• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Frontispiece
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Section I: High velocity winds
 Section II: Aerodynamic tests on...
 Section III: Recommendations
 Appendix
 Bibliography
 Back Matter






Protection of small buildings against high velocity winds /
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Title: Protection of small buildings against high velocity winds /
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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Foreword
        Page 5
    Acknowledgement
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Section I: High velocity winds
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Section II: Aerodynamic tests on small buildings
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Section III: Recommendations
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Appendix
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Bibliography
        Page 50
    Back Matter
        Page 51
        Page 52
Full Text

ENGINEERING PROGRESS
at the
University of Florida


p Vol. III, No. 7


September, 1949


Protection of Small Buildings


Against High Velocity Winds




by

ROBERT A. THOMPSON
Head Professor of Aeronoutical Engineering


Bulletin No. 28
Price 250




Published monthly by the

FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
College of Engineering * University of Florida * Gainesville

Enlered as second-cass multer at Ihe Post Office at Gtinesvflne, Forida


-� i '









PROTECTION OF SMALL BUILDINGS

AGAINST

HIGH VELOCITY WINDS




by

ROBERT A. THOMPSON


Head Professor
of
Aeronautical Engineering


FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
College of Engineering * University of Florida 0 Gainesville


Bulletqn Series No 28
September, 1949









The Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station



ThI, Eniiimneirl Eli~riment Sitliion wna hirst appnrved hb the Bord of Control
,t its mcet.l g io May 1, 1929, Fund' flor the Florida lFrninermni and Industrial
tpe~~m ent Station were app r d by th lare apprpte of the State of Florida *n
19-1 The Station is a Division .f the CillegIe io Enminmtrang of the Uniersity nf
Fliond under dit supervision of the State Bard if Control of Flirida The fiun
lolns of the Florida Engancermt and Industrial Experiment Station arn

a) To develop the Indutreh oif Flohnda by urgantzing und prtomounli research in
thIos fields if cningneernig. and the related sciences, hearing on their industrial. welar:
if the State.

b) To iurve) and evaluate the natural resource Oif rhe State that may be su.
ceptibk toi sound development

c) To contract with governmental hndie technical societies, J.ss tiai, s, or in
dusnai organiaauon in aindi t to ol thm t their technical problems Provison is
made for these irgAinual ls t .ivai tllemscl's of the facilities l f ttie Enganeeng
and industrial Experrmen Slatton on a cooperative financial basis It is the basic
philosophy of tlr Station that the industrial progress of Florida tan best be furthered
by carrying im research in thone fields in wlnch Florida, hy virtue oif its location,
climate. and raw mnareals, lhas natural andvantrage

d) To publish .ud dissemonate information on the results if experimentl and
nr,.arnh pTsicts. Three serLts of pamphlets are isuedd: Bulletins olering the results
of research and investigat.lmn by staff niemhr; Technical Papers, repriniing ppers
or reports by staff member which bave been published elsewhere, and Leaflets. re
printiinig cleaid by .,lff nmilmber wbhch hai e been puhlihcd in tihl re i popular
periodicals.

For opiks if Bulletins, Technical Paper. L.eaflets or information on how thi
Staitn can be of service addre.


The Florida EnginwenlIg and lnduscnrtl xpcrinmem Station
GCllege of Engineering
University of Florid.
Gainesvilk. Florida
RALPH A. MORGEN, Direc/,r







TABLE OF CONTENTS


SECTION I

HIGH VELOCITY WINDS
Definitions . . .. ..... .. ....9......... . . . - -- --
Seasonal Occurrence....... ...... ....... .... ....... .....---- - --... 11
Barometrn Pressure Changes . ..... .. . . . ......1
Storm Damage...... ........ .- - - ..... 12


SECTION 11
AERODYNAMIC TESTS ON SMALL BUILDINGS
Building Models ....... ... . ............ --- - ..15
W ind tunnell . ...... .. ....... . . --- - - -
Test Proidure ...... . . - 1
Chart Interpretation...... . .... - ...... . 20
Creation ol Po tive and Ncgative Pressures. ..... - - 21
Pressure Data and Charts. Model No. I... .. - - 22


SECTION III
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations for Framt Buddings. ..... ...----- - 28
Recommendations for Concrete Block Buildings ........- - - -31
Additional Recommendations................. .. ... --........ 32
Summary. . .. ..- .... .... . . . ..... .......-- -.. .. ...- .--. .......33


APPENDIX
Pressure Data and Charts:
Model No 2 ..................... ............ 35
M odel No. 3.. .. ..... ... - . - - .. -.- - 40
Model No . ... . ...... .... ... ... 45


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFELRENCES .......... -


.. . . 50


















































THE PICTURE ABOVE is an actual unretuched photograph of the Aug. 26-27,
190 , hurricane ai seen on the L'niversit of Florida radarisope at 6:15 in the m rn-
ing of th- 2'th, as t s wirl its northward path up the Florida Peninsula The actual
Adaisclpe phlotagraph is superposrioned on a scaled outline of the State, and the
' ey" of the storm, surrounded by winds spiraling in a counterclockwis direction,
appears In the photi as a round crater lust northwest of the dlht marking Lakeland
The Ilcation of the large radar tower at Gaenville from which the storm was fri.
hwedi (shown in the inset at left) lies at the intersection of lie dark crossbars at the
center of the lange circles, which are marked off at 20 males The equipment is one of
the U, S. Air Force s large radnr units, and is on loan to the Univertty.










3oPe/ord

Hurricanes have been the subject of continuous research at the University
of Florida sinae the early thirties While the earlier aspects have been on
instrumentation to locate the storms. the primary purpose of this bulletin is
to give information on better construction to lessen tie loss of property inci-
dent to the ' storms
Previous publications of til Station lh\e described omne of the ploncer
work in the use of electronic devices tor thL location of atmospheric disturb-
ances. While thi original objective was to rack hurricane through the
detection of the associated electrical disiharges, this technique has found its
greatest L, in locating other types of storms at greatly istancs up In two
thousand miles The present trked of the research on liurricancs Is to adapt
radar equipment for improved location ind tracking, and ;i publication on
that subject is noa in preparation.
As a re.ult of varlols forecaxting and trttking improvements and the
etablbhment of storm warning serves by the U. S W\eather Bureau, the
number of personal casualtlcs due to tropical disturbantes has been greatly
reduced Storms in the last few years have been just as intense as those
recorded in the past. but today suffiicent advance warning permits the popu-
laton to seek coaer in properly protected structures before the arriaa of a
destructive wind.
This bulletin contains information. in easily usable form. on the construct
tion of homes and other small structures that should lower property losses.
Building code in certain areas have taken advantage of many of the points
outlined in this bulletin It is believed that if as much thought and effort is
given to proper structures as has been given to warning services in the past,
the loss to buildings from storms can be substantially reduced The first step
in such a loss reduction is the recognition of the problem so that the applica-
tion of known principles can then be used to solve the problem.
Every geographic. area of the world has its own natural hazards which
man must overcome in order to live safely and comfortably in that particular
area Florida's year-round comfortable climate attracts millions of visitors
and thousands of new residents annually, While the loss of life due to oc
tasional hurricanes has been materially reduced. it is believed that further
work along the lines indicated herein can help to lower the current large
property losses due to these storms. It is hoped that this bulletin will act as
a guide and as a warning to the prospective iome builder, and that he will
follow the suggestions given herein to protect his structure from the hazards
which it must meet.
RALPH A MORGFN, Direclto





















Ccknowldlyemen/i


Tle author wishes ro express his indebtedness to the many members of
the University staff with whom he has had the privilege of discussing the
subject matter of this bulletin and who have assisted in Its preparation.

