INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Bulletin Series No. 49
at the UNIVERSITY
PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA ENGINEERING
AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
As long as the supply is adequate, single copies of Station publications are free for general
distribution in the State of Florida unless otherwise indicated. Publications marked with an as-
terisk (*) are out of print or have been withdrawn from the free list, although the charge may be
waived In the case of public and semi-public agencies, such as libraries, research bureaus, and
technical societies. Please address all requests to: The Director, Florida Engineering and In-
dustrial Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
No. 1. "The Mapping Situation in Florida," by William L.
No. 2. "The Electrical Industry in Florida," by John W.
No. 3. "The Locating of Tropical Storms by Means of
Associated Static, by Joseph Well and Wayne Mason.
No. 4. "Study of Beach Conditions at Daytona Beach, Flori-
da and Vicinity," by W. W. Fineren.
No. 5. "Climatic Data for the Design and Operation of Air
Conditioning Systems in Florida," by N. C. Ebaugh
and S. P. Goethe.
No. 6. "On Static Emanating from Six Tropical Storms and
Its Use in Locating the Position of the Disturbance,"
by S. P. Sashoff and Joseph Well.
No. 7. "Liame Rock Concrete- Part I," by Harry H. Houston
and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 8. "An Industrial Survey of Hides and Skins in Florida,"
by William D May.
No. 9. "Studies on Intermittent Sand Filtration of Sewage--
Part I," by D. L. Emerson, Jr.
No. 10. "Florida Spray Gun for Pine Tree Gum Flow Stim-
ulatibn," by Norman Bourke and Keith W. Dorman.
No. 11. "Development of Ceramic Compositions Suitable for
the Production of Porcelain Type Artware," by B, W,
No. 12. "Mold and Mildew Control for Industry and the Home."
by S. S. Block.
No. 13. "Engineering and Industrial Research at the Unver-
sity of Florida."
No. 14. "Reverse Cycle Refrigeration for Heating in the
South," by S. P. Goethe.
*No. 15. "Analysis of the Two Span Rigid Frame Highway
Bridge," by C. D. Williams.
1 "Beach Erosion Studiesin Florida," by H. J. Hansen.
No. 17. "Corrosion Studies," by A. L. Kimmel.
No. 18. "Domestic Solar Water Heating in Florida," by
Harold M Hawkins.
No. 19. "Proceedings of the First Annual Florida Highway
Conference," May 12-13, 1947, sponsored by the
Civil Engineering Section.
'No. 20. "The Sanitary Research Laboratory of the Univer-
sity of Florida," by D. L. Emerson' Jr., and Earle
No. 21. "Investigation on Dehydration of Tung Nuts," by
James T. Leggett and Seymour G. Gilbert
*No. 22. "Proceedings of the Second AnnualFlorida Highway
Conference," May 31-june 1, 1948,sponsored by the
Civil Engineering Section,
No. 23. "Subsurface Sewage Disposal," by John E. Kiker, Jr.
*No. 24. "Proceedings of the First Surveying and Mapping
Conference," October 22-23, 1948, sponsored by
the Civil Engineering Section-
No. 25. "Report on Limerock Research--1941-1948," by
C. D. Williams and Mack Tyner.
*No. 26. "Proceedings of the First Annual Public Health Con-
ference," Nov. 12-13, 1948, sponsored by the Civil
*No. 27. "An Evaluation of Sunniland Crude Petroleum,"by
H. E. Schweyer and C. H. Edwards,
*No. 28. "Protection of Small Buildings Against High VelocAt3
Winds," by R. A. Thompson.
*No. 29. '*RadarObservation of Florida Hurricane, Aug. 26-27
1949,'" by M. H. Latour and D C, Buntlng.
No. 30. "The Development of a Structural Clay Products aI-
dustry Using Florida Clays; Part I, The Jacksonvillt
Area," by A F. Greaves-Walker, P. P. Turner, ant
R. S. Hagerman.
*No. 31. "Proceedings of the Third Annual Florida Highway
Conference," May 9-10. 1949. sponsored by theCivE
-No. 32. "Phosphate Waste Studies," by R. C. Specht.
*No. 33 "Proceedings of the Second Surveying and Mapping
Conference," Oct. 6-7, 1949, sponsored by the Civil
No 34. "Stream Sanitation in Florida." by E B. Phelps and
D. E. Barry.
No, 35. "Proceedings of tne Second National Public Health
Conference," Nov. 18-19, 1949, sponsored by the
Civil Engineering Department.
No. 36. "Properties of Plain and Reinforced Limerock Con-
crete," by S. L. Bugg and D. A. Firmage.
No 37. "Proceedings of the First Structural Engineering Con-
ference," March 3-4, 1950, sponsored by the Civil
No. 38. "Research for the Pulp and Paper Industry in the
South," by the Chemical Engineering Department.
No. 39. '-Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Florida High-
way Conference, May 11-12, 1950, sponsored by
the Civil Engineering Department.
*No. 40. "Preservation of the Color and Shape of Flowers,"
by R. C. Specht. ($1.00)
No. 41. "Second Short Course in Industrial Instrumentation,"
Sept. 11-13, 1950. sponsored by the Chemical Eng-
No. 42. "Tlurd National Public Health Engineering Confer-
ence," Oct. 23-24, 1950, sponsored by the Civil
No. 43. "Precooling of Citrus Fruits," by J T, Leggett and
G. E. Sutton.
No. 44. "Proceedings of the Third Annual Surveying and
Mapping Conference," Nov. 15-16, 1950, sponsored
by the Civil Engineering Department.
No 45 "Florida Hurricanes of 1950," by D. C. Bunting,
R. C. Gentry. M. H. Latour, and Grady Norton.
No. 46. "The Development of Lightweight Aggregate from
Florida Clays," by A. F. Greaves-Walker, S. L.
Bugg, and R. S. Hagerman.
*No. 47. "Proceedings of the SecondAnnual Structural Engi-
neering Conference," March 16-17, 1951, spon-
sored by the Civil Engineering Department.
*No. 48. "Radiological Health and Civil Defense,"--Fourth
Annual Public Health Conference," March 27-30,
1951, sponsored by Civil Engineering Dept. ($1.00).
No. 49. "Research at the Engineering ana Industrial Ex-
ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
bulletin Series No. 49
Decemb er, 1951
Published monthly by the
FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMlNT STATION
College of Engineering * University of Florida 0 Gainesville
tle' r~d us se ",nrI-riti''s rniffer a. dhP Pos ' o is i tirs IIe, Fir rzd,
This bulletin is published to give information to the people of Florida per-
taining to the work of the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, and
particularly to discuss research conducted during the past five years - thereby
supplementing Bulletin No. 13, issued in 1947. The Engineering and Industrial
Experiment Station has kept pace with the growth of the College of Engineering
and the fast-growing industries of the State. Many new facilities for conducting
research in engineering and industrial problems have been added.
The Station has received the cooperation of many governmental agencies and
industrial organizations. It is an aim of this bulletin to stimulate wider interest
in the research opportunities offered by the Station.
ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
a dwaiw. f wt4e
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
On May 13. 1929, the State Board of Control approved
an Engineering Experiment Station, but no funds for its
operation were appropriated. In 1941 the Florida En-
gineering and Industrial Experimrnt Station was created
by legislative action as a division of the College of
Engmincrmg at 1thL UiU.rsiti of Florida. Prior to this
time six Station bulletins had been issued, and research
was being done by staff members. particularly in the
fields of electronics and on the utilization of the natural
resources of the State. Grants totaling S5,000 had been
received from the Florida Limerock Association. During
that period the studies on storm location, later called the
science of "Sferics," and the research on electronic in-
strumnntation gained national recognition for the
The war years gave an opportunity to the Station to
render invaluable services to this country's war effort.
Its contribution was measured in lives saved as well as in
dollars. Since the end of World War II, the College of
Engineering has been materially expanded, tunsequently
the Station is now in a much better position to fulfill its
responsibilities to the citizens of Florida and to the Na-
tion at large,
The Station has some of the best equipped research
laboratories in the South-including extensive machine
shops, heavy duty testing equipment; pilot plants for
sewage disposal studics and pulp and paper research;
irst-rate facilities for research in electronics, air-condition-
ing, and refrigeration. Among the areas under investiga-
tion arc mdustrial wastes and by-products. elvctroio in-
strumentation; dcvelojpment of new industrial products
from farm and forest, petroleum, and solar energy
utilization, Research findings are incorporated into the-
three series of Station publications.
The Station is an integral part of the College of En-
gineering; it is the research branch of the College, ad-
ministering the atademk. industrial and government-
sponsored research in the College. The current annual
budget of the Station is approximately $750,000. Appro-
priations from the State of Florida for research constitute
approximately 25 per cent of this sum, anti the remaining
75 per cent tomes from other sources-such as industrial,
foundation, and Federal Government sources.
