<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map
 Table of Contents
 Report of the dean for researc...
 Research program
 Capital improvements
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Staff changes
 Grants and gifts
 Theses and dissertations
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics departm...
 Agricultural engineering depar...
 Agronomy department
 Animal science department
 Bacteriology department
 Botany department
 Dairy science department
 Editorial department
 Entomology and nematology...
 Food science department
 Forestry department
 Fruit crops department
 Ornamental horticulture depart...
 Plant pathology department
 Poultry science department
 Soils department
 Statistics department
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science department
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida experiment...
 Citrus experiment station
 Everglades experiment station
 Gulf Coast experiment station
 North Florida experiment stati...
 Plantation field laboratory
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Range cattle experiment statio...
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley experiment...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Weather forecasting service
 West Florida experiment statio...
 Index


UF FLAG



Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005147/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Abbreviated Title: Annu. res. rep. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida>
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1968
Publication Date: 1968-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Biological abstracts
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000429247
oclc - 01408984
notis - ACH8451
lccn - 73646057 //r862
issn - 0071-609X
System ID: UF00005147:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report.
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Map
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Report of the dean for research
        Page 4
    Research program
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Capital improvements
        Page 5
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Staff changes
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Grants and gifts
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Theses and dissertations
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Agricultural economics department
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Agricultural engineering department
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Agronomy department
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Animal science department
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Bacteriology department
        Page 57
    Botany department
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Dairy science department
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Editorial department
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Entomology and nematology department
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Food science department
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Forestry department
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Fruit crops department
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Ornamental horticulture department
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Plant pathology department
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Poultry science department
        Page 110
    Soils department
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Statistics department
        Page 120
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Veterinary science department
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 131
    Central Florida experiment station
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Citrus experiment station
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
    Everglades experiment station
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 163
    Gulf Coast experiment station
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 170
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 173
    North Florida experiment station
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Marianna unit
            Page 183
            Page 182
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Range cattle experiment station
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Suwannee Valley experiment station
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Weather forecasting service
        Page 207
    West Florida experiment station
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Index
        Page 213
        Page 214
Full Text








ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1968












ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


1968












WEST FLORIDA LIBERTY
EXPERIMENT STATION / -
WEST FLORIDA '
DAIRY RESEARCH UNIT j
MARIANNA UNIT A


NORTH FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT STATION


SUWANNEE VALLEY r
EXPERIMENT STATION

BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE f
RESEARCH STATION
FEDERAL-STATE WEATHER
FORECASTING SERVICE
STRAWBERRY AND VEGETABLE
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
GULF COASTr "B
EXPERIMENT STATION


STATION (UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA)


'OTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY



WATERMELON i GRAPE
VINVESTIGA7/ONS LABORATORY
%, CENTRAL FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT STATION
BRIDGE ORNAMENTAL
HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY

C CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION


INDIAN RIVER
FIELD LABORATORY


RANGE CATTLE A
EXPERIMENT STATION


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT

STATIONS-










CONTENTS

Page
ADMINISTRATION
Report of the Dean for Research .................................... 4
Research Program .................................................. 4
Capital Improvements ............................................... 5
Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff ............................. 5
Staff Changes ....... ..... .......................................... 15
Grants and Gifts .. ............ .................................... 18
Theses and Dissertations ......................................... 22
Report of the Administrative Manager ............................... 28

MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics ............................................. 30
Agricultural Engineering ...............................,.......... 38
Agronomy ................ ............................................ 41
Animal Science ..................................................... 49
Bacteriology ...... .... ..... ...... ..... ............. ............... 57
Botany ...................... ............. ......................... 58
Dairy Science ........... ......... ............................ ................. 61
Editorial ........ ..... ................ .... ......................... 67
Entomology and Nematology .......................................... 78
Food Science ........................................................ 86
Forestry ................ ........................................... 92
Fruit Crops ............................................................. 98
Ornamental Horticulture ................................. .......... 101
Plant Pathology .................................................... 105
Poultry Science ................................................... 110
Soils ............... ............................................... 111
Statistics ..................... ........... ................. ................ 120
Vegetable Crops .................................................... 121
Veterinary Science ................................................. 125

BRANCH STATIONS
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory ...................... ........... 129
Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station ........................... 131
Central Florida Station ............................................ 132
Citrus Experiment Station .......................................... 138
Indian River Field Laboratory .................................. 151
YEverglades Station ................................................. 154
/'Indian River Field Laboratory ................................... 163
Gulf Coast Station ................................................. 166
'/South Florida Field Laboratory ................................. 170
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory ...................... 173
North Florida Station ............................................ 176
Marianna Unit ...................................................... 182
t/Plantation Field Laboratory ........................................ 184
Potato Investigations Laboratory ................................... 187
Range Cattle Station ............................................. 190
VSub-Tropical Station ............................................... 194
Suwannee Valley Station ............................................ 201
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .................... 203
Weather Forecasting Service ....................................... 207
West Florida Station ............................................... 208

INDEX .............. .... .. .............. ......................... 213





The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.









REPORT OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH

This is the second report of the research activities of the Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences prepared directly from the computer print-
out of information reported under the "annual progress" report for the "Current
Research Information System" (CRIS). In addition to the progress report on
official projects our research report this year includes, for the first time,
a listing of all research programs which have concluded with a thesis official-
ly accepted by the student's committee. Also included are preliminary research
activities not formally projected at this time and work partially or completely
supported through grants and donations.
Considerable attention has been given this year to planning and evaluation
of research programs to provide for anticipated information needs and program
and commodity development. All research units have been involved in defining
their missions and objectives and in ascertaining that each research project
and activity is contributing in a definite way toward these objectives. These
activities are complemented by the DARE Committee reports which are developed
by industry and faculty on an annual statewide basis denoting problems and
needs critical to efficient agricultural development. The coordination of
these two kinds of activities into a program and budget presentation at the
research unit level is the responsibility of the research unit head. By this
technique, it is our intention to keep our research program meaningful to
our agricultural industries and operating in as efficient and effective manner
as possible.
Problems in agricultural research are becoming increasingly more difficult
and complicated. As population pressures increase, we must be more concerned
with the effects of production practices upon the population environment and
on the long term effects upon our natural resources. We are consequently
trying to adjust and equip ourselves to be able to react and redirect our
research programs to the quickly changing times in which we now must operate.
We present the following report as an annual report of progress on all
phases of our program.



ohn W. Sites
Dean for Research






RESEARCH PROGRAM

Agricultural Research is a major contributing factor in the rapid and
continuing economic growth and development of Florida. Florida's farm income
in recent years has appreciably exceeded the national average farm income.
But Florida still has many opportunities for even further growth and develop-
ment of its agricultural enterprises, even though income is now well over
$1.1 billion annual cash farm income. This is made possible by research on
many crops and commodities as Florida's agriculture continues to become more
diversified.
The entire research proSyam of the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences is planned and conducted through the use of formal written and approved
projects which document all research. This system provides a great deal of
flexibility which is highly desirable in a research program since it provides
the opportunities needed to work on new problems as they occur. The research
program is primarily a mission-oriented effort aimed at solving agricultural
and related problems. As problems arise, new projects are initiated while
others are revised periodically as the need demands. When problems are solved,
projects are terminated. At the present time, there is a continuing trend
toward greater interdisciplinary approach for research. As new problems arise
and new projects are planned, they are carefully screened and reviewed before
activation. Maxilfum coordination now is achieved by close working relations
within the entire system of main station departments and the branch stations
located throughout the state.
A major effort is continuing to adopt a new form of research documenta-
tion known as the Current Research Information System (CRIS). This system is
one developed within the USDA and includes all state research work as well as
all federal agricultural research. As this system is computerized, it will
provide current information for both the management of research as well as
current information of value to research personnel. In the changeover, all
projects at all locations are separately identified and the number of projects
is consequently somewhat larger than those previously reported. In the future,
the level of projects will remain at around 600 under the new system at any
given time during the year.









REPORT OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH

This is the second report of the research activities of the Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences prepared directly from the computer print-
out of information reported under the "annual progress" report for the "Current
Research Information System" (CRIS). In addition to the progress report on
official projects our research report this year includes, for the first time,
a listing of all research programs which have concluded with a thesis official-
ly accepted by the student's committee. Also included are preliminary research
activities not formally projected at this time and work partially or completely
supported through grants and donations.
Considerable attention has been given this year to planning and evaluation
of research programs to provide for anticipated information needs and program
and commodity development. All research units have been involved in defining
their missions and objectives and in ascertaining that each research project
and activity is contributing in a definite way toward these objectives. These
activities are complemented by the DARE Committee reports which are developed
by industry and faculty on an annual statewide basis denoting problems and
needs critical to efficient agricultural development. The coordination of
these two kinds of activities into a program and budget presentation at the
research unit level is the responsibility of the research unit head. By this
technique, it is our intention to keep our research program meaningful to
our agricultural industries and operating in as efficient and effective manner
as possible.
Problems in agricultural research are becoming increasingly more difficult
and complicated. As population pressures increase, we must be more concerned
with the effects of production practices upon the population environment and
on the long term effects upon our natural resources. We are consequently
trying to adjust and equip ourselves to be able to react and redirect our
research programs to the quickly changing times in which we now must operate.
We present the following report as an annual report of progress on all
phases of our program.



ohn W. Sites
Dean for Research






RESEARCH PROGRAM

Agricultural Research is a major contributing factor in the rapid and
continuing economic growth and development of Florida. Florida's farm income
in recent years has appreciably exceeded the national average farm income.
But Florida still has many opportunities for even further growth and develop-
ment of its agricultural enterprises, even though income is now well over
$1.1 billion annual cash farm income. This is made possible by research on
many crops and commodities as Florida's agriculture continues to become more
diversified.
The entire research proSyam of the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences is planned and conducted through the use of formal written and approved
projects which document all research. This system provides a great deal of
flexibility which is highly desirable in a research program since it provides
the opportunities needed to work on new problems as they occur. The research
program is primarily a mission-oriented effort aimed at solving agricultural
and related problems. As problems arise, new projects are initiated while
others are revised periodically as the need demands. When problems are solved,
projects are terminated. At the present time, there is a continuing trend
toward greater interdisciplinary approach for research. As new problems arise
and new projects are planned, they are carefully screened and reviewed before
activation. Maxilfum coordination now is achieved by close working relations
within the entire system of main station departments and the branch stations
located throughout the state.
A major effort is continuing to adopt a new form of research documenta-
tion known as the Current Research Information System (CRIS). This system is
one developed within the USDA and includes all state research work as well as
all federal agricultural research. As this system is computerized, it will
provide current information for both the management of research as well as
current information of value to research personnel. In the changeover, all
projects at all locations are separately identified and the number of projects
is consequently somewhat larger than those previously reported. In the future,
the level of projects will remain at around 600 under the new system at any
given time during the year.









The current research is reported to the public in many ways, primarily
through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much research
is reported at conferences and meetings. Within the organization many field
days, short courses, and conferences are held, to which the public is invited.
These are held throughout the year at various departments, branch stations, and
field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.


As of December 31, 1968,
complete or under contract:

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Central Florida Station
Sanford

Gulf Coast Station
Bradenton

Unit D, MicCarty Hall and
Food Science Building
Gainesville


CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

the following major buildings


Service Building


Greenhouses-Headhouse


Library-Conference Bldg.


Equipment-Storage Bldg.


Greenhouses-leadhouse


Headhouse-Farm Equip. Bldg.


were either


Complete


Complete


95% Complete


50% Complete


Complete


75% Complete


Complete


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

December 31, 1968


BOARD OF REGENTS

Burke Kibler, Lakeland, Chairman
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa
Julius F. Parker, Tallahassee
Mayhew Dodson, III, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
John C. Behringer, Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
R. B. Mautz, Chancellor, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
Telephone University of Florida, 376-3261

Stephen C. O'Connell, President of University, Ext. 2311
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, Ext. 2711
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research, Ext. 2753
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2755
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2754
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, Ext. 2810
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Assistant, Ext. 2865
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services,
Ext. 3230









The current research is reported to the public in many ways, primarily
through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much research
is reported at conferences and meetings. Within the organization many field
days, short courses, and conferences are held, to which the public is invited.
These are held throughout the year at various departments, branch stations, and
field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.


As of December 31, 1968,
complete or under contract:

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Central Florida Station
Sanford

Gulf Coast Station
Bradenton

Unit D, MicCarty Hall and
Food Science Building
Gainesville


CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

the following major buildings


Service Building


Greenhouses-Headhouse


Library-Conference Bldg.


Equipment-Storage Bldg.


Greenhouses-leadhouse


Headhouse-Farm Equip. Bldg.


were either


Complete


Complete


95% Complete


50% Complete


Complete


75% Complete


Complete


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

December 31, 1968


BOARD OF REGENTS

Burke Kibler, Lakeland, Chairman
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa
Julius F. Parker, Tallahassee
Mayhew Dodson, III, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
John C. Behringer, Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
R. B. Mautz, Chancellor, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
Telephone University of Florida, 376-3261

Stephen C. O'Connell, President of University, Ext. 2311
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, Ext. 2711
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research, Ext. 2753
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2755
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2754
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, Ext. 2810
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Assistant, Ext. 2865
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services,
Ext. 3230









The current research is reported to the public in many ways, primarily
through published articles, bulletins, and books. In addition, much research
is reported at conferences and meetings. Within the organization many field
days, short courses, and conferences are held, to which the public is invited.
These are held throughout the year at various departments, branch stations, and
field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity, or process.


As of December 31, 1968,
complete or under contract:

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Plantation Field Laboratory
Fort Lauderdale

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Everglades Station
Belle Glade

Central Florida Station
Sanford

Gulf Coast Station
Bradenton

Unit D, MicCarty Hall and
Food Science Building
Gainesville


CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

the following major buildings


Service Building


Greenhouses-Headhouse


Library-Conference Bldg.


Equipment-Storage Bldg.


Greenhouses-leadhouse


Headhouse-Farm Equip. Bldg.


were either


Complete


Complete


95% Complete


50% Complete


Complete


75% Complete


Complete


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

December 31, 1968


BOARD OF REGENTS

Burke Kibler, Lakeland, Chairman
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa
Julius F. Parker, Tallahassee
Mayhew Dodson, III, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
John C. Behringer, Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
R. B. Mautz, Chancellor, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
Telephone University of Florida, 376-3261

Stephen C. O'Connell, President of University, Ext. 2311
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, Ext. 2711
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research, Ext. 2753
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2755
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dean for Research, Ext. 2754
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, Ext. 2810
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Assistant, Ext. 2865
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services,
Ext. 3230












Academic Staff

The following abbreviations after name and title of research faculty
indicate cooperation with other organizations:

Coll.--University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-- University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA---United States Department of Agriculture
USWB---United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce
FCC--- Florida Citrus Commission
FAMU---Florida A6M University, Tallahassee

NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named individuals,
represent responsibility for coordination, planning and conduct of
cooperative research with the department indicated.




MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE (Zip Code 32601)
Telephone University of Florida 376-3261, Area Code 904

Agricultural Economics Department, 162 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2153

K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
C. L. Anderson, B.S.A., Area Asst. Farm Management Specialist
W. K. Boutwell, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
H. D. Brodnax, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Veg. Crops
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist, Coil.
J. Kamal Dow, M.S., Assistant Economist
B. R. Eddleman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
W. F. Edwards, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LLB., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. C. Jones, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
W. B. Lester, Ph.D., Research Economist, FCC
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. H. Myers, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist and liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops
F. H. Tyner, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Economist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry, Ornamental
Horticulture)


Agricultural Engineering Department, 7 Frazier Rogers Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2848

E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
C. D. Baird, M.S.E., Int. Research Associate
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Animal
Science
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering, USDA
F. E. Henry, B.I.E., Assistant Industrial Engineer, USDA
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Agron.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal Science,
Soils)











Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2181

D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Agronomist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
Fred Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Eng.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Plant Path.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ent.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Econ.
E. B. Knipling, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA
J. E. Mickelson, A.B., Assistant Climatologist, USDA
G. O. Mott, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
C. B. Owens, Ph.D., Agronomist, FAMU
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Soils
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; Coll.
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist and liaison with Forestry
Aziz Shiralipour, Ph.D., Research Associate
R. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist; also Plant Science
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Geneticist, USDA; liaison with Plant Path.
T. E. Webb, M.S., Assistant Agronomist and Manager of Seed Foundation
S. H. West, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils)


Animal Science Department, 253 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2613

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
F. W. Bazer, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Physiologist
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Director of Biological Sciences
J. F. Easley, M.S., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
G. L. Ellis, Interim Research Associate
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
D. E. Franke, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman and liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Meat Scientist and liaison with Food Science; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.; also
Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist and liaison with Poultry; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Forestry, Soils, Veterinary
Science)



Bacteriology Department, 169 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2805

Max E. Tyler, Ph.D., Bacteriologist and Chairman; also Coll.
B. A. Blaylock, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist; also Coll.
A. S. Bleiweis, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist; also Coll.
F. M. Bordeaux, B.S., Research Associate; also Coll.
D. E. Duggan, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist; also Coll. and Biological
Sciences
D. S. Nasser, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist; also Coll.
P. H. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist; also Coll.











Botany Department, 318 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2441

Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Botanist and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. Beckner, B.S.A., Research Associate
J. H. Davis, Ph.D., Botanist; Coll.
J. S. Davis, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Botanist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Assistant Mycologist; also Coll.
J. T. Mullins, Ph.D., Associate-Botanist; also Coll.
R. C. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
R. R. Smith, Ph.D., Interim Research Associate
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in department of Plant Pathology)



Dairy Science Department, Dairy Science Building, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2861

C. B. Browning, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman Emeritus
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Physiologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist and liaison with Food Science:
also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist and liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Microbiologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Food Science, Veterinary Science)

Dairy Research Unit, Hague Phone 904, 462-1016

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley Phone 904, 638-0544

J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman



Editorial Department, 215 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2818

Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Chairman; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Assistant Editor
C. T. Woods, Jr., M.A., Assistant Editor


Entomology and Nematology Department, 344-B, McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2737

W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Entomologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
J. F. Butler, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
W. T. Calaway, M.S., Assistant Nematologist; Coll.
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick., Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Entomologist and liaison with Orn Hort.; also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.
J. E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist; Coll.; Biological Sciences
Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
J. L. Nation, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.; Biological Sciences
J. H. O'Bannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist, USDA, Orlando
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist and liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
W. L. Peters, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist, FAMU
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Associate Apiculturist
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Nematologist and liaison with Soils; also
Coll.












W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
K. J. Stone, M.S., Research Associate
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist Emeritus
R. E. Waites, Associate Entomologist
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Forestry

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Soils)


Food Science Department, Food Technology Laboratory, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2991

R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. P. Bates, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Horticulturist and liaison with Fruit Crops
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also
Coll.
Mlargaret E. Merkeley, M.S., Assistant in Food Technology
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist and liaison with Poultry Sci.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist and liaison with Veg. Crops
N. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Ruth 0. Townsend, R. N., Senior Research Assistant in Nutrition and
liaison with Veg. Crops
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Biochemist
W. B. Wheeler, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, Dairy)


Forestry Department, 305 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2878

J. L. Gray, M. F., Associate Forester and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
G. W. Bengtson, Ph.D., Associate Forester, TVA, Muscle Shoals, Alabama
R. H. Brendemuehl, Ph.D., Associate Forester, USDA
G. W. Cornwell, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D. F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and liaison with Ani Sci; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
F. L. Newby, M.S., Research Associate
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
R. A. Schmidt, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Plant Pathology;
also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Forester, USDA, Olustee
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Forest Physiologist; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S.F., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D. F., Associate Forester and liaison with Ag. Econ.; also
Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Entomology, Soils)


Fruit Crops Department, 108-A, McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2593

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
S. Ben-Yehoshua, Ph.D., Interim Research Associate
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
D. W. Buchanan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Associate Climatologist; also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
W. B. Sherman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. Soule, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
W. J. Wiltbank, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils)













Ornamental Horticulture Department, 406 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2821

E. C. Roberts, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and Chairman, also Coll.
and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Ornamental Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and liaison with Soils; also
Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist and liaison
with Plant Path.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
C. E. Whitcomb, M.S., Research Associate

(See also liaison appointments ih departments of Agricultural Economics,
Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soils)


Plant Pathology Department, Building 833, Radio Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2371

L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
L. J. Alexander, Ph.D., Interim Plant Pathologist
S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
H. C. Burnett, M.S., Plant Pathologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
O. J. Dickerson, Ph.D., Interim Associate Nematologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agronomy, USDA
C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agron.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
J. W. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Plant Pathologist; Coll.
C. P. Seymour, M.S., Plant Pathologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
Coll.
Cornelius Wehlburg, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
F. W. Zettler, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Virologist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)


Plant Science Section, 202 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2851

A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist and Head


Poultry Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 3221

R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
B. L. Damron, Ph.D., Assistant Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Products Technologist; also Coll.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Physiologist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Animal Science, Food Science,
Soils, Veterinary Science)


Soils Department, 106 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2363

C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Soil Chemist; also Coll.
V. W Carlisle, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
C. L. Coultas, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist, FAMU
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Fruit Crops
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Soil Physicist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor












R. S. Mansell, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Physicist
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Forestry
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Agron.
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist and liaison with Poultry;
also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soil Chemist; Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Associate Chemist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal Science,
Entomology, Forestry, Ornamental Horticulture)


Statistics Department, 9 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2687

William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Chairman; Coll.
F. C. Barnett, Ph.D., Assistant Statistician; also Coll.
R. P. Gupta, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Statistician; Coll.
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Associate Statistician; also Coll.


Vegetable Crops Department, 305 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2578

V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Acting Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Associate Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology, Soils)


Veterinary Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2568

G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist and liaison with
Animal Science; also Coll.
P. T. Cardeilhac, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Pharmacologist
D. E. Cooperrider, D.V.M., M.Sc., Parasitologist, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Pharmacologist and liaison with Food
Sci.; also Coll.
C. A. Holden, M.S., Assistant in Microbiology
W. R. Llewellyn, M.S., Interim Soils & Short Course Advisor
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Associate Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy Sci.;
also Coll.
J. T. McLaren Neilson, Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist and liaison with Poultry Sci.;
also Coll.
W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Microbiologist, Fort Lauderdale
F. H. White, Ph.D., Bacteriologist and liaison with Dairy Sci.

(See also liaison appointments in department of Animal Science)



Branch Stations

BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY, Box 539, Monticello 32344
Phone 904, 997-2597

H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist and Head
W. J. French, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. T. Raese, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA
W. H. Whitcomb, Ph.D., Entomologist


BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE RESEARCH STATION, Brooksville 33512
Phone 904, 796-3385

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman and Head, USDA














CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771
Phone 305, 322-4134

J. F. Darby, Plant Pathologist and Head
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
G. L. Greene, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. O. Strandberg, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist




CITRUS STATION, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred 33850
Phone 813, 372-1151

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head
L. G. Albrigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, FCC
B. S. Buslig, M.S., Research Associate, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Research Assistant
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Research Associate
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist, FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. Fojtik, B.S., Research Assistant
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Research Associate
William Grierson, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Research Assistant
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
Pamela K. Hearon, B.S., Assistant Librarian
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
Rudolph Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Research Assistant
R. L. Huggart, B. S., Associate Chemist, FCC
M. A-R. Ismail, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. KOO, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Associate Industrial Bacteriologist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. W. Olsen, B. S. Biochemist
D. R. Petrus, M.S., Research Associate
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. L. Reese, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Research Assistant
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. O. Whiteside, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. C. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC














Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451
Phone 305, 461-4371

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist



EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430
Phone 305, 996-3063

D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. D. Berger, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Soil Chemist
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
G. J. Gascho, Ph.D., Assistant Crop Nutritionist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. W. Hayes, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
M. J. Janes, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Horticulturist
G. H. Snyder, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Horticulturist
T. A. Zitter, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist


Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-6193

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist


GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton 33505
Phone 813, 755-1568

J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. P. Crill, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. E. Engelhard, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. J. Marousky, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, USDA
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Associate Soil Microbiologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist


South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33824
Phone 813, 657-2835

P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. H. Blazquez, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist


Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Phone 813, 752-7649

E. E. Albregts, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Howard, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, P. O. Box 470, Quincy 32351
Phone 904, 627, 6847, Tobacco section 627-6691

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist and Head
J. B. Aitken, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist













F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
F. M. Rhoads, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. L. Stanley, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Associate Entomologist


Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446
Phone 904, 482-8061

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist



SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Homestead 33030
Phone 305, 247-4624

R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. T. McMillan, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist


SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060
Phone 904, 362-1725

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist and Head
G. R. Hollis, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist



PLANTATION FIELD LABORATORY, 5305 S.W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale 33314
Phone 305, 583-5353

E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Turf Technologist and Head
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. McDonald Morton, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA
K. K. Stewart, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soil Physicist, USDA
T. L. Stringfellow, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, USDA


POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY, Box 728, Hastings 32045
Phone 904, 692-1792

D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist and Head
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Schumaker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist


RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona 33865
Phone 813, 735-3121

H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman


WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY, Box 388, Leesburg 32748
Phone 904, 787-3423

J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head

14













W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Carlos Balerdi, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 686-3998 and 682-4221

W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist and Head, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Associate Animal Scientist
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. A. Kinloch, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist



STAFF CHANGES

Appointments

Robert Shirley Mansell, Int. Asst. Soil Physicist, Soils Dept., Jan. 1, 1968
George W. Bengtson, Research Forester, Forestry Dept., Jan. 1, 1968, Courtesy
Lester H. Myers, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 1, 1968, FCC
William John French, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Hort. Lab., Feb. 1, 1968
John Horatio O'Bannon, Asst. Res. Nematologist, Entomology Dept., Mar. 1, 1968,
USDA
Paul Thiers Cardeilhac, Assoc. Pharmacologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Mar. 1, 1968
Donald Elmer Cooperrider, Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Mar. 21, 1968,
Courtesy
Mohamed Abdel-Rehim Ismail, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Apr. 1, 1968,
FCC
Robert Roy Smith, Int. Research Associate, Botany Dept., May 1, 1968
Alfredo Ochoa Rillo, Research Associate, Agronomy Dept., June 1, 1968
Raymond Hugo Brendemuehl, Associate Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1968,
USDA
John Thomas Raese, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Big Bend Lab., July 1, 1968, USDA
Gary John Gascho, Asst. Crop Nutritionist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1968
Robert Lee Stanley, Jr., Asst. Agronomist, North Florida Station, August 1, 1968
Salvatore A. Alfieri, Jr., Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology, Aug. 1, 1968,
Courtesy
Donald Richard Petrus, Research Associate, Citrus Station, Aug. 1, 1968, FCC
John W. Miller, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Aug. 1, 1968, Courtesy
Harry C. Burnett, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Aug. 1, 1968,
Courtesy
Carter P. Seymour, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Aug. 1, 1968
Courtesy
Cornelius Wehlburg, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Aug. 1, 1
Courtesy
J. Kamal Dow, Asst. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., August 12, 1968
Jerry Frank Butler, Asst. Entomologist, Entomology Dept., Aug. 16, 1968
Fred H. Tyner, Jr., Assoc. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Aug. 26, 1968
Charles L. Anderson, Area Asst. Farm Management Specialist, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Sept. 1, 1968
Richard Turk Poole, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Ridge Orn. Hort. Lab., Sept. 1,
1968
George Leland Ellis, Int. Research Associate, Ani. Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1968
Rex Lanel Smith, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Sept. 1, 1968
Gerald Oakley Mott, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Sept. 1, 1968











John Taylor McLaren Neilson, Asst. Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1968
Donald Edward Franke, Asst. Animal Geneticist, Ani. Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1968
William McDonald Morton, Asst. Orn. Horticulturist, Plantation Field Lab.,
Sept. 1, 1968
Ernest T. Smerdon, Ag. Engineer and Head, Ag. Eng. Dept., Sept. 1, 1968
Ottie Joe Dickerson, Int. Assoc. Nematologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Sept. 1,
1968
Shimshon Ben-Yehoshua, Int. Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., Sept. 15, 1968
Wallace Kenneth Boutwell, Jr., Assoc. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 16,
1968
Leo Gene Albrigo, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Sept. 18, 1968
Edward Byron Knipling, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Agronomy Dept., Oct. 1, 1968,
USDA
William R. Llewellyn, Int. Soils & Short Course Advisor, Vet. Sci. Dept., Oct. 1,
1968
Robert Armstrong Kinloch, Asst. Nematologist, West Florida Station, Oct. 1, 1968
Leonard J. Alexander, Int. Plant Pathologist, Plant Path. Dept., Oct. 1, 1968
Thomas Andrew Zitter, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Oct. 9, 1968
Fuller Warren Bazer, Asst. Ani. Physiologist, Ani. Sci. Dept., Oct. 16, 1968
Jerry Pat Crill, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, Dec. 1, 1968


Promotions

Howard Hugo Wilkowske, Asst. Dean for Research, Research Administration, Jan. 1,
1968
Bobby Leon Damron, Asst. Nutritionist, Pultry Sci. Dept., Apr. 1, 1968
Scott Logan Hedden, Assoc. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, July 1, 1968
Sterling K. Long, Assoc. Industrial Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1968
Amegda J. Overman, Assoc. Nematologist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1968
John Alan Mortensen, Assoc. Geneticist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., July 1, 1968 I
Robert Ellsworth Waites, Assoc. Entomologist, Entomology and Nematology Dept.,
July 1, 1968
Carl Andrew Anderson, Assoc. Soil Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1968
Lawrence Henry Halsey, Assoc. Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept., July 1,
1968
David Victor Calvert, Assoc. Soil Chemist, Indian River Field Lab., July 1, 1968
Mortimer Cohen, Plant Pathologist, Indian River Field Lab., July 1, 1968
Huey Ingles Borders, Plant Pathologist, Plantation Field Lab., July 1, 1968
Stratton Horsburg Kerr, Entomologist, Ent. and Nemat. Dept., July 1, 1968
John Pipkin Feaster, Biochemist, Animal Science Dept., July 1, 1968
Thomas Elder Humphreys, Biochemist, Botany Dept., July 1, 1968
Howard William Burdine, Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1968
Thomas Edward Freeman, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., July 1, 1968
Robert Edward Caldwell, Soil Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1968
Walter T. Scudder, Horticulturist, Central Florida Station, July 1, 1968
Sik Vung Ting, Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1968, FCC
Glenn Edgar Coppock, Agricultural Engineer, Citrus Station, July 1, 1968, FCC
Merrill Wilcox, Assoc. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1968
Norman Carl Schenck, Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., July 1, 1968
Shreve Simpson Woltz, Plant Physiologist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1968
Paul Harrison Everett, Soils Chemist, South Florida Field Lab., July 1, 1968
Evert Oakley Burt, Turf Technologist, Plantation Field Lab., July 1, 1968
Daniel Waldo Beardsley, Animal Nutritionist and Head, Everglades Station,
July 1, 1968
Alvin Thomas Wallace, Asst. Dean for Research, Research Administration, July 1,
1968
Willie Estel Waters, Horticulturist and Head, Ridge Ornamental Hort. Lab.,
July 1, 1968
James Walter Strobel, Assoc. Plant Pathologist and Head, Gulf Coast Station,
July 1, 1968
Charles Truman Woods, Jr., Asst. Editor, Editorial Department, Aug. 1, 1968

Resignations

Jason Curry Outler, Jr., Research Associate, Ani. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1968
Donovan Des Sauges Thomas, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., Mar. 19, 1968
George Wythe Powell, Int. Research Associate, Dairy Sci. Dept., May 31, 1968
Robert Roy Smith, Int. Research Associate, Botany Dept., June 15, 1968
Marion Francis Oberbacher, Assoc. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station, June 30,
1968, FCC
Blair Joseph Smith, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30, 1968
Floyd Wendell Williams, Assoc. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30, 1968,
FCC
Jeriy Mack Baskin, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., June 30, 1968
Edward Patrick Fisher, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., July 26, 1968










Wayne Wolpert Kirkham, Assoc. Virologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 31, 1968
Don Howard Lenker, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Citrus Station July 31, 1968,
USDA
Henricus Patrus Roggen, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., Sept. 15, 1968
John Hal Johnson, Asst. Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., Dec. 31, 1968
Alfredo Ochoa Rillo, Research Associate, Agronomy Dept., Dec. 31, 1968


Leave of Absence

Louis Carl Knorr, Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station to India from October 25,
1968 to October 24, 1969


Transfers

Joe Richard Crockett, Asst. Ani. Geneticist from Ani. Sci. Dept. to Everglades,
Experiment Station, July 1, 1968


Retirements
Ernest Leavitt Spencer, Soils Chemist and Head, Gulf Coast Station, May 31,
1968
Ralph Wyman Kidder, Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, June 30, 1968
William Thomas Forsee, Jr., Chemist and Head, Everglades Station, June 30, 1968
Dorsey Addren Sanders, Veterinarian, Veterinary Sci. Dept., June 30, 1968
William Gordon Kirk, Animal Scientist, Range Cattle Station, June 30, 1968
Frank Stover Jamison, Horticulturist and Chairman, Veg. Crops Dept., Sept. 30,
1968


Deaths

Roger Patrick, Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, March 24, 1968
Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Economics Dept., June 10, 1968


Retirements Prior to 1968
(Continued on Emeritus Status)

Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Arthur Forest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958
Lillian R. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept., 1963
Arther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Pot. Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30, 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head of Dept., Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30,
1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Assoc. Horticultrist, Gulf Coast Station, June 30,
1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon and Grape Lab., June 30,
1965
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Fla. Station, June 30, 1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 30, 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Associate Entomologist, Ent. Dept., June 30, 1966
Russell Willis Wallace, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, Sept. 30,
1966
Earl Noel McCubbin, Horticulturist, Potato Lab., Oct. 31, 1966
William Conway Price, Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Dec. 31, 1966
Frederick Burean Smith, Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., June 30, 1967
Rowland Barnes French, Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967
Benjamin Franklin Whitner, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Central Fla. Station,
June 30, 1967
John Runyon Large, Associate Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., June 30, 1967
Leonard Erwin Swanson, Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1967
Joseph Riley Beckenbach, Director, Ag. Exp. Station, Nov. 30, 1967












GRANTS AND GIFTS

1968


Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending December 31, 1968. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.

