Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Sept. 3: The garden
 Sept. 4: The two trees
 Sept. 5: The promise
 Sept. 6: Cain and Abel
 Sept. 7: Long life
 Sept. 8: Noah and the flood
 Sept. 9: Shem, Ham, and Japhet...
 Sept. 10: The tower
 Sept. 11: The division
 Sept. 12: Abraham's journey
 Sept. 13: Trees and tabernacle...
 Sept. 14: The oaks of Mamre
 Sept. 15: The wilderness of...
 Sept. 16: Sodom
 Sept. 17: The wild man
 Sept. 18: Moriah
 Sept. 19: The cave of Machpela...
 Sept. 20: Isaac's wife
 Sept. 21: Abraham's children
 Back Cover

Group Title: Word
Title: Walks from Eden
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005003/00001
 Material Information
Title: Walks from Eden
Series Title: Word
Physical Description: vi, 284, 8 p., <7> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Warner, Susan, 1819-1885
James Nisbet & Co ( Publisher )
James Ballantyne and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: James Nisbet and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Ballantyne and Company
Publication Date: 1872
Subject: Bible stories, English -- O.T   ( lcsh )
Black stamped cloth (Binding) -- 1872   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1872   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre: Black stamped cloth (Binding)   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of "The wide wide world."
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005003
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239475
oclc - 48959706
notis - ALJ0005

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    Sept. 3: The garden
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Sept. 4: The two trees
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Sept. 5: The promise
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Sept. 6: Cain and Abel
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Sept. 7: Long life
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 61a
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Sept. 8: Noah and the flood
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Sept. 9: Shem, Ham, and Japheth
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Sept. 10: The tower
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Sept. 11: The division
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Sept. 12: Abraham's journey
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 137a
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Sept. 13: Trees and tabernacles
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Sept. 14: The oaks of Mamre
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Sept. 15: The wilderness of Paran
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 185a
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Sept. 16: Sodom
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 193a
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Sept. 17: The wild man
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Sept. 18: Moriah
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Sept. 19: The cave of Machpelah
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Sept. 20: Isaac's wife
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 261a
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 263a
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    Sept. 21: Abraham's children
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
        Page A 6
        Page A 7
        Page A 8
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
( .. 4 "^
^ (./ '




Page 185.

Emlow- Ix -
... 141-





"They that be of faith are blessed ot faithful Abraham."



THE aim of this work is not commentary nor fiction. It is,
in the strictest form, truth. The Bible narrative is a skeleton.
We wish, by the aid of collateral facts, to clothe the skeleton
in its living flesh and blood. Or so to set forth the Bible
incidents and course of history, with its train of actors, as
to see them in the circumstances and colouring, the light
and shade, of their actual existence. To do this, we take
whatever research and travel have made sure, with recent
science and discovery, to fill up what is sketchy and clear
up what is obscure; thus entering as far as we may, into
the simple truth of the things, the times, and the actors.
And especially we wish to show how from the beginning the
various arrangements of Providence converged towards Him
who is the centre of the whole system of Providence-" the
way, the truth, and the life "-Him, the WORD.
Without very much study and many facilities, such as are
within reach of few; without a slow, thoughtful, loving com-
parison of scripture with scripture, and following up the
fine threads of Bible delineation, as one would unwind a
clue; without the help of what many travellers and men
of research and science have recorded of their knowledge-
such realisation of the old and trite Bible facts as I have
spoken of is not possible. The aim of this work is to supply


to the many who cannot otherwise attain it, the result of
such facilities and such study.
It is a great joy to have this work in our hands and in our
hearts; and it may be that God will teach us how to convey
some part of its exceeding pleasantness to the reader.
The second volume on the Old Testament, and the first
volume of the Life of Christ, are in preparation.

THE ISLAND, October 9, 1866.




,, 7.-LONG LIFE, .
,, 10.-THE TOWER,



,, 16.-SoDOM, .
,, 17.-THi WILD MAN,.
,, 18.-MORIAH, .

20.-IsAAc's WIFE,









. 190




ONE of the pleasantest times that I remember in my child-
hood, is a certain stretch of months that we spent in a wild
country. My father was away in Europe, on business that
Armight keep him no one knew how long. My uncle, my
grandmother, and we children, forsook the city, and came
away many miles from anything like a city, to this place of
rude nature. It was a possession of my father's; a great
tract of unbroken mountain and woodland; where the trees
grew as they-had grown for ages, untouched by an axe, and
the moss under them flourished in green softness that no
foot had ever disturbed. Cutting wood in these forests
was the business my uncle had come to oversee for my
father. He and the boys were out and away with the work
men a great deal of the time. Meanwhile, my grandmother
and Priscilla and I, at home, were almost as much in the
woods as they. We inhabited an old house, built originally
for whom I do not know, to which my uncle had made some
addition, and the whole of which had been tightened up and
fitted for our accommodation. But nobody had lived in it
for long, and we were in the woods still. Not even garden
ground broke the wilderness. There was space enough for
it, but only green grass took possession; and very near to


the house the great trees closed round, and the lichened
rocks rose among beds of fern and mosses and every other
sweet wood thing that grows in such places.
They were places of delight to us all. I can never tell
how pleasant to me were the great forest glades; how grand
were the high archways of interlacing boughs; how bewitch-
ing to my fancy the endless vistas changing with sunshine
and shadow, roofed with a bit of blue, and floored with a
checkerwork of sunlit leaves or soft herbage. We spent a
deal of our time out of the house, though my grandmother
and I did not often go far. The forest was just as good for
reading or knitting or studying lessons, as the house was;
and being as good, it was much- better. At last we found
out that it was the best place for dinner; and through the
beautiful days of September and October we came to have
rarely any worse dining-room than the forest a thousand
years old.
The pleasantness of those dinners it is impossible to tell to
anybody who has never known the like. How sweet the air
was; how soft the light; how pretty our carpet of moss or
pine leaves; how refreshing our music! For the breeze
would rustle dreamily in the high tops of the pines, or flutter
the oak leaves; the red squirrels would chatter from the
boughs of a chestnut; the woodpecker couldbe heard in the
distance, and the chick-a-dee near by; and sometimes the
whirr of a partridge's wing. For the place was so wild that
the creatures were almost tame; and the white ears of a
particular rabbit were often seen bounding along behind the
rocks near us.
The third time, I think it was, that we took dinner in the
woods, we removed a little further off, to a particular rock
and glade that my uncle and the boys had visited. The
path was easy enough for my grandmother to walk. Uncle
Sam carried me in his arms; for he was strong, and I was
lame, and lighter, he said, than he wished I was. Besides,
the distance was not great. Dan carried the tea-kettle, and
Liph trundled a wheelbarrow which contained our stores.
The place was lovely when we got to it. A long ridge of


rock made an opening for itself through the trees, like a
rib of the earth's skeleton. There the warm September sun-
shine lay all along, on a surface gray with the close lichen
and crisp gray moss. The sunshine lay there all along;
but a shadow fell here and there from a pine-tree or a group
of young oaks, and gray rocks and stones were scattered
about in the edges of the wood.
Dan and Liph put three or four stones together to serve
for a fireplace, and Priscilla kindled a fire under the kettle.
Uncle Sam, having deposited me on the rock in a nice shady
place, took upon him the business of getting fuel; while the
boys prepared ears of corn to roast. My grandmother
always had her knitting; but I wanted nothing but to look
and listen and take in the sweetness of all around me. How
golden the sun was in the tree tops! How dainty the gray
moss on the rock How rich-coloured the green moss that
grew here and there on the tree branches! Then such a
gentle September sky overhead; such pure air; and below
-Priscilla's fire crackling and snapping, and my uncle
breaking up sticks, and Dan and Liph as busy as bees. Oh,
we were very happy! They were, and I know I was, though
I could do nothing. By the time the tea-kettle had boiled,
they were all ready to come and sit down and be quiet. We
gathered round on the rock and opened our baskets, and
Priscilla filled the cups with tea.
"Uncle Sam," said Liph, do you suppose they had roasted
corn in the garden of Eden ?-"
"I should think the fire could have been dispensed with,
Why, sir, the fire is not unpleasant here-and it is a warm
Coats and trousers are not unpleasant, either."
Uncle Sam," said Priscilla, "I shouldn't think such very
hot weather would have been comfortable. When the
weather is so hot as that, it makes my head ache."
There were no headaches in the garden of Eden," said my
Uncle Sam," said I, "were you ever in Eden 1"


"Tiny, I have been all over those countries, so I suppose I
have. But nobody knows just where it was."
"It was between the Euphrates and the Tigris, wasn't it,
sir ?" said Liph.
"I have just said, I don't know."
"But the Euphrates is mentioned, sir?"
"Yes. And I suppose the Tigris is mentioned; but it
does not say that Eden was between them. It is no matter
where it was, now."
"Uncle Sam," said I, "do you think Eden-I mean, the
garden-was much pleasanter than this place is?"
"This place!" said my uncle. z" Ah, little Tiny !"
I could not imagine anything much pleasanter, as I looked
at the green moss beds and the soft shadows of the trees
across our rock, and the bright sunlight up overhead in the
branches. I said so. My uncle hugged me up in his arms
and kissed me.
"No, you cannot imagine it," he said. "We cannot imagine
the glorious things God does for those that love Him and
that He loves. Why, Tiny, I suppose every bit of the earth
was as lovely as this; but that was a garden which the Lord
planted for His two children before they did anything wrong;
there has been nothing like it in the world ever since. There
was every tree that is pleasant to the sight or good for food;
and such beds of flowers, I suppose, Tiny, as you and I never
saw the like, nor dreamed of."
"Uncle Sam," said my brother Liph, "do you think they
lived upon fruit entirely ?"
"Fruit and vegetables."
"Well I couldn't," said Liph. "And you couldn't, either,
uncle Sam. Not and take such walks through the forest as
we do. And our woodcutters, uncle; they couldn't live on
apples and nuts?",
"Man did not live by the sweat of his brow then, Liph;
and in the second place, we are in a cold climate. That
makes a great deal of difference. In Norway men eat more
meat than we do; and under the tropics you would care for
very little, and that of a very delicate kind.'


