vear comparisons are also contemplated. For the region, many
families surveyed in 1961 were again interviewed in 1966. The 1966 data have
been programmed for analyses.



FLA-AS-01259 SMITH C N

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WOODY ORNAMENTAL INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Field work in obtaining data from 80 retail nurserymen in the classifications of
sales yards, landscape firms and garden centers was completed. A total of 63
schedules was usable for purposes of the study. Of the 31 sales yards, 18 landscape
nurseries and 14 garden centers studied, average gross annual sales approximated
$43,000, $75,000 and $255,000, respectively. Woody ornamental plants accounted for
52, 54 and 7 percent of their total revenue. Retail nurseries reported two-third
of their purchases of woody ornamentals in 1967 as being made from three major
wholesale nurseries. The quality of plants offered for sale by wholesalers was
classed by retail nurserymen as the most important reason for their choice of
suppliers. More purchases were negotiated through telephone calls from retailers to
wholesale suppliers than by any other method.



FLA-AS-01330 MYERS L H

ALLOCATION OF CITRUS SUPPLIES TO MAIIMIZE RETURNS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A quadratic programming model was developed to estimate optimal product
combinations for the purpose of maximizing net returns to the Florida citrus










industry. The model permits unique. continuous, linear demand functions for
each product with interdependency of demand among products. Optimal allocation
is based upon the empirically estimated demand functions and occurs when net
marginal revenues are equal for all products. The model was successfully
applied to fresh and processed orange products in the retail, institutional and
export markets. Results suggest that Florida citrus industry net revenues at
the F.O.B. level could be increased by increasing the crop utilization for the
following products and markets: (1) canned orange juice U.S. foodstore market,
(2) fresh orange U.S. foodstore market, (3) frozen concentrate -'institutional
market, and (4) frozen concentrate export market. The study indicated that
the optimum Florida production of oranges is between 128 and 139 million boxes,
depending on whether or not certain constraints are placed on the fresh orange
market potential.



FLA-AS-01340 SPURIOCK A H

COSTS OF HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Analyzed costs for the 1967-68 season indicated an average of 54.1 cents per box
for picking and loading oranges. 41.4 cents per box for grapefruit and $1.18 for
tangerines. Hauling, roadside to plant, costs an additional 13.3 cents per box.
Labor costs for picking and loading were approximately 85 percent of the total
harvesting cost. and for hauling were 35 percent. Total costs per 1 3/5 bushel
equivalent for packing and selling oranges, 1967-68,averaged $1.83 for the 4/5
bushel wireband box. $1.57 for the 4/5 bushel fiberboard box. $2.02 for the 5
lb. polyethylene bag in master carton and $2.27 for the 5 lb. vexar bag in
master carton. Costs for all fruit ranged by packinghouses frcm 37 percent
below average to 42 percent above. Costs for processing warehousing and selling
typical citrus products, 1967-68. excluding fruit cost averaged for single
strength orange juice per 12/46 oz. case unsweetened, $1.91: canned grapefruit
sections. 24/303, $3.27: chilled orange juice. 12/32 (glass), $1.51; frozen
orange concentrate, 48/6 oz., $2.26. or $0.49 per gallon 45 Brix excluding drum
cost. Processing of citrus feed cost $26.28 per ton. Cost data were obtained
for 1968-69 from accounting records of 24 firms for harvesting and hauling
citrus. 35 firms packing fresh, and 12 firms processing citrus into various
by-products.



FLA-AS-01365 GREENE R L L

USES CF FORAGE STORED IN OXYGEN-FREE STRUCTURES IN BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The purpose of this experiment is to determine if various oxygen-free structures
can be economically utilized in cattle production in Central and South Florida.
Initial experiments under the project will have two purposes. Information will
be obtained to compare the performance of cows, weanling calves and steers that
are fed forage from upright oxygen-free structures with that of similar cattle
grazing on pastures. Secondly, upright oxygen-free structures will be compared
with horizontal plastic oxygen-free structures for weanling calves. Within the
experiment, the groups will be equal in respect to breed, sex, age, weight and
grade of animal. There will be 30 to 35 in each cow group: eight steers and
eight heifers in each calf group: and eight Good or Choice steers and eight
Standard steers in each steer group. This is the second year of the experiment.
Various physical production data are being collected. Not enough data have been
collected for an economic analysis.



FLA-AS-01374 GREENE R E 1

DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF FARMING IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Data have been assembled from U. S. Census reports, Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service and other sources on major use of land in Florida by
geographical areas. Based on the foregoing information, the State has been
divided into major areas within which the agricultural resources are reasonably
similar and certain types of farming predominate. These are referred to as type
of farming areas. Type of farming areas have been designated for general
farming, citrus, other and vegetables. There are five general farming areas,
two citrus areas and two other. Eight major vegetable producing areas and 20
subareas have been designated.










FLA-AS-01386 GREENE R E 1

FOST-WEANING MANAGEMENT FOR BEEF CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This project is designed to develop economical programs for producing feeder and
slaughter steers from weaned calves produced in Florida. Economic evaluations
will be based on the performance from weaning to the time the steers go into the
feedlot or to slaughter as well as the relation of the treatment upon
performance of the animals in the feedlot. These evaluations will be made by
comparing rate of qain of all animals, value of the carcass of animals when
slaughtered and relative expense of each program. No research has been
conducted under this project due to inadequate resources. Plans are to start
the trials during the summer of 1970. An economic analysis will be made when
animal rrcdlction data are accumulated.



FLA-AS-01397 GREENE R E I

MARKET ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICES EOR POTATOES IN THE HASTINGS AREA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A malor objective of this project is to describe and evaluate changes in the
Hastings Potato Industry over the past decade in market organization, grower and
shipper practices and the quantities of potatoes shipped to processors. The
number of farmers growing potatoes decreased from 269 in 1958 to 185 in 1968 or
a decrease of 84 farms. The volume contracted was equal to 39 percent of the
total production of potatoes in the 1967-68 season compared to 10 percent in the
1957-58 season. Since the number of growers decreased between 1958 and 1968,
the number of growers patronizing a specific type of handler also decreased.
However, there was little relative change in the proportion of sales represented
by each type of handler. The market structure was modified to the extent that
each selling agency dealt with fewer but larger growers. For all handlers in
1967-68. 23 percent of the total sales were to the fresh market and 77 percent
to the process market. The distribution in 1958 was 38 percent to the fresh
market and 62 percent to the processed market. The combined influence of a
number of factors has confronted the industry with a number of difficult
marketing problems. It appears that some organized group action might be
helpful in attempts to improve the situation.



FLa-AS-01403 GREENE R E I

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BEEF CONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The purpose of this experiment is to compare production performance of beef cows
on various forage and supplement management systems in peninsular Florida and
determine the relative economics of each. Comparisons will be made for eight
experimental groups of cattle using different systems of management. The
experimental groups will be equally divided in respect to age and relative
production of females. Each group will be allotted to 40 acres of improved
pasture and the number of animals per group will initially range from 25 to 35
Brahman x Shorthorn breeding-age females. Calves will be weaned from 210 to 300
days of age. Cows will be supplemental fed during periods of forage deficiency.
Data collected will include chemical analysis of feeds and forages, labor,
equimnevt and all other expense records, weaning weights and percentages, sales
receipts, cows per treatment and other production data. This experiment is in
its second year. Not enough data have been collected for an economic analysis.



FLA-AS-01430 LANGHAM M R

MAXIMIZING A MEASURE OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AGRICULTURAL USF OF PESTICIDES

'"OGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This project is concerned with the economic externalities created by the use of
agricultural pesticides and the implications of such externalities on social
welfare. A non-linear programming model was developed for the winter vegetable
area in Dade County, Florida. The model has been used to obtain a measure of,
social welfare (consumers' and producers' surplus) under alternative pesticide
usage policies. Model solutions indicate that changes in externalities to over
16 times their observed levels caused very small changes in the measure of
social welfare. The model was also used to measure the effect of substituting











organic phosphates for chlorinated hydrocarbons. With substitution rates of .3
to .5 rounds of organic phosphates per pound of chlorinated hydrocarbons there
was virtually no change in the measure of social welfare when the per acre
chlorinated hydrocarbon usage was reduced 50%. The potential environment
effects of long-run. low-level exposure to persistent pesticides are not well
understood but there is growing evidence that the consequences may be serious.
The methodology used is capable of incorrcrating effects of persistent
pesticides on environmental elements as more definitive information becomes
available. The methodology also seems transferable to other problems associated
with maintaining environmental quality.



FLA-AS-01431 EDDLEMAN E R

STRATEGIES FOR OPERATING BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN CENTRAL FLORIDA FOB FIRM
BUSINESS GROWTH

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Manuscripts providing information on the economic and organizational
characteristics of representative beef cattle units in the study area, and on
the seasonal variability of beef cattle prices in Florida were published.
Technical enterprise budgets were developed for some of the various forage and
livestock components of the alternative beef production systems. Technical
budgets for six separate pasture programs, each including establishment and
maintenance requirements and costs, and three distinct beef cattle systems were
developed.



FLA-AS-01436 EDDLEMAN B R

DETERMINANTS OF THE RATE CF GROWTH IN EMPLCYMENT OF THE NORTH FLORIDA AREA
ECONCNT

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Work was completed on the development cf the analytical model to examine
variations in employment both within and among sectors of the North Fla. Area
economy. Conceptual analysis indicated how changes in exogenous shifters of
factor supplies, product demands, firm production possibilities and the number
of firms are related to the demand for labor (i.e. employment) within an area.
Empirical estimates of variables assumed to be analogous to the variables
specified in the model were developed for each Fla. county over the census
defined period 1959-64. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to
examine the extensive variation in agricultural, manufacturing, and trade and
services employment among the counties. Depending upon the variables
considered, from 56% to 686 of the variation in employment in these sectors
among Fla. counties was explained. Changes in accumulative educational
expenditures, farm prices, farm labor productivity, farm numbers, and number of
manufacturing plants were found to be significantly related to changes in the
level of employment among the counties. Annual estimates of changes in the
above variables were developed for the 37 counties comprising the North Fla.
Area for the period 1967-68. These data are to be used in examining the
separate industry employment variations in the study area.



FLA-AS-01443 LANGHAM B B PCLOPOLUS L

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE ORANGE SUBSECTOR OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The objectives of this project are to develop a simulation model of the orange
subsector which reflects the interests of each group of participants in the
subsector system and to use the model for aiding public and private
decision-makers in improving system behavior. Research in 1969 involved studies
to analyze and describe various components of the subsector system. Emphasis
was placed upon long range production estimates production densities
packinghouse efficiency, optimum orange packing and processing locations to
minimize assembly and processing costs, export demand relationships for various
products for individual European countries, effects of weather on citrus
production, and optimal advertising strategies that allocate advertising budgets
among marketing regions and product categories. Forthcoming modifications in
the simulation model will incorporate much of this information.










FLA-AS-01449 REYNOLDS J E

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FARM REAL ESTATE VALUES IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The purpose of this project is to identify and estimate the effects of
important factors affecting farm real estate values in Florida. An analysis of
the 1950. 1954, 1959 and 1964 Census data was completed in 1969. A multiple
regression model was used to examine the relationship between the value of farm
real estate and its determinants. The statistical results indicate that gross
farm income. nonfarm population density and the percentage of farmland in fruits
and nuts were the most important factors affecting the variation in farmreal
estate values among Florida counties. These three factors accounted for about
94 to 98 percent of the variation in farm real estate values during each of the
periods studied.



FLA-AS-01450 MURPHREE C E

LAND OWNERSHIP AND AGRICULTURAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Instead of depressed resource returns to explain the income disparity between
urban and rural county residents, the efficacy of price to allocate resources is
defended and agriculture is considered as efficient in the use of resources as
the nonfarm sector. Therefore, the low income of rural county residents cannot
be traced to the dependence of a local economy on agriculture. The alternate
explanation proposed is based on the hypothesis that resource adjustments in
agriculture have modified the distribution of income produced in rural counties
between residents and non-residents. Agriculture adjustments in Lafayette
County. Florida between 1950 and 1964 are being examined and the change in land
ownership will be used to distribute the proprietors income of farm operators
between residents and non-residents.


FLA-AS-01456 DOW J K

THE IMPACT OF MECHANICAL HARVESTING ON THE DEMAND FOR LABOR IN THE FLORIDA
CITRUS INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The comparison of the different mechanical systems with the manual indicated
that if present trends continue, there will be economic incentives to mechanize
the harvesting operation. A slow mechanization pace was assumed for the period
1970-75 followed by faster adoption of mechanization during the period 1975-80.
The decrease in per unit labor requirements caused by mechanization is partially
offset by the projected increase in production. It is predicted that the number
of workers required to harvest the 1980 citrus crop will be slightly lower than
the number anticipated for the 1969-70 crop. In terms of skills, however, the
impact of mechanization will be large; the demand for unskilled workers will!
decline while the demand for skilled labor will increase substantially. There
will be opportunities for offseason employment of the skilled workers withini
the citrus industry. Such is not the case, however, for harvesting workers.



FLA-AS-01472 PRATO A A

MARKET ORGANIZATION, POWER AND POLICY AND PROGRAMS IN THE DAIRY INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
An economic model is being developed to explain the milk purchasing behavior of
households. Preliminary work has begun on a survey of the Gainesville milk
market. A questionnaire has been constructed and pretested. Completed
questionnaires will be obtained for a stratified random sample of Gainesville
residents by means of personal interviews and/or by return mail after
distribution at the point of purchase. Information obtained from questionnaires
will be used to identify milk purchasing patterns for various family types and
to measure the demand for fluid mild products.










PLA-AS-01473 ELDLEMAN e E

REGIONAL INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS OF INVESTMENTS IN NATURAL RESOURCES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Preliminary work on development of indices of resource characteristics,
employment and income characteristics and other economic criteria for counties
in Florida was begun. Also an analysis of the variation in employment amonq
counties was used to focus on the malor types of information required in the
first phase of the research effort.



FLA-AS-01482 GREENE R E L

COSTS AND RETURNS ANALYSIS FOR MAJOR CROP AND LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES IN NORTH
AND NEST FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The purpose of this project is (1) to determine labor and material requirements
used in producing specified crops and livestock products and (2) to apply cost
rates and prices to the data collected to calculate estimated costs of
production and returns. About 30 field schedules will be obtained for selected
enterprises by personal interview with growers in the principal producing areas.
Data collected will include the amounts and kinds of seed, fertilizer,
insecticides, feed and other materials, labor and machine time used in the
production of individual crops and livestock enterprises. The data will be
summarized to show usual practices and methods of operation by important
producing areas. The data also will be suEnarized to show simple average costs
and returns per acre or per unit of livestock. This is a new project. Plans
for the fieldwork are lust getting underway.












AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Four new faculty members were appointed during the year to work pri-
marily in research. These men and their areas or research specialization are
as follows. Dr. A. R. Overman, Ph.D. from North Carolina State University,
will work in the area of soil and water relations and pollution. Dr. L. O.
Bagnall, Ph.D. from Cornell University, will work in the area of power and
machinery and processing. Dr. R. A. Nordstedt, Ph.D. from Ohio State
University will work in the area of pollution and animal waste management.
Dr. L. N. Shaw, Ph.D. from Ohio State University, will work in the area of
power and machinery, particularly mechanization of harvesting operations.
New areas of research include major emphasis on environmental control
and pollution and mechanization. Progress has been particularly good on
projects concerned with handling dairy farm waste, both by using sprinkler
irrigation systems and multistage lagoons.
The department suffered a severe setback on November 14, 1969, when a
fire destroyed a large part of the research area in the Agricultural Engineer-
ing building. The department is now partly operating in temporary quarters,
and the research program is continuing.



FLA-AG-00001 SHERDON E T

PRELIMINARY AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Design work was completed and construction begun on a multistage lagoon system
for treatment of waste from an 800-cow dairy. The system consists of a primary
anerobic lagoon, a secondary aerobic lagoon, and a tertiary aerobic lagoon.
Effluent from the tertiary lagoon will be discharged into a seepage irrigation
system for utilization of plant nutrients in the waste. Physical, chemical, and
biological parameters of each lagoon will be monitored. Soil and water samples
from the seepage irrigation field will be analyzed to determine changes in soil
properties and degree of nutrient utilization. Samples from test wells in the
vicinity of the lagoons will be tested for pollutional characteristics.
Bacteriological studies of anaerobic and aerobic lagoon performance will also be
conducted. Current efforts are directed toward identifying and assessing
problems associated with the physical system of precooling vegetables with a
view toward establishing a more adequate basis for rational design of precooling
systems. Laboratory equipment is being installed which will provide
experimental capability for examining a variety of these questions about
precocling.


FLA-AG-00627 MYERS J M

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Fourteen applications totalling 24.2 inches of water were applied in the
irrigated pastures during the annual period October '68 September '69.
Rainfall was adequate during the summer and fall; thus all applications for this
reporting period were made during the winter and spring months. The irrigated
pastures are part of a pasture program of which one-half is irrigated and the
remaining one-half is not. An estimate of irrigation response is obtained by
comparing the irrigated pasture program to a similar pasture program on which
irrigation is not used. Results, in terms of pounds of calf produced per acre
per year, show a yield advantage of 395 to 361 in favor of the irrigated pasture
program. Also, cows on the irrigated pasture program lost less weight (54 vs
105 lbs) during the winter than did cows on the similar non-irrigated pasture
program. The relatively large amount of water used in meeting the irrigation
requirements is a result of greater percolation losses at the location of this
project than are usually found on efficient seepage irrigation sites.



FLA-AG-01034 MYERS J M ROSS I J CLARK F

CONTINUOUS HARVESTING-CURING SYSTEM FOR BRIGHT-LEAF TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Machine harvest of tobacco appears to be practical if the conventional practice of
aligning leaves during curing and marketing can be relaxed. For leaves harvested
from near the bottom of the plant, barn scald was significantly more prevalent and
tobacco quality was reduced when a random leaf alignment was compared to standard
oriented leaf alignment. The results indicate that the adverse effects associated









with the non-aligned leaves in the first test could be eliminated by increasing
the air flow rate to 50 cfm per square foot of the net cross section for curing area
in the curing container. Results of the fourth experiment (fourth priming)
indicated that density of loading is an insignificant factor with respect to leaf
orientation in the curing container. The quantity of dry matter loss appeared to be
influenced by leaf arrangement. Tobacco cured in the randomly non-aligned leaf
arrangement weighed approximately 1.5 percent less than tobacco cured with conven-
tional leaf orientation.



FLA-AG-01203 FLUCK R C

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Field testing of the experimental prototype cabbage harvester, a one-row,
tractcr-mounted, once-over, hydraulicallYv-owered machine, was completed.
Replicated runs at four speeds ranging from 0.75 to 1.30 mph averaged 63.4%
marketable heads as harvested with an additional 9.2% marketable after trimming.
Hand harvesting gave 79.4% marketable. The harvester averaged 17.6% cut too
high which might be utilized by processing into kraut or slaw. There was less
damage with mechanical harvesting than with hand harvesting 1.2% versus 8.5%.
The cabbage harvester was judged ready for commercial development and
manufacture. Arrangements for this have been made with Middleton Harvesters,
Inc. of Elkton, Florida. A commercial version of this harvester developed for
Florida conditions should therefore be available when demanded by growers,
allowing continued production of the 10 million dollar crop despite increasing
labor costs.



FLA-AG-01212 MYERS J M CHOATE R E

TEMPORARY LININGS FOR WATERWAYS AND EMBANKMENTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Tests were conducted to determine permissible tractive force for bare surfaces of
several soil types and for 2 different cover materials installed over each of
these surfaces. Results show that lighter cover material gave protection
against 6 times the force that bare soil would withstand and that heavier
material gave 6 times the protection of the lighter material.



FLA-AG-01250 CHOATE R E

WATER CCNTROL FOR FORESTRY PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
These studies include a system of open ditches to provide three drainage
treatments for the soils and trees under evaluation. The drainage depths are 2
feet. 5 feet and no artificial drainage respectively. Seedling trees were
planted during the winter of 1968. A system of water table observation wells
was installed in the plots. February 1969. Water table levels have been
recorded, meekly, since that date. The object is to correlate tree growth and
tree development to the rate of water table change and water table levels.
These data have not been correlated for this report period.



FLA-AG-01251 KINARD D T BAIRD CD

GENETICS AND ENVIROWHENT OF HEAT TOLERANCE IN LAYING HENS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The objectives investigated during this period were to determine if the
antipyrcgens, aspirin and acetaminophen would alleviate heat stress and to
determine the effect of dietary fat and lipamone on heat tolerance. Tests were
conducted on five week old White Leghorn chickens which had been selected for
high and low heat tolerance. The survival time in a controlled environment of
105oF and 75% RH was used as an index to heat tolerance. Increasing dietary fat
resulted in a decrease in survival time. The antipyroqens had no apparent
effect on heat stress. However, it is expected that other drugs such as
tranquilizers may aid in alleviating heat stress. The administering of limamone
resulted in a decrease in survival time. Future *csts will include the use of










other drugs and hormones, which if found to be effective, could be administered
during periods of high heat stress to prevent reduction in egg production and
loss of hens. In several tests, thermocouples were placed in the wing muscle to
monitor body temperature. It was anticipated that body temperature during
period of high heat stress could be correlated with survival time (heat
tolerance). A correlation does exist but it is not useful as an index to heat
tolerance since it occurs only in the final portion of the survival time period.



FLA-AG-01296 MYERS J M CHOATES R E BAIRD C D

ISRIGAIION EFFICIENCY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Sprinkler irrigation systems with low application rates are being installed in
Florida in increasingly large numbers. It is often necessary to operate the
sprinklers for 12 hours or longer per setting to satisfy the soil moisture
deficit. It is suspected that under these circumstances and with weather
conditions favorable for high evaporation that irrigation application efficiency
is very low. It is the object of this study to correlate evaporation losses
with air temperature. humidity, wind velocity, water droplet size and water
application rate. This type of information could be used by irrigators to aid
in applying the desired amount of water into the soil, reduce operating cost and
conserve water. The climatic control chamber, the prime facility for conducting
the tests, is essentially completed with cnly minor additions and the
calibration of certain components remaining to be accomplished. During the year
the air flow measuring and controlling components were installed and the air
distributing system was modified to provide a more uniform velocity profile.
Also, a dew-point hygrometer was tested to determine its applicability to
measuring and controlling humidity and the measuring of dew-point differences
across the evaporation chamber. During the coming year it is planned to
complete the climatic control chamber and conduct tests to determine evaporation
rates as influenced by variations in air temperature, humidity and water droplet
size.



FLA-AG-01406 FLUCK R C BAGNALL L 0

VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR
FRESH MARKET TOMATOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A technique was developed using a spring scale to make field measurements of
tomato detachment characteristics. This technique supplements and extends
previous lab techniques, and allows measurement of the maximum tensile force
required to cause detachment and the force/weight ratio. Now plant breeders
can select for optimum detachment characteristics in varietal development.
Work continued on the mechanical properties of the tomato related to harvesting
and handling, which is now centered on sand puncture and abrasion.



FLA-AG-01411 MYERS J M

MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF TEA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
More information was needed about the geometry of the harvesting device and the
dynamics of its operation. Particular attention was given to improving the
harvesting efficiency by determining adjustments of cyclic rate and length of
stroke of harvester bar as related to forward speed, and to improving the
cleanliness of the harvested material by vacuuming the plants lust in front of
the harvester bar. Adjustment in length of stroke of harvester bar appears to
be more crucial as it affects harvesting efficiency than the other factors
studied. This adjustment must be capable of being changed readily during the
day to meet changes in the physical properties of the tea. Additional work is
necessary to more closely describe the requirements for harvesting. A
manufacturer's prototype harvester scheduled for testing fell short of
expectations primarily because of inadequacies of the the carrier for the
harvesting mechanisms.












DISPOSAL OF DAIRY FARM WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Disposal methods must be found for dairy farm waste to control pollution of air
and water with suspended solids and nutrients. Sprinkler application to land
was made at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit. Waste from a milking
unit with 160 cows is collected in a 20,000 gallon holding tank and is pumped out
daily. Manure slurry is applied to three one-acre plots in 1/4 inch increments
daily ty means of a centrifugal rump and stationary sprinkler guns. Weekly
application rates total 1/4, 1/2 and 1 inch/week respectively. Plots of sandy
soil are presently planted to oats (without supplemental fertilization) and have
received slurry since 11/10/69. Rainfall and water table are being monitored.
Water samples are collected weekly frcm the clots and analyzed chemically,
particularly for nitrogen and rhosophorus. The application system is performing
quite satisfactorily. Solids have not accumulated excessively and the oats are
withstanding the treatments and responding to the organic nitrogen. Nutrient
levels in the ground water appear to be within tolerable limits. The water
table has fluctuated around a depth of about two feet below surface, the water
table response being about 1 ft./1 in. rain.