ABBOTT LABORATORIES
Animal Science Department--$2,500
Fruit Crops Department--$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
ADEL TRADING COMPANY & CHAS H. DuPONT FOUNDATION
North Florida Experiment Station--$17,046.19
ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Central Florida Experiment Station--$400
THE AMDAL AGRICULTURE Division of Abbott Laboratories
Everglades Experiment Station--$250
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Animal Science Department--$2,500
Veterinary Science Department--$3,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
AMERICAN DEHYDRATORS ASSOCIATION
Animal Science Department--$4,000
AMERICAN OIL COMPANY
Soils Department--$9,500
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station--$4,000
ATLAS CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
Everglades Experiment Station--$500

H. J. BAKER 6 BROTHERS
Poultry Science Department--$1,000
BASIC, INCORPORATED
Citrus Experiment Station--$4,000
BORDEN CHEMICAL COMPANY
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
BRUNSWICK PULP AND PAPER COMPANY
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000
THE BUCKEYE CELLULOSE CORPORATION
Forestry Department--$2,000
Soils Department--$3,625

CALCIUM CARBONATE COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$1,500
CHEMAGRO CORPORATION
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$800
Everglades Experiment Station--$2,400
Plantation Field Laboratory--$800
CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$4,800
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,000
Entomology-Nematology Department--$1,000
Potato Investigations Laboratory--$500
0. H. CLAPP AND COMPANY
Agricultural Engineering Department--$3,720
Fruit Crops Department--$3,880
COMMERCIAL SOLVENTS CORPORATION
Animal Science Department--$3,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$3,000
CONTAINER CORPORATION OF AMERICA
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000
CONTINENTAL CAN COMPANY, INC.
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000

DIAMOND SHAMROCK CORPORATION
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
DISTILLERS FEED RESEARCH COUNCIL
Poultry Science Department--$2,000











DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Entomology-Nematology Department--$3,000
E. I. du PONT de NEMOURS AND COMPANY
North Florida Experiment Station--$500

K. D. EATMON RANCH
Animal Science Department--$2,500

FLAVOR PICT CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$10,000
FLINT RIVER MILLS, INC.
Animal Science Department--$600
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,431.58
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
Forestry Department--$2,000
FLORIDA SUGAR CANE LEAGUE
Everglades Experiment Station--$6,460
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Vegetable Crops Department--$600
FLORIDA VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION RESEARCH
Veterinary Science--$2,000
F M C CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
Plant Pathology Department--$700
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
Big Bend Horticulture Laboratory--$1,00
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500

GAPWAY GROVES, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$275
GEIGY CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$1,300
Agronomy Department--$500
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,200
Everglades Experiment Station--$2,800
Citrus Experiment Station--$8,725
FRED C. GLOECKNER FOUNDATION, INC.
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$3,900

HARBOR VIEW FARMS
Veterinary Science Department--$15,000
HERCULES, INC.
Soils Department--$3,625
Food Science Department--$5,000
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,200
HOFFMAN LA ROCHE, INC.
Poultry Science Department--$2,500
HUDSON PULP AND PAPER CORPORATION
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000

INTERNATIONAL COPPER RESEARCH ASSOCIATION
Animal Science Department--$5,000
INTERNATIONAL MINERALS & CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Soils Department--$1,500
Animal Science Department--$4,000
INTERNATIONAL PAPER COMPANY
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000
ITT RAYONIER INCORPORATED
Forestry Department--$2,000

CHAS. JACQUIN et Cie, INC.
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,000
Animal Science Department--$1,000
JEFFERSON COUNTY CHEMICALS
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$540
JOHNS-MANVILLE ASBESTOS LTD.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500

KAISER AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION
Everglades Experiment Station--$3,000


INSTITUTE, INC.














MARSHALL BAILEY AND TOM McLEOD
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,900
MID-FLORIDA MINING COMPANY
Soils Department--$100
MILLER CHEMICAL & FERTILIZER CORP.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$5,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$2,000
Food Science Department--$5,000
MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$1,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
MOBIL CHEMICAL COMPANY
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--$500
Plantation Field Laboratory--$500
MOBIL OIL CORPORATION
Fruit Crops Department--$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,200
MONSANTO COMPANY
West Florida Experiment Station--$400
Agronomy Department--$400
MORTON CHEMICAL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,800
Plant Pathology Department--$745

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ANIMAL BREEDERS
Dairy Science Department--$1,000
NATIONAL FEED INGREDIENTS ASSOCIATION
Animal Science Department--$3,000
NATIONAL LABORATORIES CORPORATION
Veterinary Science Department--$3,226
NATIONAL PEST CONTROL
Entomology-Nematology Department--$4,000
NOPCO CHEMICAL COMPANY
Animal Science Department--$4,000
NORTHERN OHIO BREEDING ASSOCIATION, INC.
Dairy Science Department--$400

OWENS ILLINOIS, INC.
Forestry Department--$2,000
Soils Department--$3,625

PERMA-GUARD CORPORATION
Animal Science Department--$3,750
Veterinary Science Department--$3,750
CHAS. PFIZER AND COMPANY
Veterinary Science Department--$7,000
Animal Science Department--$3,500
PHELPS DODGE REFINING CORP.
Everglades Experiment Station--$2,500
Citrus Experiment Station--$2,500
MR. LYSLE E. PRICHARD
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,000
THE PROCTOR AND GAMBLE COMPANY
Agronomy Department--$1,000

R. J. REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY
Agronomy Department--$2,500
Agricultural Engineering Department--$2,500
ROHM AND HAAS COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,200

SAINT REGIS PAPER COMPANY
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000
SANDOZ PHARMACEUTICALS
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$10,000
SCHERING CORPORATION
Poultry Science Department--$2,500
SCOTT PAPER COMPANY
Soils Department--$3,625
Forestry Department--$2,000
SHELL CHEMICAL COMPANY
Veterinary Science Department--$1,200
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,750
Food Science Department--$5,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
Animal Science Department--$5,000













Suwannee Valley Experiment Station--$1,500
SHELL DEVELOPMENT COMPANY
Agronomy Department--$500
SHELL OIL COMPANY
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,950
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Potato Investigations Laboratory--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$800
Watermelon & Grape Investigations Laboratory--$1,000
SIERRA CHEMICAL COMPANY
Ridge Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory--$1,000
SOUTHWEST POTASH CORPORATION
Agronomy Department--$600
STATE OF FLORIDA GAME &.FRESH FISH COMMISSION
Forestry Department--$6,760
STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$14,182
Soils Department--$5,545
STAUFFER CHEMICAL COMPANY
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
SUN OIL COMPANY
Central Florida Experiment Station--$750
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$750
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$1,000

TALL TIMBERS RESEARCH STATION
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$300
TENNESSEE CORPORATION
Soils Department--$3,625
THOMPSON-HAYWARD CHEMICAL COMPANY
Plantation Field Laboratory--$1,000
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$400

UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$750
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory--$300
UNION-CAMP CORPORATION
Soils Department--$3,625
THE UPJOHN COMPANY
Everglades Experiment Station--$400
UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
Veterinary Science Department--$600
VALMONT INDUSTRIES, INC.
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station--$6,616.39
VEAL SALES COMPANY
Veterinary Science Department--$595.08
VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Agronomy Department--$400
Entomology-Nematology Department--$500

WEST VIRGINIA PULP AND PAPER
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
Central Florida Experiment Station--S500
P. A. B. WIDENER FARMS
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$2,500


Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as follows:

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION:
Agronomy Department............................. -$20,000
Agronomy Department............................. 9,500
Food Science Department......................... 27,110
Botany Department............................... 8,900

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
Animal Science Department (Training Grant)...... 18,716
Bacteriology Department......................... 25,996
Botany Department............................... 13,166
Food Science Department......................... 93,754












Soils Department.............. ....... ............. 19,542
Veterinary Science Department...................... 12,411
Veterinary Science Department (Training Grant).... 47,651
Veterinary Science Department...................... 18,130
Veterinary Science Department...................... 18,946
Veterinary Science Department....................... 22,572
Citrus Experiment Station.......................... 59,372
Citrus Experiment Station.......................... 8,621

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Entomology Department ............................. 20,000

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Economic* Department................. 35,000
Agricultural Economics Dept. of Economic
Research Services.................... 17,500
Agricultural Economics Department................. 1,000
Agricultural Economics, Citrus Experiment and
Everglades Experiment Stations ....... 35,000
Agronomy Department, Big Bend Horticultural Lab
and Everglades Experiment Station......... 20,000
Botany Department.. .............................. 20,000
Entomology Department.............................. 27,400
Entomology Department............................. 20,000
Entomology Department ............................. 44,000
Entomology Department............................. 31,000
Entomology Department............................. 15,350
Entomology Department ............................. 28,325
Entomology Department and North Florida Station... 15,000
Fruit Crops Department............................ 89,710
Everglades Experiment Station..................... 20,000
Soils Department, Everglades Station, Citrus
Station and Plantation Field Laboratory..... 30,000

FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY
Veterinary Science Department................... $12,000

FLORIDA FOUNDATION SEED PRODUCERS
Research Administration..... ................... 13,493.76

UNITED STATES ARMY
Range Cattle Station........................... 1,925

UNITED STATES NAVY
Entomology Department........................... 9,733











THESES AND DISSERTATIONS


1968



Agricultural Economics Department

Luis Manuel Garcia An Areal Linear Programming Model for the Agriculture of
the Canton of San Carlos in the Alajuela Province of Costa Rica. M.S.A.
Thesis. December 1968. W. W. McPherson, Chairman.

Arthur Findlay Parker, Jr. Seasonal Price Patterns for Major Florida Agri-
cultural Commodities. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. W. W. McPherson, Chair-
man.

David Ervin Weisenborn Market Allocation of Florida Orange Production for
Maximization of Net Revenue. Ph.D. Dissertation. August 1968. W. W.
McPherson, Chairman.

Robert E. Zellner, Jr. Determining the Quality of Consumer Credit. M.S.A
Thesis. August 1968. M. R. Langham, Chairman.












Agronomy Department

Johannes Bernardus Balthasar Brolmann Effects of Mineral Levels on Physiology
and Morphology of Plants. Ph.D. Dissertation. August 1968. S. H. West,
Chairman.

Animal Science Department

William Reuben Brawner, Jr. Biochemical Aspects of Feedlot Founder. M.S.A.
Thesis. August 1968. J. F. Hentges, Jr., Chairman.

Jerry Jennings Cowley In Vitro Measurement of Circulating Thyroid Hormone
Levels in Beef Cattle. Ph.D. Dissertation. December 1968. A. C. Warnick,
Chairman.

Jean Michael Crooks Testicular Growth Semen Production and Growth Rate in
Beef Bulls. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. A. C. Warnick, Chairman.

Bobby Leon Damron Development of a Chick Assay for Determining Availability
of Phosphorus from Various Phosphate Materials. Ph.D. Dissertation. March
1968. R. H. Harms, Chairman.

Michael E. Demaree Swine Response to High Level and Toxic Copper Feeding.
M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. H. D. Wallace, Chairman.

Thomas Adam Dunn Oyster Shell as a Roughage Replacement in the Diets of Beef
Cattle. M.S.A. Thesis. June 1968. J. F. Hentges, Jr., Chairman.

George Leland Ellis An Evaluation of Modern Procedures for Sampling, Pre-
paring and Analyzing Forage and Feces in the Estimation of Forage Nutritive
Value by Ratio Techniques. Ph.D. Dissertation. August 1968. J. E. Moore,
Chairman.

Michael Joseph Fields Effects of Breed and Age on Testicular Biometry, Growth
and Semen Characteristics in Beef Bulls. M.S.A. Thesis. March 1968. A. C.
Warnick, Chairman.

Celina Gomes De Oliveira Brasil Influence of Papain Injection on Mineral Dis-
tribution in Tissues of Poultry. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. R. L. Shirley,
Chairman.

Samuel Leroy Hansard, II Dietary Fat Deficiency Effects Upon Brain Lipids and
Minerals in Swine. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. J. P. Feaster, Chairman.

Eugene P. Hauer Effects of Age and Breed on the Development of the Reproduc-
tive Organs and Urinary 17- Ketosteroids in Young Beef Cattle. M.S.A. Thesis.
March 1968. A. C. Warnick, Chairman.

William Gordon Hillis Nitrogen and Phosphorus Supplements for Ruminant Rations
High in Dried Citrus Pulp. M.S.A. Thesis. August 1968. C. B. Ammerman,
Chairman.

Anthony Francis Jilek Experimental Evidence of Resistance to Haemonchus
Contortus Infection in Sheep. Ph.D. Dissertation. June 1968. M. Koger,
Chairman.

Juan Manuel Loaiza C. Mineral Composition of Tissues from Beef Cattle Under
Grazing Conditions in Panama. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. C. B. Ammerman,
Chairman.

Donald Richard Taylor Histological and Biochemical Aspects of Acidosis in
Ruminants. M.S.A. Thesis. August 1968. J. F. Hentges, Chairman.

Larry Thomas Watson Utilization of Manganese from Inorganic Sources by
Ruminants. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. C. B. Ammerman, Chairman.

Bacteriology Department

Suzanne Mary Hammer Growth of Klebsiella rubiacearum K4 and Factors Affecting
Nitrogen Fixation. M.S. Thesis. August 1968. P. H. Smith, Chairman.

Mary Jo Heeb Nitrogen Fixation in Extracts of Klebsiella rubiacearum. M.S.
Thesis. August 1968. B. A. Blaylock, Chairman.

T. K. Jit Singh Mukkur Characterization of Host Response to Eimeria Tenella
Infections in Chickens. Ph.D. Dissertation. June 1968. M. E. Tyler, Chair-
man.











Suhaila Saadallah Antibody Response in Rabbits Inoculated with Leptospira
Pomona. Ph.D. Dissertation. December 1968. M. E. Tyler, Chairman.

Botany Department

Dennis Robert Burholt Changes in Root Radiosensitivity During Germination and
Early Seedling Growth. Ph.D. Dissertation. June 1968. D. S. Anthony, Chair-
man.

William Gerald D'Arcy A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Solanum Sensu Lato in
Florida and Neighboring Areas. M.S. Thesis. December 1968. D. B. Ward,
Chairman.

John J. Ewel Dynamics of Litter Accumulation Under Forest Succession in East-
ern Guatemalan Lowlands. M.S. Thesis. June 1968. H. Popenoe

Bernard Evan Kane, Jr. Development of a Thermophilic Fungous Flora in a
Municipal Waste Compost System. M.S. Thesis. December 1968. J. T. Mullins,
Chairman.

Charles Sloger Nitrogen Fixation by Tissues of Leguminous and Nonleguminous
Plants. Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1968. G. J. Fritz, Chairman.

Robert Roy Smith A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Heliconia in Middle Amer-
ica. Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1968. D. B. Ward, Chairman.

Garland L. Wheeler The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Production of
Cocos Nucifera in Panama. M.S. Thesis. December 1968. J. H. Davis, Jr.,
Chairman.

Joseph H. Whitesell The Bahavior of Azodrin in Corn. M.S. Thesis. December
1968. T. E. Humphreys, Chairman.

Dairy Science Department

Abelardo Rodriguez-Voigt Complete Rations Utilizing Corn Silage for Lactating
Cows. M.S.A. Thesis. December 1968. S. P. Marshall, Chairman.

Max Ventura Effect of Growth Hormone on Glucose Metabolism and Plasma Glucose
and Non-Esterified Fatty Acid Concentrations in Dairy Calves. M.S.A. Thesis.
August 1968. H. H. Head, Chairman.

Daniel Warren Webb Age and Diet Effects on Glucose Tolerance and Glucose,
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid and Insulin Levels in Dairy Calves. M.S.A. Thesis.
August 1968. H. H. Head, Chairman.

Entomology and Nematology Department

Walib Abu-Gharbieh Physiological Races of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Rau.
Ph.D. Dissertation. December 1968. V. G. Perry, Chairman.

Calvin Gale Alvarez A Study of the Attraction of Culex pipiens quinquefas-
ciatus Say to Plant Infusions Using an Olfactometer. M. S. Thesis. March
1968. F. S. Blanton, Chairman.

Jack Stangl Bacheler The Biology of Paratriphleps Laeviusculus Champion
(Hemiptera:Anthocoridae). M.S. Thesis. June 1968. D. H. Habeck, Chairman.

Larry R. Barber Distribution of Cones Damaged by Coneworms, Seedworms, and
Thrips in Pinus Elliottii Engelm. Var. Elliottii. M.S. Thesis. December 1968.
R. C. Wilkinson, Chairman.

Alberto Bolivar Broce Evaluation of Testing-Methods for Determining Insecti-
cide Resistance in House Flies. M.S. Thesis. August 1968. F. S. Blanton,
Chairman.

Robert Hanford Clements Important Earwigs, Dermaptera, of Central and South
Florida and the Biology and Control of the Primary Species, Labidura Riparia
(Pallas) under Laboratory Conditions. M.S. Thesis. June 1968. S. H. Kerr,
Chairman.

Robert Theophile DeNeve Biological and Morphological Studies of Five Species
of Pine nefoliating Sawflies in Florida. M.S. Thesis. March 1968. L. A.
Hetrick, Chairman.

Timothy Holland Dickens Life History of Citrus Snow Scale Unaspis citri
(Comstock). M.S. Thesis. August 1968. S. H. Kerr, Chairman.











Edward George Farnworth The Effect of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on
Wing-Beat Frequency and Internal Temperature of Four Species of Cockroaches
in the Genus Periplaneta. M.S. Thesis. August 1968. T. J. Walker, Chairman.

Jack Myron Heller Comparative Tests with Two Methods for Determining Insec-
ticide Resistance in House Flies. M.S. Thesis. March 1968. F. S. Blanton,
Chairman.

Stephen Randall Johnson Cellular Effects in Onion Root Tips Fed Upon by
Trichodorus christiei. M.S. Thesis. March 1968. V. G. Perry, Chairman.

Donald P. Jouvenaz Relations of the Bacterium Serratia Marcescens Bizio to
the Bark Beetle Ips Calligraphus (Germar) (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) in Florida.
M.S. Thesis. June 1968. R. C. Wilkinson, Chairman.

Clifford Swanson Lofgren Toxic Bait Studies with the Imported Fire Ant,
Solenopsis Saevissima Richteri Forel. Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1968. F.
S. Blanton, Chairman.

Narayan Prosad Maheswary Biochemical Effects of Apholate on Ovaries of
Aedes aegypti (L). M.S. Thesis. March 1968. W. W. Smith, Chairman.

Raymond Howard Maltby A Study of Comparative Resistance of Three Populations
of the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linne), to the Carbamate Insec-
ticide, Baygon and the Comparison of Two Methods of Exposure to the Toxicant.
M.S. Thesis. March 1968. M. Murphey, Chairman.

Robert Calder Morris Control of Insects of Young Cottonwoods with Systematic
Insecticides. M.S. Thesis. August 1968. L. A. Hetrick, Chairman.

Urs-Peter Roos Laboratory Rearing of the Tobacco Flea Beetle, Epitrix
hirtipennis, and its Susceptability to Certain Insecticides. M.S. Thesis.
December 1968. S. H. Kerr, Chairman.

Harry Howard Samol Flight Habits of the Cuban May Bettle Phyllophaga bruneri
(Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae). M.S. Thesis. June 1968. D. H. Habeck, Chairman.

James F. Shinholser, Jr. The Use of Aircraft by Mosquito Control Districts in
Florida. M.S. Thesis. June 1968. J. T. Creighton, Chairman.

Karl Johnson Stone Reproductive Biology of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer,
Elasmopalpus Lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera:Phycitidae). Ph.D. Dissertation.
December 1968. T. J. Walker, Chairman.

Edwin Carson Washbon The Biology and Control of Two Species of Spittlebugs,
Genus Prosapia, (Homoptera:Cercopidae) in South Florida and Costa Rica. M.S.
Thesis. August 1968. L. C. Kuitert, Chairman.

Chandrashekhar M. Watve Control of Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea
microptera (Beauvois), in Citrus in Florida. M.S. Thesis. March 1968. F. A.
Robinson, Chairman.

Food Science Department

Ann Parker Emerson The Effect of Water Supply and Cooking Utensils on Inges-
tion of Polyvalent Cations. M.S.A. Thesis. August 1968. R. C. Robbins,
Chairman.

Sharad Ramchandra Padwal-Desai Mitochondrial Properties of Irradiated Tomato
Fruit (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill., Var. Homestead). M.S.A. Thesis.
August 1968. E. H. Ahmed, Chairman.


Forestry Department

Kenneth R. Dixon Computer Simulation and Analysis of a Predator-Prey Inter-
action. M.S.F. Thesis. December 1968. G. W. Cornwell, Chairman.

Eugene Edward Reitz An Economic Study of the Production and Marketing of
Charcoal in Costa Rica. M.S.F. Thesis. August 1968. E. T. Sullivan, Chairman.

Fruit Crops Department

James Ernest Bellizio Rating of Three Chinese Hybrid Clones (Camellia Sinen-
sis) by certain Physical Characteristics, Chemical Tests and Taste. M.S.A.
Thesis. March 1968. J. Soule, Chairman.

Juan Tabilangon Carlos, Jr. Fruit Development, the Sexual Process, and








Abscission in Citrus Following Pollination. Ph.D. Dissertation. December
1968. A. H. Krezdorn, Chairman.

Freddy Jose Leal The Absorption and Metabolism of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic
Acid by Citrus Leaves. Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1968. A. H. Krezdorn,
Chairman.

Ernesto Balagtas Pantastico Physiological Disorders of Tropical and Subtrop-
ical Fruits with Particular Reference to Chilling Injury, Oleocellosis, and
Stylar-End Breakdown. Ph.D. Dissertation. March 1968. J. Soule, Chairman.

Arlie Ancil Powell Translocation of Metabolites of Citrus During Flowering
and Fruiting. Ph.D. Dissertation. August 1968. A. H. Krezdorn, Chairman.

Plant Pathology Department

Sing Ching Chen Extraction of a Bacterial Inhibitor from Capsicum Annuum L.
M.S. Thesis. August 1968. R. E. Stall, Chairman.

Joseph Myron Sasser A Study of Hypersensitivity in Capsicum Annuum Induced by
Xanthomonas Vesicatoria. Ph.D. Dissertation. June 1968. R. E. Stall,
Chairman.

Chin-Chyu Tu Hyphal Fusion, Nuclear Condition, and Perfect Stages of Three
Species of Rhizoctonia. M.S. Thesis. March 1968. D. A. Roberts, Chairman.

Soils Department

Md. Zahirul Hoque Bhuiya Factors Affecting Persistence of DDT in Arredondo
Fine Sand. Ph.D. Dissertation. June 1968. G. D. Thornton, Chairman.

Maurice Lynn Carroll The Effect of Various Fertilizer Materials on the
Availability of Several Manganese Sources to Plants. M.S.A. Thesis. March
1968. N. Gammon, Chairman.

Lucas Ferraz A Study of Factors Affecting the Availability of Potassium
in Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam, A Humic Paleudult. M.S.A. Thesis. August 1968.
W. K. Robertson, Chairman.

Jerry Burt Fitts The Relative Availability of Manganese to Plants from
Several Manganese Sources, Applied as Fertilizers. M.S.A. Thesis. March 1968.
N. Gammon, Chairman.

Ricardo E. Gomez Nitrogen Status of Two Alluvial Soils from the Humid Tropics
of Costa Rica. M.S.A. Thesis. August 1968. W. G. Blue, Chairman.

Zoefri Hamzah Effects of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils on
the Growth of Pinus Caribaea Var. Hondurensis. Ph.D. Dissertation. August
1968. W. L. Pritchett, Chairman.

Luis E. Tergas The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Movement of Nutri-
ents from a Tropical Grass Under Soil Moisture Stress in a Hot Savanna. Ph.D.
Dissertation. August 1968. W. G. Blue, Chairman.

Statistics Department

Ramon Albert Bradley A Computer Program for Constructing Orthogonal Polyno-
mials When the Independent Variable is Unequally Spaced. M.S.S. Thesis.
August 1968. F. G. Martin, Chairman.

Vegetable Crops Department

Mohammad Bin Md. Ali Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Levels and Methods
of Planting on Yield and Quality of Chinese Cabbage. M.S.A. Thesis. June
1968. V. F. Nettles, Chairman.

Danny Odell Ezell Volatile Flavor Components of Celery Stalks (Apium
graveolens Var. dulce) as Related to Temperature and Time in Storage with
Further Investigations on Component Distribution within the Stalk. Ph.D.
Dissertation. June 1968. D. D. Gull, Chairman.

Thomas G. King The Influence of Rate and Depth of Incorporation of Three
Herbicides on Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad). M.S.A. Thesis. March
1968. S. J. Locascio, Chairman.

Veterinary Science Department

Ji Hshiung Chen Hematological Studies in the Horse and Rabbit Following In-











oculation with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus. M.S. Thesis. June 1968. W. W.
Kirkham, Chairman.


B. S. Keshava Murthy Antigenic Comparison of Influenza A/Equi-2/Miami/1/63
Virus Grown in Different Hosts. M.S. Thesis. June 1968. W. W. Kirkham,
Chairman.

Shivaram Narayan Shetty Plasma Enzyme Concentrations Associated with Experi-
mental Dictyocaulus Viviparus Infection in Rabbits. M.S. Thesis. June 1968.
G. T. Edds, Chairman.














REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of Federal Funds 1967-68




Regional
Hatch Research McIntire Total
Item Funds Funds Stennis Federal Funds

Salaries and Wages $568,124.59 $86,362.86 $69,064.00 $723,551.45

Travel 92.00 3,268.84 1,530.88 4,891.72

Transportation and Communication 293.55 1,228.00 1,157.43 2,678.98

Utilities -0- 10,511.26 4,395.71 14,906.97

Printing 22.65 28.10 325.68 376.43

Repairs and Maintenance 619.42 1,318.65 199.39 2,137.46

Contractual Services 239.12 556.29 1,605.57 2,400.98

Rentals -0- 11.00 100.46 111.46

Other Current Charges and Obligations -0- 38.67 5.00 43.67

Materials and Supplies 6,612.14 11,151.94 8,799.23 26,563.31

Equipment 50,487.43 638.18 4,986.69 56,112.30

Land and Buildings 3,588.53 571.70 78.89 4,239.12

TOTAL FEDERAL EXPENDITURES $630,079.43 $115,685.49 $92,248.93 $838,013.85













Summary of Expenditures of State Funds 1967-68


Item

Salaries and Wages

Fringe Benefit Matching

Travel

Transportation and Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Maintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and Obligations

Supplies and Materials

Equipment

Land and Buildings

Special Appropriation-Building Fund

TOTAL STATE FUNDS


Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station
General Revenue
Funds

$5,657,037.98

415,873.99

155,698.65

83,522.68

121,087.55

52,989.40

38,477.91

24,912.56

39,430.85

4,053.63

483.306.34

143,892.39

42,357.36

805,856.54

$8,068,497.83


Grants and Total
Incidental Donations State
Funds Funds Funds

$141,I58.02 $ 669,288.53 $6,467,484.53

-0- 39,006.30 454,880.29

15,712.04 52,187.98 223,598.67

10,695.39 3,965.68 98,183.75

18,564.49 7,841.79 147,493.83

2,117.52 1,878.85 56,985.77

13,851.84 26,265.92 78,495.67

5,286.74 6,533.72 36,733.02

24,350.50 9,018.42 72,799.77

8,555.76 1,372.83 13,982.22

390,715.21 185,051.33 1,059,072.88

51,224.35 163,982.05 359,098.79

44,082.16 29,790.34 116,229.86

805,856.54

$726,314.02 $1,196,083.74 $9,990,895.59


__ _










AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted under 36 projects. Seven projects were closed.
The department continued its arrangements of coordinating its research pro-
gram with the Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and market-
ing of citrus fruit. During the year two bulletins, eight Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Reports, two research articles, and nine journal articles
were published.
Personnel changes during the year were the retirement of Z. Savage and
resignation of B. J. Smith from IFAS and the resignation of F. W. Williams
and L. Polopolus from the Florida Citrus Commission. Newly appointed were
W. K. Boutwell, J. K. Dow, and F. H. Tyner.



FLA-AS-00627 GREENE R E L

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in intensities
of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage production, soil
nutrient balance and rate and economy of beef production. The present
experiment contains one grass clover program, one grass clover with temporary
grazing and one grass clover, about one half of which is irrigated with seepage
irrigation. As has been true in the other two phases of the experiment, Program
1, which receives the lowest rate of fertilizer continues to be the program
with the least cost of producing beef and the highest net returns. Data have
not been summarized for the 1967-68 season. In the 1966-67 season, the cost per
pound of beef produced was 17.67 cents on Program 1, 21.57 cents on Program 2
and 23.43 cents on Program 3. The return per pound of beef was 25.40 cents oni
Program 1, 25.62 on Program 2 and 25.73 cents on Program 3-



FLA-AS-00970 BROOKE D L

LABOR, MATERIALS, COSTS, AND RETURNS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were summarized for 14
different vegetables in one or more of nine major producing areas of the state.
The 1966-67 season was generally a profitable one for vegetable growers.
Increasing labor, machinery repair and shipping container costs were largely
responsible for increases noted in total costs. Profits were narrow but
satisfactory for most crops. Notable exceptions were losses on Irish potatoes
in the Hastings area and tomatoes in Dade County where yields were low because
of poor weather conditions. Celery growers with low yields and season average
prices recorded losses in the Everglades and West Coast areas. Cost data
obtained for the 1967-68 season are being summarized.



FLA-AS-00995 GREENE R E L

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred at one versus two years of age. Selected replacement heifers from
the beef research herd are randomized each year into two groups. Group I is
bred as yearlings and Group II at two years of age. In Phase I of the
experiment, at the beginning of the second breeding season for Group I heifers,
when the calves were about two months old they were taken from their mothers and
sold as veal calves. The net cost to raise a heifer to about 27 months of age
was about the same for each group when the value of the veal calves was credited
to the Group I heifers. The experiment is now in Phase II in which the calves
are being left on Group I heifers to the normal weaning period. Various
physical production data are being collected for Phase II of the experiment.
Sufficient data are not yet available for an economic analysis.









FLA-AS-01027 GREENE R E L

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF STEERS ON PASTURE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic returns for
several methods of handling stocker steers in growing them to market weight.
Four lots of 20 steers each were confined to 8.4 acre lots of Roselawn St.
Augustine grass pasture. They were fed supplemental feeds at the rate of 0, .5,
1.0, and 1.5 percent of body weight. Each lot was carried on pasture until it
reached 850 pounds. They were then placed in the feedlots and finished to
approximately 1,050 pounds. To minimize pasture differences, the groups were
rotated among pastures every four weeks. The steers receiving no supplements had
the highest returns over cost of supplemental feeds. The returns over costs of
supplemental feeds decreased as the amount of supplemental feeds increased. The
Group I steers were on the experiment 559 days compared to 392, 371 and 329 days
for the Group 2, 3 and 4 steers, respectively.



FLA-AS-01078 SMITH C N

MARKET DEVELOPMENT FOB HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Further analyses of data on opinions and practices of 197 Gainesville consumers
with respect to living and artificial cut flowers and foliage plants were made.
Results showed a three to two preference in buying flowers at florists' shops
rather than supermarkets. Nevertheless, 92-percent of those who said they would
buy more cut flowers in prepackaged form named supermarkets as their preferred
purchase location. Despite lack of knowledge of certain basic keeping
practices, consumers' expectations of cut flower life were generally in line
with real life experience. A paper reporting results has been given. Further
analysis is in process to test statistical differences in various
characteristics reported by families with different levels of income. An A.E.
report on overall findings is being prepared. Results of the study of opinions
and practices of savings and loan association personnel and real estate agencies
were utilized in presentations at some five nursery industry meetings. They are
also serving as background data for a proposed nursery financing seminar in the
spring of 1969.



FLA-AS-01127 SPURLOCK A H

HANDLING FRESH CITRUS FRUIT IN PALLET BOXES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Comparative costs for four systems of handling oranges frcm the tree to the
fresh packing line indicate savings by using newer methods over the conventional
field-box system. For a packing-house with a 500,000 box annual volume, savings
of $46,000 per year are indicated for the full bulk system over the field-box
method. For the modified bulk system and the pallet box system savings of up to
$49,000 per year may be achieved. These latter systems offer the easier, if not
the best, means of modernizing an existing field-box system. Both the modified
and full bulk system permit use of the same grove and transport equipment for
moving fruit either to the fresh packinghouse or the processing plant. Savings
shown for both systems are without considering pregrading and presiding
equipment which can be conveniently incorporated in each system. For volumes of
less than 500,000 boxes annually savings are less, and are further reduced if a
firm handles substantially less fruit than it is equipped to handle.



FLA-AS-01129 SMITH C N

MARKET ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIAGE PLANT INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A questionnaire designed to obtain up-to-date supplemental information on the
product composition and sales outlets utilized in marketing tropical foliage
plants was prepared and sent to all commercial foliage plant producers in
Florida. To date 39 questionnaires have been returned. A preliminary analysis,
when comparisons are made with data from previous studies, shows a tendency on
the part of many growers to produce a smaller number of plant varieties. A
slight tendency toward selling more plants directly to out-of-state greenhouse
operators and fewer through sales agents was noted from an analysis of the












questionnaires returned. Personal interviews will be made to obtain data on the
sales practices of approximately 20 additional large foliage plant growers
during the winter of 1968-69. These data will be combined with those obtained
in earlier studies by this researcher and by reports from other sources. An
A.E. report on trends in the marketing of foliage plants will be prepared.