"I should like that," I remarked.
"Yes, there was no killing of white-eared rabbits in the
garden of Eden, and nobody set snares for the wild par-
tridges, or shot the quaiL"
The boys would not have liked the garden of Eden," said
"It was not made for them," said my uncle.
"I should think one might have got tired of living on
fruit, though," said Liph.
"You don't know what you are talking about," said my
uncle. "The fruits of the earth, even now, are not all goose-
berries and apples. I have breakfasted in the West Indies,
Liph, with as many as ten kinds of fruit on the table, nearly
all of which you never saw."
"On what, uncle Sam "
"I cannot tell you. There was one, the guana-bana, as
large as Tiny's head almost, that had a thick rind and the
inside like a custard; we ate it with spoons. Another was
dipped in gravy and eaten with salt and pepper. There were
oranges and pine-apples, and roasted plantains, and nisperos,
Sand others. The world is rich yet. But the word Eden
means pleasure; and no doubt the garden of Eden was the
crown of all the world, or, as the Hindoo legend calls it, the
seed-cup of the lotus of the earth."
"So the Hindoos know about the garden of Eden, uncle
Sam ?"
"They have kept some tradition of it-that is all, Tiny.
They say that it is a city on a golden mountain, washed by
the Ganges; and that the Ganges, flowing from the foot of
their god Vishnu, comes to the moon, and from there falls
through the skies to this city, and then goes off in four streams
to the four corners of the earth."
"Why there are the four rivers again !" said I.
"And they say the tree of life is there, and a river of the
water of life, making immortal those who drink. And that
is all they know about Paradise."
And what more do we know, uncle "
"Come, Tiny, I did not expect that of you. Letus see


what we do know, more than the heathen. In the first place,
God made man in His own image."
Oh yes, uncle; but I was speaking of Paradise."
Well, that is Paradise," said my uncle. "Boys, what does
it mean ?"
"It means, that man was made with a spirit, does it not,
sir ? a spirit that thinks ; a mind."
"Is that all, Dan ? The fallen angels have such a mind, a
thinking nature; are they in the image of God ?"
No, sir,-certainly; not now."
Then it means something more."
Goodness ? cried Priscilla.
"The Bible says, speaking of the first man, Adam, and of
the second man, which is the Lord from heaven, that 'as
we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the
image of the heavenly.' And it says in another place, that
Christians are' renewed after the image of Him that created
them.' So I suppose, Prissy, that you are right. I suppose
that man was created in the image of his Maker, and has
lost it. Don't you remember, David says, 'I shall be satis-
fied when I awake with Thy likeness ?'"
My grandmother looked up and said, in her slow and sweet
way-"'It doth not yet appear what we shallbe; but we
know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him.'"
We were all silent a minute.
"Uncle Sam," said Dan, gravely, do you think the image
of God has been quite lost ? "
Not quite, my boy. Theie are the ruins remaining, so to
speak; broken fragments of nobleness, and justice, and
truth, and love-only fragments, till God restore that which
is wanting, and build the whole up again on a new founda-
tion. Just so, we enjoy some of the ruins of the earthly
"Is this one of the ruins ?" said I, looking up into the
great forest trees.
"Nothing better, Tiny," said my uncle. In that garden of
Eden everything was perfect."
What isn't perfect here, uncle Sam V"


He smiled and bent down to me with his kind face;
but his voice was a little touched, I thought, when he
"Is Tiny perfect ?-is uncle Sam I Do we love God so
entirely that God is always with us, and we always delight-
ing to please Him ? Do we love Him so that we have no
more fear of anything, knowing that all things are in His
hand ? There was no fear in the garden of Eden."
I was silent; so were they all Liph pounded upon the
rock with a stone, which meant, I suppose, that fear had
nothing to do with him; but they all knew that I was a
"There was not anything for Adam to be afraid of, I
guess," Dan observed.
"Plenty, if he had not had the favour of God," said my
"Why, what, sir "
"Do you remember what was told him about the fruit of
the tree-'In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt
surely die?' What did it mean 2"
"It meant death, and sickness, and all that, I suppose."
"Ah, it meant the loss of the tree of life," said my uncle;
"and that includes all possible evil. But even now, Dan, a
man, or a boy, that lives in the favour of God, has nothing
to fear."
My grandmother added in her quiet way-"' Though I
walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear
no evil, for Thou art with me.' "
Whatever my grandmother said, we always reverently
listened to; we knew that these words were entirely true
of her.
But, uncle Sam," I said, "I did not mean that-I did not
mean the people, I meant the trees. Do you think the trees,
and the sky, in the garden of Eden, were nicer than these 1"
"These trees are pretty good," said my uncle, looking at
an immense hemlock which stood before us a pyramid of
beauty, carrying up its feathery branches from the ground
to a great height.


How beautiful the fresh green of -it is," said my grand-
mother, "showing behind those lighter-foliaged oaks."
"Yes, so it is," said my uncle. Nevertheless, we do not
know what the trees of Paradise were. That was a garden
that the Lord had planted; there has been none other like
it. When the Bible is describing the greatness and glory of
the King of Assyria, under the figure of a cedar in Lebanon
with fair branches, it says, to describe his flourishing, that
'the cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the
fir-trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut-trees were
not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God
was like unto him in his beauty.' "
"Then those must have been the beautifullest trees that
ever were," said Priscilla.
"There never was such a garden," said uncle Sam. "Then
think what company they had !"
"Company !" said Liph. "Why, I thought they were
"They had no human society," said my uncle, but I have
little doubt that the angels visited them. And we are
pretty sure the Lord himself did."
Why, it don't say so."
"I think it does. After the fall, don't you remember,
they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden
in the cool of the day --and Adam knew whose voice it was,
and it did not surprise him nor startle him, except for some-
thing on his own account."
I never thought of that," said Dan.
"Uncle," said Liph, "how much do you suppose Adam
knew ?"
"About what?"
"About anything, sir."
"I suppose he knew a good deal, Liph; of all that was
necessary to him. The rest he was left to find out. God
gave him the knowledge of language-he had no chance to
learn that as we learn it: and God gave him the knowledge
of natural history that he had; and it must have been a
good deal too. Yon know, the animals were all brought


before him to be named, and 'whatsoever Adam called
every living creature, that was the name thereof.' You
could not do that, Liph; you do not know enough to distin-
guish and understand the several races of animals; nor even
Tiny, dearly as she loves them. The great naturalist,
Cuvier, could tell from a single bone what the animal had
been that it belonged to. I think Adam must have had
some such quick and deep insight given him into the nature
of the strange living things he had not had time to study.
Then Adam must have known probably the use of some
"Tools, uncle Sam !" exclaimed Eliphalet. "How could
he get them? He had no iron; he couldn't have had any
"No, boy; neither had the inhabitants of the South Seas,
for many ages; and yet I have seen carving of their execut-
ing that you, and better workmen than you, would be
puzzled to match with your iron tools."
What did they work with 1"
A bit of coral; a shark's tooth, or a rat's; a hard stone
ground to a sharp edge; and shells. I have seen a clever
pruning knife made of a thin piece of tortoise-shell, tight
bound on a stick for a handle."
"Do you think Adam had such tools as those ?"
"If he had any."
"But what did he want of tools in the garden of Eden ?"
"You forget, it seems to me, the work he had to do, Liph.
He was not put there to be idle. He had to dress it and to
keep it. For my part, I am at a loss to see how he could
have done either with only his fingers. I am of opinion that
he had a pruning knife of shell, and perhaps used sticks to
stir the ground, instead of spades; as they do, or did, long
after in Fiji."
"I never thought they did anything in the garden of
Eden," said Dan.
"They were happy there," said my uncle; "and nobody
is happy that is idle. Work is no part of the curse; though
toil and disappointment are."


"'Thou shalt eat the labour of thy hands; happy shalt
thou be, and it shall be well with thee,'" my grandmother
put in.
Ay ; it is to labour and not have the fruit; to labour and
fail; to labour against hindrances; that is what they did
not do in the garden of Eden."
But what did they do, uncle Sam I always thought that
everything grew perfect there, and that there was nothing
to be done."
"You thought that to dress and to keep the garden meant
nothing ? "
"I did not think much about it, sir."
So I should suppose. But not a word in the Bible goes
for nothing, Liph."
"Well, sir, what do you think Adam had to do in the
garden !"
"To dress it, and to keep it."
"How, uncle Sam 1"
"What would become of your grandmother's- plot of
flowers at home, if nobody did anything to it ? "
Oh, but I didn't suppose they had weeds in the garden of
"They had no thorns and briars to grieve them, but I
guess they had weeds to keep them busy. What are weeds ?
Anything that crowds and hinders cultivation, will answer
the purpose, though it were the most beautiful flower."
But, uncle Sam, nobody has ever taken care of these
woods-and they are just in beautiful order; they do not
want anything."
"And we are in a cold climate," said my uncle, where
nature's forces are stinted. You do not know anything
about it. The garden of Eden was under a hot sun; and in-
stead of driving rains, that sink into the soil and are gone,
there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole
face of the ground. It must have been an atmosphere like
one of our hothouses that we keep for tropical plants-such
as I have felt in a South American forest; and how things
grow there, you have no idea. Nature has it all her own way."