Especial credit is given to Mr. W. F. Woodward, Jr. for his aid in pre-
paring the numerous pressure charts and to Mr. W. H. Bussell, Jr. for assis
tance in preparing other figures.








PePi'asion i. given to reproduce or qOte troy porti'o of
Ibi publicraion providing at redit bine ig en citkn, l-
ledging the source of nlformnnion.








PROTECTION OF SMALL BUILDINGS

AGAINST HIGH VELOCITY WINDS





Strodtction

E tunlpl damargc to nall bhildingsn has been caused by the winds of
laugh velocity associated llth the commonly called urricanes" which oc-
casionally strike the southern and eastern ,abhoa.rd of tliL United States. The
19'17 ihlrrLante seadsn within nine storms Lau.sd dait;iyg estimated at onc
hundred million dollars clxdtudng flood losses ( 15 )
A considerable reduction in the amount of damage to small buildings an
be acomprlshed at small exrcnse by the proper ionsridration of the basic
destrrucoe forces present and of suitable means of combattin them
It is the purpose of this bulletin to give general information concerning
(A) high velocity winds andl the principal types of building damage caused
by them, (B) qualtlative pressure distributions on various types of small
buildings as shown by wind tunnel tests, and (C) recommendations for
economical protective measures to be incorporated in small buildings to
better withstand high velocity winds.
A complete discussion of the various types of storms is beyond the scope
of this bulletin, but general information is offered because of its importance
in understanding the basic wind forces involved. Reference 24 is an excellent
work on hurricanes, and contains a very complete bibliography for those de.
siring to pursue the subject further.
The aerodynamic wind tunnel tests were conducted to show the relative
values of pressures and the distribution of the pressures on small buildings.
Several models of different outside configuration were included in the test
runs to demonstrate the elfect of shape on the pressures and pressure dis-






rinbutron Wink the scale etffl of the model test runs j unknown, the rcla-
n 'l iL, are indicarivl ol actual prCesure distributions to be cxp.lte.d
Tll'h recommendations grven in regard to methods for the protection of
ism.ll buildings against h cih vclocty .n md are generalized as being the most
important and most economical ones to consider It is suggested that the
sarvce, of a registered architect or engineer be secured in the initial stages
of planning all buildings. In the case of large buildings for spinal pur roses,
such as industrial plants, it is essential that the plans receive the specific
consideration of architects and engineers Largc structures (hangars bridges,
(all office buildings) should be investigated by wind tunnel tests on geomet
ically similar models imluding adjacent buildings and terrain (). (sto
Section II). and these model results corrected for scale effects by aerodynamic
methods














\ Va a


-S -I-

--~ x
'-x

-~.


"HURRICANE IN ACTION"
(Photo by Bill Kunzel of the Miaoui Herald)







SECTION I


HIGH VELOCITY WINDS





Definitions:

For the purpose of clarfiation, several definitions of the terms commonly
employed in disLusmIn storms need to be given
The lerm "cyclone" is used in metcirology to indicate storms with a low
atmospheric pressure at the center around which winds blow spirally.
Cyclones may be classified as to duration, to season of occurrence. or to
zone of occurren:; The opposite type of pressure pattern is called an anti-
cyclone in which a high pressure area is at tlhe center. Anti-cyclones are
sometime called highs" and cyclones are called "lows" or '"depressions."
The migratory cyclones can be divided into two main classes: the extra-
tropical which is of common occurrence and usually mild in character and
which with the anti-cyclone forms the basis of our daily changes in weather,
and the tropical cyclone which occurs mainly in the late summer and early
fall and frequently has winds of great intensity over a comparatively small
area of a few hundred square miles.
The tropical cyclone composed of winds of high intensity is the type of
storm which will be considered here. These storms often have their origin
in a belt of equatorial calms called the "Doldrums," an area loosely defined
as a belt between the northeast and southeast trade winds (24). This type
of storm is called a hurricane " in the regions of the North Atlantic. the
Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. Elsewhere, it is called by various
names used in those particular areas such as typhoon. cyclone, willy-willy.
hagino.
A hurricane has a somewhat circular shape with a low pressure area. in
the center. The winds around the center are of high velocity and are a
function of the pressure gradient. The winds blow in a spiral path around
the center. At the low pressure area in the center which may cover a diameter
of 10 to 20 miles, a relatively calm area exists, called the eye of the storm.*

*In Srtm cases the eye ias been mistaken as the pa ng of the storm when in reality
the latter part of the nsorm is yet to come.








TABLE I


hTrms, Ui In
ufSpecianns ny C. S. eathen B ureau
uph) Forecasts

1 Sm.ke rise verticnly l ess llan I Calm

Dirictin of wind shown by
smoke drift but nn h n wind
vrnCs I 1i 1

2 Wind felt in f",ce; Ia'ei
.rstle; ordinary rman moved
by wind. 1 to Li!l

,,Leaves .d small twigs in
constant mntiun, wind ex-
tends light iag M to 12 Gentle

S Riss dust and Ilos paper,
small branchli are moved I? tn is Moderate

5 Small irees in Ilaf beCin tiI
.wav; cretmd wcavelets form
"n inlnd waters. it n, 2�4 Fr.sh

i Large branches in imotilon,
whistling hIard ittel cgr.ipl
wE;i: umbrellaf usld nIIh
difftnult, 235 i i1

Whi t rre; .an mttluil: mt
finilplnr ffr in winllon
against the wind. -i to S Str.ng

8 Breaks twigs iff trees; g n-
rnIlly impedLs pnrgrcsa . i9 t, 46

9 Shght structuraJ damage Ioc.
ctin (chimney pnrs alid stt
removed). to i4 Gale

It Tret upnrted.; ConSidrjb!e
structural duar.ge ncurs 1 tno 63

11 Rarely experienced; accun
panied by wid-spread dami
axe 61 ito 1 Whoule Gale

12 Ahblve -5 Hurriane-






1he path of the hurricane is usually somewhat parah-biit shiaI. bhu is often
irregular
Sir Franmbs Bkufort. a British Admiral and hydrographer, developed a
da�lltitoitiin .krl fur f, , n i 1.so06 Thin ,srI*ei knoon ,1 tit Br.tauford
.'til. conitIlr"u It) 11 iini'tral }ll) I d todd) (2 ) (lin ll) stilL , ind-A of
hirricanc lornt ac i defined as inds aboM - mph I .elocIty. Table I gives
the Beauior. l inlb11r. s'pet1 liiations. mile, per hour eclocLay, aind terms used
in US Weather Bureau forecat.i