The functions of the Station may be enumerated as
follows: (1) to develop the industries of Florida by or-
ganizing and promoting engineering research; (2) to sur-
vey and evaluate the natural resources of the State: (3) to
aid governmental, industrial and technical organizations in
the solution of industrial and engineering problems; (4)
to aid in the educational process by training students in
the methods of research, and (5) to publish and dis-
seminate information concerning the results of research and
In pursuing these objectives, the Station has established
the following general principles:
1. Research projects to assist industry in the State of
Florida, or for developing the State's natural re-
sources, may be undertaken and supported with
public funds, provided the funds are available.
2. Research projects for sptcfit purposes may be- con-
ducted for individuals, industries, or other State
agencies through contract in aiordanca with the
contract form approved by the Attorney General of
3. The Station will not render professional engineering
services whih normally can be obtained through
the professional engicners of the State.
M* he approved contract form is similar to tie type usually
offered by nonprofit research laboratories. It provides for
wo rik te done at cost including tenical assistant ce (sal-
aies, labor); equipment (materials and supplies); travel;
overhead, and service for supervision and use ot University
equipment and facilities. Pmvision is made for special equip-
ment to b~ p-.thiascd ur faticated by the University for dihe
conroactotr. Regular progress reports,option lor renewal of con-
racts, and tar parent potecdion are provided (ot. Copies of
the contract foi. will be sent upon reqjest tn tie lt)rector,
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, UniveArty of
Fblrida, Gainesville, t'londa.
4. The Station will not do routine testing which nor-
mally can be done by the commercial laboratories of
5. The Station solicits inquiries of all kinds of a
tcchnial nature. The inquirer will be advised of
existing atilable information. If the information is
not available, a suggested program to obtain the
desir'.d information may be proposed.
As the rescarnh division of the College of Engineer-
ing, the Station i, .utnt in all of the departments-Aero-
nautital, ChenmiL.l. Cill, Electrical, Engineering Mechan-
is., Industrial and Mtchanical Engineering. Experimental
research problems concerning Agricultural Engineering
may be undertaken with the cooperation and use of the
fatlines of the College of Agriculture. The staffs of each
department arc as much a part of the teaching division a
of the experiment station. There is no distinction between
staff members who do full-time research, full-time teach,
ing or. as in the majority of cases, those, whn divide
their time between the two fields.
At the present time the College of Enginering full-
time ;taff of 193 is composed of 122 professional staff
members holding academic rank and 71 non-professional
technicians, clerks, secretaries and stenographers. In ad-
dition approximately 85 graduate and undergraduate stu-
dents arc employed part-time as research assistants on
Graduate Program. The graduate school program at the
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station offers re-
search assistantships to students working toward advanced
degrees in engineering. These students may select certain
phases of Station projects that meet thesis reuarements.
Appointments anr made for one year and are available
in the following fields of engineering: aeronautical, chem-
ical, civil, electrical, engineering mechanics. industrial,
mechanical, pulp and paper, electronics, naval stores mech-
anization, non-metallic minerals, and public health as
well as in other areas of engineering. Assistantships usu-
ally allow from 1/2 to /4 graduate credit and the Master's
degree may be .obtained in any department in 12 to 24
months, depending on the individual and the research
load, The PhID degree is awarded in Chemical and Elec-
Students are encouraged to do graduate work at the
Station on Florida problems. As a result the State's in-
dustries have a pool of trained personnel with advanced
degrees on which to draw who are familiar with Florida's
problems. These people should become the future leaders
in those industries.
The advantage to industry in conducting research at a
university is that the persons who ate engaged on the
program have available for consulting services the whole
staff of the University. In many cases it is possible for a
company to sponsor a research program that would be of
value to a graduate student for thesis purposes. This pro-
cedure accomplishes the double objective of helping a
worthy student receive an advanced degree as well as
accomplishing the research program in an economical
The following arc typical of Station projects which
offer thesis material: Effect of High Velocity Wind and
Rain on Building Components; Momentum and Heat
Transfer to Particles in Gas Streams; Sodium Sulphide in
Kraft Pulping; Effect of Temperature in Mass Transfer;
Studies on Dissolving Pulps from Florida Hard Wood;
Electrostatic Separation of Minerals; Work Simplification
and Standardization; Strength of the Bond Formed By
Casting Metals to Their Refractory Coatings, and Solar
Heating of Homes.
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D. (Columbia), LL.D., Lict.D., L.H.D.
Joseph Weil, M.S. (Pittsburgh)
Ralph A. 'lorgen, Ph.D. (Californmia)
Walter I1. Beisler, D.Sc. (Princeton)
Ralph W. Kluge, M.S.C.E. (Illinois)
lterwin J. Larsen, Ph. ). (Iowa)
Earl P. Martinsan, MA. (Nebraska)
John C. Reed, M.E. (Ohio)
William L. Sawyer, M.S. (Florida)
Robert A. Thompson, M.S. (Florida)
Rachel Altertson. 8.A. (Radcliffe)
President of University
Dean, College of Engineering
Director, Engineering and
Industrial Experiment Station
Head, Chemical Engineering
Head, Civil Engineering
Head, Electrical Engineering
Head, Industrial Engineering
Head, Mechanical Engineering
Head, Engineering Mechanics
Head, Aeronautical Engineering
All members of the professional staff which numwners 122 are available for the prosecution of re-
searcn projects under the direction of the administrative staff of the College of Engineering.
Laboratory Jacihtlies and
The work of the Station, for the most part, is conducted
oTn tainpus using the full falditics of the College of En-
gineering and associated colleges. When occasion warrants.
research is carried outside the campus into the field for
direct observation and study, or the testing of laboratory-
designed equipment. Some of the more important labora-
tories and some of the projects are briefly described below.
The PI/Ip a.mi Papi Ltalni'ary of the Chemical En-
gineering Depirtmnent is equipped to carry out research and
instructional work in any of the chenital or scmichemical
pulping processes (Fig. I). The effects of changes in any
of the pulping 'ariables on the physical strength, chemi.
tal properties, and bleathability of the resultant pulps
may be determined. Equipment is available for research
in the production of various types of building board and
reconstituted wood. A well-equipped analytical laboratory
(Fig. 2), constant temperature-humidity room, and steam
generation equipment are included among its facilities.
At present the laboratory o&&upieu 8ituu sq. ft of floor
space and has equipment valued at over $100,000 New
equipment is being obtained as rapidly as possible to make
the laboratory complete in all respects, and the staff has
embarked on a program of research which promises in.
. ig. 1: Experimental pulp dJigester, showing one ol Ihe cooks being blown.
A ll -
* 1 1
1 1g. 2: Students running tests in the chemical analysis
section of the Pulp and Paper Iaboratory.
creased wealth and revenue for the Southeast
The growth of pulp manufacturing and the increase in
krall fiber production were so rapid in the South in the
past 20 years that by 1946.forty-six per tent of Ihe iU. S.
supply of kraft fiber came from this area. Almost all of
the timber stands in the South is represtntcd by tht harTs
woods �,uih ,is turkey oak and blucmak oak common iy
referred to as strub oak." Since 19-16. there has been
another tremendous increase in tonnage and during the
next two years production of kraft fibEr from pine wAl
double that of 1949.
The Pulp and Paper Laboratory waS established in 1944
to study the problem of utilization of the hardwoods by
the paper industry, and to improve mcthiods of utilization
of southern pine. These studies involved de'clopmvnt of
more diversified pulp products than tht standard kraft
libe pc|ie uuisl pruduced.
The laboratory siaff has conclusxcdy dtmonstraced that
scrub oak can be successfully pulped to prodlu'c .a short.
fibered, blcath.d pulp which can compete with similar
pulps now on tih market. Parallel with Iis work, a syn-
thetic board has been developed from Florida scrub oak
Fig. 3: Air flotation table separating bark Ftom wood as a preliminary step in the manufacture of paper
from Florida scrub oak.
which meets all the strength and performance requirements
of veneer wood in wire-bound boxes and crates, and can
be used as a substitute in that field. Extensive research
has been accomplished in the use of Florida scrub oak to
replace chestnut and hemlock as a domestic source of
Another recent accomplishment of this laboratory is the
development of A new contlinuuus pulping process fur mak-
ing pulp from either pine or oak chips in 20-25 minutes
instead of the 3.31/V hours required by the standard batch
prmcess. This continuous process is being patented by the
University of Florida.
The Florida continuous pulping process shows so much
promise for the production of high strength kraft pulps,
high purity dissolving pulps and semichemical hardwood
pulps that manufacturers of pulping equipment are do-
nating commercial type pulp processing equipment for
pilot plant studies of the process. This pilot plant will
be a complete pulp mill in miniature, from chips to wet
machine, capable of producing 3-6 tons of pulp per 24
hours, It will be the only installation of its kind in this
The laboratory is currently working on a process for
separating bark from wood by an air-flotation process
which show, much prornmi (Fig 5) This process would
be of considerable value in the production of tanning
extract from scrub oak. Work is being done on the fun-
damcntals of the alkaline pulping processes, and the fun-
damental principles of the physical testing of pulps. Two
additional current projects are the study of the purification
and bleaching of pulps, and methods of testing dissolving
pulp for acetate silks.