Do things grow so fast, uncle Sam ?"
And so full and so strong. Let me tell you. I was in a
forest there, in the heart of South America, which reached
twelve hundred miles in a straight line, and much more than
that making an angle. Where, Humboldt said truly, a flock
of monkeys could travel two thousand miles in the branches
of the trees, without ever coming down to the ground."
O uncle Sam !"
"No man has touched it or meddled with it to break its
wild flourishing. In the midst of it is one little town, a
great way from anybody else ; shut in all round by the forest,
except on the river side; and it is only by keeping up a con-
stant fight with nature that the inhabitants maintain a little
cleared space for themselves."
Were you there, sir "
"Yes, for some time. The forest bewitched me. I used
to go wandering in it with an Indian who could guide me;
or sometimes with the sarsaparilla-hunters I went further
and deeper."
"What were they, uncle Sam "
"Why, Prissy, they were men who went into the forest to
dig up sarsaparilla roots to sell. We used to go up the river
first in a canoe, for some miles, and make an encampment in
a favourable spot; and then every day was spent in the heart
of the woods. And such woods! The stems of the trees,
some of them thirty or forty feet in girth, shot up straight
and without a branch for perhaps sixty feet;-and there, at
that height and above, if you looked up, you could see only
a roofing of green tracery; all the kinds of leaves mingled to-
gether, so that it was impossible to distinguish the foliage or
the head of any particular tree, and so thick that the sun
could not get through."
And it was all shady below, uncle Sam "
"All shady, Tiny; a still, soft, damp kind of shade; except
where some monstrous tree had been thrown over by a storm,
and the sun could look in. The undergrowth was not very
thick in those places I have been speaking of; there was
some; but besides that, there was every variety of climbing



plants and parasitic plants, making their way up the tall
stems of the trees, and twisting their foliage with the leafy
variety up above. No winter, and no fall of leaf; the heats
and the rains keep up a continual summer, and a continual
spring and autumn too; there is no time of the year when
leaf-budding, and flowering, and fruit-ripening, and shedding
the leaf, is not going on in some trees or others."
Were there no animals there "
"Animals! Tiny, you would lose your wits with joy if
you could see the animals. Monkeys with glossy white hair
and faces of bright vermilion; that is a kind much sought
after for pets; black monkeys with white mouths; gray
monkeys, and other monkeys; parrots of every colour under
heaven; toacans, one with a breast white and yellow, and
with red and saffron-coloured feathers near its tail, another
with another gay uniform. Scarlet tanagers and seven-
coloured tanagers; humming birds; and butterflies, Tiny!
-great blue butterflies, scarlet and purple ones, and varieties
of other butterfly and beetle splendour."
I drew a long breath. I remember I thought if Eve had
all those in the garden of Eden she must have been a happy
"How do you think a garden would get along in such a
country, Liph, without dressing and keeping? The trees
would hinder the sun from getting to the ground ; the climb-
ing plants would make a wilderness among the trees, kill
some of them, and then come down in a mass of decay; and
in many places the growth of underwood, small plants and
creepers, would make an impassable, dank thicket ; such as
I have many a time made my way through with infinite dif-
ficulty, cutting my passage at every step."
"I never thought of all that," said Dan.
"And .then storms would make a confusion, as they do
here," said Liph,-" when our corn is thrown over."
"Nay, there are storms in the South American forests,"
said my uncle, and now and then even in our high latitudes;
but there were no storms in the garden of Eden. A sunny
mist went up and watered the earth, and the flowers and


fruits sprang forth; thunder never rolled there, nor dark
clouds covered the skies; hailstones never destroyed the
herb of the field. When the Lord 'made a decree for the
rain, and a way for the lightning of the thunder;' when
He 'brought the wind out of His treasuries,'-when He
'divided a watercourse for the overflowing of waters,'-it
was not for the place where His two obedient children dwelt
that had never displeased Him."
"Yet these are 'to satisfy the desolate and waste ground
and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth,'"
remarked my grandmother.
"Yes," said my uncle, "all the Lord's works praise Him;
'fire and hail; snow and vapours; stormy wind fulfilling His
word.' But these things were done more gently in Paradise."
I thought I should have liked to live in Paradise And
then I wondered that Adam and Eve had ever left it; and
so came my next question.
Uncle Sam, what do you suppose was the tree of know-
ledge of good and evil ?"
"I don't know," said uncle Sam; "but I suppose it was
just a tree."
"Then why was it called so?"
"Because it was the tree of obedience or disobedience.
It did not matter what Adam might have been commanded
-anything else might have done just as well; as long as he
was obedient he was innocent, and he did not know by
experience the difference between good and evil. But, boys,
we must go and look after our woodcutters."
"Uncle Sam, I never knew before what a beautiful life
they led in the garden of Eden. I shall always think now of
that South American forest."
"It was better far than that, Tiny."
"Yes, uncle Sam; but the plants, and trees, and animals."
Monkeys, hey ?" said my uncle,-" and butterflies ? I
like them very much, Tiny; but they do not make Paradise."
"No, I know it, uncle Sam."
"Do you know what did, Tiny? The tree of life was in
that garden."


"What does that mean, uncle Sam?"
"It was the fruit of that tree which made them immortal,
wasn't it, sir "
"That was one of its blessings undoubtedly," said my
uncle. "Whatever else it means, as long as Adam and
Eve could eat of that tree, their bodies were subject to no
disease or decay; and their children would have shared the
blessings with them, if they had staid there. Grandmamma
would never have grown old-and Tiny would never have
been lame."
"Whatever else it means, you say. Uncle Sam, does it
mean anything else ? I never thought so," said Daniel.
Boys, I cannot enter into it to-day-I must go and look
after my woodcutters. Yes, it means everything else.
What would the mere life of the body or the spirit be,
if it were not a life in happiness ? Do you think the evil
spirits are any better off for their immortality? or do
you think the spirits of wicked men in this world would
be any nearer Paradise if they had perfect and undying
bodies ?"
"I don't know," said Eliphalet. "I think they would."
"Uncle," said Dan, thoughtfully, "I think they would
grow wickeder."
You are right, my boy. For when the lives of men were
ten times as long as they are now, the world grew so bad
that the Lord could not bear them. And there was nothing
like Paradise in the earth then, you may be sure."
"Uncle Sam," said I, "I always thought the tree of life
meant only that."
"It means life!" said my uncle-" not mere existing. It
means fulness of joy and pleasures for evermore. It means,
to have all we want; not what wicked natures wish for, but
the full satisfaction which God made us to enjoy. It takes
in no doubt the pleasures of intellect and of all the parts of
our nature; but it takes in something else. What does the
Lord Jesus say is eternal life ?"
We were silent; nobody seemed to remember. Then my
grandmother spoke.


"' This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only
true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.'"
And He says, 'I am the bread of life.' We are starving,
hungry, unsatisfied people, until we feed upon that bread.
Don't you know He says, 'He that cometh to me shall never
hunger 7'"
I did not quite understand, or in a dim sort of way. I saw
that Daniel looked thoughtful, and my grandmother's face
was bright. My uncle leaned over and put his arm round
"You know that Jesus has brought back Paradise for us,"
he said; "a better Paradise than Adam and Eve knew. There
will be new heavens and a new earth, so fair that these shall
not be remembered nor come into mind. There will be the
tree of life, and the river of the water of life, and a city of
golden streets, and the presence of God. Your grandmother
and I call ourselves strangers in this world, for we are
travelling to a home in that heavenly country. And the
Bible says, 'Blessed are they that do his commandments,
that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in
through the gates into the city.'"


THE boys and my uncle went away, and my grandmother
and I staid thinking. I knew she was thinking, for she was
silent a long time; only she made Priscilla fetch her knit-
ting out of the house; and we sat there under the great
trees, while hour after hour passed y,. Priscilla was roam-
ing about, gathering acorn cups to make a basket; my
grandmother and I were most of the time alone. I had got
my Bible from the house; and lying along on the moss, with
it open before me at the last chapters of the Revelation, I
was musing over the Paradise that had been lost, and that
other Paradise of which the description glowed with such
unearthly and pure glory. I looked at my grandmother
sometimes; but she did not seem to notice me. I could now
and then see her lips move slightly; in prayer, I knew it
was, or in praise; but we said nothing to each other.
The boys and my uncle came home, with hands full of
asters and cardinal flower, and heads full of business. We
had supper; after supper my uncle heard the boys' lessons.
Priscilla and I grew very tired and went to bed. My thoughts
ran still upon the garden of Eden, going to bed and getting
up; the first chance I had I brought up the subject again.
It was not till the morning was all passed, and under the
shade of the oaks, on the same ledge of gray roi'k, we were
gathered again to take our dinner. It was evten ph-isanter
than yesterday. A soft sunny haze of clo:ud.s a litt le ol.rcured
the heat and the light of the sun, and the fragrance of the
hemlock seemed sweeter than ever.
"People were not meant to live in houses!" said my uncle,
as he was drinking his cup of tea.
"Then houses are a consequence of sin," said Liph.