Seasonal Occurrence:
Ihe Ilrei, UiT.a l OlC urrorilL. l o hi he irr n. iL during i ariutl.I ioniths is
sho iii by FIglp. I Aueust Septlimbr and ()iob.cr art tih months of
PrCi- ( st frvill{ il )

Barometric Pressure Changes:
The Io isl hairo tier( 'Tr t r t-.re a 'ts in thei liurricane Linte r, or eye
at I IS conImonrl) cAlled. TIl barornctrl pIrLts' re incasured ladially in-
irc.l.-s at pointsll outard from thlie (ner. Ar nl- of increase of 001 to 0 02
il of mrtr i ) per ' llI Oll rfair il d.11 dianc 1131 h il l n o ser\ted ll sWtllT storms.
An actl,il baiogaJilrl record. blowing t h vrilatjin of hartUnltri pres-
sUre ith ti im. during a storm f.issage, . sh lon i[i Figure 2 Tlhi pressures


IG. I NUMBER OF STORMS ARE SHOWN BY VERTICAL SCALE
(R nroduced by permits nn The Miamf Hlerald)






Mly uy Wny f 71urhy Fn Ry
JQ R,., '?,_.., _ *A4T . 14..o1 w,4,giQ SI,, <-.< . a , r-,,q .g. t..














IG. 2: BAROMETRIC PRESSURE E GRAPH OF STORM. SEPTEMBER 17. 1947,
FORT LAUDERDALE. FLORIDA
IReproduced by permission. Motor Bot*tiit9 llnagaire


variation may be of importance for a building that is unusually well-sealed
against air leakage For example, if the building is sealed at normal baromet-
ric pressure before the storm arrives, a pressure difference causing outward
forces on the walls will exist when the low pressure center of the storm is
present at the building. If the building was sealed during the low pressure
period existing at the storm center, a force acting inward would be created
by the pressure differences existing after the storm center had passed on.
Inspection of the graph in Figure 2 shows that, during a time period of
four bours on Wednesday from 10:00 A.M. until 2:00 P.M.. the barometric
pressure dropped from 29.40 in. of mercury to 28 35 in. of mercury or a
differential of 1.05 in. of mercury, which is equivalent to a pressure of 74 lb.
per sq. ft. Assuming an impractical condition of a building closed airtight
at 10:00 A.M.. then four hours later the pressure differential between the in-
side and outside would be "4 lb. per sq. ft, acting outward, a value which
might cause failure of the building walls, depending on the type of construct
tion Most buildings are designed to stand wind loads of approximately 30
[b, per sq. ft. but here we have a pressure nearly two and one-half times as
great without any wind effect being considered. Fortunately most buildings
show considerable leakage, but this "exploding" effect due to barometric
pressure change undoubtedly has contributed to some building failures

Storm Damage:
Since e he hricaine winds blow in a circular path around the storm center
and since the center may or may not pass directly over the building locality,
it is possible that winds may blow from any direction. The building must,
therefore, be so designed as to enable it to withstand winds from any quarter.
It is not possible to orient the building so that the strongest side will face







the winds. During the passagIe of the ':orm the rnds may blow first from
one dir tion and then from the opposite dlrct'on as the storm center morcs
onrard.
The diln.mage taucid to small build l I Ii yL, O huih I locIti winds .iris 1<0l-
lderatbly, deplnding upon tit vi'r ill Ir ifltLr, o tihe btulding Aind lnh
degree of cpllsulrec of the la: tonl l ihr e ilililn, i site A lomnoin] linpe of
damage whitic occur to buildings f oun-sthur) Irame construction wvith
peaked rools is the removal of a large ire.e ol roof or the removal ol .n en-
tire roof as a single unit in buildings of poorly constructed concrete block
walls without proper supports and lils. It Ir common to observe damage in
which large ,all areas suffer colla! 't A considcrable amount of damage in
hiih vIldaity winds is caused bi flRying ddhris and other objits iAhich niay
have Ihecn blovn from surroundnl i biildiingi Canvas awnings ind lightly
consriruted oodeln a nnmgi ar pa.iriculiry Siluccpribl to destruction and
then auise further damage S hen carried by tilth ind. ultrmatcly striking
other buildings Builditne constructed of corrugated sheet metal which is
not securely fastened suffer ceeding pietle ol the roof antd .1ll ,he.illng. anti deposits them around
the adjacent countryside.
An e.xnipl ol t ul t Tye oI j iorn i dIamage i at did otXur to a small ron
crete-block-" all corrugated roof hangar is illustrated by Figures and
These pictures sho the removal of the roof structure a a unit and thi fail-
ure of the Ucncrete block wall It i interesting to note that fa ilrii of a
similar type hangar on the same airfield w as apparently prevented by vent.
ing the closed end of the hangar, Thiils was done As an emergency precau-
Lion during illt windstorm Tins vniing is sholun In Figure 5,








STjNcELA






rra-





FIG. 3- SMAII HANGARB OOF SET BACK DUE TO WIND. FRONT VIEW
ICourtesy C E Stengel
















-. -B44


FIG. 4: SMALL HANGAR ROOF SET BACK DUE TO WIND, SIDE VIEW
Cr IIIII. C E si,


FIG 5: EMERGENCY VENTING APPLIED TO END OF HANGAR
ICoinrTes C F. Stengel


I







SECTION II


AERODYNAMIC TESTS ON SMALL BUILDINGS


Building Models:

A series of wind tunnel tests on a s-lected group of small building
models .a. tondiutrd m the Aeronaurical Engineering Laboratory of the
Ulnner.il of l Ilor1 i to dlctermin th. r-atnt pressure dmistributuon otturring
on thi n.d'b at rollss i. indl dIrei.ions. Four typl-s of smai buidings were
selected and model of lthe, were constri utcd of aluminumm alloy sheet.
These ty�p., e'cr7: I. a buildl.ng with a pitched roof wi h normal caves; 2,
a buitldng illi a patrlicd rool \Iithout caves, 3, a building of rectangular
box-tyi-e L;ternor. and -1, a budding with a parapet wall. These are subse-
quentl) reitrd to .i Model Nc,. I . 2. 3. and 4. Eati budding model was


FIG. 6: WIND TUNNEL MODEL HOUSES. I.EF TO RIGHT, MODES NO.. 1. 2 4






































FIG. 7 UNFOLDED VIEW OF MODEL SHOWING STTITC PRESSURE HOLE LOCATIONS
AND REFERENCE NUMBERS


FIG. 8: SMALL BUILDING MODEL INSTALLED ON GROUND BOARD IN WIND TUNNEL






in-


* 4Ii


K K KY Xi


I


~1












I "


IJ


FIG. 10t RECIRCULATION WIND TUNNEL USED IN MODEL TESTS. WIND TUNNEL
(BELOW PLATFORM AND BALANCE SYSTEM (ABOVE)


L I"
M







equipped with 32 static pressure holes distributed over the outside surface
and connected to a multiple-tube manometer for measuring the pressure at
the static holes. A photograph of the four building models is shown as
Figure 6. A photograph of one of the buildings installed on the ground
plate i the wind tunnel is shown as Figure 8 In this figure the angular
position markings may be seen on the ground board. The machine screw-
heads are filled with wax to present a smooth surface to the air flow. This
filling does not show in the photograph due to the transparency of the wax.