Cot iroi Stdn/a. CoIrosion is oie of [tie riust preva-
lent causes of damage to all types of capital equipment.
To combat this hazard and reduce annual losses to the citi-
zens of the State which run in the millions nf dollars,
the Chemical Engineering Department instituted a corro-
sion project in 194-1. The Station has since evolved and
tested various protective measures including the use of
paints and enamels and cathodic techniques.
The corrosion laboratory today contains considerable
specialized equipment including a weatherometer (Fig. 4)
and salt-spray machine for accelerated weathering and
corrosion tests. polarographic equipment, spectograph; pH'
indrLators; conductjivkty equipment-both laboratory and
industrial, recording vacuum tube voltmeters; equipment
for studying the corrosion rate under pressure up to 100
lb. per sq in.. and a one-day 3-roll paint mill (small
Corrosion studies arc divided into two parts. The first,
fundamental corrosion studies, deals with the rate of cor-
roson in ..i-lWs Second is the study of protective coatings
on steel structure * This includes banc and developmental
research for paints and other protective coatings. Com-
pktc faiilirnis are available for thf pri-paration and evalu-
ation ol paints both on .t ,ampie and semiproduction
* In co-operation with die Siace Road lDeparnent.
scale. Also available is a large area equipped with racks
for outdoor exposure tests.
Weather study equipment is located in the vicinity of
the tests and weather cLndition outdoor exposure tesis
are correlated with weatherometer and salt-spray data.
Prct reit n of Tropic/l Dehl'rro:ilion. A companion ac-
tivity to corrnson studies is research aimed at the prevern-
tion of tropical deterioration caused by insects and fungi.
Efforts in the past several years have been concentrated on
methods ior prevention of the rotting of fabrics; dc.
terioration of sized textiles and paper products by roaches,
causes and prevention of mildew in home closets.
In the course of this research a lacquer was formulated
which was successful used in the University Library for
the prevention of insect attack on book covers. Insect
repellents suitable for treating paper bags and sized tex-
tiles were developed and successfully tested in laboratory
experiments, and an electric heater was designed for use
in control of mildew in home closets. For the latter pur-
pose removal of moisture in the air with chemical agents
was, in general, found to be unsatisfactory. However, de-
Fig. 4: One of the 40 samples tested simultaneously in
the Weather-Ometer, which measures the effects
of a year's weather on paints and building mate-
rials in a few days. is beiug scrutinized.
sign of home closets with provision for adequate ventila-
tion is recommended for mildew prevention.
UltlzaUon of Tall Oil. The rapidly expanding pulp
industry in Florida and the increasing world-wide demand
for vegetable fats and oils has led the Station to initiate
a program of research which is devoted to processing wood
by-products. One such by-product is tall oil, and research
concerning its utilization as a base for paints and var-
nishes is in line with the Station's policy of developing
practical uses for Florida's natural resources to improve
the State's economy.
This project was initiated two years ago and has resulted
in a low-cost paint for interior decorating purposes which
shows improvement over similar products. A complete
pilot plant for tall oil studies is currently in the planning
stage A termite-resistant coating which will keep wood
dimensionally stable is being perfected.
In a project to be undertaken, new tracer techniques,
a by-product of atomic energy research, will use radio-
active fungicides as an analytical tool in studies designed
to improve inildew-resistant finishes applied under
Florida's humid conditions. Tests for mildew resistance
and the residual fungicidal agent will be made with the
aid of differential and monitor type geiger counters.
Fluorine Research. Because of recent technological de-
velopments, extensive use is being made of fluorine com-
pounds for refrigerants, lubricants and in oil-refining
processes. There is, however, a scarcity of minerals in the
Fig. 5: Filtering equipment for fluorine research.
U. S. which permit an economical recovery of fluorine
compounds The vast pebble phosphate deposits in
Florida contain approximately 3.7 per cent fluorine which
is strongly bonded in the mineral, but present operating
conditions are too expensive to make complete recovery
It is estimated that the phosphate ore mined each day
in Florida contains a total of 2 million pounds of fluorine
which, as calcium fluoride, has a paper value of S95,000;
as hydrogen fluoride, $475,000; and if converted to fluoro-
carbons, a much higher value.
In view of these facts, a research laboratory has been
established at the Station for the study of an economical
recovery of this element which in turn promises to pav.
the way toward a rich development of chemical industries
in Floridai The research conducted in this laboratory
(Fig. 5) is concerned not only with the academic and
theoretical aspects of the recovery of fluorine, but also,
through industrial sponsors, with the commercial aspects.
Radioactive Tracer Laboratory. A completely equipped
radioactive tracer laboratory is being set up at the Station.
The current objective of the project is to discover a means
of synthesizing a number of compounds containing C-14
and S-35 radioactive carbon and sulfur, for tracer purposes.
Many of these compounds have never been made in the
laboratory before. A separate laboratory for organic syn-
thetic work will contain all the necessary physical testing
equipment for this phase of the project,
Once it is discovered how to synthesize organic com-
pounds, containing the desired isotopes, in small quan-
tities, portions of these radioactive compounds will be
incorporated with similar compounds under study. Chemi-
cal and biological reactions of these compounds will be
traced by means of a Geiger counter or other counting
equipment. By this method such questions as what part
of the molecule organisms attack, how they use the mole-
cule for food, and the rate of attack may be answered, A
practical use for radioactive tracing is determination of
how long fungicides are retained in protective paint films.
Such films cannot be analyzed chemically, but the radio-
active tracer techniques may be used.
The laboratory for the second phase of this project will
be Npetcifkally equipped for bio-chemkal and microbio-
logical studies In addition to the conventional stainless
steel hoods and sinks, remote control equipment is
available to afford complete protection in handling radio-
active materials. Equipment includes an Alpha-Beta-
Gamma proportional counter and several Geiger tube
monitors located in an air-conditioned room.
Cerdinicr Laboratory. Two promising possibilities for
new industry have resulted from experiments conducted
in this laboratory (Fig, 6). One, the development of a
structural day industry using native Florida clays, was re-
ported in Station Bulletin No. 30. A promising outlook for
the manufacture of lightweight aggregate using Florida
clays evolved from an interesting series of experiments re-
cently completed in the Ceramics Laboratory.
For such projects as the production of glass from
Fig. 6: A section of the Ceram.ics Laboraorl.
Florida sands and iime and the development of a dinner-
ware industry using the RAN process,* equipment in-
dcludes: differential thermal analyzer to reduce the time
required for analyzing minerals from weeks to hours; two
electric kilns; two butane gas kilns: high-temperature fu-
sion furnace for determining the fusion points of metals;
Simpson intensive mixer; testing furnace for lightweight
aggregate; Tenney humidity dryer, and hydraulic press.
Small ceramic plants, particularly those engaged in
the manufacture of artware, may obtain valuable informa-
tion pertaining to its processing in this laboratory. Ex-
periments in the production of mineral wool*]'from na-
tive minerals are conducted in a separately housed pilot
Other projects completed in part or in full by this
laboratory are the development of refractories from Florida
ire clays, and the development of low temperature porte-
lain using Florida ball kaolin as the clay base. Recently
completed experiments on Florida clay aggregate indicate
that plants for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate
using native raw materials could be economically estab-
lished in Florida and would result in the saving of mil.
lionr o( dollars to the State (Bulletin No. 46).
* A patrened method of plastic pressing.
l* In co-operatdon widl the State Gielogical Survey.
Pre er.ai n lm o/f he Color and Shatpe of Plowet . In
194-5, the Station, in conjunction with the Agricultural
Experiment Station and the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, sponsored a short course in the mounting of
biological specimens between sheers of transparent plastic
material. Although the color of the specimens was pre-
served belore mounting, the flowers were flactid, lacked
Iirmness, and had to be pressed into two-dimensional form.
The Station became interested in the possibility of pre-
serving not only thei color, but also the shape of flowers
and a project was set up for that purpose.
A .. Ltul technique was defulopad which involved
dehydrating the flowers so as to retain their natural shape,
texture, ald color, and then preserving the dehydrated
flowers by nimean of a protective filn or by mounting
in plastic. Considerable interest in the process has been
shown by mditiduals, teachers, and scientists who have dis-
cussed the posblilty of its use ill their particular field
of study A bulletin describing the process was published
in December, 19(0.
The dF veryy oJ this method has resulted in the creation
of a potential ilew industry and is a firm foundation for
further developments in this Ield,.
- , a .
* * s - :. 1
..... .. .. - p - *
Fig. 7: Adjusting a storm protection door under sillm-
lated storm conditions produced tob the wind and
rain-imaking apparatus. In this test the wind "as
clocked at 75 Iiph.
In the Aeronautical Engineering Department a subsonic
Wind Tunnel is in operation and a supersonic tunnel is
under 0on1 ruction The subsonic tunnel has been used to
determine the effect of high winds on small buildings
(published As Bulletin No. 28) as well as in the acro-
dynamni design of flying equipment.