"So it seems," said my uncle. "Old Matthew Henry says
that clothes and houses came in together."
"I was thinking, uncle," said I, that one of the pleasant
things in the garden of Eden was that they lived out of
doors all the time."
Ah, you are at the garden of Eden yet, Tiny," said he.
"Uncle Sam, I wonder why they ever.left it."
It is like Columbus's broken egg," said my uncle. We
are all wise after the deed is done. Poor Eve wanted her
eyes opened; and they were,-to her sorrow, and ours too.
'Thou shalt be mad for the sight of thine eyes which thou
shalt see.' That was prophesied to some of her children;
and has beentrue of many a one."
"Uncle Sam, how could she be deceived ?"
"I don't know, Tiny. How could you "
"I do not think I would, sir, as she was. I would have
been afraid. Why she had been told what would happen, if
she ate of the tree."
My uncle smiled a sorrowful kind of smile.
"And yet every one of you," he said, "has been deceived,
just as Eve was; only you have not seen the serpent."
"What have we been deceived in, sir Z" said the boys and
Priscilla together.
What has the Lord ever told you to do, which you have
put off doing, because something said to you that by and by
would be just as well?"
"Uncle," said Dan, frankly, "I thought it was my own
wicked heart that said that. I did not think it was the
"Dan, my boy," said my uncle, "your own heart gives
consent to it, no doubt; but 'that old serpent which
deceiveth the whole world,' never loses his opportunity, nor
leaves unattended to a single one of his subjects. He is
busy with us all."
I saw Dan's face flush, and I was about to speak, but
Eliphalet prevented me.
"Uncle Sam, I think Eve ought to have suspected mis-
chief, when the serpent began to talk to her."


"Why "
"It was unnatural, sir; animals do not speak"
How did Eve know that ? "
"Why, she had seen a good many animals, I should think;
and she had never heard one of them talk."
"Eve could not know that she had seen the whole. An I
she was in a garden of wonders; she was learning and
finding out something new every day; how should she
know but that this serpent was a new and extraordinary
kind ?"
"Adam knew, uncle Sam, for he had named all the
"That is a good remark, Dan; but please to remember, he
might not have had time to tell his wife all he knew. Eve
was like a beautiful grown-up child, in the knowledge of
many things."
But God had told them what would happen, uncle Sam,
if they ate of the tree."
"Ay, Prissy; and the serpent said another story; he was
a liar from the beginning; and Eve's faith and obedience
gave way to his cunning temptation, and her own curiosity."
"But Adam knew better."
"Very likely that was why the serpent went to the woman.
Adam was not deceived, the Bible says."
"Uncle Sam," said Eliphalet, "how do you know that it
was the devil that tempted Eve, and not just a serpent ? "
"Because the Bible calls him 'that old serpent, which is
the devil, and Satan.'"
"But, uncle Sam," said I, earnestly, "you spoke just now
as if Dan was one of his subjects."
"Well, isn't he?" said my uncle. "There are only two
kingdoms, dear little Tiny, and two Princes. One is the
Lord Jesus; and the other is the 'Prince of the power of the
air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobe-
dience.' Eeverybody is under the one or the other; and till
we are in the kingdom of Jesus, we are under the rule and
dominion of the devil."
Under his dominion, uncle ?"


"He is called the Prince of this world, Tiny. And if you
read the Bible carefully, you will see that he sets a-going
every bad thing that is done. It was he tempted David to
indulge his pride in numbering Israel. It was he put it
into the heart of Judas to betray his Master. He would
have sifted Peter like wheat, if Peter's Saviour had not been
too strong for him. He was at the root of the lie that
Ananias told. It is he that comes and catches away the good
seed, when it is sown in careless hearts ; and he 'blinds the
eyes of them which believe not.' He is the 'ruler of the dark-
ness of this world,'-what a dreadful kingdom to be in !
In the field of this world, sown with wheat and tares, 'the
tares are the children of the wicked one.' 'Taken captive
by him at his will,' they are said to be; to turn them to God,
is to take them 'from the power of Satan.'"
"Then if they are under his power, uncle Sam," said
Liph, "how are they to blame for what they do 1"
Because they need not be under his power one moment.
David risked his life to save a sheep of his flock; and our
Lord Jesus is a better Shepherd than he. The feeblest little
lamb never cried to Him out of the very mouth of the lion,
that he did not hear and deliver it."
"Did Satan get all this power," Dan asked, "because
Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit' "
Then they lost their protection, Dan. They were rebels;
they had forfeited all the privileges of the government they
were under. Yes, Satan got his power then."
"And then one sin followed another," said Dan.
"Fast. They had been as innocent as little children from
every thought of evil."
Uncle Sam," said I, I don't believe Paradise seemed
like Paradise that afternoon."
"No, Tiny. And when they heard in the cool of the day
their Lord's voice in the garden-that voice which had been
the pleasantest sound that could come to them-a voice like
no other voice, for they knew it directly-Adam and his wife
hid themselves among the trees. That was the first time.
Fear never came till sin did."


"But sin is not the reason of all fear, is it ?" I asked.
Little Tiny, I think it is. 'Perfect love casteth out fear.'
What has a child of God to be afraid of "
It was very foolish of Adam and Eve to think they could
hide," said Priscilla.
And what a blind excuse he gave," said Eliphalet, "'be-
cause he was naked,'-as if that itself did not tell And then
how meanly he tried to throw the blame on Eve. Anyhow,
he took the fruit with his eyes open." '
It seems to me," said Dan, that Adam grew wicked very
Once without the favour and care of God, and it would
only depend upon circumstances and temptation how fast
any man would grow wicked," said my uncle. "Neither you
nor I could trust ourselves."
"Did that one little thing ruin all the people of the world,
ancle Sam "
So you think sin a little thing, Liph ? This ought to
teach you otherwise. 'By one man sin entered into the
world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men,
for that all have. sinned.' "
But why could not the children of Adam and Eve have
been good I"
Children are of the same nature with their parents. And
besides, Adam and Eve and their children had lost the favour
of God."
"How the children too, uncle Sam? What had they
There is an old English law, Dan, called the law of at.
tainder. Attainder comes from a Latin word which means
stained. When a man had committed high treason and been
sentenced, he lost all his lands and dignities; and not only
he lost them, but they were lost to his children too, and for
ever. We do not know why it was so in the case of Adam,
but we know the fact. Perhaps one reason was, that all the
universe might see what God thinks of sin, and how awful
His holiness is; since He could have nothing to do with
even the family of the sinner, except through that blessed


One who undertook to stand between God and us, and do
what was needful to reconcile us to Him."
"Do you suppose Adam and Eve understood all that,
uncle "
They could not, as we do; they had only entered upon.
the knowledge of good and evil If they could have seen
in vision only one of millions of the things that are done
every day in this world, into which they brought sin, they'
would have begged to die at once."
But I do not understand why they did not die at once."
There are many things, Liph, which you fail to under-
stand, for want of knowing more than you do. You forget
that the sentence, 'Dying, thou shalt die,' meant more than
the mere death of the body; and took effect immediately,
besides, in all its meaning. They were lost to the favour of
God-they had fallen under the dominion of the devil; hap-
piness was gone ; and an entrance was made for all the pains,
and aches, and decays of the flesh. And the utter death of
the body did not happen that day-is it possible you do not
remember why ?-because Jesus had said-' Deliver him from
going down to the pit I have found a ransom.' "
"Poor Eve !" said my grandmother-" how sorrowful her
answer is-' The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.' She
had found out her mistake."
"And I suppose the devil triumphed," said Dan.
"He had a short triumph," said my uncle. "And Eve
had some comfort given her immediately, though she did
not understand it probably very welL The devil understood
it better. How his miserable nature must have shrunk
under the sentence-' I will put enmity between thee and
the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; rr ,HALu
What does that mean, uncle ?"
"What does it mean, when you put your foot upon a
snake's head ?"
It means that he is killed, when I do it," said Liph.
"So it means there. Utter confusion and destruction;
and such death as an immortal spirit can die. And this was


to be done by the seed of the woman-by a child of the very
poor creature that he thought he had just ruined."
Not by her child, uncle? "
"By one who should be born of a woman, one of her
descendants. Eve must have taken some comfort of the
promise; but only Satan, of the three who heard it, could
have even a faint idea of how much it meant."
Wasn't it glorious !" said Dan.
"Wasn't it glorious! echoed my uncle. "Even then,
Jesus, in His everlasting glory, had undertaken to be the
seed of the woman, and to break the devil's work and his
kingdom to pieces. But many a long day was to pass be-
fore He came, and before those words were spoken-' It is
Why was it so long, uncle '"
"God knows, my dear; and I think we can know in
part. But'this we are sure of-it was just as soon as in
His wisdom it could be-'when the fulness of time was
"Uncle," said Liph, "do you think that before the fall
the serpent did not crawl on the ground, as he does now 9"
"I have no reason whatever to think so."
"Then why is it part of the curse that he should eat
dust ? "
"Eating dust is a proverbial expression for utter humilia-
tion and discomfiture. It is said of Christ that His enemies
'shall lick the dust'-' they shall lick the dust like a ser-
pent.' We say now, when a man is overthrown on a battle-
field, that he bites the dust."
So we do," said Liph. I never thought of that. But
isn't part of the curse pronounced on the serpent itself "
"Why, sir ? The serpent was just a brute beast, and had
not done anything."
"My boy, it is very often the case in Scripture that a
prophecy runs double; it has a direct, literal meaning, pre-
sently fulfilled to the eyes of men; and that fulfilment is a
sign and image of the further-back and more hidden meaning


