Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Florida's contribution to the food...
 Florida vegetables
 Uses of Florida vegetables
 Florida fruits
 Uses of Florida fruits
 The body needs and Florida menus...
 The truth about diets for losing...

Group Title: Bulletin new ser.
Title: Florida's favorite foods
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005087/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida's favorite foods fruits and vegetables in the family menu
Series Title: Bulletin new ser.
Physical Description: v, 202 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Munks, Bertha
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1959
Subject: Cookery (Fruit)   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Vegetables)   ( lcsh )
Tropical fruit   ( lcsh )
Tropical fruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cookery -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Bertha Munks.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: "1959 R"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005087
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6387
ltuf - AKD9449
oclc - 01729820
alephbibnum - 001962772
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Florida's contribution to the food needs of the nation
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Florida vegetables
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Uses of Florida vegetables
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    Florida fruits
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    Uses of Florida fruits
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    The body needs and Florida menus to meet the needs
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    The truth about diets for losing and gaining weight
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Full Text

Bulletin No. 46

Florida's Favorite Foods

Fruits and Vegetables

in the

Family Menu

Food Chemist

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner



N RESPONSE to many requests from
Within and from without the state, this
bulletin has been prepared to acquaint
Florida people, and people everywhere,
with Florida fruits and vegetables and their nutri-
tive value and uses in the menu.
The great variety of food from which to choose,
and the possibilities of food production in the state,
are apparent. An increased utilization of Florida's
products will come from a better knowledge of their
value as a year 'round diet.
Commissioner of Agriculture

Table of Contents
I. Florida's Contribution to the Food Needs of the Nation .. 1
II. Florida Vegetables .................. ............ .. 6
III. Uses of Florida Vegetables ..................... .. 25
A. Vegetable Cookery ...................... 25
B. General Recipes-Vegetables .................... 29
C. Salads ........................................ 57
1. Preparation of Vegetables for Salads ....... 57
2. Salad Dressings ............. .......... 58
3. Special Salads-Florida .................. 63
4. Vegetable Salad Combinations ........... 64
IV. Florida Fruits ....................................... 67
V. Uses of Florida Fruits ... ............. ............. 105
A. Fruit Hors D'Oeuvres ....................... 105
B. Cocktails ........................ ............ 105
C. Salads .................... ...... ............107
D. Combination Dishes ........... ...............120
E. Florida Fruit Desserts ....................... 122
1. Sherbets ................................122
2. Fresh Fruit Recipes ......................125
3. C akes ...................................129
4. P ies .................. ................. 131
5. Puddings ................................134
6. Baked Fruit ............................ 136
F. Drinks .......................................136
G. Canned Fruits ...............................141
1. Fruit Juices ............................ 141
2. Fruits .................. ............. 143
3. Conserves and Preserves ................. 145
4. Jams and Jellies .........................149
5. Marmalades .............................151
6. Pickles ...............................153
H. Crystallized Fruit .............................. 156
I. Sauces and Syrups ............................. 158
VI. The Body Needs and Florida Menus to Meet the Needs ..160
VII. The Truth About Diets for Losing and Gaining Weight ..175


We wish to express our appreciation to the members
of the following organizations who have generously
contributed information and photographs for the re-
vision of this bulletin.
Citrus Experiment Station
Administrative Offices
Department of Home Economics Research
Department of Horticulture
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Watermelon and Grape Investigations
109, 113, 142, 144, BY BARBARA CLENDENIN OF TAMPA.

1.-Florida's Contribution to the
Food Needs of the Nation
Florida, an agricultural state, is helping to feed the people of
the nation. Next to the tourist trade, agriculture is probably the
largest single contributor to the state's income. Our farmers re-
ceived over 379 million dollars in 1957 for fruits and vegetables.
Of this amount $137 million was from citrus sales to the processing
In 1957 Florida produced 3,716,000 tons of fruit and vegetables
for fresh consumption, or approximately 15% of the national con-
sumption. There was an additional 3,100,000 tons of produce
principally citrus which was utilized by the processors in the state.
By an organized research program and through the practical
application by growers of the experimental results, Florida produces
more citrus than other citrus-producing areas of the nation. Ninety
percent of all citrus products canned in the nation is canned in
Florida. Eighty-four million boxes of citrus representing 48 percent
of the grapefruit crop and 71 percent of the orange crop were used
in the production of canned sections, juices, blended juices, frozen
concentrates and processed concentrates. Florida ships vast quan-
tities of fresh vegetables, usually at a time when most other areas
are too cold to produce them. Florida regularly produces more
green beans than any other single state. It is estimated that approx-
imately three million cases basis No. 2 cans of canned vegetables
are packed in Florida each year. Her honey production ranks third
in the nation.
Florida now ranks thirteenth in beef cattle numbers. The
muckland area of the Everglades now has more than 100,000 head
of fine cattle, and because of ample grass, bids fair to become first
in cattle growing and feeding of any area in the U.S.A. New vari-
eties and cultural and management methods of her fruits and
vegetables are constantly being developed and tested. Florida's
foods and feeds, through careful tests and analysis over the years,
have proven high in nutritional values. Breeding and nutritional
programs for both plants and animals, including poultry, are pro-
gressing and new and improved methods of harvesting, processing
and marketing of foods and feeds are being brought forth.
In Table 1 the State Marketing Bureau has furnished figures
on the commercial movement of fresh fruits and vegetables which
were, in general, interstate in character. The values were obtained
from rail, truck and boat shipments. These figures do not include
food produced and sold locally.
Of the national food production, Florida marketed 32 per cent
of the green snap beans, 12 per cent of the cabbage, 20 per cent of
the lima beans, 26 per cent of the celery, 30 per cent of the chinese
cabbage, 25 per cent of the sweet corn, 40 per cent of the cucumbers,
60 per cent of the eggplant, 65 per cent of the escarole-endive, 10


per cent of the greens, 38 per cent of the green peppers, 60 per cent
of the radishes, 50 per cent of the southern peas, 15 per cent of the
squash, 28 per cent of the tomatoes, 28 per cent of the avacados, 80
per cent of the grapefruit, 90 per cent of the limes, 45 per cent of the
oranges, 100 per cent of the pineapples, 100 per cent of the tange-
rines, and 21 per cent of the watermelons.
Excluding the tons of "other fruit and vegetables" listed in Ta-
ble 1 the remaining 3,078,000 tons of fruits and vegetables in Table 1
provided enormous amounts of minerals and vitamins for the health
of the people. This amount of food represents an annual production
from the soil of 687 tons of calcium, 16 tons of iron, 1.8 tons of thia-
mine, 14.6 tons of niacin and 858 tons of ascorbic acid. If the 3,100,-
000 tons of produce principally citrus which was used by the proc-
essors in the state were added to this figure the amounts of minerals
and vitamins actually provided as food would in some instances be
almost double.
These amounts of minerals and vitamins would provide the min-
imum daily requirement for the following number of men for one
year.* Calcium 2,131,993 men, Iron 3,295,622 men, Vitamin A 43,-
218,072 men, thiamine 27,419 men, Niacin 2,271,505 men, Ascorbic
acid 2,840,380 men. This production provides minerals and vitamins
incorporated in the most palatable mixtures.
The minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, and roughage
Florida sends out of the state are added to the nation's wealth,
health and efficiency. From the modest little red-haw or blueberry
of northwest Florida, over the wide range of fruits to the gorgeous
mango of the far south; from the "first families" of the "greens" of
north Florida to the newly-rich romaine of the south, there is rea-
son to believe that these food plants have gleaned, in the growing,
the best Nature has to offer.
Food is nature's way of providing the many substances needed
for body structure, maintenance and operation. Florida growers
produce significant amounts of these specific nutrients in palatable
mixtures, never thinking of themselves as manufacturers of phar-
Have you ever stopped to think that every cell of your body has
been manufactured from something that you have eaten? The eyes
that see, the brain that thinks, the muscles that contract to move
the body and the hard, rigid bones are all animated fragments
of former fruits, vegetables, meats, milk, eggs, and so forth.
As you look at your hand try to visualize the many different
foods which you have eaten, digested and metabolized to make that
* Although the land has produced approximately this much minerals and vitamins the
department realizes that due to losses incurred between the field and the plate the public
actually gets a smaller amount of these foods and their constituents.



1/2 Cup

One GliaI

One Slice
Four Ounes BREAD
LEAN EE 1/ Cup

S c < 4 5 (c i. ( c C u e e u e Iu c
S' 2 ' c
,1i2 Y s C, i a ',l O I E a' i
Ui U U U *J.J U U 6d1 U .I
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Na me

Beans (Snap) .......... ....
Beans (Lima)...............
Cabbage. ....................
Cauliflower. .................
Chinese Cabbage. ............
Corn ............... ......
Cucumbers ..... ...........
Eggplant........ ... ......
Escarole--Endive. ............
G reens ................... ..
Lettuce ............. .....
Peppers (Green)..... ......
Potatoes (Irish) .............
Potatoes (Sweet) ............
Iadishes ..... ..... ......
Southern Peas.... .......
Squash.............. .......
Tomatoes........ .....
Other Vegetables2 ............

Avocados .................
Cantaloupe .................
Grapefruit ...................
Lim es ................ .
Oranges. ................. ..
Pineapples ........ ...... ...
St rawberries ................
Tangerines. ..................
W term elons .................
Peanuts..... .......... ....
Pecans. .................. ..
O()her Fruits ................

in Florida



Percent of
Fresh F

........ ....

:ash Receipts
arm Marketing



........ 775,000

SIncludes-Collards, kale, mustard, spinach, turnips.
2 Includes-Broccoli, okra, carrots, hrels, parsley, watercress, English peas, etc.
3 Includes tropical fruits, berries and deciduous fruits.

I s


Florida lands are producing much that is maintaining the very
life of the people of the country. The body needs a variety of sub-
stances for its growth, development and upkeep. Unfortunately,
no one food supplies all these substances in adequate amounts for
us. Individual foods look different, taste different, and smell dif-
ferent. Their chemical composition is different. Chart 1 illustrates
some of the marked differences in the composition of foods.
Looking at Chart 1, it can be easily seen that the vitamin C-rich
foods such as oranges are needed in well-balanced daily menus to
make up for the lack of this vitamin in such foods as bread and
meat. These two excellent foods also illustrate (Chart 1) the
need for the consumption of dark green or yellow vegetables which
are good sources of vitamin A. On the other hand, meat provides
the body with excellent quality protein. Milk also contains good
protein. However, this food must also be complemented by vitamin
C-rich foods since this vitamin is low in milk. Nevertheless, milk
provides more bone-building calcium than any other food. No other
food can approach milk in calcium contribution. Milk also adds
large amounts of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to the food intake. It is
deficient in iron (see Chart 1) and we depend on meat and dark
green leafy vegetables for the iron so essential in blood formation.
This chart illustrates why we must eat food from each of the seven
basic groups of foods every day. See page 160.
Future chapters discuss fruits and vegetables grown in Florida,
contribution of their nutrients to the human body, and the func-
tion of the nutrients in the human system. The amounts of nutri-
ents needed daily is discussed, also the foods which will provide
these amounts. This is accomplished by suggesting types and
amounts of foods to be eaten daily and purchased weekly. Many
tempting recipes are given. There is a chapter devoted to "how to
be well nourished while slimming."
The Florida Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law is enforced by the
Department of Agriculture. This law protects the public by re-
moving from the market products which are "adulterated" and are
unsafe or unfit for food. It also prohibits the sale of "misbranded"
foods, or foods which are falsely or inadequately labeled and pro-
tects the public from economic deceit in the sale of these foods.


II-Florida Vegetables

The wide variety of vegetables produced in Florida give zest
and appetite appeal to our meals-they are "good eating." Food
textures provided by vegetables range from the crisp crunchiness
of lettuce and raw carrot to the soft mealiness of mashed potatoes.
Vegetables lend themselves to a variety of methods of preparation.
They can be baked, boiled, fried with or without batter, made into
salads, soups and combination dishes with other foods such as milk,
eggs, or meat.
Vegetables are of value in the prevention of constipation. Peo-
ple who have always eaten daily large amounts of fresh fruits and
vegetables are seldom bothered with constipation. There are several
reasons for this. The minerals contained in the vegetables probably
have a regulatory effect on the intestinal tract. Second, vegetables
possess non-digestible fiber and bulk; this material holds water in
the intestinal tract thus maintaining a favorable consistency for
Vegetables have a protective value; that is, their mineral and
vitamin content protects us from the ill effects of nutritional de-
ficiencies, infections and physical deterioration. Some vegetables,
such as mature beans and peas, supply us with necessary protein.
The starchy vegetables provide us with needed calories for the pro-
duction of energy. All these substances enter our body and become
part of it structurally or functionally. Let us consider the function
of some of the food constituents in the body.

Calcium: Ninety-nine per cent of the calcium in the body is
deposited in the hard structure of the bones and teeth. Calcium
takes part in your blood coagulation, shares in the regulation of
heart and womb muscle action, and is necessary in the function of
the nervous system.
Cobalt: This mineral stimulates blood formation, probably by
being a part of the vitamin B12 structure.
Copper: It is necessary for the formation of red blood cells and
hemoglobin. It is needed for certain vital chemical processes in
the body.


Iron: Seventy per cent of the iron in the body is found in the
blood. Iron is a component of hemoglobin which acts as an oxygen
Magnesium: This mineral is necessary for the proper function
of the nervous system and muscular system.
Manganese: Vitamin B1 (thiamine) cannot be properly utilized
in the body unless manganese is present.
Potassium: It is one of the chief minerals in the fluid of your
body's cells. Rhythmic action of the heart depends upon potassium.
Transmission of the nerve impulse and muscular contraction must
have potassium for normal operation.
Phosphorus: Ninety per cent of the phosphorus in the body is
located in the bones and teeth as calcium phosphate. Phosphorus
is an essential constituent of all your cells. This mineral is neces-
sary for the proper utilization of proteins, sugars and starches.
Sodium: It is the chief mineral in the fluids surrounding the
cells of the body. Sodium provides a regulatory action on internal
pressure and water balance of the body. This mineral also helps
keep the body from being too acid or, the opposite of acid, too
Iodine: Most of the iodine in the body is found in the thyroid
gland located in the neck. The thyroid gland manufactures a sub-
stance called thyroxine. This substance is picked up by the blood
and carried throughout the body. Thyroxine regulates growth; the
water in the body; sugar and starch utilization; and the nervous,
muscular, circulatory and reproductive systems.
Definition: Vitamins, like salt, are chemical compounds having
a definite structure. The internal structure of vitamins is complex
and is different for each vitamin. Plants manufacture vitamins, but
not every plant manufactures the same amount of each vitamin;
therefore, some plants or their fruits contain more of a given vita-
min than do others. Each vitamin has its own function to perform
in the body.
Vitamin A: This vitamin is essential for the health of the moist
linings of the nose, throat, lungs and kidneys, etc. In this way it
gives us added resistance to colds, tuberculosis, and infections of
all kinds. By keeping the membranes of the kidneys healthy, a
large daily intake of vitamin A helps prevent kidney stones. Vita-
min A increases longevity and delays senility.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1): It is essential for keeping a good ap-


petite, normal digestion and muscular contractions of the bowels.
The normal functioning of nervous tissue requires thiamine.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2): This vitamin is important to health,
efficiency, vigor, resistance to infection, and promotes a high level
of vitality. There is indication that riboflavin is universally in-
volved in the life processes of the active cells of the body.
Niacin: This is the vitamin which prevents pellagra, character-
ized by a rough, scaly skin, diarrhea, digestive upsets, and a red
sore tongue. In extreme deficiency the nervous system is so dis-
turbed that the mind is affected. Niacin functions with thiamine
and riboflavin in the chemical processes in the body.
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C): Normal tooth and bone formation
are dependent on Vitamin C. Ascorbic acid helps maintain firm
blood vessels so that blood will not ooze through the walls of the
blood vessels. Vitamin C enters into the utilization of the proteins
you eat. It prevents scurvy.
Vitamin D: This vitamin increases the absorption of calcium
from the intestinal tract. It aids in regulating blood calcium level.
Vitamin D is necessary in the young for proper bone and tooth de-

Proteins, unlike starches, fats or carbohydrates, contain nitrogen.
The muscles, organs, blood, hair and fingernails are all constructed
from proteins which you have eaten. The antibodies of the blood,
which help you resist infection, are manufactured from protein. In
the young, protein is needed daily to build muscles, etc. The ma-
ture person still needs protein every day to build up his muscles,
blood, etc., which are being constantly broken down by the normal
body processes.

All sugars and starches fall into the class called "carbohydrates."
In the digestive tract the starches are changed to sugar before they
are absorbed through the intestinal wall. The normal burning of
this sugar in your body produces energy.

This is by no means a complete list of food nutrients. However,
it is hoped that this passing glimpse of the function of some of them
brings you an inkling of the inner workings of a magnificent struc-


ture, "the human body." You can't cheat a chemical reaction; you
cheat only yourself when you slip into poor eating habits. The nu-
tritive value of different foods is given in Table 7.

It would seem that for optimum storage of nutrients in plants
and in animals consuming the plants, the mineral content of the soil
is important. There is a minimum below which plants will not grow.
The effect of increasing the soil nutrients is being studied by agri-
culture experts. This problem is not as simple as appears on the
surface. Climatic conditions such as temperature, amount of sun-
light and rainfall affect the composition of plants, making it difficult
to compare results obtained in one place with those of another. For
a conclusive study the nourishment of the plant must be the only
variable. Even in the same field the composition of the soil may be
different in different sections. Species differences are also a consid-
eration. Some species of tomatoes synthesize more vitamin C than
do others. Staking and pruning the plant may affect the vitamin
content; also, whether or not the fruit grows on the north or south
side; the maturity of the fruit or vegetable at the time of harvest is
important. Thus far, the studies indicate that improved soil may in-
crease the total crop yield, but the increase in nutrients than can be
induced in the individual plant is still being actively investigated.
There are indications that there is an upper limit to the amount of
nutrients that plants or animals can store.


Beans (lima)
Beans (string)
Beets (roots)
Beets (greens)
Cabbage (Chinese)
Corn (Sweet)

Green (turnips)
Mustard (greens)
Mustard (Chinese)
Peas (English, field,
Pepper (sweet)

Pepper (red)
Potato (white, sweet,
Swiss Chard
Turnips (roots)
Water Cress

These beans are shelled before cooking. Like all hulled beans
they have a high protein content and may occasionally be substi-
tuted for meat in the menu. However, their protein content is not
equivalent to meat or of the same quality. One cup of fresh lima


beans has as much iron as three ounces of cooked hamburger. These
beans belong to the high calorie group of vegetables having 150
calories per cup. They grow well even in the hot summer. Com-
bined with sweet green corn they make a favorite well-known
Indian dish known as succotash. Fordhook 242, Concentrated and
Henderson are recommended varieties which freeze well.