FLA-AG-01468 OVERRAN A R

NUTRIENT & WATER INPUTS 6 OUTGO FROM THE ORGANIC 6 MINERAL SOILS IN THE LAKE
APCPKA AREA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Information is needed on the nutrient inputs to Lake Apopka from organic and
from mineral soils. Agriculture has been indicated as a major source of
pollution of the lake. Field plots are being established on newly cleared and
on elder cultivated muckland under different cropping and fertilization
practices with drainage ditch arrangements to permit the imposition of several
different subirrigation, drainage, and flooding water management systems. Flux
of water and nutrients through the muck profile and to and from the canals
during drainage and subirrigation periods will be determined from water samples
obtained from shallow wells, tension lysimeters, and the canals. Data on pore
pressure-water content relations by porous cup tensiometer-piezometer units and
calibration data relating water content and unsaturated conductivity, hydraulic
head, saturated conductivity, water content, and tension will also be used in
the flux determinations. Water samples will be obtained at least weekly at 15,
30, 60, and 90 centimeter soil depths and will be analyzed for total N;
ammonical N; Nitrate N; total P; orthophosphate P; K; Ca; Mg; pH; and
total soluble salts. Fertilizer treatments will be: no fertilizer, one-half
commercial rate, commercial rate, and twice the commercial rate.



PLA-AG-01478 MYERS J H OVERMAN A R ROGERS J S

SYSTEMS FOR TILE DRAIN SLUDGE CONTROL FOR CITRUS WITH HIGH WATER TABLE IN
FLOAIE1

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Precipitation of ferrous sulfide sludge in and around drain lines in certain
flatwood soils has rendered the drains ineffective in a relatively short period
of time. Sustained economical citrus production on these soils is dependent
upon effective profile drainage and water table control. Under this project,
two approaches will be investigated as means of preventing the clogging of drain
lines. One will be to neutralize the soil profile by mixing lime in the soil
above the drain line. This should immobilize the iron in solution and greatly
reduce its movement toward the drain lines. The other approach will be to
install the drain lines in a manner that they must function below the water
table. This will create an anerotic environment in and around the tile line.
Under this regime, ferrous iron and sulfides will not be precipitated or
oxidized and will leave the system in solution. A tract of land at the Indian
River Field Laboratory is being developed for these and other studies relating
to citrus production on flatwood soils. The perimeter ditch, dike, roadways and
S part of the deep plowing mixing has been completed. All other components of
the experimental layout, with the exception of the irrigation system, have been
designed. Construction on the facility will continue during the year.
Tentatively planting time has been set for the fall of 1970.


FLA-AG-01458


OVERMAN A R









AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

Agronomic research was conducted under 20 projects. Some highlights of
agronomic research are as follows.
Dr. J. R. Edwardson assisted in the development of a new sweet blue
lupine, Frost, which has been released jointly with the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.
Florida 66 alfalfa, bred by Dr. E. S. Horner, has been released, and
commercial seed is now available for Florida growers.
New experimental digitgrass hybrids bred by Dr. S. C. Schank are
proving to be pangola stunt virus resistant.
New findings by Dr. S. H. West, U. S. Department of Agriculture plant
physiologist, show that with pangolagrass cool nights (500) interfere with
starch translocation and stop plant growth.
Dr. Kuell Hinson, U. S. Department of Agriculture geneticist, has
developed a new high protein soybean which may soon be ready for release.
Dr. Merrill Wilcox has found dicamba to be quite effective for control
of nutsedge.



FLA-AY-00374 HORNER E S

CORN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Testcrcsses were qrown at four locations for the seventh cycle of selection for
combining ability with F44XF6. Average yield of the 162 crosses was 87 bushels
per acre, two bushels less than the Florida 200A check. This performance was
lower than expected in view of the results of the previous cycle. Apparently
strong selection for lower plant height and stalk rot resistance has been
detrimental to rain yield in this population. Twenty new lines, previously
selected as possible replacements for F6 and F44 in the above program, were
retested in crosses with the male parent of Florida 200A. These crosses on the
average had 6% more erect plants at harvest, were slightly shorter, and yielded
three bushels more rain per acre than Florida 200A. Some of these lines have
good potential as seed parents of a commercial hybrid provided they do not have
the gene (Rf) for restoring male fertility. Two fifth-cycle populations, one
(5G) developed by selection for yield of 52 lines and the other (5F) for
combining ability with the parental population, were evaluated for type of gene
action. Variance due to dominance effects was high relative to additive
variance in both populations. These preliminary results indicate that level of
dominance is in the overdominance range, or that the populations are not in
linkage equilibrium, or both.



FLA-AG-00555 CLARK F

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
It is a general tobacco production practice in Florida to apply a complete
analysis fertilizer prior to transplanting and to sidedress later with a
nitrogen-potash material, all applied in the dry/granular (solid) form.
Previous studies have indicated that an improved survival rate for transplants
and possibly greater production can be obtained by applying all fertilizer
materials after transplanting. Also, there is a general trend in agriculture
towards the use of liquid forms of fertilizer materials for sidedressing. The
object of this year's research was to measure the response by tobacco to
fertilizer application before and after transplanting and to liquid and solid
forms of sidedressing materials. Treatment evaluation was based on yield in
pounds per acre, quality index in dollars per hundred weight and crop value in
dollars per acre. Results of the study indicate that all fertilizer materials
should be applied after transplanting. Yield and crop value were increased
about 7 per cent when fertilizer was applied after transplanting; however, the
quality index was not affected by the time of application. The comparison of
liquid versus solid fertilizer materials for sidedressing indicates the dry
materials are slightly better. The dry material produced 7 per cent more yield
but only 3.5 per cent more value per land unit, as the quality index was
depressed about 4 per cent where the solid material was used.














PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Analytical data tabulations completed on forage harvested in May, July, and
September of 1968, at the Reef Research Unit, indicate bahiagrass storage has
steadily declined in rhosphcrus content since 1962. Averages of phosphorus
content in oven-dry forage ranged from 0.33 to 0.34, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.31 to
0.36 in May, July, and September 1962. In 1966 for the same months the
phosphorus averages were 0.26 to 0.36, 0.23 to 0.29, and 0.29 to 0.33. In 1968
for the same months phosphorus averages were 0.19 to 0.37, 0.16 to 0.17, and
0.16 to 0.17. Even though total and extractable soil phosphorus in the soil
continues to increase, the plant composition indicates it is not available.
Yield of oven-dry forage for 1969 was 7450, 7634, and 8244 pounds per acre from
the three pasture programs. These are the highest forage yields from the three
programs since the third phase was started in 1964, probably due to an extremely
favorable distribution of rainfall and excellent clover growth. Clover liveover
from 1968 was over 50 percent and new seedlings were plentiful. Since no
nitrogen was applied to any of these pastures, the grasses depend entirely on
the clover to supply this element. Smutgrass has invaded all pastures and only
temporary control was achieved by plowing and planting winter grain crops.



FLA-AY-00950 HARRIS H C

THE INTERRELATED EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES. ENVIRONMENT, AND
HEREDITY ON THE NITROGEN

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Short-term experiments with Early Runner peanuts were conducted to compare
deficiency svymtoms of plants up to eight weeks of age. Hoagland and Arnon No.
2 solution (1/2 concentration of malor elements and 1/2 boron and zinc) was the
control. Deficient solutions were as given by Hoagland and Arnon, except
concentrations mentioned above were used. Plants with the complete solution and
the sale solutions diluted fifty times with water grew about the same and did
not exhibit visual deficiency symptoms. Imbalance of nutrition was important in
developing symptoms. Visual deficiency symptoms were: N A slight interveinal
chlorosis began in two weeks, followed by scorch of the leaves, and finally the
plant became yellow. P This developed slowly in four weeks. Leaves were
darker green and smaller. Lower leaves became brown and shed. K In two weeks
interveinal chlorosis appeared followed by scorch of lower leaves many of which
shed. Ca Seedlings died in two weeks. Mg Some yellowing in 3 weeks. Lower
leaves became brown and shed. Finally, many leaves had orange colored margin
around tips of the leaflets. S In 3 weeks younger leaves developed a light
color. With aging foliage became uniformly light yellow. B This deficiency
developed in 4 weeks, and has been described. Zn This deficiency began to
develop in 5 weeks. The stems and leaves slightly became a lavender color.
Some top leaves developed brown areas which died. Mo and Cu In the period of
growth these deficiencies lust started to develop.



FLA-AY-01087 WILCOX M

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Flue-cured Tobacco: Combination treatments of diphenamid plus vernolate at
3 plus 1.5 Ib/acre pre-plant incorporated and benefin plus pebulate plus
diphenamid at 0.75 plus 1.5 plus 4.0 lb/acre (pre-plant incorporated, except
post-plant over-the-top for diphenamid) gave excellent control of all weeds
present and highest dollar yield of all treatments. Nutsedge: In a fallow
experiment 10 lb of either dichlobenil or terbacil incorporated per acre
gave excellent control of purple nutsedge for 2 years or more. Oats and
soybeans grown on the terbacil plots after 5 months or one year, respectively,
did not show adverse effects. Peanuts: Preemergence applications of 3 lb
VCS-438, 2 Ib CP52665 plus 1 Ib 2,4-D ethylhexyl ester or application at
emergence of 3 lb sesone plus 0.5 Ib bromoxynil per acre gave excellent control
of all weeds present without injury to the crop.


FLA-AY-00627


KILLINGER G E










FLA-AY-01134 EDWARDSON J R WARKHE H E

THE ECLE OF THE CYTOPLASM IN HEREDITY OF HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Interactions between Petunia atkinsonia fertility restoring genes and P. hybrida
cytoplasmic factors are being studied. Inheritancy of chlorophyll abnormalities
in tctacco and tomato are being investigated. Virus induced inclusions
exhibiting reversed contrast and increased details of fine structure have been
found in infected Desmodium canum tissue prepared with conventional cytoloqical
techniques. Studies of viruses and their induced inclusions are being continued
with light and electron microscopy. Investigations of crystalline bodies in
healthy and virus infected leaf tissues are continuing with liqht and electron
microsccpv. Corn tissue in which sterility factors have been inactivated by
gamma-irradiation are being compared cytologically with sterile, maintainer, and
restored sterile tissues for differences in cytoplasmic constituents. Amorphous
,cytoplasmic inclusions induced by the aucuba strain have been shown to differ
structurally from X-bodies induced by common TMV. Seed transmission of tobacco
rinqspot and Datura-0 viruses is being studied cytoloqically.



FLA-AY-01135 EEWARDSON J R

BREEDING DISEASE RESISTANT LUPINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A sweet, cold resistant, disease resistant (resistant to Stemphylium and
Anthracnose) blue lupine selection is showing promise of improved seed
production over Frost blue lupine under growing conditions in North Central
Florida. Although insects cross pollinate blue lupines in the field at a low
frequency, the occurrence of such pcllinations makes it necessary to isolate
blue lupine breeding and seed increase fields.



FLA-AY-01154 HCRNEH E S

WHITE CLOVER AND ALFALFA BLEEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
White clover. Thirty polvcross progenies were tested for persistence in a
Pensacola bahiagrass sod at the Beef Research Unit. All the progenies have
survived very well tor a full year, and no difference among them was detected.
Foraqe production was good, but seed production was sparse. Seeds were
harvested from vigorous plants in late summer, and a new spaced-plant nursery
has been established, in which selection for better seed production will be
done. Alfalfa. Selection for persistence and productivity was continued at
Gainesville. The population under selection was broadened by addition of
selected germ plasm from foreign plant introductions, from plants found in old
plantings in several Florida locations, and from some of the newer varieties
from Scuthw.stern U. S. Stands in third-year plantings remain good.



FLA-AY-01166 KILLIHGER G B PRINE G M BOYD F T

EVALUATION OF INTBODUCEE PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES FOR ECONOMIC USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Sunflowers (Helianthus annus) were planted in a regional test on a Jonesville
sandy loam in March and July. Twenty four varieties and breeding lines were
harvested with yields of 282 to 1670 pounds of seed per acre. A severe drought
in April and excessive bird damage in June accounted for low yields. Eleven
varieties of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffal and six kenaf varieties were
evaluated for yield as paper-pulp material. Everqlades 71 and 41 kenaf
varieties fielded significantly more dry stem than Roselle varieties, 16,000 to
8,000 pounds per acre. Pigeonpeas (Calanus calan) PI 218066, 'Norman' variety
were successfully grown on a number of different sites and with planting dates
from April through July. A variety of insects attacked the flowers and seed
pods on this crop seriously reducing seed yields. No single insecticide or
schedule of applications satisfactorily controlled these insects. Selection for
light colored seed coat of Brassica carinata introductions is being continued to
satisfy mustard condiment requirements and hopefully increase erucic acid
content. Fresh frozen leaf and stem samples of Hemarthria ltissima were
supplied the Northern Utilization Laboratory at Peoria for continued research on
the tea-like properties of this grass. The Hemarthria spp. appear to have more
frost and cold resistance than most tropical grasses.

52












EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES FOR PASTURE, FORAGE AND OTHER
USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A statewide forage evaluation program was initiated with planting material of 18
pasture grass varieties being distributed for planting and propagation at seven
experiment station locations over the state. Sting nematodes were found to be
the limiting growth factor of most of these grasses. Four digitarias, two
bermudas and Paraguay 22 bahiagrass showed considerable resistance to injury
from this pest. Of 104 Chloris introductions observed, more than 20 proved
resistant to sting nematode, were highly productive, had frost resistance, or
possessed some other desirable agronomic characteristics. None of 25 Brachiaria
accessions showed resistance to frost or to sting-nematode injury at
Gainesville. Hemarthria altissima, PI 299039, introduced from Rhodesia in 1964,
is a long internode grass flowering in early spring and has few leaves. H.
altissima PI 299995, is being investigated as a substitute for tea. Only
selected strains of Stylosanthes humilis from Australia can be depended upon to
produce seed before frost at Gainesville. A wild peanut (Arachis glabrata)
selection which has been superior in yield and rate of establishment to other
perennial wild peanut accessions was planted in a pasture for observation under
grazing.



FLA-AT-01227 SCHANK S C

IMPROVEMENT BY INTERSPECIFIC HYERIDIZATICN WITHIN THE GENUS DICITARIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Emphasis was placed on hybridizations of Digitaria which have shown a high
winter survival. Over 100 of the 250 interspecific crosses made during 1969
involved at least one winterhardy parent. Data on winter hardiness was recorded
for the fifth consecutive year on the Diqitaria parents. Ratings were also made
on 2723 spaced hybrid plants for winter hardiness. Because of the severe
winter, only 747 of the 2723 qenotypes survived, which indicates a very
effective screening test for winter hardiness. Hybridizations accomplished in
1968 were germinated and transplanted to the field for initial evaluation. A
total of 1308 new seedlings were established. Twenty of the more promising
lines were selected and propagated in a 4 replicate trial at the Hague location.
Other new nurseries planted during the year included: 6 locations in Venezuela
(60 entries): 2 locations in Guvana (61 entries): Fort Pierce. Fla. (96
entries): Ouincy. Fla. (90 entries): Brooksville, Fla. (30 entries): Corozal,
Puerto Bico (22 entries): Itadan, Nigeria (5 entries): Tequciqulpa, Honduras (20
entriesl: Paramaribo, Surinam (30 entries): and Americus. Georgia (20 entries).
Tervlene bags were successfully used for the first time in selfinq Diqitarias.
Low seed set continues to be a major problem and cytological studies are being
continued to elucidate the reproductive behavior of several tropical grass
genera including Digitaria. Brachiaria and Hemarthria.



FLA-AY-01260 CLARK F

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
One hundred twenty two selections, which were developed by pedigree backcross
and from interspecific and F(1) hybrids, were tested on heavily infested
blackshank and nematode soil and on soil not infested. There is a continuing
accumulation of favorable modifying genes resulting from selection under extreme
blackshank conditions. A selection was submitted for regional testing which was
rated very high in disease resistance and was acceptable in physical appearance.
However, it was low in sugar and was deficient in smoke tests.



FLA-AY-0126.2 PRINE G M

PLANTING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON THE YIELD OF CORN, SOYBEANS, SORGHUM, AND
SMALL GRAINS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/1'2
Florida 200A corn was planted at 4 populations, 9,000, 13,500, 18,000 and 22,500
plants per acre and at 3 different plant soil area shapes on Leon fine sand. In
this season, there was no advantage in a plant population higher than 13,500
plants per acre and no differences between the plant soil area shapes. In
another experiment, the grain yields of GA 615 sorghum were higher when seeded
in 19-inch rows compared to when seeded in 38-inch rows. Three variety trials

53


FLA-AY-01167


BOYD F T KILLINGER G B


PRINE G M











were conducted. The first trial compared 22 hybrid pearlmillets and
sorghum-sudangrasses harvested 5 times; the second, 24 forage sorghums harvested
twice and the third, 30 grain sorghums harvested one time during the season. In
another experiment, Florida 200A corn, Titan R sorghum and Everglades 41 kenaf
were grown both alone and in mixtures for silage. Mixtures of these high
producing crops show promise for improving quality and/or yield of silage over
these crops grown alone.



FLA-AY-01286 PINE G M SCHNODER V N RUELKE 0 C

MICFCCLIMATIC INFLUENCES ON FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Preliminary research dealing with temperature as a factor causing yield decline
of new sugarcane varieties has been initiated. Emergence of seedling cane
(variety CP 59-73) was completely inhibited for 30 days by soil temperatures of
60oF. while emergence occurred in 8 days at 120F. Topqrowth of variety F
31-962 elongated only 3 cm in an air temperature of 40F for 14 days and the
plants eventually died, while plants grown at 80OF elongated 60 cm. A freeze
temperature of 24F for 5 hours was found to be best for evaluating cold
resistance of varieties. At this temperature variety F 31-436 was killed,
variety C1 58-37 showed slight leaf resistance to freeze damage and variety Cl
59-2 produced new stubble from basal buds. In an experiment where Ga 615 grain
sorghum was shaded at weekly intervals so that daylight intensity was reduced to
25% of normal, a critical period for light was found during the 2-week period
prior to flowering. During the critical period, the number of seed per panicle
was drastically reduced when plants were shaded. Maleic hydrazide foliar spray
on grass severely inhibited root growth as well as top growth even with
absorption periods as short as 4 hours. Growth was inhibited more in Pensacola
bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass than in Pangolagrass.



FLA-AY-01302 NEST S H

A BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS CF ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH OF HIGHER
PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Panuclaqrass, Digitaria decumbens, was subjected to 10 and 300 night
temperatures, and growth photosynthesis, and some biochemical and physical
properties of chloroplasts were measured. Growth of tops, photosynthesis rates,
and Hill reaction potentials were reduced by the 100 treatment as compared to
300 treated plants. Physical measurements of the isolated chloroplasts
indicated that their integrity was impaired by the low temperature treatments.
We have shown a correlation between root initiation and growth of pangolagrass
cuttings in a range of temperatures with top growth in low night temperatures.
Also, we have provided a method of imposing a range of temperatures for use in
pangolaqrass screening and other plant growth-temperature studies. We have
shown that photosynthesis is reduced by only one night of 100 temperature and
discussed the use of this response as a method to screen for potential plant
performance at low temperatures. Good germination can be obtained in Diqitaria
milanliana seeds stored for short periods of time either by removing the seed
coat-pericarp-endosperm complex or by treating dehulled seeds with gibberellic
acid. Leaves of Portulaca oleracea that had reached full size on the parent!
plant showed as much as a four-fold increase in growth when detached and rooted
in nutrient solution. Neither addition of indoleacetic acid nor variations in
the nutrient concentrations had an effect on the growth rate. Root formation
was necessary to initiate renewed growth of the leaf and occurred only in
nutrient solution.



FLA-AY-01303 NORDEN A J

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF PEANUTS (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Florunner (Expl. F439-16-10) was released to growers in 1969. Over 3000 acres
were grown for seed in the Southeast. Yields of Florunner in Florida trials
continued to be more than 15% above the yields for Early Runner. A sister line
of Florunner (F439-16-61. having an upright growth habit but the same yield
potential, was increased for large scale processing tests in 1969. Color
variations observed in the inner seed-coat (with uniform color on the outer
seed-ccat) of peanut seed populations suggested the use of inner seed-coat color
as a possible genetic marker in peanuts. The results of a detailed study of










F(2) and F(3) progenies from five crosses and their reciprocals showed that at
least four loci controlled inner seed-coat color in peanuts. Beciprocal crosses
revealed no maternal effects. Inasmuch as the present commercial peanut
varieties have not been selected for uniform inner seed-coat color, the use of
this characteristic as a check for varietal purity is not justified at the
present time.



FLA-AY-01358 KILLINGER G B RUELKE 0 C

PASTURE AND LEGUME VARIETY EVALUATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Significantly higher yields were obtained from 'Gahi-l' pearlmillet than from
'Grazer A' sorqhum-sudangrass hybrid under simulated grazing conditions.
Hignest yields of pearlmillet were obtained when grown in 9 1/2 inch rows with
15 plants per foot of row, although yields were not significantly less in 19
inch rows. Yields of pearlaillet were not significantly different in plant
populations from 50 to 60 plants per foot of 9 1/2 inch row. Significantly
lower yields were obtained from both pearlrillet and sorqhum-sudanqrass hybrids
grown in 38 inch rows. Highest yield from hybrid sorqhum-sudanqrass was at a
population of 3 plants per foot of 9 1/2 inch row under non-weedy conditions.
Ten rveqrass varieties grown in four replications yielded from 3852 to 5650
pounds of oven-dry forage per acre. Magnolia, NK Tetrablend, Gult, and Florida
rust resistant were the highest yielding varieties. Eleven red clover varieties
grown in four replications yielded from 2504 to 4892 pounds per acre of oven-dry
forage. Nolin's, Keniand, and Tensas were the highest yielding varieties.
Seven white clovers grown in four replications yielded from 3450 to 4565 pounds
or oven-dry forage per acre. Highest yielding varieties were Tillman, Nolin's
improved white, and Regal White. The Evegrass, red and white clovers failed,
for the first time in six ears, to produce extra forage from an application of
Fritted Trace Elements.



FLA-AY-01359 HINSCN K

SOYBEAN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Breeding line F63-4000 yielded within 0.6 ou/A of Hampton in 60 regional tests
during 1966-68, and it averaged 42.3% protein compared with 38.7% for Hampton.
Because of its higher protein and better adaptation to late planting, F63-4000
prctably will be proposed for release. It would be expected to replace some
acreage ot both Hampton and Bragg in Florida and in other southern states.
Another line D58-4163 has yielded more than named varieties on the organic soils
of central Florida, and it appeared to be more resistant to foliage-feeding
insects in 1969. It probably will be proposed for release for production on
organic soils. It is not as productive as other varieties on mineral soils.
More than 200 BC(2) populations in which Bragg (41% protein) was the recurrent
parent and D60-7965 (48% protein) was high protein donor were evaluated for
vield and protein as F(2) and F(3) bulks. Several F(4) breeding lines, selected
from bulks highest in yield and protein. equalled or exceeded Eraqq in yield in
1969 plots. Protein data on these lines will be available by March 1970.



FLA-AY-01375 CLARK F

EFFECT OF CULTURAL MANAGEMENT ON BLACK SHANK AND ON QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The severity of the disease (blackshank) in the continuous tobacco system
created a need for a basic change in the experiment in 1969. Cropping sequences
of corn. peanuts and soybeans with a planting of rye in the fall has been
initiated and will be grown for two years followed with tobacco to determine if
these crops will reduce the incidence of blackshank. In addition, several
fumigants were evaluated at very high dosage levels, Vorlex and Dow N 2680 were
used at 15 Gallons per acre. Dithane M-45 and polyram (both at 44 and 22 pounds
per acre) suspended in water and applied at 25 gallons per acre, and disc
incorrcrated into the soil. Furadan 10 G was applied at the rate of 60 pounds
per acre. Six commercial varieties of tobacco were planted in single rows
arranged in random manner, replicated four times. Vorlex and Dow M 2680 reduced
the disease index significantly and the yields were significantly higher over
all cther treatments.













PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO AS INFLUENCED EY PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Fumigation: Twelve chemical fumigants were tested, several as liquid vs.
granular nematocides for the control of Meloidoqvne spp. in flue-cured tobacco.
Bay 68138, EBD-85. Furadan 10% G, D. D. Vorlex, Dasanit-Disvstcn, and Telone
produced siqnificantlv 1.01 and .05 level) higher fields. 351-579 pounds per
acre over the untreated soil. The quality of the leaf was improved from 0*63 to
2.9 dollars per hundred weight. Indices reflecting nematode root damage
revealed no significant difference between any of the treatments and the
control. Sucker control: Eight chemicals were tested for their efficiency in
the control of auxiliary sucker growth in flue-cured tobacco. Systemic vs.
contact type control chemicals were evaluated with T-148 plus MH-30: or Penar
plus MH-30 producing the best controls 99% and 89% respectively. These two
treatments will be used extensively on tobacco in 1970. Herbicides: Six
chemicals were tested, singularly and in combination for weed control in 1969.
3enefin 0.75 pounds + Vernolate 1.5 pounds and Diphenamid 3.0 pounds + Vernolate
1.5 pounds per acre gave commercial acceptable control for all weeds and grass
spp., including nutsedae (a rating of 8 or better). Benefin 0.75 pounds + I
Debulate 1.5 pounds per acre controlled pusley and crabgrass, with intermediate
control of nutsedqe. Plant growth, yields, and quality were excellent for these
treatments.



FLA-AY-01377 PFAHLEB P L

OUANTITATIVE GENETIC STUDIES IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Although genetic characters that are quantitatively inherited condition many
agronomic aspects that are most important in commercial production, improvement
by selection has been quite limited. This is because these characters are
controlled by the action of genes at many loci and, more importantly, are 1
greatly influenced by environment. Grain production data from 94 diverse oat
lines grown in six consecutive years have indicated that broad sense
heritability approximated only 4%. This extremely low value would suggest that
response to selection would be almost nil and probably considering the cost.
large scale selection attempts to increase grain yield would not be justified.
However, a highly significant negative correlation between grain production over
the six years and squared coefficient of variability was obtained indicating
that the hiqher-vieldinq lines on the basis of the six year mean would probably
be among the hiqher-vieldinq lines in each individual year. Narrow sense
heritability values derived by correlation, regression and selection response
methods have indicated that, in general, selection based on individual years
would be as effective in predicting grain production over a large number of
years as averaging a limited number of years, the most accepted practice at the
present time.



FLA-AY-01444 WILCOX M

BIOCHEMISTRY OF HERBICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Improvements in alkylation by higher diazcalkanes for preparation of derivatives
tor gas chromatography of phenolic acids have been developed and published.
This method applied catalysis by dilute boron trifluride, and is especially
desirable for separating phenolic acids from their methyl ethers. Studies of
structure and activity among inhibitors of the Hill reaction have led to the
discovery of a new family of inhibitors (expressly designed for this purpose),
one of which, i.e., 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-) 1,1,2-trimethylsemicarbazide,
closely approaches the most active inhibitors previously known. Dicamba has
been found to translocate through rhizomes of nutsedge plants to daughter
plants. Untreated daughter plants contained 6% as much dicamba as did the
treated mother plants.



FLA-AY-01478 KNIPLING E B WEST S H

SYSTEMS FOR TILE DRAIN SLUDGE CONTROL FOR CITRUS WITH HIGH WATER TABLE IN
FLORIEA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Land preparation and installation of a drainage system on a sixty acre site at
the Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, was initiated in 1968
and continued in 1969. Experimental observations did not begin in 1969.
56


FLA-AY-01376


CLARK F











ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

During the past year research was conducted on 49 projects. New pro-
jects included studies on uterine factors affecting survival of the young, the
effect of hormone treatments on increasing the number of young born, the effect
of crossing dairy with beef, and studies on the chemical composition and
feeding value of water hyacinths and other water plants for livestock.
The department has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics,
feeding, meats, and management studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered over
a thousand animals for carcass and meat quality studies in cooperative pro-
jects. The Nutrition Laboratory likewise made thousands of determinations for
over 30 different substances in feeds, blood, and other animal tissues and
excretions in cooperative studies.
During the past year the faculty in Animal Science published 126 scien-
tific and professional articles. This included a book in Spanish on "Tropical
Swine Production." A new faculty member in physiology was hired. He will
work in this area and will coordinate our program in tropical animal science.
Continued development occurred in the part of the Purebred Beef Experi-
mental Unit which is being moved to an area near the Dairy Unit at Hague.
A start was made in developing a Horse Research Center at Lowell, which is 30
miles south of Gainesville.



FLA-AL-00627 KOGER M

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Pasture programs being investigated include: (1) clover-grass fertilized at the
rate of 300 Ibs. of 0-10-20 per acre annually: (21 comparable pastures with 1/4
of the area being renovated annually by fall plowing and planting to winter
cereal pastures (oats and ryegrass): and (3) clover-grass pastures 1/2 of which
is identical to program (1) and the remaining half irrigated by seepage and
fertilized at the rate of 500 lbs. of 0-10-20 annually. All pastures are grazed
by cows and calves. Annual calf production per cow has averaged 509, 491 and
511 rounds, respectively, for the 3 programs. Production per acre averaged 365,
336 and 387 pounds, respectively. Lowered productivity of program 2 is
explained by requirement of more than a year for renovated areas to return to
full production. Cattle breeding systems initiated in 1957 include: grading to
British bulls (Angus and Hereford) and three 2-breed-of-sire rotations,
including Anqus-Hereford: Anqus-Brahman: and Hereford-Santa Gertrudis.
Foundation females were Brahman-British-Native crosses. Production per 1000
Ibs. of cows bred from 1965-1969 has averaged 403, 425, 392 and 373 pounds,
respectively, for the 4 systems, with results differing from other studies where
foundation females were purebreds.



FLA-AL-00629 KOGER M

SELECTION OF BEEF CATTLE FOB BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The original objectives were to ccmpare different breeds and types of beef
cattle and to select foundation herds for improved production under Florida
conditions. The stocks evaluated included the Brahman, two British breeds
(Angus and Hereford) and two groups selected from Brahman-British crossbred
foundations (Santa Gertrudis and Brahman-Angus essentially comparable to
Branqus). In general, the Brahman and crossbred foundation breeds had
substandard weaning rates with qocd growth rate while the British breeds had
normal fertility rate and poor growth to weaning. Apparent progress was made in
all crcups other than the Brahman. The relative ranking of straightbred and
crossbred progeny of individual sires %as comparable, suggesting that
within-breed selection for specific combining ability would not be effective,and
pounds of calf weaned per cow bred was 295, 190. 289, 262 and 297 respectively
for Angus. Brahman, Branqus, Hereford and Santa Gertrudis. Respective values
per 1000 Ibs. of cow maintained were 350, 213, 313, 307 and 301. First cross
Brahman-Anqus cows had higher fertility and heavier weaning rates than either of
the parent breeds.


FLA-AL-00738 CCHES G e

NUTRITIONAL REOUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANEC AT AN EARLY AGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Daily gain and calories required per Pound of gain did not differ significantly













between pigs fed diets containing ratios of either 82:1 or 93:1. Piqs
maintained at either ambient temperature, constant 650F or constant 80OF did not
differ significantly in rate or efficiency of gain. Serum phosphorus treatment
differences were found and a trend toward increasing phosphorus concentrations
with increasing levels of supplemental vitamin D was evident. Terminal data
showed that vitamin D(2) did not materially influence rate or efficiency of
gain. The magnitude of differences in blood urea nitrogen and serum phosphorus
was quite large but no trend with respect to level of supplemental vitamin D was
apparent. The percentage of femur ash decreased slightly with increasing levels
of dietary vitamin D. Data indicate that omission of vitamin V from diets
containing 0.5% calcium and phosphorus does not materially influence pig
performance. Also, quantities of vitamin E did not adversely influence rate and
efficiency of gain.



FLA-AL-00755 AnMEBMAN C B LCGGINS P E MCORE J E

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The nutritional value of diatomaceous earth was tested in a 111-day feeding
trial with steers. Levels of 0. 1.5 and 3.0% were provided in diets with
supplemental nitrogen as soybean meal, urea in meal portion of the diet or urea
pelleted with citrus pulp. All diets contained 35% citrus pulp. Diatomaceous
earth did not significantly improve weight Gain or feed efficiency. Urea
oelleted with citrus pulp promoted slightly greater gain than urea fed in the
meal portion of the diet. Average macromineral composition of 82 samples of
citrus culp in percent on a dry matter basis was: Ca, 1.43%: Mq, 0.121%: P.
0.111%: K, 1.09%: Ha. 0.69%: and S. 0.066%. Microminerals in 35 samples were in
ppm: Fe, 98.72: Cu. 6.19: Zn. 9.94: and Mn. 5.70. Cottonseed meal and a
supplement containing urea plus an energy feed were compared as sources of
nitrogen for sheep fed low-quality hay. Both supplements increased voluntary
hay intake, increased digestibility of organic matter and improved nitrogen
balance hut differences between the supplements were not significant.


FLA-AL-00809 WARNICK A C

EFFECT CF HORMONES ON PHYSIOLOGY CF REPBOEUCTICN IN CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Sixty lactating Angus cows at the Brooksville Beef Cattle Station were fed 180
mq. daily of a progestin hormone (MAP) for 11 days with an intramuscular
injecticn of 5 mq. estradiol on the second day of feeding to synchronize estrus.
Fifteen of the cows received no follicle stimulating hormone (FSH1, group 1.
while 15 were injected with 10 mq. FSH in carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) on last
day of MAP feeding, Group 2. Thirty were injected intramuscularly twice daily
for 5 days. beginning on day 8 of MAP feeding, a total of 6.25 mq. FSH in
saline, group 3. The purpose of the FSH injections was to induce multiple
ovulation and calving when bred to Hereford bulls for 6 days following end of
MAP. Angus bulls were used for mating following 6 days with Hereford bulls.
Only 27, 53 and 27% of the cows were in heat in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively,
during 6 days after end of MAP feeding. There was no difference among groups in
interval from end of MAP feeding to estrus during the 6 days after feeding.
Overall percent pregnancy including the regular breeding season plus the 6 days
with Hereford bulls was 87. 87 and 90 in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The
percent cows calving to the Hereford bulls of the total number pregnant was 15,
46 and 19 in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. One cow in group 2 had triplets
while the other conceptions during the 6 day period were single births. The cow
injected with the 10 mq. FSH had a higher incidence of estrus and conceptions
during the 6 days after MAP feeding. Hereford cattle originating at Brooksville
had greater thyroid activity than Hereford cattle originating from Miles City,
Montana.



FLA-AL-00938 WARNICK A C

CCNTRCLLED TEMPERATURE AND REPRODUCTION IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Brahman and Hereford yearling heifers and bulls were subjected to two
temperatures either 32C. or 21C. continuously for one year to study effects on
blood characteristics. Venosis blood samples were taken every 28 days during
the year to measure hemoglobin. erythrocyte numbers, hematocrit, mean
corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and leukocyte
numbers. The Brahman had significantly higher erythrocyte numbers and












hematocrit % compared to Hereford while temperature had no effect on these two
variables. The hemoglobin and leukocyte numbers were not affected by
differences in breed or temperature. The cattle in the high temperature (320C.)
continuously had a significant reduction in MCH and MCV compared to those at
21oC. Thus, these latter two variables may be used to evaluate heat stress in
cattle under unfavorable environments. The t1erefnra cattle h' a significantly
higher PCH than Brahman cattle at the two temperatures. It was postulated that
the differences found in blood traits may be mediated through the thyroid gland
and its secretion of thyroxine.



FLA-AL-00975 PALMER A Z CARPENTER J W

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEEP TENDERNESS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
One hundred and ninty-eight U.S. Standard. Good and Choice carcasses from
crossbred steers ranging from 14 to 20 months of age provided short-loin steaks
for Warner-Bratzler Shear tenderness comparisons among sires and breed groups.
Tenderness data of previous years are being combined with 1969 data for a more
complete statistical analysis of beef tenderness heritability and indices of
tenderness such as marbling.


FLA-AL-00977 WALLACE H C COMBS G E KOGER M

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO MULTIPLE FARROWING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Feeding of 2,2-dichlorovinvl dimethyl phosphate to gestating sows has been
continued. Compound stimulates carbohydrate metabolism in the animal organism.
A total of 89 control litters and 91 treated litters have completed the test.
Control sows farrowed an average of 9.65 live pigs per litter, treated sows
10.45. Although this difference is substantial it cannot be associated directly
with treatment since the treatment was imposed only during the last 30 days of
gestation. Fetal deaths and term pigs born dead were similar for the two sow
groups. Birth weights of pigs were 3.03 and 2.96 pounds respectively for
control and treated sows. In keeping with the larger litters farrowed, treated
sows also weaned more pigs per litter (8.10 vs. 8.71) but percent survival to
weaning was almost identical for the two groups. Pigs from control litters
averaged .26 pound more per pig at two weeks of age. One post weaning
experiment indicated better performance from pigs out of treated sows but this
needs further study for confirmation. Eighty two sows and litters were used to
evaluate zinc bacitracin. neomycin and a combination of the two antibiotics as a
means cf controlling baby pig scours when fed in lactation and starter diets.
The incidence of scours was low during the trials and there was no clear
indication that significant benefit resulted from the treatments.



FLA-AI-C0995 KOGER M

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
From 1958-1967. one half of the heifers at the Beef Research Unit were bred as
yearlings to calve first at 2 years of age (1) while the remaining half were
bred to calve first at three years of age (2). The pounds of calf weaned by
two-year old heifers has amounted to 281 pounds per heifer bred with death loss
in heifers being comparable to that for heifers which were not bred until two
years of age. Production per cow subsequent to two years of age has averaged
452 lbs. for (1) and 426 Ibs. for 12). In 1969 the net economic advantage for
fl) amounted to $62 for each two-year old and $7.50 for each older cow in the
herd.


FLA-AL-OC999 CCMBS G E

FLORICA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Although cane molasses is an economical source of energy its extensive usage in
swine diets as a malor source of energy has been restricted by the presence of
diarrhea which has often accompanied the feeding of diets containing high levels
of molasses. To further evaluate dietary levels of cane molasses 3 experiments
were conducted with pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age and given access to diets
containing 0 to 40% molasses when they reached 2, 3 or 5 weeks of age. Adequate













amounts of essential amino acids were maintained when molasses was added by
adjusting the quantity of both corn and soybean meal. Pigs weaned and put
immediately on diets containing 0. 10. 20, 30 or 40% molasses did not show a
significant treatment difference for either rate or efficiency of gain. A
diarrhea was observed at the two highest levels of molasses but did not
adversely influence performance. With pigs fed a corn-soy starter diet for 3
weeks after weaning and then given access to diets containing 0, 10, 20. 30 or
40% molasses a significant growth depression accompanied by diarrhea occurred at
the two highest levels of molasses. In all trials rate and efficiency of gain
was similar for diets containing 0. 10 or 20% molasses. The results of these
experiments indicate that young pigs 2, 3 or 5 weeks of age can readily utilize
diets containing up to 20% molasses whereas higher levels of molasses may
require an adaptation period.



FLA-AL-01003 KOGEB M

INHERENT BODY SIZE IN CATTLE AS RELATED TO ADAPTATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
One group of cattle is being selected for large size with indications of
adaptability being observed as a possible correlated trait. A second group is
being selected for adaptation (fertility and condition score) with size being
observed as a correlated trait. This is a long-term selection project and
results to date are too preliminary to detect correlated responses. The data
indicate a direct response to selection for size.


FLA-AL-01002 WALLACE H D

THE EVALUATION OF FEED ADDITIVES FOR SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
In previous work it was observed that a combination of diethylstilbestrol and
methyltestosterone added to diet improved feed conversion and carcass leanness
of finishing hogs while causing an undesirable flavor and odor in meat. This
past year a more stabilized form of hormone combination was studied in hopes of
overcoming flavor and odor problems. Pigs responded in terms of improved feed
utilization and carcass leanness. However, evidence was obtained when meat was
studied by a trained taste panel, that an odor problem remained. Metabolism
studies were also conducted to determine metabolic pathways of beneficial
influences on feed efficiency and carcass leanness. Copper feeding experiments
have suggested that this element is a very effective growth stimulant for the
young pig when used at a level of 150-250 ppm in the diet. Tissue analyses
indicate that copper is a safe additive when diet is properly fortified in all
respects, particularly as regards iron and zinc. Based upon these studies the
withdrawal of copper at a weight of 100-150 pounds is recommended. Two
experiments involving feeding of zinc-bacitracin at various level sequences to
growing-finishing pigs have been completed. All level combinations studied were[
effective for improvement of gains and feeding conversion. A continuous level
of 50 gm. per ton of feed was most effective, but a low level of 10 gm. per ton
also proved effective.


FLA-AL-01010 WARNICK A C

EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A total of 20 gilts were randomly divided into superovulated (PMS) and non-super-
ovulated (NH) gilts fed either 4 (L) or 8 (H) lb. of feed per day from days
60 (+ or -3) to 105 (+or -3) when slaughtered to study the effect of nutrition on
fetal development. Values for conception rate (%) and averages for ovulation rate,
litter size and fetal weight (qm) were 0.00, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0: 33.3, 13.0, 10.5 and
951: 25.0, 20.0, 8.0 and 1120: and 33.3, 13.0, 8.5 and 1528, respectively, for
PMS-L, NH-L, PMS-H and NH-H treated females. Due to poor reproductive performance
and small numbers of fetuses, no firm conclusions are justified. However, average
fetal weight for NH-H gilts was 577 gm. greater than for NH-L gilts. This suggests
a possible beneficial effect of increased nutrient intake on fetal growth.
Subsequent research will be designed to evaluate this possibility.













FLA-Al-01045 ARRINGTON L R

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DIETARY FACTCRS OF INTEREST IN THE NUTRITION OF
LIVESTOCK USING LABORATORY ANIMALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Dietary protein and phosphorus requirements of qrowinq gerbils were studied with
weanlino animals. Protein and phosphorus were added in graded amounts to
purified diets. Weight gain and feed efficiency were measures of protein
requirement and weight gain and bone calcification measures of phosphorus
requirement. Dietary intakes of 16% protein as casein promoted maximum gain and
feed efficiency. Intake of 0.22% dietary phosphorus promoted gains and bone
calcification equal to higher intakes of phosphorus. In studies of water
requirement. 2 ml of drinking water daily per 100 qm body weight or a total of
5.5 um (drinking water plus metabolic plus feed moisture) were required to
maintain weight of adult gerbils. Preliminary data from longevity studies of
gerbils fed stock diets indicate the average life span to be 800 days or longer.


FLA-AL-01079 AMMERMAN C E

MINERAL REOUIREMENTS OF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Two balance studies were conducted with sheep to determine the utilization of
inorganic manganese when added at levels of 0, 500. 2000, and 4000 ppm to a
natural diet. Fecal manganese increased linearly with increasing dietary levels
and accounted for essentially all the increased intake. Urinary manganese
accounted for only a small portion of manganese excreted, but increased (P<
0.01) with increasing levels of dietary manganese. In a second experiment with
sheep, 1200 ppm supplemental manganese were fed as reagent grade manganese
carbonate, manganese sulfate, and as feed-grade manganese oxide and manganese
carbonate. Apparent absorption and net retention were 10.3 and 9.3%
respectively, for the control sheep receiving 25 ppm manganese and were higher
(P< 0.01) than negative values of -0.4 and -0.3% respectively for the
supplemented groups. Average plasma manganese levels were 0.09 and 0.15 ppm for
experiment 1 and 2 and were not influenced by treatment.


FLA-Al-01117 MOOBE J E

INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF RATION. RUBEN BICCHEMISTRY AND ANIMAL PERFORMANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
(1) The voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility of bahiagrass pasture by
grazing steers was estimated during the summer. Dry matter digestibility was
good (55.6-59.4%). even though crude protein decreased from 8.6 to 5.8% and
digestible protein was only 3.8 to 1.51. The intakes of digestible energy and
digestible protein were below the requirements of growing cattle. (2) Pensacola
bahiagrass hay was harvested and fed to sheep. Dry matter digestibilities (%)
at different weeks of growth from last cutting were: 2 wk. 60-62; 4 wk, 59-62;
6 wk. 60: 10 wk. 52: and 14 wk. 47. The voluntary intakes of the 6. 10 and 14
wk hays were: 1140, 870 and 730 qm/day, respectively, when hays were fed alone.
Supplementing with soybean meal increased the intake of the 6 and 10 wk hays,
suggesting that digestible protein may be a limiting factor in bahiagrass
utilization even when digestibility is good. An in vitro (laboratory) rumen
digestion procedure satisfactorily predicted the dry matter digestibility as
determined with sheep. (3) Sheep were fed either in groups of three or
individually and voluntary intake measured. There were no differences between
methods of feeding. Both methods showed the same difference in intake between
two hays (good-quality bermudagrass and low-quality panolaqrass).


PLA-AL-01132 HENTGES J F JR PALMER A Z MORE J E

BEEF CATTLE FEED FORMULATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
One objective of this project is to obtain basic data on the chemical
composition of promising new ingredients for cattle diets and to utilize these
data for ration formulation. Two species of aquatic plants, the floating water
hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the bottom-rooted Florida elodea (Hydrilla
verticillata) were studied for their nutritional qualities. Large quantities
were harvested from inland fresh water sites, were hammermill ground and
dehydrated. Chemical composition data revealed wide variations in proximate
components depending upon date of harvest, stage of plant maturity and method of
processing. To test for possible toxicity, yearling steers were restricted to











diets composed largely of dehydrated aquatic plants. No apparent harmful
effects were observed during 9 months on these diets. Postmortem examination of
carcasses. viscera, organs and specific tissues did not reveal any harmful
effects of either plant material.


FLA-AL-01186 KOGER M

A STUDY OF RESPONSE TO SELECTION AND GENETIC-ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTION IN
HEREFORD CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Reciprocal exchanges of cattle from unrelated lines developed at Brooksville,
Fla. and Miles city. Montana were made during the period 1962-1964. Thus, two
genotypes (lines) are being compared in each of two environments (locations).
Highly significant genotype x environment interactions (GEI) have been observed
for birth weight, weaning weight and post-weaning gain on pasture. These
interactions occurred for both foundation cattle, half of which had been
transferred, and in subsequent generations where all cattle were born and reared
at the location where comparison was made. Interestingly, there was no GEI for
feed-lot gain where the cattle were not on pasture. In addition to the above
trial with unrelated lines, the comparison is being repeated with closely
related lines selected in each of the two environments. The foundations for
these related lines were random samples from an inbred group, Montana Line 1.
Confirmation of the above preliminary indications of GEI in traits of economic
importance would have significant implications for genetic improvement of
cattle, especially in the use of bulls in AI studs. The level of circulating
blood thyroid hormone was determined on 260 head of cattle at the two locations
during 1968-69. Both locations and origin of cattle (lines) had siqnificanct
effects with the Brooksville classifications being high in both cases.


FLA-AL-01204 CARPENTER J W PALMER A Z

QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FRCM YOUNG BULLS STEERS AND HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Four studies involving 207 carcasses of Hereford, Angus and Santa Gertrudis
breeding, 69 bulls, 69 steers and 69 heifers, have been completed. Bull
carcasses had darker, less firm, coarser textured lean than the heifer carcasses
with the steers being intermediate: all differences between the sex groups were
significant (P <.01). Bull carcasses were meatier in all measurements than the
heifer carcasses, steer carcasses being intermediate: all differences between
sex group in fat over the eye. percent kidney and pelvic fat, and estimated
yield grade were significant (P <.01). Heifer carcasses graded the highest,
followed by the steer and then the bull carcasses. Even though significant
differences in meat quality and grade were found between sex groups, differences
in tenderness were not significant in the top, bottom and eye muscles of the
round or in blade chuck roasts. However, with club steaks, bulls were less
tender than the steers and heifers (P <.01).


FLA-AL-01205 PALMER A Z

PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING OF CATTLE AND CARCASS MATURITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Blood hemoglobin (gq./100 ml.) hematocrit I) and blood serum calcium,
phosphorus and magnesium values of samples taken from 120 bulls, steers and
heifers, by a single sire, when slaughtered at 11, 14, 17 and 20 months of age
were not significantly associated with color, firmness or texture of lean or
carcass maturity. Even though the club steaks of the bull carcasses were
significantly less tender than the corresponding steaks of the steer and heifer
carcasses, these variations were not significantly associated with variations in
the blood components studied. In a second study, steers, heifers, and cows of
similar breeding are allocated to slaughter ages of 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45,
51. 60. 72 and 84 months. Ossification of sacral, lumbar and thoracic vertebra
will he studied in addition to the factors listed in the first study. This
study is in progress with animals being slaughtered as scheduled.


FLA-AL-01238 HENTGES J F MOORE J E

FORMULATION OF CCNTROLLED-INTAKE SUPPLEMENTS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
To further study a previously observed difference in the response of different













breeds of cattle to diets offered ad libitum, a comparison was made of weaned
steer calves with four different breed backgrounds: straiqhtbred Herefords,
Hereford x Angus. Holstein x Hereford and Angus, Brown Swiss x Hereford and
Angus. Two diets which varied widely in nutrient density were studied with each
breed group. Differences among breed groups for feed intake, gain and
efficiency of diet utilization were small on a low nutrient density diet of corn
silage and supplement. Differences in daily feed intake and gains were markedly
different on a high nutrient density, all concentrate diet with the Brown Swiss
and Holstein crossbreds ranking highest: however, differences in efficiency of
liet utilization were small.