which is also to be fulfilled. Now here, the way you set
your heel on the head of every serpent you see, is a constant
sign, though you do not mean it so, of the sure word of God's
promise as regards the destruction of Satan. So it has been
all over the world."
Liph was silenced; but Dan said, "Uncle Sam, I do not
understand it all yet. What is meant by the seed of the
serpent "
"You know what the Bible says. John the Baptist called
the hypocritical Pharisees and Sadducees that came to his
baptism, a 'generation of vipers.' "
"Yes," said Liph, "but doesn't that mean just that they
were wicked "
"And what does that mean?" said my uncle. "Jesus
gave the Pharisees the same name; another time He said to
the cavilling Jews, 'Ye are of your father the devil.' Paul,
when withstood by the bad man Elymas, said to him, '0
full of all subtlety and mischief, thou child of the devil.'
And the apostle John says, 'In this the children of God are
manifest and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not
righteousness is not of God.'"
I thought Liph and Dan both looked sober; and I am sure
I felt so.
"Then, uncle, does it mean that there is enmity between
bad men and good'men I"
"Is there not said uncle Sam. "There is enmity be-
tween them and the Lord Jesus, and for His sake they hate
His people."
"I suppose," said Priscilla, "that by 'thou shalt bruise his
heel,' it means that the devil would be able to do a little
harm to good people I "
"Ah, and to the Lord of good people," said my uncle.
"You know what Jesus was just about to do, when He said-
'Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of
this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the
earth, will draw all men unto me.'"
He was just going to be crucified," said Dan, softly.
"There was no other way of undoing the devil's work, but


to give His life for our life. 'Forasmuch as the children
are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise
took part of the same; that through death he might destroy
him that had the power of death, that is, the deviL' That was
the way he 'led captivity captive,' and set us free. That was
the way he 'spoiled principalities and powers, and made a
show of them openly, triumphing over them.' It was only
through death that he could destroy him that had the
power of death."
Does that mean the devil, uncle Sam "
"Yes, Prissy."
How has he the power of death ?"
We were all in the power of the devil, my child, for time
and eternity, if Jesus had not died. And even now he has
power over his own children, and still he 'bruises the heel'
of the children of God. He moves persecutions against
them; he gives power to his servants and agents to make
war with the saints and to overcome them. 'The devil shall
cast some of you into prison, and ye shall have tribulation
ten days'-Jesus said to the church at Smyrna; and that
meant a ten years' persecution. He tempts the people of
God, and then he accuses them. He is their 'adversary' in-
But how has he the power of death, uncle ?"
"He can do nothing, my child, against God's permission.
That is our comfort."
"But what do those words mean, then, uncle I said,
for they startled me. "I thought that God only had the
power of death."
"Nothing can be done against His command, Tiny. But
the Bible seems to teach us that all the bodily evil in the
world is the work of Satan and his emissaries."
"Why, where, uncle ?" said Dan and Liph together. "I
never thought of such a thing."
Do you remember the story of Job ?"
"Yes, sir."
"Do you not remember that Job's afflictions, every one of
them-the loss of his children, the loss of his property, and



his own sickness-were all done by the hand of Satan 1 He
had to get the Lord's permission first."
But I thought," said Dan.
"So did I," said Liph.
What I" said my uncle.
"I thought, uncle Sam, that all that story was some-
thing unnatural, and not like things that are done every
You thought that the Bible was a region apart, my boy,
where the men and women and what happened to them were
not just the same as what exists out of the Bible ? A very
common mistake. But a bad mistake, too, for it hinders
you from understanding. No, Dan; words in the Bible mean
very much what words mean out of it; only much more so,
for they are all true."
Then is that true, do you think, uncle ?"
"The story of Job ? I think so."
"No, sir, but I mean whatfyou said."
"About the devil's part in it? No matter what I said.
Let us see what the Bible says. Jesus told the seventy dis-
ciples whom He sent to preach-' Behold I give unto you
power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the
power of the enemy, and nothing shall by any means hurt
"Well, sir," said Dan, "don't that mean the possessions "
"What were they ? There was a man brought to Jesus
once, who was 'possessed with a devil, blind and dumb:
and He healed him, insomuch'--it says-' that the blind. and
dumb both spake and saw.' What would you have thought
was the matter with the man "
But he was possessed with a devil, sir."
"So we are told. Do you remember the old rag-picker
who used to go through our street every morning, bent
nearly double ? What would you have said was the matter
with her ?"
"I don't know, sir," said Dan, "I don't know about
people's ails ;-hard work, and old age, I suppose."
"Hard work and rheumatism," said my grandmother.


"A woman who had an infirmity like that-she was
'bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself '-was
healed by our Lord. He said that Satan had bound her."
"Then there was St Paul's bodily trouble," said my grand-
mother,-" his 'thorn in the flesh.' He called it the 'mes-
senger of Satan.' "
"Tiny," said my uncle, "what is the matter "
"Uncle Sam,-it seems dreadful."
"I think it is horrible," said Dan.
"Is it ? Well-it is dreadful. But remember who said,
' I have the keys of hell and of death.' He can put them in
bonds when He will; they can go no further than He chooses.
Jesus has the keys !"
"Uncle Sam, did Adam and Eve know all this ?"
"They could not have borne it, Prissy. No, they must
have understood very little of anything; even the meaning
of their punishment they were to learn by degrees. They
had enough to bear as it was. How infinitely gracious and
tender it was of the Lord, before they heard their sentence,
to let them hear the promise of a deliverer and avenger that
should spring from their own race, and be born of their own
blood. Instead of instant destruction, here was a Saviour
to come."
"But, uncle, Jesus is God."
"And man too," said my uncle. "'Forasmuch as the
children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also Himself
likewise took part of the same.' Praise the Lord I"
"Uncle Sam, what is the meaning of those words-' thy
desire shall be to thy husband'-in Eve's curse T"
It means, that if she wanted to do anything she must ask
his leave for it, Prissy."
But is that part of the curse said Dan.
"How would you like it turned the other way said my
Nay," said my uncle, Christianity takes off that part of
the curse as it does the others-where it comes, in people's
hearts. But where Christianity does not com,--boys, it is


"How, uncle Sam said Priscilla.
"Why, my dear, woman is a slave and a drudge; not
educated, not cherished, not comforted. All the hard and
mean work of life is given to her to do, and none of the
beautiful or the noble. I have seen it in country after
country-all over the world."
"Oh where, uncle Sam ? Do tell us," said Priscilla.
"Well, in Burmah, among the fine mountain tribes;
women were not cruelly treated, but they were utterly de-
spised. They were not held worthy to walk alongside of a
man; if the two were going the same way, she must fall
behind. For a man to take up in his hands and carry any-
thing that belonged to a woman-her basket or her bundle
of clothes-was what no man would do; it would have
degraded him. Of course, if a woman displeased her hus-
band, a stick might be his argument with her, if he liked;
and he was pretty sure to like it."
"That's pretty bad," said Dan.
"A very fine Karen woman was so struck and won by Dr
Judson's kind face, and by his pleasant words and shaking
hands with her, that she concluded-poor heathen as she
was-that the white man's God must be the true God; and
she determined she would never worship her old idols any
more; and she never did."
"0 uncle! what became of her?"
"Years after, she learned the way of the truth, and be-
came a thorough Christian. She had been praying to the
unknown God all those years to teach her; and the Lord
hearkened and heard."
"Then in Fiji," said my grandmother.
"In Fiji, women used to be held of no more account than
cattle. They were slaves to the men. An American captain
once had a gun there which one of the chiefs on the island
of Viti Levu wanted to buy. The price of the gun was two
hogs. They have no money, Prissy; you needn't laugh.
The chief had only one hog, so he sent on board, as the rest
of his purchase price, a nice young woman."
"0 uncle Sam, what did the captain do with her 1"


"His wife was on board; and when I saw them, the girl
was living with them as his wife's servant, and in a fair way
to learn and be happy.. Fiji is a pretty bad instance. The
men there used to be as wicked as devils. But be thankful,
Prissy, that you are a little girl born in a Bible land; for
wherever men are not made Christians, women have more
or less a hard time. In India, now, the men objected to
have the girls taught anything. 'Why should they?' they
said, 'they can boil rice and cook curry without knowing
how to read.' There also a woman walks behind her hus-
band, and never but once in her life eats with him; and
never sits down in his presence, or in the presence of any
other man. Mussulmans too, all Mussulmans, think women
are an inferior set of creatures, and treat them so. The
Arabs have a dirty word which they apply in speaking of
mean things-and an Arab uses it in speaking of the women
of his own family, or at least of his wife. He is mortified
and sorry if he has a little daughter born. My little Tiny
would not have been welcomed there. I will tell you what
I have seen among them. I have been a good deal in their
country. The women have all the hard work on their hands.
They have the bread and the cooking to see to, of course;
but for that they must get the water and firing. They bring
the wood in great fagots on their heads and shoulders;
and no matter how far off the river or the fountain may be,
they go to it for water with nothing better than a goat's skin,
which they bring back full on their backs; and a goat's skin
full of water is a pretty good lift. If there happens to be a
little child too small to be left by itself, you will see that on
the top of the goat's skin. When the family changes its
place, which it is always doing, the women take down the
tents and set them up ; load and unload the camels, or what-
ever beasts they have to carry their things; they drive the
cows and sheep to pasture, and fetch them home at night
and milk them. Among the Sinai Arabs, a boy who should
be told to drive the sheep to pasture, would feel as you
would, Dan, if somebody called you a girl. And all this while
the men are sitting lazily by smoking and, storytelling."