FLA-AS-01133 ROSE G N

FORECASTING FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED PERIODS AND AREAS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
In cooperation with Statistical Reporting Service USDA, work performance is
under direction of Statistician in Charge Florida Office, located 1222 Woodward
Street, Orlando. Objective: Collecting, analyzing basic statistics vegetable
crops, potatoes, strawberries, watermelons. Data were collected by leader, SRS
and industry fieldmen to provide detailed current information re acres planted
and expected production by commodity during specific periods. These data used
in estimating and forecasting were released in monthly reports with comparisons
and competition. Supplemental inventory reports of acreage; Dade County pole
beans, all celery, south peninsula sweet corn, all tomatoes were released
weekly; along with narratives of planting progress, plant conditions, and
harvest, in a Weather-Crop report. End-of-season surveys were conducted to
determine acreage and production on a sub-state geographic area basis with
average monthly price for commodity seasonal value. During the 1967-68 season
production from an estimated 405,850 acres of vegetables, potatoes, strawberries
and melons sold for an estimated $294,579,000; up 15 percent from that of
1966-67. Seventeen major crops were estimated by commodity seasonally; others
were reported in a composite total from a breakdown by commodities.



FLA-AS-01153 MCPHERSON W K

AN EVALUATION OF LAND USE IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
No additional work was done on this project. Data previously collected have
been tabulated and put to the form of visual aids that are frequently used in
land economics and geography courses. From this work it was concluded that:
all of the land in the state was used for one or more purposes, the land areas
currently being used for non-agricultural purposes together with the areas that
are expected to go into non-agricultural uses during the next decade still
constitute a relatively small proportion of the total land area of the state, in
1975 more than 80 percent of the land in the state will be used to produce
agricultural and forest products and the physical output of the state's farms
and forests will increase as a result of a more extensive use of land primarily
achieved by controlling the water table and the use of fertilizer.



FLA-AS-01162 MCPHERSON V K

OPTIMAL ADJUSTMENTS OF SOUTHERN GRAIN MARKETING FACILITIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
An econometric model has been designed that will allocate the supply of
concentrated feedstuffs among five classes of grain consuming livestock by
regions on the basis of the least-cost formulation of typical diets. An effort
is being made to estimate the number of animals that would be fed in each region
if feed costs and value of the product in all regions were equated. All of the
computational work is completed and a doctoral dissertation is being written on
the results and conclusions of this work.



FLA-AS-01187 ALLEGER D E

ECONOMIC PROVISIONS FOR OLD AGE MADE BY RURAL FAMILIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The findings of the S-56 survey indicate public action is needed to solve some
of the human issues involved in rural retirement in low-income areas of the
South. Conceived as beyond the financial reach of individuals are such services
as adequate medical care, nursing care, use of institutionalized rest homes,
ample nutritional diets, adequate homes, and gregarious recreational











opportunities, among others. Future roles of agricultural extension specialists
may well include attention to some of the above community deficiencies.



FLA-AS-01190 MCPHERSON W K

OPTIMUM LOCATION OF LIVESTOCK AND MEAT MARKETING FACILITIES IN THE SOUTH

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The 1967 movement of livestock and meat north and south across the Suwannee
River by class and type from states and counties of origin to states and
counties of.destination was summarized. Iowa supplies more than 22 percent of
the fresh and frozen pack and almost 20 percent of the fresh and frozen beef
moving south. Approximately 200,000 stocker calves were shipped north, 37
percent of which were consigned to Texas destinations. The first phase of the
analysis of prices paid for cattle and calves in the south in 1962 was completed.
In Southern United States beef animal prices are lower than those that would
have prevailed in a perfectly competitive market. With the exception of high
grade slaughter steers, prices of all classes and grades of beef animals in the
South show more seasonal variation than the prices of comparable animals in
Kansas City. The statistical analysis of these data is now-in draft form.



FLA-AS-01199 MURPHREE C E

ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION OF PRODUCER OBJECTIONS TO SUPPLY MANAGEMENT IN
MARKETING PROGRAMS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The results of this research which are in a manuscript accepted for publication
can be summarized as follows. Interest conflicts are a major barrier to the
usefulness of state and federal marketing programs for vegetable producers.
These conflicts, a result of any effective program to improve grower prices, are
of two kinds. First, there are the non-growers affected by an increase in
grower prices. A second type of conflict is between growers. Non-growers whose
economic interests are threatened by a grower marketing program include: (1)
competing growers, (2) those who operate the marketing system that delivers a
crop to consumers, and (3) consumers themselves. Despite the formidable
opposition encountered by non-growers, most grower marketing program failures
are traceable to interest conflicts within the group of producers who are
attempting to elevate income. Growers who are accustomed to competing with
other growers within the group apparently find it difficult to recognize when
it is in their individual interest to cooperate and elevate price. Or, they may
all agree to cooperate to raise prices but never develop a means to equitably
distribute program benefits.



FLA-AS-01204 McPHERSON W K

THE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS, STEERS AND
HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
All of the data collected have been coded, transferred to IBM cards and together
with the model that has been designed to analyze these data, have been submitted
to a programmer for computation. The first computer run of a segment of the
data indicates the hypothesis being tested can be evaluated quantitatively
with the model chosen.


FLA-AS-01234 SPURLOCK A H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND LIFE SPAN
OF DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Records of births, disposal dates, replacements, and causes of losses were
continued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine useful life span, depreciation rates and reasons for
replacements. The life span of 5,604 replaced cows averaged 6.3 years or about
4.3 years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the
first year in the herd and after three years only 63 percent of the original
animals remained. After five years only 36 percent were still in the herd.
Cows reaching age 6 (4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of 2.6











additional years and averaged 8.6 years of life; Cows reaching age 10 had 17
years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7 years of life. Live disposals from
the herd were principally for low production, 33 percent: mastitis or some form
of udder trouble, 24 percent; and reproductive troubles, 19 percent. These three
reasons or combinations of them were responsible for 81 percent of the live
disposals. About 7 percent of the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 13 percent of all disposals.



FLA-AS-01243 SPURLOCK A H

ESTABLISHING GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS BY FIRMS MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
To enable firms to make the most efficient combination of resources in
harvesting and packing vegetables for fresh market, the newer harvesting and
packing methods were restudied for beans, celery and sweet corn in the principal
production areas of Florida. Comparisons were made of the labor and equipment
needed to harvest and pack by several alternative methods for each crop. For
snap beans, machine harvesting required only five percent as much man labor as
hand picking and if grading and packing are included in both methods, machine
operation used only 15 percent as much labor as the hand method. The most
efficient system of celery cutting by machine, and picking used 91 percent as
much labor as the conventional "mule train", but some of the machine methods
required more labor. Sweet corn harvesting with 2-row machine and packing
required 96 percent as much labor as the 16-row mule train. There were wide
differences in the mechanical resources required for the various systems for
each crop.



FLA-AS-01244 ALLEGER D E

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND MOBILITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Coded and punched IBM cards have been received from Alabama, Mississippi, North
Carolina and Tennessee. Data relating to anomie and family income from these
states will be pooled with Florida data for analyses. Two Master of Science
theses are in preparation from the Florida data. They are: 1. Social Patterns
of Rural Family Income, Juan M. Clark, Agric. Econ. 2. A Comparison of
Characteristics of Young Adult Migrants and Nonmigrants: Jackson County,
Florida, James D. Flanagan, Sociology. Results are as yet inconclusive.



FLA-AS-01326 SMITH B J

MARKET STRUCTURE AND THE COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Florida's contribution to SM-28 has largely been limited to the providing of
state data required for SM-28 milk movement model. These data include milk
production, milk sales and prices, number of dairy farms, and processing costs
indices for designated sub-state areas and time period.



FLA-AS-01330 MYERS L H

ALLOCATION OF CITRUS SUPPLIES TO MAXIMIZE RETURNS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Monthly demand functions for frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange
juice, canned single strength orange juice and fresh oranges were estimated for
the retail, institutional and export markets using single-equation least squares
techniques. Linear total cost functions were estimated from data on
delivered-in prices per box of oranges for various uses, processing costs for
different product forms and quantities utilized in various forms. Various
assumed total crop sizes were then allocated to product use and to the three
markets to maximize net revenues at the F.O.B. level. Both constrained and
unconstrained allocations were investigated and the results indicated that a
Florida crop size of about 145 million boxes of oranges is optimum at the F.O.B.
level. Some reallocation of citrus among uses was indicated to obtain optimum
returns. Continued work will include several publications based on this
research work.











FLA-AS-01340 SPURLOCK A H

COSTS OF HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The purpose of this project is to determine the annual costs at each step or
stage in harvesting, transporting, fresh packing and processing citrus to assist
management in cost control. Analyzed costs for the 1966-67 season indicated an
average of 46.2 cents per box for picking and loading oranges, 37.6 cents per
box for grapefruit and $1.13 for tangerines. Hauling, roadside to plant, cost
an additional 10.7 cents per box. Labor costs for picking were approximately 85
percent of the total cost, and for hauling were 35 percent. Total costs per
1-3/5 bushel equivalent for packing and selling oranges, 1966-67 averaged $1.27
for the 1-3/5 bushel wirebound box, $1.67 for the 4/5 bushel wirebound, $1.49
for the 4/5 bushel fiberboard box and $1.86 for the 5-lb. polyethylene bag in
master cartons. Packing and selling costs for all fruit ranged by packinghouses
from 32 percent below average to 36 percent above. Twelve of the 40 houses were
within 5 percent of the average cost. Costs for processing, warehousing and
selling typical citrus products, 1966-67 averaged for single strength orange
juice per 12/46 case unsweetened, $1.72; canned grapefruit sections, 24/303
$3.00; chilled orange juice, 12/32 $1.31; frozen orange concentrate 48/6, $2.07,
or 46 cents per gallon equivalent excluding packaging materials. Processing of
citrus feed cost $21.63 per ton. Fruit cost is excluded from all product costs.
Costs were obtained for 1967-68 from accounting records of 28 firms for
harvesting and hauling citrus, 42 firms packing fresh, and 18 firms processing
citrus into various products or by-products.



FLA-AS-01351 LANGHAM M R

DYNAMO SIMULATION FROZEN CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE MARKETING POOL

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The findings support the hypothesis that changes in the frozen concentrated
orange juice industry can be made which will stabilize grower profits and orange
supplies at an acceptable level. Of six alternative policies analyzed, a policy
of controlling supply by restricting the number of orange trees appears to have
the most potential for success. Conversely, a marketing pool policy which
controls supplies on a year-to-year basis is less desirable since it encourages
new orange tree plantings and creates long run supply and profit problems. The
basic objectives of the project were fulfilled with the completion of the work
by R.C. Raulerson (A Study of Supply-Oriented Marketing Policies for Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice: An Application of Dynamo Simulation, unpublished
Master's thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville). Raulerson's thesis was
selected by the American Agricultural Economics Association in 1968 as one of
the three best Master's theses in the United States. Because of the need to
develop a model for the entire orange sector, and not merely frozen concentrated
orange juice, it was decided to terminate project AS 1351 at the close of 1968
and continue its research objectives in a broader context. The project, AS
1443, Mathematical Simulation of the Orange Subsector of the Food Industry,
serves this purpose.



FLA-AS-01374 GREENE R E L

TYPES OF FARMING IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Data pertaining to soils, climate and other physical factors have been assembled
from Experiment Station publications, Weather Bureau reports, agricultural
workers and others as background information for the location of crops and
livestock production. Data have also been assembled from the U.S. Census,
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service and other sources on the major use
of land in Florida by geographic areas. Maps of various types have been
prepared to show the geographic distribution of important crops and livestock.
Based on the foregoing information, the state has been divided into major areas
within which the agricultural resources are similar and certain types of farming
predominate. These block out the type of farming areas. The agriculture of the
state is quite varied. One does not get the sharp demarcation of types of
farming as found in many states in the United States.











FLA-AS-01386 GREENE R E L

POST-WEANING MANAGEMENT FOR BEEF CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This experiment is designed to develop economical programs for producing feeder
and slaughter steers from weaned calves produced in Florida. This is the first
year of the experiment. Not enough physical data has been accumulated for an
economic analysis.



FLA-AS-01397 GREENE R E L

MARKET ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICES FOR POTATOES IN THE HASTINGS AREA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The purpose of this study is to (1) describe and evaluate changes in the
Hastings potato industry over the past decade in market organization, grower and
shipper practices, and in quantities of potatoes shipped to processors; (2)
determine the changes in attitude of growers and shippers relative to market
organization and practices; and (3) evaluate the probable effect of alternative
proposals for improving the marketing of potatoes in the Hastings Area. For the
purpose of selecting a list of growers to study, a list was developed of all
known potato growers in the Hastings Area during the 1967-68 season. In
developing the sample, the list was stratified into three size groups based on
acres in potatoes; small, less than 150 acres; medium, 150 to 299 acres; and
large, 300 acres or more. A disproportionate rate of sampling was used and a
sample of 86 growers was selected for interview. A questionnaire was developed
for use in conducting personal interviews with growers in the sample. This
questionnaire included information on production, distribution of sales,
production financing, contracts, ownership of packinghouse and opinions and
attitudes of grower relative to market organization and practices. At the end
of the year records had been obtained from 56 growers.



FLA-AS-01403 GREENE R E L

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BEEF COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The object of this experiment is to compare production performance of beef cows
on various forage and supplement systems in peninsular Florida and determine the
relative economics of each. This is the first year of this project. Not enough
physical data have been collected for an economic survey.



FLA-AS-01430 LANGHAM H R

MAXIMIZING A MEASURE OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AGRICULTURAL USE OF PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/07 68/12
The project is approximately 75% complete. The following activities have been
completed: 1. The theoretical model has been formulated. 2. Demand and Supply
equations for major agricultural products in Dade County have been estimated.
3. Economic externalities from agricultural pesticide usage have been estimated.
4. Parameters for the model constraints have been collected. 5. A preliminary
computer test run has been performed. Additional computer runs and sensitivity
analysis on the model solution will be performed in coming months.


FLA-AS-01431 EDDLEMAN B R

STRATEGIES FOR OPERATING BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN CENTRAL FLORIDA FOR FIRM
BUSINESS GROWTH

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/07 68/12
Identification of current resource inventories and management practices on
representative beef cattle production units was made from data obtained by a
field survey. Current income from beef production on each representative unit
was estimated. Manuscript on the economic and organizational characteristics oi
these units was prepared and is currently in review. Analysis of seasonal
variations in prices of the major grades and weights of each class sold through
livestock auctions in Florida was carried out. This analysis provided
information on the range in prices expect fir v- oven month in an individual












year as well as the range in prices expected for a given month over a period of
years. A manuscript was prepared on the monthly variations in beef cattle
prices in Florida and is currently being reviewed.



FLA-AS-01436 EDDLEMAN B R

DETERMINANTS OF THE RATE OF GROWTH IN EMPLOYMENT OF THE NORTH FLORIDA AREA
ECONOMY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/07 68/12
Development of a mathematical model that takes into account the
interrelationships and linkages among economic sectors of an area economy was
initiated. This formulation includes specification of aggregate demand and
supply functions of the principal outputs of the producing industries as well as
for the major area resources. Micro-macro related adjustments are specified so
as to determine the changes in sector employment levels that are consistent with
equilibrium changes in product and factor markets.












AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Research was continued on ten projects. Four of these projects dealt
with some aspect of irrigation or water management applicable to crops and
pastures. Three dealt with the mechanization of harvesting operation mainly
for vegetables including cabbage and fresh market tomatoes. Three others
were devoted to the handling and conditioning of crop products including
citrus pulp and tobacco. Eight of these projects were cooperative with other
units of the Station.
Cooperative work was continued with the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, Transportation and Facilities Research Division
on projects relating to packing house operations including precooling, sorting,
and packing of vegetables.
New work was undertaken cooperatively with the Agricultural Research
Service, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division on a project identified
as the Soil, Water, Atmosphere, Plant Relationship (SWAP) Project. Dr. J. Sam
Rogers, Agricultural Engineer of SWCRD, was attached to the Department October
1 for full-time work on this project. Initial work has begun in cooperation
with other units with principal field experiments being located at the Indian
River Field Laboratory at Fort Pierce.
Personnel changes included a change in the department chairmanship with
the appointment of Dr. Ernest T. Smerdon as chairman effective October 1,
1968. Previous Chairman Dr. Drayton T. Kinard continues in service on research
assignments.



FLA-AG-00627 MYERS J M

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This is a joint project with four other departments of IFAS. This department
will report only on that part of the study relating to irrigation. The purpose
of the irrigation study is to evaluate cattle and pasture responses and to
develop management techniques for distribution of irrigation water by seepage
from open ditches. Water is applied in sufficient quantities to prevent the
watertable from receding below 24 inches during winter and spring and 30 inches
during summer and fall. Twenty-four applications totaling 31.1 inches and 21
applications totaling 38.3 inches were required for the annual periods October
66 September 67 and October 67 September 68, respectively. Production in
terms of pounds of beef per cow, pounds of beef per acre and market grade of
beef were all increased as a result of irrigation treatment. The increases were
not large as compared to the best non-irrigated treatment and points to the
desirability of using only lands that are well adapted to seepage irrigation for
pasture production.



FLA-AG-01034 MYERS J M BAIRD C D

CONTINUOUS HARVESTING-CURING SYSTEM FOR BRIGHT-LEAF TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Four experiments were conducted to measure the influence of varying several
environmental factors while curing tobacco in bulk. Treatment effects were
measured in terms of equilibrium moisture content, dry matter content, curing
ratio (equilibrium weight/uncured weight), level of barn scald, and quality
index. The equilibrium moisture content was 18.3 percent when the air
temperature during the leaf drying phase was controlled at 1250F and 15.7
percent when controlled at 150oF. Moisture content of tobacco at the beginning
of the stem drying phase does not appear to be a significant factor when
considered at levels of 10, 20, and 30 percent of initial water content. The
duration of the coloring time, over a range of 48 to 96 hours, had minor
influence only on equilibrium moisture content, dry matter content and curing
ratio. The incidence of barn scald was increased and the quality index was
decreased when coloring time was extended to 96 hours. Drying rates during
coloring of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 percent per hour of initial moisture content did
not significantly influence the results in terms of measurements made on the
cured tobacco. A reduction in quality index was obtained when the dew point
temperature of the leaf was controlled at 105cF during coloring.










FLA-AG-01082 FLUCK R C

EQUIPMENT FOR REMOVING NON-FREE-FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS FROM BULK STORAGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Dried citrus pulp, a high protein livestock feed and by-product of the citrus
processing industry, is handled primarily in bags due to its inadaptability to
much bulk handling equipment. Pneumatic handling systems are designed based on
experience with other commodities and used for partial handling at many citrus
processing plants. In order to determine necessary criteria for the optimal
design of such systems an experimental pneumatic citrus pilp handling system has
been designed, constructed and is being tested. Design data being determined
include minimum velocity, pressure losses in various components, power
requirements and size reduction due to handling. Preliminary results indicate
much promise for this handling method.



FLA-AG-01203 FLUCK R C

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Fresh market cabbage is a 9 million dollar crop in Florida with over 17,000
acres harvested annually. Harvesting costs are about 17% of total crop costs,
over a million dollars annually, and rapidly increasing. A cabbage harvester
was developed to reduce harvesting costs, to upgrade the quality and reduce the
level of drudgery of remaining labor, and to reduce the degree of dependence on
a less dependable and less available labor supply. A functional analysis
approach which considered the primary functions necessary for once-over
harvesting resulted in an experimental prototype cabbage harvester. It is
functionally and physically simple and should result in a high degree of
management flexibility. The cabbage harvester is tractor-mounted and
hydraulically-powered., It was successfully field tested, and minor
modifications were made. It grips the cabbage heads, cuts the stems above
ground level and conveys the severed heads to a receiving vehicle in register
with the harvester in a two man harvesting operation.



FLA-AG-01212 MYERS J M CHOATE R E

TEMPORARY LININGS FOR WATERWAYS AND EMBANKMENTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Plans are being made to undertake a more fundamental approach in evaluating
cover materials for stabilizing newly established soil surfaces. Facilities and
procedures are being developed to study the relationship between size of thread
and geometry of the weave as influences in the effectiveness of cover materials
used for protecting newly formed soil surfaces from water erosion. It is felt
that this approach will produce information useful to manufacturers in
developing and making available cover materials for a wider range of
applications.



FLA-AG-01250 CHOATE R E

WATER CONTROL FOR FORESTRY PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Work has continued toward the establishment of the tree plantings. Planting was
originally scheduled for the winter of 1967. However, because of unavoidable
circumstances, planting was not completed until the winter of 1968. A system of
open drainage ditches has been installed. The open ditch drainage system
provides three drainage treatments, including the potential to drain the plots
to a depth of 2 feet, 5 feet, and no artificial drainage, respectively. A
system of water table observation wells will be installed within the plots
during.February 1969. The water table level will be recorded regularly on a
weekly basis, or more frequently as necessary to describe the rate of change in
the water table level. Tree growth and tree development will be correlated to
the rate of water table change and water table level. (See also Project 1250,
Forestry and Soils Department).










FLA-AG-01296 MYERS J M CHOATE R E BAIRD C D

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Construction of the prime experimental facility for this project is nearing
completion. Major development was made during the past year on the following
components of the environmental control chamber. 1. Water droplet generator 2.
Air flow rate measuring system 3. Dew point measuring systems 4. Air
straightening devices 5. Air temperature and humidity control systems. The
water droplet generatol utilizes syringe needles which may be interchanged in
size for regulation of droplet size. Rate of droplet formation is controlled by
adjusting pressure over the needles. A manifold of pitot tubes is used in
conjunction with a monometer to measure airflow rate. Rates of evaporation are
computed from dew point measurements made of the air stream before and after-the
cest section of the Chamber. Differences in dew points are measured by
elecrolytic condensation hygrometers. Honeycomb air straightenuous and multiple
layers file across the test section. Three evaporator coils, a recirculating
tir control valve system and a proportionally regulated steam coil are the major
components of the mechanism that controls the temperature and humidity of the
air within the chamber.



FLA-AG-01406 FLUCK R C

VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR
FRESH MARKET TOMATOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/11 68/12
Florida's tomato crop is its most valuable vegetable product, with production in
the order of 50,000 acres harvested valued at 70 million dollars annually.
Harvesting is by hand. One facet of the development of a harvester for fresh
market tomatoes has been the investigation of the detachment of the tomato from
its vine. Detachment is a primary function of a harvester. Possibilities for
performing this function more effectively were investigated, such as the
feasibility of selective detachment and the effect of plan dehydration prior to
detachment. Apparatus was constructed and procedures developed to enable a
controlled detachment of an individual tomato fruit from its stem. The Instron
Testing Machine was utilized with the fruit suspended by its stem held in a
clamp attached to a tension load cell, and the fruit was pulled downward at a
constant velocity until detachment occurred under increasing tensile force.
Force was continuously recorded, resulting in a force-deformation curve from
which were obtained detachment force and detachment energy. Individual fruit
weights were recorded.



FLA-AG-01411 MYERS J M KINARD D T

MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF TEA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The experimental tea harvesting machine that was developed in 1967 was field
tested throughout the 1968 tea growing season. Several minor modifications were
made on mechanical components to improve operational characteristics. Results
of the 1968 tests indicate that the harvesting machine is functionally sound and
has the potential for harvesting tea at a rate exceeding that of 15 people
harvesting by hand. Harvesting efficiency exceeded 80 percent under ideal
operating conditions with respect to machine adjustment and adaptable varieties.
It was observed that the leaf stems of the tea plant required greater impact
force and bending moment to cause fracture of the stem as the harvesting season
progressed. Also, time of day, air temperature and humidity appear to be
significant factors affecting the precise adjustment of the plucking mechanism.
It was necessary to raise the height of the plucking head about 0.5 inches per
week during the season to compensate for plant growth. A machinery manufacturer
has begun construction of a field prototype machine. This machine will be field
tested in 1969.



4













AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

.nronormic research was conducted on 23 projects. Grants totaling almost
$90,000 were received from 14 sources, providing supplemental support for
research on crop production problems. Dr. Rex L. Smith was appointed assistant
professor of agronomy. Dr. E. B. Knipling was appointed assistant professor of
agronomy in a cooperative USDA-state position.
A few highlights from agronomic research include:
ur. -,. T. Wallace and coworkers have discovered several new aspects of the
nature of genetic resistance to DDT in barley.
Dr. Merrill Wilcox has found pyrichlor at 0.25 to 0.50 lb/A to give
excellent pre-emergence weed control for both peanuts and corn.
or. H. E. Warmke has completed the first analysis of the angled-layer
aggregates in the acuba strain of tobacco mosaic virus.
Dr. G. B. Killinger has shown that kenaf yields of up to 11 tons dry matter
per acre can be produced on flatwoods soils.
Dr. S. C. Schank has been successful in making the first digitaria crosses
in the field. He has now produced 350 digitaria hybrids, which are now being
tested for virus resistance and cold hardiness.
Dr. O. C. Ruelke and Dr. V. N. Schroder have shown that the patchy, yellow
color so characteristic of bahiagrass swards in the spring is not related to
nutrition, diseases, or insects, but results from restricted root growth.
Dr. S. H. West and coworkers have shown that protein synthesis is curtailed
in drouth stressed plants.
Dr. A. J. Norden has developed a new peanut variety which has been named
Florunner. This new variety exceeds yields of Early Runner by almost 20%.



FLA-AY-00374 FCFNEt E 5

CORN BREFETNG

PRCGPESS PFPOFT: 6E/C1 68/12
N group or 17 selcct-d hybrids from the 6th cycle of a recurrent selection
axperimen- (toster: F44xF6) averaged 8 percent higher grain yield and 5 percent
less lodging thar the released hybrid Florida 200A, which is a product of the
fifth cycle of th same experiment. These results indicate that continued
progre-s ir this phase of the project is being made. Of another group of
expsriimertal hybrids having the male parent of Florida 200A as the tester,
-v-ral had yield records equal or superior to Florida 200A and were better than
Florida 200A in standability, ear height, and grain quality. The parental lines
OL these hybrids off'r promise as substitutes for F6 and F44, which have serious
faults even though they are being used commercially in Florida 200A and other
hybCids. Two populations which have undergone mass selection for two
generations each produced 95 percent as much grain as Florida 200A. These
populations will be valuable sources of new inbred lines, especially after a few
more generaticrs of mass selection. Tests with commercial hybrids for two years
showed that a plant population of about 15,000 plants per acre was better than
either 10,000 or 20,000 when both grain yield and standability are considered.



FLA-AY-00627 KILLINGER G B

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION ON
FLATWOODS SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
At the completion of four years of phase 3 of this project, which presently
consists of 3 pasture programs and several cattle breeding systems, the
renovated pasture program continued to produce 3000 to 4500 pounds per acre
of oven-dry ryegrass-oat-clover forage during the critical feed short winter
months. Renovated Pensacola Bahiagrass pastures contained 75 percent less
smutgrass than those not renovated. A 6 to 7 inch plowing of Pensacola Bahia-
grass pastures in October has reduced the stand of bahiagrass for the
following year by 25 to 50 percent, with a neat full stand three years after
plowing. White Clover growth has been excellent under all systems; however,
temperature and moisture availability control the earliness of growth and total
production.












FLA-AY-00766 SCHRODER V N

INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/07
A study of yellowed Pensacola bahiagrass was carried out and analyses of the
leaves indicated similar organic acid patterns for both yellow and normal green;
grass. This suggested that the yellowing might be due to other than nutritional
causes and extensive experiments confirmed this. Concentrations of
triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) of 120 ppm in the nutrient solution reduced the
growth of corn and oats. When comparing these plants with similar sized, but
younger plants, not receiving TIBA, the organic acid patterns appeared very
similar.



FLA-AY-00950 HARRIS H C

THE INTERRELATED EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES, ENVIRONMENT, AND
HEREDITY ON THE NITROGEN

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Lupine grown with boron deficient nutrient solution was stunted, lacey
appearing, and slightly yellow in color. Similar field plants were seen but
presumably the trouble was virus. A boron relationship to the disease was not
established. Peanut grew well on Hoagland and Arnon's No. 2 nutrient solution
with half the concentration of major elements and boron. Peanuts when grown in
nutrient solution deficient in one micronutrient developed visual deficiency
symptoms in time order as follows: boron, manganese, zinc, copper, and
molybdenum. Zinc deficient plants were stunted and had lavender colored stems.
Each deficiency symptom is due to difference in metabolism, and the biochemical
effect of the deficiency is important. Boron deficiency of peanut increased the
nitrogen percentage in the plant, but nitrogen and protein assimilation in a
single shoot was decreased. This deficiency increased the total free amino
acids but the increase was largely restricted to arginine, aspartate, glutamate,
proline and serine. For some reason, the increase in amino acids was not
assimilated into proteins. This project will be terminated July 1, 1969.



FLA-AY-00971 NORDEN A J

THE EFFECT OF AGE OF SOD ON YIELD OF BAHIA GRASS AND SUBSEQUENT FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The field aspects of this study concerning the changes in quality and
productivity of a perennial grass (bahia) with age have been completed and the
1969 growing season will complete the phase concerned with the effects of age of
sod on subsequent field crops. In 1968 the experimental plots were split into
two equal parts, 20 x 50 ft. in size; one part was planted to corn and the other
part to peanuts. The plant nutrient status and the species and numbers of
nematodes in each sub-plot were determined from composite soil samples collected
in July. Marked changes are observed in the numbers of nematodes of the various
species as the rotation alternates between corn and peanuts. Final conclusions,!
however, cannot be made until the field results for the 1969 growing have been
obtained and summarized. The data, to be analyzed by computer, should provide
simultaneously the comparisons between years in sod (0 to 6), between the crop
response the first year after the sod is turned under with the crop response the
second year, and the differences between seasons.



FLA-AY-01087 WILCOX M

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Peanuts: Pyrichlor, at rates of 0.25 to 0.5 lb/A, either alone or in combina-
tion with older, successful herbicides, gave excellent preemergence control
of Richardia scabra, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cassia tora, and Jacquemontia
pentantha. Field Corn: Pyrichlor performed as well at the same rates pre-
and postemergence in field corn as it did preemergence in peanuts; VCS-438 at
2-4 Ib/A also performed well both pre- and postemergence. Combinations of
dicamba or fenac with 2,4-D EH plus CIPC or DCPA continued to perform well
preemergence. Sorghum: Several previously reported s-triazine herbicides
and VCS-438, allat approximately 2 lb/A preemergence, performed best out of
the herbicides tested.












FLA-AY-01134 EDWARDSON J R WARKME H E

THE ROLE OF THE CYTOPLASM IN HEREDITY OF HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Fertility restoring genes in Petunia atkinsonia are being studied for their
reactions to P. hybrida male sterile cytoplasm. Chlorophyll variegations in
tobacco controlled by cytoplasmic factors are being investigated for their
interactions with nuclear genes. Viruses and their induced inclusions are being
studied in ultrathin sections and in extracts with electron microscopy.
Osmophilic bodies have been observed in ultrathin sections of healthy and virus
infected corn tissues for the first time. Vacuum dehydration and vapor fixation
has enabled us to examine the internal structure of flexuous rod viruses. An
analysis of the organization of angled-layer aggregates in the aucuba strain of
tobacco mosaic virus has been completed.



FLA-AY-01135 EDWARDSON J R

BPREDING DISEASE RESISTANT LUPINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Seed yield and forage production in cold resistant sweet blue lupines are being
studied in relation to differences in genotypes, dates and rates of planting.
Cross pollirations of blue lupines in the field by insects is being
investigated.



FLA-AY-01154 HORNER E S

WHITE CLOVER AND ALFALFA BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
White Clover: Thirty clones have been selected which have the desired
combination of early spring vigor, summer persistence, and capacity to re-seed
at Gainesville. Polycross progenies of these clones are being tested to
determine which should be selected as parents of a synthetic variety and as
sources for further breeding. Alfalfa: Experimental plantings of 'Florida 66',
which was released to seedsmen in 1967, produced excellent growth during the
spring and summer months at Gainesville. An ample supply of seed of this
variety is expected to be available to farmers in 1969.



FLA-AY-01166 KILLINGER G B PRINE G M- BOYD F T

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES FOR ECONOMIC USES

PROGRESS FEPOFT: 68/01 68/12.
Sunflowers (Helianthus annus) planted in a regional variety test on a Jonesville
sandy loam failed to grow as normal plants. Seed set was small because the
calcium and magnesium content of the soil was less than 100 pounds per acre,
even though the soil pH was 6.0. Six kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties
were grown at three fertility levels with yield of oven-dry stem varying from
5,624 to 22,528 pounds per acre. Nitrogen rates above 200 pounds per acre
accounted for the highest yields. Pigeonpeas (Cajanus cajan) P1 218066, Norman
variety, were successfully grown on several poor soil (topsoil removed) sites in
the state and yielded from 2 to 3 tons of oven-dry top material per acre. This
positive, rapid growing summer legume appears promising as a green manure crop.
Samples of kenaf and Hemarthria altissima were supplied to the Northern
Utilization Laboratory at Peoria for evaluation as paper-pulp and special tea
properties respectively.



FLA-AY-01167 KILLINGER G B

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES FOR PASTURE, FORAGE AND OTHrR
USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Increased plantings of irradiated Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) were made
to evaluate winter survival with no appreciable winter kill noted up to the
present. Four introductions of Hemarthria altissima under evaluation exhibited
resistance to frost. This grass originated in Africa, is propagated
vegetatively, and some difficulty has been experienced in securing good stands











on a field basis. Four new accessions of Stylosanthes humilis from Australia
flowered and produced seed, some three week earlier than commercial stylo.
Bungomagrass (Entolasia inbricate) P1 318669 was 100 percent killed by frost and
temperatures above 250F; however, several dozen new plants emerged from seed in
late summer following the kill. Forage yields obtained from 11 of the most
promising selected perennial peanuts (Arachis spp.) ranged from 11,800 pounds
per acre of dry matter downward. Highest yield was from selection No. 1 with *
Arb (P1 118457) P1 262826, and P1 262819, second, third, and fourth
respectively.