FLA-AL-01245 WARNICK A C

THREE-VERSUS TWELVE-MONTH BREEDING SEASONS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A continuous breeding season where bulls are with cows throughout the year
compared to a 3-month breeding season from March 15 to June 15 has been carried
out with the Brahman and Santa Gertrudis herds at the Brooksville Beef Cattle
Research Station during a 3 year period. The objective was to compare calving
percentages and ovarian activity between the 2 systems. The average calving
percentage in the Brahman based on number of cows exposed to the bulls was 50%
and 641 in the 90-day and continuous groups. The average calving percentage in
the Santa Gertrudis was 59% and 721 in the 90-day and continuous groups
respectively. The percentage of calves born in the 90-day group during the
months of December, January, February, March and April was 8.0. 47.5, 22.9, 17.1
and 4.1%. The percentage of calves born in the continuous group during
December, January. February, March, April, Hay, August, September and November
was 6.4. 44.3, 20.7. 18.3. 2.8. 1.0. 2.9. 1.0 and 1.0%. The presence of a
corpus luteum on the ovaries indicating hormone activity is correlated with the
increase in body weight of cows from March to August. Many management problems
occur in the use of a continuous breeding season.


FLA-AI-01313 LOGGINS P E

SELECTION FOR RESISTANCE IN SHEEP TO ABCHASAL PARASITIC NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
In 1966 the Rambouillet and Florida Native flocks were allotted on the basis of
hemoglobin level to high and low resistance groups to Haemonchus contortus
infestation to initiate selection for these traits and to study the nature of
the apparent resistance of Florida Native sheep to internal nematodes. (8 =
Rambouillet. N = Native: H = high. L = low). Percent lamb crop in 1969 was 5,.
100. 97 and 83 for RH. RL. NH, and NL, respectively. Twenty-nine parasite-free
lambs were challenged with known number of Haemonchus contortus infective
larvae. The lamb hemoglobin types (A. E and AB) were 12 and 10 in the Florida
Native and 7 AB in the Rambouillets. A lower infection rate than anticipated
suggested lack of vitality of the administered larvae. At necropsy the
Rambouillet lambs had a higher number of adult worms and a lower number of
larval stage worms than Native lambs. A most significant finding from this
study is an apparent relationship between Hemoglobin type and resistance to
parasitic infestation with Hemoglobin A being most resistant and B the least
resistant.


FLA-AL-01404 ARRINGTON L R SHIBLEY N L

ECONOMIC. NUTRITIONAL AND DISEASE FACTORS IN RABBIT PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Production of rabbits housed in groups cr colonies was compared with production
by standard methods of breeding and individual housing. Two groups of 4 rabbits
each. established at weaning age, were maintained satisfactorily for 14 months,
but mortality of the newborn was high. Only 42% of the offspring reached
weaning age. Numbers of litters produced and number per litter were equal to
those produced by standard methods of housing and pair breeding. Quality of
frozen rabbit carcasses was compared with fresh carcasses in tests of
tenderness, flavor and luiciness of the meat. Frozen carcasses were
significantly less tender than fresh carcasses but not objectionably tough.
Flavor and juiciness were hot affected by freezing.














FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF SWINE RAISED IN CONFINEMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Two feeding trials were conducted to re-examine the relationship of slaughter
weight with production economy and carcass value using meatier barrows and gilts
than Generally available ten years ago. In both trials, piqs slaughtered at 180
pounds had lower dressing percent (P<.01.) less backfat (P<.01). shorter
carcasses (P<.01) and smaller loin eyes (P<.01) than piqs slaughtered at 220 or
260 pounds. Piqs slaughtered at 220 pounds had less backfat (NS and P<.05,
respectively) shorter carcasses (P<.01) and smaller loin eves (P<.01) than pigs
slaughtered at 260 pounds. The percent of four lean cuts decreased
significantly (P<.01) as slaughter weight increased from 180 to 220 or 260
sounds, but the decrease was not significant as slaughter weight increased from
220 to 260 pounds. The gilts had a higher dressing percent (P<.01). less
backfat (P<.011. larger loin eyes (P<.01) and a higher percent of four lean cuts
than the harrows (P<.01).



FLA-AL-C1460 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F HENTGES J F

TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HYACINTHS AND OTHER WATER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Hyacinths from three lakes in Florida (Santa Fe. Bivens Arm, Apopka) and two
rivers (Kissimmee, St. Johns) were removed monthly starting in March 1969, and
analyzed for a number of forage toxicants to livestock and for proximate
analyses composition. Nitrate was highest during March with a range from 0.1 to
0.3%: April through June values were less than 0.1%. Cyanide was highest in
March with values ranging from approx. 190 to 380 mq. per lb. dry weight; while
corresponding values in April through October were about half this amount.
Oxalate during March through June had values ranging in all samples from i
approximately 0.2 to 0.7% with a tendency to be lower in June. Dicoumarin
ranged from approx. 10 to 45 mq. per lb. dry weight during March through August.
In September higher values occurred in the range of 80 to 140 mq. per lb. dry
weight except from the St. John's river which was the same as previously.
Xanthochyll ranged from approx. 150 to 250 ms. per lb. in Apopka Lake during
March, April and May: and corresponding values in the other two lakes and two
rivers ranged from 40 to 115 ma. per Ib. Carotene ranged from 30 to 35 mq. per
lb. dry weight for lake Apopka in March and May: and corresponding values for
the other lakes and two rivers varied from approx. 8 to 21 sq. per lb. Crude
protein in hyacinths had a different pattern with each source.



FLA-AL-01467 FEASTER J P

EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL DIETARY PESTICIDES ON RATS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/07 69/12
In a physiological and biochemical assessment of effects of low and high levels of
dietary pesticides, female rats 28 days of age have been placed on diets containing
pesticides representative of the three general classes: chlorinated hydrocarbons
(DDT), organophosphates parathionn) and carbamates (carbaryl). One group, controls,
was fed no added pesticides; a second was fed the above three compounds at 10 times
the level permitted in human foodstuffs, and a third group fed 100 times the
permissable level. Each group contained 10 rats. After two months on these diets,
average weight gains of the three groups, control, 10 times and 100 times, respective
ly, are: 112, 115, and 110 grams. Average hemoglobin values for the three
respective groups are 16.0, 15.4 and 15.1 grams per 100 ml. blood. Amount of feed
consumed by the three groups does not differ appreciably. Thus, the dietary intake
of the three pesticides DDT, parathion and carbaryl at 10 and 100 times the level
permitted in the human diet has not affected weight gains or hemoglobin levels in
the growing rats.


FLA-AL-01442


PALMER A Z













BACTERIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Work was undertaken under the auspices of the Agricultural Experiment
Station for the first time. Projects were of two types: microbial ecology,
and molecular microbiology. Two projects were carried for the full year, and
additional projects were initiated near the end of the year.
Grant support from NIH and the Department of the Interior totaled about
$63,000.
Two new faculty were added: Dr. Edward Hoffmann, specialist in inhibitor
for complement components, and Dr. James Preston, specialist in protein and
nucleic acid synthesis in chloroplasts. Dr. Paul Smith had a Faculty Develop-
ment Award to spend six months at Stanford University.



FLA-EC-01429 TYLER M E SMITH P H

AEROBIC. HETEROTROPIC BACTERIA IN ESTUARIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Twc groups of estuarine bacteria have been characterized by morphology,
physiology, and DNA base-ratio. One group of nine isolates constitute a
previously undescribed species of the genus Vibrio, producing an indiqoidin-like
pigment distinctively. The other group is difficult to place taxonomically:
the isclates produce violacein. like Chromobacterium. but resemble Vibrio in
several characteristics, including DNA base ratio. One anaerobic, methanoqenic
isolate from the Waccasassa estuary has been purified and characterized, and tdo
other isolates are being processed.


FLA-EC-C1440 BLEIWEIS A S

CELL WALLS OF ORAL STREPTOCOCCI

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
During the period covered, we have initiated studies of the qualitative and
quantitative biochemical constituencies of the cell walls of the human
carioqenic streptococcal strains AHT and BHT. A complete analysis of strain EHT
has revealed: rhamnose (19.7%). glucose (19.1%), galactose (0.4%), qlucosamine
(6.6%). oalactosamine (7.5%), suramic acid (8.5%), alanine (6.81), lysine
(5.4%). qlutanic acid (5.0%), aspartic acid (3.7%). phosphorus (2.8%) and
ribital (6.7X%) From these data we conclude: (1) the peptidoqlycan of strain
BHT contains either aspartic acid or isoasparaqine as a bridge between muramyl
peptide moieties, (2) strain BHT is related to certain lactic streptococci found
commonly in dairy products since similar cell-wall constituencies exist in
Streptococcus lactis, S. cremoris and certain lactobacilli, (3) these walls
contain an extensive polysaccharide fraction (40%) containing mainly rhamnose
and glucose, (4) a ribitol teichoic acid is present and may be an important
anticenic moiety. We plan to isolate and purify this polymer. Preliminary
qualitative analyses of strain ART walls indicate a completely different
picture. Threonine replaces aspartic acid in the peptidoqlycan, but undoubtedly
plays the same structural role. This amino acid has been found in cell walls of
certain strains of S. cremoris and S. bovis. AHT walls do not contain
aalactosamine. The polysaccharide is mainly rhamnose, with some glucose and
qalactcse. At the time of writing, we have discovered a teichoic acid in the
walls. This must be confirmed.












BOTANY DEPARTMENT

Research has been continued on projects in plant physiology, plant
biochemistry, mycology, and taxonomy. The project on a fungal parasite of mos-
quitoes has been moving along well, and several non-projected research pro-
grams have been initiated in ecology, phycology, and biosystematics. Faculty
research has led to publication of 15 journal papers during the year. Thirteen
other manuscripts have been accepted for publication. Outside support for the
research activities of the faculty has been provided by the Atomic Energy.
Commission, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, the
American Cancer Society, the Graduate School Research Council, Biomedical
Institutional Grant, Diamond Crystal Salt Company, the Air Force, and the;
Florida Defenders of the Environment.
Staff and graduate student research facilities have been improved by
the following additions: 15 B & L Stereomicroscopes, 1 Leitz drawing attach-
ment for research microscope, 1 Eberback shaker, 1 cryostat, 16 herbarium
cases, 1 YSI dual channel, 1 Mark VI portable Potentiometric laboratory recorder,
1 Mettler micro balance, 1 torsion balance, 1 precision air meter, 1 pyrhelio-
graph and numerous small items.
Professor John Henry Davis, Jr., who joined the department in 1946,
retired in July. Dr. Ariel E. Lugo has been appointed assistant professor and
is actively developing research programs in ecology.


FLA-BT-00953 HUMPHREYS T E GARBARD L A

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 69/02
The synthesis and the storage of sucrose are two important energy requiring
processes which occur in the cells of the corn scutellum. We have found that
the addition of glucose or fructose to slices of the corn scutellum causes a
rapid synthesis of sucrose and also triggers a strong, aerobic, alcoholic
fermentation although the rate of oxygen uptake in respiration remains constant.
The rate of qlvcolysis in the slices supplied with hexose is sufficient to
supply two moles of ATP per mole of sucrose synthesized. From our analysis of
olvcolvtic intermediates and from our studies of the scutellum
phosphofructokinase we conclude that the rate of qlycolysis in the scutellum is
controlled by the levels of ADP and Pi. We suggest that sucrose synthesis takes
place in the same cellular compartment as qlycolysis and utilizes "qlycolytic"
ATP thereby keeping the ADP and Pi at levels necessary for high qlycolytic
rates. We also conclude that sucrose and not sucrose-phosphate is synthesized
and stored. It has frequently been postulated, particularly for sugarcane, that
sucrose phosphate is a necessary intermediate in the storage of sucrose. The
mechanism of storage remains obscure.


FLA-BT-01042 FRITZ G J

METABCLISM OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN BY PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This research project has as its malor goal the in vivo demonstration in higher
plant tissues of the incorporation of molecular 0(2) into several phenolic acids
which function as liqnin precursors. It is well documented in the literature
that enzyme preparations from higher plants are able to catalyze the in vitro
hydroxvlation of phenvlalanine (to form tyrosine), of cinnamic acid (to form
p-coumaric acid) and of p-coumaric acid (to form caffeic acid). Each of these
hydroxylation reactions involves the addition of 0(2) to substrate. To provide,
in vivo demonstrations of 0(2) fixation in each of these reactions requires
tissue incubation in atmospheres enriched in the heavy isotope 180(2), followed
by the isolation of tyrosine, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid and their mass
spectrometric analyses. As a necessary preliminary step, procedures for
isolation from plant tissues of pure samples of tyrosine, p-coumaric acid and
caffeic acid have had to be worked out. To date, these procedures (which
involve solent extraction of tissue samples, chromatography of extracts, etc.)
have been perfected for tyrosine and for p-coumaric acid and are now almost
completed for caffeic acid. The significance of this work, estimated to require
about one year for completion, will be to focus attention on the
indispensability of 0(2) in liqnin biosynthesis.









66














A FLCRA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Efforts were continued toward the coorleticn of a checklist of the vascular
flora of Florida. The portion of this work containing the ferns, conifers, and
monocots has been completed and published, and the remaining portion, the
dicots. is approximately 3/5ths completed. Based upon the portions presently
finished, it appears that the vascular flora of Florida will ultimately be foun<
to consist of approximately 3500 species, conservatively interpreted. This wil
be a larger number of species than in any other state in the United States with
the exceptions of California and Texas. More intensive efforts were given
toward clarifying several grass genera (Gramineae), in particulaL ELaqrostis,
Uniola. Chasganthium, and Arundinaria. In this last genus, the canes, two
species were distinguished in the state, with the definitive character beina the
presence in one of them of cortical lacunae in the rhizomes and lower stems.
This character, which has been largely overlooked in the taxonomy of this genus,
was traced in borrowed herbarium specimens throughout the eastern Coastal Plain
and locally into West Florida. The non-lacunate species was found to have a
continental distribution largely in the Mississippi Valley but extending into
Northeast Florida.


FLA-ET-01191 ANTHONY D S

BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Pea (PisuE sativuml plants have been grown at approximately optimal temperatures
(190 night, 250 day) and under supraoptimal temperatures (310 night, 370 day).
The uptake of amino acid (1*C-labeled leucine) by whole plant tops and its
incorporation into protein at various times after uptake has been studied in
plants grown at each temperature. The uptake testing for each plant group was
at both daytime temperatures in order to test the relative importance of
temperatures during growth and during uptake of amino acid. Because of wide
individual variations, the statistical significance of the results to date is in
doubt. Accordingly, an alternate method of study involving pea stem sections in
appropriate defined growth media is now under investigations. Earlier work on
surraoctimal temperature effects in Arabidopsis thaliana was completed and
published.



FLA-ET-01226 KIMBROUGH J W

TAXONCMY OF SPECIES OF THE TRIBE THELEBOLEAE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
More than one-hundred and twenty collections of coprophilous discoaycetes were
S examined from the following areas: Australia, Pakistan, India, Okinawa, Japan,
USA--Michiqan. Wisconsin, Texas, Maryland, Utah, Louisiana, New York. and
Florida. Two new species of Coprotus and two new species of Lasiobolus were
discovered. A uniascal species of Lasiobclus points to a very close
relationship of this genus to Trichobolus. Type specimens of 12 species of
Ascophanus sensu Velenovsky (Botan. Mus.. Praha. Czechoslovakia) proved to be
synonyms of existing species of Coprotus Korf and Kimbrouqh. The type
collection of Leporina multispora Vel. bears, among other things, material of
Coprotus sexdeciasporus (Cr.) Kimbr., indicating that Leporina Vel. is likely
based on mixed collections. Cytological and developmental studies have
continued on Iodophanus granulipolaris Kimbr. Light was proven to be necessary
for sexual reproduction. Apothecia from single spore cultures indicates that it
is homothallic. Ascoqonia appear more like those of the Humariaceae than the
Ascoohlaceae (the latter of which they have been traditionally associated).
Mechanisms of ascosporoqenesis are presently being studied with continued
interest on the quality and quantity of light necessary.


FLA-BT-01287 WARD C B

THE LEGUME FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Intensive attention was given to the widespread leguminous genus Desmodium
(Papilionoideae), with cooperation of Dr. Bernice G. Schubert of Harvard
University. The Sagotia Beggarweed was recognized as properly assigned to
Desmodium. as D. triflorum rather than to the segregate genus Saqotia. The
tropical species D. scorpiurus was found to be established in the Florida Keys,


FLA-ET-01118


WARD D B












apparently the only record for the United States other than an early and
ephemeral record from ballast in Oregon. A species assumed to extend into the
state. D. cuspidatums is tentatively excluded after efforts in the field failed
to disclose its presence. Two species. D. canum and D. triflorum. were found to
have negative economic value in the state due to their weedy habits, while D.
tortucsum was found to be planted to a limited extent as a source of forage.
Three species, D. ciliare, D. obtusum. and D. strictum. form hybrid swarms in
the state, with numerous intermediates and apparent backcrosses, although their
relationships have not yet been adequately analyzed. The genus was found.to
have 21 species represented in Florida, none endemic, although most of them
restricted to the Southeastern Coastal Plain. A reexamination of the woody
genus Amorpha (Papilionoideae) was begun, in cooperation with Dr. R.L. Wilbur of
Duke University. A. cyanostachya and A. curtissii appear indistinguishable from
A. herbacea and A. fruticosa. respectively.


FLA-BT-01387 MULLINS J T

CULTIVATION OF COELOMOMYCES, A FUNGAL PARASITE OF MOSQUITOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Field collections of mosquitoes infected with Coelomomyces have again been made
this year in the Gainesville, Florida, area. The fungus has persisted in the
same areas and becomes apparent when larvae of Psorophora are produced. This
documentation of the survival of the parasite in nature greatly enhances the
possible utilization of Coelomomyces for the biological control of mosquitoes.
The key glycolytic enzymes from both infected and non-infected larvae have been
extracted and analyzed. No significant differences have been detected in these
preliminary experiments between infected and non-infected larvae. In addition
no unusual pathways are evident in the infected larvae. Thus it appears that
this group of enzymes will not provide any specific clues to possible methods of
cultivating the fungus on synthetic media. Other possible enzymatic pathways of
key nutritional enzymes are being looked at in the hope of finding a means for
the laboratory cultivation of this tungus.



FLA-ET-01401 HUMPHREYS T E GARRARD L A

CARBOHYDRATE SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Tris hydroxymethyll) aminomethane buffer (pH 7.5) caused stored sucrose to leak
from corn scutellum slices. When tris buffer was removed leakage stopped but
uptake of exogenous sucrose (although not hexoses) was strongly inhibited.
Inhibition was completely reversed by Al 3' or VNn 2+. HC1 (0.01M) partially
reversed inhibition but Ca 2+.had no effect. Presumably tris acted as a large
monovalent cation and reacted with an anionic site on the membrane which is
involved in sucrose uptake. Storage of sucrose newly synthesized in cells of,
scutellum slice was not inhibited by mannose (although sucrose synthesis process
was inhibited) while storage of exogenous sucrose was strongly inhibited. Free
sucrose in the synthesis compartment of the cell was transported into storage
when nannose was present. Two mechanisms for sucrose storage are presumed to
exist. One mechanism, inhibited in the presence of mannose. moves sucrose
across the plasmalemma, while the other mechanism, not inhibited in the presence
of mannose. moves sucrose across the tonoplast. When slices were bathed in
mannose there was a build-up of mannose 6 phosphate while levels of glucose
and fructose phosphates fell sharply. Mannose caused the level of ATP to fall
to only about one-tenth initial level. ATP is suggested as necessary to move
sucrose across the plasmalemma.


FLA-BT-01410 WARD D B

ECOLOGICAL RECORDS ON ELGIN AFB RESERVATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Malor emphasis was given to completion of a survey of the vascular flora of the
Eglin AFB Reservation as a basis for interpreting any collateral effects of Air
Force activities in a pre-existing program of testing spray equipment designed.
to apply military chemical and biological agents. Vegetation types were mapped
for the entire Reservation, and lists of characteristic species were prepared.
A continuing procedure of monitoring the immediate effects of the Air Force
spray program failed to reveal any significant influence of herbicides on the
native vascular flora outside of the test area itself.












DAIRY SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

A new milking parlor, using six milking stations, was constructed and
put into use at the Dairy Research Unit, embodying the most modern methods of
milking cows and still providing excellent facilities for research programs
in the production and handling of milk.
The parlor was constructed in such a manner as to facilitate the initia-
tion of a new project dealing with the very important problem of farm wastes.
A 20,000-gallon tank collects all waste material from the animals. From this
tank it is pumped to land plots. The effects of repeated applications of waste
material from cows is being determined. Among the effects being observed are
physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils. The effects on run-
off, ground water, and vegetation are also being observed.
Gator Go, a new low-fat, high-protein, fortified dairy drink, was
developed and consumer tested on campus. The results were favorable, and the
rights to merchandising the product ingredients were contracted to a commercial
organization. The product will reach the Florida market early in 1970 and
will be sold nationally soon thereafter.
The West Florida Dairy Unit at Chipley cooperated in some of the Main
Station reserach projects and served as a demonstration unit for the dairies
in the area. The Unit has been placed on the State Department of Agriculture
Honor Roll for the production of high quality milk.



FLA-DY-00001 BHOWNIIG C E FOUTS E L

PRELIMINArY RESEARCH IN DAIRY PRODUCTION AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Results from an analysis of 1209 postpartum periods in 577 cows indicated that a
greater frequency of postpartum heats between 0-60 days is significantly related
to improved reproductive efficiency after 60 days postpartum. The frequency of
heats during the critical period of 0-30 days accounted for the improved rates
of reproductive efficiency, whereas, the frequency in the second 30-day period
(31-60 days) was not related to subsequent reproductive performance. The
repression between the direct microscopic leucocyte count and Feulqen DNA
reflectance was determined in order to routinely evaluate the somatic cell count
of individual cow samples. This method is being used to evaluate treed, year,
season, age and stage of lactation effects on the number of somatic cells of
cows milk. Data are being accumulated on the efficiency of a heat detection
patch for the detection of estrus in the dairy heifer and the postpartum dairy
cow. Efforts to formulate, prepare and test market a new high protein fortified
milk based drink resulted in a product which has been named Gator Go. Tests on
campus proved the product to have exceptional appeal to active people and to
those who desire to gain weight. The Dari-Tech Corp. of Atlanta has been
selected to prepare a powdered mix to add to 2% milk which after processing
according to directions may be marketed as Gator Go. The product will be test
marketed in several areas in the U.S.A.



FLA-DY-00213 WING J H

ENSILAEILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Under unfavorable conditions of ensilinq Kenaf. propyl para hydroxy benzoic acid
did not aid in the preservation of protein. Digestibility averaged 55% for dry
matter and 63% for protein but consumption rates were very low as compared to
those for Kenaf previously ensiled in air-tiqht structures. Well ensiled Kenaf
cut at three stages of maturity either with 150 pounds per ton of ground corn or
plain is beinq tested for nutrient recovery from the silo, acceptability and
digestibility by heifers. Kenaf mixed with around corn on an equal dry matter
basis and ensiled 60 days had a crude protein content of 15.8 percent. when
used as a complete feed for cows criteria will be intake, digestibility, and
milk production and composition. For control, similar data are being acquired
from a typical complete feed composed of dry ingredients. Five-qrams per ton of
either chlortetracvcline or streptomycin had no discernable effects on
fermentation or nutritional characteristics of oats ensiled in the early head
stage. Average digestibilities of protein, dry matter, and carotene were 73%,
57%. and 71%.













WILCOX C J HEAD H H


PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION OF THE FLORIDA STATION DAIRY HERD

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Analyses of genetic and environmental effects on birth weights and gestation
lengths continue, with present efforts directed to the quantification of
maternal effects. Recent estimates of nonmaternal heritabilities for both
traits have been approximately 0.25. Prenatal achondroplasia was investigated
after a purebred Jersey heifer calf weighing 21.8 kg was born in the herd
following a 273-day gestation. The left foreleg was the same length but
smaller than the normal right leg. The hoof could not reach the ground for
lack of extension at the shoulder and elbow joints. Supraspinatous and
infraspinatous muscles over the left scapula were markedly underdeveloped.
The calf stood on three normal legs with assistance. The dam had borne four
normal calves by other sires. The deformed calf was dropped three and one-half
days sooner and weighed 1.09 kg less than average for the herd. The subnormal
development of the foreleg was diagnosed as a form of achondroplasia; yet only
one leg was involved. This condition developed during fetal life without
reason to suspect bone injury or progressive exotoses of bony tissue. The calf
was sacrificed at 60 days of age for skeletal examination. The left scapula
was affected anatomically and weighed about 40% less than the right. The spine
was nearer to the anterior border of the scapula, curved slightly forward, and
extended laterally less from the scapular surface than in the normal right leg
(0.3 cm versus 1.2 cm).