This type of bean differs from the lima, "field pea," etc., in that
it has a low calorie content of only 27 calories a cup (without but-
ter or bacon fat). Its protein content resembles that of the leafy
vegetables, which is low. Minerals and vitamins are found in mod-
est amounts.
Do not "soak" beans before cooking. This process loses flavor
and food value. Sometimes a distinction is made between string
beans and snap beans, the latter being smaller but similar in food
value and method of preparation. Contender, U. S. No. 4 (191)
and Topcrop are resistant to bean mosaic. These snap beans have
been outstanding in freezing trials.

Greens-They are somewhat like chard. Like all "greens" they
possess a large amount of vitamin A precurser. This is called Caro-
tene and in the body is converted into Vitamin A. Unfortunately
this conversion falls far below 100 per cent and is dependent on
variable factors. While we speak of the Vitamin A content of green
and yellow vegetables we really mean Vitamin A "activity," assum-
ing the Carotene were converted 100 per cent to Vitamin A. One
cup of cooked beet greens supplies 39 calories and 10,000 units of
Vitamin A compared with the 5,000 units recommended for an adult
per day. Half a cup of beet greens has almost as much iron as 3
ounces of cooked sirloin steak without bone.
Roots-One cup of roots have almost twice as many calories as
one cup of greens. In all other respects the nutritive value of the
"roots" is far less than the "green." There is no comparison in
amounts of Vitamin A or iron. They add attractiveness of color
to the menu. Beets lose much of their nutritive material and color
in cooking and should be cooked in the skins and with at least two
inches of the stems.
Broccoli is a winter vegetable in Florida. An elegantly nutritious
vegetable very high in Vitamin C and high in Vitamin A. Like the


!" .":"I ":1



dark green leafy vegetables it contains appreciable amounts of the
B vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, also iron. The calcium content
of no food can compare with milk but as foods go broccoli has a high
calcium and phosphorus content. Select stalks when young and ten-
der. Early Green Sprouting Broccoli is a variety which freezes well.


This plant probably ascended from the "colwart" or collard. Cab-
bage has about 40 calories to a cup either cooked or raw. The B
vitamins and Vitamin C content of cooked cabbage is slightly less
than in the raw cabbage. Only when the cabbage leaves are very
dark green do they contain appreciable Vitamin A. Raw cabbage
lends itself to a variety of dishes and combinations. (See Salads.)

Copenhagen Market Variety

1. Chinese Cabbage (Pe-tsai)--This cabbage is composed of
white, close-growing stems with green leaves. The centers are very
tender and may be used for raw salads. To cook, cut and place in
boiling salted water for 30 minutes or less. Season with butter
and lemon juice.
2. Cauliflower-Cauliflower and broccoli are about the only
flowers used as vegetables. Cauliflower is considered as cabbage,
but it is milder in flavor and possibly more easily digested. It has
a high water holding capacity. The effect of cooking on the nu-
trients of cauliflower is the same as on cabbage. Its total nutritive


value is about the same as cabbage-except that it has considerably
less calcium than cabbage.
The principle of cooking is the same as for cabbage. Soak it
upside down in salt (mild) water to kill insects hiding there.
3. Kohl-Rabi-Kohl-Rabi's chief contribution to the diet is vi-
tamin C.
Kohl-Rabi or turnip cabbage has the stem or bulb, the edible
portion of the plant, largely above the ground. The smaller bulbs
are less tough and fibrous than the larger ones.

Chinese Cabbage

The carrot has a yellow pigment (tasteless and odorless) that
gives it a beautiful color always desirable in planning a menu.
Young carrots possess greater caloric value than old carrots, the
latter having a tendency to become woody.



Carrots are outstanding for Vitamin A activity, having 18,000
units per cup compared with the recommended adult daily intake
of 5,000 units. Remember! This occurs mostly as Carotene and is
not converted 100 per cent to Vitamin A in the body. The indigesti-
ble carbohydrates, pectin, etc., are a mechanical aid in bowel func-
tion and elimination. Grated, young raw carrots are more attractive
in color and have a better flavor than cooked carrots. Because of
the rich coloring and the pectin content, carrots are combined with
pineapple and some other fruits, lacking in pectin, in the making
of marmalades. Recommended varieties of carrots are Imperator
Nantes and Chantenay; these have been outstanding in freezing
tests conducted at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.

Celery is a winter crop in Florida. The enlarged succulent stalk of
the basal leaves is the edible portion. Celery salt is ground celery
seed and is highly prized for flavoring soups and salads. For those
who are watching their calories, a cup of diced celery represents
only 18 calories. A very small quantity of essential oil gives celery
its taste. It often gives a variety to an otherwise "soft" and concen-
trated menu. Since this is true it should really not be cooked except
as a flavor and then only slightly cooked so that it will afford a good
"crunchy feel" and something to chew, something with which to
give the teeth proper exercise. The outside leaves and tougher por-
tions may be used in soups, sauces, stews, omelets or cooked dress-

Swiss chard, a variety of beet
which, instead of a root, has
thick, broad leaves growing on
a large succulent stem. The
outside leaves may be removed
and used and the plant left to
Grow. It is a good source of iron
and a fair source of Vitamin C
I and A when the nutritive value
of the leaves is considered with
the bulky but probably less
nutritious stems.


Corn is a cereal, but in its fresh green state deserves mention in
this list. Yellow corn is a richer source of vitamin A than is white
corn. Corn is a high calorie vegetable. It is a good vegetable source
of the B vitamins. Ioana, Golden Cross Bantam and Seneca Chief
have shown good freezing qualities.

Collards belong to the non-heading thick-leaf vegetables growing
on one stalk. Of all the vegetables, collards leads the list in amounts
of minerals and vitamins. A few vegetables may be higher in this
or that but do not carry numerous minerals and vitamins at a high
level. Of all vegetables, collards have the highest calcium content,
but in no way compares with milk as a source of calcium.
They are a good winter vegetable and are improved with cool
mornings and light frosts. In colder climates the leaves form loose
heads but in Florida they do not head. Leaves may be broken from
the stems and the plant left to continue to grow through the winter.

The cucumber lends freshness and crispness to the meal. It
grows very rapidly in Florida, is tender and appetizing even when
large in size. Fresh in salads is the best form of preparation. It may
be brined, then treated with boiling vinegar with or without sugar
or spices. "Dill pickles" are usually large cucumbers flavored with
dill seeds. As an appetizer to vary a diet, cucumbers supply a cool,
palatable relish. A prickly variety, small in size, is the Gherkin,
particularly good for pickling. Best varieties are Marketer, Palomar
and Santee. Planting begins in January and February.

This plant has a greenish-white stem with a rosette of curly light-
green leaves which make an attractive garnish for salads or cooked
dish-the curly type for salads, and the broad-leaf type for cooking.
It has a bitter flavor which some call a "tonic." The bleached leaves
are more crisp and tender. It is best served with a French dressing
or oil and lemon juice. Sometimes a bit of hot bacon grease, in-
stead of oil, is added to the lemon juice for seasoning.

The large purple egg-shaped fruit of the eggplant has a rather
bitter juice. This juice can be drawn out of the eggplant by sprin-


kling the slices with salt and letting stand for about an hour. This
process produces an oyster like flavor.
Eggplant may be fried, baked or steamed. It adds bulk, variety
and interest to the diet. It forms a good basis for combination foods.

Lettuce is most often used in salads, providing crispness and
decoration. Non-heading lettuce is delicious served wilted, with hot
diluted vinegar and bacon. Another way of serving is to tie the outer
leaves together and drop them into hot soup for five minutes.
Remove the lettuce, taking care to retain its shape, and then squeeze
dry. Cut in inch lengths and serve hot, capped with grated cheese,
or chop fine and serve with melted butter and a little cream. For
those interested in low calorie foods, lettuce has only 7 calories in
two large leaves and is usually eaten raw.

Garlic resembles onion sets in appearance but has a white pa-
pery outer shell. Remove the outer covering and slice through. It
is very strong in flavor. Use very sparingly.

Escarole is a
large non head-
Sing curly lettuce
growing on one
stalk. It is listed
as fair in vitamin
A and is of a rich
green color. The
outer as well as
the inner leaves
should be eaten.
To prepare for
salad chill thor-
Escarole oughly.

Mint consists of small green leaves with an aromatic flavor. It
may be chopped fine or used whole to flavor fruit cocktails, salads or
jelly. It is convenient to make a mint sauce by mixing it with sugar
and vinegar or with sugar and lemon juice. This is delicious served


with roast lamb. It sometimes is used with peas and new potatoes
and to flavor chutney and preserves.
Mustard is one of the quickest growing greens. Most varieties do
best and have most agreeable flavor when grown in the cool weather
of late fall, winter or early spring.
Mustard leaves should be crisp and a vivid green. To prepare,
boil in a little water for five minutes. Season with butter, salt and
pepper. Cover and cook slowly 30 minutes. Mustard greens, like
other dark green leafy vegetables have large amounts of minerals
and vitamins. For this reason they are highly recommended as a
valuable part of the menu. Florida Broad Leaf Mustard is out-
standing in freezing trials conducted by the Florida Agriculture
Experiment stations. This variety grows well in hot weather. It is
fine for greens and salads.
(Mustard Spinach)
Although not a true mustard, it is like a quick growing mild



mustard with a spinach flavor and remains tender even in hot dry
weather. It combines the flavor of mustard and spinach.

This is a quick growing thick leaf green plant, rich in vitamin
A. Kale is grown in Florida, but only in a very limited way by
relatively few growers for a very specialized market.

The okra plant is similar to the cotton plant. It is a dry weather
fruiting plant and thrives through the hot, dry season when other
vegetables are scarce. It grows easily nearly all over the state and
bears well over a period of several weeks. Clemson Spineless has
been outstanding in freezing trials.
The fruit is a small green pod and is best selected when young
and tender. The pods should be picked every other day. The flavor
is pleasing in soups. The mucilaginous consistency is a means of
thickening soup. Lightly boil or steam so as not to break the skins.
Serve hot with melted butter. Okra with tomatoes (gumbo) is a
delightful dish, the tomato lending the acid flavor and the okra
thickening the tomato to a pleasing consistency

Bermudas, shallots, leeks and other green onions grow abun-
dantly in Florida.

Green Onion
Green or immature onions are long, slender, white stalks hav-
ing tubular green leaves. To prepare for the table, serve raw as a
relish in salad, or chop and use in stew or "combination" dishes.
Young green onions provide as much vitamin C as an equal weight
of tomatoes.

Mature Onion
The Spanish or Bermuda onion is a spherical-shaped or flattened
bulb having a dead, shriveled stem and a dry, tan-colored, papery
outer husk. To prepare for the table, peel from the root up, place in
rapidly boiling water and cook for 5 minutes. Let the water evap-
orate, and season the vegetables with butter, salt and pepper. Cover
closely and steam for 30 minutes. To bake, place for 5 minutes in
rapidly boiling salted water, then remove, and put under meat to
be roasted.


Pickling Onion
Pickling or Portuguese onions are small, round, partly mature
bulbs which are sold in bunches. Owing to their flavor, they are es-
pecially fine for pickling whole in vinegar, or for use in stews and
salads. To pickle select very fresh onions and peel them from the
root up, taking care to keep the bulb whole and round. While peel-
ing, drop into a salt solution made by dissolving 2 tablespoons of salt
in 2 cups of cold water to prevent discoloration and softening. When
ready to pickle (this may be done immediately if desired), dry on a
cheesecloth and drop into a hot sterilized bottle, adding boiling hot
vinegar to cover. To prepare the vinegar for 4 pounds of small
onions, boil 2 cups of malt vinegar with 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 dozen
peppercorns, 6 allspices, 3 bay leaves, and 6 small red peppers. Seal
the bottled onions and keep them in a dark place.

Shallots are small clustered bulbs which resemble partly mature
cooking onions, but have fine, slender leaves. To cook, remove the
tops and steam the bulbs. Serve with butter. The delicate nutty
flavor of shallots is very pleasing.
Parsley consists of sprays of bright green, finely curley dissected
leaves. It is used for soups, stews, sauces and to garnish salads, or
cooked vegetables. It gives attractive color and like other dark
green leafy vegetables is packed with minerals and vitamins.
Green English peas are a winter crop in Florida. They are an
excellent source of the B vitamins and have appreciable iron. Their
calorie content is less than Irish potatoes but greater than most
vegetables. The Little Marvel is a variety known to freeze well.
The cow pea (field pea), lady pea and black eyed pea flourish
during the summer. The field pea is a southern dish. The peas are
picked as soon as the peas are well formed in the pod, shelled and
boiled, usually with a piece of fat bacon. Long and general use on
southern tables prove its satisfactory food value. The thiamine (a B
vitamin), iron, phosphorus, and protein content is high. It belongs
to the high calorie food group.
The sugar, crowder and lady are popular. The bush conch is a
popular Florida table pea.
Red peppers or long "hot" peppers are tapering pods which are
first green, then red when matured. They are used in pickles, chut-


ney, sauces, for seasoning. The juice is very strong and should be
used sparingly. These peppers are easily cured or dried in the sun.
Hungarian Wax is a good hot pepper.

Sweet peppers in Florida sometimes bear as long as 6 or 8 months
in the year. Pimentos are smooth, have a thick, juicy flesh and are
sweeter than the other types. They are better for canning. Canned
pimentos have twice as much vitamin C as orange juice however,
we eat much smaller volumes of canned pimento than of orange
juice. The bell pepper is hardier than the pimento. It has a good
flavor and color. It has much vitamin C. "Stuffed peppers" is a
favorite Southern dish. Peppers for salads should be well crisped.
Peppers for canning should be placed in a hot (not warm) oven
for loosening the peel. California Wonder and World Beater are
two good varieties.

The potato is a modified stem, an enlargement for storing starch.
Both white and sweet potatoes show vitamin C content and the
sweet potato (the yellow variety) shows a greater vitamin A con-
tent. Both potatoes contain very little cellulose. They yield an
alkaline ash in the body. They help balance the acid residue of
White Potato
Very young potatoes and old potatoes (ready to sprout) have
less starch and more sugar than well grown but still fresh potatoes.
The average potato (mature) has 75 per cent water, 20 per cent
starch, and two per cent protein. The more moist potatoes have a
greater proportion of protein while the mealy potato has more
starch. When boiled in the jackets they lose only one per cent of
the protein and only three per cent of the mineral. Baking potatoes
lose almost none of the nutrients.

Sweet Potato
Many varieties of sweet potatoes flourish in Florida soils. Usu-
ally the moist sweeter potato goes on the local market while the dry
mealy article is sent to the Northerner who likes it better. Sweet
potatoes have 50 per cent more calories than do Irish potatoes. They
also provide large amounts of vitamin A. Peanuts are a splendid
supplement and are combined in many interesting ways with the
sweet potato. (See Recipes.)
Recommended varieties of sweet potatoes for the home garden
are Unit No. 1, quite commonly known as copper-skinned Porto


Rican, the Porto Rican, Cliett's bunch Porto Rican and, for early
summer potatoes, Maryland Golden.
Yams are grown on a limited commercial scale by several grow-
ers in Florida. It is not used as a sweet potato but is sometimes
served in Tampa as "Cuban" potatoes. It is a larger tuber than the
sweet potato and not so sweet. When it grows to unusual size it is
tougher and coarser than the sweet potato. It keeps more easily
than the sweet potato.
Pumpkins can be grown in the home garden quite satisfactorily
in Florida. To prevent the pumpkins from rotting, place a shingle
under them as soon as they begin to form. Like other dark yellow
vegetables, pumpkins are rich in vitamin A.
Radish greens are the tops of the little radish roots and are suit-
able to combine with other varieties of spring or winter "greens."
The roots are peppery in fla-
vor, attractive for salads, and
are easily and quickly grown
in early spring. Radishes are
a source of vitamin C and the
greens carry A.

mended for Florida but Vir-
ginia Savoy is blight resistant
and can be satisfactorily pre-
served by freezing. It has a
highly alkaline residue in the
process of digestion. It is rich in
iron. Except for a low calcium
content the nutritive value
resembles collards. It needs
only a few minutes high tem-
perature in cooking and there-
fore maintains its rich vitamin
content. It is better steamed
than boiled. Lemon juice adds
flavor. Add butter. Serve hot

This vegetable is not re-
New Zealand Spinach lated to the ordinary spinach.


There are no other vegetables closely related to New Zealand
spinach. It belongs to the same group of plants to which ice plant
belongs, a decorative plant sometimes used in window boxes. It
grows well in hot weather and forms a good substitute for spinach
during the season when spinach not thrive. It is cooked as "greens"
and is popular often among people who do not like spinach.

Baked Squash Is A Florida Favorite
1. Winter. The Alagold is recommended for Florida. It is very
resistant to all types of insects which commonly attack squash in
the South. The solid meated, long-keeping, mature fruits are good
either as baked squash or made into pies. The flesh is very thick
and of cream or salmon color. The fruits are bell shaped with a
smooth and very tough rind, 8 to 10 inches long and 5 or 6 inches
wide at the lower or thickest end. They average 5 pounds in weight.
The rind is dark green, maturing to a deep yellow or buff color.
The unbruised fruit can be kept in good condition for a long time.
2. Summer, Bush Varieties. The early Yellow Summer Crook-
neck is the most extensively grown of any squash in Florida. The
fruits are small with thin curved necks. The meat contains many


large soft seeds. The skin is a bright yellow. These squash make
delicious fritters if they are sliced, salted, allowed to stand not more
than an hour, dried, dipped in thick batter and fried in hot meat
The Cocozelle when ready for market is 10 to 12 inches long, 1
to 1% inches in diameter, cylindrical in shape, straight, smooth,
dark green with light green stripes.
The Zucchini is generally smaller than the Cocozelle. It is a
long, smooth, black-green fruit. At maturity it reaches a length of
16 by 4 inches but is usually harvested when it is half this size.
The Early Prolific Straightnecks are about the same length as
the Zucchini and smooth to sparsely warted. They have a yellow
skin and are club shaped.
The Patty Pan type squash are very popular in the Northern
market. These smooth fruit are pale green, becoming white as they
reach maturity. They are round and flat but deep with scalloped
edges. When mature they are five to eight inches in diameter and
three inches or more deep. The white flesh also contains large,
soft seeds.
The butternut Squash is a heavy yielding, hard skinned squash
that takes shipping and storage well. It has an excellent flavor.
These squash are pear shaped, yellowish brown or deep buff colored
and weigh 2/2 to 4 pounds.
3. Summer, Running Varieties. The Fruit of the Table Queen
(acorn) are very dark green, weighing about two pounds, with sides
deeply ribbed and with a point at the blossom end. Yellow colored
flesh is very fine grained and sweet when baked. It keeps well.
4. Chayote. The chayote grows on a climbing vine. The fruit
is pear-shaped more or less and varies in size and color as well as
shape. It has one big seed. Like squash, it is better cut into slices
for serving and steamed only until tender. Chayote in the raw state
has only a fair amount of vitamin A and seemingly no vitamin
B or C.