FLA-AY-01227 SCHANK S C

IMPROVEMENT BY INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION WITHIN THE GENUS DIGITARIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Inter and intraspecific hybridization work was accomplished in the greenhouse in
the spring of 1968, and 222 crosses were set up, with 65% yielding seeds.
Terylene bags were investigated under field conditions in July, August, and
September, with 147 crosses set up and 69% giving caryopses. This is the first
time that hybridizations have been successfully accomplished in the field
between Digitarias. The 1968 hybridizations will be grown in 1969 because of
the seed dormancy problem In order to characterize seed dormancy in
Digitaria, monthly germination experiments were carried out over a 12 month
period and experiments unsuccessfully devised to mechanically or chemically
break the dormancy. Cytological studies continued in the genus Digitaria, with
a summary paper published on chromosome numbers and pollen stainability. In
vivo pollen germination, megasporagenesis, and embryo sac development have been
studied to elucidate reproductive behavior. An F(2) nursery of one hundred
spaced plants was established this year, as well as approximately 900 new F(1)
spaced plants originating from the 228 crosses made in 1967. Approximately 2500
diverse genotypes of Digitaria are under observation, representing virus
resistant lines, winter hardy types, and other desirable agronomic types.



FLA-AY-01237 WALLACE A T

INDUCED MUTATIONS AT SPECIFIC LOCI IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The object is to investigate the genetic nature of induced mutations and the
evaluation of mutagenic agents for variety development. Segregation ratios from
crosses of 124 induced DDT resistant mutants (ddt) in barley indicate that in
most cases the gamete carrying the mutation is not reduced in its
transmissibility, a significant point for induced mutation in diploid plants.
The ratios clearly indicate that temperature and light intensity can modify the
response of certain of the mutants. Light microscopy of DDT treated susceptible
tissue showed that parenchyma cell walls were deteriorated and collapsed whereas
chloroplasts remained unchanged except for loss of chlorophyll. First leaves of
susceptible seedlings form their chlorophyll sooner after germination than
leaves of resistant seedlings, and also hold their chlorophyll longer before
senescence, thus a plausible explanation for the widespread distribution of the
DDT susceptible gene in barley populations. Pure toxin of H. victoria is
needed. Efforts to purify the toxin have been partially successful and results
indicate that the toxin molecule may not be as originally proposed. Results
indicate that toxin penetrates both mutant (hv) and susceptible (Hv) tissue.
Labeled ion uptake data support the hypothesis that membranes of Hv cells are
damaged. It is thus suspected that toxin only penetrates free spaces of the
mutants and that the.mutant gene (hv) is modifying the synthesis of a membrane
component.



FLA-AY-01260 CLARK F

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One hundred twenty selections which were developed by the pedigree backcross and
from interspecific and F(1) hybrids techniques of breeding were tested on a
heavily infested blackshank soil and on soil not infested with blackshank.
There appears to be a continuing accumulation of more favorable modifying genes
resulting from selection under extreme blackshank conditions. This was
reflected in that two selections submitted for regional testing were rated in
the top ten selections for blackshank resistance. One selection led the test
while the other one placed fifth. The selection entry for 1967 had high












resistance to blackshank, however, it did not qualify on chemical constituents.
There are no chemical data available at this time on the 1968 entries. These
selections are also evaluated for their agronomic characteristics.



FLA-AY-01262 PRINE G M

PLANTING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON THE YIELD OF CORN, SOYBEANS, SORGHUM,
AND SMALL GRAINS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
'Ga 615' (grain) and 'Beef Builder T' (forage) sorghums were successfully grown
in Pensacola bahiagrass by three methods. In conventional method, the sod was
destroyed by rototilling and harrowing, sorghum was seeded into the prepared
seed bed and cultivated twice to control weeds. In second method, the sorghum
was seeded into herbicide-damaged sod with a lister planter and no additional
tillage given. The third method had no tillage except the seeding of sorghum
in a narrow furrow through bahiagrass which was partially killed and retarded
in growth by herbicides during early part of growing season. In this latter
method the bahiagrass re-establishment by the end of the season was good in Ga
615 plots and poor in Beef Builder T plots. Variety trials were conducted
that included 26 pearlmillets and sorghum-sudangrasses harvested 5 times, 24
forage sorghums harvested twice and 32 grain sorghums harvested once during
season. In another experiment kenaf grown in mixture with corn and forage
sorghum did not increase silage yield over corn or sorghum grown alone.



FLA-AY-01286 PRINE G M SCHRODER V N RUELKE O C

MICROCLIMATIC INFLUENCES ON FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Investigations of sugarcane varietal yield decline as influenced by low
temperatures were initiated. Comparable plants of promising new varieties,
commercial varieties and varieties in decline are being grown in field and in
controlled temperature environments, where they are being subjected to varied
cold treatments. Investigations of a yellowed condition affecting growth of
Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) were carried out over a 2 year
period. This condition was not found to be related to nutrition, disease or
insects. Renewed growth and development of green color occurred only with new
root growth. Orientation of corn kernels at seeding so leaves of plants
developed across middles gave higher grain yields of Florida 200A corn than
random seeding or seeding so leaves developed along row at both 9,000 and 18,000
plants per acre populations. Plants seeded so leaves developed over middles
have given an average of 13% more grain yield than plants seeded at random over
last two seasons. Row direction had no effect on forage yield of Floranna
sweetclover during a 3-year study.



FLA-AY-01302 WEST S H

A BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH OF HIGHER
PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Simulated drought (4.8 atm. mannitol solutions) was imposed on Zea mays L.
seedlings for 5 days. Growth of shoots and roots was measured by fresh and dry
weight increases. Protein content, amino acids, and incorporation of
14C-proline and *4-serine in drought treated plants were compared so that in
control plants and to plants stressed for 4 days followed by 1 day of control
conditions (drought-control treatment). Dry weight and protein per plant were
reduced by drought although protein content per cell (DNA) was not measurably
reduced. Total amino acids were slightly higher and proline was markedly higher
in the drought-treated plants than in the control plants. Stressed plants
incorporated 14C-proline at one-third the rate of control plants, while
*1C-serine incorporation was not reduced. The shoots of drought-control plants
incorporated more than 3 times as much proline during the 24 hours after drought
was released, as compared to the unreleased drought-treated plants, while about
the same amount of serine was incorporated in plants of both treatments. He
concluded that proline and possibly other amino acids accumulated in plants
under drought conditions because protein synthesis was curtailed rather than
because of protein degradation. The effect was on specific proteins as the low
incorporation of proline compared to serine in the drought-released plants
(drought-control) indicate. There is a possibility that proline may be
preferentially accumulated under stress conditions.











FLA-AY-01303 NORDEN A J

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF PEANUTS (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Experimental line F439-R (F439-16-10) was recommended for release under the
name Florunner. In four years of comparisons, Florunner rated superior to
Early Runner in percent of sound and mature seed, in flavor quality, and in
yield. In replicated yield tests at three locations in Florida in 1968, the
average yield of Florunner was 18% above that of Early Runner. Four growers
of Foundation seed of Florunner averaged 3148 pounds per acre of unshelled
peanuts on 125 acres in 1968. Growth habit of peanut plants might be expected
to influence considerably such cultural practices as optimum spacing and ease
of handling. In a 3-year study (1966-68) highly significant interactions of
growth habit x genetic background and genetic background k season were obtained.
None of the interactions with row spacing were significant, indicating that
superior yielding genotypes selected in conventionally spaced rows would also
be superior in close-row planting patterns. The yield of the peanut lines
appeared to be influenced more by their genetic background than by their
growth habit and the results indicate that the effect of seasons is probably
a greater problem in isolating superior yielding genotypes than the effects of
variations in growth habit or row width.



FLA-AY-01358 KILLINGER G B RUELKE 0 C

PASTURE AND LEGUME VARIETY EVALUATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Seven white clover varieties yielded from 3322 pounds, oven-dry forage, per acre
of common Idaho white to 4814 pounds from Regal white. These yields varied by
using Fritted Trace Elements (FTE) 503 from 3257 to 5177 pounds per acre
respectively for the Idaho and Regal varieties. Yield changes due to the use of
FTE503 varied from a -3.87 to a +46.85 percent of oven-dry forage. Two
redclover trials with 11 and 17 varieties respectively yielded from 2065 to 6741
pounds per acre of oven-dry forage and 1104 to 5462 pounds per acre
respectively. One of the trials was a natural reseeding, and yielded less than
the newly seeded trial. The addition of FTE503 gave yield increases of -8.04 to
+89.70 percent. Nolin's, Tensas, Pennscott and Kenland were the highest
yielding varieties. Nine ryegrass varieties yielded from 3368 to 5504 pounds of
oven-dry forage per acre. Gulf, Florida rust resistant, and Magnolia produced
the most forage. Five new bermudagrass hybrids were compared to Coastal
Bermudagrass, Pensacola Bahiagrass, and Pangolagrass at 3 fertility levels.
Initially Coastcross-1 Bermudagrass was found less winter hardy than Coastal.
Mean yields of the grasses differed significantly with highest yields from
Coastal. Significant yield increases were obtained from all grasses as
fertilizer rates increased and crude protein content increase was significant
with increased rates of nitrogen.



FLA-AY-01359 HINSON K

SOYBEAN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Backcrossing two times of 'Bragg', with 'D60-7965' as the protein donor, has
produced breeding stocks that offer considerable potential as sources of high
yielding, high protein strains. Bragg and D60-7965 normally have about 41 and
48% protein, respectively. Forty BC(1) and 212 BC(2) families have been tested,
as bulk populations, for seed yield and percent protein. Seven of the 40 BC(1)
families, tested for 3 years, had protein percentages midway between the two
parents. From each of these seven BC(1) families, BC(2) families were obtained
that had protein percentages ranging from 0.6 to 2.3 percentage points above
their BC(1) parents. If the genetic variance for percent protein in this cross
is additive, as has been postulated for other crosses, then Bragg has genes for
high protein that D60-7965 does not have. Therefore, extensive sampling from
the BC(2) families highest in percent protein is expected to include homozygous
lines that surpass D60-7965 in percent protein. These lines are also expected
to be high in yield because, theoretically, they will contain an average of
87-1/2% Bragg germplasm. The first test of homozygous lines will be in 1970.














FLA-AY-01375 CLARK F MILLER C R

EFFECT OF CULTURAL MANAGEMENT ON BLACK SHANK ANP ON QUALITY ANn OUANTITY OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Crop rotation systems are recognized as cultural aids and for 1968 the
continuous tobacco system was planted to resistant and susceptible varieties,
while two other systems were planted to corn, soybeans, and peanuts. The
continuous system of tobacco reflected a total loss of all varieties of tobacco
grown, regardless of the previously used cultural aids such as lime vs. no lime,
fumigants vs. no fumigants. The severity of the disease in the continuous
tobacco system has created a need for a basic change in the experiment.
Implementation of the best cultural practices will be initiated in 1969 to
determine if it is possible to produce tobacco economically in the continuous
system. Yields were taken on all crops but only the tobacco yields have been
analyzed.



FLA-AY-01376 CLARK F

PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO AS INFLUENCED EY PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Fumigation: Eight chemical fumigants were tested, several as liquid vs.
granular nematocides for the control of Meloidogyne spp. in flue-cured tobacco.
Granular materials mocap (6 pound active per acre), Furadan (3 and 6 pounds
active per acre) and Dasanit (6 pounds active per acre) increased yields from
407 to 900 pounds per acre over the check. Telone 8 gallons per acre was the
only liquid fumigant that increased yields significantly. There were no
significant differences in root indices of the fumigants when compared with the
check. Sucker Control Chemical Tests: Eight chemicals were compared with a
topped and hand suckered treatment on a regional basis at 6 locations from
Florida to Virginia. The test was a comparison between contact vs. systemic
materials as well as combinations of the two. Contacts T-148 (alcohol) and
Penar combined with MH-30 to produce the best results, 88 and 85% control
respectively, compared with 72 and 81% applied separately. Contacts T-148 and
Penar will be used more extensively during the 1969 tobacco season. Herbicides
for Weed Control: Seven chemicals were evaluated during the 1968 season; no
individual treatment gave commercial acceptable control (a rating of 8 or
better) for all weed species rated. The preplant incorporated treatments (1)
benefin at 0.75 plus vernolate at 3 pounds per acre, (2) 3 pounds of diphenamide
plus 1.5 pounds vernolate per acre, (3) diphenamid at 3 pounds plus pebulate at
1.5 pounds per acre, and (4) pebulate at 4 pounds per acre, all controlled
weeds comparably on an overall basis.



FLA-AY-01377 PFAHLER P 1

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC STUDIES IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
In genetic terms, the major and most vital function of male gametes is in
transmitting genetic material. Therefore, if a relationship between pollen
genotype and fertilization ability is present, then a selective mechanism would
be operative which would alter gene frequencies and, in turn, zygotic
frequencies over a number of generations. In vivo studies with maize pollen
have established that pollen genotype does strongly influence fertilization
ability. However, since the fertilization process involves a rather complex
series of biological actions and interactions, other factors were also
implicated. Major among these were pollen storage and the genotype of the
female sporophyte on which the pollen grains were germinated. In vitro studies
with maize pollen have also indicated that the germination characteristics of
pollen grains on artificial medium are greatly influenced by the pollen genotype
involved. In fact, to obtain maximum germination of pollen from various genetic
sources, different combinations of calcium nitrate and boric acid are required
as a supplement to the basis medium containing 15% sucrose and 0.6% bacto-agar.
A preliminary analysis of the inheritance patterns of this genetic
characteristic indicated that probably simple monogenic factors were not
involved and that environment conditioned its expression to a large extent.
Vigor of the pollen source per se was found not to be a major influencing
factor.












FLA-AY-01391 PFAHLER P L WALLACE A T

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Since rye (Secale cereale L.) contains self-incompatibility mechanisms, no
inbreeding and subsequent selection of genetic superiority is possible. This
severely limits improvement programs not only in developing superior yielding
strains but even in isolating disease-resistant individuals when the particular
disease is simply inherited. Therefore, established rye varieties are highly
heterogeneous and heterozygous populations containing varying frequencies of
desirable alleles. Undoubtedly, these gene frequencies change every generation
as a result of natural selection pressure. Previous studies have indicated that
intervarietal hybrids between established varieties do exhibit substantial
heterosis and homeostasis in comparison to the parental varieties and therefore
the commercial use of intervarietal hybrids would be advantageous. However, no
self-sterility mechanisms have been isolated to facilitate the economical
production of populations containing 100% intervarietal hybrids; Further
studies have indicated that in most crosses, the heterotic advantage and
increased homeostasis associated with the 100% intervarietal hybrid populations
was not substantially reduced in populations containing only 50% intervarietal
hybrids. On the basis of these results, a planting arrangement was developed
which would allow for producing seed theoretically containing 50% intervarietal
hybrids and thereby allowing for the commercial exploitation of this heterotic
response.









ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

During the past year research was conducted on 45 projects. The depart-
ment has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other departments and
branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics, feeding, meats,
and management studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered over a thousand
animals for carcass and meat quality studies in cooperative projects. The
Nutrition Laboratory likewise made thousands of determinations for over 30
different substances in feeds, blood, and other animal tissues and excretions
in cooperative studies.
During the past year the faculty in Animal Science published 125 scien-
tific and professional articles. A new faculty member in physiolog" was
hired. He will concentrate in the area of increasing the beef calf crop and
swine litter size.
Physical improvements included concreting the holding pens and drive
chute at the Meats Laboratory. Continued development occurred in the part of
the Purebred Beef Experimental Unit which is being moved to an area near the
Dairy Unit at Hague.



FLA-AL-00627 KOGER N

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Pasture programs under investigation include (1) clover-grass fertilized at the
rate of 300 lbs. of 0-10-20 per acre, (2) comparable pastures with one fourth of
the area being renovated annually by fall plowing and planting of winter cereal
pastures (oats and ryegrass) and (3) clover-grass pastures with one half same as
#1 and one half seepage-irrigated and fertilized at the rate of 500 pounds of
0-10-20. Beef production per acre has been similar for all programs with
Program 1 being most economical. The cattle breeding systems include grading to
British (Angus and Hereford) and 3 two-breed rotation systems including
Angus-Hereford, Angus-Brahman and Hereford-Santa Gertrudis. Production per
1000 lbs of cow for the four systems has been almost identical. The foundation
females for this trial were Brahman-Native. The results differ from other
trials using pure foundation animals and where the rotation crosses have
consistently performed better than the straight bred.



FLA-AL-00629 KOGER M

SELECTION OF BEEF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The major objective of the study during the past 5 years was to determine the
extent of specific combining ability among individual Angus bulls for
crossbreeding. This was accomplished by obtaining both crossbred and
straightbred progeny from each bull and determining the sire x breed of calf
interaction. This interaction was non-significant, i.e., the progeny groups
ranked similarly in both the straightbred and crossbred groups. The results,
thus, indicate that within a given breed, bulls for crossbreeding should be
selected for general merit rather than searching for specific combining ability.
Vitamin A injection was used on the cow herd with no measurable response.



FLA-AL-00738 COMBS G E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED AT AN EARLY AGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by pigs two to three weeks of age
was studied to determine its protein replacement value in swine diets. A
nitrogen-free diet was fed for a 14 day depletion period followed by a 28 day
repletion on diets in which NPN provided 4, 6 or 8 percent of the total 22
percent dietary protein. Daily weight gain showed a linear decrease as
percentage of dietary NPN increased. When compared to their respective control
diets which contained 18, 16 or 14 percent protein from soybean meal and 0
percent added NPN, weight gain and feed efficiency data indicated that the added
NPN was of limited value. The increase in blood urea nitrogen found with
NPN-fed pigs when total blood protein remained similar among treatments would
indicate that little if any of the added NPN was converted by the pig to a
usable form of protein.












FLA-AL-00755 AMMERMAN C B LOGGINS P E MOORE J E

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Two feeding trials were conducted with lambs to determine the effect of feeding
chopped hay or sodium bicarbonate with ground or pelleted diets high in citrus
pulp. Both experiments involved 2 x 2 factorial arrangements with ground or
chopped Bermudagrass hay as 10% of the diet and 0 and 1.5% dietary sodium
bicarbonate in Exp. I and 0 and 10% chopped Bermudagrass hay in the diet and 0
or 0.5% sodium bicarbonate added to the drinking water in Exp. II. The
substitution of chopped hay or ground hay and the substitution of chopped hay
for the pelleted concentrate increased weight gains (P <.05, Exp. I; P <.01,
Exp. II). The severity of rumen parakeratosis was greatest in lambs consuming
the all-concentrate, pelleted diet. Sodium bicarbonate was without effect on
observed criteria. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate various nitrogen
and phosphorus supplements for both cattle and sheep when fed rations high n
dried citrus pulp. Deflourinated, diammonium and monosodium phosphates were
equal in value as sources of supplemental phosphorus. Similar average daily
gains were obtained for animals receiving soybean meal, urea, or a combination
of urea and diammonium phosphate as sources of supplemental nitrogen.



FLA-AL-00805 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

RESPIRATORY ENZYMES VARIATIONS IN THE TISSUES OF CATTLE SWINE AND SHEEP

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A study was made of the problem of determining lactic debydrogenase in tissues
of beef cattle fed various levels of iron. The procedure was based on the
reduction of nucleotides in the ultraviolet region as measured by a
spectrophotometer and recorder. Reaction rates were modified due to a turbidity
that developed in the samples during the reaction. A satisfactory solution of
the problem was not realized.



FLA-AL-00809 WARNICK A C

EFFECT OF HORMONES ON PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The uptake of 1-131 labelled T(3) as a measure of thyroid status in Brahman and
Hereford heifers and bulls at 320 C., 210 C. and on pasture was studied over a
ten month period. Sex, breed and temperature treatment showed highly
significant effects although there were some significant interactions. The mean
uptake of all animals at 320 C., 21 C. and pasture was 64.67%, 63.25% and
61.67% respectively indicating reduced thyroid secretion rate at the high
temperature. The mean uptake of 1-131 of the Herefords was higher at each
temperature compared to the Brahman indicating lower thyroid secretion in the
Herefords and the Brahmans showed less variation in response to the three
temperatures. The bulls had a higher 1-131 uptake at each temperature than the
heifers which indicates lower thyroid activity in the bulls.



FLA-AL-00938 WARNICK A C

CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE AND REPRODUCTION IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A comparison of blood physiology and reproductive physiology was studied in
Brahman and Hereford bulls and heifers at three different temperatures: (1) 320
C., (2) 210 C. and (3) ambient temperature on pasture during a 12 month period.
There were higher red blood cell counts and hemoglobin in the Brahman cattle
than in Herefords at all temperatures. Both ovarian activity and semen
characteristics showed an adverse effect of the 320 C. temperature compared to
those at 210 C. or the ambient controls. Plasma levels of Epinephrine and
Norepinephrine were determined on 4 Brahman and 4 Hereford cows after being
subjected to high ambient temperatures in August. There was little difference
in Epinephrine values while the levels of Norepinephrine were .057 and .037
lamda/100 ml. plasma in Hereford and Brahman, respectively. This may indicate
greater stress in Hereroru. with increased secretion from the adrenal gland.









FLA-AL-00975 PALMER A Z CARPENTER J W

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEEF TENDERNESS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Eighty U.S. Good and Choice carcasses from crossbred steers approximately 14
months of age provided short-loin steak for Warner-Bratzler shear tenderness
comparisons between eight breed groups. Tenderness differences were appreciable
in magnitude and attributable to sires. These dita will be combined with data
obtained in previous work as well as with data to be obtained in 1969 for a
further and more complete analysis and study of beh tenderness heritability and
indices of tenderness such as marbling.



FLA-AL-00977 WALLACE H D

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO MULTIPLE FARROWING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One hundred and six litters have been farrowed to determine if feeding
2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate to gestating sows commencing 21 days
prepartum would improve newborn pig vigor and survivability.- This compound
stimulates carbohydrate metabolism in the animal organism. Since hypoglycemia
is a complicating aspect of early survival in pigs it was theorized that such
treatment of the sow might improve the well-being of the pigs at this critical
time of metabolic adjustment. The control pigs (482) weighed an average of 3.08
lb. at birth and showed an 85.7 percent survival. Comparable values for the
pigs from treated sows (579) were 2.97 and 84.8. Fetal deaths and term pigs
born dead were quite similar for the two groups. Post weaning performance of
pigs have been summarized and indicate no advantage for the prepartum sow
treatment. An investigation involving zinc-bacitracin supplementation of the
gestating-lactating sow diet at specific times during the reproduction cycle has
been completed. No clear advantage has been observed for any of the
supplementing regimes. New farrowing stalls (partially steel slotted floors)
have been installed in the farrowing facility and are being compared to stalls
with concrete floors.



FLA-AL-00995 KOGER M

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
For 10 years one half of the heifers have been bred first as yearlings to calve
at 2 years of age while the remainder were bred to calve first at 3 years. The
production performance of the two groups, subsequent to 2 years of age, has been
slightly but not significantly in favor ot the group calving first at 2 years of
age. Thus, the net advantage for calving heifers at 2 years of age has amounted
to the value of the calf produced at 2 years of age minus the additional cost
resulting from calving a heifer first at 2 years. With prices prevailing during
the trial this advantage has amounted to approximately $50 per replacement
heifer added to the herd.



FLA-AL-00999 COMBS G E

FLORIDA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG/S) has been available for usage in
swine diets for many years and has been used extensively by many as a source of
unidentified factors. Its feeding value and the digestibility of certain diet
components when DDG/S was fed at relatively high levels has received only
limited study. To provide such data growing finishing pigs were fed diets
containing 0, 10 or 20 percent DDG/S. Daily gain was similar for all
treatments but feed required per unit gain increased with increasing levels of
DDG/S. Digestibility of dry matter, protein and ether extract was depressed by
the addition of DDG/S. Protein and ether extract digestibility was adversely
influenced to a larger extent than was dry matter. The significance of this
depression in digestibility when growth rate was similar is not apparent. Honey
was compared to sugar and tallow as an ingredient to be used in enhancing feed
consumption with young pigs. A dietary levels of 2.5 and 5 percent, honey was
equal to sugar and superior to tallow in increasing feed consumption and rate of
gain.













FLA-AL-01002 WALLACE H D

THE EVALUATION OF FEED ADDITIVES FOR SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The antibiotic, spectinomycin, was fed at two levels (10 and 20 gm. per ton of
feed) to young pigs through a test period of 112 days. During the early phase
of the experiment both levels of spectinomycin appeared to improve gain and feed
conversion. Overall gains for the experiment were best for pigs fed the 20 gm.
level but none of the differences were statistically significant (P<.05).
Several experiments on high level copper feeding have been completed. One of
the most significant observations concerns the stress syndrome from high level
copper feeding in the presence of inadequate zinc and iron supplementation.
Results stress the need for careful attention to trace element fortification and
indicate increased dietary requirements for zinc and iron when feeding high
level copper as a growth promotant. Analyses of liver tissue from mature swine
indicate a marked increase in copper concentration when compared to normal liver
tissue of young growing swine. High level copper withdrawal experiments are
presently in progress in an attempt to determine how soon after withdrawal liver
copper concentrations return to normal levels.



FLA-AL-01003 KOGER M

INHERENT BODY SIZE IN CATTLE AS RELATED TO ADAPTATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This is a long-term breeding project and data are too preliminary to form any
conclusions. The data indicate that selection for large size has been
effective. The effect on adaptation as a correlated trait, however, is not
apparent at this time.



PLA-AL-01010 WARNICK A C

EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One Duroc boar was trained for collection of a semen from a "dummy sow" using an
artificial vagina with a large thin rubber collection tubing. The "dummy sow"
was constructed of wood and padded on top to allow boar to mount. In 18
collections, the average total semen volume was 110 ml. with 95 ml. of liquid
and 15 ml. of solid gelatinous material. The concentration of sperm cells was
high with satisfactory motility. The results of inseminating 9 sows were not
satisfactory, so a follow-up experiment is underway. Work is being initiated on
the biochemistry of the uterine contents as it effects embryo mortality.



FLA-AL-01044 FEASTER J P

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION AND DIETARY DEFICIENCIES ON THE PLACENTAL TRANSFER
OF MINERALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The effects of diets deficient in copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn) and containing
pesticides (DDT, Parathion and Sevin) at low levels on pregnant rats have been
studied. In the study with Cu, feeding a diet inadequate in Cu did not affect
weight gains of growing rats, but did significantly reduce levels of Cu in
livers. Pesticides reduced weight gains in growing rats fed both adequate and
low Cu diets, though not significantly. Neither reproduction nor hemoglobin
levels were affected by Cu level or pesticides in the diet. In rats ingesting
only DDT normally present in dietary constituents, low Cu intake significantly
reduced storage of DDT in adipose tissue. In the study with Zn, neither a low
Zn diet nor pesticides adversely affected weight gains, reproduction, or
hemoglobin levels in maternal rats, or hemoglobin levels in full-term fetuses.
A high Zn diet (7000 ppm compared to 50 ppm in controls) reduced weight gains
and resulted in reproductive failure in nearly one-half the females. Fetuses
which went to term, were small and showed significant reductions in hemoglobin
levels. Feeding the low Zn diet significantly increased the uptake of
radioactive Zn by red blood cells, indicating increased retention of available
Zn by the deprived rats. Recent findings from a previous study show DDT present
in fetal livers, proving that it is transferred across the placenta during
pregnancy. It can be concluded that chronic low-level intake of pesticides does
not adversely affect pregnant rats, even under the stress of Cu or Zn
deprivation.










FLA-AL-01045 ARRINCTON 1 R SHIRLEY R L

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DIETARY FACTORS OF INTEREST IN THE NUTRITION OF
LIVESTOCK USING LABORATORY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Protein requirement for growing gerbils was approximateLy 18% of the diet when
casein supplied the only protein in a purified diet. Purified soybean protein
supplemented with methionine was equal to casein as the protein for gerbils.
Studies of the phosphorus requirement and longevity of gerbils are in progress
and approximately 25% complete.



FLA-AL-01061 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

EFFECT OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS RESIDUES ON PANGOLAGRASS PASTURES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A study was made of the effect of phosphorus applied as fertilizer in the form
of Super-no lime, Super +lime, Concentrated, Basic slag, Rock and Colloidal
phosphates to pangolagrass pastures on the breaking strength, density, ash,
phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and fluorine of metacarpal and metatarsal
bones of cows that grazed the pastures for seven to 16 years and were 12 to 18
years of age. Cows grazing phosphatic fertilized pasture had slightly greater
breaking strength and density of bone. Those that grazed pastures fertilized
with rock and colloidal phosphates averaged approximately 2900 and 2300 ppm
fluorine, respectively, compared to 1400 ppm fluorine in the other five treat-
ment groups. There were no significant differences in composition of ash,
calcium, magnesium and iron in bone due to fertilizer treatments. The bones
from cows on the seven treatments did not show any significant physical or
chemical differences when slaughtered at 12 to 18 years of age.



FLA-AL-01079 AHMERMAN C B

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Twenty-four steer calves of breef breeding and averaging 235 kg. in body weight
initially were group fed for 84 days in four replicated lots of three steers
each to study the effects of supplemental dietary iron. Three treatments
included 0, 400 and 1600 ppm iron as ferrous sulfate added to a basal diet
containing 77 ppm iron. Average daily feed intake and average daily gain were
depressed by as little as 400 ppm iron. Total plasma copper was reduced (P <
.05) and plasma inorganic phosphorus was increased (P < .05) by feeding 1600 ppm
supplemental iron. Dietary iron did not affect blood hemoglobin or hematocrit.
Iron concentrations of the liver, spleen, kidney, and heart were increased (P <
.05) and copper and zinc concentrations of the liver were decreased (P < .05) by
feeding high dietary iron. Dietary iron treatments did not appear to affect the
magnesium or manganese content of the tissues studied. The response of animals
given a variable iron treatment in which 3200, 2400 and 0 ppm supplemental iron
were fed for consecutive 21, 28 and 35-day periods, suggested that the effects
of excessive levels of dietary iron may be quite transient.



FLA-AL-01117 MOORE J E

INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF RATION, RUMEN BIOCHEMISTRY AND ANIMAL PERFORMANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
(1) In vitro hay cellulose digestion after 12 hrs incubation was highest when
the initial pH of the media was pH 6.0, followed by pH 6.9, 5.5 and 5.0. There
were no differences after 24 and 36 hrs suggesting that initial pH influences
either the lag phase, or the maximum rate, of cellulose fermentation by rumen
microorganisms. (2) Steers grazing Pensacola bahiagrass excreted 102 6.3% of
the chromic oxide dose. When hand-fed greenchopped forage, the excretion of
permanganate-soluble lignin was 108-115% depending on feces drying method.
Freeze drying gave the lowest lignin values in feces, when compared to heat
drying. Rapid heat drying gave lower lignin values than slow heat drying. (3)
Patterns of chromic oxide and lignin fecal excretion were determined over
48-hour periods. An adequate fecal grab-sampling plan would involve twice daily
samplings, at 6-8 am and 6-8 pm, for six days. (4) Adding chopped hay to a
74.5% pelleted citrus pulp diet fed to lambs increased rumen pH, decrease" rumer
total volatile fatty acids concentration and slia t ecrered the











acetate:propionate ratio. These changes were associated with increased rate and
efficiency of gain when the hay was fed.


FLA-AL-01132 HENTGES J F JR PALMER A Z MOORE J E

BEEF CATTLE FEED FORMULATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The relationship of ration composition to body tissue and fluid composition was
studied for guidance to the formulation of beef cattle finishing diets which are
utilized with superior efficiency. In previous experiments, cattle fed such
diets have sustained digestive disorders and alteration of the ruminoreticulum
mucosa; consequently, the specific causes) of these disorders was sought.
Ruminal histamine apparently was not a causative factor. Ruminal and blood
levels of lactic acid were directly associated with increased ruminal acidity
due to ingestion of high-energy, efficiently utilized diets. Extensive lesions
on the ruminoreticulum epithelium resulted from excessive rumen fluid
concentrations of lactic acid.



FLA-AL-01156 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

SELENIUM IN GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND HEALTH OF CATTLE AND SHEEP

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of ante-mortem
intravenously injected papain (10 mg. per kg.) on laying hens and roosters on
the concentration of selenium in various tissues. The roosters were sacrificed
one hour after injection and the heart, muscle, kidney and liver were analyzed;
for concentration of Se. No significant differences occurred due to the papain.
The hens were divided into groups of 8 each and sacrificed at one hour and at
24 hours after dosage and selenium determined in the liver. No significant
differences occurred due to the papain at either time interval. The heart and
liver had approximately twice the concentration of selenium as the muscle; but
approximately half as much as the kidney in the roosters. The roosters had 10
to 30% greater storage of selenium in the liver than the laying hens.



FLA-AL-01186 KOGER M

A STUDY OF RESPONSE TO SELECTION AND GENETIC-ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION IN
HEREFORD CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Reciprocal exchanges of cattle from unrelated lines developed at Brooksville,
Fla. and Miles City, Montana were made during the period 1962-1964. Thus, two
genotypes (lines) are being compared in each of two environments (locations).
Highly significant genotype x environment interactions (GEI) have been observed
for birth weight, weaning weight and post-weaning gain on pasture. These
interactions occurred for both foundation cattle, half of which had been
transferred, and in subsequent generations where all cattle were born and reared
at the location where comparison was made. Interestingly, there was no GEI for
feed-lot gain where the cattle were not on pasture. In addition to the above
trial with unrelated lines, the comparison is being repeated with closely
related lines selected in each of the two environments. The foundations for
these related lines were random samples from an inbred group, Montana Line 1.
Confirmation of the above preliminary indications of GEI in traits of economic
importance would have significant implications for genetic improvement of
cattle, especially in the use of bulls in AI studs.