Strmni Pnitwaoi Libnratort. A- separately housed wind
and rain spray detn.c, mounting a 9-yhlinder Wright
radial tngnit icpable of producing 1300 hp.. is in opera-
tion for studgng the efftct of h ih sclotity winds with
attendant rains on variouss building components, such as
shutters, blinds. and awnings. (Fig. 7) Two particular
causes of damage produced by high velocityy wind and
rain are air and water infiltration through the various
building components in industrial structures, residential
buildings and small homes Damag loss.cs can be greatly
reduced or eliminated by adiamie testing of building ma.
terial and components under artitially produced hurr-
For producing wind, the Wright engine drives a three-
bladed Hami Ion-Standard prop-lkr. This mechanism can
produce wind velocities pqual to those encountered during
most hurrn anes The rain-making device consists of a
grid 6 ft by 6 ft with 11/4 in steel tubing placed I ft.
apart in the vertical plane. Accurate experimentation gives
the correlatjon between the water flow and the average
rainfall of a Florida hurricane.
OnL of the problems met during this research was the
correlation between measured rainfall information as sup-
phlied by the Weather Bureau's Climatological Data
Table and the amount of water released into the area.
A hart has been set up by which the average rain and
average maximum rain for stated periods can be obtained
at various wind velocities during hurricanes.
Performance Testing of Airborne Spra) Nozz/le. Since
examinations showed that most of the installations used
for ground spraying from airplanes were designed from
adaptations ot static systems plus estimates, a program for
scientific testing of airborne spray nozzles 'as established
To test individual nozzles under controlled condition
similar to those encountered in actual spraying, a short
boom was mounted below the wing of a Piper J-3 Cub.
Nozzle direction was one of the variables tested.
The analysis techniques developed for the testing pro-
gram at the University have provided a method for scien-
tifically testing the performance of airborne spray nozzles.
The results of the tests already made available and those
of the continuing program will provide useful design data
for persons developing aerial spraying equipment in the
ElIctroitcs Researrh. The Electrical Engineering Depart-
ment has become a leader in the field of meteorological
instrumentation in connection with weather observation.
Its observational facilities include a radar unit which is
used to track hurricanes within a radius of 200 miks
(Fig. 8); a complete Lugeon atmospheric or storm loca-
tion system, and "Sferics" equipment for long-range wea-
ther determination from 1.000 up to 2.500 miles (Fig. 9)
For research in atmospheric disturbances, equipment is
avadiable for standardized measurement of low frequency
noise (commonly called static); also several new statistical
techniques are used which have been developed at the
University and ire being recommended for international
Early in 1951 the Station negotiated with the Air Force
Missile Testing Center (AFMTC) to make an extensive
study of radio noise. The latter constitutes a major prob-
klem in the control of missiles during flight in that radio-
frequency noise interferes with radio signals bringing
information from the rocket or other missile and also
may cause ditticulty in communicating with the missile or
between ground stations Radio noise consists of the ran-
dom electrical impulses (or electromagnctki waves) in the
atmosphere which originate mainly from lightning strokes.
It is a phenomenon which arisess Cyd.lually in intensity
during each day- at various times of the year, and over
an eleven year
Because of its random nature it is reasonable to turn to the
technique of statistics to find the key to the behavior of
radio noise. Statistical methods are being applied in a
theoretical study to determine the nature of noise, and
equ.pmrent (known as an "Ogiver") is being put into
use to perform an electronic integration of certain para-
meters of the radio noise signals From the results of these
investigations it is likely that better and more reliable
communiation between the missiles and the ground sta-
tions can be effected and more information can be sent
from or to the nmisilc in fight.
This field of research has evolved from early studies
of atmospheric radar noise begun about 1933, which led
to the development of the "Sfencs" system of storm loca-
tion usid -xt&u;l)l during the last War b) the Air
Forces and more recently by commercial air lines.
A project concerning space-charge wave oscillations
deals with certain phenomena which take place in clouds
of electrons in vacuum tubes. These phenomena are useful
in the generation and amplification of radio signals of very
high frequencies such as those employed for radar and
color television applications.
Compression waves may travel in a cloud of electrons
in somewhat the same fashion that sound waves travel
through the air. These are called "space-charge waves
These space-charge waves differ from sound wa'es in
several respects One of the most important differences is
that under certain circumstances these waves will get larger
and larger as they travel A small radio signal can be used
to start space-charge wavis down an electron beam and a
much larger signal can be taken off the far end A portion
of the output power may be returned to the point at which
the waves are started, and the device then becomes a
generator of high frequency radio signals. Thus these
space-charge uases may be used either to amplify or to
generate radio waves at frequencies thousands of times
higher than those used by broadcast stations and many
times higher than those in use for tel'vision The devices
for making use of these waves are called magnetrons.
traveling wave tubes. electron-wave tubes, and so on, the
various names indicAting to the initiated the particular
form which the tube takes and the manner in which the
This project is concerning itself particularly with space-
charge wa'es in hollow, cylindrical, rotating louid of
electrons. The work is to a large extent theor.tiual When,
'ig. 8: 120 ft. radar tower used primarily
however. computations indicate that a certain form of elec-
tron cloud or tube structure may yield useful or interesting
properties an attempt is made to verity the theory experi-
mentally (Fig 10) Several interesting new types of micro-
wave amplifier> and generators aic currently being
An extremely important phase of such theoretical re-
search as this is the training of graduate students to do
advanced dcign and developmental research. The experi-
mental work on this project is performed by candidates
for advanced degrees under supervision of staff members.
Thus a number of graduate the-ses and scientific papers
Fig. 9: Sferics equipment lo the Electronics Laboratory for the location of atmospheric disturbances
through static discharge.
Fig, 10: Member of die Electrical Engineering Staff ad-
justing equipment used for electronic tube re-
have resulted from this work. The results of the research
are not only new information but also highly trained re-
Another phase of research of especial interest to Florida
is the dcvelopmcmn of hurricane-tracking by radar. Radar
was used first to locate aircraft and other targets during
World War II However, it soon was found that ram-
drops also would reflect the radar waves and for a time
this was strictly a nmsance Rain and storms are of great
importance to man and it developed that the radar echoes
from the water drops in the air could help locate the
storm area and plot its course when driven by the winds
of a hurricane In 1949 scientists at the Unzversitv of
Florida were able to photograph (Fig 11) the radar dis-
play of reflections from the rain squalls of a serious hurri-
cane which traversed Florida in a general south-north
path. The series of pictures obtained can be projected at
motion-picture speed and show graphically both the for-
ward motion of the storm and its counterclockwise rota
tion in a very striking manner- Other worA .. been done
on a "contour" map of rainfall over a wide aiic, to ti-
an instantaneous picture of the precipitation. With the
radar "dish" (antenna) now located about 120 feet abore
the ground on a modified radio tower, and after improve-
ments in the circuits of the University of Florida
radar equipment. it is possible to "see" a hurricane
at a distance of 200 miles from Gainesville in any
earthquake recorders, disturbances as far as 1500 miles
from the point of observation have been used to locate
storms before they become apparent to other means of
detection The tiype of storm seems to be indicated by
the pa3ritular kind of motion r t- up in the earth, and enis-
live instruments haise been built at the University of
Florida to record microseismic information in a permanent
Other lronics research projects currently in progress
under a Federal contract at the Station include research in
1iccroitO cl uits Much i of thi work il c li Itied and its
nature annot b. revea.ld at this timne
Indim ',il Re pah. The Station is engaged in several
aspects of industrial research in the electrical engineering
field One of thce-a sponsored projct-is concerned
with the problem of determining the best method of heat-
ing 1a1RIt MnruWturc o as to simulate the beating effects
cnounterdd i high velocity flight. Experiments were made
to btahlksh the feasbiityv of induction hnaeing as a pos-
sibic method, othae methods such as thermal conduction,
Other projects min this field are Loncerned with the
electrostatu separation of minerals, and with the con-
,stI-n ['oil . [dIrator ino.wr .o d5Ignild L0 produt.Ce
reciprotating motion without the ue of a commutator.
In the latter prote t, a large, 150-watt svnLhronous vibra-
tor was built and successfully tested (Fig. 12), Several
Fig. 11;: A periscope recording camera is affixed to the thyratron-iontrolled, subynchronous motors were built and
ratdarsecope and adjusted to take a picture every show considerable promise for special applications. Oper-
15 seconds thus showing the movement of the ating ranges as low as 2 cycles per second and as high as
storm. 30 cycles pert second were achieved wiLh these units,
direction and to follow its subsequent movements This
affords a grtat me.aure of protection from hurricane
damage, not only to the Gainesville area but to much of
the State as well. The early warning which the radar
equipment gives is a contributing factor to prevent the
great loss of life which formerly occurred when the
hurricanes struck. Considerable work has been accom-
plished in rainfall measurements by radar which may
develop weather analyses of especial benehts to agricul-
In addlftion to the well-known ground waves on the
world surface which manifest themselves as earthquakes,
there is always a continuous series o. mal movements
often called microsesms. To the seismologist who is only
interested in the location of the earthquakes these tiny
waves have only nuisance value However, it has been I
demonstrated that these minute di turban e. arc caused . -"
by trucks moving near the observing station, local windI .
disturbances, or changes of barometric pressure. Of parti- ..
cular hitre-q to Floridlans is the fact that studies have
shown that certLin of these earth motions are intimately
related to hurricane and that if the dirc tion of arrival of
the m'croscism. can be plotted they can be a means of Fig. 12: 150-watLL sy lchrmnous vibrator motor built at
locating the hurricane center FPen with conventional the Station.