"1 am glad I was not born among the Arabs," said
Then if the husband comes home at night in a hurry for
supper, and finds no bread baked, and the wood and water
maybe not got yet-in a fit of anger he may if he chooses
speak the words that will prevent his wife from ever serving
him any more; or he will take a tent-pole and beat her-
and the woman likes that the best of the two."
What words are those, uncle Sam ?"
Some particular words, Tiny, which if he says them over
just right three times, without making the least mistake,
put away his wife so that she is his wife no longer."
"What would he do then said Priscilla.
Have to take a deal of trouble to get married back again,
very likely. It would be expensive to buy a new wife."
"Buy a wife !" said Liph.
"That's the way. I remember one case-a man had
bought a girl of her father for two sheep, a donkey, and a
certain quantity of grain. The father died, and the girl took
a great dislike to her promised husband, so that she refused
to live with him. The man demanded her of her mother,
and the poor woman did not know what to do; for part of
the price, the two sheep, had been paid, and unluckily were
already eaten up. The two women were in great difficulty,
till a friend gave them another two sheep, and advised re-
paying the man. But the man would not receive them ; and
in the night he went to the old woman's tent, stabbed her to
the heart, and made off. The girl had hid herself."
"Why, they are savages!" cried Dan.
"Half savages. A good many Arabs were hired by an
English gentleman for some work he wanted done in the
country. While they were under his care he protected, as
far as he could, their families, and gave them a good time.
'What shall we do when you leave us!' they said. 'Our
husbands will then have their turn, and there will be nobody
to help us.'"
uncle Sam," I said, that is very bad."
"It is not equally bad everywhere, Tiny ; but even among


the Jews-I have been in their synagogues and heard it, and
I declare," said uncle Sam, making an uneasy movement,
"it sent all my blood the wrong way! It was a bit of their
public service. The men said, 'Blessed art thou, O Ever-
lasting King, that thou hast not made me a woman.' And
the women answered meekly, with their thanksgiving,
'Blessed art thou, O Lord, that thou hast made me accord-
ing to thy will.' It was something like that."
But women have not a degraded place among the Jews,"
said my grandmother.
I don't know," said my uncle; if they are accustomed
to say that over and over to each other. But you can un-
derstand, children, that everywhere, when man is woman's
master, she has a bad time of it if he happens to be a bad
man. Nothing but the Bible saves her; where that does
not come, she is in a dark place indeed."
"Eve did not feel so, I suppose," I said.
I hope not," said my uncle. She had no taste of it in
Paradise. She could not know what the words of the curse
They could not know what death meant," said Daniel;
but they could understand work, couldn't they ?"
"' In the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread 1'" said my
uncle. "Ah, my boy, my boy, there was nothing they could
less understand. They had lived in Paradise in the midst of
every fruit of delight, which grew without trouble, though
not without care. The sun had been only soft to them-
the dews only refreshing; they knew nothing of nature but
its joy. Why, boys, you know nothing of what that article
of the curse means."
Father works pretty hard," said Priscilla.
"Oh, not father," said Da -w works with his
head, and he likes it."
"There is headwork that is hard enough," s uncle
Sam; "but your father and I are in the favoured class hat
work without distress. And there are a good many such,
and labour is a blessing, too, to a sinful race; it keeps them
out of mischief. Even hard labour is a blessing. But the


multitudes that do literally eat their bread in the sweat of
their brow !-how little you know about it."
Our woodcutters work hard," said Liph.
"They get good pay too. It is not so easy for industrious
folk to suffer in America. But in cities-and in the old
country-I will give you a sample of it, children; it is good
you should know what sort of a world we live iA.
"A gentleman, whom I know, was surgeon in an English
hospital-or dispensary, rather; where the poor come for
relief. He described to me the character of a great many
cases with which he had to do, which were cases of over-
work and anxiety. There is a particular look that people
have who are suffering from these causes, which the physi-
cians well know. One instance he told me among others-
the instance of a poor tailor. The man was losing strength,
getting palpitation of the heart, and more and more out of
order. At last the physician found out that he was working
eighteen hours a day, to support a wife and six children, and
had been doing it for months."
"Eighteen hours !" cried Dan. "Why, that only left him
six hours for sleep and everything."
"Only that. And even so, he only just kept out of debt.
But with no exercise out of doors, or rest at any time, his
strength was going; and then the fear of getting into debt,
and the fear of losing his strength, made it go still faster."
"Perhaps our old rag-picker is another instance," said my
"Many a ragged child sweeping the crossing, and many a
match-boy is," said my uncle. We pass them by without
knowing it."
"I can tell you of another case," said my grandmother;
"and I could tell of many that I know. This was a woman,
who had her home in a room ten feet square; all her home.
Here she lived with her husband, who was a drunkard, and
depended on her to feed and take care of him. To do this
she took in washing. By day her miserable bed lay rolled
up in a corner, and lines for drying her clothes were stretched
across and across from wall to wall of the room. She had


no friend in the world but me; no hope of anything better.
Once she had a child; but it had died for want of good air
and good food; and she worked on to keep her drunken
husband alive and in liquor. She was neat and tidy as she
could be, poor thing."
"I am glad you were her friend, grandmamma."
"It is little any friend can do to comfort the wife of
a drunkard," said my grandmother. She is his slave, as
much as the poor Hindoo or Arab."
One more instance," said my uncle. This was English,
too, and the man I knew. His cottage was near a friend
of mine with whom I used to stay. The man was a collier.
His home was four miles from his place of work. Very
early every morning, at three o'clock, his wife would make
the fire and give him a cup of tea, and then go to bed again;
while he set out on his walk to the colliery. There he was
let down the shaft, deep into the cold beds of the mine; and
all day long he lay in one of the diggings, flat on the bottom,
hewing and picking out the coal. Coal dust filling his eyes
and mouth and breast of course. Then at night he walked
the four miles home again ; washed qff the coal dust, which
it was necessary to do, for it would have injured him; eat
his supper, and to bed and to sleep till three o'clock next
morning. And all this only just kept him and his family
out of debt. He made but three or four dollars a week."
"Three or four dollars a week !" Liph exclaimed.
"Why, uncle Sam, our men here get twice as much and
"Many there get more; and many here get as little or
nearly. But, boys, what I want you to notice in all this is,
that it is sin that makes the mischief. There was as much
mercy as judgment in the curse. Idleness is no blessing,
and labour is no evil, none; it is itself a blessing, as I said.
If the rich and the poor both did their duty, instead of the
sweat of his brow, no man would eat and earn his bread in
Tears are often too much of a luxury," said my grand-
mother. "Do you remember Hood's lines-


'A little weeping would ease my heart-
But in their briny bed
The tears must stop; for every drop
Hinders needle and thread.'"
"Who said that, grandmamma ? "
"Many a poor sewing-woman has felt it. It was written
about sewing-women, and it is too true."
The children all looked at each other in sorrowful amaze.
"But, uncle Sam," I said, "there are not a great many
people so poor ?"
"More than you think, Tiny-more than you think.
There are sixty thousand people in London that get their
living, and spend it, in the streets; men, women, and children;
they are never under a roof except to sleepp"
Why, what do they do "
"Sell fruit-fish for the dinners of the poor-and such
things; water-cresses, and flowers. In the London Docks,
from one to three thousand hands are kept at work, accord-
ing as the wind is fair or not fair for ships coming in. So
an east wind may deprive two thousand men, with their
families, of their bread for the day. I have been at the
Dock gates in the morning, and seen the crowds waiting
there to get the chance of a day's work-I never saw such a
sight. Hundreds and hundreds of men, I don't know but I
might say thousands, greedy, pushing, calling out to beg for
work. They could not all get it, they knew; and the pushing
and crowding and clamouring of so many hungry men was
like nothing I ever saw. Screaming and crying and wheed-
ling-and with such faces !-One of the men in charge at
the Dock told me he had once been taken off his feet by the
rush of the crowd, and carried a quarter of a mile before he
could help himself. They are all sorts of people-some who
have known better days and have broken down, and now
want a day's bread. It was a bitter sight to see."
"What do those do who can't get the work ?" said
"Go away hungry, and wait for another chance next


I was thinking, if Adam and Eve could have looked down
the years and seen that crowd at the London Dock gates !
But remember, it is sin that does the mischief," repeated
uncle Sam. "Sin in the poor themselves often, who else
need not be so wretched; and very often, indeed, sin in the
rich, to whom it will be said, 'The spoil of the poor is in
your houses.' Here still, it is Satan that is the ruler of the
darkness of this world."
It would have killed Adam and Eve if they could have
understood it," I said.
"I think it would, Tiny. But they felt they had lost
Paradise; and the world outside must have looked very dark
to them when the flaming sword was between them and the
only home they knew. It was well they had that promise of
mercy to stay themselves upon."
Uncle Sam got up and went off again with the boys.
Priscilla took a book and went to reading, and my grand-
mother was busy as usual. I sat on the moss at her feet, in
a mood quite different from yesterday. The afternoon was
as sunny and mild; the wood was as sweet as ever; but the
ruler of the darkness of this world seemed to my imagination
to darken the shadows that yesterday were so pleasant; and
through the rustling of the breeze in the tree-tops I seemed
to hear an echo of "the sighihg of the needy." I had never
thought the world could be such a sorrowful place. How
could it be, while the sun shone so, and the flecks of light
came down so fairylike upon the moss and the rocks, and the
chick-a-dee sang his clear cheery note ? I sat thinking, until
I gathered a great bundle of questions to ask uncle Sam the
next time we were at dinner.