To prepare for cooking, peel, slice or dice. This squash may be
creamed, fried in butter, made into salads or pickles. A sauce may
be made by boiling or steaming and mashing the fruit and adding
the juice of the flower of the roselle (a beautiful red). When sugar
is added a good dessert is the result.
The chayote will thrive when other vegetables are usually
scarce. When once established it continues to grow year after year.


Southern Grits contain much of the food value and natural
favor of the original product and are used extensively with meats,
seafoods and vegetables. One popular recipe, a favorite of Mrs.
Nathan Mayo, is Grits a la Summerfield:
1 cup grits (washed) 1/ cup water
314 cups sweet milk 1 teaspoon salt
Let hot water run on the grits until thoroughly washed. After
grits are washed add 1/4 cup water and 1 teaspoon salt and cook over
moderate heat about 15 minutes.
Put in double boiler and add the milk. Cook about 112 hours,
stirring occasionally. Serve with patty of butter.

The tomato is in season in some localities almost the year 'round
in Florida. It is one of the most common, yet most valuable, of Flor-
ida vegetables. One cup of canned tomato juice or one medium size
tomato provides half the recommended vitamin C intake for a man
per day. They are also fair sources of vitamin A. Tomato juice
should be a part of the diet of everybody, beginning with babies of
only a few weeks of age. Orange juice and tomato juice, easily
taken, are splended supplements of deficient diets. Fresh or canned
tomatoes add variety, color, food value (both mineral and vitamin),
flavor, and pleasure to any menu.
Recommended varieties for the home garden are Manalucie,
Homestead and Jefferson.
Turnip greens are the tops of the common turnip. They are
usually rich in iron and calcium. They are a wonderful source of
vitamins A, B and C. They should be selected young and tender
and cooked quickly. The liquid in which they are cooked should
be used for soups. Bacon adds a spendid flavor to turnip greens.
These greens are not easily hurt by frost and light freezes. They
are hardy and can be grown all winter. The Japanese Foliage (Sho-
goin) stand up well when frozen for the home freezer.
Turnip roots like beet roots have a total nutritive value which is
much less than the nutritive value of the "tops." They have a spicy,
pungent taste (due to an essential oil) and, when combined with
the turnip greens and slices of cured bacon and hot corn muffins,
they form a favorite fall meal in the South. It is said that the juices
of tomatoes and turnip greens have had a big place in the list of
protective foods in the southern climate.


III-Uses of Florida Vegetables

Wash vegetables thoroughly, using a brush. Scrape, peel, or
shell after cleaning if necessary. Remember that vegetables cut
crosswise lose more nutrients in cooking than vegetables cut length-

Select the method best suited to the vegetable to be cooked
taking into consideration whether texture, color, flavor summed up
in attractiveness is the main item (and it sometimes is) or whether
minerals and vitamins are in this particular case of more impor-
tance. Sometimes it is best to coax the appetite or desire for the
cooked food and to supply the minerals and vitamins in fresh un-
cooked foods such as milk and fresh fruits and vegetables or their
juices. Use common sense and a knowledge of the food habits of
the family.
In boiling, put all vegetables into quickly boiling water which
has been boiling long enough to drive out the air. Bring the water
to a boil again as quickly as possible.
Start the cooking with the lid partially or entirely removed.
Shove the lid off for the first fifteen minutes of boiling of strongly
flavored or of green or yellow vegetables. This gives acids and
gases time to escape and leaves better flavor, color and desirability.
Add one teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. Add salt early
in the cooking to increase color (except in red or white vegetables).
Use only enough water to cover mildly flavored vegetables.
Let the water cook down. Do not drain. This process applies to
peas, celery, string beans, lima beans.
Vegetables of stronger flavor onions, cabbage, brussels sprouts,
cauliflower, turnips) should boil rapidly in large amounts of water
with open top.
Cook vegetables until done-no longer. Over cooking destroys
color, flavor, vitamins, digestibility, nutrients. Time required
depends upon age and tenderness of vegetables. Remove from heat
as soon as tender, serve quickly with butter, with cream, with milk
and butter, with white sauce or with strips of browned bacon.
Add no soda in cooking vegetables. It destroys vitamins, flavor
and texture.


Waterless cooking. Vegetables which contain a large proportion
of water or to which water adheres (spinach and other greens) may
be cooked in certain utensils without the addition of water. Cast
aluminum or other heavy metal utensils with tightly fitted covers
are desirable for this type of cooking. To follow the waterless or
heavy covered aluminum saucepan method, proceed as follows:
a. Select mild flavored vegetables. Add no water, cover pan
and set it over low heat. If steam escapes, lower heat.
b. For "stronger" vegetables, add a small amount of boiling
water. Leave uncovered a few minutes. Cover. Use low heat.
Steaming preserves color and the nutritional value of vege-
tables to a high degree. Place vegetables in a perforated compart-
ment of a steamer or deep well cooker. Cover. Steam over rapidly
boiling water. Steaming takes 5 to 15 minutes longer than boiling
in most cases.
Oven may be used. Vegetables are pared, left whole or cut,
seasoned and baked covered in a small amount of water. Use mod-
erate temperatures. Bake three times the boiling time.
To bake vegetables leave them in rather large pieces. Cut
lengthwise in quarters-carrots, parsnips, turnips. Leave onions
whole. Use a baking dish or pan. Salt, cover bottom of pan with
boiling water. Cover dish or pan tightly and place in oven. In case
of strong vegetables, lift the lid during the first few minutes of cook-
ing. Use heat high enough to let the water boil-about 350 degrees.
As vegetables begin to get tender, remove the cover if a fairly dry
product is desired. To butter the products wait until almost all the
water has evaporated. Leave the lid off and turn the heat up
slightly and continue the baking until slightly brown if necessary.
Complete directions accompany the pressure saucepans. The
time of cooking may have to be adjusted on the basis of ex-
perience with vegetables of different degrees of maturity.

Children and grown-ups eat because they "like it," not because
they should; because "it's good," not because "it's good for you."
Attractiveness in preparation usually creates the demand. With
vegetables, one of the main points of attractiveness is natural color.
What is color? How is it lost? How can we retain it?
There are four color pigments in vegetables which give the na-
tural vegetable coloring. These substances change with the action
of heat, acid, and alkalis and thus change the color of the products.
Green (Chlorophyll) -Green vegetables, such as spinach, chard,
string beans (green), green cabbage, turnip greens, carry this color-


ing matter or pigment which is slightly soluble in water as is shown
in the cooking. Heat turns this pigment brown when there is acid
present. All vegetables contain at least a trace of acid, but this acid
will disappear in steam if the cover is left off the cooking vessel, and
nearly all of it will go during the first fifteen minutes. If a steamer
is being used the color may be improved by letting the steam escape
at the end of fifteen minutes. An open kettle cooking retains better
color. An alkali has the opposite effect on the "green" from that
produced by the acid. A small pinch of soda has a tendency to de-
stroy part of the vitamins and break down the fiber to a state
of mush. Avoid soda. For palatability and attractiveness, cook
"greens" by the open kettle quick method.
Red (Anthocyanins)-Beets and red cabbage contain red pig-
ment. It is very soluble in water. Alkali turns the red vegetables
brown; acid turns them redder. A teaspoon of vinegar to a pint of
water helps to retain color in cooking beets or red cabbage.
Colorless (Flavone) -Onions, turnips, celery and white cabbage
have this pigment which is colorless until heated. Overcooking
turns it yellow in onions and in cabbage.
Yellow (Carotinoid) -Carrots, squash, pumpkin and rutabaga
carry this pigment, which is only slightly soluble in water and is
not affected by acid or alkali. Because it is stable we need not,
from the point of color, consider the cooking.
Cooking softens the fiber, breaking down the natural texture.
The problem is to make the product tender yet as natural as pos-
sible in texture. Spinach and okra and many other vegetables are
much disliked when overcooked. Select them tender and cook them
quickly is the best plan. Again avoid the habit of adding soda to
make them tender.
To improve the flavor, to "season," is sometimes given as a rea-
son for cooking vegetables instead of serving them raw. Really un-
cooked vegetables (mild flavored ones) are more palatable than
cooked ones and the problem is to retain the natural flavor. A few
of the "strong juice" vegetables are improved with cooking, but
over-cooking, even of onions and cabbage, ruins the flavor and (in
the case of the latter) the digestibility. To preserve flavor, cook
vegetables in the skin, whole, and quickly and serve at once.
Food Value
The food value of cooked food is different from raw food. Vary-
ing amounts of vitamins are lost during cooking depending on the



method and length of cooking time. Thiamine is the vitamin most
easily destroyed by heat. Prolonged heating at low temperatures
destroys more thiamine than high temperatures for a short time.
Fruits and vegetables contain enzymes which destroy vitamin C,
particularly when the inner portions are exposed to air. For exam-
ple some vitamin C will be lost from cole slaw, even in the refrig-
erator, if it is kept for more than a few hours. The presence of acids
retards the loss of vitamin C. Acid foods such as tomatoes and cit-
rus fruits lose less vitamin C under the same conditions than do
less acid foods such as cabbage. During cooking vitamin C is also
destroyed by oxidation. Foods continue to lose vitamin C as long
as they are kept warm.
Riboflavin and niacin are not destroyed by heat, but like thia-
mine and vitamin C they are soluble in water. Vitamin losses can
be reduced by using small volumes of water and cooking until just
done, but no longer. Vitamins A, D and E are not destroyed by
heat and do not dissolve in water. They are fat soluble.
Minerals are not destroyed by heat but they are leached out dur-
ing the cooking process. Here again, small volumes of water and
short cooking periods reduce mineral loss from foods. One can in-
crease the mineral and vitamin intake by using the water in which
foods have been cooked for sauces, soups and gravies. The Southern
custom of drinking the "pot liquor" is nutritionally sound.
I. Baking a vegetable in the skin preserves the minerals and
1. Vegetables with high enough water content and small
exposed surfaces, bake well. Beets, carrots, onions, parsnips,
potatoes (Irish or sweet), squash, pumpkin, turnips, are good
for baking.
2. Baking requires extra time and fuel.
II. Steaming is the next best method of saving food value.
1. Beets, carrots, parsnips, potato, squash and pumpkin
steam well.
2. Green vegetables may be steamed but are not so at-
tractive in color as are the open cooked "greens."
3. Steaming is more economical than baking as several
vegetables may be steamed at once.
III. Steam Pressure comes third in taking care of food value.
1. Vegetables which require long time cooking are used
in this method.
IV. Boiling in the Skin is rated as the fourth in methods.
1. If vegetables must be peeled, boil whole.


2. If vegetables must be cut, cut lengthwise, not cross-
wise, to save food value. Boiling in a large amount of water
loses more minerals and vitamins than boiling in small
amount. Vegetables retain flavor, texture, and food value
when put on in boiling water rather than cold. Again, prac-
tically all of the mineral lost may be found in the cooking
water, so do not feed the sink.
V. "Waterless Cooking." The cooker is usually made of heavy
aluminum, a good heat distributor. The bottom is very thick and
prevents burning. The cooker may be set on the back part of the
range or on a gas or oil flame. The cover fits tightly. Heat should
be regulated to prevent steam escape. The cover is not removed
during cooking since the method is to cook the vegetables in their
own juices. Of course, strong vegetables like cabbage, Brussels
sprouts, cauliflower, turnips and onions are better when they lose
some of their flavor in cooking. Green vegetables become brown
due to certain acids which cannot escape in a tightly closed vessel.
Vegetables like potatoes (sweet and Irish) and squash and such
other vegetables as are suitable for baking are suitable for water-
less cooking.
VI. Foods cooked in pressure sauce pans retain their nutritive
value due to the fact that they are cooked quickly in a small volume
of water and air is expelled from the sauce pan.

Au Gratin-Au gratin is a French term meaning covered with
crumbs. Prepare cooked vegetables as for scalloping but cover the
top with buttered crumbs before browning. Sprinkle cheese over
the top if desired but cheese is not essential to an au gratin dish.
Baked-Wash the vegetables and place on a pan or rack in a
moderate oven. Cook until tender. Most vegetables are baked
whole but squash is usually cut in pieces for serving before being
Boiled-Wash the vegetable and cook it in the skin, or pared,
whole or in pieces, in boiling water until just tender. The water
should be boiling when the vegetable is put in and should boil con-
tinuously but not very rapidly in order not to break the vegetable.
Serve with salt, pepper, and butter, or prepare in other ways such
as creamed, au gratin, croquettes, or soups.
Buttered-Heat the boiled or steamed vegetable in butter or pour
melted butter over the hot cooked vegetable.


Creamed-Combine the cooked vegetable whole or in pieces
with white sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetables
to one cup of white sauce. For moist vegetables, such as carrots,
turnips, or onions, use medium white sauce. For dry vegetables,
like potatoes, use thin white sauce.
Croquettes-Combine a mashed or finely diced cooked vegetable
with thick white sauce. Shape into individual servings of the de-
sired form, roll in crumbs, in beaten egg, and in crumbs again, and
fry in deep fat.
Curried-Add curry powder to white sauce and prepare as for
creamed vegetable.
Scalloped (cooked)--Cut cooked vegetables or a combination of
vegetables in slices or pieces, combine with white sauce as for
creamed vegetable, put into a buttered baking dish, and brown in
the oven.
Scalloped (raw)--Put a layer of the sliced raw vegetable in the
bottom of a buttered baking dish, sprinkle with flour, salt, and pep-
per and dot with butter. Repeat the layers until the dish is full and
pour over the top just enough milk to be seen through the top
layer. Bake in a moderate oven until the vegetable is tender.

Jerusalem Artichoke
Wash and pare and cook artichokes in boiling salt water until
soft. Add 1/4 cup butter, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 teaspoons
salt. and a few grains cayenne. Cook 3 minutes and serve hot.

Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will snap.
Tie the stems in neat bundles and place them in boiling salted wa-
ter for 20 minutes with the cut ends resting on the bottom of the
vessel; then drop on sides so that the heads will be submerged.
Cook sauce or served as creamed or scalloped asparagus or used
as a puree in stock or cream soups.

Scalloped Asparagus
2 cups milk 2 bunches (about 1 quart)
2 tablespoons butter of asparagus
2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper
1 cup buttered bread crumbs 2 eggs, yolk
Make a thin white sauce and add the cooked asparagus. Add the
beaten yolks and turn the mixture into buttered baking dish.
Cover with buttered crumbs and brown in a moderate oven
(3500-450 F.).


Buttered Crumbs-To each cup of ground crumbs, use 3 table-
spoons of butter or other fat. Meit the fat, add the crumbs, remove
them from the heat and mix them thoroughly until each crumb is
covered with fat. This mixture browns easily and gives a delicious
flavor to a creamed dish.

Asparagus Shells
1 cup asparagus puree 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups hot mashed potatoes /2 cup fine dry bread crumbs
1 egg
Mix the asparagus, potato, salt and beaten egg thoroughly. On a
well-greased baking sheet, shape the mixture into small circular
forms with a hollow center. Brush the entire surface with melted
butter, sprinkle with bread crumbs and set in a hot oven (4000-
450 F.) until thoroughly heated and golden brown. With a broad
spatula or pancake turner lift the shells into a hot platter. Fill
them with diced cream chicken or mushrooms, serve at once.

Cook young lima beans in BOILING salted water until tender,
allowing water to cook quite low. Moisten well with thin cream
or add butter, salt and pepper. A ham bone, piece of salt pork or
bacon cooked with these beans improves the flavor.

2 cups fresh corn 2 tablespoons butter
1 cup lima beans Salt, pepper
1/ cup milk
Boil beans until tender. Add corn and cook 10 minutes. Add
milk, butter, salt and pepper. Cook 3 minutes longer.

Creole Lima Beans
1% cups dried lima beans 1 cup canned or stewed to-
2 tablespoons butter or mato
other cooking fat 1 small onion
2 tablespoons chopped green 11/2 tablespoons flour
pepper 1 teaspoon sugar
/2 teaspoon salt
Soak the beans overnight and cook until tender. Heat the but-
ter and cook the chopped pepper and onion in it for a few minutes.
Add flour and blend thoroughly. Add the tomato gradually and
cook until thickened, stirring constantly. Add seasoning, pour over
the beans and cook 15 minutes.



Select tender beans. String well. Drop into boiling salted water
and cook until tender, being careful to see that the water evaporates
as the beans are done. Brown strips of bacon in a pan. Add bacon
and drippings to beans and allow them to cook a few minutes longer
until well seasoned.


Lima Beans, French Style
1 cup dried lima beans 1/2 teaspoon salt
12 cups milk 2 egg yolks
4 tablespoons butter
Soak the beans overnight and cook until almost done, using no
more water than the beans will absorb. Add milk, butter and salt,
and finish cooking. Just before serving stir in the beaten egg yolks
and cook until slightly thickened.

Succotash (String Beans)
Cook beans as for boiling and add in proportion of one cup of
each grated corn and stewed tomato and cook until well combined
(about ten minutes).

Buttered Beets
Leave the skin on the root and two inches of stem. Wash
the beets and boil them until they are tender. Take them from the
boiling water and drop into cold water. Slip off the skin, cut the
beets in thin slices or dice them. Heat them with salt, pepper and
butter and serve at once.
Variation-To each pint of hot buttered beets add from 1 to 2
tablespoons of vinegar or lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and 1
tablespoon of minced green pepper.
For a quick method, peel and slice or chop finely. Add a very
small amount of water and cook for 15 minutes. Add lemon juice
and butter. Serve hot. Beets adapt themselves nicely to waterless
cookers. Put unpeeled beets in a saucepan with three tablespoons
water. Cook until tender. Peel and dress with butter, pepper and
salt. They are sweeter and of better flavor cooked by this method.
A sauce of one tablespoon vinegar, 2 tablespoons butter, 1/ teaspoon
scraped onion, one tablespoon sugar and 1/ teaspoon of salt may be
made to give small beets a piquant flavor. Pour over peeled beets
and let stand in a covered hot pan a few minutes.

Beet Greens
Examine the leaves carefully, rejecting all bruised or dark por-
tions. Wash thoroughly in many waters. Add only enough boiling
water to keep the beets from burning, and boil until tender, from
20 to 30 minutes. Drain off the water. Chop the greens and season
with butter, salt and pepper.


Harvard Beets
Cook as for buttered beets. Mix % cup sugar and 1 tablespoon
cornstarch. Add 1/ cup vinegar and let boil 5 minutes. Add beets
and let stand in a warm place 30 minutes. Just before serving add
2 tablespoons butter.