FLA-AL-01204 CARPENTER J W PALMER A Z

QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS STEERS AND HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Seventy-two grade angus bulls, steers and heifers of uniform breeding were
slaughtered in two groups at 11 and 14 months of age. Feed lot gains and feed
conversion among the bulls, steers and heifers were as expected according to the
literature. The bull carcasses had darker, coarser textured lean with less
marbling, less kidney fat, less fat over the rib-eye than the steers and
heifers. Differences in steak and roast tenderness, juiciness and flavor were











not statistically significant between the bulls, steers and heifers at either 11
months of age or at 13 months of age.



FLA-AL-01205 PALMER A Z

PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING OF CATTLE AND CARCASS MATURITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One hundred and twenty grade angus bull, steer and heifer calves, by a single
sire, were finished to slaughter ages of 11, 14, 17 and 20 months of age. Blood
hemoglobin, hematocrit and blood serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium values
determined from blood samples taken at slaughter are being studied relative to
carcass maturity of lean and bone, color, texture and firmness of lean and steak
and roast tenderness as determined by taste panel. The statistical analysis of
the data obtained is presently underway. In a second study, steers and heifers
of uniform breeding and feeding background have been allocated to slaughter ages
of 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 60, 72, and 84 months. Ossification of
sacral, lumbar and thoracic vertebra will be studied in addition to the factors
listed in the first study. Data being collected will be analyzed statistically
as soon as animal numbers become sufficient for a meaningful preliminary report.



FLA-AL-01211 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

TOXICITY OF NITRATES IN FORAGE FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Cyandide was determined in water hyacinths from Bevin's Arm Lake during October
and none was present. Plans are underway to collect hyacinth samples from
various lakes in Florida and to analyze them for nitrates, cyanide, coumarin and
other compounds.




FLA-AL-01238 HENTGES J F MOORE J E

FORMULATION OF CONTROLLED-INTAKE SUPPLEMENTS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The comparative response of purebred Brahman and purebred cattle of
British-breed origin was studied as a means of defining the cause for wide
variation in results with previously studied controlled-intake supplements. A
breed (species) factor was discovered in the response of Brahman and
British-breed cattle to concentrate mixtures offered ad libitum. Brahman and
British-breed cattle which had been stressed by hauling and feed withdrawal for
48 hours reacted differently when offered concentrate diets ad libitum.
Brahmans displayed physical signs of "founder" and a faster rise of ruminal and
blood concentrations of lactic acid.



FLA-AL-01245 WARNICK A C

THREE-VERSUS TWELVE-MONTH BREEDING SEASONS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One-half of the Brahman and Santa Gertrudis females are bred during a 90-day
breeding season (March 15 to June 15) while one-half are bred on a continuous
year-around program. A total of 48 Brahman cows and 2-year old heifers and 58
Santa Gertrudis females were in the two breeding groups. The pregnancy rate in
August 1968 in the Brahman females was 87% in the seasonal group and 80% in the
year-around group while the respective pregnancy rate was 68% and 82% in the
Santa Gertrudis females. Some nonpregnant cows go into an anestrous condition
during the winter and do not ovulate.



FLA-AL-01263 KOGER M

SELECTION FOR MATERNAL ABILITY IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
One group of grade Hereford cattle are being selected for maternal ability
through selection of sires on the basis of maternal ability and females on the











basis of their own ability as expressed in a production record. A second group
is being selected for weight and conformation at 20 months of age. The trial'is
conducted under semi-tropical conditions in south Florida (Seminole Indian
Reservation). Results to date indicate that significant progress is being made
in both groups. Measurable differences between the two groups are not yet
discriminable, however. More time will be required for trends to be definite.

FLA-AL-01284 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF VITAMIN A ON FATTENING CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Steers were allocated to the feedlot and fed a vitamin A and beta-carotene
deficient diet for approximately 140 days and liver biopsy samples taken every
28 days to follow the rate of depletion of vitamin A and carotene in the liver.
The steers were given the following dietary treatments in addition to basal
rations to evaluate their utilization of vitamin A and carotene during the
subsequent 56 days in feedlot; treatment 1, control; treatment 2, 0.5 lb.
pangolagrass hay per day; treatment 3, 2.0 lb. pangolagrass hay; treatment 4,
0.5 lb. pangolagrass hay and 12,000 I.U. vitamin A per day; treatment 5, 2.0 lb.
pangolagrass hay and 48,000 I.U. vitamin A per day; and treatment 6, 12,000 I.U,
vitamin A per day. Liver and blood samples were also obtained at time of
slaughter. The feed and tissue samples were analyzed at the Nutrition
Laboratory and the data indicate that both the 2 lb. per day grass and vitamin A
supplements significantly increase the vitamin A in the liver. The 0.5 lb.
grass did not increase the storage of the depleted livers. The treatments had
only a slight effect on the carotene levels in the liver. The data will be
given in more detail in the Range Cattle Experiment Station report.



FLA-AL-01313 LOGGINS P E

SELECTION FOR RESISTANCE IN SHEEP TO ABOMASAL PARASITIC NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The effect of hemoglobin type on resistance to Haemonchus contortus was
determined by least squares analyses with hemoglobin type as an independent
variable and hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and weight of the ewes as
dependent variables. Hemoglobin type had a highly significant (P>.01) effect on
hemoglobin percent and packed cell volume. Hemoglobin type was observed to
effect production traits (weight, twinning and survival of lambs) and will be
further studied. The effects of breed, season and breed by season interactions
were determined by variance analysis on total gamma globulins, ova counts and
hemoglobin percent. Breed had a significant effect on all three traits.
Season had a significant effect on total gamma globulins and ova counts. The
breed by season interactions were significant for total gamma globulins and ova
counts but not for hemoglobin percent. The second lamb crop percent data were
67, 85, 83 and 93 for the Rambouillet high, low and Florida Natives high, low
groups, respectively. Lambing percentages have declined and to date the third
lamb crop also shows this trend. Ewes have been selected from the treatment
groups according to their hemoglobin types and parasite free lambs from the 1969
lambing season are being raised for further resistance studies.


FLA-AL-01384 SHIRLEY R L

VARIOUS PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS FOR BALANCING CALCIUM:PHOSPHORUS (CA:P) RATIO IN
FLORIDA-PRODUCED FEEDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
During the year phosphorus and calcium analytical values on Florida feeds were
accumulated and tabulated for ready reference. These data will be made
available to interested persons.



FLA-AL-01404 ARRINGTON L E SHIRLEY R L

ECONOMIC, NUTRITIONAL AND DISEASE FACTORS IN RABBIT PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Growing rabbits were fed diets containing 2 and 10% fat. Efficiency of feed
utilization was improved at the higher fat level but there was little effect
upon weight gain. In other studies, diets with 0.42% Ca and 0.3% P promoted
maximum growth, but slightly higher levels of the elements promoted better bone
calcification. In studies of the quality of frozen vs. fresh rabbit carcasses,
frozen meat was found to be more tough than the fresh carcasses.










BACTERIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

The Bacteriology Department has been added to the Experiment Station this
year. Two projects were approved near the end of the year. Several additional
projects are being prepared for submission.
Research work has been supported primarily by federal grants from the
National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the Depart-
ment of the Interior (Water Pollution Control Administration).





FLA-BC-01429 TYLER M E SMITH P H

AEROBIC, HETEROTROPIC BACTERIA IN ESTUARIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Additional features, including quanine-cytosine base rations in DNA, have been
determined for two estuarine bacterial types, leading to eventual species
establishment.





FLA-BC-01440 BLEIWEIS A S

CELL WALLS OF ORAL STREPTOCOCCI

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This project was initiated December 16, 1968. Therefore there is nothing to
report at this time. However a Journal Series article has been submitted to
Analytical Biochemistry and is in press.










BOTANY DEPARTMENT

Progress in establishing well-equipped laboratories for research is
continuing. A second electron microscope has been added in the electron mi-
croscope laboratory, and two new courses have been developed to provide training
for investigators and graduate students who could employ electron microscopy
in their research programs. Other major items of research equipment purchased
or acquired during the year include: 8 compound research microscopes, 1 phase
contrast microscope, 2 stereoscopic microscopes, magnetic stirrer, automatic
pipetting machine, pipette washer and dryer, freezer, 2 herbarium cases, 1
aristophat photomicrographic assembly, an automatic curvette programmer and
potentiometic recorder to be used with the spectrophotometer, cassette maga-
zines and cassette receivers to be used in electron photomicrography, a
rotary shadower and storage dewar to be used in freezeetching, 3 incubators,
light meters, pH. meters, and numerous small items.
Faculty research has received support from NIH, AEC, the American Cancer
Society Institutional Grant, the Biomedical Sciences Institutional Grant, the
Graduate School Research Council, a contract with the Air Force, and a con-
tract with the Diamond Crystal Salt Company.
Faculty have published fifteen research papers during the period, almost
double the number in the previous year. The Annual Research Prize of the
Association of Southeastern Biologist for 1968 was won by Dr. H. C. Aldrich of
this department in competition with other biologists of the region.
There were no new faculty appointments and no resignations in 1968. The
staff has been increased by the addition of a secretary II, a secretary I,
and a storekeeper I, all supporting positions that have been needed badly for
several years but which could not be funded until 1968.



PLA-BT-00953 HEMPHREYS T E GARRARD L A

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 69/02
The synthesis and the storage of sucrose are two important energy requiring
processes which occur in the cells of the corn scutellum. We have found that
the addition of glucose or fructose to slices of the corn scutellum causes a
rapid synthesis of sucrose and also triggers a strong, aerobic, alcoholic
fermentation although the rate of oxygen uptake in respiration remains constant.
The rate of glycolysis in the slices supplied with hexose is sufficient to
supply two moles of ATP per mole of sucrose synthesized. From our analysis of
glycolytic intermediates and from our studies of the scutellum
phosphofructokinase we conclude that the.rate of glycolysis in the scutellum is
controlled by the levels of ADP and Pi. We suggest that sucrose synthesis takes
place in the same cellular compartment as glycolysis and utilizes "glycolytic"i
ATP thereby keeping the ADP and Pi at levels necessary for high glycolytic
rates. We also conclude that sucrose and not sucrose-phosphate is synthesized,
and stored. It has frequently been postulated, particularly for sugarcane, that
sucrose phosphate is a necessary intermediate in the storage of sucrose. The
mechanism of storage remains obscure.



FLA-BT-01042 FRITZ G J

METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN BY PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This research project has been concerned during the past year with an
investigation of the role of 0(2) fixation in lignification. It is well
documented in the literature that formation of lignins starts with the amino
acid phenylalanine, and proceeds successively through cinnamic, p-coumaric and
caffeic acids. Two of the reactions (i.e., cinnamate to p-ccumarate and
p-coumarate to caffeate) are hydroxylations which are believed to involve the
addition of 0(2) to substrate. To provide an in vivo demonstration of the need
of 0(2) in these reactions requires the following steps: (1) incubation of plant
tissue in 0(2) labelled with 0-18, (2) isolation from the tissue of pure samples
of cinnamic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids, (3) mass spectrometric analyses of
these acids. As a necessary preliminary step, procedures for the
chromatographic isolation from plant tissues (spinach and sunflower seedlings)
of pure samples of these three phenolic acids have had to be worked out, and are
now nearing completion. The significance of this work, estimated to require
about one more year for completion, will be to focus attention on the
indispensability of 0(2) in lignin biosynthesis.











FLA-BT-01118 WARD D B

A FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The first portion of a checklist of the plants of Florida was completed and
published. It contained the correct names, synonyms, and common names for the
1183 species of ferns and other non-seed-bearing vascular plants, conifers, and
monocots found native or naturalized in the state. Work was continued toward
the completion of subsequent units to encompass the dicots. More intensive
study of several genera was undertaken, with the objective of preparing keys,
determination of nomenclature, and construction of range maps. Manuscript was
prepared for Linum (Linaceae) and Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae), and preliminary
study was made of Hydrilla and Elodea (Hydrccharitaceae), Flaveria and
Spilanthes (Compositae), Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae), and Waltheria and Melochia
(Sterculiaceae).



FLA-BT-01191 ANTHONY D S

BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Pea (Pisum sativum) plants were found not to show the usual gross manifestations
of injury (reduced growth, reduced vigor, abcission of flowers or immature pods)
due to prolonged exposure to supposedly supraoptimal temperatures when they were
watered to complete soil saturation daily. It was necessary to go to
extraordinarily high temperatures (370 day, 310 night) to produce any gross
effect (reduction in growth) under this heavy watering regime. Thus, a number
of our earlier unpublished results, and perhaps those of others, purporting to
show heat injury in the pea plant at daytime temperatures in the 300 to 350
range may be complicated by water deprivation. Metabolic studies have been
carried out under the revised experimental conditions described above to
determine the relative rates of incorporation of *'C-labeled amino acids into
protein and/or the rate of degredation of protein under optimal (25 day, 190
night) and supraoptimal temperature conditions. These studies are still in
progress and are not yet complete enough to warrant drawing conclusions.
Earlier work on the biochemical effects of supraoptimal temperatures in
Arabidopsis Thaliana has been written up and submitted for publication.



FLA-BT-01226 KIMBROUGH J W

TAXONOMY OF SPECIES OF THE TRIBE THELEBOLEAE.

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Major emphasis in 1968 was placed 6n the genera 'odophanus and Thecotheus. A
manuscript on North American Species of Thecotheus was prepared and has been
accepted for publication. Descriptions, keys and illustrations are provided for
4 species, two of which are described.as new. Twenty-five collections, mostly
type specimens, from Boudier's Herbarium, Museum of Natural History, Paris (PC)
and Karsten's Herbarium, Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki, Finland, were
examined. These aided greatly in the determination of names of species of
Iodophanus. A manuscript on this genus is presently being submitted to the
American Journal of Botany. In it, nine species are recognized, and
descriptions, keys, and illustrations are provided. From fresh collections,
cultures of I. granulipolaris sp. nov. and I. carneus have been obtained. The
influence of light, temperature, and medium on pigmentation and sporulation is
being studied. Type specimens are being obtained for a continued taxonomic
study of the genus Coprotus Korf S Kimbr. Of greatest interest are the
collections of Velenovsky in the Botanical Museum, Praha, Czechoslovakia.



FLA-BT-01287 WARD D B

THE LEGUME FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Work was continued toward the completion of a checklist of the species of
Leguminosae known to occur native or naturalized in Florida. This listing
becomes a component of a more comprehensive listing of all vascular plants
native and naturalized in the state, now under preparation. Collections were
made of approximately 200 legumes cultivated at the Indian River Field
Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, where they are under investigation as
potential forage species. The identification and nomenclature of these species











was confirmed or corrected. Field work was continued, particularly in West
Florida, with the purpose of assembling a wide range of legume herbarium
materials for the study of the morphology of complex groups and the
determination of ranges.



FLA-BT-01387 MULLINS J T

CULTIVATION OF COELOMOMYCES, A FUNGAL PARASITE OF MOSQUITOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
I. Field Collections of Infected Mosquitoes We have located a number of field
sites in the Gainesville area which are producing mosquito larvae infected with
Coelomomyces. The greatest number of infected larvae are in Psorophora ciliata
and P. howardii. The percentage of infected larvae has ranged between five and
fifty. Most of these areas produce infected larvae whenever a new hatching
occurs. II. Laboratory Infections of Mosquitoes and the Life History of
Coelomomyces The laboratory germination of sporangia of Coelomomyces is
somewhat sporadic and usually in the order of ten percent. Work is continuing
with the aim of finding the key to sporangial germination. We are attempting to
establish an infected colony of several of the colonized mosquitoes of the
Entomology Research Division in Gainesville. III. Laboratory Tests on Possible
Methods of Cultivating Coelomomyces on Nutrient Media We are using fungal
sporangia, which are ready to germinate, as an inoculum in attempts to cultivate
Coelomomyces on nutrient media. We have prepared various types of extracts from
mosquito larvae and use them to supplement a variety of nutrient media,
including insect tissue culture medium. We are analyzing key glycolytic enzymes
from normal and infected mosquitoes in hopes of detecting the natural
energy-pathway of the fungus as a key to its cultivation.



FLA-BT-01401 HUMPHREYS T E GARRARD L A

CARBOHYDRATE SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The scutellum of the cereal grain is positioned between the food source
endospermm) and the root-shoot axis. During germination at least four important
processes having to do with food mobilization are carried out in the scutellum:
(1) absorption of glucose produced during starch breakdown in the endosperm, (2)
synthesis of sucrose from the absorbed glucose followed by (3) the storage of
sucrose within the scutellum cells or (4) secretion of sucrose into the phloem
sieve tubes where long distance transport to the root and shoot takes place.
Using excised corn scutellum tissue we have been able to identify and study the
first three processes and we have experimentally demonstrated a sucrose
secretion process which may be similar if not identical to the very important
fourth process of sucrose secretion into the sieve tubes. Glucose and fructose
enter the scutellum cells by passive diffusion and about 12% of the cell volume
is available to the hexoses which do not accumulate but are rapidly synthesized,
to sucrose. The sucrose is stored within the cell in a space separate from the
synthesis compartment. The synthesis and storage processes are not obligatorily
coupled. There are two mechanisms for sucrose storage, one for storage of newly
synthesized sucrose in the synthesis compartment and one for exogenous sucrose.
At low pH exogenous sucrose is rapidly stored while at neutral pH sucrose moves
from the storage compartment to the cell exterior (secretion) and exogenous
sucrose storage is inhibited. The properties of these membrane transport
processes (storage and secretion) are under investigation.



FLA-BT-01410 WARD D B
ECOLOGICAL RECORDS ON EGLIN AFB RESERVATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A pre-existing Air Force program on the Eglin AFB Reservation, Florida, of
testing spray equipment designed to apply military chemical and biological
agents by aerial means, has given rise to the possibility that the testing
program is affecting the biota outside the test area. A program of sampling the
vegetation by means of nested transects, and subsequent analysis, gave little
indication that the effects of spray driftage were of effect in reducing the
frequency of any plant species. A supporting program was begun of documenting
the present flora of the Reservation, as a base for understanding effects of
future Air Force activities.











DAIRY SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Research has been conducted on 18 projects. Two new projects in the
area of dairy cattle genetics and one new project relating farm practices to
milk quality were initiated. Several areas of work were investigated as non-
projected research.
Remodeling of a nutrition laboratory in the Dairy Science building was
completed, and work was started on a new laboratory addition to our facili-
ties at the Dairy Research Unit. This new laboratory is designated for our
new research program in reproductive physiology.




FLA-DY-00001 BROWNING C B

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH IN DAIRY PRODUCTION AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Age and diet effects on glucose tolerance and insulin levels in dairy calves are
under study. A decreasing response of insulin to intravenous glucose
administration with increasing age was demonstrated. A method has been
developed to determine the confidence limits for twin efficiency values.
Cholinesterase levels in RBC and plasma have been studied in dairy cows. Data
from which estimates of variance of these trials were obtained. Citrus pulp
studies involving the additions of diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid have
been continued. Acceptability of these treated feeds has been normal. Work on
the development and testing of a new high protein, high energy, low fat milk
drink has continued. Composition of milk plasma and the determination of SNF by
the Watson and Quevenne methods is being studied.



FLA-DY-00213 WING J M POWELL G W

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Kenaf was planted in rows and fertilized according to requirements determined by
standard soil tests. It was cut at heights of 5.5, 7.5, and 9 feet. Respective
yields of forage (tons), dry matter (pounds) and protein (pounds) were 12.4,
3140, and 584; 11.4, 4200 and 773; and 13.6, 5680, and 1187. For each stage of
maturity one silo was filled with plain kenaf and one with kenaf plus 150 pounds
of ground corn per ton. Respective consumption rates of silage, dry matter, and
protein per 1000 pounds of body weight by cows were: 5 ft. plain: 91, 11.3 and
1.6; Corn: 97, 12.5 and 2.0; 7.5 ft., plain: 83, 15.3, and 1.5; corn: 98,
18.0 and 2.0; 9 ft. plain: 100, 20.9, and 2.6; corn: 105, 21.9, and 2.7.
Digestibility and efficiency of ensilability are being determined.



FLA-DY-00575 WILCOX C J HEAD H H WING J M

PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION OF THE FLORIDA STATION DAIRY HERD

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Uterine horn of pregnancy was determined in Guernsey, Holstein and Jersey cows
during 1959 to 1966 so that the effects of horn upon birth weights (BW) and
gestation lengths (GL) of calves could be evaluated. Only single, normal,
living births were included, 1082 cases in all. Through least squares analyses,
the possible confounding of effects of year, season, sire and sex, and most of
their first-order interactions were removed, along with the effects of the age
of the dam. Differences between horns in adjusted means of BW and GL were
slight and not statistically significant. Sire, sex and season effects were
detected, but none of the first-order interactions was significant. Age of dam
effects were found to be curvilinear. Least squares estimates of various other
environmental and genetic effects on BW and GL were obtained from 1304
parturitions of Jerseys which had two or more parturitions during 1930-62.
Overall means and standard deviations were for BW, 55.6 and 7.5 lb; for GL,
279.4 and 5.7 days. Mean age of cow was 67.7 months; length of previous dry
period, 88.7 days. In general, BW was significantly influenced by sire, sex,
year, age of dam (curvilinear) and GL, and essentially unaffected by month of
birth and length of previous dry period of dam. GL was influenced by sire, sex,
year and month, but not by age of dam. A curvilinear effect of previous dry
period on GL was detected, presumably an artifact of herd management practices.











FLA-DY-01047 WILCOX C J KRIENKE W A HEAD H H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPON COMPOSITION OF MILK

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Monthly sampling of the 180-cow station dairy herd continued The total volume
of data collected to date is about 1250 lactation records, all of which have
been utilized in the interregional analysis. Additional data from cows
freshening in 1967 are being summarized. To date, no statistical analyses of
the Florida data by itself have been made. An interregional study of milk
composition to determine estimates of genetic parameters was made on 7,943
Holstein records submitted by 19 states. Adjustment for age at freshening was
made by cubic regression factors. The reduction in variation due to regression
for age for yields ranged to 28% for milk, but was not so marked for percentages
except for fat. Heritability estimates were obtained from variance components
analyses of herdmate deviations and lactation records and the regression of
daughter lactation records on dam records. Generally, the estimates were in
agreement. Heritabilities based on deviations ranged for yields from 0.13 to
0.21 and for percentages from 0.36 and.0.56. Repeatabilities were obtained from
deviation and lactation records. Genetic correlations for deviation and
lactation records were in agreement and highly positive among yields and among
percentages. Although correlations of milk and percentages were all negative
for deviations, they were positive with solids-not-fat and protein percentages
for lactations.



FLA-DY-01049 SMITH K L WILCOX C J

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TOXOID IN THE CONTROL OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Although treatment with toxoid did slightly reduce the somatic cell count in
milk from treated cows, the difference was not statistically significant. A chi
square analysis was used to evaluate the effect of toxoid treatment on the
frequency of barn diagnosis for mastitis per quarter per lactation and no
differences were found. The frequency of shedding of different hemolytic types
of organisms in the milk was tested and significant differences were found. In
an attempt to further determine the reason for the significant differences in
the rate of shedding of different hemolytic types of organisms, an analysis was
done on the frequency of appearance of staphylococci, streptococci, mixed
staphylococci and streptococci, rods and the absence of any microorganisms in
the samples used for the microscopic examination. Significant differences were
found with the greatest contribution to the chi square sum coming from the
samples containing staphylococci or no organisms. The incidence of
staphylococci was less than expected in samples from treated cows and the number
of samples containing no organisms was greater than expected from the treated
animals. Over 8,000 samples were included in all the chi square analyses and
from these results it appears that the use of staphylococcal toxoid has a
measurable effect on the rate of shedding of staphylococci but in this study,
this effect was not reflected in a reduced somatic cell count or in a reduction
in the number of cases of mastitis reported from barn diagnosis.



FLA-DY-01137 WILCOX C J

VARIATIONS OF MILK AND FAT YIELDS OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Collection of data continues. During 1967, 21,078 Florida dairy cows in 124
herds from 31 counties were on standard DHIA test. This represents nearly 12%
of all Florida dairy cows. Average herd size was 170 cows. Approximately
200,000 lactation records are on file in punched cards. Efforts to date on
this project have consisted only of sorting and storage of data. A sufficient
volume of date has been available for several years but no analyses have been
completed as yet. Programs now are available, however, and initial analyses are
scheduled to commence in early 1969. Objectives of this investigation are toi
obtain estimates of environmental and genetic factors affecting milk production
under the rather unique management and climaticological conditions of Florida
dairy farms.









FLA-DY-01185 MARSHALL S P SMITH K L

FEEDING SYSTEMS, NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH OF DAIRY CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The objectives were to delineate the level of energy in the diet that could be
derived from fat and to study the effect of different fat levels upon the
efficiency of utilization of total energy. Twenty-one calves were assigned
randomly to one of three milk diets. The fat, lactose and protein percentages
of the three diets were: 3.0, 3.43 and 4.83, 6.0, 3.32 and 4.58, and 9.0, 3.27
and 4.28, respectively. Efficiency of energy utilization appeared to be lower
and the incidence of diarrhea higher on the milk containing 9 percent of fat
than on that containing 3 percent. Energy in the diet containing 6 percent fat
may have been utilized less efficiently than that with 3 percent.



FLA-DY-01213 HEAD H H WILCOX C J

GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN EFFECTS ON THE METABOLISM OF GLUCOSE AND ACETATE IN
DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Blood and plasma glucose concentrations were not significantly affected by
Growth Hormone treatment (1 mg/Kg body wt/day, 5 consecutive days) when injected
intramuscularly. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased
following the initial injection, reached a maximum at 2.3 days and declined
thereafter. This lipolytic response was similar to that observed in other
species. However, the lack of an "insulin like" response was in contrast to
that seen in other species. There was an apparent failure of GH to augment
insulin secretion since fasting plasma insulin levels were not elevated by
extended GH treatment. The short-term effects of GH (0.2 mg/Kg, intravenously)
on blood levels of glucose, NEFA, amino acid-Nitrogen and insulin were
determined using four male Jersey calves assigned to a 4x4 Latin square.
Individual trials were conducted at weekly intervals. Blood samples were
collected via jugular catheter over a 24 hr period after GH or saline
administration. The treatment means for blood and plasma glucose (mg/100ml),
NEFA (p eg/L); amino acid-N (mgN/100ml); and plasma insulin (p U/ml) in
control and GH treated calves were 51.6 and 55.2, 77.2 and 80.5, 442 and 499,
4.01 and 3.96, and 12.9 and 16.1, respectively. Significant differences due to
GH were not detected for any of the dependent variables studied. Fasting the
animal 24 hr significantly reduced blood glucose (P<0.05), amino acid-N (P<0.05)
and plasma insulin (P<0.10).



FLA-DY-01234 WILCOX C J

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTION OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
No analyses have been undertaken during the year and efforts have been pointed
towards the further collection of data and in storing all data in punched cards.
No further studies on the effects of crossbreeding on reproductive performance
are contemplated for the near future. Data from approximately 30,000
parturitions are filed on individual cow sheets. Extensive statistical analyses
cannot be undertaken until these data are placed in punched cards. Transfer of
data was started in August 1968, and about 15 percent are now in a form from
which cards can be punched. Hopefully this job can be completed during 1969.
Objectives of further studies of these data will be to quantify non-additive
genetic effects, if such exist, on such measures of reproductive performance as
life span, age at first calving, service interval, gestation length and calving
interval.



FLA-DY-01249 SMITH K L MULL L E

RATE OF ACID PRODUCTION IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
From the data collected to date it appears that Streptococcus cremoris produces
more acid during the average time to complete a cell division than does S.
lactis. The amount of lactic acid produced per cell division tends to be
greater at higher incubation temperatures than at the lower ones. The
interaction between stains of organisms and incubation temperature was not
significant.











FLA-DY-01255 WING J M

ENERGY SOURCE AFFECTING DIGESTIBILITY OF CELLULOSE, PROTEIN, 6 RUMEN
FERMENTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Complete rations containing 4.2 or 12.6 percent of mill run blackstrap molasses
were compared with a control ration for lactating dairy cows in six 3x3 Latin
squares balanced for residual effects in each of two years. Yield of 4% FCM
decreased from the control of 23.5 kg to 22.8 for the 4.2% level and to 22.3 for
the 12.6% level. Fat percent decreased progressively from 4.17 to 4.10 and
4.02, and solids-not-fat (SNF) from 9.06 to 8.98 and 8.94. Differences in
molasses levels did not produce significant effects but comparisons of the
control to molasses without separation into levels revealed depressions which
were significant at 5% for yields'of milk and SNF at 1% for fat yields, fat
percent, and yield at 4% FCM. Two replications of a 5x5 Latin square with
fistulated steers were completed with complete rations containing (1/3 alfalfa
hay + 2/3 concentrates). The concentrate portion contained 0, 16.6, 33.2, 50,
and 60 percent of dried citrus pulp. Criteria under investigation are
disappearance of cellulose from dacron bags suspended in the rumen,
digestibility of the total rations, and molecular proportions of acetic,
propionic, butyric, valeric, and iso valeric acids in the rumen liquor.



FLA-DY-01264 WILCOX C J

VITAL STATISTICS OF BEEF AND DAIRY SIRES USED IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Collection of data continues. About 42 studs in the U.S. and Canada are active
cooperators representing virtually 100% of all cows bred artificially by semen
from members of the National Association of Animal Breeders. One phase of work,
covering tenure and reasons for disposal of AI dairy sires, was completed during
the year. A manuscript on this phase has been accepted for publication by the
J. Dairy Sci. Life span and reasons for disposal are up dated from time to
time, and as such have value for stud managers and other owners of sires. There
are several aspects which can be studied which have not been attempted as yet,
and these lie in the areas of theoretical population and quantitative genetics.
Future research emphasis will be on these latter points.


FLA-DY-01271 HEAD H H

GLUCOSE AND FREE FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN THE IMMATURE RUMINANT

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Experiments have been completed on two groups of dairy calves to estimate
parameters of glucose metabolism and effects of age and diet on glucose and
non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Experiments to estimate
effects of age on NEFA metabolism are continuing. Average glucose turnover rate
(utilization rate) data at 2, 5, 8, 12 and 22 wks of calves fed diet I were:
2.52, 2.62, 3.03, 2.45 and 2.01 mg/min/Kg body wt. No statistical difference in
the glucose utilization rate with age was detected, nor were significant
relationships between plasma glucose concentration and utilization rate detected
in diet I fed calves. The within animal correlation of blood glucose and NEFA
(16 hr fast) for calves fed diet I was negative and significant; however, no
significant correlation between plasma glucose and NEFA was observed. Glucose
utilization rates and blood concentration data are being completed for all
calves fed diet II and will be analyzed during the coming year.



FLA-DY-01352 OULL L E SMITH K L KRIENKE W A

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CONCENTRATED MASSES OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING
BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Trials were conducted to determine the effect of pH of the medium during the
growth of cells on their fermenting capacity after being transferred to milk.
The rate of acid production was highest for cells grown at pH 6.0 and lowest for
cells grown at either pH 5.0 or pH 7.0. Plate counts were run on the milk and
it was found that the viable cell count also was highest in the milk inoculated
with cells grown at pH 6.0. When the rate of acid production was adjusted for
the viable cell count present, there was no evidence that the pH at which the
cells were grown had any influence on the fermenting capacity of the cells.









FLA-DY-01370 FOUTS E L

UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA GROWN FRUITS IN ICE CREAP AND SHERBETS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This project was designed to determine the usefulness of Florida grown fruits in
ice cream and sherbets. Tropical fruits are noted for their delicious, unique
flavors and it was thought that if certain of these fruits were experimented
with and good formulas developed for their use in ice cream and sherbets, a new
market could be created for them. It was realized that to be acceptable to
industry, a product must meet with public acceptance and be available at a cost
competitive with other similar flavoring ingredients. The first fruit tried was
the mango. It had been tried by others in past years and while good, had never
gained consumer acceptance as an ice cream flavor. The fruit itself was
practically unknown to many consumers except those living in tropical areas. A
product was made in the form of a sauce acidified with lemon juice, changed in
color from the natural yellow to a red shade, using a stabilizer and corn and
cane products as sweeteners. This sauce was injected into the soft vanilla ice
cream as it was removed from the freezer. It was sent to the Food Service Units
on the campus under the name "Tropical Delight". It was well received and
repeat orders were received. Products made from Florida grown limes were made
into a flavored and colored formulation for the manufacture of sherbet.


FLA-DY-01399 MARSHALL S P BROWNING C B

ENSILED COMPLETE RATIONS FOR LACTATING COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A complete ration comprised of chopped fresh corn, citrus pulp, cottonseed
meal, urea and minerals ensiled satisfactorily and fermentation dry matter
losses were low (2.9 percent). When rations of comparable composition
prepared by three different methods ensiledd complete ration, similar pro-
portions of silage and concentrate fed separately, and comparable proportions
of ingredients blended at feeding time) were fed ad libitum to lactating cows,
there were no significant differences in dry matter intake, milk production,
4 percent fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat test or body weight changes.
Milk production appeared to be lower on the ensiled complete ration.



FLA-DY-01408 WILCOX C J

QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF MILK PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Approximately 50,000 lactation records from DHIA testing programs in Ecuador
have been transferred to the department for punching into data cards. About
10,000 have been punched to date, with the remainder scheduled to be completed
in January 1969. No analyses can be initiated until all cards are punched.
Over 6,700 lactation records from Venezuela are being analyzed with several
analyses completed during the year. Major analyses of this phase of the project
should be complete in early 1969.