"I SEE you are full of questions, Tiny;" said uncle Sam over
his first cup of tea in the woods next day. "What is it ?"
"The first thing," said I, "I want to know what became
of the garden of Eden "
How the boys laughed at me. But uncle Sam told them
there was nothing to laugh about; that philosophers and
learned men had speculated upon questions no wiser.
"I was thinking," said Liph, "that people ought to have
known where it was. Adam and Eve knew; and I should
not think anybody would ever have forgotten."
So you have speculated too said my uncle. "I think
it is likely it was destroyed, so that even Adam and Eve
could not have told where it was. Some convulsion of
nature might have done it. A few years ago, in quiet Eng-
land, such a thing happened, without a convulsion of nature.
A great dam burst; and a flood of water with an avalanche
of stones and gravel swept down a valley. It cleaned out
the villages and the trees and the fences and filled every-
thing with rubbish. Hundreds of people were killed; and
when some who had escaped came back to look for their old
homes, they could not find them; everything was so changed
there was no telling where they had been."
"So if anything like that happened in Eden," I said,
"the flaming sword would not have been wanted very long.
Uncle Sam, if Adam and Eve understood so little what
the 'curse meant, how could they have had the comfort
of the promise ? Maybe they did not understand that."
"Not fully, Tiny. Liph, you need not laugh at Tiny; it
is a sensible question. Tiny, I'll tell you why I think they
took some comfort of that promise. Because in all parts of


the world people kept traces of it, even after they had for-
gotten what they once knew about the true God; so I think
Adam and Eve must have told the story carefully and over
and over to all their children."
"Do you mean the heathen people, uncle Sam "
"Did the heathen once have the knowledge of the true
"Certainly. Their fathers did. Their fathers were
Adam's and Eve's children."
"But the Hottentots, uncle Sam 2-and the Chinese ?"
"Yes, Prissy. Why not?"
"Why, I don't see, if they once had known of those
things, how they should have forgotten them."
"I thought the heathen had always been heathen," said
"But not the fathers of the heathen," said my uncle.
"They were children of Adam and Eve-of Shem, Ham, and
Japheth-and knew the truth. But this is the way the
Bible explains the mystery-'they did not like to retain
God in their knowledge.'"
"Why not, sir "
"Liph, let me ask you,-When you ever are bent on doing
something that is not quite right, do you let yourself think
of God then ? "
Liph made no answer, and I felt how true his silence
Still, uncle Sam," said Priscilla, "I do not see how they
could forget."
"Not at first, Prissy; but presently their children would.
How much does a wicked man ever tell his children about
God and His truth ? Very soon, indeed, the knowledge of it
would all die out, where the people were all wicked."
But then, how came they to keep the story of that pro-
mise ?-that is what I do not understand."
Ah, my dear, men did not forget that they were miser-
able; neither did they lose the sense that they were sinners.
Those two things, through all ages, they have continued to


know; they have feared an unknown, offended Power above
them, and they have desired His help. Perhaps that is the
reason of their remembering the promise; but the fact is
How much did they remember ?"
Not the whole clearly, Dan. It is only traces and frag-
ments of the story that they kept; and some nations more
and some less. For instance, the Greeks told of a beautiful
garden, a great way off, full of delicious fruits, and with one
tree in particular which bore golden apples. But nobody
could get at the apples, because the garden was watched by
a dreadful dragon which never slept, and would let no one
go in. And nobody could go in; till Hercules came. He
was said to be the son of the supreme God, though a man;
he killed the dragon and gathered the golden fruit."
Why, that meant the tree of life !" I said.
"And, uncle Sam, that is like-that sounds like Jesus,"
said Priscilla.
"And the flaming sword," said Dan.
"The Tyrians gave particular honour to Hercules. At
Cadiz, which was a colony of the same people, there was a
curious garden, sacred to their worship. In it there were, it
was said, two remarkable trees, one of which gave out drops
of blood. That would be their idea of a living tree, I sup-
pose. In a temple near by, Hercules was worshipped under
the name of 'the Saviour.' Furthermore, women were kept
away from this garden, as they were charged with being the
cause of all mischief. And lions and a flaming fire turning
on every side were made to guard the approach to the temple;
and there were in the garden various altars dedicated to old
age, to poverty, to hard labour, and to Hercules the saviour."
Why, that is very close indeed," said Dan.
"I don't see how it is close," said Priscilla.
"Another of the Grecian stories was about Apollo, said
also to be a son of Jupiter. Apollo's mother was persecuted
by a serpent, called Python; and Python means a 'deceiver;'
or to 'over-persuade.' As soon as Apollo came upon earth,
the story is, he shot this serpent to death with his arrows.


Then again they had a fable that man was good and happy
till he got a wife ; but when Jupiter sent a beautiful woman
to the earth, every sort of mischief, disease, and evil came
with her."
It is very curious," said Dan, how they could remem-
ber so, and forget so !"
"No, my boy; not when you remember the reason.
They did not like to retain God in their knowledge."
"Still, the Greeks were a civilised people," said Liph.
"Do you suppose the heathen people had these stories ?-the
Chinese and the Hottentots, for instance 1"
"The Greeks were as heathenish a people as any I know,"
said my uncle ; and as for 'these stories,' as you call them,
the Chinese have them now. They say that at first men
obeyed the law of Heaven, and were sinless and spiritual.
But after a while, some say a too great desire for knowledge
-some say, flattery-others, the temptation of a woman-
broke the spell of innocence and happiness. Then man
became a weaker and less perfect creature; he lost command
over his passions; the creatures turned to be his enemies,
and the more knowledge he got the more trouble he had from
them. That is what the Chinese say."
"And yet they are heathen," said Priscilla.
"I never thought the Chinese knew so much," said Dan.
A neighboring nation gives the story another way. Men
at first lived to be sixty thousand years old, and were wholly
spiritual creatures; pure and noble of course. Until at last
the earth produced some sort of very sweet food, some one
ate of it, and persuaded mankind to taste. Then all was
gone, long life and happiness; by degrees men ate of coarser
and coarser food; their bodies grew sickly and their minds
grovelling. By and by the supplies failed, and men began to
labour for their bread. The inhabitants of the island of
Ceylon have a legend very much like this; and say that it
was pride and unlawful desire that led men to descend from
their first high condition, and eat food not good for them."
Have the Hottentots and such very low tribes of people
any stories like these I "


"I fancy not, Liph. I think they have utterly lost all
they once knew about it."
Then, uncle Sam, what makes you so sure they ever did
know it !"
Their fathers heard the same story once, that the fathers
of the Hindoo and the Chinese heard."
But then, uncle Sam, how could they have lost it ?"
As they lost everything else, in the downward course of
wickedness. Where the climate and the country did not
encourage industry, and where circumstances did not plunge
the inhabitants into commerce, and when it happened that
no great men were born to stir up the mind of a nation, then
as men grew wicked they grew more and more animal; and
thoughts and feelings and even memories of anything good
died out, one after the other."
"I thought all nations began with being savages, uncle
Sam, and that some had worked up into being civilised."
"Quite the other way, Liph. All began with civilisation;
and where something did not keep them from it, slid down
into being savages, and lower than savages. Their language
proves it, if nothing else did."
"Their language, uncle Sam !"
"Yes, sir."
How does it prove it, sir ? I thought such savages had
a very poor sort of a language."
So they have, miserably poor."
"Then how do you know but it was always poor, uncle
Sam 1"
"Could you tell the difference between a half-finished
house, and a house in ruins? "
"Certainly, sir."
"How ? what is the difference 2"
Why, there is every difference. The unfinished house
would have the edges of the walls sharp and square, where
the masons had left it; and there would be no heaps of ruins
tumbled down from above. I know how a ruined house
looks; there are doorways blocked up, and chimneys falling,
and all sorts of things spoiled."


"And part of the walls gone perhaps; while the founda-
tions of the knew house would be all clearly traced out and
begun. Well, Liph, in like manner, though I cannot tell
you how, one who understands languages sees in the speech
of the savages we were talking of, the signs of what was once
rich and perfect and full. It is a ruined language now, but
nothing is plainer than that it is a ruin-not a beginning."
I don't see how it could be, uncle Sam," I said in child-
ish wonder, but half understanding.
It happened this way, Tiny. As fast as noble thoughts
or good feelings died out among a people, the wods that
expressed them would be forgotten-don't you see ?"
"Why, yes, uncle Sam; was it so ?"
"Just so. Mr Moffat the missionary found a tribe of
Caffres down in Africa, who had lost the word that was their
word for the name of God-it meant 'Him that is above.'
They had had it once; there were a very few old men in the
tribe who remembered hearing it in their youth; now it was
gone from the nation."
"And didn't they know anything about God ?"
They knew and thought and cared so little, that the very
name that told of Him was forgotten. It was never spoken,
and so it was forgotten. I have heard of another people, in
New Holland, I think, who had no name for God. In Van
Dieman's Land, the native language has no word at all to
express love."
0 uncle Sam, don't you think they know what that
means ?"
"I guess not, Tiny; for the same people have four dif-
ferent words to express different kinds of murder. Another
missionary tells of people in Brazil who had no word that
meant anything like thanks; and their behaviour showed
that anything like the feeling was quite unknown to them.
At the same time, there are signs that these are ruined lan-
guages ;-as somebody has said, 'the rags and remnants of
a robe which was a royal one once.' But these are signs
that only a scholar can understand, Liph; they are beyond
you, even if you could talk the Bechuana tongue."