Cook in boiled salted water about 20 minutes or until tender.
Drain. Add butter or cream.
Brussels Sprouts with Celery
Chop 1 quart sprouts cooked as above. Chop celery, 11/2 cups
and cook two minutes in 3 tablespoons butter. Add 2 tablespoons
flour and pour on gradually 1/2 cups scalded milk. Bring to a boil.
Add sprouts, season with salt and pepper, and, as soon as heated,

To preserve the attractive texture and flower of the broccoli,
arrange with "heads up" in a vessel. Steam in salted water for a
few minutes with the vessel open to preserve the green color. Cook
until stems are tender. Season with butter or bacon fat or with a
combination of butter and bacon.

Chop or shred cabbage and cook in uncovered vessel in boiling
salted water. Cabbage may be overcooked very easily. Remove as
soon as tender. Cabbage is of fine flavor when boiled in water in
which ham (especially a ham bone) has been boiled. Cabbage be-
ing among the "strong" vegetables is cooked in a generous amount
of water with the top open for at least fifteen minutes. Season with
ham or with butter, salt and pepper.
Cabbage Rolls
2 cups mashed potatoes Celery Salt
1 medium-sized onion Cabbage leaves
1 green pepper or pimento Boiling water or stock
Salt and pepper Sage to taste
1 cup cold cooked meat,
ground or chopped
Combine the vegetables, meat and seasonings, and shape the
mixture into small rolls. Roll each of these in a wilted cabbage leaf
(wilted by placing in boiling water for 5 minutes) and place them
in a greased baking dish. Add sufficient boiling water or stock to


cover them about halfway. Cover and bake in a moderate oven
until the cabbage leaves are tender.

Use raw or cooked. This cabbage requires even less cooking
than common cabbage. The inside leaves are better uncooked.
(See Salads.)

Remove the green and imperfect leaves from the cauliflower and
place it top downward in a dish of cold water to draw out the dust
and other impurities. Leave whole or break into flowers, boil until
tender in a large amount of water and serve with salt, pepper and
Cauliflower, French Style
1 cauliflower 4 tablespoons flour
2 quarts water % pound sorrel or endive
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons cream
3 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk


Boil the cauliflower for twenty minutes in the salt water. Cook
the finely chopped sorrel for ten minutes. Make a white sauce of
the flour and part of the butter and the juice of the vegetables.
Put the cauliflower through a sieve-return to the soup-add
the white sauce and, just before serving, add the well-mixed egg
yolk and cream.
Cauliflower Au Gratin
1 medium-sized cauliflower Salt and paprika
11/2 cups thin white sauce Buttered crumbs
2/3 cup cheese
When the white sauce is smooth, add the cheese, the salt and the
paprika, and pour the sauce over the cooked cauliflower. Turn the
mixture into a buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered crumbs.
Brown in a moderate over (3500- 4000 F.) from 15 to 20 minutes.
Cauliflower with Cheese Sauce
1 medium-sized cauliflower 4 tablespoons grated cheese
11/2 cups thin white sauce Salt and paprika
Add the cheese to the smooth white sauce and pour it over the
cooked cauliflower just before serving.
Select small bulbs having crisp new leaves. Cut leaves and
bulbs in small pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water for 15 minutes,
then add leaves and cook an additional 30 minutes. Slice the bulb,
arrange the green around the edge of the dish and place the slices
in the center. Season with melted butter.
Wash and scrape young carrots. Boil or steam until tender.
Add butter, pepper, salt to taste. Add cream sauce if desired or
use only butter. Carrots may be boiled with meat. They may be
used whole for garnish, around the meat platter.
Carrot Soup
1 pint milk 1 tablespoon onion juice
1 cup cooked carrot, pressed 1 tablespoon minced parsley,
through a strainer celery or celery salt
2 tablespoons butter
Heat the milk, combine the other ingredients, heat them, and
add them to the heated milk.
Stuffed Carrots
4 carrots 1 cup cooked rice
1/3 cup ground boiled ham 1 tablespoon butter
Salt Pepper
/4 teaspoon celery salt Buttered bread crumbs


Scrub the carrots and cook them until tender. Remove the skins,
cut off the root end, and split the carrots in half lengthwise. Com-
bine the other ingredients and mix thoroughly. Pile the stuffing
on the carrot halves, sprinkle with the buttered crumbs, and brown
in a moderate oven.

Carrot Souffle

1 cup carrots, boiled and
1 tablespoon minced onion

1 cup medium white sauce
2 eggs
Salt and paprika

Add the carrot, the onion and the seasoning to the white sauce,
then add the beaten egg yolks. Beat the whites of the eggs until
they are stiff. Fold them lightly into the first mixture, and turn this
into a buttered baking dish. Set the dish in a pan of hot water and
bake the souffle in a moderate oven (350' -400' F.) for 30 minutes.
Serve it at once.
Carrots and Peas
Boil whole. Cut in cubes. Combine with equal quantity of cooked
green peas. Season with butter or light cream, salt and pepper.

Carrots Lyonnaise

2 cups carrots cut into thin
2 teaspoons chopped onion

Salt and pepper
2 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon chopped parsley

Boil carrots ten minutes and drain. Melt butter, add onion and
cook five minutes. Then add carrots and salt and pepper to season.
Stir gently until well blended. Put in hot dish and sprinkle with
Creamed Carrots with Peanut Butter

6 carrots
1 cup white sauce (medium)

1 tablespoon peanut butter

Dice the carrots and cook until soft. Make white sauce, adding
to it the peanut butter. Pour over the carrots and serve hot.

Carrot Relish

1 quart carrots, ground
1 cup celery, chopped fine
1 large red or green pepper,

1 pint vinegar
2 cup sugar
2 teaspoons salt
1/ teaspoon paprika

Cook carrots until tender. Chop celery and other ingredients
very fine. Combine ingredients and cook until mixture is clear.



Carrot Chutney
Red Part Yellow Part
2 pounds of sweet Spanish 1 pint of small carrots, sliced.
Pimento or No. 1 cans of Cook until tender.
pimento /2 pint of gingered watermelon
1 pound of sugar rind
juice of 4 lemons
2 hot peppers
Red Part-Place sweet peppers in a hot oven, blister and peel.
Chop sweet and hot pepper together, add sugar and lemon juice,
and let stand in an enameled vessel or crock for 5 hours. Drain
off the liquor and allow it to simmer for ten minutes. Pour it over
the peppers again and let stand for 2 hours. Simmer the liquor
again for fifteen minutes, allowing the peppers to remain in while
Yellow Part-Use one pint of sliced carrots (cooked) and one-
half pint gingered watermelon rind chopped or cut into small
uniform pieces.
Packing-A ten-ounce
jar is an attractive pack-
age for this product. In
packing, place the heavier
color-red-at the bottom
in a one-inch layer; then
place a one-inch layer of
yellow. Continue in this
manner until the jar is
nearly filled. Combine the
liquors and boil five min-
utes, strain, and pour over
the contents. Paddle to
remove air bubbles. Cap,
clamp and process for ten
Glazed Carrots
6 carrots (medium
2/3 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup water
2 tablespoons butter
Clean and cook whole /
carrots in small amount of i/
salt water. Make a sirup
of the brown sugar, water
and butter. Place cooked
carrots in sirup in a heavy Chantenay Carrots
frying pan. Baste carrots
until they have a rich glaze. Serve with roast meat.


Carrot and Apple Pie
1 cup grated carrots 1 cup grated pineapple
1 cup diced tart apples 1 tablespoon butter
1 cup sugar 1/2 cup water
1/3 cup raisins Nutmeg and vanilla
Cook carrot, apple, pineapple together. Make sirup of sugar and
water. Add raisins and cook until tender and plump. Combine all
and cook the mixture, with the exception of the butter and season-
ing, until it is thick and clear. Remove from heat. Beat in one egg,
add butter and seasoning. Turn it into a crust that has been baked,
and cover it with meringue. Bake it in a slow oven for 25 minutes.

Grated carrot

Carrot Dessert
Whipped cream

Orange and Carrot Marmalade
6 carrots, medium size 1 lemon, juice and grated rind
3 oranges Sugar
Dice the carrots and cook them until they are tender, in as little
water as possible. Cut the oranges and lemon in small pieces.
Measure the carrot and fruit, and add 2/3 as much sugar. Simmer
the mixture until it is clear. Turn it into jelly glasses, and when it
is cold, seal it with paraffin.

Carrot Custard

2 eggs
/2 cup milk
/4 cup fine bread crumbs

1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon melted butter
11/2 cups grated raw carrot

Beat eggs slightly and add remaining ingredients. Turn into
greased custard cups, place in steamer basket, set over boiling
water, cover and cook until the custard is firm, about 30 minutes.
Unmold and serve as a vegetable or with cheese or egg sauce as a
main course at luncheon or supper.

One level cup grated cassava, 1/2 cup milk, 13/4 cups sugar, 1 egg,
1 teaspoon salt, 4% cups water, 1 tablespoon butter, flavor with
nutmeg. Bake 1 hour.

The coarse outside stalks may be used for cooking, reserving
the tender hearts for salads, sandwiches, and eating raw.


Scalloped Celery

2 cups cooked celery, cut in
1 cup medium white sauce
1 tablespoon finely minced

3 tablespoons grated cheese
Buttered bread crumbs
Salt and pepper

Put the celery into a greased baking dish. Add the cheese to
the white sauce, flavored with onion, and pour it over the celery.
Cover with the buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven
until golden brown.

Florida Celery Adds Spice To A Meal
Stewed Celery
1 pint celery, cut into 1-inch 2 tablespoons butter
pieces V cup milk
2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper
Cook the celery until tender. Make a medium white sauce of
the celery water, milk, flour and butter. Add the cooked celery to
the white sauce and season to taste with salt and pepper.


Celery Flavor
Celery (chopped) may be added to an oyster omelet or
scrambled egg and oyster combination. It should be cooked only
partially and should be crisp. It gives a nice "crunchy feel" to an
otherwise soft dish.

Celery Raw
The best recipe for celery is as follows: Clean well. Crisp. Serve.

Celery Relish
2 quarts celery or six bunches 1 quart onions
3 quarts cabbage or 2 large
Chop and cover with salt water for two days. Drain well and
put on stove with:
11/ quarts vinegar 4 cups brown sugar
/4 pound mustard 1 tablespoon flour
1 tablespoon tumeric powder
Boil twenty minutes, then add three well-beaten eggs before
taking from heat. Add more salt and sugar if needed.

American Chop Suey
1 pound round steak ground 1 large bunch celery
1 cup raw rice 1 pint tomatoes
1 green pepper (cut fine) 1 can mushrooms may be
1 large onion added
Brown meat slightly in small quantity of fat, add all other in-
gredients which have been cut. Cook until vegetables are tender.

One pound hamburger, one-half can pimentos, cut fine; two
large onions, cut fine; one cup diced celery, one teaspoon sugar,
one pint tomatoes, one package spaghetti, cooked in boiling salted
water. When spaghetti is tender, drain off water; add hamburger,
celery, tomatoes, pimentos, onions, sugar. Cook slowly until meat
is done. Add salt and pepper to taste.

4 cupfuls finely diced celery 12 teaspoons salt
3 large potatoes, diced % teaspoon pepper
1 medium sized onion, 1 quart milk
chopped 2 hard cooked eggs
2 tablespoons flour


Melt the fat in a kettle. Then add the chopped onion, celery
and potatoes. Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until
the celery and potatoes are tender. Then add the salt, pepper, and
milk. Heat well and thicken with the flour which has been rubbed
smooth in two tablespoons of water. Just before serving add the
hard-cooked eggs chopped. Serve with crackers.

Cook like spinach in a small amount of water. Stir until it
settles in the water.

Select tender leaves after frost (if in frost section). Cook until
tender in a generous amount of water to evaporate as the greens
become quite tender. Season with cured bacon or ham hock.
Usually the meat (with bone) is placed in cold water and allowed
to come to a boil and cook for a while before the greens are added.
Add salt to taste after greens have cooked for a while. Chop fine.

(On the cob)
Select sound ears of green corn. Husk and silk. Cook immedi-
ately in boiling salted water 10 to 12 minutes. Serve at once with

(See Lima Beans)
1 pint shelled lima beans 3 tablespoons butter
3 cups green corn Salt and pepper
Cook the beans until tender in just enough water to cover them.
Add the corn and cook for 15 minutes longer. Season with butter,
salt and pepper, and serve. The succotash may be made from
canned corn and beans.

(Canned for out-of-season)
This should be made in the proportion of one-half tomato pulp,
one-fourth corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra, with sea-
soning added. One slice of onion should be added to each No. 2
can. The tomatoes should be heated, rubbed through a sieve, and
cooked down to about the consistency of ketchup before measuring:
then the corn, okra, onion and seasoning should be added and


cooked until the corn and okra are about three-fourths done. Then
pack into cans. Process the number 2 cans at 10 lbs. Pressure for
50 minutes.

2 cups canned corn 1 cup milk
1 cup canned or ripe tomatoes 1/2 cup grated cheese
2 cups diced celery /2 cup chopped pimentos
1 quart cold water 3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons salt
Place corn, tomatoes, diced celery, and one teaspoon salt in a
kettle and cover with cold water. Boil 1/ hour. Melt fat and add
flour gradually. Then add the cold milk, stirring constantly. Add
the vegetable mixture gradually to the white sauce; add seasonings.
Add to the chowder the grated cheese and pimentos, chopped fine.
Stir until cheese is melted. Serve piping hot. A cream soup may
be made, if desired, by straining out the vegetables before adding
the white sauce. Serves six to eight.

To two cups grated or chopped corn add two eggs, slightly
beaten, 2 tablespoons melted butter and one pint scalded milk; turn
into buttered baking dish and bake in a slow oven.

Build a camp fire and allow to burn to a bed of coals and hot
ashes. Place ears of green corn in husks (all except outermost
leaves) in hot ashes with coals. Cook until tender. Serve im-
mediately with butter and salt. American Indians packed the ears
of corn in clay and roasted them.
Southern corn meal (home ground) contains more of the food
value and natural flavor of the original product than does the finely
"bolted" meal. It is, therefore, a very popular food product. Any
corn meal dish requires thorough cooking and a high temperature
to bring out the nutty flavor and to thoroughly cook the starch.
Because the corn dishes are used so extensively with vegetables
in the South, the following recipes are given:
Corn Muffins or Breadsticks
2 cups meal 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt 2 cups buttermilk
% teaspoon soda 2 eggs
3 tablespoons lard or bacon
grease or butter


Mix all ingredients. Add one tablespoon cane sirup if desired.
Add melted lard last. Pour into hot greased muffin rings or iron
breadstick molds. Cook in very hot oven 30 minutes.
Dixie Spoon-Bread
2 cups white corn meal 2 beaten egg yolks
11/ teaspoons salt 2 teaspoons baking powder
2 cups boiling water 2 cups milk
1 tablespoon fat 2 egg whites, stiffly beaten
Sift together corn meal and salt and baking powder into a mix-
ing bowl. Add boiling water making a stiff dough. Stir in fat and
beaten egg yolks. Add milk to corn meal mixture, stirring until
smooth. Fold in beaten egg whites. Pour into a greased baking
dish (2 qt. size) and bake in a hot oven (4000). Bake 40 to 45 min-
utes. Serve immediately with butter or gravy. Makes 6 servings.
Variations-Chicken: Fold in 1 cup chopped cooked chicken
before adding beaten egg whites.
Ham: Fold in 1 cup ground cooked ham just before adding
beaten egg whites.
Bacon or cracklins: Fold in 1/ cup of chopped bacon or cracklins
just before adding beaten egg whites.
Cheese: Fold in 1 cup of grated cheese and 2 tablespoons
chopped pimento just before adding beaten egg whites.

Corn meal-water-salt. Place iron or aluminum griddle over
heat. Grease well and allow to get piping hot. Pour hot water over
corn meal and salt and mix thoroughly. Place on hot griddle and
pat out to "fit." When the hoecake is well browned, turn on a plate
or on your hand, if experienced. After turning, cover so as to hold
some of the steam. When both sides are well browned, allow to
cook more slowly until well done.

Corn Dodger
Corn dodger is made like hoecake except a little butter or lard
is added. It is formed into small pones about three inches long and
dropped into the quickly boiling water in the vessels where turnip
greens, peas, or collards are cooking. About twenty minutes or
more should be allowed for cooking. They are served with the
vegetable. In this way the cooking water is preserved. A most
tasty article of food is the corn dodger.

Hush Puppies
This is a delightful corn product originated by the hunters and
fishermen of South Georgia and North Florida. When out on trips


they would first fry their meat or fish and then fry some moistened
corn meal. As they sat down to their repast they would throw the
fried cornmeal to the noisy dogs and yell, "Hush, Puppie."

1 cup meal
Y4 cup flour
2 level teaspoons baking

chopped onion
1 level teaspoon salt

Add enough sweet milk to make batter slide off tablespoon. Dip
spoon in water each time before using batter. Cook along with fish,
as they come to the top like doughnuts.
Corn Meal and Fig Pudding
1 cup corn meal 1 cup finely chopped figs
1 cup molasses 2 eggs
6 cups milk (or 4 of milk 1 teaspoon salt
and 2 of cream)
Cook the corn meal with four cups of milk in a double boiler for
twenty minutes; add the figs and salt. When the mixture is cool,
add the eggs well beaten. Pour into a buttered pudding dish and
bake in a moderate oven for three hours or more. When partly
cooked, add the remainder of the milk without stirring the pud-
ding. Fig preserves may be substituted for the dried figs. Drain
the figs from sirup and slightly dry in the oven before using.

Cucumbers should be served raw. See Relishes and Pickles
They may be steamed and buttered like squash. To cook, peel
slice in quarters lengthwise and put into boiling water and boil five
minutes, or steam. Season with butter, pepper, and salt. Turn heat
low, cover closely. Cook 20 minutes. For variety add curry pow-
der to a thin white sauce and pour over cooked cucumbers.


small eggplants
cup oil
tablespoons butter
pounds tomatoes

Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon flour
1 tablespoon water
Bouquet powder

Peel the eggplants and cut into 1/-inch slices, sprinkle lightly
with salt, and let stand covered with a cloth. After 1 hour, drain
and dry them carefully. Brown in the oil and drain.
For the other part prepare a tomato sauce by cooking the to-
matoes and onions, cut into pieces, with the butter, salt, pepper
and bouquet; cook until thick and strain.



Put the eggplant in a pan with alternate layers of tomato sauce.
Put bits of butter on top and bake for twenty minutes.

Slice and pare the eggplant. Place the slices in a buttered bak-
ing dish, add salt and bits of butter and sprinkle generously with
grated cheese. Cover with sliced tomatoes, add salt, pepper and
butter. Bake in a moderate oven until the eggplant is tender, from
30 to 45 minutes.
Sauteed Eggplant
Peel the eggplant and cut it into one-half inch slices. Sprinkle
each slice with salt. Pile the slices in a bowl and place a plate on
top to weight them down slightly. Let stand for two hours. The
salt will draw out any disagreeable flavor. Wipe each slice dry,
dip it in crumbs, then in beaten egg, and in crumbs again and saute
slowly in hot fat.
Eggplant Scallop
Slice the eggplant, but do not pare it. Saute the slices in butter,
bacon fat or drippings. Arrange the slices in a baking dish in lay-



ers with a sprinkling of cheese between layers. When the dish is
about three-fourths full, cover the eggplant with a medium white
sauce. Cover the top with buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate
oven until brown.