FLA-DY-01047 WILCOX C J KRIENKE W A HEAD H H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPCN COMPOSITION OF MILK

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Although research continues in Florida alonq projected lines, analyses
contributing to the interregional effort have been completed. A number of
genetic aspects of milk composition and yield of the five major dairy breeds
were quantified in the interregional investigation. Over 28,000 lactation
records representing 2,948 sires in 325 herds were included. The major
environmental factors considered were herd, year, season and age of cow.
Dependent variables included yields of milk, fat. SNF, TS, protein and LH. and
the ariropriate percentages as well as the ratios of yields of SNF to fat and
protein to fat. Milk yields (2X. 305 day. M.E. lactation records) ranged from
9,798 Pounds for Jerseys to 15,594 pounds for Holsteins: corresponding protein
yields were 386 and 499 pounds. Repeatabilities of lactation yields of milk and
all constituents were about 0.5, of percentages about 0.7, and of ratios of
SNF/fat and protein/fat, 0.7. Likewise, heritahilities of yields averaged about
0.25. of percentages about 0.60, and ratios about 0.60. Genetic correlations
between yields were positive and high. circa 0.9: those between percentages were
also positive and high. averaging about 0.8. Genetic correlations between
yields and percentages Generally were negative and below 0.3, except for the
cases of the correlation between the percentage and yield of the same variable,
where the correlations were positive but generally below 0.3.



FLA-DY-01062 WING J M

DIGESTIBILITY OF CAROTENE IN CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 66/01 69/12
Digestibility of carotene and dry matter in forage was determined in 445
individual trails involving 35 animals. Forage was provided in the form of hay,
silage. greenchop, or pasture. Plants investigated included seven grasses, six
legumes or legume mixtures, and eight lots of alfalfa hay used as a control
feed. Digestibilities of carotene and dry matter were correlated with dry
matter content of the plant, with zero-order correlations of r = -0.21 (P= 0.05)
and r = -0.33 (P<0.01). respectively. Except for some possible effects on
grazing animals, carotene content and digestibility appeared to be essentially
unrelated, r = -.05 (P<0.05). The over-all mean digestibility of carotene was
77.7%: of dry matter, 55.3%. Month. form, plant, and dry matter content had
significant effects on digestibility of carotene. Significant effects on
digestibility of dry matter were month, year, form, and plant. Fitting of
leastsauares constants accounted for 39 and 44% of the total variability in the'
two digestibilities. In no case was variability among animals an important
source of error. The digestibility of carotene from alfalfa hay was determined
in a double reversable trial with two groups of 4 cows each. The overall mean
was 82.7 percent. With 10 o per head daily of iodionated casein the average was
83.7% compared to a control mean of 82.3%. This difference approached
significance.


FLA-DY-00575














VARIATIONS OF MILK AND FAT YIELDS CF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
During 1968 production of Florida CHIA cows exceeded 10,000 lb for the first
time with cows averaging 10,210 lb of milk and 394 lb of milk fat. On standard
DHIA. 94 herds with 20.584 cows were represented. An additional 30 herds with
9.765 cows are on modified programs. Our data bank of 200,000 records was
subjected to further sorting and screening prior to analyses of genetic and
environmental trends, which are now in progress. Two fixed six-month seasons
have been established as most efficient in minimizing several environmental
factors, coincidentally January-June and July-December based on performance of
Florida cows in recent years. Genetic parameters to be measured include
estimates of genetic progress in milk yield, milk fat yield and fat percentage.
In addition, studies of genotype-envircnment interaction with these three traits
are also in progress.



FLA-DY-01185 MARSHALL S F SMITH K L

FEEDING SYSTEMS. NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH OF DAIRY CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Since fat is the cheapest source of energy in the diet of young calves, milks
containing 3. 6 and 9 percent of milkfat was fed to calves 2 through 22 days of
age to study the effect of the level of dietary fat upon efficiency of energy
utilization. Milks both undiluted and diluted with 1.5 parts of water were fed
ad libitum. Energy in diets with 46 or 64 percent of the calories derived from
fat was utilized satisfactorily. However, when 70 percent of the energy was
from milkfat. efficiency of utilization declined and there was a higher
incidence of diarrhea.



FLA-DY-01206 WING J H

MINIMUM WEANING AGE OF DAIRY CALVES FRCH HIGH SOLIDS RECONSTITUTED SKIMMILK AND
COLOSTBUn

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Six calves in each of three groups received concentrates and hay from birth.
Controls also received 10% of body weight daily in two feedings of pure
colostrum through four days of age, one half colostrum and one half remade
skimmilk (13% solids) five through 21 days and skimmilk through 60 days.
Experimental milk used for early weaned calves was half colostrux and half
skimmilk (20% solids). The experimental schedules for milk feeding were at the
rate of 10% of body weight daily through either 14 days in the case of group 2
or seven days in the case of group 3. In each case this was followed by 5% of
body weight daily through 21 days,at which time both experimental groups were
weaned abruptly. The criteria included the number of days required to consume 4
lb. of solid feed daily, efficiency of feed utilization, changes in body weight
and general health. The control group required an average of 60.8 days to
consume the 4 lb. of solid feed daily. Group 2 consumed 4 lb. of solid feed
daily at an average of 35 days. Group 3 required 50.3 days. A statistical
analysis showed the early weaned groups to be significantly different from the
control at a level of 1%. The daily gains were calculated as linear regression
coefficients in order to eliminate errors due to nature of early growth.
Calculated in this way, the daily gains were: Group 1, 1.089 lb.; group 2,
0.735 lb.. and group 3, 0.622 lb. Groups 2 and 3 differed significantly from
S the control group but not from each other.


FLA-DY-01207 WING J M

EFFECTS OF SHADE ON THE ABILITY OF DAIRY CATTLE TO ADAPT TO SUMMER CONDITIONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The reactions of 12 cows which had access to shade were compared with 12 which
were exposed continuously except when being milked. During the first part of
S each season the non-shaded cows appeared to suffer considerably and milk
production often dropped off rapidly. Within a few days, however, the animals
began to adapt. They did not appear to be as uncomfortable and milk production
increased. Thirty-six records by shaded cows averaged 3773 kg of milk averaging
4.7% fat. Fat yield was 171 kg. Thirty-five exposed cows produced an average
of 3635 ka of milk testing 4.8% for a fat yield of 168 kg. No differences were
significant.


FLA-DY-01137


WILCOX C J











FLA-CY-01213 HEAD H H


GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN EFFECTS CN THE METABOLISM OF GLUCOSE AND ACETATE IN
DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Bovine Growth Hormone (GH, 1 ma/kq/day) or a comparable volume of saline iwas
infected intramuscularly for 5 consecutive days to treated (6 calves) and
control (7 calves). 5 month old calves, respectively. The effects on blood
metabolites, insulin levels and on glucose utilization rate, using *1C-qlucose
constant infusions, were studied 16 hr post-feeding and post-treatment. Blood
and plasma glucose levels and plasma amino acid-N, total esterified fatty acid
and triglyceride levels were not altered by GH treatment. Plasma NEFA increased
to a maximum on the 2nd day then declined to pre-treatment levels by the fifth
day. Plasma cholesterol levels were significantly elevated by GH treatment.
Growth Hormone did not bring about a change in glucose utilization rate.
Similarly, fasting plasma insulin levels were not altered. Sustained effects of
GH on carbohydrate metabolism were not demonstrated. The effects on lipid;
metabolism were less extensive than observed in nonruminant species. Short-term
effects of intravenous GH administration to 5 month old calves (0.2 mq/kg) were
evaluated in fed and fasted animals. Growth Hormone effects on blood metabolite
levels were non-siqnificant in both fed and fasted animals. Fasting (24 hr)
resulted in a reduction in amino-N and insulin levels; whereas, plasma NEFA
levels were elevated. Intravenous administration of GH did not produce an early
"insulin like" phase. These studies have been extended to evaluate effects;of
nutritional status on the blood metabolite and insulin response of calves to GH
administration.



FLA-DY-01221 WING J M

FEEDING BOUGHAGES OP VARIOUS TYPES AND COMPOSITIONS AND MILK PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Data include production of 36 comparable cows fed either silaqe or the following
roughage mixture: citrus pulp. 900 parts: cottonseed hulls, 400; ground corn,
60: cobs and shucks, 140: defluorinated phosphate, 40: 20 pounds of the
recommended trace mineral mixture: and 35,000 I.U. cf vitamin A per ton. The
remainder of the nutrient requirements were supplied by a concentrate mixture
containing in parts by weight: ground corn, 600: citrus pulp, 100; brewers
grains. 300: wheat bran, 100: cottonseed meal, 400: salt, 8; defluorinated
phosphate, 16: and 8 pounds of the trace mineral mixture. The concentrates were
fed according to a persistency factor which was based on the initial production.
The cows fed mixed roughage produced an average of 25.8 pounds of 4% fat
corrected milk (FCM) daily. The average fat content was 5.5%, and the average
percent of solids-not-fat (SNF) was 9.55. They consumed an average of 20-25
pounds of roughage daily and gained an average of 40 pounds. The silage group
produced an average of 25.1 pounds of FCM daily. The fat content was 5.6
percent and SNF averaged 9.33. They consumed an average of 60 pounds of silage
daily and gained 20 pounds. The only significant difference was the milk
content of SNF.



FLA-tY-01234 WILCOX C J

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTION OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Efforts during the year have been directed toward the continued collection of
data concerning vital statistics of Florida dairy cattle, five herds with over
1000 ccws represented, and toward the transfer of the data bank into punched
cards. Progress in the latter has been slow with approximately 17,000 of 30,000
observations transferred. Present objectives are to quantify non-additive
genetic effects, if such exist, on several measures of reproductive performance
(life span, age at first calvinu, service interval, gestation length and calving
interval).


PLA-DY-01249 SMITH K L MULL L E

RATE OF ACID PRODUCTION IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
It was found that there was significantly less lactic acid produced per cell
division by Streptococcus lactis strains than by the S. cremoris strains. As
the incubation temperature was increased from 20 to 35 C, the amount of lactic
acid produced per cell division increased. There was no significant interaction
between the strain of organism used and the incubation temperature.


WILCOX C J











WING J M FCWELL G W


ENERGY SOURCE AFFECTING DIGESTIBILITY OF CELLULOSE. PROTEIN. 8 RUBEN
FERMENTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Complete rations containing 4.2 or 12.6% of mill-run blackstrap molasses were
compared with a control ration for lactating dairy cows in six 3 x 3 Latin
squares balanced for residual effects in each of 2 years. Yield of 4%
fat-corrected milk decreased from the control of 23.5 kg to 22.8 for the 4.2%
level and to 22.3 for the 12.6% level. Fat per cent decreased progressively
from 4.17 to 4.10 and 4.02, and solids-not-fat from 9.06 to 8.98 and 8.94.
Difference in molasses levels did not produce significant effects, but
comparisons of the control to molasses without separation into levels revealed
depressions significant at 5% for fields of milk and solids-not-fat at 1% for
fat yields, fat per cent, and yield of 4% fat-corrected milk. A series of latin
squares with rumen fistulated steers is in progress with various levels and
physical forms of citrus pulp. Fermentation patterns, digestibility, and
consumption rates thus obtained will be used to design further studies on milk
production and composition.


FLA-CY-01264 WILCCX C J

VITAL STATISTICS OF BEEF AND DAIRY SIRES USED IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Complete life span records of 8.887 United States and Canadian sires of six
dairy breeds leaving artificial service during 1939-1964 were analyzed. Over
36% were eliminated for reproductive inefficiency: characteristics of
performance of offspring, 16%: disease 14:; problems of semen collection 12%:
accident or injury 4%: and miscellaneous 18%. Heterogeneity in reasons for
disposal was detected, indicating that frequencies of the different reasons for
disposal varied among breeds and were also changing within breeds over time.
Life span data were grouped into different periods to determine time trends.
Average tenure increased from 1.74 years during 1940-1949 to 4.18 years during
1960-1964. Over-all tenure was 3.18 years. Breeds differed in average tenure:
Avrshires. 2.91 years: Brown Swiss, 3.46 years: Guernseys, 2.94 years:
Holsteins. 3.40 years: Jerseys. 3.14 years: Milking Shorthorns. 2.90 years.
Prediction equations for tenure were calcualted for each breed and time period
by multiple covariance analyses. The pooled within-breed time period equation
was Y = 3.95 0.1352 X + 0.0034 X2 where Y is expected tenure in years and X is
age at entry. For those sires which were not culled for undesirable
characteristics of their daughters, tenure could be stated as Y = 4.14 0.2245
X + 0.0025 X2. Tenure in the artificial insemination studs ranged up to 14.30
years and 28% of the sires were useful at 10 years or older. Future research
emphasis will be on theoretical population and quantitative genetics.


FLA-DY-01271 HEAD H H

GLUCCSE AND FREE FATTY ACID METABCLISM IN THE IMMATURE RUMINANT

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Studies were completed on 2 groups of dairy calves to estimate effects of age
and diet on glucose metabolism and on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)
concentration. Average glucose utilization rates (mg/min/kq body wt) in
milk-fed calves were 2.52, 2.62. 3.03. 2.45 and 2.01 and those in grain fed
calves (II). were 2.50. 2.39, 1.76. 2.00 and 1.85 at 2, 5. 8. 12 and 22 wks of
age. Age and body wt were more important than plasma glucose concentration in
accounting for the within variability. Glucose utilization declined more
markedly in calves weaned at 8 wks. Fifteen dairy calves were placed on 1 of 3
diets during a 100-day experiment. Diets were: (I) milk, fortified with milk
solids. (II) milk plus high starch concentrate and (III) milk plus high-fiber
concentrate. Blood and plasma glucose levels increased with advancing age in
calves fed diet I and decreased in calves fed diet II. Blood glucose declined
and plasma glucose levels increased with advancing age in calves fed diet III.
Glucose tolerance decreased with advancing age in calves fed each of the diets.
Correlations between blood glucose and plasma NEFA were negative and
significant.


FLA-DY-01352 HULL L E SMITH K L KEIENKE W A

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT CF CONCENTRATED MASSES OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING
BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Using the batch system for growing cells, the following variables were tested to


FLA-DY-01255












determine conditions giving maximum cell concentration at pH 6.0 and 30oC:
composition of growth media, variation of culture strains and growth in nitrogen
atmosphere. Maximum cell numbers were obtained using ATCC 12929 in
reconstituted skim milk with 0.5% added yeast extract and treated with 10% NaOH.
Usinq continuous fermentation, a maximum cell count of 1.58 x 10o0 was obtained
usinq 20 ml. of 10% NaOH/L of 5% skimmilk containing 0.5% east extract. Cells
harvested from 8 liters of fermented skim milk were added to 4300 q. of 10% skim
milk and the DH was lowered from 6.0 to 5.0 in 69 minutes.


FLA-DY-01370 FOUTS E L

UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA GRCWN FRUITS IN ICE CREAM AND SHERBETS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This project had for its purpose a study of Florida grown fruits as flavoring
ingredients for ice cream and sherbet. While tropical or subtropical fruits not
previously tried in ice cream were of special interest, other Florida grown
fruits were also experimented with. Earlier trials established that mangos,
blueberries and carambclas were attractive flavors for ice cream when these
fruits were made into syrup and injected into vanilla ice cream. Florida grown
limes were also found to be excellent sources of flavoring ingredients for
sherbets. Formulas were prepared and distributed to fruit processors and ice
cream manufacturers. Recent trials established that a newly developed grape
known as Blue Lake possessed a flavor which was desirable for use in ice cream.
The juice was sweetened, stabilized and infected into vanilla ice cream and the
resulting ice cream possessed an excellent flavor and the appearance was
attractive. The loquat, which grows in most sections of Florida, was found to
have a desirable flavor when the stabilized and sweetened juice was infected
into vanilla ice cream. The fruit juice is naturally light yellow in color.
The ice cream was much more attractive when the infection material was colored an
attractive cherry red. Other fruits will be tried as they become available.



FLA-DY-01399 MARSHALL S P BROWNING C B

ENSILEC COMPLETE RATIONS FOR LACTATING COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The influence on dry matter intake and production of feeding ad libitum complete
rations containing corn silaqe with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 40:60; 30:70
and 20:80 was studied using a switchback design experiment. Ration 1 with the
40:60 ratio was prepared by adding urea and a concentrate mixture to chopped
fresh corn at ensiling. Ration 2, with the 30:70 ratio, and ration 3, with the
20:80 ratio,were formulated by blending additional concentrate mixture with
ration 1 at feeding. Average daily milk production, solids-corrected milk end
dry matter intake per 100 kq. body weight on rations 1, 2 and 3 were: 16.9,
17.4, 3.2: 18.5, 17.9, 3.3 and 19.6, 18.9 and 3.5 kq. Differences in milk
production were significant between all rations and for solids-corrected milk
between rations 1 and 3. Milk fat tests declined on rations 2 and 3. Body
weight increases were greater on rations 2 and 3.


FLA-DY-01408 WILCOX C J

QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF MILK PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Brown Swiss milk production data from Venezuela were analyzed during the year.
In a single herd for the period 1960-67, average production of first-calf
heifers (340 records) was 2622 kg; for older cows 3025 kg (1455 records).
With 25 sires represented, heritabilities of milk yield for the two groups
were 0.27 and 0.08, respectively; an estimate based on variances of dams was
0.27. Repeatability was estimated to be 0.30. Heritabilities of calving
interval and number of services per conception were 0.02 and zero, respectively.
Means for these two variables were 428 days and 2.18 services. Estimates of
several genetic parameters of production and reproduction of dairy cattle
obtained from tropical areas have been within the accepted range of values for
temperate areas. Analyses of several additional sets of data are continuing.












SELECTION FOR MIIE YIELD IN JERSEYS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
This selection project is in its early states. Objectives are to place major
emphasis in selection upon a single trait, milk yield, and to establish the
maximum amount of genetic progress which can be made. At the same time, changes
in other traits of economic importance, which are ignored in the selection, will
be measured. This is a cooperative project with the experiment stations of
Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. A number of routine measurements are
being taken at each station to characterize various aspects of production,
reproduction, mastitis, general health and growth.



FLA-EY-01422 FOUTS E L WILCOX C J

EFFECTS OF METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND HANDLING OF MILK UPON DEVELOPMENT OF
LIPOLYTIC RANCIDITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The dairy farm supervisors of the State Department of Agriculture collected
complete data on practically every dairy in Florida. In addition, an average of
10 samples of raw milk have been picked up at each farm at 3 month intervals and
analyzed chemically. bacterioloqically, and for acid degree value. The farm
data is about complete, but the collection and analysis of the milk samples will
continue throughout the next 2 years. The data will be submitted to statistical
analysis to determine the effects of the various methods of producing and
handling milk on the farm on the development of lipolytic rancidity. This study
may point out processes that favor the production of milk with low acid degree
values on the butterfat, thus providing dairymen with information which should
be useful in improving the quality of the milk.



FLA-DY-01458 WING J M

LAND DISPOSAL OF DAIRY FARM WASTE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
waste from a holding area and milking unit with 160 cows is collected in a
20.000 gallon holding tank and is pumped out daily. Manure slurry is applied to
three one-acre plots in 1/4-inch increments daily, by means of a centrifugal
pump and stationary sprinkler guns. Weekly application rates total 1/4, 1/2,
and 1-inch/week, respectively. Plots of sandy soil are presently planted to
oats (without supplemental fertilization) and have received slurry since
11/10/69. Rainfall and water table is being monitored. Water samples are
collected weekly frcm the plots and analyzed chemically, particularly for
nitrogen and phosphorus. The application system is performing quite
satisfactorily. Solids have not accumulated excessively, and the oats are
withstanding the treatments and responding to the organic nitrogen. Plant
nutrient and microbial levels in the ground water appear to be within tolerable
limits. The water table has fluctuated around a depth of about two feet below
surface, table response being about 1 ft/I in rain. The crop will be removed
quantitatively and fed free choice as green chop or silage to dairy heifers or
steers. The criteria of nutritive quality will be consumption rates and
diqestibility of energy and protein. Possible correlations with chemical
constituents and in vitro data will be investigated.


THATCHER W W


FLA-DY-01409


WILCOX C J EEAD H H











EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

During the year three new offset duplicators were added to Editorial's
facilities which permitted quicker service to the researchers' duplicating
needs.
Radio stations continued to use taped materials developed by the depart-
ment in cooperation with researchers.
News and feature stories were mailed to all media outlets in Florida
quoting researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. These averaged about
nine releases per week, and reached an estimated 2,208,000 readers per month.
Value of commercial time and space "donated" by these mass media outlets
was estimated at $400,000.



Publications

The Station printed 51,000 copies of six new bulletins totaling 312 pages
and 77,500 copies of eight new circulars totaling 120 pages. Eleven bulletins
and five circulars were reprinted, one with revision. These totaled 124,500
copies and 388 pages. During the year six 16-page issues of Research Report
were printed and distributed to 8,000 subscribers.

Publications printed were:
Number
Pages Printed


Bul 728 Forced Molting of Laying Hens. H. R.
Wilson, J. S. Moore, A. W. O'Steen, J. L.
Fry. ..........................................

Bul. 729 Retirement Income Expectations of Rural
Southerners. D. E. Alleger.................

Bul. 730 Chrysanthemum Production in Florida. W. E.
Waters, C. A. Conover.......................

Bul. 731 Tomato Diseases in Florida. J. P. Jones,
G. F. Weber, D. G. A. Kelbert...............

Bul. 732 Monthly Variations of Beef Cattle Prices
in Florida. B. R. Eddleman, J. 0.
Phillips, Jr.................................

Bul. 733 Location of Agricultural Production in
Florida. R. E. L. Greene, G. N. Rose, D. L.
Brooke.......................................

Cir. S-191 Florida 66 Alfalfa. E. S. Horner............

Cir. S-196 Florunner--A New Peanut Variety. A. J.
Norden, R. W. Lipscomb, W. A. Carver ........

Cir. S-197 Blended Dried Bakery Products in Steer
Fattening Rations. W. G. Kirk, F. M.
Peacock......................................

Cir. S-198 Tropic, A Hew Multiple Disease-Resistant
Indeterminate Tomato for Pink Harvest.
J. W. Strobel, J. M. Walter..................

Cir. S-199 Self-Interest Conflicts and Grower
Marketing Programs. C. E. Murphree.........

Cir. S-200 Sungold, A Nectarine for North Florida.
H. W. Young, R. H. Sharpe ..................

Cir. S-201 Slenderstem Digitgrass. J. E. McCaleb,
E. M. Hodges .................. .. ...........

Cir. S-202 Walter, A Determinate Tomato Resistant to
Races 1 and 2 of the Fusarium Wilt Pathogen.
J. W. Strobel, N. C. Hayslip, D. S. Burgis,
P. H. Everett...............................

Publications reprinted were:

Bul. 613 Whiteclover Pangolagrass and Whiteclover -
Bermudagrass Pastures for Dairy Heifers.
S. P. Marshall...............................


24 7,500


28 7,500


10,000


88 10,000



40 8,000


8,000

10,000


10,000



10,000



10,000


36 7,500


8 10,000


12 10,000


10,000


24 5,000











Bul. 616 Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus
Pulp, Corn Feed Meal, and Ground Snapped
Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot. F. M.
Peacock, W. G. Kirk........ ................

Bul. 623 Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in
Florida Beef Cattle. A. C. Warnick, J. H.
Meade, Jr., M. Koger.........................

Bul. 624 Genetic and Environmental Influences on
Weaning Weight and Slaughter Grade of
Brahman, Shorthorn, and Brahman-Shorthorn
Crossbred Calves. F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk,
E. M. Hodges, W. L. Reynolds, M. Koger......

Bul. 635 Factors Influencing Winter Gains of Beef
Calves. F. M. Peacock, J. E. McCaleb,
E. M. Hodges ...............................

Bul. 641A Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening
Rations. W. G. Kirk, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
F. M. Peacock, G. K. Davis...................

Bul. 678 Effect of Protein Intake on Gains, Repro-
duction, and Blood Constitutents of Beef
Heifers. E. Bedrak, A. C. Warnick, J. F.
Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha...................

Bul. 695 Productivity of Beef Cows as Influenced by
Pasture and Winter Supplement During Growth.
A. C. Warnick, M. Koger, A. Martinez, T. J.
Cunha..... ............ ......................

Bul. 711 Making a Will in Florida. J. R. Greenman...

Bul. 713 Diseases of Southern Turfgrasses. T. E.
Freeman. ... .................................