Pig, 13: A section o[ the Campus treatment plant show-
ing sedimentation tanks (foregound) and fil-
ters in the background.
Fig. 14: A section of the Materials Testing Laboratoi,
Satani R. ..' /,h The Sanitary Resear.h Laboratory is
equipped to investigate problems in four major fields:
1. sewage treatment
2. rnduotrial wastes
3 pubhl hcalth-inmol'ing sanitary facilities in food
processing, restaurants, etc
4 health hazards in industries-noxious fumes, etc.
The Laboiato' tojltains a pilot plant spectiirally de-
signed to investigate sewage disposal methods suited to
the needs of Florida communities (Fig. t3). Imhoff tanks,
rapid sand filter, trickling fiters, sludge bed and chemical
dosing facilities are included. At present the plant consists
of 35 units in an area of one acre with a control and re-
search laboratory building having a floor area of 1.730
sq. ft. The laboratory also makes use of the new Campus
Sewage Treatment Plant which has a capacity of 700,000
gallons per day and was designed to allow a direct com-
parison between high tcapacity and standard filtration.
The objective of the sewage research program is a
practical study of disposal methods adapted to Floridi
communities utilizing Florida materials and with emphasis
on distinctive Florida conditions. Through experimenta-
tion, means have been found to reduce some of the cost
of sewage treatment for small communities This work is
partially sponsored by the Winn-Lovett Foundation as a
Investigations are carried out on three levels: in the
laboratory, in the pilot plant, and in the larger University
sewage treatment plant, and studies are made not only of
each individual unit but of each step of the process as a
part of the general scheme.
Research in primary sewage treatment has shown that
Florida cani cffitively use smaller-sized tanks than the
northern states. Investigations of sand filters, a secondary
treatment, involve a basic study of Florida sands and indi-
cate that 24 in, compared to the usual average of 3 to 4
ft, is a sufficient depth; while trickling filter studies
using Florida rock and wood waste have shown that a
depth of 4 ft. is adequate for this State. Work is being
done on the study of diatomite filters and an investigation
of filter aids and elements
Some other sewage treatment projects currently in oper-
ation include: 1) A National Institutes of Health-spon-
sored project on the rapid determination of sewage
strength in terms of BOD. An attempt is being made to
cut down the 5-day period usually required for this pro-
cess to a few hours; 2) the study of bacteria removal in
secondary units to reduce cost of chlorination; 3) the
study of the biology and ecology of sewage filtration
Also in operation is a public health project sponsored
by a shrimp processing company involving the study of
the deterioration of ready-to-fry shrimp during storage.
AIateriah Testing Laboratory. One of the impressive
laboratories of the new Engineering and Industries Build-
ing is the Materials Testing Laboratory (Fig 14) It
occupies a two-story area measuring 100 by 30 ft. and
contains extensive q.miipment for testing different types
and forms of building materials. Such factors as compres-
sive and tensile strength, torsional stresses, llexural stresses
and fatigue stresses arc established in this laboratory.
Overlapping units permit tension, compression and flexure
tests to be made ranging from a fraction of all ounce to
This range in dictcrmning tension and compression
strengths as obtained on the following machines the
400,000 Ib. high column srew power ( Fig 15). 300,000
lb. hydraulic (5-range). 125,000-b hydraulic, 60.00o-1b
hydraulic (3-range with low of 2-t 0 reading to 2 lb),
and the 50,000-lb. screw power Two of these machines
are equipped with autographic recorders
Other equipment in the resting laboratory includes two
rotating-beam fatigue mahminet (one of which as built
in the Station's Fnginecring Shops), Rockwll and Brincl
hardness testers, an overhead crane with a .capacity of
eight tons, a Tu,00O-insh-pound torsion testing machine,
extensometers; compressometcrs; strain gage and other
Iindsldu.i p iiilis ,ire i, bjented to analysts for
strength, hardness, rLsltOInaV and duwctlit', Adjoining this
laboratory rs a well.-nsulatcd and delicately controlled
Four important projects recently tompkted in this lab
1) rxperncnotal vcrilncation of the IImit of stress in
complrn-ioi flange, of [-bei s. 2) a study of the effect
of pre-stressing on the league charaterin stics of structural
steel: ;) a study of fangue d ararterstlics of rivet struc-
tural steel for one type of cycli( Iniding- 4) nn investiga-
tion of simulated hanged supports for concrete rigid
Concele, L ,h,/otii) Adjacent to the Materials Testing
Laboratory is the Concrete Laboratory where much valuable
research has been don. in recent years on the uses of
Florida's abundant natue limerock as a building and
paimg material The concrete laboratory is equipped to
run complete physical tests on cement, fine and coarse
aggregates, and reinforcing steel
Some of the projects now in operation illustrate the
type of work that can be done in this laboratory. One
current project mn\olke a study of pre-stressed concrete
highway bridges to dktclop tc. hniqucs. designs and
economical methods for constructing prestressed concrete
beams to be used in replacing deteriorated timber beam
type bridge (fig. 16). Another purpose of this project
is to dtcermine whether prestressd concrete beams are
eonomically feasible for use in precast concrete bridge
cointruLtion* in Florida.
The first industry-sponsored project undertaken by the
Station was the development of uses for Florida's abun-
* In co-operation with dte State Road Departmento
Fig. 15: A partial plate girder undergoing tests in the
400,000 lb. high column testing machine in
tJe Materials Testiug Laboratory,. The special
floating supports built for this project may be
noted at each end of tie beam.
Fig. 16: Extensive testing of prestressed concrete
beams for bridge construction is currently
underway in the Concrete Laboratory.
it supply of native lhmerock. For many years research
. hmero'k onirctc was supported by the Limerock As-
imauion f Florida. This project is continuing, and is
"rrtntly dvoted to two phases of limerock concrete re-
.,arh namely, physical property analysis and the deter-
nin.ation of proper tontrete mixture control and design.
SQ's w ert recently run in tins laboratory on samples of
Ircsh and hardened concrete made with lightweight ag-
rgani from Flornda clays developed in the Non-Meualnl
*incrals laboratory (see p. 9 )
Somc of the more spc-ialized pieces of equipment in
thi tonr .i' laboratory are masonry saw. various types of
nold, Smith contreio, mixer, Gilson screen, American
Ia.un Tester for rconrele, 30-in. mortar flow tahbr RO-
ap-tcsting sieve shaker, Los Angeles abrasive machine,
increte Cbrator, 50-ton calibrated hydraulic jack, Whit-
mior strain gages (2 in. and 10 in.), 11 in. length com-'
pirator, sonic material analyzer, cement autoclave, Riehle
'*nron apparatus and an Acme entrained air meter.
H)dr.,tuis Laboratory. A large modern laboratory is
a'aiable for the study of hydraulics and fluid mechanics
(Fig. I1). It has a floor area of 90 x 10 ft.. and extends
through two stories, A 4 x 5 in. centrifugal pump, rated at
450 g.p.m. against 65 ft. of head, provides flow through
an elaborate pipe system having a wide variety of meter-
ing and measuring derkes. A I)l2-n, <.iiirifu.jlJ
pump rated at 1750 g.p.m. against 32 ft of head provides
flow through an open channel system equipped with a
Venture flume and a system including several types of
weirs and appropriate measuring equipment A large pro-
peller pump, rated at 4500 g.p.m against 15 ft. of htad
provides an extremely high flow for research and problems
accompanying this high velocity of fluids,
Rantfall Studies. The rate of rainfall during heavy
storms is the most significant information required an the
design of combined storm-water drains and sewer ITn
order to obtain economy and efficiency in these designs it
has become necessary for the engineer to acquaint him-
self with the characteristics of past rainfall performances
Two years ago a project concerned with rainfall pat-
terns wiai undertaken at the Station to find an accurate
method of predicting rainfall frequency cycles. This is a
mathematical project making use of statistical analyses
and probability patterns, with most of the data coming
from weather reports. These data have been correlated
with the appearance of sun spots and past reports hav
been correlated with the thickness of rings in trees.
One of the results of the project was a plotting of the
expectancy and intensity of excessive rainfalls at Jackson-
ville, Florida for the years 1910-1948. The results of this
study indicate a definite pattern of excessive rainfall
in this area and establish a Len-year period as a .sufiict
basis for storm-water drains and t.ombincd sewer designs.
Since such good correlation between intensity and ex-
pectanry of rainfalls exists at Jacksonville, it is hoped that
further study will reveal similar relations at other stations
within the State.
Fit. 17: Measuidng water flow in a corner of the two-
stoW Hydraulics Laboratory.