Endive is used largely for salads. A wilted salad is made by us-
ing hot bacon grease instead of oil in the dressing. This adds a good
flavor. Sliced or grated hard cooked egg combines nicely as to color
and food combinations. Endive should be chopped fine. Boiled salad
dressing may be added to the bacon. Escarole, Romaine, water
cress, lettuce (green) may be prepared in the same way or may be
used as cooked "greens."

4 heads chicory (curly en- 3/2 tablespoons butter
dive) 1/ cup croutons
1 tablespoon meat broth or
Wash the endive thoroughly and cook in boiling salted water
without covering. When it is tender, drain and rinse and chop fine.
Put in a pan with the butter, salt, pepper, stock or cream and heat
through. Decorate the dish in which it is served with croutons of
bread browned in butter.

Curly Mustard Green Mustard

Leeks, spinach, mustard, kale, radish, turnip greens may be used
in any of the recipes for greens. Examine all greens and wash them
carefully, discarding any wilted or yellow leaves. Leave the roots


on for the first washing as this makes the greens easier to handle;
then cut them off to allow a more thorough cleansing. Wash in at
least 3 waters, lifting the greens out of the pan before emptying the
water so that the sand and other impurities will be left in the bot-
tom of the pan.
Greens may be cooked quickly in a large amount of water or
for a slightly longer time in a small amount of water. Cook until
just tender and no longer. Serve with salt, pepper, and butter or
season with bacon while cooking. Hard cooked eggs may always
be used with any of these "greens."

Okra is used in a number of combination dishes with tomatoes,
corn or lima beans. It is often cooked with field peas by dropping
the tender pods into the vessel with the peas when they are nearly
cooked. The steam from the peas will cook the okra. The combi-
nation, with a few slices of fresh tomato or sweet green peppers,
makes a splendid vegetable plate. Plain, steamed or boiled okra
should be whole and unbroken.
Okra Gumbo
The real Creole gumbo is made as follows: Wash one-half gallon
of okra pods, dry on a towel; cut off ends of pods, and slice. Put
one-third cup of lard and two tablespoons of minced onion into a
kettle and fry a young chicken, previously jointed, until a golden
brown. Remove chicken, add the sliced okra and one small chopped
tomato. Fry until no more "strings" come from the okra. Then put
the chicken in and salt and pepper to taste. Add one quart of boil-
ing water. Cook three-fourths hour. Serve in soup plates with a
portion of boiled rice in each plate. Ham may be used instead of
chicken. Oyster gumbo is popular along the Gulf Coast.

Bermuda onions are mild flavored. Place onions under water to
peel. Boil in plenty of water, drain, and again cover with boiling
salted water. Cook until soft but not broken. Drain. Add a little
milk or cream. Cook a few minutes. Season with butter.

Glazed Onions
After boiling 15 minutes small silverskin onions, drain and dry.
Melt 3 tablespoons butter, add 2 tablespoons sugar and onions and
cook until browned. An asbestos mat is needed under the vessel
during last few minutes.


Leeks Au Gratin
12 leeks 1 cup grated cheese
6 potatoes Buttered bread crumbs
1 cup medium white sauce Salt and pepper
Cook the leeks in boiling water until tender. Boil, pare, and
slice the potatoes. Arrange the vegetables in alternate layers in a
buttered baking dish and pour the white sauce over them. Add the
cheese, the buttered bread crumbs, and the seasoning, and bake
for 15 minutes in a moderate oven.

Onions Au Gratin
6 medium-sized onions Salt and pepper
1/4 cup grated cheese Stock or hot water
% cup toasted bread crumbs 2 tablespoons melted butter
Boil the onions until slightly tender and remove the centers
with an apple corer. Fill the cavities with the cheese and crumbs
mixed together. Place the onions in a baking dish. Add 2 cup of
the stock in which onions were boiled, salt and pepper, dot with
butter, and bake in a moderate oven until brown.

Scalloped Onions and Peanuts
Cut the onions in quarters; cook them in salted boiling water
until tender. Add salt just before the cooking is completed. Drain
them and save the broth for soup. Butter a baking dish. Put into
it a layer of onions, and sprinkle over them some ground peanuts,
add another layer of onions and peanuts. Pour cream over the
layers. Cover the top with buttered crumbs and brown the dish in
the oven. Any vegetable may be scalloped in this way. Cheese may
be used in place of peanuts if desired, or grated cheese may be
combined with the cream.
Stuffed Onions
Cook medium-sized onions in boiling salted water for 15 min-
utes. Drain, and remove the centers, leaving a shell about one-half
inch thick. Make a stuffing of equal parts of chopped cold meat
and bread crumbs or rice. Moisten the mixture with stock or to-
mato juice and season with salt and pepper. Fill the onion shells
with the mixture and put them in the oven to brown for 15 minutes.

The simplest method of cooking parsnips is to wash them clean,
boil them, and then scrape off the skin. Slice or chop them coarsely
and season with salt and butter.


Breaded Parsnips
Boil rather large parsnips until tender; then scrape off the skin.
Cut the parsnips crosswise in slices about one-third inch thick.
Season the slices with salt and pepper. Dip each slice in beaten
egg and then in fine bread crumbs. Fry in deep fat, drain on soft
paper, and serve as a border for meat platter.

Green Peas
Cook in boiling salted water until tender, allowing water to
evaporate. Add milk or butter, pepper and salt to season.
Scalloped Field Peas

1 cup dried field peas
/2 cup uncooked rice
V4 cup chopped onion
1% cups canned or stewed

1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon butter
Salt, pepper

Soak the peas overnight and cook until almost done, using no
more water than the peas will absorb. Add the remaining ingredi-
ents and continue cooking until the peas and rice are tender.
Pigeon Pea Stew

1 cup dry pigeon peas soaked
overnight (or 2 cups green-
shelled pigeon peas)
1 pound lean pork cut into
small pieces
/2 cup salad oil or shortening

1 sliced onion and a small
quantity of garlic
1 bunch of chopped parsley
1 cup tomato sauce
Water added to facilitate boil-

For seasoning, salt, bay leaves, black pepper and cumin seed to
suit the taste.
Boil mixture over slow fire for at least two hours or until thor-
oughly cooked.
Pigeon Peas with Rice Puerto Rican Style

1 cup dry pigeon peas soaked
overnight (or 2 cups green-
shelled pigeon peas)
1 pound pork cut into small
/2 cup rice

sliced onion
sliced potato plus stew
cup milk
pats butter

For seasoning, 1 bottle catsup, salt and pepper.
Add water to facilitate boiling and let it simmer over slow fire
for at least two hours, or until thoroughly cooked.


The above recipe will serve as well with kidney beans (Maui
Red), lima beans, navy beans or soy beans.
Field Peas
Field peas require a longer period for cooking. Cover with water.
Boil until the peas are tender and most of the water has evaporated.
A piece of cured pork, or hambone improves the flavor.
Green Peas (Little Peas), French Style
1 pound peas 1 head lettuce
Some young onions A sprig of parsley
6 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Saute the peas in a pan with the butter. Add the lettuce, which
has been washed and tied in a bunch, onions, parsley, salt, pepper
and little sugar. Shake the pan until well mixed. Add a cup of
water; cover and cook over a slow fire 11/ hours. A little before
serving remove the parsley; add the rest of the butter and an egg

Peppers, used largely for raw salads, relishes and decorations,
have become popular as stuffed dishes. They add a delightful flavor
to the dressing and make new dishes of "left-overs."
Stuffed Peppers
6 medium sized green peppers 1 cup canned tomatoes
2 medium slices or 11/2 lb. 1/ cup cracker crumbs
smoked ham 1 very small onion
2 eggs Few sprigs parsley
/2 teaspoon salt
Simmer ham in 1 cup boiling water 5 minutes. Drain, reserving
the liquid. Put the ham through a meat chopper; mix with the
tomatoes, cracker crumbs and eggs well beaten. Chop the onion
and parsley very fine and add to the mixture. Wash the peppers
and remove the seeds. Fill the pepper shells with the mixture and
place them in shallow baking dish surrounded by the water in
which the ham was simmered.

Sweet potato develops the best flavor when baked. Wash well,
grease with lard or bacon and bake in covered pan inside oven. The
skin when brown cracks and allows steam to escape. Split through
center or break into halves crosswise and butter. Serve hot. A
GOOD sweet potato needs no extra "trimmings."


Sweet Potatoes Baked on Half Shell
Bake potatoes, cut lengthwise, remove contents, mash, season
with sugar and butter and salt. (Peanut or pecans may be added).
Place in potato shells, cover with marshmallows and brown.

Sweet Potato and Peanut Croquettes
1 cup mashed sweet potato teaspoon salt
1 egg Cayenne pepper
1 tablespoon flour Bread crumbs
1 cup finely ground parched
peanuts or pecans
Combine the ingredients, and shape the mixture into croquettes.
Roll them in bread crumbs, beaten egg, and crumbs again. Fry
them in deep fat.

Potato Pone
1 quart grated raw sweet 1 teaspoon cinnamon
potatoes 3 cup cane sirup
1 egg /2 cup flour
3 tablespoons butter, melted % teaspoon nutmeg
1 cup milk 3/4 teaspoon salt

Sift together the dry ingredients. Combine these with the re-
maining ingredients. Put the mixture into a baking dish and bake
it in a slow oven about two and one-half hours, or until done, stir-
ring occasionally during the first half of the cooking. During the
last thirty minutes, discontinue the stirring and allow the pone to
brown. Many people prefer to serve the dish cold with milk or
cream. When cold it can be sliced. It is frequently served hot, as
a vegetable.-Sarah W. Partridge.

Sweet Potato Tournado
Select potatoes about two inches in diameter. Cook them in
boiling water until tender. Peel and cut in pieces two inches long.
Around each piece wrap a thin slice of bacon and fasten with tooth-
pick. Place on a pan in a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. Serve
with parsley garnish.

Breaded Sweet Potatoes
Peel boiled sweet potatoes and cut them in lengthwise slices.
Dip the slices in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat.
Drain on soft paper. Serve hot.


Candied Sweet Potatoes
4 medium potatoes
1 cup water /4 cup butter
1 teaspoon salt 1% cups sugar
1 teaspoon cinnamon /4 cup vinegar or lemon juice
Cut uncooked sweet potato into slices, then strips about 1/3
inch thick. Place in a baking dish. Add butter and sprinkle with
sugar. Pour in water. Dash with cinnamon. Add vinegar. Bake
until sugar and butter are candied and the potatoes are well
cooked. Lemon juice may be substituted for vinegar.

Ash Roast
(Out-door Cookery)
This old-fashioned method of cooking sweet potatoes develops
their finest flavor and one unapproached through any other method.
Select and wash smooth, uniform potatoes of medium size. Make a
bed of them in the hot ashes of a burning fire. Cover well with the
ashes, over this bank glowing coals. Roast the potatoes until soft
throughout. When soft, remove from the ashes, peel and serve.
They should be eaten hot with butter. This method is especially
adapted to the open fireplace or to camp cookery and is frequently
used at the time of sirup and sugar making on the farm when the
hot ashes and glowing coals at the entrance of the furnace suggest
it. It may be practiced on a wood stove, utilizing the hot ashes in
the ash pan as a bed for the potatoes and covering them with a layer
of glowing coals.-Sarah W. Partridge.

Take large sweet potatoes and bake until pulp is soft. Cut in
halves and scoop out pulp. Mix each half individually. Mix pulp
with Y4 teaspoon butter and /4 teaspoon confectioner's sugar and
% teaspoon grapefruit rind grated fine. Put back in sweet potato
shell and top with whipped cream and sprinkle finely grated grape-
fruit rind on top of whipped cream.

1 lb. yams (red sweet potato) 2 tablespoons cream
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon nutmeg
2 tablespoons butter Grapefruit sections
Wash yams, cut off ends, and boil until tender in salted water, 1
teaspoon to one quart of water. Peel and mash fine with % tea-
spoon salt, the nutmeg, cream and butter. Put in buttered pyrex


casserole. Over the top arrange grapefruit sections (free from seeds
and white skin) pinwheel design, radiating from center. Dot with
butter and sprinkle granulated sugar over all just before heating
to serve. This can be prepared in the morning or even the day be-
fore. Just cover and set in your refrigerator until time to reheat.
Leave in the oven just long enough to heat thoroughly and melt
the sugar on top.

White potatoes are often used in place of bread. Baked and
boiled in the jackets are the best methods. Butter, milk, cream or
cheese add the needed flavor and seasoning. Parsley, a contrasting
color, adds attractiveness as well as flavor to the potato.
Potato, with a starch content of 18 to 20 per cent, is usually
"mealy" when cooked. Mealy potatoes are best for baking, boil-
ing or deep frying. Potatoes, containing more protein and less
starch are "waxy" and better for salads, scalloping and creaming
because they retain their shape.
Baked Potato
Select potatoes of uniform size; scrub them with vegetable brush;
place them on a grate or in a pan in a hot oven and bake them for
45 minutes, or until they are tender. If they are overcooked, they
will be soggy rather than mealy. Crack or pierce the skin as soon
as the potatoes are done to let out the steam which otherwise will
condense and make the potato soggy.
Boiled Potato
Drop well-washed potatoes into boiling salted water. Cook them,
with the cover of the kettle ajar, just until they are tender, about
20 to 30 minutes. Drain off the water immediately, cover them with
a cloth which will absorb the moisture, and place them where they
will keep warm. Overcooking and standing in water makes a soggy,
unpalatable potato.

Steamed Potatoes
Prepare the potatoes as for boiling, place them in a steamer,
cover them tight, and steam them for about 30 minutes, or until
just tender. Remove the skins and serve the potatoes at once.
Stuffed Potatoes
Cut baked potatoes in half; remove the pulp and mash it; and
add enough hot milk to make it the consistency of mashed pota-
toes, and season it with salt. Fill the case with this mixture; dot


the top with butter; brush them with milk and bake the stuffed
potatoes for 8 or 10 minutes in a hot oven or long enough to brown
them on top. Potatoes may be stuffed in the morning and heated
for the noon or evening meal.
Variations-to the mashed potatoes, before the cases are filled,
may be added any one or a combination of the following:
Beaten white of egg (1 egg to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Grated cheese (1 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped meat (/2 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped parsley (1 tablespoon to 3 medium-sized potatoes).

Creamed Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil salsify until tender, drain, and combine it with medium
white sauce. Serve with tiny meat balls or little sausages.

Scalloped Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil the salsify until tender. Cut it in slices one-half inch thick.
Put a layer of buttered crumbs in the bottom of a buttered baking
dish, cover with a layer of the slices of salsify, and add salt and
pepper. Continue with alternate layers of the crumbs and salsify
until the dish is full, covering the top with crumbs. Add enough
hot milk to moisten. Bake in a moderate oven until the crumbs
are well browned.

Spinach and Bacon
2 pounds spinach Pepper
Salt 6 slices bacon

Prepare and cook spinach (steam in small amount of water or in
waterless cooker). When tender, chop, season and add the bacon
which has been cut in small pieces and cooked until crisp. A small
amount of lemon juice may be added if desired.
Variations-The bacon may be omitted and /4 cup of butter
added just before serving. For creamed spinach add /4 cup cream
and 1 tablespoon of butter to the drained, chopped spinach and place
the mixture on thin slices of crisp toast. Garnish the top with
grated, hard-cooked egg or sliced egg.


Swamp cabbage is a Florida delicacy unknown to most people
but considered one of the most appetizing vegetables in the State.
It can be served as a stewed vegetable to be eaten with freshly
caught fish or it can be eaten as a salad with the delicate white
hearts of palm served with a dressing upon lettuce or endive.
Swamp cabbage tastes like a good oyster stew in flavor when
cooked and many persons believe that it makes the most delicious
cole slaw with a dressing of lime juice and oil. To prepare the
cabbage, the outer hucks of palms are shucked and the inner layers
chopped off until tender edible portion of the palm is reached. This
is placed in water immediately to prevent browning and the cabbage
is cooked with bacon, salt and black pepper and other seasonings,
" 'til it smells right."
Several recipes found to be favorites with Florida folks include:

Slice and arrange hearts of palm in baking dish. Make cream
sauce by blending 1 tablespoon of flour with 1 can evaporated milk.
Add salt and freshly ground pepper to taste, 4 tablespoons butter
and simmer over low flame until proper consistency.
Add paprika. Pour cream sauce over hearts. Blend 2 tablespoons
butter with 2 tablespoons cracker crumbs on top of cream sauce and
bake 20 minutes in moderate oven, 350 degrees.

1 medium onion 1 small can tomatoes
2 slices bacon 1 can hearts of palm
Saute bacon and onion. Drain most of liquid from hearts of
palm. Add hearts of palm and tomatoes. Salt and pepper to taste.

Slice four boiled potatoes into bowl. Add 2 stalks diced celery,
minced shavings of carrots, green peppers, lemon juice. Salt and
pepper to taste. Combine with contents of this can hearts of palm
diced. Add 1 tablespoon mayonnaise and 2 tablespoons vinegar.
Mix thoroughly and serve chilled.


1. The dressing is related to the salad. Use a combination dress-
ing with plain salad; use a plain dressing with a combined salad.
Use fruit salad dressing with fruit salads.
2. If the meal is heavy use a simple acid salad.
3. Cheese combines well with fruit or vegetables for a main
dish salad.
4. Avoid repeating the main ingredients of a salad in the meal.
5. Get the habit of making the fruit or raw vegetable salad
the important item.
6. Remember that the salad is to be fresh, raw, chilled or crisp
and attractive. Make it a habit.

1. Select tender greens in the early morning. Cut off roots, re-
move coarse leaves.
2. Keep them in a cool place in a closed vessel or closely
wrapped in paper or a paper bag. Sprinkle the lettuce head lightly
and place in a paper bag.
3. Wash leaves thoroughly in two or three waters. Watercress
and lettuce need careful attention. Green insects often infest them.
Lift the leaves out of one water into the other.
4. Crisp the greens in very cold water for % hour or less. Acid
(vinegar or lemon) added to the water for crisping destroys in-
sects. Salt wilts greens.
5. Drain, spread on a towel or place in a covered dish and set
in a cool place until serving time. Shake dry.
6. Cut out the stem end or core of head lettuce, about one
inch, and let cold water run into the opening. Turn the head right
side up to drain. The leaves will separate readily and be crisp and
dry for serving.
1. To peel tomatoes:
a. Draw over the surface of each tomato the edge of a knife.
b. Place tomatoes in a colander. Dip them in boiling water.
Cool. Peel.