Figure 9 shows a view of the installation of a model on the ground board
and the pressure tubes leading to the interior of the model and connecting
with the 32 stalki holes The location of 32 static holes an- their reference
numbers are shown in the 'unfolded view" of the model building in
Figure 7


Wind Tunnel:

The wind tunnel at tilh Universlty of Florida in which the tests were
conducted is an open throat recirculation type of tunnel with an IS x 30-1n.
test area. Figure 10 shows an overall exterior view of thls tunnel. The
glassed-in enclosure on the tpper level houses tle automatic( speed control
balance by which the air velocity during the test runs was held constant.


Test Procedure:

During all test runs the tunnel dclocity was maintained at 75 ft. per sec.
(51 mph). Each model was separately mounted on the ground hoard, the
pressure connections made and tests run at wind angles of 0. 30, 600 anod
90O, the angle being measured between the longitudinal axi; of the model
and the relative wind direction. These angles are clearly shown on each of
the charts.

The manometer readings during the test runs were recorded lihntographi-
ally and the information from the photographs was later transcribed into
data A photograph of the ualaniliter hoard during one of the runs is
shown as Figure 11. The end tubes were left open to the atmosphere and
serve as zero dalum plane reference tubes. Indications above the datum plane
are ncgamve and those below are positive

The transcribed dioa taken from photographs of the manometer board
were corrected for man'ometer iinination and for fluid densrlv, tabulated in
Tables II. Ill IV and V. and plotted an iharts showing plan an. cross-
(ection views of eah model building together with the wind direction
orientation, and li- relative pressure distribution at the static hole (inches
of water).







Chart Interpretation:


In Ii Inl pr cig ili- &t I lrbut ilton ol ( 1. Mind IIHtL Acilt" 0ing .. 1 biuldling
it i , n1ti s t.r to LO [l L l/. L il t hese torcel t.An be nL'glti] c s cl1 ,As poI'll i C
Posilit fort. arc lho'- p.hin: in on Ih, out.ll Itf ti li iitild n and
nlti.'ili t(irorI aI . ttil jpullin g out ( slllion) on ItI O n sit ol the build
lI I hlet for ' arLI mII.l'urdi w ii re lrtncie to ihc nDriitl atlmu. pherc. as
thi dJ.Lirim or rc trClf(l Tplan

PuitiL pr-'c urt are r prrcscni iJ on til diag.tl In } II (or . rrtIWS poUtinl-
ing Ii ) .Lrt [hc t fill I . 1l. I a1 ^ ' r n [pOSip i ci- ( ) } ilci AdaI c ni t to achil
arron. (Soni. ,.torI ar too alhort to licrm[t lho img tie .rrow head ).
\Lgii' irlr.sl .ir r r,'-c:!tdJ !h ;e.tor arro"t dirIit> out",ard fromn
th l Iln1i1dilT in1 dLl sI . I IL At J ,l . Oln ulmprined I th n .icati'i ( -) Si
Tle l- Lnth of the aFrro" rclprL-~ni tIL m.a nintid ut Il orti n .iI i11.it poinr.

ior the n lin.net of lhoIc not i.[LAiiltntedi witl dr.iftiig rcpresIntaltion, ti


4) I 2, I 7 '9 '.i l i 11 ii i in 2 I n j I u 7 2 il i u


BOARD SHOWING PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ON MODEL. END
TUBES ARE ZERO REFERENCE TUBES


(Table for this run may be found on page40)







dot-dash lines cutting across the plan views and labeled A-A, B-B, C-C,
D-D. and E-E. represent the cutting plane of the cross-section view. The
ano,, attached to the ends of the dot dash cutting plane lines represent
the direction of lewmng taken by the cross-section view. The views of
these cross sciL ons (or thin shtes) are shown n the figure immediately
below the plan views and .re correspondingly labeled A-A. B.B. etc., i.e. in
Figure 12. since the arrows on dot-dish line A-A point toward the top of
the page, the cross-section view labeled A-A is taken as looking toward the
top of the page at a thin section or slice cut from the plan view at the dot-
darh line labeled A-A.


Creation of Positive and Negative Pressures:

If no wind is present, the normal atmospheric pressure is exerted in-
ternally and externally on all four sides and on lhe roof of the building,
and the net force exerted on the building faces is zero. However, if a 51-
mph wind is blowing on the model, as in the tet runs, a positive pressure
abole aimospherti is cxrled uon thi c nd of the building directly facing the
wind in the test at 0. This is shown in Fgure 12 by the section views DD
and EE illustrating vector arrows on the right side of the building of large
magnitude and marked ( ) or positive This means that the wind force
is pushing that face of the wall inward This force is created by dynamic
impact, the wind velocity being reduced from its normal value to zero at
impact, in a fashion similar to reaching out your hand to stop a baseball and
feeling the impact force upon stopping it. the basic difference being that in
the case of the wind there are an infinite number of particles, each ne fol-
lowing the other, which strike the wall continuously, thus causing a con-
tinuous impact force rather than a momentary one as felt as with the baseball.

The wind striking the end of the building undergoes an abrupt change
in direction in its effort to pass over and around the building. This change
is so abrupt as to cause the wind to skip over most of the building surfaces,
not touching it until it again makes contact with the building at section CC
where the pressures are becoming positive. The areas of the building surfaces
which are being skipped by the wind are experiencing negative pressures
(see Sections A-A and B-B, Fig. 12). The creation of negative pressures in
this fashion is quite familiar to the aerodynamicist, for the majority of the
lift created by an aircraft's wing is due to the negative pressure existing on
the top surface

Likewise in the consideration of wind force on buildings t is the nega-
tive pressures which are the more important since they occur more frequency.
In the case of Model 1 at angles of 0)", 3 1, 60, and 90�, the percentage
of the number of negative pressures relative to the total were 51, 65, 59,







and 65 pet Lent res actively. The common frame residence is less able to
withstand negative forces than positive ones The outside sheathing under
positive pressure places no loads on the nailing, while negative pressure does
Positive roof pressures merely add to the gravity loads for which it is usually
designed and built, while negative loads are not ordinarily considered

Pressure Data and Charts for Model No. ):

A pressure distribution table and the pressure distribution charts for
building Model No. 1, which closely resembles a small residence, are shown
on the following pages in Table [1 and Figures 12, 13. 14, .nd 15 for
angles of 0', 300, 600 and 90� wind direction. Pressure distribution tables
and charts for building Model Nos . 2. and 4 will be found in the Ap-
pendix.