FLA-DY-01409 WILCOX C J HEAD H H

SELECTION FOR MILK YIELD IN JERSEYS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
This is a new project with work initiated in July. Objective are to (1)
determine genetic gain in milk yield from using Al sires progeny tested for milk
yield and (2) estimate correlated changes in other economically important traits
resulting from direct selection for milk yield. The experiment station herd,
founded in 1901, has been divided into two groups, a selection group with 49
adult animals and 46 heifers, and a control group of 24 adults and 23 heifers.
Selection animals are being mated to sires of known breeding values; five sires
to date have been used with Predicted Differences of + 710 pounds of milk and +
33 pounds of fat. Six control sires are in use with five additional young
control sires nearly ready for use.









FLA-DY-01422 FOUTS E L WILCOX C J

EFFECTS OF METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND HANDLING OF MILK UPON DEVELOPMENT OF
LIPOLYTIC RANCIDITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Outlined project, made arrangements with Dairy Division, State Department of
Agriculture to supply necessary farm data and milk analyses to study problem.
Have received complete data on 285 farms and 1590 samples of raw milk. This
represents more than half of the dairy farms and an average of over 5 samples
per farm for the year. All farm data should be in during the next calendar
year. Farm data and milk analyses are recorded and ready to put on IBM cards
for analysis.












EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

National recognition for quality work was the highlight of the accomplish-
ments for editorial in 1968. The department won 11 national awards for excellence
in agricultural journalism and communications at the annual conference of the
American Association of Agricultural College Editors. Competing with 50 states,
Puerto Rico, Ontario, and USDA, Florida won seven blue ribbons and four red
ribbons out of the department's 12 entries. The blue ribbons were for daily and
weekly newspaper services, magazine press service, newspaper photo service, daily
radio program, and a daily radio station script service.


FLA-ED-01224 WILLIAMS M C MEURLOTT K B SHARPE M H

FLORIDA RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS METHODS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Research as outlined in original project statement was inactive. Additional
activity of the Editorial Department, however, included processing and
publishing 18 bulletins and circular (including two reprints), publishing a
bimonthly magazine, and writing and distributing news stories and features to
newspapers and magazines.




Publications
The Station printed 41,000 copies of five new bulletins totaling 176 pages
and 102,000 copies of 11 new circulars totaling 180 pages. One bulletin and
one circular were reprinted. These totaled 8,000 copies and 82 pages. During
the year five 16-page issues of Research Report were printed and distributed to
8,000 subscribers. Also, five brochures were printed which described the
activities of the Range Cattle Station, Sub-Tropical Station, Brooksville Beef
Cattle Station, Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, and Beef Research
Unit.

Publications printed were:
Number
Pages Printed
Bul. 723 Calcium and Boron Effects on Growth and
Quality of Florida Peanuts. H. C. Harris......... 20 6,000

Bul. 724 Citrus Pulp for Poultry Litter anIts
Subsequent Feeding Value for Ruminants. R. H.
Harms, C. F. Simpson, P. W. Waldroup, C. B.
Ammerman .......................................... ... 12 10,000

Bul. 725 Nutrient Deficiency Effects on Yield and Chem-
ical Composition of Plants Grown on Leon Fine
Sand. H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder, R. L.
Gilman. ............. ..... ....................... 40 5,000

Bul. 726 Checklist of the Vascular Flora of Florida,
Part I--Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida,
Filicinae, Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae.
D. B. Ward....................................... 76 10,000

Bul. 727 Christmas Tree Production in Florida. S. L.
Beckwith, W. L. Pritchett........... ......... 28 10,000

Cir. S-184 Stylosanthes Humlilis, a Summer-Growing, Self-
Regenerating, Annual Legume for Use in
Florida Pastures. A. E. Kretschmer, Jr.......... 24 10,000

Cir. S-185 Florida 501 Oats. Dale Sechler, W. H. Chapman,
H. H. Luke....................................... 12 10,000

Cir. S-186 Industry Perceptions about the Marketing Agreement
Program for Florida Tomatoes. W. T. Manley, K. M.
Gilbraith........................................ 16 6,000

Cir. S-187 Weekly Rainfall Frequencies in Florida. K. B.
Butson, G. M. Prine............. ................ 44 10,000

Circ. S-188 Florida 17, A High Quality Variety of Cigar-wrapper
Tobacco. C. E. Dean............ ..... .... ........ 12 8,000










Cir. S-189 Florida 20, A Fleck-Resistant Variety of Cigar-
Wrapper Tobacco. C. E. Dean...................... 12 8,000

Cir. S-190 Effect of Phosphate Fertilizers on Pangolagrass
Pastures. E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk, G. K. Davis,
R. L. Shirley, F. M. Peacock, J. F. Easley, H. L.
Breland, F. G. Martin........................... 12 10,000

Cir. S-192 Recommended Practices for a Cow-Calf Program in
Central and South Florida. H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
W. G. Kirk................ ... ... .... .......... 8 10,000

Cir. S-193 Recommended Practices for Fattening Steers for
Home Use in Central and South Florida. H. L.
Chapman, Jr., W. G. Kirk........... .............. 8 10,000

Cir. S-194 Soil Association Map of Gulf County, Florida.
R. G. Leighty, V. W. Carlisle, F. B. Smith........ 24 10,000

Cir. S-195 Stover, An Early Bunch Grape for Central Florida.
J. A. Mortensen, L. H. Stover.................... 8 10,000

Publications reprinted were:

Bul. 631 Beef Production, Soil and Forage Analyses, and
Economic Returns from Eight Pasture Programs in
North Central Florida. M. Koger, W. G. Blue,
G. B. Killinger, R. E. L. Greene, H. C. Harris,
J. M. Myers, A. C. Warnick, N. Gammon, Jr........ 76 3,000

Cir. S-172 Azalea Culture. R. D. Dickey................... 16 20,000





Technical Journal Articles

Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large numbers.
These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few in foreign
countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded to the journals
by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for distribution
when they are printed. The series now contains more than 3,300 listings.
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:

2278 Effect of a Generation of Inbreeding on Genetic Variation in Corn
(Zea mays L.) as Related to Recurrent Selection Procedures. E. S. Horner.
Crop Sci. 8:32-35. Jan. 1968.

2423 Identification and Quantification of Phenolics in the Leaves and Roots
of Healthy and Exocortis-Infected Citrus. A. W. Feldman, R. W. Hanks.
Proc. Fourth Conf. Internat. Org. Citrus Virol. 292-293. 1968.

2427 Phytoseiidae of Sand-Pine Litter. M. H. Muma. Fla. Entomol. 51:1:37-
44. 1968.

2443 Pine Pulpwood Prices in the Southeast. E. T. Sullivan. J. Forestry
134-137. Feb. 1968.

2449 The Effects of Incubation Time, Bruising, and Maturity on the Incidence
and Severity of Brown Rot on Irradiated Peaches. G. D. Kuhn, M. S.
Merkley, R. A. Dennison. Food Technol. 22:903-904. 1968.

2451 Absence or Anomaly of the Gall Bladder in Domestic Rabbits. L. J.
Wallace, L. R. Arrington. Southwestern Veterinarian 21:3:np.
Spring 1968.

2452 The Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Organoleptic Quality of Fresh
Peaches. M. S. Merkley, G. D. Kuhn, R. A. Dennison. Food Technol.
22:901-902. 1968.

2453 Phosphorus and Magnesium Fertilizer Studies with Pepper. H. Y. Ozaki,
J. R. Iley. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93:462-469. 1968.

2458 The Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Heat Tolerance of Chickens
R. W. Dorminey, H. R. Wilson, I. J. Ross, J. E. Jones. Quart. J. Fla.
Acad. of Sci. 30:4:316-320. Dec. 1967.











2474 Reproductive Behavior of Bos indicus Females in a Subtropical Environ-
ment. I. Puberty and Ovulation Frequency in Brahman and Brahman x
British Heifers. D. Plasse, A. C. Warnick, M. Koger. J. Anim. Sci.
27:1:94-100. Jan. 1968.

2476 Reproductive Behavior of Bos indicus Females in a Subtropical Environ-
ment. II. Gestation Length in Brahman Cattle. D. Plasse, A. C.
Warnick, M. Koger. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1:101-104. Jan. 1968.

2477 Reproductive Behavior of Bos indicus Females in a Subtropical Environ-
ment. III. Calving Intervals, Intervals from First Exposure to
Conception and Interval from Parturition to Conception. D. Plasse,
M. Koger, A. C. Warnick. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1:105-112. Jan. 1968.

2479 Evidence for Restriction of a Plant Virus to Phloem Cells. W. C.
Price. Internat. Symposium on Plant Pathol. 21:2:159-166. June 1968.

2620 Oxygen Tension as a Control Mechanism in Pollen Tube Rupture. R. G.
Stanley, H. F. Linskens. Science 157:3790:833-834. Jan. 1968.

2621 A Method for Measuring the Water-Soluble Volatile Constituents of
Citrus Juices and Products. M. H. Dougherty. Food Technol. 22:11:
1455. Nov. 1968.

2624 Chemical Changes in Tile Drain Filters and Ditch Banks Caused by
Anaerobiosis. H. W. Ford, B. C. Beville. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 11:1:
41-42. 1968.

2627 Influence of Artificially Induced Coccidiosis on the Methionine Require-
ment of Laying Hens. R. H. Harms, B. L. Damron, R. E. Bradley. Avian
Diseases 11:4:556-558. 1967.

2636 The Nature of the Atherosclerotic Plaque of the Aorta of Turkeys. C.
F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. J. Atherosclerosis Res. 8:1:143-153. 1968.

2637 Insect Abundance on Tomatoes and Squash Mulched with Aluminum and
Plastic Sheetings. D. O. Wolfenbarger, W. D. Moore. J. Econ.
Entomol. 61:1:34-36. Feb. 1968.

2648 Cytological Examination of Pangolagrass (Digitatia decumbens Stent)
Infected with Stunt Virus. S. C. Schank, J. R. Edwardson. Crop. Sci.
8:118-119. Jan. 1968.

2657 Influence of Protein Restriction During the Growing Period upon
Subsequent Performance of Chickens. R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson. Fed.
Proc., Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 27:3:920-922. May-June 1968.

2664 Brood Rearing by Caged Honey Bees in Response to Inositol and Certain
Pollen Fractions in Their Diet. J. L. Nation, F. A. Robinson. Annals
Entomol. Soc. of Amer. 61:2:514-517. Mar. 1968.

2670 Micronutrient Effects on the in vitro Growth and Pathogenicity of
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. S. S. Woltz, J. P. Jones.
Phytopathology 58:3:336-338. Mar. 1968.

2671 Ecology of Submersed Aquatic Weeds in South Florida Canals. R. D.
Blackburn, P. F. White, L. W. Weldon. Weed Sci. 16:2:261-266. Apr.
1968.

2680 Effects of Cytokinins on the Absorption of Victorin. H. H. Luke, T.
E. Freeman. Phytopathology 58:2:258-259. Feb. 1968.

2681 Anthelmintic Activity of Thiabendazole and Trichlorphon against
Migrating and Adult Strongyloides ransomi in Suckling and Weanling
Pigs. S. E. Leland, G. E. Combs, L. J. Wallace. Amer. J. Vet. Res.
29:4:797-806. Apr. 1968.

2683 Incidence of Airborne Fungal Spores over Watermelon Fields in Florida.
N. C. Schenck. Phytopathology 58:1:91-94. Jan. 1968.

2686 Irradiation Effects on the Ripening of Kent Mangoes. R. A. Dennison,
E. M. Ahmed. J. Food Sci. 32:6:702-705. 1968.

2689 In Vitro Egg Production of Cooperia oncophora. S. E. Leland, Jr. J.
Parasitol. 54:1:136. Feb. 1968.

2690 Confidence Limits for Twin Efficiency Values. F. G. Martin, C. J.
Wilcox. J. Dairy Sci. 51:3:463-464. 1968.











2693 Development of the Horizontal Root System, Height, and DBH of Young
Planted Slash Pine. C. M. Kaufman. Forest Sci. 14:3:265-274.
Sept. 1968.

2696 Herbicide Soil Persistence and Effect on Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus
rotundus L.). W. E. Waters, D. S. Burgis. Weeds 16:2:149-151. Apr.
1968.

2704 Phenolic Content in the Roots and Leaves of Tolerant and Susceptible
Citrus Cultivars Attacked by Radopholus Similis. A. W. Feldman,
R. W. Hanks. Phytochemistry 7:5-12. 1968.

2705 Effects of Uterine Horn of Pregnancy on Birth Weights and Gestation
Length of Dairy Calves. C. J. Wilcox. J. Reprod. and Fertility
16:197-200. 1968.

2707 Beta-Aminopropionitrile Induced Aortic Ruptures in Turkeys: Inhibition
by Reserpine and Enhancement by Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. C. F.
Simpson, J. M. Kling, R. C. Robbins, R. H. Harms. Toxicol. and Appl.
Pharmcol. 12:48-59. Jan. 1968.

2708 Certain Physical Properties of Cabbage Related to Harvest Mechanization.
L. H. Halsey, J. F. Beeman, D. R. Hensel, W. W. Deen, Jr., V. L.
Guzman. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:438-445. 1968.

2712 Effect of Feeding Long Hay or Sodium Bicarbonate with Ground or Pelleted
Diets High in Citrus Pulp on Lamb Performance. P. E. Loggins, C. B.
Ammerman, J. E. Moore, C. F. Simpson. J. Anim. Sci. 27:3:745-750.
May 1968.

2713 The Mechanism of Mitochondrial Extrusion from Phenylhydrazine-induced
Reticulocytes in the Circulating Blood. C. F. Simpson, J. M. Kling.
J. Cell. Biol. 36:1:103-109. 1968.

2714 Propylene Glycol as an Energy Source for Poultry. J. N. Persons, B.
L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup, R. H. Harms. Pultry Sci. 47:2:351-353.
Mar. 1968.

2715 Transfer of Blue Mold Resistance into F1 Tobacco Hybrids. C. E. Dean,
H. E. Heggestad, J. J. Grosso. Crop Sci. 8:93-96. Jan.-Feb. 1968.

2718 Changes in Titratable Acidity of Tomato Fruits Subjected to Low
Temperatures. C. B. Hall. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 3:1:np. 1968.

2719 Treatment of Strongyloides Ransomi Infection of Pigs with Thiabendazole
and Dichlorvos. S. E. Leland, Jr., F. C. Neal, C. B. Plummer, Jr.
Amer. J. Vet. Res. 29:6:1235-1240. June 1968.

2720 Phosphorus Fertilization of Pangolagrass Pastures and Phosphorus, Calcium,
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit in Blood of Cows. R. L. Shirley, J. F.
Easley, J. T. McCall, G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, and E. M. Hodges. J.
Anim. Sci. 27:3:757-765. May 1968.

2721 Influence of Various Dietary Factors on Bone Fragility of Caged Layers.
L. O. Rowland, Jr., R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson, E. M. Ahmed, P. W.
Waldroup, J. L. Fry. Poultry Sci. 47:2:507-511. Mar. 1968.

2724 Effect of Soil Strength on Root Penetration in Coarse-Textured Soils.
J. G. A. Fiskell, V. W. Carlisle, A. Kashirad, C. E. Hutton. Ninth
Internat. Cong. of Soil Sci. 1:Paper 80:793-802. nd.

2728 The Use of Propranolol for the Protection of Turkeys from the Develop-
ment of Beta-Aminopropionitrile Induced Aortic Ruptures. C. F.
Simpson, J. M. Kling, F. R. Palmer. Angiology 19:7:414-418. July-
Aug. 1968.

2730 Mitotic Inhibition and Histological Changes Induced by Helminthosporum
Victoriae Toxin in Susceptible Oats (Avena byzantina C. Koch). R. M.
Singh, A. T. Wallace. Crop Sci. 8:143-146. Mar.-Apr. 1968.

2731 In Vitro Germination and Pollen Tube Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.)
Pollen. II. Pollen Source, Calcium and Boron Interactions. P. L.
Pfahler. Canadian J. Bot. 46:235-240. 1968.

2732 Leaching of Seven s-Triazines. E. G. Rodgers. Weeds 16:2:117-120.
Apr. 1968.









2733 Relationship of Water Salinity and Fluorides to Keeping Quality of
Chrysanthemum and Gladiolus Cut-Flowers. E. W. Waters. Proc. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:633-640. 1968.

2734 Relationship of Dietary Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (MSBC) and
Vitamin A to Blood Spot Incidence and Prothrombin Time of Laying Hens.
J. L. Fry, P. W. Waldroup, B. L. Damron, R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson.
Poultry Sci. 47:2:630-634. Mar. 1968.

2735 Ultramicroscopic Differences in Inclusions of Papaya Mosaic Virus and
Papaya Ringspot Virus, Correlated with Differential Aphid Transmission.
F. W. Zettler, J. R. Edwardson, D. E. Purcifull. Phytopathology 58:3:
332-335. Mar. 1968.

2736 Yield and Nutrient Removal by Corn (Zea mays L.) for Grain as Influenced
by Fertilizer, Plant Population, and Hybrid. W. K. Robertson, L. G.
Thompson, L. C. Hammond. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 32:2:245-249. Mar.-Apr.
1968.

2737 The Performance of Laying Hens Fed Normal and Low Protein Between 8 and
18 Weeks of Age. C. F. Wright, B. L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup, R. H.
Harms. Poultry Sci. 47:2:635-638. Mar. 1968.

2738 Occurrence of Brevipalpus Mites, Leprosis, and False Leprosis on Citrus
in Florida. L. C. Knorr, H. A. Denmark, H. C. Burnett. Fla. Entomol.
51:1:11-17. 1968.

2740 Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Pectic Substances in Citrus Fruits.
A. H. Rouse, R. A. Dennison. J. Food Sci. 33:258-261. 1968.

2743 Synthesis of (-)-B-methoxysynephrine. I. Stewart, T. A. Wheaton. J.
Org. Chem. 33:471-472. 1968.

2753 Harvesting and Market Preparation Techniques for Florida Lemons. W.
Grierson. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:797-806. 1968.

2754 Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of 1,1-Dimethyl- and 2-Methyl-4-
phenylsemicarbazides. M. Wilcox. J. Medicinal Chem. 11:171. 1968.

2755 Studies on the Aroma of Intact 'Hamlin' Oranges. J. A. Attaway, M. F.
Oberbacher. J. Food Sci. 33:287-289. 1968.

2756 Iodine Uptake by Ova of Hens Given Excess Iodine and Effect upon Ova
Development. N. A. Marcilese, R. H. Harms, R. M. Valsecchi, L. R.
Arrington. J. Nutrition 94:2:117-120. Feb. 1968.

2758 The Inheritance of Resistance to Pierce's Disease in Vitis. J. A.
Mortensen. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:331-337. 1968.

2759 Performance of Broiler Breeder Pullets as Influenced by Composition of
Grower and Layer Diets. R. H. Harms, B. L. Damron, H. R. Wilson.
Brit. Poultry Sci. 9:359-366. 1968.

2760 Effects of Phosphorus Sources and Copper Rates on Watermelons. S. J.
Locascio, P. H. Everett, J. G. A. Fiskell. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
92:583-589. 1968.

2763 Effect of Xanthomonas Vesicatoria on Loss of Electrolytes from Leaves of
Capsicum Annum. A. A. Cook, R. E. Stall. Phytopathology 58:5:617-619.
May 1968.

2766 Ultrastructural Features of the Turkey Thrombocyte and Lymphocyte. C. F.
Simpson. Poultry Sci. 47:3:848-850. May 1968.

2769 Biochemical and Serological Characteristics of Vibrio Isolants from Cat-
tle. A. F. Walsh, F. H. White. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 29:7:1377-1383.
July 1968.

2770 A Review of Avian Osteopetrosis: Comparison with Other Bone Diseases. C.
F. Simpson, V. L. Sanger. Clin. Orthopaedics 58:271-281. May 1968.

2772 Tolerance of Liluim Longiflorum 'Georgia' to Several Herbicides. W. E.
Waters. Proc. So. Weed Conf. 210-213. Jan. 1968.

2773 Mode of Entry of Diplodia Natalensis and Phomopsis Citri into Florida
Oranges. G. E. Brown, W. C. Wilson. Phytopathology 58:6:736-739.
June 1968.











2774 Structure of Organophosphorus Compounds in Relation to Control of the
Southern Chinch Bug. S. H. Kerr. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 61:2:523-525.
Apr. 1968.

2776 Performance of First-Calf Dairy Heifers under a Limited-Season Early-
Freshening Management System. C. J. Wilcox. J. Dairy Sci. 51:4:591-
594. 1968.

2777 The Effect of Temperature Treatments on Growth and the Metabolism of
Ribonucleic Acid in Relation to Cell Division and Cell Elongation of
Pisum Satiuum Roots. H. K. Kung, S. H. West. Physiologia Plantarum 21:
827-832. 1968.

2778 The Chinsegut Hill-McCarty Woods, Hernando County, Florida. S. L.
Beckwith. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 30:4:250-268. Dec. 1967.

2780 Changes in Volatile Flavor Constituents of Canned Single-Strength Orange
Juice as Influenced by Storage Temperature. K. S. Rymal, R. W. Wolford,
E. M. Ahmed, R. A. Dennison. Food Technol. 22:12:1592-1595. 1968.

2781 The Storage of Exogenous Sucrose by Corn Scutellum Slices. T. E.
Humphreys, L. A. Garrard. Phytochemistry 7:701-713. 1968.

2785 Techniques for Investigating Tillage Pans and Associated Corn Root Devel-
opment. V. W. Carlisle, J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 27:159-166. 1967.

2787 Nuclear Crystal in Zinnia and Other Non-Solanaceous Plants Infected with
Tobacco Etch Virus. D. E. Purcifull, J. R. Edwardson. Phytopathology
58:4:532-533. Apr. 1968.

2788 Effect of NaC1 on Pangolagrass Growth and Soil Analysis. C. L. Dantzman,
E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:24-29.
1967.

2789 Potential Uses of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.). G. B. Killinger. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:4-11. 1967.

2790 A New Look at Alfalfa for Florida. O. C. Ruelke, G. M. Prine. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:106-114. 1967.

2791 Growth Regulator Studies on Soybeans, Sweetclover and Alfalfa. V. N.
Schroder, G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:115-122.
1967.

2792 Placement.of Fertilizer on Cabbage. D. R. Hensel. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:227-234. 1967.

2793 Evaluation of the Nutrient Intensity and Balance System of Soil Testing.
C. M. Geraldson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:59-67. 1967.

2794 Hybrid Vigor in Intervarietal Rye Crosses. D. Sechler, W. H. Chapman.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:81-87. 1967.

2795 Small Grain Forage Observations in North Florida. I. Effect of Variety
and Species Mixtures on Forage Yields of Oats and Rye. D. Sechler, W.
H. Chapman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:68-72. 1967.

2796 Small Grain Forage Observations in North Florida. II. Effect of Rate of
Seeding and Row Spacing on Forage Yields of Oat Varieties Differing in
Growth Habit. D. Sechler, W. H. Chapman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 27:72-77. 1967.

2797 Small Grain Forage Observations in North Florida. III. Effect of Sub-
soiling Legumes on Forage Yields of Oats and Rye. D. Sechler, W. H.
Chapman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.'27:78-81. 1967.

2798 Retention of Fertilizer Elements in Flatwood Soil Profiles. C. L.
Dantzman, E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
27:20-24. 1967.

2799 Influence of Fertilization Rate and Grass Variety on Extractable Potas-
sium and Phosphorus in Flatwoods Soils. C. L. Dantzman, J. E. McCaleb,
E. M. Hodges. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:30-34. 1967.

2826 Thiabendazole, an Experimental Fungicide for Fresh Citrus Fruit. A. A.
McCornack. G.E. Brown. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80:232-237. 1967.










2856 Partially Acidulated Rock Phosphate as a Source of Phosphorus for Oat
and Tomato Plants in Lakeland and Leon Sands. C. C. Hortenstine. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:305-313. 1967.

2865 Cytological Investigations in the Genus Digitaria. S. C. Schank, H. F.
Decker. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:96-101. 1967.

2866 Maize Culture in Perennial Grass Sods Controlled by Herbicides. G. M.
Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:122-132. 1967.

2867 Studies on Germination and Dormancy of Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle)
Stapf from Tropical Africa. J. M. Baskin, S. C. Schank, S. H. West.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:90-96. 1967.

2870 Fruit Quality of Fresh Strawberries as Influenced by Nitrogen and Potas-
sium Nutrition. G. K. Saxena, S. J. Locascio. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
92:354-362. 1968.

2871 Contributions to Flora of Florida--3. Evolvulus (Convolvulaceae). D.
B. Ward. Castenea 33:76-79. 1968.

2872 Derivatives of (+)-limonene: The Effect of Chain Length in N-Alkyl
Quaternary Ammonium Derivatives on Plant Growth Retardant Activity. A.
P. Pieringer, W. F. Newhall. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 16:3:523-524.
May-June 1968.

2876 Evaluation of Several Grain and Forage Sorghum Varieties Grown on South
Florida Sandy Soil. F. T. Boyd. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
27:87-90. 1967.

2877 Soil Management Studies on Norfolk Loamy Fine Sand: 1. Effect of Crop
Rotations and Limestone on Crop fields and Soil Fertility. L. G.
Thompson, Jr., W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
27:2b8-280. 1967.

2878 Soil Management Studies on Norfolk Loamy Fine Sand: 2. Effect of Lime-
stone and Fertilizers on Crop Yields and Soil Fertility. L. G.
Thompson, Jr., W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:
281-292. 1967.

2879 A Morphological and Genetic Study of Some Fine-Textured Soils of West
Florida: 1. Marlboro and Faceville. C. L. Dantzman, R. E. Caldwell.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:177-189. 1967.

2880 Effects of Soft Rock Phosphate Upon Citrus Seedling Roots and in Soil.
J. G. A. Fiskell, R. B. Diamond, E. A. Brams. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 27:313-321. 1967.

2882 Effect of Mulches and Fertilizer on Cabbage Yield and Soil Fertility.
B. A. Bustillo, D. F. Rothwell, R. B. Forbes, W. T. Scudder. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:170-176. 1967.

2883 Differences in Tissue Composition of Pine (Pinus elliotti Engelm) in
Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cone Production. W. H. Smith, R.
G. Stanley. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.. Proc. 27:292-299. 1967.

2884 Comparison of Several Soil Testing Procedures on Different Soils. H. L.
Breland, J. NeSmith. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:49-58.
1967.

2885 Evaluation of Some Laboratory Procedures for Determining Calcium and
Magnesium. W. K. Robertson, C. E. Hutton, H. W. Lundy, H. L. Breland.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:212-219. 1967.

2886 Some Chemical Properties of Aluminum and Hydroxy-Aluminum Ions on a
Cation Exchange Resin. T. L. Yuan. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
27:203-211. 1967.

2887 The Effect of Various Fertilizer Materials on the Availability of Several
Manganese Sources to Plants. M. L. Carroll, N. Gammon, Jr. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:251-258. 1967.

2889 Deep Profile Studies of Soil Genesis and Weathering in Okeechobee County.
J. G. A. Fiskell, L. O. Rowland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
27:142-150. 1967.

2890 Aggregation of Mineral and Organic Matter in Ona and Leon Fine Sands.
G. M. Volk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:150-159. 1967.


73











2891 Metabolism of Iodoacetic Acid by 'Pineapple' and 'Valencia' Orange Leaves.
T. J. Facteau, C. H. Hendershott, R. H. Biggs. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci.
Proc. 92:195-202. 1968.

2892 Influence of Underground Asphalt Barriers on Water Retention and Move-
ment in Lakeland Fine Sand. L. C. Hammond, H. W. Lundy, G. K. Saxena.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:11-19. 1967.

2893 A Morphological and Genetic Study of Some Fine-Textured Soils of West
Florida: II. Magnolia and Greenville. R. E. Caldwell, C. L. Dantzman.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:190-203. 1967.

2894 Effect of Fertilizer Treatment on Composition of Flue-Cured Tobacco.
H. L. Breland, W. L. Pritchett, H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 27:235-242. 1967.

2895 Seed Set Temperature Relationships as Measured in a Digitaria milanjiana
Cross. Mayo Vega-Luna, S. C. Schank, O. C. Ruelke. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:101-106. 1967.

2896 Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Yield of Sweet Potatoes,
Cabbage and Cauliflower Grown on Norfolk Loamy Fine Sand in North Florida.
H. H. Byran, W. K. Robertson, F. G. Martin. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 27:259-267. 1967.

2897 Intraseasonal Variations in Dry Weight and Phosphorus Content of Tomato
Leaves. P. G. Orth. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:300-305.
1967,

2898 Effects of Phosphate Sources on Copper and Zinc Movement from Mixed
Fertilizers and Banded Placement. J. G. A. Fiskell, H. L. Breland, S.
J. Locascio, P. H. Everett. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:
35-49. 1967.

2899 Contributions to the Flora of Florida--4, Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae). D.
B. Ward. Castanea. 33:123-135. 1968.

2900 Dieffenbachia, a Useful Laboratory Host for Maintaining the Spirea Aphid.,
I. R. Evans, F. W. Zettler. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:3:876. June 1968.

2901 Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils and Filter Materials in Florida Wetland
Citrus. H. W. Ford, D. B. Calvert, B. C. Beville. Trans. Amer. Soc.
Agr. Eng. 11:4:566-567. 1968.

2904 Effects of Four Herbicides on Growth and Yield of Orange Trees. G. F.
Ryan, D. W. Kretchman. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93:160-165. 1968.

2905 Quantitative Changes in Organic Acids in Roots and Leaves from Grape-
fruit Seedlings Infected with Radopholus similis. R. W. Hanks, A. W.
Feldman. Phytopathology 58:5:706-707. May 1968.

2906 Rates of Calcium Loss and Production of Clover-Grass Herbage at Four
Lime Levels on Leon Fine Sand. N. Gammon, Jr., W. G. Blue. Soil Sci.
106:5:369-373. Nov. 1968.

2908 The Value of Masonex for Use in Broiler Diets. B. L. Damron, R. H.
Harms. Poultry Sci. 47:4:1330-1333. July 1968.

2911 Evaluation of Parbendazole as an Anthelmintic in Cattle. R. E. Bradley.
Amer. J. Vet. Res. 29:10:1979-1982. Oct. 1968.

2912 Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of the Pickleworm on Summer Squash
R. E. Waites, D. H. Habeck. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:4:1097-1099. Aug.
1968.

2913 Area Control of the Horn Fly with Coumaphos. M. J. Janes, B. W. Hayes,
D. W. Beardsley. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:5:1176-1178. Oct. 1968.

2916 Aluminum Foil and White Polyethylene Mulches to Repel Aphids and Control
Watermelon Mosaic. W. C. Adlerz, P. H. Everett. J. Econ. Entomol.
61:5:1276-1279. Oct. 1968.

2919 Germination of Oat (Avena byzantina C. Kock) Pollen on Artificial Media.
A. T. Wallace, P. Karbassi. Crop Sci. 8:506-507. July-Aug. 1968.

2922 Effects of Three Rootstocks and Three Soil Temperatures on Growth of
'Orlando' Tangelos. J. E. Northey, C. H. Hendershott, J. F. Gerber.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93:199-204. 1968.

74









2924 High Levels of Dietary Iodine for Delaying Sexual Maturity of Egg Produc-
tion Type Pullets. H. R. Wilson, L. R. Arrington, and R. H. Harms.
Poultry Sci. 47:5:1535-1539. Sept. 1968.

2925 Reduction of Incidence of Diethylstilbestrol Induced Aortic Ruptures in
Turkeys by Iodinated Casein. C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. Soc. Exp.
Biol. and Med. 128:863-867. 1968.

2926 Pathogenicity and Control of Pratylenchus Penetrans on Leatherleaf Fern.
H. L. Rhoades. Plant Disease Reporter 52:5:383-385. May 1968.

2927 Production of Yellow Strapleaf of Chrysanthemum and Similar Diseases with
an Antimetabolite Produced by Aspergillus wentii. S. S. Woltz, R. H.
Littrell. Phytopathology 58:11:1476-1480. Nov. 1968.

2929 Epidemiology of Gummy Stem Blight (Mycosphaerella citrullina) on Water-
melon: Ascospore Incidence and Disease Development. N. C. Schenck.
Phytopathology 58:10:1420-1422. Oct. 1968.

2931 Virus Disease Resistance in Some Capsicium Species from South America.
A. A. Cook. Plant Disease Reporter 52:5:381-383. May 1968.

2932 Heterosis and Homeostasis in Secale Montanum Guss. x S. Cereale L.
Hybrids. I. Vegetative Growth and Development. P. L. Pfahler. Crop
Sci. 8:663-666. Nov.-Dec. 1968.

2933 Heterosis and Homeostasis in Secale Montanum Guss. x S. Cereale L.
Hybrids. II. Reproductive Characteristics. Crop Sci. 8:667-670. Nov.-
Dec. 1968.

2934 Isolation of Citrosamine from Citrus Leaves. I. Stewart, T. A. Wheaton.
Phytochemistry 7:1679-1681. 1968.

2938 Inhibition of Growth and Increased Mortality of Mexican Bean Beetle
Larvae Fed with Thiamin and Pyridoxine Antagonists and Reversal of
Effect with Vitamin Supplementation. S. Gothilf, R. E. Waites.
Entomologia Experimentals et Applicata 1:11:261-268. 1968.

2940 Aerobic Fermentation and Phosphofructokinase in Tissue Slices of the
Corn Scuttelum. L. A. Garrard, T. E. Humphreys. Phytochemistry 7:
1949-1961. 1968.

2942 Reproductive Biology of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer. 1. Rearing Tech-
nique. K. J. Stone. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:6:1712-1714. Dec. 1968.

2944 Electron Microscopy of Diethylstilbestrol Induced Coronary Athero-
sclerosis of Turkeys. C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms. Exp. and Mol. Pathol.
9:1:34-43. Aug. 1968.

2949 Yolk Pigmenting Value of Dried Kenaf Tops. J. L. Fry, G. M. Herrick,
R. H. Harms. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 30:4:295-308. Dec. 1967.

2956 Inhibition of Xanthomonas vesicatoria in Extracts from Hypersensitive
and Susceptible Pepper Leaves. R. E. Stall, A. A. Cook. Phytopathology
58:12:1584-1587. Dec. 1968.