2. In cutting tomatoes, section them into quarters, sixths or
eighths, cutting not quite through, or slice in generous thick slices.

1. Wash with a stiff brush.
2. To curl celery, cut stalks in 3- or 4-inch lengths. Feather
the ends and place in acid water (2 tablespoonsful vinegar or lemon
to 1 cup water) for 20 minutes.

Grind young carrots with finest cutter of the grinder or grate.

Leaving one inch of stem, peel half way down to stem and leave
radishes in very cold water to crisp. Drain.

Peel under water and from the 'oot upward.

To break or crush, place nuts in a paper bag and roll with roll-
ing pin. Add nuts last before serving the salad.

To whip cream, use Dover egg beater in deep bowl. Make wrap-
ping paper cover by slashing and slipping over egg beater handle
to fit bowl. Be sure cream and bowl are well chilled.
To whip evaporated cream, place can in cold water. Bring to
a boil and boil for a few minutes. Cool quickly or place in the re-
frigerator to get very cold. Whip in small quantities.

General Directions
1. All salads are grouped under four main needs. Others are
a. Mayonnaise.
(Cream may be added.)
b. French.
c. Cream.


d. Cooked.
(Cream may be added.)
2. Remove spoon or fork from salad dressing. Use an enamel
or bright aluminum pan for cooking.
3. Use all of eggs instead of two yolks if desired.
4. Lemon juice may be replaced by the juice of the calamon-
din, sour orange or lime, and any one of these juices with a little
salt (and possibly a little sugar) may be used alone as a dressing
for Florida salads.

(Makes 21/4 cups)
2 tablespoons sour orange or /2 teaspoon salt
lemon juice 2 cups salad oil
1 egg yolk
Stir egg yolk, salt and 1 tablespoon lemon juice until well mixed.
Beat in oil, slowly at first until /4 cup is added, using a whirl type
beater. Then add oil more rapidly. When dressing becomes thick,
add remaining lemon juice and proceed with remainder of oil.
For sharper, thinner dressing, add 2 extra tablespoons lemon
juice just before serving.

(Makes about 1 1/3 cups)
To 1 cup mayonnaise add 1/3 cup whipped cream and 3 table-
spoon lemon juice. This is an excellent fruit salad dressing.

To 1 cup of mayonnaise add 3 tablespoons finely chopped pickles
and 1 tablespoon chopped parsley.

Add (instead of sugar) a small amount of tupelo, palmetto or
orange blossom honey.

To one cup of mayonnaise add:
2 tablespoons chopped pepper 1 cup Chili sauce
or pimiento 1 cup chopped celery
2 tablespoons chopped or
scraped onion
Add whipped cream or beaten egg whites (if desired).


Other Variations
Chopped red or green pimento, avocado pulp, tomato catsup or
paste, a little red jelly, a hard cooked egg yolk, or beet juice may be
added to give color.

(Makes about % cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice /4 teaspoon paprika
6 tablespoons salad oil /4 teaspoon salt
Stir or shake thoroughly before serving.
Use a tightly closed jar for mixing large amounts. Keep in re-
frigerator until ready to use.

To French dressing add 2 tablespoons strained honey. Serve on
fruit salads.

(Makes about 1/ cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice /4 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons orange juice 2 teaspoon sugar or honey
4 tablespoons oil Mix all ingredients thoroughly
Grapefruit Salad Dressing
1 cup salad oil 3 teaspoon salt
Dash of pepper 1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/3 cup grapefruit juice
Mix all ingredients and shake in a covered bottle until thick.

To French dressing add gradually 2 tablespoons of some cheese
of piquant flavor as Roquefort or snappy cheese which has been
rubbed to a cream. Blend until smooth.

1. Add % tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 teaspoon pimento.
2. Use calomondin juice instead of lemon.
3. Add 1 teaspoon mustard, % teaspoon onion juice, 1 table-
spoon Worcestershire sauce.
4. Add chopped onion, bell pepper, celery, (Parisian).
5. Add 2 tablespoons Surinam, roselle or carissa jelly.


6. Add 2 tablespoons horseradish (grated).
7. Add 2 tablespoons peanut butter before shaking.
8. Add one grated egg yolk.

1 cup thick cream, sweet or 1 to 2 tablespoons sugar
sour 1 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons lemon juice /4 teaspoon paprika
1. Beat the cream with an egg beater until smooth, thick and
2. Mix the other ingredients together and gradually add the
cream, beating all the while.

Two whole eggs, juice of 1/ lemons. / cup honey or thick
syrup from spiced peaches or pears.
1. Beat the egg slightly, combine with honey and lemon juice,
and add paprika and salt. Cook in a double boiler until thick.
2. Cool and fold in 1 cup whipped cream (sweet or sour) or
less thin cream.

2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg or two yolks
2 tablespoons lemon juice Whipped cream
Beat the eggs. Add the sugar and lemon juice.
Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens.
Cool. Add the whipped cream.

(Makes 13/4 cups)
2 eggs 1/4 teaspoon paprika
4 tablespoons flour 1/4 cups cold water or milk
2 tablespoons sugar 1, 3 cup lemon juice
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter
Beat the eggs slightly. Stir in all dry ingredients. Add water.
Cook in saucepan 'til thickened, stirring constantly. Add butter
and lemon juice. Cool.
This is a salad dressing without oil and is liked especially by


1. Green or red peppers, strips or small pieces.
2. Surinam cherry, carissa plum, any number of crystallized
citrus fruits (kumquats being especially appropriate).
3. Natural color jellies of carissa, roselle, Surinam cherry,
tamarind, May haw, fall haw, guava, wild grape and many other
Florida fruits.

Settings for Florida Salads
Curled celery, endive, Romaine, curly lettuce, spinach, beet
greens, "tender greens," kale, young mustard, water cress, mint,
parsley, lemon, kumquat, fresh tender cucumber strips or rings,
mild-flavored onions, nasturtium leaves, pineapple shells, orange
or other citrus cups furnish a wonderful variety of salad "settings."


Romaine-White Paris Cos Lettuce
Numerous tropical, sub-tropical, and hardier fruits furnish acid
and sub-acid juices for marinating or for adding the last dash to


a salad that makes it "different." Florida colors in fruits-red, yel-
low, orange, green, with all the intervening shades, make for a
strong appeal to the esthetic sense.

Special Marinades for Florida Salads
Orange, lemon, lime, calamondin, sour orange juices make ex-
cellent marinades. Two parts juice to one part oil with salt to taste
is the usual measure. Some fruits call for juice only. Chopped
mint, parsley, pimento strips or paprika add color. Fruit juice
as a marinade adds not only a flavor but food value.

Tomato and Avocado Dressing
Fresh tomato peeled and cored, and stuffed with celery. Use
avocado dressing made by mashing smoothly avocado pulp into
lemon or lime juice and adding a little salt. Pour over tomato.
Serve on lettuce.

Avocado with Tomato Dressing
Half fresh avocado, peeled and seeded. Peel and mash fresh
tomato and run through potato ricer. Season with a suggestion of
tabasco. Fill cavity with dressing.
Perfection Salad
1 envelope gelatin (2 table- 1 cup pineapple cubes
spoons) 1/2 cup sugar
cup cold water 1 pimento chopped fine
cup mild vinegar 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup boiling water 1 cup finely shredded cabbage
Juice of 1 lemon
1 cup celery (cut in small
1. Add vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and salt to gelatine soaked
in cold water, and dissolve in boiling water and cool.
2. Strain and when the mixture begins to set, add remaining
ingredients. Turn into a mold and chill.
3. Serve on lettuce leaves with salad dressing.
Cabbage Salad
Shred and chill 1 small head cabbage and one white onion. Mix
with half that amount of chopped celery. Dust on a little paprika.
Dress with a French dressing, dashed with Worcestershire sauce.
Serve in a nest of endive. Top with cubes or small slices of tomato.


Endive with Bacon Dressing, or Wilted Salad
Endive (or other greens) shredded. Serve with a dressing of
hot bacon or fat, lemon juice and grated egg. Garnish with crisp
strips of bacon. Shredded green peppers may be added.
Ponce de Leon Salad
Scoop out a little of the top heart of a Florida artichoke. Fill
with a French dressing combined with chopped pimento, parsley,
finely minced celery, and the mashed pulp of artichokes. Serve with
a thin cheese sandwich or wafer as a course of a luncheon.

Various combinations may be made of cooked and raw vegetables
but the real vegetable salad serves to add fresh uncooked food in
its natural state.
1. Combination:
Radishes, pepper, onion, tomato, cucumber on lettuce or
French dressing.
2. Tomatoes with celery and pepper.
3. Coleslaw:
Chopped cabbage with green peppers and peanuts, cream
dressing or a mayonnaise with cream added.
Sliced, firm, crisp pear or apple adds to the flavor.
4. Cabbage, pineapple and pecans.
5. Cabbage, carrot, celery and peanuts. Omit celery and use
fig preserves if desired. French dressing; or to the dressing add
peanut butter.
6. Tomato-top with sour cream dressing sprinkled with
parsley. Garnish with strips of green pepper.
7. Any salad green, young and tender, combines with a dress-
ing made of hot bacon fat, lemon juice and grated hard cooked egg.
8. Curled celery. Radish roses. Small yellow or red tomatoes
stuffed with celery and snappy cheese.



Luncheon Salad


Lettuce Leaves with Cucumber and
Radish Roses, and Tomato Quarters.

Pepper Rings,


Mound of Shredded Cabbage and Grated Carrot,


French or Mayonnaise.

Note: This salad with a drink and bread and butter con-
stitutes "a whole meal."



~iV6~ Ei


Tropical Salad
(Main luncheon dish)
Florida Lettuce with sprigs of Watercress.
Avocado with Tomato Pulp dressing, with Lime slice-s


/ tb

Dinner Salad
Fresh Florida Relish
Leaves of Head of Lettuce with Water Cress and Celery.
Slices of Onions, Green Pepper Rings, and thinly
sliced fresh Winter Cucumbers, and Radish Roses.
Tart French Dressing.


IV-Florida Fruits

Florida produces a wide variety of fruits. The length and
latitude of the state make this possible. Geographically, the state
is 432 miles long and lies between 310 N. and 240 N. latitude. Fruits
such as pears can be produced as well as tropical and semi-tropical
fruits. For those living in the southern part of the state there are
any number of different fruits to tickle the appetite. The freezing
and canning of many tropical and semi-tropical fruits for wide-
spread distribution is an industry yet to be developed.
Luscious Florida fruits provide appetizing variety to our menus.
Like the vegetables previously discussed, they provide minerals,
vitamins and other substances which are necessary for the growth,
development, maintenance, health and mental acuity of all human
beings. Only within the last few years have extensive studies been
made of the mineral and vitamin content of Florida-grown fruits.
These foods supply appreciable amounts of things which the body
requires daily. The total amount of the better known nutrients
needed daily to keep healthy people in the best physical and mental
condition has been determined. By compiling the results of many
exacting scientific investigations, the Food and Nutrition Board
has set up standards of recommended daily dietary allowances for
men and women of different activity and for boys and girls of
different age groups. See Table 2. This table shows the amounts
of the better known substances needed by the body daily for maxi-
mum efficiency. Neither Table 2 nor Table 7 lists all the nutrients
necessary for the body. By calculating many menus the authorities
came to the conclusion that if the nutrients listed in Table 2 were
present in the normal diet in sufficient amounts, then other nutrients
would also be present in adequate amounts. For example, if a diet
contains one gram of calcium a day, there will also be adequate
amounts of phosphorus. On the other hand, there are probably
other factors needed by human beings but not given in Table 2.
Their dietary needs in human nutrition are not yet known.
Glancing at the composition of fruits given in Table 7 you can
readily see how fruits contribute to your total daily need for food
nutrients. Just for fun, let's see how your daily food intake "stacks
up" with the recommended dietary allowances. This is how you
do it. Jot down in a column the amounts of all foods eaten in a
day and record from Table 7 the nutritive value of the foods eaten.
Here is an example of how it is done. This housewife ate the
following menu:


Breakfast: Fresh orange, one egg omelet, slice of bread, 2 strips
of bacon, coffee, 1 teaspoon sugar and one teaspoon butter.
Dinner: Apricot and lettuce salad, % cup green string beans,
baked potato, 1 tablespoon butter, hamburger pattie, apple pie and a
glass of milk.
Supper: Sandwich (2 tablespoons peanut butter, and two slices
of bread), lettuce and tomato salad, mayonnaise, fresh pear and a
glass of milk.


Food Eaten Amount Calories Protein Calcium Iron Vitamin A

gm. mg. mg. I.U.
Bread.... 3 slices 189 6.0 54 1.4 0
Egg.... . 1 106 6.8 50 1.3 640
Bacon...... . 2 strips 97 4.0 4 0.5 0
Orange......... 1 large 106 2.1 77 0.9 440
Milk....... .. 2 glasses 332 17.0 576 0.4 780
Hamburger....... 3 ounces 316 19.0 8 2.4 0
Baked Potato...... 1 large 194 4.8 26 1.6 40
Coffee .........1 cup 0 0 0 0 0
Sugar...... ... 1 teaspoon 16 0 .. .. 0
Apricots, Canned... 4 halves 97 0.7 12 0.4 1650
Lettuce .... .... 4 leaves 7 0.6 11 0.2 270
Green String Beans V cup 13 0.9 1 22 0.4 415
Apple Pie..... . slice 331 2.8 9 0.5 220
Peanut Butter .... 2 tbsp 184 8.4 24 0.6 0
Tomato......... 1 medium 30 1.5 16 0.9 1640
Salad Dressing.. 1 tbsp. 92 0.2 2 0.1 30
Pear.............. 1 medium 95 1.1 20 0.5 30
Butter. ........ 2 tbsp. 133 0.2 4 0.0 613

Total Eaten....... 2365 81.5 965 12.1 6778

Daily Amounts Recommended... 2300 55.0 800 12.0 5000

Try it yourself for, say calcium and B2 (riboflavin). If your daily
consumption of some nutrient falls short, glance down the pages of
Table 7 and see what you could eat to correct this deficiency.
On page 163 there is a suggested grouping of foods which, if
eaten daily, will provide you with all the nutrients you need for
good health. Notice that two of the groups include fruit, raw,
canned, or frozen. In the example diet above, the apricots provided


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substantial amounts of vitamin A while the orange supplied vitamin
C. Laboratory investigations and nutrition studies with people
have made it clear that fruits are important in the diet.
In general, fruits, vegetables and milk leave a basic ash in the
body while meats and cereals leave an acid ash. If a diet contains
barely enough calcium to meet the body needs, and foods with a
predominantly acid ash are eaten, a valuable portion of the calcium
needed for use in the body has to be used to neutralize the acid. A
preponderance of fruits, vegetables and milk should be eaten in a
mixed diet not only to furnish calcium (needed by bones and teeth),
but also to furnish other substances for neutralizing the acids, thus
leaving calcium free for structural and functional uses in the body.
In general, vitamin A is necessary for cell growth. In the tooth
during vitamin A deficiency the formation of enamel ceases; there
is erratic calcific formation in the tooth pulp. In vitamin C deficiency
there is not a normal production of intercellular substances. In a
developing tooth the dentin either does not form or is of poor quality.
The effects of the above information has been clearly shown in a
study of tooth decay at the Forsyth Dental Infirmary in Boston,
Mass. Over a period of three and three-tenths years, one group of
children received nutritional guidance about their diets while living
at home. The second group of children were also dental patients at
the clinic but received no nutritional supervision. The children were
further subdivided into groups according to age. The average num-
ber of new cavities per child per year in each of nine age groups

Difference with respect to incidence of new cavities in groups without and with
nutrition supervision.

Without With
Age Group NNutritio Nutrition Per Cent
Supervision Supervision Decrease

3 to 4.... ...... ....... ... 4.82 2.41 50
4 to 5...... . .. 4.07 2.14 47
5 to 6...... ... 4.89 2.61 47
6 to 7....... .. .. 3.88 2.85 27
7 to 8... ... .. 5.89 2.03 66
8 to 9.. . 4.22 2.04 52
9 to 10.. ..... 3.43 1.42 59
10 to 11.... 7.72 2.42 69
11 to 12........ ......... 6.11 1.06 83


has been determined from the dental records of 189 cooperative
patients of the medical-nutrition clinic of the Forsyth Dental In-
firmary. A significant reduction was found to have occurred in the
average number of new cavities per child per year in each age
group of the supervised children as compared with the unsuper-
vised groups. The average decrease in new cavities for all age
groups was 56 per cent. See Table 3.
These findings indicate that the progress of dental cavities in chil-
dren can be substantially reduced by an intensive educational pro-
gram in nutrition.
Dr. Charles Glen King says, "Extensive headway has been
made in discovering why good nutrition is normally the major
factor in furnishing protection against tooth decay. If the mother
eats a good diet during pregnancy and the child has a good diet
during the early years of life, we have reason to believe, 80 percent
of the tooth decay could be prevented."

Zone III-North Florida and Gulf Coast. This zone extends as
far south as St. Augustine, Palatka, Gainesville.
Mulberry, pears, persimmons, plums, peaches, satsuma, loquats,
limequats, kumquats, calamondin, figs, huckleberry, pomegranate,
bunch grapes, muscadine, blackberries, dewberries, strawberries,
blueberries, melons, haws.
Zone IV-Central Florida. This zone lies below Zone III and
reaches, roughly speaking, from Vero Beach southwest to Moore
Haven, north to Davenport and Lakeland, and southwest to Bra-
denton. Some locations south of this are also included.
Avocado, mulberry, citrus, pears, peaches, persimmons, loquats,
guavas, surinam cherry, fig, pomegranate, dewberries, blackberries,
bunch grapes, muscadines, strawberries.