Bul. 716 Soybeans in Florida. K. Hinson, et al......

Cir. S-57 Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale.
T. J. Cunha, J. F. Hentges..................

Cir. S-106 The Winter Feeding of Standard, Utility, and
Cull Summer Beef Calves for Slaughter.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., W. D. Fletcher, T. J.
Cunha. ... ...................................

Cir. S-108 Self Feeding Pangolagrass Silage to Winter-
ing Beef Calves. D. L. Wakeman, J. F.
Hentges, Jr.... .............................

Cir. S-169 Florida Rust Resistant Ryegrass. W. H.
Chapman, T. E. Webb............ .............

Cir. S-177 Norris--A New Purple Bunch Grape. J. A.
Mortensen, L. H. Stover.... ...........


12 5,000



12 5,000





16 5,000



12 5,000



16 7,500




32 7,000


5,000

25,000


10,000

10,000


20 5,000




12 5,000


5,000


10,000


4 10,000


Technical Journal Articles

Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large numbers.
These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few in foreign
countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded to the journals
by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for distribution when
they are printed. The series now contains more than 3,500 listings.

Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed.

2370 Minimum Tillage for Row Crops. W. K. Robertson, G. M. Prine, R. W.
Lipscomb, H. W. Lundy. First Pan American Soil Conservation Congress
Proc. 1966:449-457.

2392 Seasonal Variation of Aortic Ruptures of Turkeys Induced by
Diethylstilbestrol. R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson, Charles F. Simpson.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med. 130:563-565. 1969.











2423 Identification and Quantification of Phenolics in the Leaves and i
Roots of Healthy and Exocortis-Infected Citrus. A. W. Feldman, RN W.
Hanks. Proc. Fourth Conf. Internat. Org. Citrus Virologists. 292-293.
1968.

2633 Nitrate and Ammonia in Rumen of Steers Fed Millet. D. T. Buchman,
R. L. Shirley, G. B. Killinger. Fla. Acad. of Sci. 31:2:143-149.
1968-69.

2644 Vascular Streaking of Stored Cassava Roots. C. W. Averre, III.
Internat. Symposium on Tropical Root Crops 4:31-35.

2691 Boron Trifluoride Catalysis of Higher Diazoalkanes for Preparation
of Derivatives for 6LC Phenolic Acids. Merrill Wilcox. Anal. Chem.
32:2:191-197. Nov. 1969.

2700 Nematode Populations Associated with Tahiti Limes in Florida. S. E.
Malo, A. C. Tarjan. Proc. Tropical Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
11:45-49. 1968.

2702 An Empirical Discription of Cold Protection Provided by a Wind
Machine. J. F. Gerber, R. L. Reese. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
94:6:697-700. Nov. 1969.

2710 Relationship of Diet Composition to Survival Time of Chicks when
Subjected to High Temperatures. J. N. Persons, H. R. Wilson, R. H.
Harms. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med. 126:2:604-606. Nov. 1967.

2711 Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Seed Dormancy of Annona diversifolia
Saff. C. W. Campbell, J. Popenoe. Proc. Tropical Region Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 11:33-36. 1968.

2716 Mango Cultivars in Florida 1967. C. W. Campbell, S. E. Malo. Proc.
Tropical Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 11:116-120. 1968.

2748 Comparison of Selection Based on Yield of Topcross Progenies and S2
Progenies in Maize (Zea may L.). E. S. Horner, W. H. Chapman, M. C.
Lutrick, H. W. Lundy. Crop Sci. 9:539-543. Sept.-Oct. 1969.

2775 Differentiation of Live from Dead Sperm in Cock and Bull Semen. H. R.
Wilson, A. C. Warnick, J. H. Gutierrez. Poultry Sci. 48:2:714-717.
Mar. 1969.

2786 Sugarcane Nematode Control in Florida. J. A. Winchester. I.S.S.C.T.
Proc., 13th Congress, Taiwan 1270-1275. 1968.

2869 A Sprayer for Application of Small Amounts of Herbicides to Flats.
Merrill Wilcox. Weed Sci. 17:2:263-264. Apr. 1969.

2882 Effect of Mulches and Fertilizer on Cabbage Yield and Soil Fertility.
B. A. Bustillo, D. F. Rothwell, R. B. Forbes, W. T. Scudder. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 27:170-176. 1967.

2903 Cone Distribution in Crowns of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.)
in Relation to Stem, Crown and Wood Increment. W. H. Smith, R. G.
Stanley. Silvae Genetica 18:3:86-91. May-June 1969.

2917 Charcoal Rot of Nursery-grown Pines in Florida. C. P. Seymour.
Phytopathology 59:1:89-92. Jan. 1969.

2918 Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Dogs. V. W. Chaffee, G. T. Edds, J. M.
Himes, F. C. Neal. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 30:10:1737-1749. Oct. 1969.

2920 Herbicide Treatment Effects on Carbohydrate Levels of Alligatorweed.
L. W. Weldon, R. D. Blackburn. Weed Sci. 17:1:66-69. Jan. 1969.

2923 Influence of Light on Sporulation by Helminthosporium stenospilum.
T. E. Freeman, H. H. Luke. Phytopathology 59:3:271-273. Mar. 1969.

2928 Determination of Gibberellins in Ovaries and Young Fruit of Navel
Oranges and Their Correlation with Fruit Growth. W. J. Wiltbank,
A. H. Krezdorn. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:3:195-201. May 1969.

2935 Chemical Changes Induced in Citrus Plants by Viruses. A. W. Feldman.
Internat. Citrus Symposium 3:1495-1503. 1969.

2943 Development and Use of Citrus Rootstocks Resistant to Burrowing
Nematode, Radopholus similis. H. W. Ford, W. A. Feder. Internat.
Citrus Symposium 2:941-948. 1969.











2945 Treatment of Citrus Trees for Burrowing Nematode Control. R. F. Suit.
Internal. Citrus Symposium 2:961-968. 1969.

2946 Water Management of Wetland Citrus in Florida. H. W. Ford. Internat.
Citrus Symposium 3:1759-1770. 1969.

2947 Developing Pesticide Application Equipment for Citrus. R. F. Brooks.
Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:923-932. 1969.

2948 Rumple--A Serious Rind Collapse of Lemons in Florida and in
Mediterranean Countries. L. C. Knorr, R. C. J. Koo. Internat. Citrus
Symposium 3:1463-1472. 1969.

2950 Effect of Fluoride Air Pollution on Florida Citrus. C. D. Leonard,
H. B. Graves, Jr. Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:717-727. 1969.

2951 Some Interesting Nitrogen Compounds in Citrus. Ivan Stewart, T. A.
Wheaton. Internat. Citrus Symposium 3:1619-1624. 1969.

2952 Temperature in Relation to Radolpholus similis and Spreading Decline
of Citrus. E. P. DuCharme. Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:979-984.
1969.

2953 Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture Determination as Guides to Citrus
Irrigation. R. C. J. Koo. Internat. Citrus Symposium 3:1725-1730.
1969.

2955 The Use of Chemicals for Weed Control in Florida Citrus. G. F. Ryan.
Internat. Citrus Symposium 1:467-472. 1969.

2957 Fusarium Wilt (Race 2) of Tomato: Calcium, pH, and Micronutrient
Effects on Disease Development. J. P. Jones, S. S. Woltz. Plant
Dis. Reporter 53:4:276-279. Apr. 1969.

2958 Temporary and Permanent Summer Pastures for Beef Heifers Fed Limited
Concentrate With and Without MGA (Melengestrol Acetate). J. E.
Bertrand. L. S. Dunavin, Jr. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28:
141-145. 1968.

2959 Use and Value of a Continuous Field Survey in the Control of Citrus
Pests. W. A. Simanton. Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:889-896. 1969.

2961 Consumer Packaging of Citrus Fruit. W. Grierson. Internat. Citrus
Symposium 3:1389-1402. 1969.

2962 Dwarfing Rootstocks for Citrus. R. L. Phillips. Internat. Citrus
Symposium 1:401-406. 1969.

2965 A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks 3. Develop-
ment of a Calcium Standard Curve for Soft Phosphate, Defluorinated
Phosphate, and Calcium Phosphate. B. L. Damron, R. H. Harms. Poultry
Sci. 47:6:1878-1883. Nov. 1968.

2966 Collapse of 'Murcott' Citrus Trees. Ivan Stewart, T. A. Wheaton,
R. L. Reese. HortScience 3:4:230-231. Winter 1968.

2969 Automated Method for the Determination of Deuterium Oxide in Water and
Biologic Fluids. R. C. Tobbins. Clinical Chem. 15:1:56-60. Jan. 1969.

2970 Biological Control of Various Insects and Mites on Florida Citrus.
M. H. Muma. Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:863-870. 1969.

2973 An Automated System for Continuous Determination of Oxygen Uptake and
Carbon Dioxide Production in Monkeys; Respiratory Quotients of 27
Rhesus Monkeys. R. C. Robbins, J. A. Gavan. Lab. Anim. Care 19:1:
100-102. Feb. 1969.

2974 Variation within the Xiphinema americanum Group (Nematoda:
Longidoridae). A. C. Tarjan. Nematologica 15:241-252. 1969.

2975 Stereospecific Regulation of Plant Glucan Synthetase in vitro.
D. des S. Thomas, J. E. Smith, R. G. Stanley. Canadian J. Bot. 47:3:
489-496. 1969.

2976 Fowl Pox Inclusion-Body Formation in Skin Epithelium of Chicks. C. F.
Simpson. Avian Diseases 13:1:89-100. Feb. 1969.

2978 Automatic Bulk Fruit Sampler for Florida Citrus. J. G. Blair. Amer.
Soc. Agri. Eng. 12:2:264, 265, 269. 1969.

79











2981 Composition of the Amorphous Materials in the Clay Fraction of Some
Entisols, Inceptisols, and Spodosols. T. L. Yuan. Soil Sci. 107:4:
242-248. 1969.

2983 Precision Measurement of Dew Point Changes with Electrolytic Condensa-
tion Hygrometer. C. D. Baird, J. M. Myers, I. J. Ross. Trans. Amer.
Soc. Agr. Eng. 12:6. 1969.

2986 Petroleum Coke Heaters vs Conventional Heaters. J. F. Gerber.
Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:535-538. 1969.

2987 Methods of Determining Nocturnal Heat for Citrus Orchards. J. F.
Gerber. Internat. Citrus Symposium 2:545-550. 1969.

2988 Drying of Lychee Fruit. I. J. Ross, G. D. Kuhn, C. F. Kiker. Agri.
Eng. 12:1:20-22, 26. 1969.

2990 A Low Pressure Pelleting Process for Citrus Pulp. D. H. Willits,
J. M. Myers, I. J. Ross. Agri. Eng. 12:4:443-447, 451. 1969.

2993 Biosynthesis of Synephrine in Citrus. T. A. Wheaton, Ivan Stewart.
Phytochemistry 8:85-92. 1969.

2994 Some Properties of Mitrochrondria from Irradiated Tomato Fruit. S. R.
Padwal-Desai, E. M. Ahmed, R. A. Dennison. J. Food Sci. 34:332-335.
1969.

2999 Protein and Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of the Laying Hen as influ-
enced by Dietary Formulation. R. H. Harms, B. L. Damron. Poultry Sci.
48:1:144-149. Jan. 1969.

3001 Eimeria tenella: Packed Blood Cell Volume, Hemoglobin, and Serum
Proteins of Chickens Correlated with the Immune State. T. K. S.
Mukkur, R. E. Bradley, W. W. Kirkham, M. E. Tyler. Exp. Parasitol.
26:1:1-16. Sept. 1969.

3003 The Conspicua Species-Group of Typhlodromina Muma, 1961. M. H. Muma,
H. A. Denmark. Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62:2:406-413. Mar. 1969.

3004 Physoderma citri in Citrus Albedo and Callus Tissue. G. Brown, M. F.
Oberbacher. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 59:2:241-242. Feb. 1969.

3010 Electron Microscopy of the Irides of Chickens with Spontaneous Ocular
Leukosis. C. F. Simpson. Cancer Res. 29:33-39. Jan. 1969.

3011 Biophysical Properties of Citrus Fruit Related to Mechanical Harvesting.
G. E. Coppock, S. L. Hedden, D. L. Lenker. Amer. Soc. Agri. Eng. 12:
4:561-563. 1969.

3013 Derivatives of (+)-Limonene, Effect of Isomerism in Quaternary
Ammonium Derivatives on Plant Growth Retardant Activity. W. F.
Newhall, A. P. Pieringer. J. Agri. and Food Chem. 17:1:153. Jan.-Feb.
1969.

3014 Use of Benzimidazoles for Control of Fungi in Peel Cultures of Citrus
Fruits. M. F. Oberbacher, G. E. Brown. HortScience 3:4:286-287.
Winter 1968.

3016 Natural Color Enhancers--Orange Peel Carotenoids for Orange Juice
Products. S. V. Ting, R. Hendrickson. Food Technol. 23:7:87-90.
1969.

3020 The Repellency of Mature Citrus Leaves to Probing Aphids. F. W.
Zettler, M. O. Smyly, I. R. Evans. Entomol. Soc. of Amer. 62:2:
399-402. 1969.

3021 Initiation of Ovulate Strobili in Cotyledon-Stage Seedlings of Pinus
elliottii Engelm. W. H. Smith, R. N. Konar. Canadian J. Bot. 47:4:
624-625. 1969.

3023 Nutrition of the Almond Moth I. Analysis and Improvements of the
Experimental Diet. R. E. Waites, Shmuel Gothilif. J. Econ. Entomol.
62:2:301-305. Apr. 1969.

3024 Identification and Distribution of Certain Similar-Appearing Submersed
Aquatic Weeds in Florida. R. D. Blackburn, L. W. Weldon, R. R. Yeo,
T. M. Taylor. Hyacinth Control Soc. 8:17-21. May 1969.











3029 Translocation of the Herbicide Dicamba in Purple Nutsedge, Cyperus
rotundus L. Bibhas Ray, Merrill Wilcox. Physiologia Plantarum 22:
503-505. 1969.

3030 North American Species of Thecotheus (Pezizeae, Pizizaceae). J. W.
Kimbrough. Mycologia 41:1:99-114. Jan.-Feb. 1969.

3031 Oyster Shell as a Roughage Replacement in the Diets of Beef Cattle.
T. A. Dunn, J. F. Hentges, Jr. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 31:2:150-
160. June 1968.

3035 Breeding Peaches for Root-knot Nematode Resistance. R. H. Sharpe,
C. O. Hesse, B. F. Lownsbery, V. G. Perry, C. J. Hansen. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 94:3:209-212. May 1969.

3041 Antennopsis gallica Heim and Buchli (Hyphomycetes: Gloeohaustoriales),
An Entomogenous Fungus on Subterranean Termites in Florida. R. J.
Gouger, J. W. Kimbrough. J. Invertebrate Pathol. 13:2:223-228.
Mar. 1969.

3042 Aphid Populations in Relation to Tristeza in Florida Citrus. W. A.
Simanton, L. C. Knorr. Fla. Entomol. 52:1:21-27. 1969.

3044 Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Biological Activity of Selected
Miticides and Insecticides. L. D. Olinger, S. H. Kerr. J. Econ.
Entomol. 62:2:403-407. Apr. 1969.

3054 Necrosis in Leaves Induced by Volatile Materials Produced In Vitro by
Some Phytopathogenic Bacteria. A. A. Cook, R. E. Stall. Phytopath-
ology 59:2:259-260. Feb. 1969.

3055 Polyphenoloxidase Activity in Bacterially-Induced Graywall of Tomato
Fruit. C. B. Hall, F. W. Knapp, R. E. Stall. Amer. Phytopathol.
Soc. 59:2:267-268. Feb. 1969.

3056 A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks 4. Evaluation
of a Proposed Standard Curve for Calcium Phosphate, Soft Phosphate,
and Defluorinated Phosphate. B. L. Damron, R. H. Harms. British
Poultry Sci. 10:327-330. 1969.

3057 Seasonal Changes in Pectinesterase Activity, Pectins and Citric Acid
of Florida Lemons. A. H. Rouse, L. C. Knorr. Food Technol. 23:6:
121-123. 1969.

3059 The Occurrence of a Gentisic Glucoside in Infected Citrus Trees. A. W.
Feldman, R. W. Hanks. Phytopathology 59:5:603-606. May 1969.

3061 Spray Residues of 2,4-D and 2,4-5-TP in 'Pineapple' Orange Peel. R.
Hendrickson, W. R. Meagher. J. Agri. and Food Chem. 17:3:601-603.
May-June 1969.

3062 Distribution of Soluble Components and Quality Factors in the Edible
Portion of Citrus Fruits. S. V. Ting. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
94:5:515-519. Sept. 1969.

3063 Tenure and Reasons for Disposal of Artificial Insemination Dairy Sires.
J. Roman, C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker, M. Koger. J. Dairy Sci. 52:7:
1063-1069.

3064 Pesticide Residues in Eggs Resulting from the Dusting and Short Time
Feeding of Low Levels of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides to Hens.
G. M. Herrick, J. L. Fry, W. G. Fong, D. C. Golden. J. Agri. and Food
Chem. 17:2:291-295. Mar.-Apr. 1969.
3065 Effect of Antemortem Injected Phosphate and Dietary Calcium and Phos-
phorus on Muscle pH and Tenderness. D. L. Huffman, A. Z. Palmer, J. W.
Carpenter, R. L. Shirley. J. Anim. Sci. 28:4:443-448. Apr. 1969.

3066 Systematics and Acoustic Behavior of United States Crickets: Orocharis
(Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Eneopterinae). T. J. Walker. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 62:4:752-762. July 1969.

3069 Cell Wall Hydrolytic Enzymes in Wall Formation Measured by Pollen Tube
Extension. H. P. Roggen, R. G. Stanley. Planta 84:295-303. 1969.

3070 Wall Softening Enzymes in the Gynoecium and Pollen of Hemerocallis
fulva. R. N. Konar, R. G. Stanley. Planta 84:304-310. 1969.

3071 Chemical Fallow Control of Nutsedge. Bibhas Ray, Merrill Wilcox.
Weed Research 9:2:86-94. June 1969.


81











3072 Flashes of Photuris Fireflies: Their Value and Use in Recognizing
Species. J. E. Lloyd. Fla. Entomol. 52:1:29-35. 1969.

3073 Florida Expressed Tangelo Oil. J. W. Kesterson, R. Hendrickson. Amer.
Perfumer and Cosmetics. May 1969.

3074 Hemoglobin Types and Resistance to Haemonchus contortus in Sheep.
A. F. Jilek, R. E. Bradley. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 30::1773-1778.
Oct. 1969.

3075 Reproduction in White Leghorn Males Fed Various Levels of Dietary
Calcium. H. R. Wilson, J. N. Persons, L. O. Rowland, Jr., R. H. Harms.
Poultry Sci. 48:3:798-801. May 1969.

3077 Legal Maturity of 'Temple' Oranges as Influenced by Lead Arsenate
Sprays. R. L. Reese, G. E. Brown. HortScience 4:2:96-97. Summer
1969.

3078 Infrared Radiation Shields for Cold Protection of Young Citrus Trees.
J. D. Martsolf, J. F. Gerber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:3:217-
220. May 1969.

3079 The Effect of Tris (Hydroxmethyl) Aminomethane on Sucrose Storage in
and Leakage from Corn Scutellum Slices. T. E. Humphreys, L. A.
Garrard. Phytochemistry 8:1055-1064. 1969.

3080 A Polyethylene Bottle Applicator for Sealing Microscope Coverglasses
with a Slide Ringing Compound. W. I. Abu-Gharbieh, G. C. Smart, Jr.
Nematologica 15:615-618. Sept. 1969.

3083 Spectrophotofluorometric and Ultraviolet Comparisons of Florida,
California, Arizona and Mexican Citrus Oils.I. Lemon and Lime Oils.
J. W. Kesterson, G. J. Edwards, R. Hendrickson. Amer. Perfumer and
Cosmetics. March 1969.

3084 Leakage of Phosphorylated Sugars from Oat Tissue Treated with Victorin.
H. H. Luke, T. E. Freeman, L. A. Garrard, T. E. Humphreys. Phytopath-
ology 59:7:1002-1004. July 1969.

3086 Survival of Eggs and Larvae in Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode,
Heterodera glycines, Ingested by Swine. G. C. Smart, Jr., H. R.
Thomas. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 36:1:139-142. 1969.

3087 Celery Cultivar Responses to pH Adjustment on Everglades Organic Soil.
H. W. Burdine, V. L. Guzman. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:5:520-
523. Sept. 1969.

3088 The Effects of Growth Regulators and Herbicides on Germination of
Hydrilla Vegetative Propagules. K. K. Steward. Weed Sci. 17:3:299-
301. July 1969.

3090 Hyphal Fusion, Nuclear Condition, and Perfect Stages of Three Species
of Rhizoctonia. C. C. Tu, D. A. Roberts, J. W. Kimbrough. Mycologia
61:4:775-783. July-Aug. 1969.

3091 Improved Separation of Components of Streptococcal Cell Walls by Thin-
Layer Chromatography. A. S. Bleiweis, S. E. Coleman. Anal. Biochem.
29:2:343-347. May 1969.

3093 Length of Test for Protein Studies with Laying Hens. F. G. Martin, B.
L. Damron, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 48:4:1167-1168. July 1969.

3094 Evaluation of Atomic Absorption Methods for Determinations of Al, Fe,
and Si in Clay and Soil Extracts. T. L. Yuan, H. L. Breland. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 33:6:868-872. Nov.-Dec. 1969.

3096 Response of Lactating Cows to Two Levels of Mill Run Blackstrap
Molasses from Cane Grown on Organic Soil. J. M. Wing, G. W. Powell.
J. Dairy Sci. 52:9:1413-1414. 1969.

3097 Cabbage Looper Control in Florida--A Cooperative Program. G. L.
Greene, W. G. Genung, R. B. Workman, E. G. Kelsheimer. J. Econ.
Entomol. 62:4:798-800. Aug. 1969.

3099 Citrus Seed Clouding Agent for Beverage Bases. Ji W. Kesterson, R.
Hendrickson, C. D. Atkins. Amer. Perfumer and Cosmetics. Apr. 1969.

3100 Relationship of Photoinductive Cycles on Bract Development and Growth
of 'Mikkelsen' Poinsettias. T. J. Sheehan, J. N. Joiner. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:419-422. Nov. 1968.










3101 Evaluation of Florida Lemons for Pectin and Citric Acid. A. H. Rouse,
L. C. Knorr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:293-297. Nov. 1968.

3102 Fluctuations of the Water Table in Drained Flatwoods Groves. H. W.
Ford. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:75-79. Nov. 1968.

3103 The Effect of Maturity at Harvest on Subsequent Ripening Characteris-
tics of Some Tomato Cultivars. C. B. Hall. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:221-225. Nov. 1968.

3104 Ozone as a Threat to Horticultural Crops of North Florida. D. R.
Davis. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:196-201. Nov. 1968.

3105 Diseases of Watercress in Florida. J. O. Strandberg, C. A. Tucker, II.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:194-196. Nov. 1968.

3106 Effects of Gypsum as a Source of Calcium and Sulfur on Tree Growth,
Yields, and Quality of Citrus. C. A. Anderson. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:19-24. Nov. 1968.

3107 Chemical Abscission Studies of Oranges and Trials with Mechanical
Harvesters. W. C. Wilson, G. E. Coppock. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:39-43. Nov. 1968.

3108 Influence of Plant Size at Transplanting on Strawberry Fruit Yield.
E. E. Albregts. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:163-167. Nov. 1968.

3109 Changes in Dowicide A-Hexamine Solutions in Relation to Residues of
O-Phenylphenol in Citrus Fruits. F. W. Hayward, A. A. McCornack.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:285-290. Nov. 1968.

3110 A Rapid Method for the Preparation of Citrus Fruit Mitochondria. B. S.
Buslig, J. A. Attaway. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:239-242. Nov.
1968.

3111 Enhancing Color of Orange Juice with Natural Pigments from Orange Peel.
S. V. Ting, R. Hendrickson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:264-268.
Nov. 1968.

3112 Insecticidal Control of Leaf Miner on Watermelon in South Florida.
W. C. Adlerz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:176-180. Nov. 1968.

3113 Effects of Three Years of Differential Nitrogen and Potassium Appli-
cation on 'Tahiti' Lime Yield and Leaf Analysis. C. W. Campbell, P.
G. Orth. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:336-340. Nov. 1968.

3114 Response of Potatoes to Mulching at Different Planting and Harvesting
Dates. D. R. Hensel. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:153-158. Nov.
1968.

3115 Pesticidal Control of Cabbage Aphids. R. B. Workman. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:180-184. Nov. 1968.

3116 Flowering of Gardenias as Affected by Photoperiod, Cycocel and B-9.
C. A. Conover, R. J. Sheehan, R. T. Poole. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:401-408. Nov. 1968.