Fig. 18: Vertical hurrel lathe in the Engineering Shops Fig. 19: Large milling machine in the Engineering
turning hub on a hemispherical parLt Shops cuts gears accurately.
,MECHANICAL E GI\'ELRIJNG
Engmeuceng Sbhps (see Figures I8 and 19) The Station
is in an excellent position to perform its functions because
of the extensive facilities a'adable to it, In addition to
the equipmcnLt obtained Irom State funds. large amounts
of equipment haec been obtained from war surplus, spon-
sors of research projects have contributed valuable ma-
chinery, and the shops of the College of Engineering
have built many spelalized and intricate pieces of
experimental equipment An example of the work done by
these Shop, is the delicate clectronmc-tontrolled balances for
the experimental wind tunnel of the Aeronautical En-
Another recently completed piece of equipment made
entire]} in the Engineering Shops is the hydraulic anal-
ogue which is used to determine the heat transfer co-
eflcients of ornpovte building materials (Fig 20). A
similar apparatus utilIzmg the principle of the eketric
analogue is now it the design stage.
The A[ie.dl/gi ap, L alotaclory ot upies 3200 sq. ft. in
the new building It is equipped tor accurate study of the
crystalline structure of metals. A rti-ent acquisition is a
Bausch and Lomb Littrow type spectrograph complete with
densjtometer (Fig 21) This laboratory operates in con-
junction with those dis'sions of the shop which do weld-
ing and casting This sort of arrangement is typical of
the enrce Station The interdepartmental cooperation offers
unlimited possibilities for satisfactory solutions of research
problems which Lut across traditional departmental lines
Theb l m I.rn Combnw,:,on Labor.lor) contains variouss
standard test engines and an unusual compound engine
designed b) a inLtmber of the facuhly There arc (omplete
Fig. 20: Preparing to %eilh a sample obtained during
the test ora heat (low problem on the hydraulic
analogue computing machine which is called
the "llydrocal" for short.
big. 21: this spectrograph, for quantitative as well as
qualitative analysis of metals, was recently
installed in an air-conditioned room of the
facilities available for testing all types of fuels including
those used in steam generation equipment.
The Air Conditxoning Laborator) of the Mechanical En-
gineering Department contains a complete working model
of a hot water hearing system made entirely of pyrex
glass. This system can be adapted to simulate systems
actually in use and nt permits the observation of certain
phenomena heretofore unknown. At present this system is
being used in the study of entrained air.
Other families available in the Air Conditioning Lab-
oratory are the low temnplrature rooms, special ice-air-
conditioning Cquipment, a reverse cycle refrigeration sys-
tem frequentlyl referred to as a hear pump). and an air
washer, used to control humidity and temperature, which
1, specially instrumented for ad vnced research.
gh :,itm.dA .ilalLhte.ti The agricultural machinery pro
ijtts m ilie MAehanicil Engineering Department are aimed
to product unprotements or innoations in farm equp-
�neni that can be made in a machine shop By special ar
.angcmn-ats uth rto watermelon seed grocrs, the Station
re:nod.Ikd and rebuilt onc cxising se-d harn Aig nmai hine,
and designed a new model steel seed harenstcr which has
many advantages over the old wooden machines
Mich thought has been given to the problem of gather-
ing pecans, since tractor-mounted tree shakers have come
into use with the large growers. A circular, portable
pecan harvesting apron (Fig. 22) was built and tested
during the 1951 season at the Station Valuable informa-
bion was obtained tor further work.
As the latest project in agricultural machinery an
experimental model of a new rotary-blade, high-speed
pasture mowing machine has been built and is being
tested. The mower has a unique automatic elevation con-
trol system which allows the blades to follow the con-
tours of the ground and raise over obstacles in the swath.
The complete mechanism is tractor-drawn.
-^- - - -- -'-
f * ^ f - * * 1 .
Fig. 22: tree shaker and portable pecan harvesting apron developed at the Agricultural Maclhiuery
The lildnha/t llt Engin, ein, mg Lab /toiry, housed in the
new Engineering and Industries Building, provides corn-
pIctk andi modern fal itie* for training and research in
work sinplifiation and standardization.
Work simphfication begins with job process analysis
consisting of the charting of each step of the job per-
Formed at dif-frcnt locitions and thc movcmenti, inspec-
tions, and delays which occur between the steps Its ob-
JitcEl' i to pr )'(till a bird' 11 of r h proier s
whether it bi thi prparation of brcaklast in the home
kitchen or [lhe assembly of an automobile The chart re-
'eals steps that arc unnecessary and which may be chim-
mated; steps which may be carried out at the same time
lor the price of one; sequences of steps which may be
rearranged to eliminate c.xtwcve tra el btt een, or pos-
v;blh Nimphit ttron of th. contEnt of ltcpr
Following job process analysis which yields considerable
savings in cost, time, and worker fatigue, operation anal-
ysis is applied to simplify the content of those steps in-
dicated and obtain even greater savings
Work standardization consists of recording improved
method descriptions and determining the time which the
worker should take in using this method to earn his wage
These so-called "time standards" arc useful in comparing
what is done with what should be done in the same time,
in predicting the time for and cost of future jobs, and in
Extensive use is made of motion paunres in this work
as is indicated in Fig. 23 Specialized motion picture
cameras and projectors make up a large portion of the
equipment used A compikte assortment of hand and
power tools are used in experimental design and con-
struction of mahJinm. moddl. and labor ,I ig devices
li'g. 23: A notion picture of a drill press operation is taken with I lining device included. This lilm
will be used il Lite wolik simplification phase of motion and Utime stadles.
NAVAL STORES RESEARCH log, formerly left in the woods as waste, can now be
The State of Florida accounts for approximately one-
fourth of the naval stores gum produced in the U. S.
The dollar value of naval stores to the southeastern states
is in the neighborhood of 350 million annually In 1944
the Station undertook a study to devise an acid applicator
needed to implementt new gum producing methods. In
191- a cooperative project was established through a
contractual agreement with the Southeastern Forest Ex-
periment Station to continue work along these lines. De-
ites developed by the project have aided in the saving of
an estimated million dollars a year to naval stores oper-
Earlier research showed that the application of sulfuric
anLd to freshly chipped faces would more than double
the durarnon of gum flow, reduce the frequency of chip-
ping and thereby reduce labor costs To put this knowl-
edge to practice an all-plastic spray unit was developed
at the Station and put into commercial production.
To chip higher faces a tool known as a "puller" is
used. but it ,as desired to apply acid to these faces with
the same tool A spray puller was devised to meet this
demand which makes it possible to work these high faces.
Another tool known as the 'spray hack," which has a
sprayer unit built ;nto the stock, is about to be placed on
A need also arose for a gutter which would fit the
rounded face resulting from the new bark-chipping meth
ods A helical gutter was designed that can be tacked onto
the turpentine face. This gutter is now being manufac-
tured by twxo large hrms It has been enthusiastically re-
ceived by producers of gum naval stores It is noteworthy
that the tools and equipment developed by the project
are considerabh lighter than conventional tools and are
mainly constructed from aluminum. This is important
since it reduces fatigue in the workmen who use them.
In addition to saving labor costs, it has been demon-
strated that with the new methods the turpentned butt
Fig. 24- Combination Spray Puller.
utilized as a saw log or as pulp wood since metals can be
completely removed. Waste on sawing amounts to less
than I per cent of the lumber.
CONFERENCES AND PUBLICATIONS
Within the past several years, the Station's program of
conferences and short courses on various engineering sub-
jects has been considerably expanded. Until recently, only
two series of meetings were being conducted by the Sta-
tion-the Electric Meter Short Course, established in 1922
and one of the oldest University-held conferences in the
South, and the Florida Highway Conference, established in
1947 In the last few years, three major annual conferences
have been added to the Civil Engineering Department's
schedule- on Surneying and Mapping. on Structural En-
gineering, and on Public Health
The Chemical and Mechanical Engineering Depart-
ments have instituted short courses on Instrumentation and
Air Conditioning respectively, each has completed two
successful sessions, and established these short courses on
a permanent basis. These gatherings provide an unparal-
led opportunity for engineers, industrialists, administrators
and students to listen to formal papers and discussions, and
to engage in informal debate on the basic and current
problems in their fields. National and international as
well as local aspects of each particular branch of engin-
eering are probed, old acquaintances are renewed and new
ones made which, through the stimulating exchange of
ideas, pro'e to be of much value to the men in the field
These conference programs haie been so well received
that it is planned to continue them on a regular basis
The conference proceedings are, in most cases, published in
bulletin form for distribution to the conferees and the
subscribers to Station publications
All research of value conducted by the Station is pub-
lshed except where national security is invohed There
are three series of Station pubhcations- (1) Bulktim ser-
ies-original publcanons of research, usually on prob-
lems of specific interest to the industries of the State of
Florida (2) Technical Paper Series-reprnts of technical
articles by staff members appearing i national scientific
publications: and (3) Leaflet Series-non-te hnical artrldes
by staff members which have appeared in the more popular
Since the publication of its first bulletin in 19,1. the
Station's list of publications reporting the results of re-
search completed or in progress has grown to 140 An
up-to-date hst of publicarons may be obtained by address-
ing the Director In addition, many restricted reports
hace been issued to industrial and military sponsors of
Single copies of Station pubhcations are. a aa general
rule, tree for distribution in the State of Hlorida but a
charge may be made for certain special bulletins and for
ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS
Aeronautical Engineering Projects
5012- Effect of High Velocity Wind and Rain on build-
5131 - An Investigation of Wind Effects on Television
Receiving Antennas and Their Mountings.