Zone V-South Florida.
Atemoya Governor's Plum Longan
Avocado Granadilla Loquat
Banana Grapes Lychee
Barbados Cherry Grapefruit Macadamia
Bilimbi Guava Mammoncilla
Bullock's Heart Jaboticaba Mango
Carambola Jujube Naranjilla
Carissa Ketembilla Orange
Ceriman Lemon Papaya
Cherimoya Lime Peach (Tropical)


Persimmon Purple Mombin Sour Sop
(Japanese) Raspberry Strawberry
Pineapple (Tropical) Sugar Apple
Pitaya Rose Apple Tamarind
Pitanga Roselle Ti-es
Pomegranate Sapodilla White Sapote

The avocado grows on a scraggly evergreen tree which blooms
in March and April and fruits from July to January, depending on
variety. Size, shape, color, and quality vary greatly. The size varies
from 6 to 29 ounces. The skin is about one-sixteenth of an inch
thick, very firm and tough. The firm, greenish-yellow flesh of but-
tery texture and nutty flavor makes one-half of the weight. One
large seed in the center slips out easily, leaving just space for a
salad filling or dressing of lime juice and a little salt.
There are three races-Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian.
The Mexican, varying from 3 to 15 ounces, is hardiest and ripens
from June to October. The color ranges from green to purple. The
crushed leaves have an anise scent. The oil content is very high.
The Mexican is thin-skinned and rather suited to local use. The
Guatemalan is fairly hardy; the skin is thick, hard and granular;
the fruit, green to dark purple in color, is of splendid quality; the
period of maturity is October to June. The West Indian avocado,
grown only below Palm Beach and Fort Myers, is the commercial
avocado of south Florida. It will stand but little frost. It is large,
smooth and leathery skinned, of high quality, and ripens in late
summer. The skin measures from one-sixteenth to one-sixty-fourth
of an inch.
The caloric value is more than twice that of any other fruit. A
piece of avocado weighing 4 ounces has about 280 calories. The
high caloric content is due mostly to the high fat content, which
probably varies with the variety. The Fuerte variety is about 26
per cent fat. The B vitamin content is high for fruits. Total min-
eral content of avocados is also high for a fruit.
The avocado is most palatable uncooked. It is often served on
the half-shell, the flesh being scooped out with a spoon. It makes
a nice, buttery spread for toast or crackers.
Mash the avocado, season with salt and lemon or lime juice and
spread on hot toast and call it "Avocadoed Toast."
Butter the soup with avocado. Dice the avocado and add to
the soup just before serving.


It is commonly served as a salad with salt and lime juice or salt
and lemon juice. Some prefer orange or pineapple juice. Because
of the buttery consistency of the fruit an oil dressing is too rich
for avocado. Catsup, celery, nuts and onions are not good combi-
nations for avocado. They destroy or conceal the delicate flavor.
In its native land the avocado is much eaten by the Indians. They
break it open, sprinkle on a little salt and scoop out the pulp with
a corn cake called tortillas. Cooking or canning lessens the attrac-
tiveness as well as the flavor of the fruit.

The banana is grown considerably in the southern half of Flor-
ida, both for its ornamental value and for its fruit. In north Flor-
ida scattered plants extend as far north as the Georgia line. The
Cavendish or Chinese Dwarf banana is perhaps grown more than
other varieties for fruit production. It has a short, stout stem from
4 to 7 feet tall. The fruit is rather small to medium, produced in
large bunches, is thin skinned, and of good quality. The Lady Fin-
ger or Hart is a taller variety, producing bunches of very small
fruits of excellent quality. Other varieties grown in Florida include
the Orinoco, a cooking banana, and the Apple, producing small
bunches of short, plump fruits of fairly good quality when fully
This fruit, formerly considered "indigestible," has come into its
own. The mineral content is not quite so high as the average avo
cado but is quite above the average for fruits. The indigestible fac-
tor in the banana, research shows, disappears with the complete
ripening of the fruit, the stage at which it shows numerous brown-
ish spots. Whether it be due to the fact that the tannin becomes
imprisoned in the ripened stage and therefore harmless, or to the
fact that the raw starch nearly all turns to sugar in the ripening
process, or to the effect on the pectose, the fact remains true that
cooking or ripening renders the banana easily digestible and suit-
able for adults, children and even babies. L. Von Meysenburg,
M.D., Tulane University, says:
"In feeding of the normal baby, banana is of value in supple-
menting the diet, aiding constipation and often stimulating the
appetite. It may be given as early as the fourth month but must
be thoroughly ripe and macerated.
Bananas contain vitamin A, the B vitamins and some vitamin C.
A medium sized banana contains about 90 calories. It combines
nicely in salads with citrus juices which give it an added acid flavor.
Florida bananas have a finer texture and flavor than imported


The Barbados cherry is a shrub or small tree growing to 12 or
15 feet high that has been in South and Central Florida for many
years as a backyard fruit plant. The leaves are dark, shiny green
and 3 inches long. The flowers are pink, red, or white, and one inch
across. The fruit is from /4 to 1Y4 inches across, shallowly 3-lobed,
thin-skinned, and generally bright red in color. The fruit contains
an enormous amount of Vitamin C. It is considered the richest
source of ascorbic acid so far discovered, it is far superior to citrus
and guava in this respect. The vitamin C content varies from 1,030
to 4,676 mg. per 100 grams edible matter. This means that a four-
ounce glass of juice contains 1 to 4 grams of ascorbic acid and
eating just one fruit of the Barbados cherry will give the entire
vitamin C daily requirement. The flavor varies from tart and acid
to semi-sweet and the taste resembles an apple. Some improved
clones fruit off and on from May to November producing 7 or more
crops. The fruit may be eaten fresh, (the sweeter varieties being
preferred), or used to make a fresh fruit juice, jelly, jam, syrup.
ice cream, sherbet, and ice.

Wild or cultivated fruits of North and Central Florida include
haws, blueberries, dewberries, blackberries and mulberries.
Most important of the several Craetagus or haws is the red-
fruited Mayhaw, ripening in late April and May. Commonly found
in low, wet areas, the small apple-type fruits are prized for making
a jelly of distinctive color and flavor.
Huckleberries differ from blueberries in that they contain only
a few large seeds whereas the blueberry has many inconspicuous
small seeds. For this reason, the huckleberry is of less interest than
the blueberry, but may be used similarly. Fruits of Polycodium,
another close relative, are also edible but large seeded.
Blueberries can be successfully grown in north Florida. Due to
the expense of picking it is not now a crop of commercial importance
to the farmers but blueberries are canned in Havana and Crestview.
The tall growing "Rabbit-eye" blueberry is the type which has
become famous commercially as the native blueberry of Florida
plantings. The black, or blue-black fruit, borne in clusters, is 1/4
to 11/16 of an inch in diameter. It ripens in late May or early June
and lasts 10 or 12 weeks. The cluster does not all ripen at one time.


This prolongs the "season" and requires weekly pickings. The
acidity varies but is low. Sugar is about 7.5 per cent, mostly re-
ducing sugar. They are a good source of iron and vitamins. Blue-
berries combine nicely with orange juice in filling for pies. They
are used alone in the fresh natural form or with sugar and cream.
Tests indicate they may also be frozen. There are superior new
cultivated varieties but tests have not progressed enough to show
completely their areas of adaptation.

The dewberry, growing on a low trailing vine and ripening
earlier than the blackberry, is available for the family table early
in the spring-the last of April or first of May. For "deep pies" in
early spring they have a popular place in north Florida menus.
The jelly is welcomed as one of the first "spring jellies" in north
Florida. Advance, Regal and others are favorite cultivated varieties.

The named varieties so far tested have generally been of little
better quality than the native types of North Florida, and most have
been poor yielders. The native types themselves vary in quality,
depending on seasonal moisture, but are nearly always plentiful.
It is a splendid breakfast fruit served with sugar and cream.
Juices, bottled in the natural form (or slightly sweetened) and
processed at a simmering temperature, contain practically all the
original food value of these various berries and to a large extent
the natural flavor. In many sections all of these berries in the wild
varieties "may be had for the picking" and the juices should be
stored for the season when other fruits are "scarce." (See Fruit
Florida mulberries of some varieties bear through a period of
several months. They are used by various methods as are other
berries. There are the white, red and black varieties. The trees grow
wild or cultivated. The fruit is very sweet, not having enough acid
in the ripened stage for jelly. The seeds are too small to be noticeable.

A tropical black raspberry, recently introduced, has been grown
successfully in South and Central Florida. The plants have a typical
raspberry growth, producing long arching canes which possess sharp
thorns. The fruits which are produced in abundance in the winter
and spring months, are purple-black in color and of good flavor.
They can be used in making jam, jelly, preserves, etc., and are
especially delicious when served with vanilla ice cream.


The strawberry is Florida's most valuable berry. Needing a re-

markably short period for growth and maturity, it can be grown very
early in the warm climate and shipped advantageously. The Mis-
r!". ..

.. -

sionary and Klonmore varieties are suited to home canning. The
former was outstanding in freezing trials.


This berry provides as much vitamin C as oranges. One cup of
strawberries yields only about 50 calories.
This plant grows as far south as Lake Okeechobee. The berries
grow in clusters on a shrub that is 15 to 20 feet high. They have an
acid flavor and make a refreshing drink and are used in pies. They
are often used as a cordial and as a coloring for other drinks.

Smith's Perfect is the best variety for production under Florida
conditions. The fruits are round in shape, weigh about four pounds
and are covered with a fine uniform netting. The thick, firm flesh
is deep orange or salmon color and has a most delicious flavor. The
seed cavity is small. Georgia 47 is a variety also recommended and
is resistant to mildew.

Oranges are the most widely grown citrus fruit and, in fact, one
of the widest grown fruits of the world. At the present time, the
largest utilization of Florida oranges is in the form of frozen con-
centrate, made at a low temperature and kept frozen since it is not
pasteurized. In Florida, more oranges go into this product than go
into any other form of marketing; second is the fresh fruit market
and, third, canned juice in which the single strength orange juice
is pasteurized and canned, with or without the addition of sugar.
French and Abbott have reported the vitamin C content of three
and a half ounces of the following varieties of Florida orange juices:
Parson Brown 51 mg., Hamlin 50 mg., Pineapple 64 mg., Valencia
44 mg., Satsuma 24 mg. and Temple 48 mg.
Oranges grown in Florida are grouped according to season in
which they ripen:
Early (October-November). The Hamlin is a seedless, smooth
skin variety. Parson Brown is a selected seedling of an early va-
Mid Season (December through February). The most noted va-
riety is the Pineapple, a round seedy orange having juice with a
marked bouquet. It is generally considered by Floridians to be the
best quality Florida Citrus. There is also the Jaffa, a large orange
having five or six seeds. The Homosassa is a selected seedling. The
Enterprise is seedless. About 40 to 50 other mid-season varieties
have been named but the differences between them were so small
that most of the names have been dropped.


Late (March through July). The Valencias begin to ripen about
the first of March and are marketed through June and July.
They thus overlap the blooming period, which is about March,
so that the trees during the spring contain both ripe fruit and young
fruit. Another variety which is quite well known is the Lue Gim
Gong, which is probably only a selection of the Valencia and rep-
resents a good strain of that type.

Sour Oranges
The sour orange resembles the ordinary sweet orange in appear-
ance but is a different species botanically. It has a sour, bitter pulp
and a skin that under some conditions may be very thin and highly
colored and under other conditions thick and rough.
The fruit of the sour orange is used widely for making marma-
lades. Most English type marmalades are made with sour oranges
and sour oranges from Florida are sold quite extensively to north-
ern makers of marmalade and make a product equivalent to the
product made with Spanish sour oranges.
A variety of the sour orange called the Bitter Sweet, is some-
times grown and in appearance is exactly like a sour orange, but
has a sweet rather than a sour pulp. It is characteristically bitter,
as is the regular type of sour orange. This variety is also used for
the making of marmalades to some extent.

Mandarins include a group of citrus fruits which have a thin
skin which peels off readily from the pulp and are quite commonly
termed "kid glove oranges" because of their easy peeling character-
istics. Of this group, the most widely grown type in Florida is the
Dancy tangerine, which is a mandarin with a thin, highly colored
peel that comes off readily and a very finely flavored pulp which
resembles somewhat spicy orange.
The Satsuma mandarin is grown in the northern part of the
State. The fruit is very early, but lacks the character and quality
of the tangerine and its production has been greatly reduced the
last few years.
Among the many other varieties of mandarins, the most exten-
sively grown have been the Oneco and the Warnurco. Commer-
cially, these have been replaced by the Dancy.
The King orange is now considered to be a hybrid between an
orange and a mandarin. It resembles a large tangerine with a thick
rough skin, and has a pulp that resembles an orange in flavor, but
which can be eaten in sections like a tangerine.


The Temple is a seedy fruit maturing in mid-season. It is in all
probability a hybrid between a tangerine and an orange. It is one
of the finest oranges for eating from the hand since it has inherited
a good deal of the tangerine's tendency to peel easily and to have
sections that can be broken apart and eaten individually. It has a
strong bouquet to the juice and an odor to the oil that persists on
the hands after one has peeled the fruit. It is now considered the
best eating orange for eating from the hand.
There are a large number of tangelos, which are hybrids between
tangerines and grapefruit, some of which are grown commercially.
The outstanding one of these is the Orlando, which is an excellent
early orange, somewhat resembling the Temple in appearance but
ripening earlier and having a thinner skin. The Orlando and some
others are now being planted commercially.

Grapefruit or Pomelos
Grapefruit are second to oranges in production in Florida and
are well known throughout the North American market. Grape-
fruit juice, fresh, canned and frozen, is a good source of vitamin
C-putting it in the same category with orange and lemon juice
but higher than most varieties of tomatoes. The pulp is a very light
green to a light yellow color, slightly acid and with a bitter flavor
which it gets from the glucoside naringin which is characteristic of
grapefruit. The trees are generally larger than orange trees and
bear very heavily. While other citrus originated in the Orient,
grapefruit originated in the western hemisphere, probably in Ja-
maica. They were first marketed from Florida on a small scale
about 1885, but it is only in the last fifty years that it has become
widely used as a breakfast fruit in the United States.
There are several types of grapefruit. The first type includes
the seedy varieties, of which Duncan is the prototype. These vari-
eties contain around fifty-five seed per fruit, are very rich in flavor
and generally are considered to be the best in grapefruit by con-
sumers. A great many varieties have been named and described,
but they are indistinguishable, and the two varieties which persist
under names today are the Duncan-which includes almost all
seedy grapefruit-and the McCarty, which is an unusually large,
seedy grapefruit.
A sport from the seedy grapefruit is the so-called Marsh Seed-
less, which under conditions where pollination is possible will have
eight to ten seeds, but where no pollen is available will be seedless.
This is the most widely grown grapefruit in the world today and is
liked by the consumer because of its seedless characteristic, though
it is less richly flavored than the seedy varieties.



From the seedy varieties, a pink-meated sport called the Foster
has arisen, which is grown to a small extent. The flesh is pink and
the peel shows a pink blush on the outside wherever it has been
shaded by touching another fruit or a leaf. It was widely grown at
one time, but the very large number of seed, about sixty-five, has
been a handicap. It is probably the earliest of the seedy grapefruit.
The Marsh gave rise to a seedless Pink variety, called the
Thompson or Pink Marsh, which has a delicately pink pulp, but no
pink blush on the outside. It has been considerably grown in Flor-
ida, but more extensively grown in Texas. In Texas a sport occurred
on the Pink Marsh which has a fruit with a red pulp plus a pink
blush on the outside. This is produced under various names such
as Ruby, Webbs Red Blush, and Glenred. Pink and red varieties
are highly favored for salads and seedless or near seedless varieties
have preference over the very seedy varieties.
Grapefruit juice is canned, usually with the addition of sugar,
and for this the seedy varieties are preferred because of the richer
juice which will withstand sugaring to better advantage than the
juice of the Marsh Seedless. Grapefruit juice is also blended with
orange juice to make "blend," which is even more popular than
straight canned grapefruit juice. Sections of the fruit are also ex-
tracted by hand and canned in syrup to make a product known as
"grapefruit hearts," which competes for salad use with canned
pineapple and pears. Pink and red varieties are not desired for
canning because the pink color breaks down and turns brown dur-
ing pasteurization, making an unsightly product.

Limes are used for about the same purposes as lemons, being
fruits of high acidity. The aromatic oil in the peel however, is dif-
ferent from lemon oil.
Limes of two types are grown in Florida. The so-called Key
lime is a small, seedy lime that grows on the Keys from Miami
around to Fort Myers. The tree is a small tree, usually grown as
a seedling or root sprout, very sensitive to cold and doesn't seem
to do well in the interior of the state of Florida. The Key or West
Indian lime is probably the finest lime grown, both because of its
high acidity and pleasantly flavored juice, and also because of its
aromatic oil which is very characteristic of the lime family.
In the central and southern parts of the state, the Persian or
Tahiti lime is widely grown and marketed on a very considerable
scale. It is an oval lime, about the size of a small lemon, with a
green pulp. The juice is very acid, running up to seven or eight
per cent of citric acid, as do the best lemons. The tree is rather


low headed. Despite susceptibility to bark diseases it is grown on
a rather large scale.
Limes are usually marketed as fresh fruit for use in drinks, on
fish, in iced tea, and other uses. More recently, lime concentrate
and some lime juice have been produced and these channels will
probably account for the marketing of a considerable portion of
the crop in the future. At the present time, the Persian or Tahiti
lime is the main commercial lime in Florida, with the Key lime
representing a smaller amount almost every year.

Commercial production of lemons is characteristic of areas which
have a dry summer rather than those which have a wet summer
such as we have in Florida. Lemon scab and various bark diseases
are very prevalent in Florida. However, good lemons for home use
can be raised quite easily and the principal variety is the Villa-
franca. This lemon grows rather large, but if left to get reasonably
ripe, it has a large amount of very acid juice and the peel is char-
acteristically lemon odored. Since lemon trees are characteristi-
cally very subject to cold, the Meyer lemon-which is in all prob-
ability a hybrid and not a true lemon-is raised to some extent as a
home fruit. It has lower acidity in the juice, usually five to five and
a half per cent as compared with the lemons' seven to eight per
cent, and a slightly different flavor, but makes a good substitute for
home use and in cooking.
There are a number of lemons which are used as ornamentals
and oddities, including the rough lemon which was an escape from
cultivation and is growing wild in many parts of Florida; the Pon-
derosa lemon, which is a very large lemon of poor quality as far
as juice is concerned, but interesting as an oddity; and the Ever-
bearing, which is a low producer but bears fruit most of the year.

There are a great many varieties of citrus that are occasionally
grown as ornamentals or oddities and some of these have a good
deal of use in homes in Florida. A brief discussion of some of these
is given below.
Kumquats are a close relative of citrus and are usually used as
ornamentals. Varieties include the Marumi, which has a small,
round fruit which has a rather sour pulp but a sweet peel; the Na-
gami, which has a rather large, oval fruit about an inch long, and
the Meiwa. which is a large fruited, round kumquat that has a


rather sweet pulp. The Marumi is commonly used along drives
where it makes a round headed tree which is covered in the winter
with brilliant yellow fruit. The Nagami is used extensively as an
ornamental and to dress up gift boxes, for which purpose the fruit
is clipped with a short stem and one or two leaves. The Meiwa is
little grown. Fruits of these are also used for making candies, jel-
lies and conserves, and other uses of similar nature. Kumquat
marmalade is delicious.
The citron is not grown commercially in Florida. It is a tree
that resembles a lemon tree. The fruit appears to be an over-grown
lemon and has a very thick peel and a very small amount of pulp
which contains very little juice. In Florida, trees are grown occa-
sionally as oddities, but they suffer a great deal from cold. The
fruit is used in candies to some extent.