2971 An In Vitro Method for Determination of Degree of Intravascular Aggrega-
tion of Blood Cells. K. M. Brooks, R. C. Robbins. Lab. Invest. 19:6:
580. 1968.

2972 Aphelenchoides fragariae in Aquatic Plants. G. C. Smart, Jr., R. P.
Esser. Plant Disease Reporter 52:6:455. June 1968.

2979 Re-establishment of Trichodorus christiei Subsequent to Soil Fumigation
in Central Florida. H. L. Rhoades. Plant Disease Reporter 52:7:573-
575. July 1968.

2980 DDT Resistance in Barley, Hordeum vulgare. I. Induced Mutants for Resist-
ance. A. T. Wallace, F. O. Rillo, R. M. Browning. Radiat. Bot. 8:
381-388. 1968.

2982 Distribution of Trichoplusia ni Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Plants
Related to Sampling Efficiency. G. L. Greene. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:6:
1648-1650. Dec. 1968.

2991 A Method of Evaluating Pesticide Application Equipment for Florida
Citrus. R. C. Bullock, R. F. Brooks, J. D. Whitney. J. Econ. Entomol.
61:6:1511-1514. Dec. 1968.








/
2995 Chilling Injury in Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: II. Limes and
Grapefruit. E. B. Pantastico, J. Soule, W. Grierson. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 11:82-91. 1968.

3000 Substances that Attract Caged Honeybee Colonies to Consume Pollen Sup-
plements and Substitutes. F. A. Robinson, J. L. Nation. J. Apicult.
Res. 7:2:83-88. 1968.

3005 Some Generie Descriptions and Name Changes in the Family Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). M. H. Muma, H. A. Denmark. Fla. Entomol. 51:
4:229-240. 1968.

3009 Reproductive Biology of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer. II. Cage Conditions
and Sex Ratios for Mating. K. J. Stone. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:6:1715-
1716. Dec. 1968.

3012 Residues of 2-Methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde 0-(rMethylcarbamoyl)-
oxaime (Temik) in Citrus Following Soil Applications. R. Hendrickson,
W. R. Meagher. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 16:6:903-905. Nov.-Dec. 1968.

3017 Comparison of a Phosphorimetric Procedure for Parathion on Celery with
the Averell-Norris and Electron Capture Methods. H. A. Moye. J. Assoc.
Offic. Anal. Chem. 51:6:1260-1264. Nov. 1968.

3022 Record of Neodiprion warren (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) in Florida. R.
C. Wilkinson. Fla. Entomol. 51:3:np. 1968.

3026 Occurrence of a Turnip Mosaic Virus in Florida. D. E. Purcifull. Plant
Disease Reporter 52:10:759-760. Oct. 1968.

3027 Relationship of Blood Pressure of Hens to Blood Spot Incidence in Eggs.
J. L. Fry, H. R. Wilson, G. M. Herrick. Poultry Sci. 47:5:1639-1640.
Sept. 1968.

3028 Artificial Diet for the Zoysiagrass Billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Notes on Its Biology. K. Kovitavadhi,
S. H. Kerr. Fla. Entomol. 51:4:247-250. 1968.

3032 Disruption of Plant Virus Inclusions in Extracts by Negative Staining
with Phosphotungstate. D. E. Purcifull. Virology 36:4:690-693. Dec.
1968.

3034 A Revision of the Neotropical Biting Midges of the Hylas Group of
Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). W. W. Wirth, F. S. Blanton. Fla.
Entomol. 51:4:251-252. 1968.

3039 Lifting and Transplanting Sugarcane Ratoon Stools. T. W. Casselman, F.
Le Grand. Sugar y Azucar. Dec. 1968.

3040 Occurrence of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. nasturtii Causing Crook
Root of Watercress in Florida and Pennsylvania. J. O. Strandberg. Plant
Disease Reporter 52:11:859. Nov. 1968.

3043 Vein Banding on Tobacco in North Florida. C. E. Dean, F. r"ark. Plant
Disease Reporter 52:11:888-889. Nov. 1968.

3046 Tests for Audible and Ultrasonic Sound Production by Stored Product
Insects. D. P. Wojcik. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:5:1414-1417. Oct. 1968.

3048 Subirrigation and Fertilization of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds. F.
M. Rhoads. Tobacco 167:23:60-62. nd.

3049 Experimental Fungicide Applied Preharvest for Control of Postharvest
Decay in Florida Citrus Fruit. G. E. Brown. Plant Disease Reporter
52:11:844-847. Nov. 1968.

3050 Evaluation of Various Bird-Resistant and Non-Resistant Varieties of
Grain Sorghum for Use in Broiler Diets. B. L. Damron, G. M. Prine,
R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 47:5:1648-1650. Sept. 1968.

3060 Performance and Phytotoxicity of Three Fentins in Citrus Rust Mite
Control in Florida. R. C. Bullock, R. B. Johnson. Fla. Entomol. 51:4:
223-227. 1968.

3068 A Comparison of Bone Strength of Caged and Floor Layers and Roosters.
L. O. Rowland, Jr., H. R. Wilson, J. L. Fry, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci.
47:6:2013-2015. Nov. 1968.










3076 Fungicidal Control of Watermelon Downy Mildew and Its Relationship to
First Infection in the Field. N. C. Schenck. Plant Disease Reporter
52:12:979-981. Dec. 1968.








ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Dr. Jerry F. Butler was employed on August 16, 1968 to fill a new
position as assistant professor of entomology, primarily to conduct research
on the insect parasites of domestic animals. Dr. O. J. Dickerson, associate
professor at Kansas State University, began a one year sabbatical leave period
with this department effective July 1, 1968. He is working primarily with
Dr. G. C. Smart, Jr. on research on the root-knot nematodes of Florida.
Shifts in research emphasis pertaining to the insect and nematode pests
continue so that work of a more fundamental nature is increased. However,
the problems in Florida are so severe that major efforts to control the pests
must be continued. Much time has been devoted to efforts to control and contain
such relatively new pests as the Caribbean fruit fly and the citrus root
weevil. The most consequential developments in nematology have been the
elucidation of information pertaining to biotypes within species of root-knot
and sting nematodes.



FLA-EY-00678 KERR S H

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Nematode control data taken at the conclusion cf a lawn caterpillar control test
on Tifdwarf bermudagrass, showed that small dosages of Dasanit,0,0-diethyl
0-p-(methyl-sulfinyl)phenyl phosphorothioate, applied repeatedly fox caterpillar
control did not at the same time provide nematode control. Dasanit at a single
nematicidal application of 20 lb active/A gave 4-5 weeks of satisfactory
caterpillar control. At a 10 Ib dosage, 3-4 weeks of good caterpillar control
were realized. Akton, 0-(2-chloro-1-[2,5 dichlorophenyl]vinyl)0,0-diethyl
phosphorothioate, at 2 lb active/A, would apparently have to be applied every
3-4 weeks under these conditions, and carbaryl, at 5 lb, every 1-1 1/2 weeks to
provide good caterpillar control. Further studies on earwigs showed 3 to 4
generations per year in the field for Labidura riparia, with the cycle from egg
to adult averaging 56 days under laboratory conditions. Moisture was critical
in their development, and in the field, populations appeared to increase and
decrease in relation to rainfall. Mass rearing of L. riparia was not successful
in the laboratory. Topical application established base line susceptibilities!
to diazinon, Baygon and chlordane. More limited biological observations were
made on Euborellia annulipes and Dorn aculeatum.



?T.A-EY-00996 KERR S H

TOXICOLOGY OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Preliminary studies were begun on determining levels of resistance to
insecticides by certain economically important arthropod populations, and also
on establishing base lines of susceptibility to newer insecticides. Corn
earworms will be one of the first to be studied. A "standard," presumably
non-resistant, population has been established in the laboratory, with details
of rearing technique still being developed. Populations from various
representative areas of Florida will be compared. A similar study has been
attempted with the citrus rust mite, although modifications made to the
laboratory rearing area have not so far established an environment permitting
continuous mass rearing of these mites.



FLA-EY-01098 SMART G C

PLANT NEMATODE PROBLEMS ON TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The nematicide test on Ormond bermudagrass using materials currently on the
market was reported for a 7 month period last year. After 11 months Nemagon was
providing good control of Criconemoides and Belonolaimus. Mocap was providing
some control of Pratylenchus but not others. Dasanit was providing some control
of Belonolaimus only. Sarolex and Zinophos were providing no apparent control.
Plots were retreated after one year on May 20, 1968. One month and 7 months
after retreatment Nemagon was providing excellent control of Criconemoides and
Belonolaimus. Pratylenchus and Trichodorus were too few in number to evaluate.
Other materials showed some initial control. Beginning the second month after
retreatment more Belonolaimus were found in plots treated with Mocap than in
other plots. Mocap was providing good control of Pratylenchus. Centipedegrass











was treated with Furadan, Lannate, Bayer 68138, Zinophos plus Thimet, and
Nemagon. Nemagon treated plots were stunted soon after treatment but recovered
after 2 months. Plots treated with Zinophos plus Thimet and 2 plots treated
with Lannate showed reddish discoloration 2-1/2 months (October) after treatment
which did not disappear by the first frost. Nemagon at 86 lb/acre was the only
material which provided effective and lasting control (4 months or longer) of
Criconemoides. Other nematodes were too sporadic in occurrence to evaluate. A
replicated experiment on a golf green resulted in poor control of Hoploliaimus
gaientus by Dasanit, Mocap or Bay 68138.



FLA-EY-01108 WILKINSON R C

BIOLOGY OF IPS BARK BETTLES (COLEOPTERA: SCOLTYIDAE) ATTACKING SLASH AND
LONGLEAF PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
No new expmtl. data was gathered. Data from 1965-67 was summarized and
analyzed. A ms. was submitted for publication.



FLA-EY-01177 PERRY V G

ERADICATION AND PREVENTION OF NEMATODES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The nematicides, Zinophos, Mocap, Dasinit, Bay 68138, and several experimental
compounds were used for the control of nematodes on ornamental plants.
Different rates, formulations, and methods of application were tested for
effectiveness in controlling or eradicating the burrowing, root-knot and lesion
nematodes. The four nematicides listed above eradicated nematodes or reduced
populations to very low levels, when used at the rate of 600 to 800 ppm as
bare-root dips or as soil drenches. Dipping the containers with soil and roots
in place in the nematicides was less effective. Incorporating granular
formulations of these nematicides, in the soil, was the most effective method
of application provided rates were figured to incorporate the same amount of
active chemical in a given volume of soil. This is a higher rate than
recommended commercially. Zinophos, Bay 68138 and Nocap at 32 pounds per acre
reduced populations of Pratylenchus on leather-leaf fern in nursery plant beds
from 73 to 90%. None of the treatments eradicated the nematodes. Of the newer
nematicides tested Thompson Hayward TH 427-1 and Chemagro 7375 at 500 ppm as
bare-root dips and soil drenches eradicated root-knot nematodes from container
grown gardenia plants under the conditions of these tests.



FLA-EY-01184 HABECK D H WAITES R E

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Twenty-four lines and varieties of sweetpotatoes were tested in the laboratory
to determine whether first instar Prodenia larvae would prefer one another.
Significant differences in preference were obtained for P. eridania and P.
ornithogalli, but not for P. dolichos and P. sunia. Further tests indicated
that a physical factor might account for some of the differences. Cold water,
hot water and chloroform-methanol extracts of preferred and non-preferred
varieties when incorporated into agar disks were about equally acceptable to P.
eridania and P. ornithogalli.



FLA-EY-01225 MILLER H N PERRY V G

ENDOPARASITIC FUNGI OF CYSTS AND STING NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Collections of nematodes from various locations around the state were examined
for the presence of parasitic fungi. Several fungi were isolated and grown in
culture. Inoculation and parasitism studies failed to establish more than a
superficial relationship between the fungi and nematodes. The species of
Rhizoctonia previously isolated from Heterodera leuceilyma from St.
Augustinegrass was further checked for parasitism by greenhouse inoculations.
Cultures of the fungus when incorporated in soil in which the grass was growing
failed to persist with or without the nematodes present. Varying factors such
as soil type, moisture, and temperature did not appear to influence or provide









for a fungus, nematode relationship. An occasional nematode, reisolated from
the inoculation was overrun by the fungus. However, no reduction in nematode
population occurred.



FLA-EY-01228 ROBINSON F A

STERILIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Combs of honey, pollen and brood taken from colonies showing : vere visible
symptoms of American Foulbrood diseases Bacillus larvae (White) were treated
with 88% freon 12% ethylene oxide sterilizing gas mixtures. Treatments were
for 18 or 36 hours at temperatures ranging between 870 105F., and 950 -
1250F. Chamber was evacuated to -20 psi and gas introduced until a
concentration of 750 mg/l was attained. The treatments were replicated twice
and following the final treatment the combs were aired for 48 hrs. and packages
of bees and a laying queen were installed in nucleui containing the treated
combs. Ninty days after treatment AFB spores were still present in six nucleui
that had not cleaned out all of the old brood. There was no symptoms of any
outbreak of disease in the new brood areas and after 100 days the last traces of
old brood had been cleaned out. After six months the original 40 nucleui were
combined into six, two story 10 frame colonies and after 12 months these
colonies still show no symptoms of reoccurrence of American Foulbrood.



FLA-EY-01288 WAITES R E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL MEDIA FOR REARING MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Diet formulations tested during the past year as media for rearing the Mexican
bean beetle larvae were rated as unsatisfactory, including those media used to
rear the almond moth, boll weevil, aphid and several species of noctuid moths.
There was no survival to the adult stage when larvae fed upon agar based diets.
Survival rate for larvae fed liquid formulations was about 25% higher than for
those on agar diets. The addition of lipid and water soluble compounds
extracted from bean leaves did not allow survival on any of the diets although,
they seemed to be more attractive to the larvae than diets not containing these
materials.



FLA-EY-01294 PERRY V G SMART G C

FACTORS INFLUENCING SURVIVAL AND PATHOGENICITY OF NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Three populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Rau can be separated on the
basis of different host range and morphological variations. Peanut, tomato,
citrus and strawberry proved to be key hosts. Morphologic differences are
primarily in tail lengths and lengths of the meso-and metarhabdion portion of
the stylet. Populations of Meloidogyne spp from Florida have proven more
variable than had been thought previously. Several populations have been
differentiated on the basis of host reactions. Two populations, one which k
attack strawberry and one which attacks resistant peach rootstocks, may prove to
be undescribed species. Histopathology of Rotylenchulus reniformis on tobacco
roots showed that the nematode affects the pericycle to produce a chain of
hyperthrophied pericycle cells surrounding the vascular bundle. The
hypertophied alee extends about 15-19 cells along the root axis on both sides of
the nematode feeding site. Attempts have been made to isolate factors in
decomposing alfalfa meal nematode control.



FLA-EY-01297 ROBINSON F A

POLLEN SUBSTITUTE FOR REARING HONEYBEES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Major emphasis of the 1968 tests was to study the effect of formulation and
texture on consumption of food by caged bees. In the first series of
experiments, liquid formulations consisting of a chemically defined diet or
crushed pollen suspended in honey were used. Some colonies were also given
solid food cakes composed of sucrose and cellulose moistened with honey. None
of the diets were suitable for sustained brood rearing and testing was
4*










terminated after nine days. Other tests were designed in which some colonies
received the same amount of crushed pollen, suspended in honey that others got
in solid cakes. Only the colonies getting the solid cakes had all stages of
brood after 17 days, indicating that pollen eaten in a solid form was more
beneficial than that suspended in honey. However, it is not known how much of
the later was stored and not eaten. Four solid formulations consisting of a
base diet with (1) powdered sugar to replace the granulated sugar and cellulose,
(2) plus 5% beeswax, (3) base diet ground in ball mill 12 hours, and (4) base
diet were tested. Consumption was determined by the difference between the cake
weight when given to the colonies and that remaining at the next feeding period.
The substitution of powdered sugar resulted in increased consumption but the
other additives and modifications did not.



FLA-EY-01307 KUITERT L C MURPHEY M

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS AND MITES ATTACKING STONE FRUITS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 b8/12
Studies were continued on the biology of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis
pentagon Targioni. Investigations have shown that there are four generations
per year and that the scale passes the winter in the second sedentary and adult
stages. Egg laying for the first generation was initiated in early February and
reached a peak in early March. Egg laying for the second generation was
initiated in early May and reached a peak by the end of May. Egg laying for the
third generation was initiated in late July and reached its peak in mid-August
and for the fourth generation was initiated in late September and reached its
peak in mid-October. The egg laying process for each generation extends over a
period of 5 to 7 weeks. Eggs hatch 5 to 10 days after deposition. Many eggs
have hatched before the female has deposited the final egg and death of the
female occurs soon after it has been deposited. At the present time it is not
possible to distinguish precisely as to the specific time the individual scales
change from one sedentary stage to another or from the second sedentary stage to
adult because the insect secrets a protective armor over itself. Very little
biological information was obtained from the male scale; however, the data
available suggest that the male develops into the adult several weeks in advance
of the female scale. Several predators were encountered. These included a hard
shelled mite Family, Belbidae, Prunus pensica Batsch; both the larvae and adult
of a coccinellid bettle and a species of thrips. Only one species of parasite
was observed. This was a gall midge, family Cecidomyiidae. Apparently the
predators and parasite are most active during the second and third generations.



FLA-EY-01308 KUITERT L C

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF THE TWO-LINE SPITTIEBUG PROSAPIA BICINCTA (SAY)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The two-lined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say), overwinters in the egg stage.
Eggs hatched in 19 days in the greenhouse under optimum conditions. There were
5 nymphal instars and the nymphal period averaged 50 days. Nymphs have been
recorded on 41 plants in Fla., most of which are grasses. Females evidently
mated before and after oviposition. Virgin females 2-6 days old gave off a
perfume-like odor. The function and nature of this odor was not ascertained.
Caged females began ovipositing when 7 days old and averaged 50.3 eggs. The
life cycle was about 76 days from egg to egg. In light trap studies, Blacklight
BL lamps placed with the center of the lamp 24 in, above the ground were found
superior. About 85% of the adults were captured within 4 hours after sunset.
When precipitation fell during this period, the catch was greatly reduced.
There were 2 peaks of adult abundance in light traps, one in June and another in
late Aug. to Sept. Severe attacks by the imperfect fungus, Piricularia grisea
(Cooke) Saccardo, were observed in St. Augustinegrass pastures heavily infested
by the two-lined spittlebug. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine
if the adult spittlebugs were carriers of this fungus. Adult Spittlebugs were
introduced to fungus sprayed grass and to chambers sprayed with the spores. It
was concluded that the presence of spittlebugs does enhance the number of
lesions and that the two-lined spittlebug is a mechanical carrier of the
Piricularia spores.


FLA-EY-01315 KOITERT L C

FUMIGANTS AND DIPS FOR CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Magnolias (3-4 ft.) infested with Oleander scale, Phenacaspis cockerelli Cooley,











were submerged in 2 concentrations of Dasanit 63.5% S.C. for 10 minutes. The
concentrations were 8 oz and 16 oz a.i./100 gals. (2/3 pt and 3-1/3 pt). Plants
were removed from the treatment, allowed to drain and held under growth lights
for 4 weeks. Less than 23% kill was obtained of adult female scales and there
was evidence of phytotoxicity. In a similar test, 4 plants of each of 5
varieties of camellias, infested with tea scale, were dipped in a solution of
Dasanit (63.5% S.C.) containing 16 oz a.i./100 gallons. These plants were held
in the solution for 15 minutes, drained and held under growth lights. Excellent
control of tea scale was obtained with 100% kill of immatures and over 97% kill
of adult females. Some injury and leaf drop occurred on the varieties Alba
plena and Rainy Sun. Varieties High Hat, William Penn and Gigantea showed no
injury. In another test 6 varieties of camellias were submerged in a solution
of Disyston (25% E.C.) used at the rate of 1 lb a.i./100 gallons. Four
varieties were dipped for 10 minutes and 2 for 20 minutes. No phytotoxicity
occurred on the varieties dipped for 10 minutes, however, there was considerable
leaf drop from the 20 minute exposure. Scale control was excellent in most
instances.



FLA-EY-01321 STONE K J

NON-INSECTICIDAL CONTROL OF THE LESSER CORNSTALK BORER, AND OTHER INSECTS OF
FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Ninety-five percent of pupae obtained from the laboratory colony were normally
formed. Lightly sclerotized abberations occurred on the venter of 5% of pupae
obtained. Approximately 92% and 78% emergence of normal adults was obtained
from normal and aberrant pupae respectively. Male and female reproductive
systems, including spermatophore morphology and position in the bursa, were
studied and compared with other Leps. Colorless fluid in the 1st secretary area
of the primary simplex of the male indicated mating (=spermatophore passed) less
than 24 hr previously. Virgin 1-6-day-old males had translucent yellow simplex
fluid, and males that mated 2-5 days previously had transparent yellow simplex
fluid. Within 24 hr after mating, simplex fluid in 3-day-old mated males
changed from transparent colorless to transparent yellow. Color of
spermatophores representing 3 successive matings was clear transparent. Thus
1st matings were indistinguishable from subsequent matings on the basis of
spermatophore color. Females had no full-sized eggs at emergence, but might
have them present in the calyx, lateral oviducts, and/or common oviduct as well
as in the ovarioles within 1-2 days after emergence. The abdominal tympanic
organs were studied and compared with the general pyraloid description. The
tympani were ventrally and anteriorly located on the 1st abdominal segment.
Mating behavior was observed, including pair formation, courtship, time of
copulation, duration of copulation, uncoupling of mates, and post copulatory
activity. Dissertation was written, presented, and accepted.



FLA-EY-01322 WALKER T J

SODND-PRODUCING ENSIFERAN ORTHOPTER (GRYLLIDAE AND TETTIGONIIAE) OF EASTERN
UNITED STATES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Four species of Cyrtoxipha (Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae) occur in the United
States. C. columbiana Caudell occurs throughout the southeastern states, C.
gundlachi Saussure is restricted to peninsular Florida, and nola and confusa n.
spp. are known only from the mangrove areas of the south Florida coast- The
songs of these species are distinctive in the field, and differences in pulse
rate and rhythm are apparent from analyses of field and laboratory tape
recordings. Other characters not previously used, such as male genitalia and
stridulatory file, are useful in distinguishing the species of Cyrtoxipha. The
stridulatory files of columbiana and gundlachi show geographic variation. Six
species of Orccharis (Gryllidae, Eneopterinae) occur in the United States. 0.
saltator Uhler and luteolira n. sp. are widespread in the southeastern states,
while gryllodes (Pallas), tricornis n. sp., diplastes n. sp., and nigrifrons n.
sp. are limited to coastal peninsular Florida. The distinctive calling songs of
all species are described from analyses of field and laboratory tape recordings.
The high wingstroke rate of gryllodes (150-280/sec) suggests asynchronous,
fibrillar muscles. O. saltator and luteolira cannot be distinguished
morphologically. They have different seasonal life histories and distinctive
calling songs but overlap in geographic distribution and habitat.









FLA-EY-01323 CALAWAY W T

NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH SEWAGE TREATMENT AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
During the period of support investigations were carried on, research was done
on the use of resin impregnation similar to that used for electron microscopy,
sectioning, staining and examining visually. This was done to obtain
histological information on structures after it was found that the usually
parafin infiltration, sectioning and staining did not yield the information
desired. Methods were developed for obtaining serial sections on portions of
cover slips. These were than stained at temperatures in the neighborhood of
900C. Several modifications of the basic fuchsin staining was tried as was
regressive staining using gentian violet. The publication of a description of
Mononchoides change by-Goodrich, Hechler and Taylor has made it necessary to
examine the Mononchoides species being described by us in order to find if
differences between the two species exist. The species Mononchoides have been
reviewed and a monograph discussing all the species known to have been included
in this genus or in synonymous genera is in preparation. An amended, more
concise description has been written and the members of all previous lists of
Mononchoides have been compared with the amended description and with the
original writers own diagnosis. This genus has been found to be the predominant
diplogasterid in waste treatment.



FLA-EY-01325 KUITERT L C

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF EYE GNAT (HIPPELATES PUSIO LOEW)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Dispersion tests were conducted from July to September. Several procedures were
used. The first involved marking laboratory reared (F-139) eye gnats with
flourescent dye. These marked flies were released near the center of the 520
acre Horticulture Farm. Traps were located at various distances from the
release point and in all directions. All flies collected in the traps were
examined under a UV light. Results indicated dispersion in all directions to
all points in the field. The second procedure was the same with the exception
of using wild flies in place of the laboratory reared flies. In each instance,
some 12,000 flies were marked and released. Good dispersion was again obtained.
In another test dispersion of laboratory reared (F-139) and wild sterilized eye
gnats was compared. About 12,000 eye gnats of each type were tagged and
released at the Horticulture Farm. The sterilized wild eye gnats proved to have
dispersed over a substantially greater area. The average number of eye gnats
was calculated for the farm (Lincoln Index) and this was 1,904,623 for a 24 hour
dispersal period. Chemosterilization tests were continued using Tepa and
Metepa. Two methods of sterilization treatment were compared. The first was a
residue test in which adults were allowed to walk over treated screen. The
second involved allowing anesthesized adults to recover and crawl through a
layer of treated polystyrene foam strands. The highest percent sterility (100%)
with the lowest percent mortality ;4%) was obtained by making adults crawl
through and over treated foam strands.



FLA-EY-01331 WILKINSON E C

REPRODUCTION AND DIET IN THREE SPECIES OF IPS BABK BEETLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Yeasts (Hansenula holstii Wickerham) (Pichia pini (Holst) Pfaff) isolated from
Ips avalsus (Eichh.) suppressed the growth and spore production of the blue
stain fungus, Cerotocystis ips (Rumb.) C. Moreau, carried by this pine bark
battle. Fatty acids were identified by cromatographic analysis of Ips
Calligraphus (Germ.) life forms. Of 12 acids, C16 and C18:1 were present in
highest concentration.



FLA-EY-01332 BLANTON F S

CERATOPOGONIDAE (BITING MIDGES) OF MIDDLE AMERICA

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The technicians have continued to prepare slides for study from the southeast
U.S., Central and South America, Southern Rhodesia, Africa, and Afghanistan.
The Bahama Islands and Jamaica has been included in this work. Material is
coming in from other Islands and these will be prepared as time permits. The










art work for the dissertation of Miss Chanthawanich has been completed. This is
due March 3. The title for this is "An illustrated key to the Genera of the
Ceratopogonidae of the World". Two additional manuscripts were submitted to the
Pan Pacific Entomologist for publication. They have not appeared yet. A number
of additional manuscripts are in various stages of preparation. These will be
reported later.


FLA-EY-01343 HABECK D H

BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF PHYLLOPHAGA BRUNEBI CHAPIN (A CUBAN MAY BEETLE)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
No field work was done on this project in 1968. A final report on previous work
was completed and a manuscript for a technical bulletin on these investigations
is in preparation. In addition, a thesis "Flight Habits of the Cuban May
Beetle, Phyllcphaga bruneri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)" by H.H. Samol was
completed during this period.



FLA-EY-01353 KUITERT L C

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS CN ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Smoke bombs using DDVP as the active ingredient provided excellent control of
aphids, white flies and immature mealybugs infesting a variety of ornamental
plants. The treatment was applied in an enclosed space (greenhouse) at the rate
of 2 grams active per 800 cubic feet. It was not effective against adult
mealybugs having the cottony-waxy material surrounding them. An experimental
material 5-9491 (Ciba) was very effective in controlling white flies infesting
young citrus and mealybugs infesting coffee plants and Aglonema. Results of
tests evaluating wettable sulfur for mite control indicate that such sulfur
sprays provide very little control of heavy infestations. Granular formulations
(10 G) of Furadan, Thimet and Dasanit applied to the soil of potted hibiscus
plants failed to control the soft scale, Cerococcus deklei within two weeks.
Since the infestation was causing serious damage the plants were sprayed with
the same treatments. Thimet was very effective in controlling the scale.
Galecron was used in place of Kelthane and Tedion which apparently were no
longer providing satisfactory control of two-spotted mite infesting roses.
Leaves from infested plants averaged 175 mites per 5 leaflet leaf. Galecron 2E
applied at the rate of 1 quart per 100 gallons reduced the average count to 9,4
mites per leaf following the first application. Galecron was added to the usual
weekly fungicide spray (Daconil, sulfur, sevin) every other week. The mite
population continued at a very low level throughout the rest of the year with
the exception of two miniature varieties.



FLA-EY-01379 LLOYD J E

SYSTEMATIC AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON FIREFLIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Field studies were made on 20 species of Jamaican fireflies and about 30 species
of North American fireflies. The latter were studied in Florida as well as in a
dozen northern states. Several new species were found. Tape recordings of the
signals of nearly all species observed were made in the field and series of each
species were collected for morphological analysis. Laboratory tests on firefly
synchrony arid signal discrimination were performed.



FLA-EY-01389 WAITES R E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALMOND MOTH, CADRA
CAUTELLA (WALKER)

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The basic diet used in this study was a modification of a diet called "all
vitamin diet" used by Fraenkel and Blewett, for nutrition studies on a number of
moths, Ephestia spp. Modifications made in their diet were as follows: Dextrose
was replaced with the same amount of sucrose. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) were
added to the vitamin mixture. Insoluble yeast was replaced with biotin in the
diet. Minor changes were made in the amount of casein and sucrose, so that all
dry matter would total 100 g. Statistical analyses of B-vitamin complex
experiments on larval growth have shown the following rpcnlts: Larval growth










retardation and/or high mortality were caused when thiamin, riboflavin,
pyridoxine, calcium pantothenate, folic acid, biotin and nicotinic acid were
individually omitted from the diet. No significant effect was found when
p-aminobenzoic acid, choline, inositol and vitamin B(12) were individually
reduced in the diet or omitted. When cholesterol was in the diet, wheat germ
oil could be replaced by an unsaturated fatty acid. Without the fatty acid or
wheat germ oil only a small number of larvae reached pupation and fewer emerged.
Linolenic acid was more effective than linoleic acid. The highest
concentrations of esters of both acids were detrimental to larvae. However,
limolenate was less effective in the lower concentrations. No pupation occurred
when sterol was omitted from the diet. Fortification of the diet with K(3)PO(4)
enhanced larval growth.








FOOD SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

Three new research studies were initiated. These were entitled
"Processed Juice Products from Florida Fruits and Vegetables," "Freeze-
Drying and Cryogenic Freezing of Selected Florida Fruits and Vegetables,"
and "Evaluation of Tomato Cultivars for Thermal Processing."
J. H. Johnson resigned December 1, 1968, and R. O. Townsend retired
July 1, 1968.



FLA-FS-00001 DENNISON R A
PRELIMINARY EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN FOOD SCIENCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Comparison of Nutritional Value of Whole and Filled Milk: Feeding studies with
weanling rats were conducted in which oils of plant origin were substituted for
milk fat, weight gains and serum cholesterols were determined. Weight gains were
lower on filled milks and the weight of milk solids required per gram of weight
increase was lower for whole milk. There was variation in cholesterol levels.
Effect of Low Level Irradiation Upon the Preservation of Food Products:
Combining hot water dip treatments with gamma irradiation controlled anthracnose
decay of mangoes. A 200 Krad irradiation dose was effective in controlling
brown rot in peaches. Evaluation of Tomato Cultivars for Thermal Processing:
Fruit from 9 breeding lines were processed and evaluated.




FLA-FS-00789 FRENCH R B TOWNSEND R O

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVEL OF CALCIUM OR PHOSPHORUS UPON RATE OF EXCHANGE OF
BONE MINERAL

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Weanling and mature rats were fed low mineral diets for a month; this resulted
in large negative mineral balances. Optical density measurements on X-ray films
made prior to and at the end of the deficiency feeding showed up to a 60%
increase in bone and soft tissue density of the older rats at the end of the
balance period--a difference not found in the weanlings. Introducing variables
other than age, it was found that soft tissue density decreases when a rat is
subjected to acidosis and increases in a state of alkalosis. Vitro studies on;
density of components of tissue show that film density increases linearly with!
increasing concentration of atoms with molecular weight above sodium. Below
this point molecular densities of tissue components, such as fat, carbohydrates,
protein, or urea, merge with water density background are not definitely
distinguishable.



FLA-FS-00816 TOWNSEND R 0

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BONE DEVELOPMENT OF WRIST/HAND OF
INFANTS/PBE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Regression equations relating bone age with actual age at 3 levels of nutrition
status in 253 Negro children 3-144 months of age in 93 families using individual
data points to show effects of dietary inadequacy on rate of skeletal maturation
in childhood in a representative Florida population are in manuscript form
substantially completed for journal series publication. Curve fitting and
analysis of stature-weight data at same nutritional levels in same children for
external somatic growth differences are in process by statistician. Individual
and family line variability in postnatal ossification order in hand skeleton is
on IBM cards to test hypothesis that illness interrupts the gene-determined
order is phase 3 for statistical analysis. Sex variability in rate and order is
of prime importance.


FLA-FS-00914 FRENCH R B TOWNSEND R 0

EFFECTS ON NUTRITIONAL ADJUNCTS VEGETABLE FATS ON BLOOD LIPIDS OF HUMANS AND
RATS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
X-rays were made of the hands of 40 males and 87 females ranging from 63 to 91
years of age as a correlate of nutritional health status in aging human












subjects. Optical density measured through the center of proximal phalanx 3 has
been compared against age and sex. Bone tissue density drops as age advances
and the rate of loss is greater for the male than for the female. However, the
demineralization process can be slowed down or apparently stopped if physical
activity levels are maintained. Unit densities of bone and the surrounding soft
tissues of several digits of the same person agreed closely, suggesting a basic
value of the unit measure. Total width of the bone cortex drops with increasing
age and maintenance of activity has no effect on this loss.