3117 Simulated In-transit Fumigation with 2-Aminobutane for Decay Control
of Citrus in Consumer Packages. W. Grierson, F. G. Martin. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:278-285. Nov. 1968.

3118 Effect of Mechanical Harvesting on Suitability of Oranges and Grapefruit
for Packinghouse and Cannery Use. W. Grierson. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:53-61. Nov. 1968.

3119 Factors Affecting Decay Control of Dowicide A. Hexamine Treated Citrus
Fruit. A. A. McCornack, F. W. Hayward. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
81:290-293. Nov. 1968.

3120 Development of a Florida Mechanical Cabbage Harvester. R. C. Fluck,
D. R. Hensel, L. H. Halsey. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:140-147.
Nov. 1968.

3121 Influence of Well Water Salinity and Fluoride on Keeping Quality of
'Tropicana' Roses. W. E. Waters. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:355-
359. Nov. 1968.

3122 Repeated Use of Soil Fumigants for Commercial Chrysanthemum Produc-
tion. A. J. Overman. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:432-436. Nov.
1968.










3123 Etiology and Chemical Control of Decay Incited by Alternaria sp. on
King Aster (Callistephus Chinensis (L.) Nees). A. W. Engelhard. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:436-439. Nov. 1968.

3124 Mechanization After Machine Harvesting of Celery and Snap Beans. R. K.
Showalter. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:120-126. Nov. 1968.

3125 The Compatibility of Several Pesticides and Nutrients on Tomato.
J. P. Jones, E. G. Kelsheimer. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:167-
172. Nov. 1968.

3126 Field Control of Fusarium Wilt (Race 2) of Tomato by Liming and Stake
Disinfestation. J. P. Jones, S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:187-191. Nov. 1968.

3127 Thiabendazole A Fungicide for Control of Fusarium Corm Rot of
Gladiolus. R. O. Magie. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:422-428.
Nov. 1968.

3128 Gladiolus Flower and Corm Production in Relation to Methods of Curing
Corms. R. O. Magie. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:428-432. Nov.
1968.

3129 'Murcott' Collapse Due to Nutritional Deficiencies. I. Stewart,
T. A. Wheaton, R. L. Reese. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:15-18.
Nov. 1968.

3130 Compatibility and Phytotoxicity of Chemical Dips for Control of Mites,
Nematodes, and Fungi in Corms of Gladioli. A. W. Engelhard, A. J.
Overman. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:439-442. Nov. 1968.

3131 Screening of Compounds for Reduction of Acidity in Citrus Fruit. J.
A. Attaway, B. S. Buslig. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:1-6. Nov.
1968.

3132 Effect of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Potassium Source on Growth and
Composition of Ilex opaca 'East Palatka'. R. D. Dickey. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:359-362. Nov. 1968.

3133 Mite Control Tests on Strawberries. D. W. Wolfenbarger. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:173-175. Nov. 1968.

3134 Structure of the Florida Wholesale Woody Ornamental Industry. C. N.
Smith. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:362-369. Nov. 1968.

3135 Field Evaluation of Fruit Detachment of Machine Harvest Tomato
Varieties With a Portable Shaker. R. C. Fluck, J. W. Strobel, H. H.
Bryan. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:126-131. Nov. 1968.

3136 White Potatoes for Marl Soils in Dade County. H. H. Bryan, N. L.
Durre. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:159-163. Nov. 1968.

3137 Prospective Substitutes for DDT Dust for Control of Corn Earworms in
Florida Sweet Corn. G. L. Greene, M. J. Janes. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:184-187. Nov. 1968.

3138 Laboratory Methods for Determining Yields of Total and Usable Juices
From Oranges. M. D. Maraulja, J. G. Blair. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 81:258-263. Nov. 1968.

3139 Citrus Fruit Removal With an Air Harvester Concept. J. D. Whitney.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:43-48. Nov. 1968.

3140 An Analysis of Application Costs of Airblast Spraying in Florida
Citrus. J. D. Whitney. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:6-15. Nov.
1968.

3141 A Study of Consumer Opinions and Practices About Flowers and Flowering
Plants. C. N. Smith. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:369-375. Nov.
1968.

3142 Annual Girdling of 'Orlando' Tangelos Over an Eight-Year Period.
A. H. Krezdorn, W. J. Wiltbank. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:29-
35. Nov. 1968.

3143 Water Use Pattern of Citrus in a Sandy Soil Underlaid by Clay. J. F.
Gerber, F. Hashemi. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:69-74. Nov. 1968.











3144 Influence of Polyethylene Mulch Colors and Soil Fumigants on Straw-
berry Production. S. J. Locascio, G. C. Smart, Jr. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:147-153. Nov. 1968.

3145 Effects of Coated-Slow-Release Fertilizer on Growth Responses Chemical
Composition and Soil Salinity Levels for Foliage Plants. E. W. Waters,
W. Llewellyn. *Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:380-388. Nov. 1968.

3146 Effect of Soil Media on Container Grown Hibiscus and Aralia. R. T.
Poole, B. A. Greaves, J. A. Silva. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:
443-447. Nov. 1968.

3148 Deformation and Breakage Properties of Watermelon Flesh. R. K.
Showalter. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:235-239. Nov. 1968.

3149 The Retardation of Enzymatic Browning in Avocado Puree and Guacamole.
R. P. Bates. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:230-235. Nov. 1968.

3150 Ripening Behavior and Edible Quality of Tomato Treated with Amchen
66-329 (Ethrel). D. D. Gull. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:214-220.
Nov. 1968.

3151 Citrus Pulp Dehydrated with the Aid of Magnesium Oxide and Its Sub-
sequent Use as a Feedstuff. W. G. Hillis, C. B. Ammerman, R.
Hendrickson, P. E. Loggins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:297-301.
Nov. 1968.

3152 Nutrient and Mineral Composition of Citrus Pulp as Related to Produc-
tion Source. C. B. Ammerman, F. G. Martin, L. R. Arrington. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:301-306. Nov. 1968.

3153 Influence of 2, 4-D on Glucose Metabolism of Citrus Leaves. F. J.
Leal, R. H. Biggs. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:98-103. Nov. 1968.

3154 Exocortis Virus As a Possible Factor in Producing Dwarf Citrus Trees.
M. Cohen. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:115-119. Nov. 1968.

3155 Growth, Productivity and Fruit Quality of 33 Different Selections of
'Valencia' Orange on Rough Lemon Rootstock. M. Cohen. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:108-115. Nov. 1968.

3156 Control of Aphids on Florida Citrus. R. F. Brooks. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:103-108. Nov. 1968.

3157 Influence of Light Intensity and Photosynthate Export From Leaves on
Physiological Leaf Roll of Tomatoes. S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 81:208-211. Nov. 1968.

3158 The Effect of Composted Municipal Refuse and Other Wastes on Carbon
Dioxide Evolution, Nitrate Production and Relative Numbers of Fungi
and Bacteria in Arredondo Fine Sand. D. F. Rothwell, C. C.
Hortenstine. Amer. Soc. Agron. 61:837-840. Nov.-Dec. 1969.

3159 Aortic Atherosclerosis of Turkeys Induced by Feeding of Cholesterol.
C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. J. Atherosclerosis Res. 10:63-75. 1969.

3160 The Effect of Nitrogen on the Yield of Soybeans. R. L. Smith, C. E.
Hutton, W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28:18-23. 1968.

3162 Association of Virus with Nerve Fibers in the Irides of Chickens with
Ocular Leukosis. C. F. Simpson. Amer. J. Vet. Research 30:12:2191-
2196. Dec. 1969.

3164 Control of Fall Armyworms and Corn Earworms on Sweet Corn Ears in
Central and South Florida. M. J. Janes, G. L. Greene. J. Econ.
Entomol. 62:5:1031-1033. Oct. 1969.

3165 Effect of Polyethylene Mulch on Yields of Tomatoes Infested with Root-
knot Nematoes. A. J. Overman, J. P. Jones. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. 28:258-262. 1968.

3166 Soil-Plant Relations Involved in Adaptation of Forage Crops to
Tropical Climates. W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28:232-
240. 1968.

3167 Effect of Chrondroitin Sulfate A and Flavonoids on Hypervitaminosis D
in Rats. R. C. Robbins, L. M. Morrison, C. F. Simpson. Proc. Soc.
Exp. Biol. and Med. 131:719-722. 1969.










3169 The Heterogeneity of Bean Leaves as Sources of Bean Common Mosaic
Virus for Aphids. F. W. Zettler. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 59:8:
1109-1110. Aug. 1969.

3171 Control of Texas Citrus Mite with New Acaricides. R. B. Johnson. Fla.
Entomol. 52:2:73-77. 1969.

3174 Fertilizer Placement on Tobacco by Means of Sprinkler Irrigation.
W. C. Mixson, Fred Clark. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28:174-186.
1968.

3177 A Differential Staining Technique for a Mosquito Irridescent Virus.
J. F. Matta, R. E. Lowe. J. Invertebrate Pathol. 13:3:457-458. May
1969.

3178 Effect of Dietary Molybdenum and Sulfate Upon Copper Metabolism in
Sheep. N. A. Marcilese, C. B. Ammerman, R. M. Valsecchi, B. G.
Dunavant, G. K. Davis. J. Nutrition 99:2:177-183. Oct. 1969.

3179 Seed Dormancy in Two Species of Digitaria from Africa. J. M. Baskin,
S. C. Schank, S. H. West. Crop Sci. 9:584-586. Sept.-Oct. 1969.

3180 A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks 5. Influence
of Supplemental Magnesium on Performance of Soft Phosphate and Mono-
sodium Phosphate. B. L. Damron, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 48:4:
1328-1331. July 1969.


3181 Sibling Species of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). M. H. Muma,
H. A. Denmark. Fla. Entomol. 52:2:67-72. 1969.

3185 Effects of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid
and White) Chitwood, and Phytophthora parasitica Dast. var. nicotianae
(Breda de Haan) Tucker on Varieties of Tobacco Resistant to Black
Shank and Root-knot. Chow Fong Loh, C. R. Miller. Soil and Crop Sci.
.Soc. Fla. 28:266-275. 1968.

3186 Equine Piroplasmosis in the U. S., A Review. W. M. Taylor, Jr.,
J. E. Bryant, J. B. Anderson, K. H. Willers. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.
155:7:915-919. Sept. 1969.

3187 Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), A Multi-Use Crop. G. B. Killinger.
Agron. J. 61:734-736. Sept.-Oct. 1969.

3190 Influence of Oat Fractions on Diethylstilbestrol Induced Aortic
Ruptures of Turkeys. C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 48:5:
1757-1761. Sept. 1969.

3192 Prenatal Achondroplasia in a Jersey. R. B. Becker, F. C. Neal, C. Ji
Wilcox. J. Dairy Sci. 52:7:1122-1123. 1969.

3193 Effects of Fish Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation
of High-Roughage Rations for Cattle. J. R. Seoane, J. E. Moore. J.
Anim. Sci. 29:6:972-976. Dec. 1969.

3194 The Herbicide 4-(3,4-dichlorophyenyl)-1,1,2-trimethylsemicarbazide
and Its Mechanism of Action. Merrill Wilcox, D. E. Moreland. Nature
222:5196:878-879. May 31, 1969.

3195 Effect of Ethionine and Methionine on the Growth, Sporulation, and
Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lyocopersici Race 2. J. P.
Jones, S. S. Woltz. Phytopathology 59:10:1464-1476. Oct. 1969.

3196 Black Speck, A Non-Parasitic Disease of Cabbage. J. O. Strandberg,
J. F. Darby, J. C. Walker, P. H. Williams. Phytopathology 59:12:
1879-1883. Dec. 1969.

3199 The Status and Control of the Corn Stem Weevil in the Everglades.
M. J. Janes, W. G. Genung. Fla. Entomol. 52:3:137-140. 1969.

3200 Residual Effects of Manganese Sources on Manganese Contents of Pasture
Herbage and Nectarine Leaves. Nathan Gammon, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci.
Fla. Proc. 28:86-89. 1968.

3201 Effect of Nematicides on Yield of Field Corn in Central Florida. H. L.
Rhoades. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:262-265. 1968.

3203 Evaluation of Root Yields. H. C. Harris. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 28:204-209. 1968.











3204 Growth Responses in Three Plant Species to Lime and Phosphorus Applied
to Puletan Loamy Fine Sand. C. C. Hortenstine, W. G. Blue. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:23-28. 1968.

3205 Nitrate, Ammonia and Methemoglobin in Sheep When Fed Millet Containing
Different Levels of Mo and Cu. D. T. Buchman, R. L. Shirley, G. B.
Killinger. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:209-215. 1968.

3206 Seasonal Variation of Soil pH with Different Nitrogen Sources Applied
to Shade Tobacco. F. M. Rhoads. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
28:89-97. 1968.

3207 Growth and Photosynthesis of Pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens Stent.,
in a Gradient of Temperatures. S. H. West, R. H. Biggs, J. M. Baskin.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:29-35. 1968.

3208 Preliminary Evaluation of Yield and Protein Content of Six Hybrid
Bermudagrasses, Pensacola Bahiagrass, and Pangolagrass Under Three
Fertilization Regimes in North Central Florida. O. C. Ruelke, G. M.
Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:123-129. 1968.

3209 Pigeonpeas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Druce), A Useful Crop for Florida.
G. B. Killinger. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:162-167. 1968.

3210 Water Quality Studies, Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District.
R. B. Forbes. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:42-48. 1968.
3211 Response of Commercial Corn (Zea mays L.) Varieties to Different Plant
Populations in North and West Florida. E. S. Horner, W. H. Chapman,
H. W. Lundy, M. C. Lutrick. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:104-
114. 1968.

3212 Reproduction of the Soybean Cyst Nematode on 'Pickett', 'Dyer' and
'Hampton' Soybeans. G. C. Smart, Jr., O. J. Dickerson, C. E. Hutton.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:306-309. 1968.

3213 New Breeding Techniques. I. Terylene Bags for Digitaria Breeding.
C. van Heemert, S. C. Schank. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
28:150-155. 1968.

3214 Cytological Studies on Brachiaria Species. A. Sotomayor-Rios, S. C.
Schank. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:156-162. 1968.

3215 Effect of Particle Size of Calcitic and Dolomitic Limestones on Rate
of Reaction in Lakeland Fine Sand. C. A. Anderson. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:63-69. 1968.

3216 Grain Sorghum for Silage. M. C. Lutrick, G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:133-140. 1968.

3217 Influence of Nematicides and Polyethylene Mulch Color on the Control of
Nematodes on Strawberry. G. C. Smart, Jr., S. J. Locascio. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:292-299. 1968.

3218 Soil Fumigation Effects on Fertilizer Use by Kenaf Grown on a Sandy
Soil. H. W. Burdine, T. E. Summers. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 28:1-10. 1968.

S 3219 The Effect of Row Direction and Spacing on Leaves and Yield of Floranna
Sweetclover. G. A. Dusi, G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 28:145-149. 1968.

3220 Response by Tobacco to Modification in the Bulk Curing Environment.
J. M. Myers, C. D. Baird, F. Clark, H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:11-17. 1968.

3221 Methomyl: An Insecticide-Nematicide on Flue-Cured Tobacco. W. C.
Mixson, Fred Clark. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:187-193.
1968.

3222 Nitrogen Status of Two Alluvial Soils From the Humid Tropics of Costa
Rica. R. E. Gomez, W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
28:79-86. 1968.

3223 Three Methods of Growing Corn and Sorghum in Pensacola Bahiagrass Sod.
G. M. Prine, W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:
193-203. 1968.

3224 Effects of Water Stress on Amino Acids, Protein and DNA Content of
Corn Shoot at Different Ages. Aziz Shiralipour, S. H. West. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:115-122. 1968.











3225 Potassium Fixation in Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam. L. Ferraz, W. K.
Robertson, C. E. Hutton. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:70-79.
1968.

3226 Seasonal Changes in Growth Promoters, Inhibitors and Gibberellin-Like
Substances in Citrus Trees Infected with Radopholus similis. R. W.
Hanks, A. W. Feldman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:280-285.
1968.

3227 Nutritional Studies of Root and Shoot Development of Yellowed Bahia-
grass. V. N. Schroder, O. C. Ruelke. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 28:35-42. 1968.

3228 Preemergence Weed Control in Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers). Bibhas
Ray, E. G. Rodgers. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:168-174.
1968.

3229 The Effect of Date of Planting and Row Width on the Yield of Soybeans.
R. L. Smith. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:130-133. 1968.

3235 Iodophanus, the Pezizeae Segregate of 'Ascophanus' (Pezizales). J. W.
Kimbrough, E. R. Luck-Allen, R. F. Cain. Amer. J. Botany 56:10:1187-
1202. Nov.-Dec. 1969.

3237 Differentiation of Pathotypes Among Isolates of Xanthomonas vesicatoria.
A. A. Cook, R. E. Stall. Plant Dis. Reporter 53:8:617-619. Aug. 1969.

3238 Control of Eastern Lubber Grasshopper on Florida Citrus. C. M. Watve,
R. F. Brooks, F. A. Robinson. Fla. Entomol. 52:3:153-160. 1969.

3243 Propagation of Dieffenbachia Sp. R. B. Marlatt. Econ. Bot. 23:4:
385-388. Oct.-Dec. 1969.

3244 Correlation of Pseudocholinesterase Inhibition and Plant Growth
Retardation by Quaternary Ammonium Derivatives of (+)-Limonene. W. IF.
Newhall. Nature 223:5209:965-966. Aug. 1969.

3245 Preventive and Residual Fungicidal Activity of Three Benzimidazole
Compounds and Zinc Ion + Maneb Against Diplocarpon rosae on Two Rose
Cultivars. A. W. Engelhard. Plant Dis. Reporter 53:7:537-540. July
1969.

3246 Isolation of Edwardsiella tarda From an Ostrich and an Australian Skink.
F. H. White, F. C. Neal, C. F. Simpson, A. F. Walsh. J. Amer. Vet.
Med. Assoc. 155:7:1057-1058. Oct. 1969.

3247 Evaluation of Available Methods for Soil Wettability Measurement with
Particular Reference to Soil-Water Contact Angle Determination. T. L.
Yuan, L. C. Hammond. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:56-63.
1968.

3250 Sensitivity of Induced Mutants of an Avena Cultivar to Victorin at
Different Temperatures. H. H. Luke, A. T. Wallace. Phytopathology
59:11:1769-1770. Nov. 1969.

3251 A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks. 6. Develop-
ment of a Calcium Standard Curve for Curacao Island Phosphate. B. L.
Damron, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 48:5:1618-1621. Sept. 1969.

3253 Monitoring for Audible and Ultrasonic Sound Production During Mating
by Stored-Product Insects. D. P. Wojcik. J. Econ. Entomol. 62:4:
937. Aug. 1969.

3256 Performance of Some Varieties of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis rotundifolia
Mich) in Central Florida. C. F. Balerdi, J. A. Mortensen. HortScience
4:3:252-253. Autumn 1969.

3257 Signals and Systematics of Jamaican Fireflies: Notes on Behavior and
Undescribed Species (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). J. E. Lloyd. Entomol.
News 80:7:169-176. July 1969.

3258 Leafhopper Populations (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on Five Pasture
Grasses in the Everglades. W. G. Genung, F. W. Mead. Fla. Entomol.
Soc. 52:3:165-170. 1969.

3259 Evaluation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Diets of Laying
Hens. R. H. Harms, R. S. Moreno, B. L. Damron. Poultry Sci. 48:5:
1652-1655. Sept. 1969.











3260 Biology of the Two-Lined Spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta, on Florida
Pastures. E. G. Fagan, L. C. Kuitert. Fla. Entomol. 52:3:199-206.
1969.

3262 Aquatic Weeds. L. G. Holm, L. W. Weldon, R. D. Blackburn. Science
166:699-709. Nov. 7, 1969.

3263 Modification of Tobacco Plant Bed Microclimate Induced by Covers Having
Different Degrees of Ventilation. C. E. Dean, D. R. Davis. Tobacco
Sci. 169:16:43-46. 1969.

3264 A Reflectance Method of Determining Skin and Shank Pigmentation. J. L.
Fry, E. M. Ahmed, G. M. Herrick, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 48:3:1127-
1129. May 1969.

3267 The Response of Avocado and Mango to Soil Temperature. I. M. Yusof,
D. W. Buchanan, J. F. Gerber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:6:619-
621. Nov. 1969.

3269 A Method for Detecting and Estimating Hydrogen Sulfide in Flooded Soil.
H. W. Ford, D. V. Calvert. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 33:5:816-817. Sept.-
Oct. 1969.

3271 A Non-Extinguishing Flame Photometric Detector Burner and Housing for
Gas Chromatography. H. A. Moye. Anal. Chem. 41:12:1717-1719. Oct.
1969.

3275 Mating Behavior of Eight Stored-Product Beetles (Coleoptera:
Dermestidae, Tenebrionidae, Cucujidae, and Curculionidae). D. P.
Wojcik. Fla. Entomol. 52:3:171-197. 1969.

3280 The Effect of Feeding Various Levels of Lead on the Performance of
Broilers. B. L. Damron, C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci.
48:4:1507-1509. July 1969.

3284 Nematicide Efficacy in Controlling Sting and Stubby-root Nematodes
Attacking Onions in Central Florida. H. L. Rhoades. Plant Dis.
Reporter 53:9:728-730. Sept. 1969.

3285 Effectiveness and pH of Sodium 2,4,5-Trichlorophenate Solution Reduced
by Continuous Use as a Gladiolus Corm Dip in Fusarium Disease Control.
R. O. Magie. Plant Dis. Reporter 53:9:726-728. Sept. 1969.

3300 Systematics and Acoustic Behavior of United States Crickets:
Cyrtoxipha (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae). T. J. Walker.
Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62:5:945-952. Sept. 1969.

3301 Effect of Source and Season on Apparent Digestibility of Carotene in
Forage by Cattle. J. M. Wing. J. Dairy Sci. 52:4:479-483. 1969.

3302 Boron Deficiency and Amino Acid and Protein Content of Peanut Leaves.
Aziz Shiralipour, H. C. Harris, S. H. West. Crop Sci. 9:455-456.
July-Aug. 1969.

3304 Bacterial Fruit Rot of Watermelon in Florida. J. M. Crall, N. C.
Schenck. Plant Dis. Reporter 53:1:75-76. Jan. 1969.

3306 Water Requirement of Gerbils. L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman. Lab.
Anim. Care 19:4:503-506. Aug. 1969.

3309 Association of Bacteria with Graywall of Tomato. R. E. Stall, C. B.
Hall. Phytopathology 59:11:1650-1653. Nov. 1969.

3310 Trapping of Dieldrin Lost from Aqueous Algae Cultures. W. B. Wheeler.
Anal. Chem. 52:4:760-764. July 1969.

3312 Age of Castration and Sex Effects on Feedlot Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Beef Males. J. R. Champagne, J. W. Carpenter, J.
F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger. J. Anim. Sci. 29:6:887-890.
Dec. 1969.

3315 Peach Fruit Abscission and Pollen Germination as Influenced by
Ethylene and 2-chloroethane Phosphonic Acid. D. W. Buchanan, R. H.
Biggs. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:3:327-329. May 1969.

3316 Coincidence and Incidence of Entomophthora floridana with and in
Eutetranychus banksi in Florida Citrus Groves. M. H. Muma. Fla.
Entomol. 52:2:107-112. 1969.











3317 Influence of Graded Levels of Dietary Iron on Performance and Tissue
Mineral Composition of Steers. J. F. Standish, C. B. Ammerman, C. F.
Simpson, F. C. Neal, A. Z. Palmer. J. Anim. Sci. 29:3:496-503. Sept.
1969.

3325 The Effect of D-Mannose on Sucrose Storage in the Corn Scuttelum:
Evidence for Two Sucrose Transport Mechanisms. L. A. Garrard, T. E.
Humphreys. Phytochemistry 8:1065-1077. 1969.

3329 Anticipatory Acoustic Synchrony: Two Mechanisms in the Snowy Tree
Cricket. T. J. Walker. Science 166:891-894. Nov. 14, 1969.

3334 Influence of Alar Ethrel and Gibberellic Acid on Browning of Peaches.
D. W. Buchanan, C. B. Hall, R. H. Biggs, F. W. Knapp. HortScience
4:4:302-303. Winter 1969.

3340 Effect of Age and Diet on Fasting Blood and Plasma Glucose Levels,
Plasma Non-Esterified Fatty Acid Levels and Glucose Tolerance in
Dairy Calves. D. W. Webb, H. H. Head, C. J. Wilcox. J. Dairy Sci,
52:12:2007-2013. 1969.

3347 Effect of Age on Mating of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. F. M.
Williams, R. S. Patterson. Fla. Entomol. 52:4:259-261. 1969.