WIND 0


t- t
4 C-C -
I4 -i


D -----. D
E L--- --- -! E


:I I-.t


For th )' agle if incintliau.tin fthr h model. n lt the IluII pol.l.Ir prt,~ures on
thr windward end. the p.int of f6rt cl.in l wih [.l wind H igt.st negative pres-
ures ar created as rs AA and BB by the tLipping action with a1 return to near
normal plelsure at ectiliin CC and tll ice enid of tlr huiklini:


A-A








TABLE II


PRESSURE DATA

Model No. 1


RLt'
WIND ANGLE (dgIrecs,
VELOCITY (ft per see)
HOLE


(Peaked Roof with Eaves)
ONE TWO
I) 50

(Table values r1 irtnt p1i


THREE FOUR
60 90
', 5 '5
suiest, Incht of water)








WIND 30.


I A



ec


- t -


nunr0


At the ItI nglw for lit s.ippr.ichulfn wind. (tn air l~ w ,ncr ti. building i
.IS)rfinl,[IC r a . o.l titl riili *..ije if the crossctln i-' sh. p..is.t.. pr.e1 .
4 .f .ci..rs N.s t inu- ti..itnIt .f the rni4 .eltm, pr...'t re J Slribut '.n


c-e Ft


j o-� t==


- F:: � -







WIND 60


At the 60" ar lC, pois.tuL prcsiirct v ctlirs n the windwiarid ide wall are ap-
poa chihi nearly} maximum vaius. while positive pressures on the cn(s of the building
are reduced to low values as seen on the rihit ;d, ol sectLn news DD and EF


*;* I C 1 e-s~-C


j t:


S-~tr:










WIND 90�




A B 0







PLAN VIEW


D E








D E
PLald VIEW


FIGURE IS


At .1 0 wi"n .1n11,1 thL maximuin iP ive pre-teuris .ire inn nter l in th,
lmWt.1w ir ll 1 j ,il I'HIL ri fij " itn r11 c-ae h,. hilacnc > i ntrit.l .iI .'un. p i.,lui-
mIn nl Vi L Jillbtlllllil O' n lwgm'i.( press rl s the .iick (l CL') Jide .inI prdiuung
hil, n i-il i..uilni. prTi. lr..s ll t n cn w lls a-1 - , i.. h in sIcnoi DIu )D and EF


I~-~


S== E-






SECTION III


RECOMMENDATIONS



It is recommended that the construelion plans for small buildings be
very carefully examined to determine whether proper methods have been
provided for increasing the strength and resistance of the building against
wind damage Buildings however are constructedl to isithsrand forces of
gravity whether or not nind fortes are involved. Some of the recommenda-
tions given herein are for both gravity and tlnd loads In some cases the
character of the soil may necessitate an increase above the minimum dimen
sion of the footings mentioned below.

Recommendations for Frame Buildings:

In order to have the proper earth-bearing support. a minimum footing
lidth of 16 in and a minimum thickness of 10 in- is recommended (6)
The footngs should contain not less than two %/-in reinforcing bars, one
bar located in each of the lower corners of the footing 3 in. from the side
and bottom of the footing
If the building is to rest on piers, reinforced concrete piers of not less
than 12 x 2 in should be placed at all corners and should contain vertical
reinforcing steel* Pier footings should measure 20x 20 in. and be i0 in
thick Pier spacmg should be not less than 7 ft, on centers for one-story
buildings.
A wall supporting ill of not less than 4 x 6 in. should be bolted to the
piers and, if a sill joint occurs at a pier, each end should be secured. Not less
than l-mn. bolts embedded at least 7 in. into each pier should be used. Each
bolt should have a large flat washer under the head of the bolt for additional
retention in the concrete In the event a continuous foundation wall and
footing are used of poured concrete, sill bolts should be used at approxi
mately the same spacing,
Normal wall construction employing a 2 x 4-m. studding spaced on 16
in centers is deemed satisfactory All exterior walls should be thoroughly

iCiy of Minimi Buldding Code (6) specifies four %-tn. bars. thi pier bars pne-
r.ling into ili hI lin nIor less than 6 in. and hooked In the end








































STST
STUO--



FIG. 16 SUGGESTED HIGH STEtIGTH RAFTER NAILING

IFrum TrPhiuiqin of Hote" Nittlitrl. Frls-1 Pridurts Laboratory,
U S. F.orls ServIke)


Riafrrr n alin. Thl is ,i sug'estld framinn .hai provides
nuperi.Ir .si.ti.nct t, to' fares to which reporters .are subjected and,
wlhi the a.ldition If a st.ndrIl typt o rafter tic or colldr b~ln.
affirds a er, ublle.natil arrangiemcnt. 1 hei weight 4 lh roof is
arri-d in tlhe plil with the rafter placed dlrncrlv above ih stud
s Rafter tIneadid to pILton .sli[ oe triee'nriv .ail FIve tenpeiny
nils oln- /L. rafter and i i.t. c oiast and lsud, and. /, 'verlap of
ilttis Not ,n rust is rooted bv the , corlnecion If reft r to jist,
and the nalni IIf [he I~. . ' tohe f tu.d giv. resistanc to uplhft
Ribbhnl may b Ile into either lln iiutr or thie inner fdg, of stud































IG. 17h APPUCATION OF FRAMING ANCHOR TO EITHER CEILING JOIST OR RAFTE
Courtesv of Timber Enineering Co


o 0
0 0



SA AR

TYPE A ANCHOR


TYPE ANCHOR


O. 00I
TYPEL ANCHOR

TYPE ANCHOR


FIG. 18& VARIOUS TYPES OF Fa nraMNG ACHOS
(Courtesy of Timber Enemneering Co i







and effectively angle-braced, and if sheathing is used it should be applied
diagonally

All wooden floor joists should be firmly nailed or attached to the sill
wish a lost an.ior for the ttrachment of each second Joist,

Roof rafters should be spaced on 16-in. centers and firmly nailed to ceil-
ing foists and plate, and at least each second rafter should be anchored to
the plate with an approved metal type anchor. The use of A" type braces
and diagonal anchoring braces running from the center of the rafter span
to the ceiling joists underneath is to be recommended.

Roof coverings should be securely fastened to the sheathing. In the case
of roll rooing " - I that the edges he doubly secured since this is
the place that . - loose first. Other types of roofing may require
special fastening (consult References page o50)

It is possible to secure greater strength in framing Loin[s between joists
and beams, and between iafters to plates. plate to studs. etc. by the proper
use ou improved nailing techniques and by the use or various types of tram-
ing anchors, Figure 16 illustrates superior methods of rafter nailing. Typical
types of framing anchors and their application are shown in Figures 1 / and
18 (opposite) The basic principle of operation of the framing anchor is
to utilize the full strength of nais in shear rather than their withdrawal re-
sistance. These framing anchors arc made in a variety of shapes sufficient to
meet the usual applications in normal framing. The additional cost of the
framing anchors is neglgible lwhen compared with the total cost of the
stru ture.