FLA-FS-00952 MOTE H A VAN MIDDELEM C H WHEELER W B

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN PLANT AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
New analytical procedures were developed for parathion on celery
(phosphorimetry) and for Sevin on spinach, chicory and escarole
(derivitization-E.C.G.C.) with limits of detection at 0.08 ppm and 1.0 ppm
respectively. Speed is the primary advantage of these procedures over others.
A D.C. discharge emission detector was evaluated for analysis of the
organophosphate pesticides. Reliability and sensitivity were found to be
superior to the microwave emission detector; selectivity over hydrocarbons was
less, however. A modified flame photometric detector was constructed which did
not extinguish upon sample injection and gave superior sensitivity and
selectivity than the commercially available model. Florisil cleanup of aldrin,
heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and endrin was studied to determine elution solvent
effects on oil retention. With comparable cleanup it was found that the oil
capacity was strongly dependent on the elution solvent (s) used. A study which
the humidity, temperature and photoperiod of the environment surrounding rye
grass were studied for effects on dieldrin uptake showed that only humidity was
involved. Low humidities enhanced uptake. Persistence studies and necessary
modifications to analytical procedures were performed for Gardona and corn
silage, Hercules 14503 on oranges and lemons, Azodrin on cabbage and Sevin with
pinolene on potato and bean foliage.



FLA-FS-01007 BOBBINS R C

PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND METABOLISM OF BIOFLAVONOIDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The physiological role of flavonoids in the mammalian body is being studied.
The major physiological effect revealed is that flavonoids act against blood
cell aggregation. Using a serial erythrocyte sedimentation procedure a series
of flavonoids were tested and ranked as to activity against rouleaux formation
of horse blood. Rutin, apiin, acacetin, apigenin, nobiletin, tangeretin,
5-OH-4-methoxy-7-methylflavone and heptamethoxy flavone were tested in the
system at 1.5 x 10-5, 3.0 x 10-s, 6.0 x 10-5, 3.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-3 molar
concentrations. Apigenin and 5-OH-4-methoxy-7-methylflavone showed no activity.
Apiin showed slight activity at a concentration of 3.0 x 10-5M. Acacetin and
rutin showed slight to moderate activity at a concentration of 6.0 x 10-5M.
Tangeretin at 1 x 10-3 molar concentration inhibited blood cell settling after
40 minutes. Nobiletin and heptamethoxy flavone showed activity proportional to
dose over the concentration ranges. These compounds at a molar concentration of
3.0 x 10-4 inhibited settling of blood cells. A trial was carried out with
rabbits to relate stress and capillary fragility to the pathogenesis of
atherosclerosis and to determine whether flavonoids would exert a protective
effect ander these conditions.



FLA-FS-01011 SHOWALTER R K

CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERMELONS RELATED TO BRUISING AND MARKET QUALITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The measurement of mechanical properties related to breakage of watermelon flesh
was continued with evaluations of flesh hydration, dehydration, location within
melons and varietal comparisons. Deformation and force data from 35 Jubilee and
25 Charleston Gray melons showed a marked reduction in maximum deformation and
breakage force after the addition of 6 percent water. After hydration, the
flesh could be deformed only 2/3 to 3/4 as far as untreated flesh without
breaking. When 7 percent water was removed from flesh samples, deformation
increased 23 to 115 percent compared with untreated samples. Breakage force was
greatly reduced by flesh hydration and slightly reduced by dehydration. The
mechanical properties of Jubilee and Charleston Gray melons were very similar










for treated and untreated samples. Flesh from the heart areas of Charleston
Gray, Jubilee, Congo and Blackstone varieties of melons broke with consistently
less deformation than samples of outer flesh from the same melons. Deformation
averaged 40 percent less and force 28 percent less for the heart area, than for
the outer flesh. Results indicated that differences in breaking strength of
watermelon flesh can be measured and that breakage resistance is affected by
tissue hydration.


FLA-FS-01057 ROBBINS R C

INDICATORS OF DIETARY ADEQUACY FOR INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Defining parameters of amino acid nutrition responsible for variability in
dietary needs are studied by determining amino acid composition and availability
from food stuffs and amino acid metabolism in the body. Amino acid composition
of millet and water hyacinth were determined in a study to evaluate the
availability of amino acids from these sources to the animal body. The range in
amino acid content for 27 genetic lines of millet was (micromoles per 100 gms)
Asp., 366-931; Thr. 268-501; Ser. 262-706; Glu. 822-2256; Pro. 328-8.75; Gly.
318-635; Ala. 586-1567; Val. 64-195; Cys. 330-881; Met. 13-221; Ile. 240-617;
Leu. 522-1458; Tyr. 121-305; Phe. 200-577; Lys. 157-298; His. 103-248. The
essential amino acid content of water hyacinth was (g/100 g protein); total
sulfur 12.33 (Met. 0.7; Cys. 11.6); Thr. 413; Lys. 5.3; Val. 0.3; Ile. 4.3; Lew.
7.2; Phe. 4.7; Tyr. 3.0 (total 7.7) Arg. 3.0 and His. 1.9. The effect of
processing on response of pigs to soybean protein was evaluated by relating
alpha amino acids, urea and amino acids patterns in blood plasma. In pigs fed
raw soy, total plasma alpha amino acids were 5.1 micromoles/ml and urea was 74.7
micrograms/ml. In pigs fed processed soy plasma alpha amino acids increased to
5.9 micromoles/ml and urea nitrogen decreased to 56.5 micrograms/ml of blood.
Amino acid pattern in the blood indicated the nature of the defect in raw
soybeans was interference with the utilization of the sulfur amino acids.




FLA-FS-01064 KNAPP F W

ENZYMATIC BROWNING IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Continuous storage of Florida and Georgia peaches at 200C resulted in decreasing
polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in most varieties studied. Storage at 20C
tended to help maintain or increase PPO values. Gamma irradiation (150 or 300
krad) of the fruit at the beginning of the storage period resulted in higher
activities than were found in non-irradiated fruit. Four fractions of Dixieland
and Southland peach PPO were separated by thin layer gel filtration. The two
most active fractions had molecular weights of about 4 and 9 x 104. The other
two were much lower in both activity and molecular weight. Radiation- and
temperature-induced changes in PPO activity did not appear to reflect
appreciable alterations in proportions of the enzyme fractions. Few changes in
polyphenol concentration occurred in the varieties of peaches studied. Those
noted seemed more related to storage conditions than to irradiation. The only
important PPO substrates found were catechin and two isomeric chlorogenic acids.
Whereas normal tomatoes had 0.05 to 0.1 IEC units of PPO per g of fresh tissue, a
graywall portions of naturally or artificially infected fruit had PPO activities
as high as 1.3 units per g. It was shown that the PPO was not produced by the
Erwinia sp. used to induce graywall, nor masked in sound tissue by inhibitory
substances. PPO of inoculated tomatoes increased linearly for 8 days following
removal from 40C to 210C and subsequently declined.



FLA-FS-01106 VAN MIDDELEM C H

PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Studies were conducted to obtain information for registration purposes on the
breakdown of pesticides in the field as well as possible uptake by plants of the
pesticides from the soil under controlled environmental conditions. Six days
following treatment, carbaryl residues remaining on snap bean foliage were well
below tolerance levels. The addition of 1.5% Pinolene, a terpene polymer
sticker, to a carbaryl application in the field resulted in considerable
enhancement of the carbaryl residue remaining on the foliage 6 days after
treatment to the snap bean plants. No similar enhancement of carbaryl residues
by the addition of Pinolene was noted on potato foliage, 6 days following











treatment in the field. Relative humidity and possibly photo-period appear to
affect the uptake of dieldrin by rye plants. Ten week-old green peanut hay from
plants grown in dieldrin-contaminated soils, contained measurable levels of this
pesticide. The addition of a terpene polymer may prove useful under ideal
climatic conditions, preventing rapid dissipation of certain volatile and
relatively nontoxic pesticides in the field. Although absorption and
translocation of chlorinated insecticides by plants may result in relatively
small residues, any understanding of the mechanism by which these phenomena
occur and any means found to minimize these trace toxicants is of considerable
practical significance.



FLA-FS-01113 HALL C B

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOMATO RIPENING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The enzyme B-D-1,3 glucanase, which degrades laminarin, was discovered in sodium
chloride extracts of tomato fruit tissue. It occurred in all portions of the
fruit, but the highest activity was in the extracts from the outer pericarp.
The activity increased with fruit ripeness from mature-green to fully ripe
fruits. A pectin degrading enzyme, considered to be polymethylgalacturonase
(PMG), was previously reported in tomato extracts in association with
polygalacturonase (PG) which degrades sodium polypectate. The two enzymes were
differentially extracted at either pH 9.0 (adjusted with NaOH) or at Ph 5.2 with
5% sodium chloride. Much less PMG was extracted at pH 9.0 than with sodium
chloride at pH 5.2 whereas PG was extracted almost equally under both
conditions. A higher PG than PMG activity was normally found in tomato
extracts. However, one breeding line was found to have a higher level of PMG
than PG. No pectinesterase or pectin transeliminase activity was detected in
these extracts. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was found to occur in
bacterially induced graywall tissue and in natural graywall-affected tissue.
The activity increased sharply from the very low level in normal green fruit
through 8 days as browning increased following bacterial inoculation. The PPO
was apparently of host origin and not produced by the bacteria.


FLA-FS-01202 VANMIDDELEM C H MOYE H A WHEELER W B

CENTRALIZED PESTICIDE RESIDUE INVESTIGATIONS OF SOUTHERN AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
To develop more sensitive and reliable analytical procedures for the analyses of
pesticide residues and obtain additional information on the possible uptake of
chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides by crops growing in contaminated soils.
Through the exchange of collaborative samples, determine the effect of peanut
oil in samples on the accuracy of electron capture gas chromatographic analyses
for dieldrin residues. The relative advantages and disadvantages of various
commercially available GLC detectors investigated through a collaborative
exchange of common samples by several laboratories in the region. It was found
that the oil content in the sample can have a significant effect in depressing
the dieldrin values compared to samples containing no oil but the same quantity
of pesticide. A comparison of data indicates that the sodium thermionic
detector is superior to the flame photometric detector in terms of sensitivity
and noise. However, the thermionic detector was found to be inferior to the
photometric detector with respect to selectivity, accuracy, precision, drift and
dynamic range. The thermionic detector was found to require more attention and
was more prone to erratic operation than the photometric detector. Peanuts
grown on some soils containing as low as 0.1 ppm dieldrin can become
coTt! t'inaed with residues that exceed the FDA action level.


FLA-FS-01216 JOHNSON J H

EFFECTS OF SALT (NACL) ON THE PROTEIN COMPONENTS OF PROCESSED FOOD

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Soluble components of leguminous materials processed in NaCl solutions and
stored as long as 105 days were affected as follows: (1) soluble nitrogen: (a)
increased in Great Northern beans after 70 days at 400C and split peas at 200C
with increasing salt level, (b) decreased in soybean and peanut meals at 20C
with increasing salt and during storage. Salt level X storage time interactions
were found with soybean and peanut meals at 20. (2) amino N: (a) increased in
Great Northern beans at 400 during 105 days but was minimal at 0.45% salt, (b)
decreased in split peas at 20 at 30 days storage then increased, (c) decreased










in soybean and peanut meals with storage, and was minimal at 0.45% salt. (3)
soluble solids and soluble carbon: (a) minimal in Great Northern beans at 400
at 35 days, (b) increased with increasing salt level in split peas at 20o, (c)
decreased with salt present and during storage in soybean and peanut meals. A
salt level X storage time interaction was found in peanut meal soluble C. (4)
soluble C to soluble N ratio: (a) minimal at 35 days in Great Northern beans at
400, (b) increased during storage but decreased with increasing salt level in
split peas at 200, (c) increased with salt level in soybean and peanut meals,
and increased with storage in soybean meal. Salt level X storage time
interactions were found in peanuts at 200. This information presumably is
related to flavor and shelf life and also to the nutritional aspects of these
canned products.



FLA-FS-01242 THOMPSON N P

REDUCTION OR ELIMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON FOOD AND FEED PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Research was continued using a potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide wash to
remove field weathered parathion residue from mature celery. The combinations
of 2% KOH and 3.5%-7.5% H(2)0(2) removed an average of 43% parathion from
samples originally containing an average of slightly above 1 p.p.m. when celery
and wash solution were of ambient temperature during analysis (72oF). Where
analyses were performed in a cold room at 350F the average reduction of
parathion residue was somewhat less (35%). The effect of temperature was
thought to be important if these chemicals were to be incorporated into the
hydrocooling wash. No short term phytotoxicity differences were noted between
chemically washed and water washed celery stalks. Taste tests performed
according to the triangle flavor difference test showed no significant
difference resulting from chemical treatment.



FLA-FS-01243 SHOWALTER R K

GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS IN MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN SOUTHERN REGION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Evaluations of machine harvesting, grading and sizing of snap beans, celery and
sweet corn were made in fields and packinghouses in cooperation with growers and
shippers. At 5 farms where beans were harvested by machine and by hand at the
same time, machine harvesting averaged 6 percent immature and 5 percent broken
pods. Hand harvesting averaged 2 percent immature and 2 percent broken pods.
Grading and sizing after machine harvesting removed most of the leaves and
stems, but removed very few immature and broken beans. In 9 commercial celery
fields, 32 to 42 percent of the total stalk weight was removed with hand
harvesting, stripping, and topping. Machine harvesting and topping plus hand
stripping removed 46 to 51 percent of the stalk weight. Mechanical stripping is
needed to achieve complete mechanization. Celery stalks sized mechanically by
weight and diameter resulted in more uniformity of packed crate weights than
with hand sizing. In 10 lots of machine-harvested sweet corn, 3 to 12 percent
was stalks and leaves and 7 to 18 percent was immature ears. Marketable ears
ranged from 70 to 89 percent of the harvest weight. Shanks on the marketable
ears averaged 6 percent of the ear weight. Results indicated that machine
harvesting has lowered the quality of snap beans and sweet corn. There is an
urgent need for mechanized handling equipment to remove the undesirable
materials associated with mechanical harvesting.



FLA-FS-01256 JOHNSON J H

EFFECT OF FRYING MEDIA COMPOSITION ON MAILLARD REACTIONS IN MODEL SYSTEMS AND
IN PROCESSED FOODS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
By photometric reflectance measurement of model system fried "chips" the color
development variations due to concentration of reactants and to amino acid were
compared. Mean colorimetric values with the range of lot variation were
obtained as follows for given concentrations, glucose-glycine: 1% 2%,
23.10.07; 1% 1%, 34.40.6: 1% 0.5%, 40.30.5; 1.5% 0.5%, 31.40.9; 0.5% -
0.5%, 49.41.2; Glucose-glutamic acid: 1% 1%, 64.54.1: 1% 2%, 64.02.0; 2%
1%, 52.72.8; glucose-lysine: 1% 1%, 54.04.7; 1% 2%, 40.6-3.2; 2% 1%,
41.43.1; glucose-alanine: 1% 1%, 47.03.1; 1% 2%, 43.83.3; 2% 1%,
43.1+4.5, respectively.












FLA-FS-01338 JOHNSON J H

CAN DETINING AS RELATED TO NITRATE CONTENT OF VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Florida tomatoes grown on limestone marl had among the highest nitrate content
reported nationally. Homestead 24, Tropi-Gro and Tropi-Red varieties gave mean
nitrate values of 240, 213, and 182 ppm, respectively, in processed tomato
juice. Fruit N increased with increased N fertilization. Fruit nitrate
accumulation was depressed by high K fertilization and was affected by a P x K
fertilization interaction effect. Fruit P content was depressed with high N
fertilization. Fruit solids, and total C increased with high N or K
fertilization. Factors affecting nitrate accumulation in tomatoes is of
interest to tomato growers and processors and to can manufacturers.



FLA-FS-01433 BATES R P

PROCESSED JUICE PRODUCTS FROM FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Celery stalks were sliced, salted and allowed to undergo a sauerkraut-type
fermentation. The naturally present microflora affected a predominantly
homofermentative lactic acid fermentation resulting in acid levels of 1.0 to
1.4%. Canned fermented celery retained characteristic celery crispness during
storage. An analogous fermentation of celery juice extracted from the outer
petioles resulted in a pleasing sourcelery juice. Fresh sliced outer petioles
when canned in sourcelery juice and heat processed retained the crisp celery
texture and acceptable flavor. Juice blends of tomato: sourcelery and tomato:
celery were formulated. It appears feasible to utilize outer stalks and their
juice either fresh of fermented in the manufacture of juice blends and canned
celery slices. Formulation of frozen concentrate and juice powders from these
blends is in progress. The chemical and processing characteristics of 8
Florida-grown grape cultivars were investigated. Blue Lake produced a
satisfactory juice and frozen concentrate. Magoon, Southland and a mixed
Muscadine variety yielded good juices and concentrates. All cultivars required
amelioration with sugar and water to produce acceptable wines. Stover yielded a
good semi-dry white wine, whereas Blue Lake and the Muscadines fermented to good
semi-dry red wines. Subsequent processing studies are involving the more
promising varieties noted as well as Concord type introductions and high yield-
ing Muscadines.



FLA-FS-01434 BATES R P

FREEZE-DRYING AND CRYOGENIC FREEZING OF SELECTED FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/11 68/12
Freeze-Drying: Combinations of sodium bisulfite and ascorbic acid were
particularly effective in preventing browning in all avocado preparations under
all handling conditions. A comparative study of the effect of storage
temperature and package atmosphere on the chemical and organoleptical
characteristics of freeze-dried avocado puree and guacamole is being conducted
using Walden, Lula and Booth 8 varieties. Organoleptic studies indicate that
Booth 8 became unacceptable at the end of three weeks and Lula at the end of
two when stored at 100OF in air. Deterioration was noted in nitrogen packed
samples after 6 weeks. Cryogenic Freezing: Slices from firm tomato breeding
lines held up well when cryogenically frozen. Texture changes were minimized by
controlling liquid nitrogen contact time and employing CaC1(2) dips. Cryogenic
frozen avocado slices were of improved texture relative to slew frozen samples.
Further experimentation is in progress to define optimum cryogenic freezing
conditions.












FORESTRY DEPARTMENT

The cooperative research in forest fertilization (CRIFF) program conducted
jointly by Forestry and Soils officially got underway in January 1968. Ten
pulp and paper companies and three fertilizer companies are cooperating in this
joint effort. Each has named a technical representative to work with IFAS
research faculty in applied phases carried out on lands of cooperating
companies. Procedures for uniform fertilizer tests under field conditions
were developed and a large number were established on cooperators lands this
year.
Two post-doctoral scientists, Dr. Vimla Vasil, a tissue culture specialist
from India, and Dr. R. N. Konar, a specialist in plant morphogenesis, filled
short-term appointments in phases of forest physiology research. As a result
a callus culture collection of three forest species was developed which contin-
ues to be available for wood cellulose biosynthesis research.
Research in wildlife ecology was expanded as a result of special grants
from federal and state agencies to support three new non-projected studies.
These included identification of environmental factors limiting expansion of
the range of the Florida Duck into north Florida, introduction of the Gadwall
as\a breeding duck for southern farm ponds and marshlands, and identification
of trends in the availability of suitable nesting sites for the bald eagle.
Dr. Robert A. Schmidt, a forest pathologist, joined the research faculty
in Sc: .mber 1968 with a joint appointment in Forestry and Plant Pathology.
Dr. Schmidt began immediately to develop a project to identify environmental
factors critical to incidence of infection of fusiform rust under controlled
conditions and to identify environmental regimes associated with high rust
incidence in the field.
An office building for laboratory technicians and graduate research
assistants involved'in research at the Forest Physiology-Genetics Laboratory
was completed during this program year financed by incidental income from the
Austin Cary Forest.



FLA-FY-00001 GRAY J L

PRELIMINARY EXPLORATORY FORESTRY RESEARCH

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Absorptions of 1/2 to 1 pound of polyethylene glycol per 2" x 4" x 8' freshly
sawn slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) applied through a 24-hour cold
soak treatment failed to result in significantly less crooking than untreated
material. This project was completed in 1968. Wetland and waterfowl ecology
research was initiated in the following areas: effects of hyper and hypothermia
on survivability and hatchability of mallard embryos; effect of solar radiation
on zoogeographical distribution of breeding waterfowl; population ecology of the
Florida Duck; abundance, distribution and nest-site requirements of Florida Bald
Eagles; establishment of a breeding population of the Gadwall; introduction of
exotic waterfowl species from Argentina into Florida; behavior and ecology of
the common Gallinule in central Florida; ecology of helminth infections in the
genus Aythya; role of non-hunting mortality in waterfowl population dynamics.



FLA-F0-00963 HUFFMAN J B POST D N

SEASONING OF CROSSTIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
The individual inspection of some 985 wooden crossties after 6, 11, and 12 years
of service in mainline railway tracks provides additional data for evaluating
four methods of seasoning crossties used to prepare them for creosote treatment,
The data continue to indicate that the widening of seasoning checks (fractures)
on the upper surfaces of crossties seasoned by kiln drying is generally less
than that observed by open or covered air seasoning methods.



FLA-FY-00984 GODDARD R E

PLOT SIZE FOR SOUTHERN PINE PROGENY TESTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Initial survival in these trials was very poor. Analyses of early measurements
indicated that precise comparisons of variances obtained in the various plot
sizes would be impossible. Information obtained from this project did aid in
determination of policies for large scale progeny testing in Project 1175 but
data were not suitable for formal publication.











FLA-FY-01006 FRAZER P W

CHRISTMAS TREE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Measurement in December 1966 of sand pine trees (Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey)
that were pruned during their fourth growing season by three different
schedules, revealed no significant differences among the three treatments in the
quality of trees produced.



FLA-FY-01032 BECKWITH S L

ECOLOGY OF WILDLIFE USING SITES PREPARED MECHANICALLY FOR PINE PLANTING

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Based on track counts during August there was no difference in the use by deer
of cleared and uncleared portions of the partially cleared plots but deer
appeared more numerous in the 75% cleared plots than in the plots with only 50%
of the original vegetation replaced with pines. September counts showed a
continuation of the poor deer habitat provided by complete clearing and planting
pine (12.0 tracks per plot) as compared to 75% clearing (19.2 tracks) and 50%
clearing (34.2 tracks). Uncleared plots had 27.2 tracks per plot. Rodent
abundances, as indicated by trapping in June, were extremely low. Vegetation
studies in August showed a marked increase in Aristida stricta and Quercus
laevis and herbs in general on uncleared areas compared to June 1967. The
difference in month of the year may account for some of the increases in plants
observed, but the absence of cattle during 1968 is probably of more
significance, particularly in regard to the abundance of herbs. Grasses were
1.5X as abundant and herbs over 3X as abundant on the pine-planted areas than on
the uncleared areas. Turkey oak acorn production was generally spotty and the
1968 production (7.5 acorns per tree) averaged less than 1/3 the production in
1967 (24.5 acorns per tree). Two adjacent 40-acre pens were constructed for
future studies on the use of mineral supplements by deer in natural habitats.
Small pens for individual deer were also built to evaluate the use of selected
browse species by deer.



FLA-FY-01050 BECKWITH S L

THE FERTILIZATION OF SOUTHERN REDCEDAR,

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A bulletin on Christmas trees in Florida has been published.



FLA-FY-01130 KAUFMAN C M PRIICHETT W L

SOIL SURVEY AND SITE FOR SOUTHERN PINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
In order to develop site index curves and relate site index to soil survey
classifications and to determine what additional classification information is
needed to make soil survey series designations suitable for pine site index use,
data on 1269 plots were taken, with 859, 359, 28, and 23 plots, respectively,
for slash, longleaf, sand and loblolly pine. On each plot, height, dbh, and age
were taken for five trees and a profile core removed from the soil. From the
core, sections for the A(1) and two other critical horizons were removed for
physical and chemical analysis. Tree and physical soil data have been compiled
for transfer to computer cards. Chemical analysis of soil samples is nearly
completed. Soil series classifications, made on the plot by the current system,
have been transferred into 7th approximation identification.


FLA-FY-01175 GODDARD R E STRICKLAND R K

BREEDING SUPERIOR STRAINS OF SOUTHERN PINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Emphasis on genetic evaluation of slash pine selections by progeny testing
continued. In addition to large scale field test establishment, measurement and
analyses, investigations of variation in response to fertilization were
conducted. One test, measured five years after establishment, showed
significant differential response to di-ammonium phosphate. Six of 17 progeny
lots showed strong positive response to fertilizer treatment while remaining











lots did not respond. In this test, the progeny lot with best growth on
untreated plots also showed strongest response to fertilizer. One experiment
indicated that control of competing vegetation is essential for study of
inherent ability to absorb and utilize added nitrogen. Without weed and grass
control N treated plots showed less growth than controls and no differentiation
among progeny lots. In contrast, an adjacent test which included weed control,
showed positive response to N and to P, and significant variation among progeny
groups in response to added nutrients. An experiment to correlate field and
greenhouse studies of variable response to fertilizer was established. The
nursery phase of the first longleaf pine progeny test in this project was
conducted.



FLA-FY-01176 KAUFMAN C M

DEVELOPMENT OF HORIZONTAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF SLASH PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Growth of horizontal roots, height, and dbh of five selected lines and three
bulk-seed lots of planted slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) were
followed through the third, fourth, and fifth years in the field. Treatments
were irrigation, cultivation, and fertilization, singly or in combination. Root
growth responded to soil temperature and rainfall but was not significantly
affected by treatment except for rapid regrowth of roots cut by cultivation.
Significant differences in root length among lines disappeared by the end of the
fourth year. Mean annual growth of the 256 roots was 56, 38, and 31 inches for
the 3 years, respectively, with variations from 0 to more than 140 inches during
the third year and lesser maxima in the following years. Trees were 15 to 18
feet tall at 5 years, corresponding to site index 70 at 25 years. Responses of
height and diameter to treatment were limited except for diameter increases due
to fertilization during the final year. Responses to cultivation and
fertilization for height and for dbh among lines were highly significant.



FLA-FY-01210 STANLEY R G SMITH W H

NITROGEN NUTRITION AND REPRODUCTION OF SLASH PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Tissue analyses showed that Nitrogen (N) fertilizer increased total N content in
high flowering trees more than in low flowering trees. Foliage contained higher
N levels than bark or wood; current years growth were always higher than
year-old tissues. Wood released more diffusible ions (d-ions), measured by
conductivity, than foliage or bark. Low flowering trees yielded more d-ions
than high flowering trees. Diffusible P was decreased by N fertilizer. On
flowering, the level of N incorporated into complex molecules probably
increases. Initial data on extractable and diffusible compounds suggests
reproduction in trees is related to the stable chemical moieties such as
protein. Techniques were developed for preparing an acetone powder of protein
from pine tissues. Total protein and different protein fractions of the pine
extract were determined. More protein bands separate during gel electrophoresis
in extracts of upper than lower branch buds; in buds from high flowering than
low flowering trees; and after N fertilizing. Protein patterns were related to
seasonal and bud developmental changes. Isotope experiments are now in progress
to follow the nature of these changes.



FLA-FT-01229 SULLIVAN E T

SOIL BANK TREE PLANTINGS AND LAND USE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
A random sample of holders of 100 Soil Bank tree planting contracts in northeast
Florida (U.S.F.S. Forest Survey Unit 1) were interviewed on their plans for
their plantations and their forestry practices. Their plantations were surveyed
to determine their potential productivity. Some 102,000 acres of slash pine
plantations were set out under the Soil Bank Act in the area surveyed. Held for
a 25-year rotation these plantations can prodjie an average of over one-third of
Florida's current annual pine pulpwood production over a five-year period.
Approximately half of the contract holders were giving some attention to their
plantations in the form of checks for survival, hardwood invasion, and disease
or insect.infestation. There was some indication that reluctance to initiate
these practices was associated with lower incomes, greater dependence on the
farm for income, and fewer years of schooling. Contract holders who had been in
contact with foresters on the management of their plantations tended to be more









knowledgeable about current wood prices and more inclined to expect stable or
rising product prices than declining prices. There was no indication that
contact with foresters improved contractors' information on expected volume
yields from their plantations. A significantly higher percentage of these
respondents expecting wood prices to rise planned to replant after cutting than
did those uncertain about future prices or anticipating a price drop.



FLA-FY-01265 FRAZER P W

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF SAW PALMETTO (SERENOA REPENS BARTR.) IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA
PINELANDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Three herbicides, 2,4,5-T, silvex, and picloram were applied to saw palmetto
plants in August, September and October 1965. The herbicides were mixed with
water at concentrations of 1 to 50 and 1 to 100. Picloram was ineffective at
either of the two concentrations or three seasons. Best results were obtained
with 2,4,5-T and silvex when applied at concentration cf 1 to 50 in September.
These two herbicides killed 82 percent and 66 percent respectively of the plants
treated.



FLA-FY-01293 SMITH W H

STOCK-SCION RELATIONSHIPS OF SOUTHERN PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Specific biochemical constituents in pines varying in graftibility may provide
an index for predicting propagation success. Laboratory technique development
has continued with the methods for isolating specific proteins that may be
involved now available. For example, ascorbic acid oxidase and polyphenoxidase
can now be isolated. These enzymes control the levels of toxic oxidation
products known to affect plant survival. Protein isolation techniques also make
it possible to make more effective studies of amino acid spectra by using
extracted protein hydrolysates. Grafting experiments were not conducted this
year because of an inadequate supply of desirable stock material. Grafting
stocks were grown, scions located, and radiation and chemical treatments
scheduled for winter grafting.


FLA-FY-01320 SCHMIDT R A

FUSIFORM RUST RESISTANCE IN SLASH PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme, is an important
obstacle to the management of slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) in the
Southeastern U.S. This project seeks methods of screening large numbers of
slash pine seedlings for resistance to C. fusiforme. Seedlings to be screened
come mainly from progeny of slash pine selected for growth parameters, although
a few progeny from parents selected for rust resistance are included. The third
yearly planting of 1-year-old seedlings was established in a "rust nursery"
where oaks, between rows of pine, provide inoculum under near-normal field
conditions. Evaluation of rust resistance will be made after each planting has
been exposed for three years. Attempts to screen seedlings in modified
greenhouse conditions was unsuccessful as only a small percentage of the
cotyledon and 1-year-old pines developed rust galls. Following the success of
other investigations, a "small screening shed", which will facilitate the
provision of optimum environmental conditions, is being tested. Project 1320
has been rewritten to include basic aspects of the epidemiology of fusiform rust
on slash pine and has been extended in its present state until the new project
is accepted. This new project will study the effects of environmental factors
on the suscept-pathogen interaction both in the field and under controlled
laboratory conditions.


FLA-FY-01344 STRICKLAND R K GODDARD R E

IMPROVEMENT OF SAND PINE FOR REFORESTATION OF THE FLORIDA SANDHILLS

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Sand pine grafting during 1968 was successful to the extent that currently 436
grafts are established in the Withlacoochee State Forest seed orchard. An
additional 124 grafts will be needed to complete the 560 tree orchard and these












will be made during February, 1969. The orchard design consists of 70 clones
replicated in 8 blocks. The seedling seed orchard and progeny test material
survived and grew very poorly in the nursery due to root rot fungus infection
and this part of the project must be repeated during 1969. Seed collection and
nursery planting is planned for the period Feb.-April, 1969.



FLA-FY-01357 BECKWITH S L

CONTROLLING DEER DAMAGE TO CITRUS TREES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Mr. Lloyd Stith, the graduate student using this project as his research
subject, is in the process of writing up his master's thesis.



FLA-FY-01413 STANLEY R G

BIOSYNTHPSIS OF CELLULOSE IN TREES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 6t/12
This investigation concerns the ability of a cell free system isolated from the
homogenates of higher plants, to form a polymer from glucose. Extracts of pine
cambium and lupine shoots are the main plant materials used in these
investigations. Glucose must be initially activated to the uridine or guanosine
derivitive, UDP-glucose or CDP-glucosr, before it can be incorporated into the
polymer. The polymer is isolated by standard procedures used to prepare
cellulose. Cellulose, a beta 1,4 glucan, and callose or laminarin, a beta 1,3
glucan are formed in the synthesizing system. Glucanase enzymes which degrade
the polymer products are also present in the in-vitro particulate system. These
enzymes can be inactivated to gain information about the synthesizing ability of
the particulate system. Elongating pollen tubes are being used as an additional
test material to study rapid incorporation of the chemical constituents involved
in plant cell wall formation. Addition of wall hydrolyzing enzymes, beta 1,4
glucanase (cellulase) and pectinase affects the rate of wall (tube) formation.
Addition of beta 1,3 glucanase modified the time when tube (wall) growth began
and ended. Accumulation of the polymer beta 1,3 glucan (callose) inhibited wall
growth. Presumably it decreases wall plasticity and the wall capacity to
respond to internal osmotic forces. Future studies will primarily focus upon
the different enzymes involved in synthesizing the beta 1,4 and beta 1,3 glucan
complex.



FLA-FY-01414 SWINFORD K R NEWBY F L

PERCEPTUAL ASSESSMENT OF SCENIC QUALITY IN FORESTED LANDSCAPES

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
Objectives during this period were to develop a forested landscape
classification system, to devise and assemble a testing instrument and to
collect field data utilizing the classification system and test instrument. The
basic systems wasdeveloped from a combination of theories evolved in perceptual
psychology, landscape design and ecological systems. Application of the basic
classification system towards developing a test instrument produced a series of
color slide triads which were responded to by a broad spectrum of respondent
types. This response date is being coded and readied for computer data
processing. Preliminary analysis indicates a high correlation between this
perceptual assessment approach and similar research utilizing a physical design
analysis approach. Completion of the work is expected during the next six to
eight months.



FLA-FY-01417 KAUFNAN C i

RESPONSES OF SLASH PINE ROOTS TO ENVIRONMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/12
In the 1967-68 planting season, slash pine seedlings of four selected lines and
one lot of randomly collected seed were planted on Eulonia soil with five
seedlings of each seed source in each of six blocks.