3348 Oecanthus jamaicensis, n. sp.: A Cecropia-Inhabiting Cricket
(Orthoptera: Gryllidae). T. J. Walker. Fla. Entomol. 52:4:263-265.
1969.












ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted on 24 regular projects during the year. New
research was initiated in insect physiology, biological control, and control
of mosquitoes with chemosterilants. Dr. J. W. Barnett was added to the faculty,
and Dr. W. H. Whitcomb was transferred to the department from the Big Bend
Horticultural Laboratory. Dr. W. W. Smith was re-employed on an NIH grant for
work on control of mosquitoes with chemosterilants.



FLA-EY-00001 EDEN V G

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS IN ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Investigations were conducted during the year on control of northern fowl mites
in lavinq hens: on the biologv, descriptions, and taxonomic keys for lepidoptera
of Florida: determination of insecticidal residues on forage treated for the
control of mole crickets: on resistance in varieties of sweet potatoes to
armvworm feeding: and on analyses of pollen and honeybees for amino acids and
minerals.



FLA-EY-00678 KERR S H

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
No data-generating studies conducted in 1969. A basic study on millipedes found
in turfqrasses began at the end of the year.



FLA-EY-C0996 KERR S H

TOXICOLOGY OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Corn earworms. Heliothis zea (Boddiel, frm. populations in Sanford and
Gainesville. Florida were assayed for resistance to DDT and Gardona(Reg.
Trademark) (2-chloro-1-f2.4. 5-trichlorophenyv vinyl dimethyl phosphate), with
limited tests also conducted with mevinphos and carbaryl. Field-collected
larvae were tested, and at a later date. larvae from the F(1) laboratory-reared
descendants of the field Populaticns were also tested when possible. The data
have not yet been computer-analyzed, but eye-fitted lines on logarithmic-probit
scales show the LD(50) values (in ug/g body weight) to be close to the
following. For 50 mq ((+ over -) 25 mg) larvae from Sanford field
population--DDT 4.000, Gardona 2.4: F(1) laboratory descendants--DDT 36,000,
Gardona 105: from Gainesville field population--DDT 2,500, Gardona 11.6; from
limited tests on the Sanford field population-carbaryl 125, mevinphos 15. For
100 ma ((f over -) 25 mg) larvae from Sanford field population--Gardona 76,
mevinphos 19: F(1) laboratory descendants--Gardona 250.



FLA-EY-01098 SMART G C

PLANT NEMATODE PROBLEMS ON TURPGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Three annual treatments on Ormond bermudagrass showed that Nemaqon was the only
chemical that controlled both the ring and sting nematodes for 11-12 months.
The sting nematode was controlled by Sarolex for 10-11 months, and by Dasanit at
20 Ib/acre for 11-12 months. Dasanit at 10 lb/acre and Zinophos provided
control for 1-3 months. Mocap was ineffective. The ring nematode was
controlled well only by Nemagon. A new technique was tried of injecting
nematicides into turfgrass with shanks mounted behind coulters. Minimal damage
was done to the turf, and grass response was excellent. In other tests, Nemagon
again gave best control of the sting nematode, but Bay 68138, Dasanit, and
Sarolex were effective. Lannate, Furadan, Chemagro 7375, and Mocap provided
some control. The ring nematode was controlled best by Nenagon, but Bay 68138
and Furadan were effective. DuPont 1410 was applied to turf in September and
grass response was excellent. Several tests were conducted using 2 or more of
the following materials for control of Horlolaimus qaleatus on turf: Dasanit,
Bay 68138. Mocap, Sarolex. Lannate, Nemagon, Chemagro 7375. and Furadan.
Neaaon gave good initial control and turf response. Bay 68138 resulted in the












best turf response over 4-month periods, but the response was delayed by '
month. Highest numbers of the nematode occurred in soil from the Bay 68138
plots possibly due to the nematodes leaving host roots. Other materials were
ineffective for control of H. qaleatus.



FLA-EY-01108 WILKINSON R t

BIOLOGY OF IPS BARK BOTTLES (COLEOPTERA: SCOLTYIDAE) ATTACKING SLASI AND
LONGLEAF PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
2.400 ml. (422 gqs.) of frass produced by Ips calliqraphus (Germar) males
colonizing the inner bark of Pinus elliottii Enqelm. logs was stored at -200F
for analysis of attractive volatiles. University of Florida organic chemists
extracted unknown substances) attractive to I. callioraphus females with a
freeze-vacuum system, using n-cyclohexane as solvent.



FLA-EY-01177 PERRY V G

ERADICATION AND PREVENTION OF NEMATODES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Two numbered compounds numbered MBR 5667 and MBR 6168 supplied by the Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Company were screened as candidate nematicides on
ornamental plants. They were applied to turf at 4 rates each and compared to
Dasanit used at a normal rate. Each material proved non-phytoxic at nematicidal
rates of 5 to 20 lbs. Al/A. MBR 6168 was superior to MBR 5667 and Dasanit as
measured by response by the bermudaqrass. This and other tests indicated that
when soil temperatures increase above about 900F, the ectoparasitic nematodes
move downward.



FLA-EY-01228 ROBINSON P A

STERILIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Twenty-four colonies consisting of a bottom, brood chamber with combs, queen
excluder, shallow super, with combs and cover, were treated with a sterilizing
gas mixture consisting of 88% Freon and 121 ethylene-oxide. Brood combs in all y
colonies showed various degrees of visible symptom of contamination by the
American Foulbrood disease organism Bacillus larvae (White). The equipment was
treated in a vacuum chamber for 48 hours at a temperature of 35-380C. Gas
pressure was maintained a 21 psi following initial evacuation to -10 psi.
Following treatment the equipment was aired for 72 hours and each colony stocked
with a 3 pound package of bees and laying queen. Count of pre and post
treatment samples showed reductions in viable spores of 79% in most samples.
The cclcnies were moved to an isolated location near LaBelle, Florida just prior
to the beginning of the saw palmetto nectar flow. Four months after treatment a
few diseased cells of brood were found in one colony and microscopic examination
revealed the presence of both vegetative and spore stages of the B. larvae
organism. No sign of a reoccurrence of the disease has appeared in the
remaining colonies after 9 months.



FLA-EY-01288 WAITES B E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL MEDIA FOR REARING MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Diet formulations tested as media for rearing the Mexican bean beetle were rated
as unsatisfactory because nutritionally or metabolically they were not
satisfactory for ovigenesis. Examination of the gut and reproductive organs of
beetles fed diets containing only carbohydrate solutions showed neither fat nor
eggs. The addition of protein or an enzymatic protein hydrolyzate of yeast to a
sucrose solution showed the production of fat in the gut. The addition of a
mixture of B vitamins, a standard salt mixture, cholesterol, choline, inosital
and ascorbic acid to the sucrose-protein solution failed to produce oviqenesis
in the beetles but seemed to increase the longevity and activity. Tests with a
modified salt mixture in place of standard ones (Wesson and McCollums No. 185)
and the fat soluble factors have been in progress but are incomplete.












FLA-EY-01294 PERRY V G SMART G C

FACTORS INFLUENCING SURVIVAL AND PATHCGENICITY OF NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Three populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus were found to constitute three
different physiological races due to differing reactions on citrus, peanut,
tomato and strawberry. Binor morphological variations between the races were
defined. The nematode Horlclainus aleatus was found pathogenic to certain
bermudaqrasses. This species is apparently not competitive with Belonolaimus
lonqicaudatus, and population levels in Florida are generally low to moderate.
However, it is not controlled by certain organophosphate nematicides and has
become a severe pest on several golf courses where .. lonqicaudatus was
controlled by the newer nematicides. Continuing investigations indicate that
different populations of Meloidogyne are very variable in host ranges even
though they may be identified by morphological characters. Dilated versus
non-dilated rectums has been used as a character to separate certain species but
all species collected in Florida were found to have dilated rectums.



FLA-EY-01297 RCBINSCN F A

POLLEN SUBSTITUTE FOR REARING HONIYBEES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
The crude lipids were extracted from 165 q of whole mixed bee collected pollen
with a 3:1 mixture of chloroform methanol by continuous soxlet extraction.
The crude lipids were applied to a silicic acid column and eluted with a series
of solvents, into five fractions. These were: 32% hydrocarbons, 34% sterol
esters. 23% triglycerides plus free sterols, 14% free fatty acids and 6.5%
phospholipids. These lipid fractions plus the whole crude lipid and the acetone
soluble fraction were incorporated singly into 1 g cakes of an artificial diet
mixture. One of each of the cakes was placed into each of four colonies of bees
confined in a bio-climatic chamber. Observations as to the feeding preferences
were made at two hour intervals. Evaluations as to the relative attractiveness
of the various lipid fractions were made on the basis of the amount of food
consumed and/or the number of bees observed on each cake at the time of
observation. Only in colony 1 was there a clear cut preference of the bees for
the cakes containing either the free fatty acids or the phospholipids. Colonies
2 and 4 consumed very little of any of the cakes, while colony 3 consumed an
equal amount of all cakes, so that no preference was indicated. The failure of
the colonies to indicate preference for a particular fraction or to the whole
lipids could be due to the small amounts of the test materials offered to the
bees, and to the fact that other odors in the test chamber might mask an
attractant odor in these lipid fractions.



FLA-EY-01307 KUITEBT L C

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS AND BITES ATTACKING STONE FRUITS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Peach tree borer infestations were more evident and severe than usual in some
areas. Lesser peach tree borer infestations were higher than usual. In several
instances increase was attributed to the use of high concentration low gallonage
(6 gal./A) sprays. Infestations of plum curculis were below normal.
Observations were made weekly on the development of white peach scale. The peak
egg deposition period and the nymphal period occurred within 2 to 5 days of
previous years of the Gainesville area. Examination indicated the scale
overwinters in the adult fertilized female stage. 86.6% of the females survived
on the younger twigs while 75.8% survived on the older branches. Egg deposition
was first observed on Feb. 5. Crawlers observed on Feb. 11. On Feb. 19 all
immatures were considered dead. Peak egg deposition delayed until aid March.
Control measures were centered on proper timing of spray applications, since
adult females die upon completion of egg deposition. Diazinon and a
combination of ethion (.67) plus oil emulsion (91%) were very effective.



FLA-EY-01308 KUITERT L C

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF THE TWO-LINE SPITTLEBUG PROSAPIA BICINCTA (SAY)

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Spittlebug 1308: Biological studies on the two-lined spittlebug, Prosapia
bicincta (Say), showed 5 nymphal instars, and the nymphal period averaged 50
days. The life cycle required 76 days from egg to egg under optimum conditions











at Gainesville. Nymphs were recorded on 40 plants, predominately grasses.
Females evidently mate before and after oviposition. Virgin females 2-6 days
old give off a perfume-like odor. Caged females began ovipositinq when!7 days
old and averaged 50.3 eggs. Caged females lived an average of 21 days. There
were 2 peaks of seasonal abundance in light traps: one in June and another in
late August to early September. Catches averaged 96% males. Adults were
captured as early as may 1 and as late as December 7. Nymphs were significantly
reduced in panoolaqrass cut to a height of 4 inches. Heavy grazing also reduces
nymphal populations. Two species of Brachiaria and 2 introductions of
Hemarthria altissima showed little or no damage. Control: In a test to compare
the effectiveness of granular formulations with sprays in controlling nymphs
Aldicarb 10 G. Bayer 37289 10 G and Carbofuran 10 G gave 100%. 99% and 91%
control respectively over the check while Supracide spray gave 33% after 12
days. The first two materials have systemic properties. Dvfonate, methomyl,
Baver 37289 and Baygon were superior in their ability to protect grasses from
damage by adult spittlebuqs. Experiments shoved that effective materials
applied as sprays will control the adults, while systemic insecticides applied as
granules are superior in controlling the nymphs.



FLA-EY-01314 SMITH W W

SANDFLIES IN ALACHUA COUNTY

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
23 species were found including 4 treehcle species not before reported from the
state. Bud-dwelling species (C.insignis. Haematopotu. Stellifer. and
Crepuscularis) were most abundant. The first species was most abundant in late
summer and fall,while the others had population peaks in spring and early fall.
The most abundant treehole species were C.arboricola and Nanus. Treehole
species were most abundant in the hurricane season. C.paraensis was found most
often in samples with pH above 8.7. Most other species were found in samples
with lower pH's. The abundant mud-dwellers were found in samples with pH
5.6-6.9. Average weekly air temperatures, minimum relative humidities, changes
in water levels, and weekly rainfalls were compared with weekly average light
trap catches, emergence cage catches, and numbers of larvae recovered from soil
samples for most abundant soil-dwelling species by computer. Numbers of larvae
in soil samples and emergence cage catches (adults) were significantly
associated with soil temperatures, air temperatures, and changes in water
levels. Insufficient fertile matings caused failure to establish a lab colony.



FLA-EY-01315 KUITERT L C

FUMIGANTS AND DIPS FOR CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
In cooperation with the Division of Plant Industry insecticidal treatments
including 2 drenches, 9 dips and 4 granular formulations were applied to
calamcndins infested with coffee root mealybugs, Geococcus coffee. The
infestation was located at Ustler's Nursery, Apopka. The infested plants tolbe
treated were growing in 2" pots. Plants were placed in plastic trays (12
plants/treatment) and the tray placed in the dip treatment so the soil surface
was below the surface of the insecticide treatment for 5 minutes, removed and
allowed to drain before plunging in steam sterilized media. The treatments and a
the Active Ingredients (ounces) per 100 gallons included, Bayer 68138 (6), Geiqy
13005 (14.7). DiSyston (16), Azodrin (12.8), Zinophos (8), Zinophos (16),
phorate (16). DuPOnt 1410 X 90W 8 and Dasanit (16). Azodrin, Zinorhos, lannate
and phorate gave excellent control after 4 weeks. The drench treatments
consisted of zinophcs and Dasanit used at the rate of 8 oz per 15 gallons and
applied to 80 sg. ft. of bed with plants in 2 and 4 inch pots plunged in media.
Treatments were applied with a hose-on applicator and then watered in. These
plots have received five applications at 2 week intervals. The mealybug
populations have been greatly reduced with only an occasional live specimen
being found. The test is still in progress. This method is much simpler than
the dip method and could be accepted by the nursery man. The granular
treatments consisting of lannate, carbofuran. Dasanit and phorate were not
effective.



FLA-EY-01322 WALKER T J

SOUND-PRODUCING ENSIFERAN ORTHCFTER (GRYLLICAE AND TETTIGONIIAEj OF EASTERN
UNITED STATES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Experimental data on acoustic synchrony in the snowy tree cricket were analyzed,
and two stimulus-response mechanisms were discovered the first such mechanisms










established for any nonhuman animal that synchronizes rapid rhythmic events on
the basis of previous events ("proepisodic synchrony"). Sound-synchronized,
ultra-high-speed photography (ca 4000 frames/sec.) was used to determine the
relation between forewing movement and sound production in a tree cricket. The
technique is applicable to most species of gryllids and tettiqoniids. With it I
should be able to determine what sounds are produced by homologous forewinq
movements. This information will be useful in classification and to
neurophvsiologists studying the control of stridulation. Study of West Indian
oryllids and tettigoniids was started in order to understand better the
zoogeography of Florida species and to solve some nomenclatural problems. The
literature was surveyed, and a 37-page checklist of West Indian species was
compiled. During fieldwork on Puerto Rico and St. Cruix, I made 248 tape
recordings and collected ca. 400 specimens. At least 15 of the species and 2 of
the genera are undescribed.



FLA-EY-01323 CALAWAY W T

NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH SEWAGE TREATMENT AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
(A) A survey has been made of the nematodes that have been, or should be,
assigned to the nematode genus nononchoides in order to formulate an amended
generic description. The amended description is based on the study of
descriptions and examination of known lononchoides. (8) Species that have been
allotted to the genus have been examined. A report on this study is in
preparation. This list will include two recently described species. These 18
valid species have yet to be examined for synonmy of species. (C) A somewhat
similar study is being made on the nematode genus Rhabditis. This group,
which contains between 150 to 275 species, has been investigated by several
workers: however, there exists a considerable disagreement on the divisions of
the group and the proper allottment of species. Therefore, the readily visible,
distinctive characteristics of each species is being studied to check the
conformity of the various species to the proposed patterns. This is being done
in order: (1) To see if individual Rhabditina can be quickly classified using
readily discernible characteristics: (2) To check already proposed synonmy and
to susqest any other that is needed: (3) To list the valid Rhabditina with
fairly uniform descriptions of each: (4) To determine the reasonableness of the
already suggested subdivisions: (5) To formulate a key for the group which will
not require special skills nor extensive previous knowledge concerning this
group.



FLA-EY-01325 KUITERI L C

BIONCHICS AND CONTROL OF EYE GNAT (HIPPELATES PUSIO LOEW)

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Eye Gnats: Tepa (tris (1 aziridinyl) rhosphine oxide) and metepa (tris
(2-methyl-l-aziridinyll phosphine oxide) were evaluated. Methods involved (1)
exposing adults to residues on nylon mesh screen. (2) covering pupae with
treated polystyrene foam strands and allowing the newly closed adults to emerge
through the strands and allowing the adults to recover and crawl through through
the foam strands. Following exposure, treated gnats were caged with an equal
number of untreated laboratory virgins of the opposite sex and of approximately
the same age. Sterility was evaluated by collecting a random sample of 100 eggs
from each cage and placing them in the larval medium. Adults were sterilized in
all tests, with metepa causing the least mortality. The highest percent
sterility with the least mortality was obtained (third method) when anesthetized
adults were covered with treated foam and allowed to recover and crawl through
the foam. The greatest percent sterility was obtained when using field eye
gnats. Marked gnats dispersed upwind and downwind for distances over 3/4 mile.
Harked gnats were collected in 22 of 37 traps within 24 hours of release and
were still collected 96 hours after release. Laboratory reared gnats did not
disperse as well as field collected gnats.



FLA-EY-01331 WILKINSON B C

REPRODUCTION AND DIET IN THEE SPECIES CF IPS BARK BEETLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Ips calligraphus (Germar) bark beetles were reared from instar-I to adults on
semi-artificial diets using Pinus elliottii (Eugelman) foliage in place of bark
phloes. As percent foliage per diet was increased from 6 to 29 percent, rearing
success increased from 7 to 34% with previous year's foliage, but decreased from
6 to 1X with current year's foliage. aljor fatty acids detected in Ips










Calligraphus IC(12:0). C(14:0), C(16:0). C(16:1), C(18:0). C(18:1), C(18:2), and
C(18:3)) at various stages of pcst-embroyonic development were identical to
those reported in most insects. Adult virgin females contained significantly
less C(16:0) and C(18:1) than males, but significantly more C(18:2) and C(18:3)
than males. Fatty acids of the insects versus those of the rearing medium were
similar qualitatively but not quantitatively.


FLA-EY-01332 ELANION F S

CERATOPOGONIDAE (BITING MIDGES) OF MIEDLE AMERICA

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A conference was held in Washington. D.C. in April with Dr. W. W. Wirth and Army
officials of the project. The title cf this project was changed to "The Biting
Diptera of the New world." Collections were made from various geographical
areas in the U.S.. Central and South America and the West Indies. Technicians
prepared approximately 50.000 slide mounts. These are being classified,
illustrated and described. Several manuscripts were prepared on the
Ceratopogonidae. The largest known collection of world Phlebotomus was donated
by Dr. G. B. Fairchild of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory for mcnographic studies
by David Young. graduate student. He will do his Masters thesis on Colombia
Phlebotomus. The literature has been assembled for this and the art work is
progressing.



FLA-EY-C1341 HETRICK L A

LIGHT TRAPS FOR FOREST INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Routine operation of ultraviolet light traps in pine woodlands has continued on
the warmer nights that would permit nocturnal flight activity of forest insects.
Suitable temperatures are encountered from late April until early October in th>
Gulf Coast Climate. Populations of insects injurious to coniferous trees have
remained at a low level. Data from individual trap collections of different
nights have been entered on data punch cards for quick retrieval of information
on the insect species encountered. The use of light traps at forest fire towel
locations would provide an accurate and continuous survey of injurious insect
populations for the areas in which the fire towers are located.



FLA-EY-01353 KUITERT L C POE S L

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED FESTS ON ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Ornamental Plants 1353: Forty varieties of roses were treated with Galecron 4E
to determine the effect on the Plants. No phytotoxicity was evident which could
be attributed to the miticide spray. Mites were seldom found on any plants and
when present were found on branches close to the ground. It is an outstanding
ovicide. Galecron was outstanding in controlling two-spotted mites in 4 other
tests. Eanlate 50% W. P fungicide was evaluated for controlling mites on 5
cultivars. Although the mite infestations were cleaned up there was
considerable plant injury. Lannate 90% WP gave outstanding control of corn
earworms and thrips infesting roses. Carbofuran 10% Granules applied to roses
provided excellent control of two-spotted mites for 7 weeks. Lannate gave
excellent control of whiteflies infesting gardenias and achids infesting
camellias.



FLA-EY-01379 LLOYD J E

SYSTEMATIC AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON FIREFLIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Field and laboratory studies were made on about 20 species of Florida and
Georgia fireflies. Of these about 5 species were new to science. These studies
involved ecology, mating behavior and morphology. Signals of all of these
species were tape recorded for analysis. Laboratory experiments on firefly
synchrony were performed but difficulties were still encountered in trying to
perfect analytical and stimulatory equipment. Pilot experiments using the new
firefly simulator in the field were performed and indicate that this machine
will function satisfactorily once a few problems are solved. Morphological
analyses to date have been disappointing,and the fireflies of the genus Photuris











offer few tangible characters to aid in their positive identification or in
determining natural subgroups within the genus. Experiments are planned to
search for behavioral characters that could provide some basis for recognizing
species groups. Field studies were made on about 25 species of New Guinea
fireflies. Their signals were recorded and communication systems in some cases
were closely examined. Observations and recording were also made on the New
Hebrides firebeetle Photophorus and four species of fireflies from Guadalcanal
and New Britain.


FLA-EY-01389 WAITES R E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALMOND MOTH. CADRA
CAUTELLA (WALKER)

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
A model AA-100 Techtron atomic absorption analyzer with a model 43 Linear/log
varicord recorder has been used to make mineral salt analyses of the
developmental stages of the almond moth and of the stock rearing medium.
Preliminary analyses of carcass mineral composition of fourth instar and adult
stages have been determined. The mineral salt data was converted from ppm of
body weight to mg per 100 g of artificial diet. This diet is being made
available to unfed first instar larvae for the determination of optimal levels
for each salt. To determine the amino acid requirements of the almond moth
D-ulucose 1*C is incorporated in the diet. A method of labelling the moth
through feeding a medium that has been mixed with 50 microcuries of D-glucose -
1*C has been undergoing evaluation. Eggs are placed on the radioactive medium
and allowed to develop to the last instar, when the protein is extracted and
hvdrolized to amino acids. Larvae which have been reared through on this
radioactive medium have picked up a very intense label. In a liquid
scintillation counter, activities up to 16,495 counts per minute have been
obtained. When late instar larvae were placed on the radioactive medium and
7 kept there for about one week, readings of only 1200 counts per minute were
obtained. This small number of counts is unsuitable for any extraction work.



FLA-EY-01438 BUTLER J F

BIONCMICS AND CONTROL CF ARTHROFOC PARASITES OF LIVESTOCK

PROGRESS REPORT: 69/01 69/12
Estimated losses to the Florida livestock industry total $12,594,470. External
parasites were surveyed. Determinations were made on species, seasonal
abundance and control applied. Ecological studies were initiated on horn flies,
common cattle grub and the cattle tail louse. Self-applicating dust bag
treatments as both forced use and free choice were used to evaluate Rabon 3%
dust. Co-Ral 1% dust and CIEA C9491 3% dust on 12 beef herds. ULV fogging and
self-applicating dust tags were used to evaluate Ravap, Co-Ral 1% dust, Ciodrin
3% dust and 100% talcum powder dust on 18 dairy herds. Treatments evaluated for
control of the hog louse were lindane 0.06% EC, Rabon 3% dust, Rabon WP at 0.25,
0.35 and 0.50%. Rabon EO at 0.25, 0.35 and 0.50%. Ecological information on
season and abundance of economic tests was compiled. Effective fly control (95
to 10011 on beef cattle was exhibited for all compounds tested but only when
forced use was practiced. Bavap fogged on dairy animals gave the best fly
control. Co-Ral 1% and Ciodrin 3% gave good control in some but not all the
S replications. Talcum powder gave no control. Hog louse control (100%) was
achieved with Rabon EC and WP at all concentrations. Lindane gave 95% control
while Rabon 3% dust gave 78% control. Horn flies were reared in colony for
4.5 generations. Cattle tail lice are being reared on the host in conjunction
with anaplasmosis transmission studies.