Recommendations for Concrete Block Buildings:

The footings for concrete block buildings should have a minimum cross
e.otion of 20 x 10 in. in thickness provided the bearing strength of the soil
is adequate and shall contain not less than two 5/ -in. reinforcing bars (6).
All exterior concrete block should show an average compressive strength in
pounds per square inch gross cross-sc.tional area of 700 psi for 1/4 in. (or
mote) shell thickness and 1.000 psi for shell thickness less than 1� in.
Water absorption during a 24-hour immersion test should not exceed 10
per cent as an additional measure of the soundness of the concrete.

Concrete used in concrete block buildings should possess a minimum
strength of 2.000 psi. Concrete columns should he placed at all corners of
the building and should provide additional support to side walls by their
employment at not greater than 20 ft. spacin!ts. Theec concrete columns






should contain at least four gV-mn vertical rods with 12 in spacing used on
14-in. tits. The minimum inmiensions of sucl columns should bc 8x 12 in.
The concrete columns should Ix poured with the ends of the spandrel wall
sections acting as the forms in order to provide adequate bond to the blocks
(6). Vertical steel bars should be located in corners. but at least 2 in from
outside surfaces.

In order to provide continuous horizontal reinforcement of the top peri-
meter of the walls, an 8 12-in tie-beam reinforced with four %5nm. rods
should be placed in all masonry walls below each tier of floor or ceiling
joists or on top of the walls to form a coping. The horizontal reinforcing
bars should he located in the corners of the tie-beam and at least 2 in. from
the outside surface. The wooden roof and selling construction for concrete
block buildings should follow the general recommendations as outlined for
frame buildings, but should employ roof and ceiling joist anchors which are
embedded in the tie-beam during its construction


Additional Recommendations:

For buildings which are located in areas frequented by storms associated
with high velocity winds, it is recommended that each building be provided
with suitable storm shutters for the protection of glass window, and doors
wbtlch might be broken by flying debris or by direct wind pressure or suction.
It is recommended that these storm shutters be substantially constructed to
withstand the wind pressure (equivalent to a force of at least 30 Ib. per sq.
ft. both inward and outward). Such shutters should be made to be easily
and firmly attached to the building at the desired place.

These shutters should be plainly marked as to their place of installation
and should be so stored that they can be installed promptly on short notice
of an impending storm. Several commercial varieties of combination rigid
awnings and storm shutters are available. This type of unit which serves
the dual purpose of sun and storm protection has advantages, provided that
it can be easily operated during the conversion from awning to shutter, and
provided that its attachment to the building is secure.

Awnings of the canvas type should preferably be removed from the
building before the advent of a storm or if this is not feasible such awnings
should be securely fastened in a closed condition so that the wind cannot
unfurl them.







Summary:


The damage to buildings resulting from a storm is quite varied depending
on the degree of exposure of the site and on the ty)pe of construction em
played n the souiluu.e, Rol losses ate quite common due to the negative
pressures created by thrl wind in passing over the building
The series of wind tunnel tests and the charts plotted from these tests
show the importance of tonidlering neganve pressures which are more
prevalent than positive pressures. Wind tunnel tests on building Model 1
show maximum negative pressures on the roof when the wind is blowing
directly on lf. end of the building
These recommendations for sound wind-resistant construction of frame
and concrete block buildings are believed to be economical measures relative-
ly iasy to ncorporate in plans for a new building. Unfortunately, it is not
usually possible to incorporate these strengthening recommendations in
buildings already constructed However, in some cases roof rafters may be
accessible for anchoring, and in many cases porch columns are sufficiently
exposed to allow tie-down anchors to be installed Each case needs to be
indisldually examined for is possibilities.
Sonnd construction should incu'll- rnnslderat. ion of the following:*
(1) Size and reinforcement of foundation and piers.
(2) Adequate connections between foundation and sills.
(3) Anchoring of roof and ceiling framing to side walls.
(4) Secure attachment of roof coverings and sidings.
(5) Concrete and masonry block strength
(6) Provisions for vertical columns and tic-beams for hollow wall
structures.
(7) Provisions for plate attachment bolts or roof and ceiling oist
anchors in the pouring of tie-beams in exterior masonry walls
(8) Installation of shutters to cover glass windows.










*7 i '1i' odes must be fokiwed and may include many items nut specially
- bulletin, The prospective builder should always consult his local
building code hefure proceeding with any plan.,











APPENDIX


Included in the Appendix are the pressure distribution data and charts
for three small buildings of types other than that of the conventional small
residence which has been previously considered. The model test results pre-
sented here are for Model No,. 2 3. and t. These may be briefly described
as a peaked roof house without cavc, a rectangular box-shaped building,
and a rectangular building vith parapet walls, respectively.

In order to measure the small pressures exerted on the static holes of the
model, a multiplying manometer of the inclined type was used in which the
.nanomcter tubes vcire inmined it an angle of 19- to the horizontal The
liquid used consisted of ethyl alcohol (fluid density 0 807 gr/cc.) colored
with gentian violet to producer a dark color in the photographs All figure
in the pressure tables are static pressures at the respective holes measured in
inches of ~atcr and ha~e been iorrected for nmanumeter board inclination
ind for alcohol deniiml

1 he uwind tIunnl vcloi) 1 as n maintained at 75 ft per set (51 mph)
during all runs The dimensions of the models were ridth, 7 in., length.
I in height to roof line i in The models with peaked roofs had roof
slopc of one to two ( i0) The static pressure hole were ol No 60 drill
S17e









TABLE III


PRESSURE DATA

Model No 2

(Peaked Roof - No Eaves)


RUN
WIND ANGLE (dczr~e)
VELOCITY (fi per c )
HOLE
I
2


5
6
7
8
9
to
10
II
12
IH
15

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
231
24

26
27
28
29

il
10
11
i


IWO
rwo

- il







- 0l 1

- 0,14
0,54

+ 0.34
+ 021
-U.08
-0.18

- 0.52
4- 0.4

-0,16
+ 0. 13
-0.26
-0.10
-0 39
- 0 ;o

- 0,3-
- (1 15
- 0.13
- 0.18
� t6
+1 26
+ 122
+ 0o "
+ ).�9


THREi-
60
-1
prcssilrcs, indlCIe oI

+ 1.26
+ 1.12
0- 52
+ tl I


- 0.29
- U.29
+ 0 97
+ 0.89
-065

- 0. 1



-0.39
- 037
- 0..i3
+- 0,57

- 0.15
-0.10






- 0.26
0- 2

+ -12

- 0. 1
0 U.1



































A ~ iA 8 ' -a + JC-C [ -
r *


DE - - -f3E


?. :E VIE












FIG. 19 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 2. WIND DIRECTION 0



































_ -- - C-C


+
+


IG. 20: P URSSmE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 2. WIND DIRECTION 30








WIND 60'


n~tB: S~:


E
UPL VIEW


FIG. 21: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 2. WIND DIRECTION 60
38


f' �T t:


I~-�F. :








WIND 90


PLAN VIEW


BRL CC--^<


E-E


FIG 22 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO 2. WIND DIRECTION 30