Chemical Engineering Projects
4416- Fundamental Corrosion Studies. A fundamental
study of corrosion and its prevention, incorporat-
ing the development of improved corrosion-
4514- Plastic Mounting. Flowers are dehydrated and
mounted in a clear, colorless plastic.
4605- Scale Elimination in Citrus Press WIater Evapo-
ration. This project is designed Eofind the cause
of scaling and devise means of preventing it.
4613- Ceramic Structural Ports. investigation of Florida
clays to determine their suitability for themanu-
ture of structural clay products.
4724- Radiant. Heat Transfer. This is a fundamental
study of the transfer of heat by radiation to and
from clouds of small particles.
4724A.* Momentum and Heat Transfer to Particles in
4728 - Pulp and Paper Research. Fundamental research
in the pulping of southern woods products.
4732- Adsorptive Properties of Florida Clays. The ad-
sorptive properties of clays are being studied in
an effort to make them more effective and to find
4812- Utilization of Tall Uil. An effort to find uses for
call oil components.
4901 - Growth of Higher Fungi on Waste Liquors. At
present this project is aimed at the growth of
4916 - Lightweight Aggregate From Florida Clays.
4918 - Fluorine Compounds from Phosphate Rock.
4927 * Mineral Wool From Florida Minerals. The produc-
tioun f mineral wool for insulation purposes from
Florida raw materials.
5008 - Sodium Sulphide in Kroft Pulping. A study of the
role played by sodium sulphide in kraft pulping.
5018 - Corrosion kesistont Protective Coatings for Iron
& Steel Structures.
5012. Research on Fluorine-Carbon Compounds.
5023 - Study of Kraft Mill Udors.
5024- Separation of Bark From Wood.
5031 - Development of Refractories from Florida Clays.
5032- Development of a Low Temperature Porcelain
5103 - Insecticidal and rungiciaal Properties of Pro-
5120- Studies on Reconstituted Wood.
5121. Research, Study and Delivery of Chemical Com-
pounds. Study of synthesis and evaluationof cer-
tain chelating compounds with and without radio-
5122- Investigations on the Physical Testing of Paper
Pulp. Establishmeiit of true physical character-
istics of a paper pulp, and correlation of those
properties with present methods of testing.
5123- Studies on Dissolving Pulps from Florido Hard
5125. Correlation of Physical Propertiesand Film Heat
Transfer Coefficients of Sulfur Black Liquor.
5133- Study of Mechanism of Action of Cellulolytic
Micro-Organisms on Specifically Labelled Radio-
5134- Utilization of bagasse for High Alpha Pulp.
Civil Engineering Projects 5111- Campus Soil Exploration Program. To perform a
4301 - Limerock Concrete and Test Road. New and im-
proved uses for Florida limerock.
4706- Foundation Investigation for Engineering and
Industries Building. Regular checks of the
settlement of the columns in the wing already
constructed, and investigation of the foundation
for the remaining proposed sections.
4810- "Diatomite-Type" Filters. A comparison of the
performance and efficiency of different makes of
filters in the clarification of turbid water and
4911 - Fatigue Characteristics - Variable Cycle Load-
ing. Testing the properties of structural steel in
a rotating beam machine at various loads.
4912- Stress Distribution. Partial LengthCoverPlates.
4929 - County Engineering Soil Maps. Preparation of
surface soil maps to a depth of 10 ft. that will
show location, significant engineering properties,
and extent of different types of surface soils.
5002- High Rate Chemical and Biological Treatment of
Sewage. A study of the operational character-
istics and the efficiency of an "Aero-Accelator"
unit in the chemical and biological treatment of
5022- Biology and Ecology of Sewage Filtration
Through Sand. A cooperative project with the
National Institutes of Health for investigation of
microbiology of sand filters.
5025. Prestressed Concretedighway Bridges. Analysis
and design of prestressed concrete beams co be
used in replacing deteriorated timer beam-type
5108- Rapid Determination of Sewage Strength in Terms
of B. O. D. An attempt will be made to define
the laboratory conditions and uniform regimen
of feeding, aeration, and withdrawal under which
the reactivity of an activated sludge can be
maintained as nearly constant as possible under
standard test conditions.
5110- Anti-Pollution and Sewage Disposal for Florida
comprehensive soil exploration program for areas
of the campus not occupied by permanent build-
5112- Effects of Direct and Parisitic Light on the
Penetration of Star Rays Through the Atmos.
5115- Control of Breaded, Frozen Shrimp Processing
5118 - Stream Sanitation in Florida. Conservation nf
stream quality for maximum beneficial use.
Electrical Engineering Projects
4512 . Electronic Instrumentation.
4818 - Vibrator Motor. Construction and testing of small
working models of a low cost reciprocating
power unit with a minimum of moving parts.
4922. Millimeter Wave Generation. Building vaccuumn
tubes for the generation of microwaves.
4926 - Weather Radar. Short-range station-to-station de-
tection of weather conditions.
5001 - Design and Construction ofa Vertical Component
5030 - Electrostatic Separation of Minerals.
5114- Noise Study - Fabrication of NoiseMeasuring
Equipment and Data Collection and Collation
5116 Aircraft Structure Heating Studies. A studyof
the use of induction hearing to stimulate the
effect of high air speeds.
5129 - Study of Negative Gaseous Ions. Study of the
formation of negative gaseous ions produced by
collision of slow electrons with gas molecules;
investigation of force fields and possible elec-
tron exchange between these ions and uncharged
Engineering Mechanics Projects
4727 - Investigation of Timber Joints With "Rox" Con-
nectors. To determine the load carrying capacity
of "ROX" connectors and investigate the desir-
ability of manufacturing these connectors in
4823- Study of Florida Rainfall Patterns and Other
Hydrological Data. To study existing rainfall
data in the state of Florida for the purpose of
determining the existence of possible rainfall
patterns and expectancies.
5113- Production of Instructional Films and Visual
Aids. To produce instruction films and visual
aids for supplementing classroom instruction.
5130 Improvement of Shock Mounts for Electronic
Equipmentfor Naval Ship iooara Service.
Industrial Engineering Projects
4925. Work Simplification and Standardization. Organi-
zation of a training program for colleges or in-
duscry that will integrate newly developed indus-
trial engineering procedures with the best
currently in use.
5109 - Adaptation of Industrial Management Techniques
to Small Florida Industries.
5135- An Investigation into the Design of a Dual Pur-
pose Energy Absorber. To design, build and test
various solar heat absorbing sections which
mignt oe used in the design of dual purpose ab-
5136 - An Exploratory Research Program with Reference
to the Human, Natural, and Material Potential-
ities of the Bahama Islands.
Mechanical Engineering Projects
4513- Low Velocity Stream Meter. Using test models,
mathematical studies are being made of run-off
and back-tlow in Florida drainage canals.
4714 - Development of Agricultural Machinery. Improve-
ments and innovations in any type of agricultural
machinery that can be made in a machine shop.
4802-. Periodic Heaot Transmission. Studies of heat
transfer through various types of building mate-
rials in relation to periodic temperature varia-
tions experienced in Florida.
4904 - Nitriding of Stainless Steel. A project for the
development of a method to reduce the time re-
quired to niride the surfaces of steel and to pro-
duce a superior nitrided case.
4905- Hoof Spray for Reduction in Transmitted Solar
4932- Air Entrainment in Hot Water Systems. Construc-
tion and observations of a forced hot water heat-
ing systemacircuit, and the effects of the presence
of air introduced into the system.
5019- Construction of Refrigerators and Freezers for
use on the Farm.
5106 - Design of Molds and Mechanisms for Concrete
5119 - Solar Heating of Homes.
5124. Spectrograms of Metals and Alloys, Classifica-
tion of. Establishment of a reference library of
spectrograms for analysis of metals and alloys.
5127- A Study of the Effect of Vibration on Bearing
Alloys, the Vibrations being Applied During
Costing of the Ingot.
5128 . Vapor Power Cycle Fluid Studies. Investigation
of possibility of using certain fluorocarbons as
working fluids in a vapor power cycle.
5132- Design of Journal Bearings.
5137- Hulling Machine for Tung Nuts. To develop an
improved tung fruit.huller and separating system.
4715- Noval Stores Mechanization. Gum Naval Stores
production is being streamlined and its efficiency
increased by the development of new types of
5126. biological Survey of Peace River.
TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES
No. 1. "Heats of Solution of the System Sulfur Trioxide-
Water," by Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 2. "The Useful Life of Pyro-, Meta-, and Tetraphos-
phates," by Ralph A. Morgen and Robert L, Swoope.