The shaddock appears to be a very large grapefruit with a rather
pebbly, coarse skin. Unfortunately, the varieties brought into Flor-
ida in the early days from the Orient, all had a sour pulp of poor
quality and were used primarily to make candied peel confections.
In recent years, excellent varieties of table quality have been
brought in, but the fruits are so large and grapefruit is so well es-
tablished that no one has been interested in producing them com-
mercially. The pulp is quite sweet with a slightly limey flavor and
many of the varieties have pink pulp or pink septae between the
The calamondin is a close relative of citrus that is widely used
as an ornamental. It has a small fruit, one to one and a half inches
in diameter, which looks like a highly colored, miniature tangerine.
The tree has rather small leaves and grows tall and cylindrical and
is used as an accent plant at the corners of houses and in other
strategic locations. The pulp of the fruit is very sour and used to
some extent by Floridians as a substitute for limes and lemons and
in the making of conserve; mostly, however, it is used as an orna-
mental and during the winters, the tall, cylindrical trees, covered
with a heavy crop of brilliant yellow fruit make an excellent ap-
The calamondin was used a good deal in household use prior
to the planting of large amounts of limes, but today is much less
used than formerly.
Limequats are the result of crosses between the lime and the
kumquat. The Eustis variety has practically disappeared. The


Lakeland has persisted a little longer because it makes a very nice
looking, bushy tree and the fruit is small and more lemon shaped
than the Eustis. The quality of the juice is not as good as the lime
or lemon, however, and leaves an after-taste in the mouth so that
it is not grown commercially at the present time.
There are hundreds of other oddities and hybrids, none of which
is produced in sufficient quantity to justify a description.

The hardy Celeste is popular throughout Florida. It is a small,
brownish-yellow, sweet fig (July 1). The Brown Turkey (July 15),
white to pink inside, is a solid fig and hardy. The Brunswick (Aug-
ust and September) is a large violet-colored fig with thick, soft pulp.
Figs thrive best in sub-tropical localities but do well farther north
if protected. They are grown largely in the vicinity of the "yard."
Like most other fruits, the fig has small amounts of vitamin A, the
B vitamins, and C. It has about half again as many calories as an
equal weight of fresh orange pulp. The texture and flavor are pleas-
ing. The fruit is best freshly picked from the trees. It needs no
flavoring. The fig has a slight laxative effect. It is used with sugar
and cream as a breakfast fruit. It lends itself to drying and pre-
serving and canning. It is best used in cookies, cakes and pastes,
pudding, ice cream and other desserts.

Two types of grapes have done well on their roots in Florida-
the muscadine and a group of fairly new hybrid table grape vari-
eties comprised of quality fruit crosses into vigorous bunch-type
grapes native to Florida. To the list of old-type Muscadines such as
Scuppernong, Thomas and James, several others have been added,
some of them quite new and having the advantage of being self-
fertile. Among the best are Tarheel, Topsail, Dulcet, Bergaw, and
Hunt. The muscadines do not bunch and are, therefore, tedious to
gather. Besides the edible fruit, they produce excellent juice, jel-
lies and marmalades in a number of colors and flavors. The scup-
pernong grape has a flavor when fully ripe that is unexcelled. It is
a russet color when ripe. The wild variety is a black grape of
thicker skin and more meat but less juice. Both are splendid flavor
in the fresh form and lend themselves to numerous ways of prepa-
ration. The Thomas is a reddish purple when ripe, while the James
is purplish black. The "summer" grape (wild) grows in many of
the Florida woods. It is quite acid and has enough pectin for jelly
when not quite ripe. The flavor of wild grape jelly is a decided
flavor, highly pleasing to both the Northern and Southern palate.


Florida's Bunch Grapes

The color adds to its appeal. Grapes are grown extensively in Lake
The many varieties, plus Florida's long season, make it possible
for the home gardener to have good table grapes from June to Sep-
A cup of grapes yields 80 to 100 calories. The organic acids
abundant in grapes act as a mild laxative and diuretic.
The Lake Emerald grape developed in recent years by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations' branch laboratory at Leesburg
is a light colored cluster variety that is hardy and fruitful on
medium and high lands from Lake Wales north. This new grape is
easily grown and may be used as a table fruit or in juice, jellies and
various marmalades. The golden colored products of Lake Emerald
can be darkened with other juices if desired.

(Lemon Guava, Common Guava)
The common guava forms a small, spreading tree with a smooth
trunk and white myrtle-like flowers about 13/4 inches in diameter.
The fruit from seedling guavas may exhibit a wide variation in ap-
pearance, size, flavor, acidity, texture and color. They may be
ovoid, globose or pyriform, and weights vary from an ounce to
more than one pound. Skin color of ripe fruit ranges from green to


bright yellow. Flesh color may be white, yellow, pink, salmon, or
carmine. Seedling fruits vary from thin-shelled with a large mass
of seeds embedded in a firm pulp, to thick shelled with few seeds,
and in flavor from sweet to highly acid. The distinctive character-
istic aroma and flavor of guava is possessed in some degree by all
types but in some it is very mild and pleasant, but in others it is
so strongly pungent that it is objectionable to many people.
Some varieties of guavas are truly amazing in their vitamin C
content. One guava supplies four times the adult daily requirement
for vitamin C. A guava provides only 50 calories and small amounts
of vitamin A and the B vitamins. The main crop is in late summer
and fall with a lighter crop sometimes maturing in spring.
The better varieties are relished as fresh fruit, either eaten out
of hand or sliced and served in salads or with cream and sugar.
The fruit is used to make the famous guava jelly. It is also used
stewed, canned, or preserved, and is an outstanding pie fruit. It
may be preserved by quick freezing and by dehydration.


(Strawberry Guava)
The cattley guava grows as a bushy small tree with thick shiny
leaves. It is grown both as an ornamental and for its fruit which is
much smaller than fruit of the common guava. One form bears
coppery red fruit, and another yellow and somewhat larger fruit.


The sub-acid juicy pulp with numerous small seeds has a slight
musky flavor. It is used fresh or for making jelly.

The loquat is a small tree to 20 feet tall, forming a thick, dense
crown of attractive leaves. It is often grown throughout Florida as
a small ornamental tree, not only for its fruit, but also for its foliage
and attractive white fragrant flowers. In South Florida it flowers the
year around, but fruits are produced mainly in the winter and spring
months. The fruit, which is produced in erect clusters, is round to
oval, up to 2 inches across, and from light lellow to a golden orange
in color. The flesh is pale, yellow to orange, very juicy, and subacid.
The fruits may be eaten fresh, stewed or made into a preserve or

The lychee tree is a medium to large, much branched, evergreen
tree to 40 feet or more in height, and forms a dense, round-headed
thick crown of dark-green shiny leaves. The small greenish flowers
are produced in the winter months, and the fruit is mature in June
and July. The fruits, which are produced in hanging clusters, are
11 inches in diameter, oval in shape, and consist of a thin leathery
bright-red shell covered with angular protuberances. The single
seed is dark brown and shiny, and the edible portion is the aril
which attaches the seed to the shell. This aril is white and trans-
lucent and has a consistency similar to a grape; it is juicy, slightly
subacid, and of delicious flavor. There are several large trees in
South and Central Florida and in recent years several large plant-
ings have been made, mostly on the west coast south of Tampa.
The fruit is eaten fresh and can be used in fruit cocktails and salads,
and can be kept indefinitely when frozen. The dried lychee, which
is well known in China, is called the "lychee nut" and is comparable
to a raisin; it is not nearly as tasty as the fresh fruit.

The mango is a large evergreen tree which may reach 60 or more
feet in height, although certain grafted varieties such as the Brooks,
are not as large. The leathery leaves are relatively long and narrow
and are produced in dense clusters near the ends of the branches;
the new flushes of growth are red or yellowish. The flowers, which
are small, white to reddish in color, and appear from December to
April, are produced in large erect clusters or sprays at the ends of
the branches. The fruit is mature from May 15th to October 15th,
depending on the variety. The fruit is quite variable; the size ranges


from small fruits, 2 inches long and weighing only a few ounces, to
9 inches or more in length and weighing up to three or four pounds;
the shape is from flat apple-like to round, oval, and cylindrical; the
color varies from green, yellow-green, yellow, to red and variegated;
the aroma varies from spicy and turpentine to sweet; the flavor
varies from tasteless and flat, to subacid and to sweet, the better
varieties being juicy and melting; the texture varies from fibrous
to smooth. There is a single large flattened stone in the center of
the fruit and this encloses a single seed.
There are many varieties of mangos in Florida some of them of
the Indian and Philippine types, but most of them of Florida origin.
Some have been in Florida for many years; the Number 11 and
Turpentine are two examples. The popular Haden is a standard
variety which originated in 1912. Other Florida varieties for
commercial and home use are the following: Brooks, Carrie, Cecil,
Edward, Fascell, Florigon, Irwin, Itamaraca, Keitt, Kent, Lippens,
Palmer, Springfels, and Zill.
The sap of the tree and fruit is irritating to the skin of some
Analysis of many varieties of Florida mangos shows that some
varieties have twice the vitamin content of other mango varieties.
The Edward variety had the highest thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and
vitamin C reported. The latter is equivalent to oranges. Few fruits
equal the mango in vitamin A potency. The Haden variety has the
highest vitamin A content.
Mango may be used as a fresh fruit-and indeed, this is the way
most people prefer it-or it may be used in salads, sundaes, ice
creams, pies, short cakes, tarts, curries, sauces, chutney, jam, butter,
pickles, etc. The fruit may also be preserved by freezing and by

The papaya is an herbaceous, tree-like, but short-lived, plant,
growing to 15 or 20 feet tall. The female flowers are one inch across
and are produced close to the trunk; the male flowers occur in elon-
gated hanging clusters. Fruits, which are produced by the female
flowers, are clustered on the trunk; occasionally fruit is produced at
the ends of the long hanging male clusters. The fruit varies in size
and shape-from 6 to 15 inches long, from round to elongated and
cylindrical. When ripe it is yellow or orange (red in some varieties),
with a musky and often objectionable odor, and with a large central
cavity filled with black seeds. The entire plant yields a milky latex
which contains an enzyme called papain which digests proteins. The
latex is used to tenderize meat and is also used medicinally for di-


gestive troubles and in making of cosmetics, soaps, spot removers,
face creams, tea, syrup, and even tooth powder. It is also said to be
used in the brewery industry. The bruised leaves may be wrapped
around tough meat and thus render the meat palatable overnight.

Blue Stemmed Papayas
(Bred and grown by Scott U. Stambaugh, Vero Beach, Fla.)

The green unripe fruits yield this latex, but in the fully ripe fruits,
the latex is absent and consequently no enzyme is present. The
seeds have a peppery flavor but contain no papain.


The sugar content varies from 4 to 10 percent and the water
content is nearly 90 percent. The fruit is considered a good source
of vitamin C. The fruit is eaten fresh and served like a cantaloupe
or sliced for fruit salads. Other uses are for pickles, pies, jams,
preserves, and pastes. The green nearly mature fruits are sometimes
cooked and eaten as a vegetable. In recent years canned and fresh
papaya juice has appeared on the market.
Most of the fruits sold in the local markets and used in com-
mercial products are shipped into Florida by plane from Colombia
and Puerto Rico.

The only peach that will fruit well in South Florida is the Red
Ceylon variety which was introduced many years ago from the
Island of Ceylon. It is of the South China race and does not require
a chilling period during the winter months to bring out the flowers.
It is grown only as a door yard plant. The fuzzy outer covering of
the fruits is usually reddish in color, while the inner flesh is whitish
to red. The fruits are eaten fresh when fully ripe, but they may
also be cooked in syrup and frozen for later use.

The Valencia, Improved Spanish and Small White Spanish va-
riety of peanut can be planted from March to July. They are bunch
type plants growing to maturity in 110, 120 and 130 days respective-
ly. Valencia has the highest eating quality. The Small White Spanish
has the highest oil content. Dixie Runner can be planted from March
to June, is a runner type plant, maturing small seed in 145 days.
Boiled peanuts are preferred in Florida. Peanuts may be dug for
boiling 20 days before they fully mature their seed. Improved
Spanish having a medium large seed and Valencia having a small
seed are the two varieties most popular for boiling. Jackson County
and other counties to the west produce the largest amounts of
peanuts in the state.

There are probably over four hundred thousand pecan trees of
all ages in Florida, of which 95 percent are growing from Alachua
County north and westward. Pecans are harvested mostly in Octo-
ber and November after the nuts are fully mature, as indicated by
the outer husks bursting open. By carefully cracking the shell the
straw colored kernel can be removed as two halves. The nut meats
are of good quality and flavor. Pecans are outstanding in thiamine
content and on a weight for weight basis provide as much as pork.


Seventy-three percent of the kernel is fat and accounts for the high
calorie value of pecans. In commercial importance pecans are rapidly
gaining on walnuts which have been the important nut in the past.

Some of the better yielding varieties are Pineapple, Hood, Bald-
win and Carnes. The Pineapple variety is most extensively grown
but has more grit or stone cells than the others. A common failing
of Hood is internal breakdown at time of ripening. This can be
almost entirely eliminated if the fruit is picked when mature but
still firm, usually in early July and placed in 60 to 700 F. tempera-
ture to ripen. It is the earliest one to ripen and is of good quality.
Pears are low in acid and need little sugar. Lemon or lime com-
bine nicely with pear products. In the fresh form a fully ripened
pear needs no additions. For canning or for cooking, gather pears
when fully grown but not entirely ripened. Keep in a dark, cool
room for a few days for ripening. This process gives a finer grain
texture and possibly a better flavor than the tree ripening process.
When peeled, pears turn brown quickly, due to the action of an
enzyme. A dilute saline solution (2 tablespoons salt to a gallon of
water) prevents the coloring.

The native persimmon with fruit one to one and a half inches in
diameter, grows from northern Florida south to Dade County. It is
highly stocked with tannin before the fully ripened stage but, when
ripe, it is a very popular fruit, having a sugar content of about 15
per cent.

This fruit is the cultivated persimmon used in Florida. The fruit
is much larger than the native fruit, ranging in size from two to four
inches in diameter. The color varies from a light yellow to a deep
reddish orange. The shape is, in some varieties, that of an apple
flattened at the ends, and in others more of a pear shape with a
pointed apex. The flesh is light yellow to dark according to variety.
Compared with 30 other fruits grown in Florida, French and
Abbott found that the persimmon had by far the highest carotene
content (vitamin A activity). One persimmon of this variety
provides more than 60 per cent of the daily recommended adult
allowance for vitamin A.


The varieties most used are the Tanenashi and the Fuyugaki.
The former is round in shape with a pointed apex. It is from 3 to
314 inches long and nearly as broad. The skin is light yellow,
shading to a bright, deep, yellowish-red as it ripens. The yellow
flesh is astringent until the ripening period in August and Septem-
ber. The Fuyugaki, slightly flattened, deep red in color, is not
astringent and cen be peeled and eaten before it is fully ripe.
Persimmons are best used in the fresh form and are sweet
enough for desserts. The pulp has been successfully used, however,
in pies, sauces, and puddings as well as in ice creams. For pies, the
non-astringent type is used when not fully ripe.

The pineapple is a short-stemmed, herbaceous plant two to three
feet tall; the leaves are long and slender, sharp pointed and spiny
margined and produced in a rosette of several tiers. The flowers are
purple and are produced in a thick, dense, central cone; the upper
part of the flowers are free, but the lower parts are all united to-
gether in the central cone. The compound fruit consists of numerous
reddish-orange, tile-like segments, each segment representing an
individual fruit. The inner flesh is of a pale yellow color. A tuft of
leaves forms the crown. It usually takes one to three years for the
plant to fruit. New plants are propagated from the crown, slips
which develop at the base of the fruit, and from suckers or rattanss"
at the base of the plant. From 1860 to about 1912 there were many
pineapple plantations on the Florida Keys. In recent years a revival
in pineapple growing has occurred, especially in Miami, Sebring, and
Ft. Pierce. Most of the fruit grown in Florida is consumed within
the state. Of the several varieties that are grown, the most popular
are the Natal, Smooth Cayenne, Eleuthra, Abaca, and Red Spanish.
The pineapple contains a protelytic enzyme called bromelin
which is closely related to trypsin. This ferment changes albumin-
ous matter into peptones and proteoses and acts in acid, alkaline
or neutral media. The flavor and odor of pineapples is due to the
essential oils and ethers present in very small quantities. Pineapples
should be allowed to stand on the plants until practically ripe. They
lose little of their delicious flavor or of their food value in canning.
In vitamin C content, pineapple ranks with tomato. One cup of
fresh pineapple supplies slightly less than half the recommended
daily allowance of vitamin C for man-equal volumes of the canned
fruit provides smaller amounts.

Florida has a number of varieties of wild plums that still flourish,
especially in north Florida. They are quite acid before ripening and


make an excellent jelly, jam or butter at the half-ripened stage.
Wild plum products have rare flavor and color that makes them
most suitable to serve with meats or chicken.
Excelsior-Japanese plums crossed with some of Florida's native
plums have given a few hybrids that are of splendid variety such as
the "Excelsior," a wine-colored fruit with a firm yellow-red pulp of
excellent quality and sub-acid flavor. The skin is thin and tough and
neither bitter nor astringent.
McRae (Hybrid)-The fruit is a reddish yellow, has a juicy,
yellow, sub-acid, firm flesh with an aromatic flavor.
Terrell (Hybrid)-This large plum, 2 inches in diameter, is
wine-colored when fully ripe and has a greenish-yellow, meaty.
slightly sub-acid flesh of excellent flavor and texture.

The sapodilla is a slow growing handsome evergreen tree
reaching a height of 50 feet or more. It grows from Merritt Island
southward but succeeds best on limestone soils of Dade County and
the Florida Keys. The tree is one of the species yielding a white
latex from which chicle, the base of chewing gum, is made.
The fruits, 2 to 4 inches in diameter, are subglobose, ovoid, or
ellipsoid, with a thin scurfy-brown skin, and yellowish-brown, granu-
lar flesh. The flesh of the better types such as the Prolific and Russell
varieties, when thoroughly ripe, is soft and slightly fragrant with
a very sweet rich flavor. The hard, black, shiny, flattened seeds about
3/ inch long vary from none to 12 and separate readily from the flesh.
The sapodilla is used almost entirely as a dessert fruit, and may
be preserved by quick freezing the whole ripe fruit. Unripe fruit is
astringent. Syrups and jams are reported to be made of this fruit in
other countries.

The watermelon lends itself well to home garden production in
Florida. By spacing the planting dates and using more than one
variety, it is possible to have this choice fruit of the vine in the home
garden during the summer months from May to August or later.
Watermelon rinds make delicious preserves and pickles.
The home garden grower is often situated on land which is con-
sidered "old ground," where Fusarium wilt and other soil borne dis-
eases render impractical the growing standard varieties of water-
melons. It is very desirable that the gardener obtain wilt-resistant
varieties. Several of these are both excellent in quality and resistant
to disease.

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