:- -D








TABLE IV


PRESSURE DATA
Model No. I


(Rectangular House - No Eaves or Parapet)
RUN ONE TWO THREE FC
WIND ANGLh (degrees) 0 30 60
VELOCITY (ft. per -ect) 5 75 15
HOLE (Table values are stati pressures, inches li water)










WIND O-


PLAN vrEW



A- A 1 1 t i 4-
f C-C


__ E


+4D +
+ 47-


rIG. 23: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 3. WIND DIRECTION 0


FE- E
EEp





















AA
-_ ^ +


+~L~


O\DE



E


E- E


FIQG 24: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 3. WIND DIRECTION 0
















-.0
/ NC
/
A
B
C


-~-~4-


8-B~--: ~~ C--C












A 8 C


I^H


r-flIT


FIG. 26 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 3. WIND DIRECTION 90


_iL-~i_~ f I i i
I n-a I~ I B-8 _I O-C L-









TABLE V


PRESSURE DATA

Model No. 4

(Rectangular House with Parapet)


RUN
WIND ANGLE (Jdegres)
VELOCITY (ft. per sec)
HOI.E
1
2
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32


ONE
(I
75
(Table values
-0.66
- 060
- 0.52
-0.52
-0.58
- 0.60
--0.68
-0 -I

-0.60
-063
- 0.60
-0o0
-060
-- 0.60
- 0.50
-0.45
+ 0.03
+ 0.05

- 0.05
+ 0.10
+01;
+0.10
+0.08
+ o.o3


+0,10
+ 1.1S
+:1 15
+ 1.16
+ 1.il
+ LLs


THREE
60)
75
pressure, inches of

+ ll,2
+ 1.1,
06�
-061

- 0.3-
--0.-I
-0,12
+ 0.97
+ 0.89
- 0 50
-0.58
-0.58
-0.47
-0. O1-
-0.51
+ 0.55
+ 0.68
-045
- 0.45
-0.42
-045
- 0.34
- 0.51 I
-0.21
--0.24
- 026
- 0.26
+0.34
+0 37
+ 0,08
+- (l,0


























- i- I-


E -- -- D
E - -__ -- E


: D--D : E- E


FIG. 27: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO 4 WIND DIRECTION 0








I WIND 30


AA ~x


D

D


FIG. 2I: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHART FOR MODEL NO. 4, WND DIRECTION 3S























i t-- j


- w--Z


E
PL.A V'E


-: -- - :t


E- E +






































-~Th:


FIG. 30 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION CHAfT FOR MODEL NO 4 WIND DIRECTION 90


~~ A-A +







BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
I. An.hoirge for Fa/nr, Roofs. Bul. 7.1i, Assoc. Factory Mutual Fire
Ins. (o.
2. Building ChI /fo the Ci) of Lakel.nd. Flouda Ordinance No 617.
Office of the Building Inspector, City of Lakeland, Fla (1941)
3 Building Crde of the City of Aiag Belcb. Building Department. City
of Miami Beach, Fla. (1949)
4. BiUding Code. Ci) of OrLando. Flhda, Office of the Building In
spector. Orlando, Fla. (1911)
5 Binding Regtaitiiur f ithe City of lacksoniiile. Floida. Supervisor of
Building, Jacksonville, Fla. (1941)
6. C)y of Aliti. Bn,,ding. Code Book, Office of the Building Inspector,
City of Miami, Fla. (19-19)
SC)clo i Storli. Pilot Chart Central American Waters, No 3500.
C.A W. Sept. 1942, Hydrographic Office. U. .S Na'y
8. Dryden H. L. and Hill. G. C.. 1'ind Pre,..ue on a AIMoe of tie LEm
p e State B..dinwe. Researh Paper No. 5-I5, N. B. S.
9. Easchsbart, 0:; abstr. cransi Iinmd Pre inre on BuIldings. I934. p.
58-. A S.M.E.
10. Facor) Rof' Need Anchirge. Bul. 7.10, Assoc. Factory Mutual Fire
Ins Co.
I Fleming, R . ii sad Sirtres in Bnldinigs. John Wiley & Sons.
12. Forest Products Laboratory, Tethgique of Holte Nailing. U. S. Forest
Service, U S. D, A Superintendent of Document. U. S Government
Printing Office.
13 Ilnion .aei Brace MAlethd of l'iood I'Frame Con ,nl, 'j, Adv Bul
Structural Specialties. Inc.. Wevt Palm Beach, Fla.
1-i In-rivane M\ ,ej, Weather Bureau Training Paper No. I, July 1948
15, "Hurricane Season Leases 100 Million Loss in Wake," Miamn Herold
Nov. 25. 1947.
16. "The Hurraane That Side-Stepped," FIrt'or A�uinal Record. November
19-4.
17 Rathburn. J. C.: "Wind Forces on Tall Buildings," Tras.. A.S.C.E.
Paper No. 2056.
18. Rees. J H.: Flmnidia' Gieatl Hallncane, University of Florida Library,
F361.5 R39fl., 1926.
19 Riehl, H. and Shafer, R J., "The Recurvature of Tropical Storms,"
Meleirologiical Jofrna. Sept. 1944.
20. Roof Cor'evingi, Wind Damage and Repair, Bul. 7.40, Assoc. Factory
Mutual Fire Ins Co.
21. Spur., H V.: Wind Bracing McGraw-Hill Book Co.
22. Sylvester, H. M ; A is lveiltgation of Pre.riner and Vacra PRodnced
on Sltraures by 11"hid. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Engineering
and Science Series. No. 31.
23 Sylvester, H. M.; l\iFnd Loadi on Air rip lHitga. paper. Aern. meet-
ing. A S M.E. lune 1932.
24. Tannerhill. I. R.: H,,irianet, Princeton Univtsity Press. 1945.
25. T.co Trip-L-Gtp Frnm nuig Anchor. Adv. Bul., Timber Engineering
Co., Washington. D. C.
26. Il"ind Prreie on a t Mlodel of a A1Md Bnilling. Research Paper No. 301L
N. B. S.








PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA ENGINEERING

AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Bulletin Series

As I'1jni as th<' tuilpi[ l-t .IIIad IuJ e t�orpl. u ri f "1 s tioni � pu tl'' litten1! aire r e fo'r s vn'ri.. l di*
setiLI'atirL n im hi taitm> of t-'[orl*d!i Pti'iuh tionllu markud wsllli an Haitertk (*I lItiin lWeei withdrat~tn
Inreii llir frn- list. -.lthiiin:h ttI- rhasisr many l- iiidnam in Hit r-[tf onf putilil. ..nd fistl-iiilil
iI.llnt icr. BUlI an Ialtliieii ritinnrbl aIstre-s- ;inl sltlllatcal 1V.-!-ies. I.n.*nai idrsa il rai tsiin
1" Th+ Dillrtor. 1-"ill lll.-Iilr FvmifK -m(il 1) limmllhil B]ieriment ailtI. Gainlille il
M 1 S 1*rh Mlageiin: Sitatiliin .in Floritl.i." I1 1, Illuir L Sa1 HI-r
X(*. J Tthc Ciretriis l (ninrtry i n l'lfirlila." lay Jloili W Wilso]
j.? THe Li- 1-ti 1in r 'j'i'ii | R in^-= Ii M aIlI.= "T Afl i llt il[ I! ,' 1- . �.,-l- \,1 A, Indl
Wa1dne ol1rn i
\ii I '^tuldy isf Th-w.H i tton s -i[ [>n>[.irsi ll.'in'li Flur iKi midn Vislnlit ' h W W

N. . '� l " linall IirIt r1r Ih1 Il zsiH ond Oper,-miin of Air ({naidlri4 iri ritettis in Flnorid.
by>- N. C 1: mfit5 tiri ;. .' fi...tl.
Yes 1. *'IrTI f-tiK iiifmint- frlio Snr Trn|'i-il -i[ em l a nd i1- I'f r i1 Lu'Tinigii Eh- >IIJ|IIIII
II n dhe ilt .r.nin..." . S. P RiuIIf .l. i JI .li ... Il.
X" T ".Line lic.k ''-IHrrl---'�rt * Il )htrri 1 10irtmF itnet lill A MBOlyll
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N** 1:; "'K urit^isrinf. iul Irivinu'riil Itefir .M I, 1 111- ' i- tfif1x aii fm l itln in .h.. .i.th. 1. I 1' thi,

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No. H!-I titi [t iwh rotrMsn aiiid )ip n Vioridn " liy H1 -, ilan-sen.

N, IT V'orrwi-dl . I.uII .1 16> A 1o CI-1--ir
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hri'�naorTl b? Ihr <'lil Aiiiin*unnrt Sen'llon
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*'.rs r! [Willdh Ns' 2� "revi $13)l" ritrl

51







Technical Paper Series

1 "IItiali o ill Snri o r Syd1ldi uiftur TrIuO.t"In -Water." ty Rlalph A MArlt
- "Thr ITh(ul .1ll saf 1yvf.-, Irl"-. Ind T.tr .l.t.I Il..'," h1 - llan th A .I.r..I Bti
It d owrt [.. Aiii -
J"-il lln-d.i Litrn* IItIj ic u in Adrtmil im*P in \11in>'1ti IIHI r�'Ouriv ' l'> HInir HI U lnuattei
iiml Rtlnl|> A Mmeciin,
I. -Ini- tt, (11-1- iOnd Siid - " to), W illliu 1). Ali.,
. " Oliliil rill Cairrriinle fil CI I� ti-nhllill) I'm'ilr i lll.. Arnvil> (rireflebani CI-nrMn. 1)
1it A Mltl nnd J II, Clilld
- '1r1t, I<-lIn is 1-i-r," 1>, W 11llirr nT Tif in
I -Ti riitri d ...I 1 liin r l,- l i All l l i- 11,--Ity IO A -1ri"n "d Iz I-
�\ nlker, Jr
8 "Par n tin r..ll.e fo (| Spuhwrti *tiii Hr'.mniriih ." Ti .lith A Mora'rsr
is * r<]nervaioln of Muiwilrml Wnat-r Kiiiiilldie te Air-<'iniirtHHingi Synteri� " 1bi N r
Khaulmh
II-, "lrdi dn rb - nil. .... .l 0 Iirr'e r1.f A1Brl^Ml Vflli.n ' tiy it. -, 1.>ld)rioo 1l d
11 11 M.y
if "Irm inli I. frron Wiflt iWllnl li)i|uar.- le Ianllin A. Alt H eri ""rd ariirt r)
Walk"r, Jlr
S I1.*l -t if Ol ..tur 11 `0- 1.111 C!,OIi lvt1 lo t ieak n r .1 1 l MA1 k 1 T lrdtr.
]'! 'Innti~ '$t'latB o W Ire Bhriwtitiiii l''tlrc[!''rii>-'i.' In a, S. P.10ekl
I tI. "PrIrOirtlea of l.i�ilrrI-k I-niirrrt, by Mnrk T1nr
1ii Sirni. "lik a 1i) il|it]I�I lll>>|liiMinrel rr Cl]]tiall(. 1.1 H N- 5, niXderw�i l amI]


I1 *llldO.-iimfuieI, - *l. m andi i.r. ," ry 0 - d. I 4h".l
IS P arr1iin l.ln.rstonc nir 11 iP int li;lilrsita." 1.) A I- Ir ine.l 11.1 la( i Tliiir
11' * lifnr id Il it'. (' < 2]it li S y ink.
i1. " _Rditiul T1 :kttI Tillis *n lni.il l-id l I.ti.r1t IIi .i..dnn 0* -- i .. IIitr
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: 1 - 11ipih tlnrr M.. lMl I rll.1 Ter. ,iil.t, ' 11y 1 Mllii14 .1 KKni.rr-


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X.,w Seti.- d Piilla Pnoitdit fur T r-in-nl. H-tvi.rri, l[iliuerlin," lby ChlPnris h
chitt1irh wl r I'd WiUtrlr J l'rsk, .'r
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A.- 1 -1ai -ir t.n I -'iIIII I 1rforliln't i It n |it.i ' I) N - I.1 A13ksl-
31 "Minsiutrlf irr of Sanidln-.inir ilrwld. ' lir tt'" lI TAnrr
I?' "rldtadul ion - IIur 101liTnt rl bitll.1IEnc ilrirk LiIt* in PhLrid." hy 0I Tynbr Mlnl

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lihrer."* 1? Minh Tyinr
:; **Itearewiie' In dieI I'lrd rliton "f thiniii Niiinl 31tirr�." I� 11illon n, Ttshlric mid tlU rl1
W llnrney,


Leaflet Series

I IT drt.. -A VN, I"11-li.l- hl Atl-k Ty-.r.
2 Th� H1nl 11TiII-TIh C1ir:. Il0iO lnmI .. Vi.rf.Vu�f <-intem, '" 1t , . I� lior-lh
- I *New I'Sfolr lForlii IJllirileralrr ' hi ]lui- Tyreita.
1- - 1- 111d. I.Inn Oc � Old d. T.ndI
t " .*t .In.ir l 1T.l�iM for idil:ddd riH In ).rt dn i rd FI Il W- rl. Wailkr. r.
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S *Ten f SO r . ilr,,d l Nfrt h111111n1- AfiIti1lti liiI,'t," 1, . S. Utirk
7 '"Advtrtvn-i"i." In Ttiinher .1Mn 1aliileB u 'A- Iroo/il ,1, IlllluTI~l.
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II **Llathitw ll-bl p ..i-rret Agi rrmal> frnimi Pl'lrl listed Wa e." I nl A, >" (Irciiveii-Waker
and 1 1l Tnmr1-,
i" -*C-urnrali Itenwili m 111r lO'lortilnd .ri ril lit aii. l Indut Ari ,t Enieire l SIatim-."
din A. II K..i..iil.




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