*No. 3. "Florida Lime Rock as an Admixture in Mortar and
Concrete," by Harry H. Houston and Ralph A. Morgen
*No. 4. "Country Hides and Skins," by William D. May.
No. 5. "EmpiricalCorrection for Compressibility Factorand
Activity Coefficient Curve," by R. A. Morgen and
J. H. Childs.
*No. 6. "Crate Closing Device," by William T. Tiffin.
*No. 7. "The System Sodium Acetate-Sodium Hydroxide-
Water," by R. A. Morgen and R. D. Walker, Jr.
*No. 8. "Patent Policies for Sponsored Research," by Ralph
*No. 9. "Conservation of Municipal Water Supplies in Air-
Conditioning Systems," by N. C. Ebaugh.
*No. 10. "Florida Scrub Oak--NewSource of Vegetable Tannin,"
by H. N. Calderwood and W. D. May.
*No. 11 "Protein Feed from Sulfite Waste Liquor," by Ralph
A. Morgen and Robert D. Walker, Jr.
*No. 12. "Effect of Moisture on Thermal Conductivity of Lime-
Rock Concrete," by Mack Tyner.
*No. 13. "Insect Tests of Wire Screening Effectiveness," by
S. S. Block
No. 14. "Properties of Lmerock Concrete;'by MackTyner.
No. 15. "ScrubOak as a PotentialReplacement for Chestnut,"
by H.N. Calderwood and William D. May.
No. 16. 'Yeast from Florida Sulfite Waste Liquor," by Robert
No. 17. "Mildew-proofing Compounds," by S. S. Block.
No. 18. "Florida Limestone as a Paint Extender,' by A. L.
Kimmel and Mack Tyner.
No. 19. "Insecticidal Surface Coatings," by S. S. Block.
No. 20. "Residual Toxicity Tests on Insecticidal Protective
Coatings," by S. S. SBloek.
No. 21. "Direction Finder for Locating Storms," by William
J. Kessler and Harold L. Knowles.
*No. 22. "Impedance Matching Techniques," by William J.
No. 23. "The Engineering Experiment Station as a Stimulus to
the Graduate Program," by Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 24. "Sewage Treatment Research at the University of
Florida," by John E. Kiker, and "New Sewage Plant
Provides for Treatment,Research, Instruction," by
Charles E. Richheimer and Walter J. Parks, Jr.
No. 25. "Transient-Response Equalization Through Steady-
State Methods," by William J. Kessler.
*No. 26. "What will be the Relative Humidity?" by S.P. Goethe.
*No. 27. "The Distinction Between Effective and Circuit Band-
widths," by William J. Kessler.
*No. 28. "Measuring Pump Performance During Operation,"
by N. C Ebaugh.
No. 29. "Manufacturung of Sand-Lime Brick," by Mack Tyner.
No. 30. "Production Cost Estimate of Sand-Lime Brick Made
in Florida, by M. Tyner and A. F. Greaves-Walker.
No. 31. "Enthalpy Concentration Diagram for Hydrogen
Fluoride Water-System at One Atmosphere," by
*No. 32. "Research in the Production of Gum Naval Stores,"
by Milton E. Ryberg and Harold W. Burney.
No. 33. "Fungicide-Treated Cotton Fabric Outdoor Exposure
and Laboratory Tests," by S. S. Block.
*No. 34. "Special Anodes for the Cathodic Protection of Water
Tanks," by A. L. Kimmel.
*No 35. "Organic Reducing Agents as Air-Driers in Unsatu-
rated Polyester Resins," by D. M. French.
*No. 38. "Test. uf Inbect Wire Screening," by H. W. BuH ey
and H. B. Williams.
No. 37. "Diatomite Filters for Swimming Pools." by JohaE.
No. 38. "The Technology o Tall Oil with Special Relerence to
thePaint and Varnish Industry,"by D.L. Emersou, Jr.
No. 39. "The Solvent Extraction of Asphaltic Residues," by
H. E. Schweyer and 0. M. Brown.
No. 40. "Construction of Highways over Peat and Muck
Areas," by B. E. Colley.
*No. 41. "intermittent Sand Filter Studies,"byG R. Grantham,
D, L. Emerson, and A. K. Henry.
No. 42. "Special Relativity and the Electron," by Willis W
No. 43. "A Stabilized Voltage-Dropping Element," by Sydney
No. 44. "Impedance of Resonant Transmission linesandWave
Guides." by Willis W. Harman.
No. 45. "Earth as a Heat Source and Sink for Heat Puneps,"
by S. P. Goethe, G. E. Sutton, and W.A.Leffler.
No. 46. "Alarm Systems for Condensate Return Lines in
Citrus Processing Plants," by G. E. Remp.
No. 47. "Determination of Minimum Air Requirements for
Summer Air-Conditionang," by S. P. Goethe,
No. 48. "Lightweight Aggregate Production from Phophate
Slimes," by R. C. Specht, and W. E. Herron, Jr.
No. 49. "Pulping of Scrub Oak by the Kraft Process," by
R. IL. Harvin, G. B. Hills, Jr., C, W. Rothrock, Jr.
and W. J. Nolan.
No. 50. "Progress Report on Trickling Filter Studies," by
G. R. Grantham, Earle B. Phelps, W. T. Calatay,
and D. L. Emerson, Jr.
No. 51. "Rational Design Criteria for Sewage Absorption
Fields," by John E. Kiker, Jr.
No, 52. "Granular Stabilization with Limerock," by f. A.
No. 53. "LOW Temperature Calcination Rates of L.mesteae."
by Archie Wakefield, Jr. and Mack Tyner
No. 54. "Roof Spray for Reduction in Transmitted Solar
Radiation," by G. E. Sutton.
No, 55. "A Study of Some Metals for Use as Permanent
Anodes in Water-Tank Cathodce Protection Syste;ms
by A. L. Kimmel.
No. 56. "Study of the Tannin Contents of Barks from the For-
ida Scrub Oaks Querctus laevis and Q. cinerea-" by
J. S. Rogers, H. N. Calderwood and-C. W. Beebe.
No. 57. "Expectancy and Intensity of Excessive Rainfalls at
Jacksonville, Florida--1910-1948," by David B.
No, 58. "Cascading Cathode-Followers to Provide Righ-
Impedance Transformation Ratios," by Sydney E.
Smith and William J. Kessler,
No, 59. "Reciprocal Aspects of Transientand Steady-Aate
Concepts," by W, J. Kessler.
No. 60. "Protection of Paper and Textile Products trom
Insect Damage," by S. S. Block.
No. 61, "'AnAtmosphericsWaveformReceiveri'byWilliam
J. Kessler and Sydney E. Smith.
No. 62. "The Lime Industry in Florida," by James M.
'DllroI--A New Insecticide Diluent," by Mack Tyner.
"The Beat Pump--The Choice and Cost of Various
Systnnu.," by S. P. Goethe.
"New Use for Florida Limerock," by Mack Tyner.
"Chemurgic Research for Industries in Florida,"
by Robert D. Walker, Jr.
"School Tests Sewerage for Flurid. TOawn," by D.L.
"Tests of Screening Effectiveness Against Insects,"
by S. S. Block.
"Advancement in Timber Mechanics and Desin Calls
for Specially-Trained Engineers," by Howard J.
"Design of Plywood I-Beas," by Howard J. Hansen.
"Lightweaght Concrete Aggregate from Phosphate
Waste," by A. F. Greaves-Walker and P., P. Turner.
"Corrosion Research at the Florida Engineerlg and
Industrial Experiment Station," by A. L. Kinmnel.
"Some Notes on Florida Petroleum," by H. E.
"Faculty Personnel Factors and Promotions," by
"Weather and Electronics Research," by E, D.
"Cigar Manufactring Industry," by IndustrialEngi-
'Tung Oil industry " by Industrial Engineering Dept.
"Phospitate Industry," by Industrial Engineering Dept.
"Canning Industry,' r, i im.:rrn L,..,-- -' - it,
"Lumber and Basic T'...., 2i,-c.' r-I L.I.ctri.l
r"Pulp and Paper Industry," by Industrial Engin ne
"Fertilizer Manufacturibg industry," by Industrial
"Effect of Waste Disposal of the Pebble Pholiate
Rock Industry in Florida on Condition of Reeeeng
Streams," by R. C. Specht.
"Watermelon Seed Harvesting Machines Improved,"
by H. B. Williams.
"Opportunities for Lime Production in Florida," by
"Florida--A Look Into the Future," by George B.
"Better Tools forGum Production," by MUltim E.
"Injection Molding of the Acid Spray Gun Nozle,"
by H. W. Burney.
"Titanium Rapidly Growing as Useful Engineering
Material," by W. T. Tiffin and P. C. Hoffman,
"What, Where and How Much," by Ralph A. Mren.
"The Heat Pump--A Gold Mine?" by George E.S , .
"Building an Engineering Curriculum," by Josept
"An Acid Spraying Puller for Naval Stores Prodae-
Lion," by M. E. Ryberg and H. E,. Burney,