"I don't want to talk with the Bechuanas, sir."
"Have you told us all those queer stories, uncle Sam "
"The traditions of the fall and the curse? No, Tiny; not
even all that I know. Among the Northern nations of
Europe- there was a fabled divinity called Thor. He was
thought to be the son of the chief God; a deity between
God and man. The story is, that he had a fight, or a struggle
with death; that the struggle was so hard, he was brought
to his knees; but finally he bruised the head of the great
serpent with his club, and overcame him, and killed him;
and then lost his own life from the venom of the serpent."
Why, uncle Sam," said I, how near that comes to the
truth !"
The Hindoos have a legend that comes yet nearer. Their
prince of the devils is called the 'King of the serpents.' He
had poisoned the waters of the river, and people were dying
and dead all around. Krishna, who is, they say, one of their
gods in human f9rm, had pity upon the poor dying wretches,
and undertook a fight with the king of the serpents. The
great dragon twisted its folds all round him, but Krishna
took hold of its heads, one after another, and set his foot
upon them; till the serpent's power was all gone, and his
venom spent in vain, and he was entirely overcome."
"Why, uncle Sam,"-said I.
"What, Tiny 1 "
It almost seems as if"-
"Seems as if what?"
Don't you think God taught Adam and Eve what the
promise meant ? It almost seems as if they must have known
about Jesus."
Tiny, I think it is very probable. Abraham, we know,
looked forward to the coming of the Lord Jesus; and per-
haps Adam and Eve were comforted by a clearer knowledge
of Him than the first words of the promise could have given.
But their children kept and lost different parts of the truth,
according to circumstances. The old Persians had the story
of the fall very correct. They said that the world was cre-
ated in six periods; in the sixth period man was made. At


first he was holy and happy, where the creating Spirit had
placed him; but to keep that happiness it was necessary for
him to be pure in thought, word, and deed. So he was for
a time; then the spirit of evil came to him and persuaded
him to believe in his lies, and when that was done, brought
him fruit of which he ate. With the eating of that fruit
man lost everything; he went on afterwards acquiring
knowledge in arts and sciences, but becoming at the same
time more and more under the influence of the Evil One.
Another way of telling the story is that this evil spirit came
in the shape of a serpent and poisoned man with his venom,
and then wrought confusion and made mischief in every-
thing. The legend further says that after this ruin the man
and woman did not agree, and would not live together for
fifty years.
"I hope that wasn't true," I said. "0 uncle Sam, how
do you think Adam and Eve did live, when they went out of
"Together, Tiny."
"Yes, but I mean, in other things."
"I have got to go, Tiny, a very long walk to see how
matters are going on in the forest. I can't tell you now
what I think on that subject."
Uncle Sam, the Persians had lost all about the promise."
So it seems. However, they believed that though the
evil spirit would fight against the good Spirit to the end of
time, and so make a great deal of trouble, yet that he should
be overcome at last."
"It is a blessing that we know more," said my grand-
I was silent a little while; uncle Sam finishing his cup of
tea which had been interrupted, and the boys helping Pris-
cilla to put away plates and cups in the basket. But I was
pondering a question which lay on my heart; and before
uncle Sam moved, I crept to his lap and stayed him.
"Uncle Sam," I said, "what do we believe about Para-
dise ?"
"How, Tiny ?" he said, looking surprised.


"You said, the Hindoos believe it is a city on a golden
"Ay; and the Chinese say there are enchanted gardens,
high up on mountains, with the fountain of immortality
flowing in four streams. And the Arabs talk of their gar-
den at the top of a mountain of jacinth; where the climate
is steet, and the soil rich, and all fruits and flowers are in
beauty and plenty. But it is at the top of the mountain of
jacinth, and men cannot get to it. They do not know that
Jesus has opened a way."
"That's what I mean, uncle Sam; that is what I want to
know. Will Paradise ever come again "
I remember I asked the question very earnestly. The
boys were laughing at me, I think; but uncle Sam's face
changed, and I was almost sure I saw the water standing in
his eyes. He took me into his arms, and seemed to forget
all his hurry.
"Remember what Jesus has said, Tiny. 'This is life
eternal, to know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ
whom thou hast sent.' That is what makes people happy;
and without loving Him, they would not be happy in heaven
"Yes, uncle; but about Paradise ?"
"Prissy," said my uncle, will you go to the house and
bring out here my little Bible ?"
Priscilla ran to get it, and the boys went too, carrying the
basket of dishes and the tea-kettle back to the house. They
all came with the Bible and sat down round us, to hear how
uncle Sam would dispose of my child's question. Uncle
Sam turned over leaves, then put the book in my hand
without a word, and bade me read. I read aloud:
"'Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the
former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. But
be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for
behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy.
And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people; and
the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the
voice of crying. .. They shall not labour in vain, nor bring


forth for trouble; for they are the seed of the blessed of the
Lord, and their offspring with them. And it shall come to
pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are
yet speaking, I will hear. The wolf and the lamb shall feed
together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock; and
dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor
destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord.'"
I read the whole passage, of which the first and last
portions are here given; and then looked up in uncle Sam's
"'Dust shall be the serpent's meat,'" I repeated.
"When he is overthrown and confounded, and his work is
destroyed," said my uncle; when all the mischief is repaired
that he has done. That will not be till Jesus reigns. Then
'there shall be one Lord over all the earth, and His name
One.' Then 'the wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and
the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and
the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child
shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed;
their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall
eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on
the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand
on the adder's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all
my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the know-
ledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea."'
I begged uncle Sam to find the place of these words, and
when he and the boys went away, I sat and studied the
eleventh and the sixty-fifth chapters of the prophet Isaiah.


THE sixth of September was still sunny and mild ; indeed, it
was very warm weather; hazy and sultry. We had a great
expedition in the woods in the morning, and came back
hungry and tired; but we would go to our favourite rock
for dinner nevertheless. The boys took a beefsteak to broil;
and there was a deal of bustle about it, to get a good fire and
a bed of coals ; but I never saw such good beefsteak as it
was when it was done. We were all so hungry and busy,
that talking had to wait; I mean the talk that I wanted.
It was good that uncle Sam said the warm weather should
keep him from the woodcutters in the afternoon; so I knew
there would be time enough. I sat there thinking how
happy we were. The forest was an immense temple, full of
columns, with the light breaking softly through its high
roofing of green, and then coming in flickering spots on the
rocks and the dead leaves; only to-day it hardly flickered;
the sunny spots lay still. .
"Uncle Sam," said I, what do you think Adam and Eve
did when they went out from the garden of Eden ?"
"Went to work to get a living."
"How could they ?"
"What would you and Dan do, if you were set down in
this forest alone, and nobody to help you I"
"They would not live," said Priscilla. "There is nothing
to eat."
"They would not have beefsteak," said my uncle. "How-
ever, there are nuts and berries to be found even here; and
no doubt in the warmer country which Adam and Eve in-
habited there were better fruits and plenty of them. But it
was no longer the garden of Eden; they had to work for
their living."


"They could get fruit without working much," said Liph.
"Once they could. Now things were changed. They
were in a wild country, with no houses nor inhabitants;
and the climate was no longer soft and equable, and fruits
and flowers grew no more in the full luxuriance they had
been accustomed to. Adam and Eve wore coats of skins
now; they could not have borne those very well in the
garden of Eden. They began to have a taste of what cold
meant. But what would they want, Tiny, besides something
to eat ? You and Dan would want something more, if you
were in this forest alone."
They would want a house."
"How would they get one ?"
I should sleep in the trees, I know, for the first night or
two," said Liph.
"We should make a house of that grand old hollow tree
we saw this morning," said Dan; "that would do."
"Suppose there were no great trees ? I do not think
Adam and Eve were in a forest where such trees grew."
They might go into a cave, or take shelter under a rock,"
said Priscilla.
Or make a hut, with poles and branches," said Liph.
"Adam had no very good knife nor axe to cut and trim
poles. Every step of what he had to do must have been
hard work. They would very likely do as some of their
children do now; choose a spot where a few young trees
grew near each other, and bend over their tops and tie them
together; then finish the hut by weaving small branches and
rushes and grass between the trees. They would need a
roof now to sleep under; for the night dews were no longer
like the dews of Eden."
How miserable they must have been !" said Priscilla.
Work was a help to them, no doubt, as it has been to
many another. To sit down and think would have been a
great deal harder. And they had plenty to do, you may be
sure. They would want soft bedding now to keep them
warm; grass and rashes must be pulled up and dried in the
sun and gathered in."


"But rain would come through such a roof as branches
and grass would make," said Priscilla.
"No doubt. Their life was become full of discomforts;
this would be only one."
"They might lay skins over the roof," Dan said.
"How would they get skins ?" I asked.
"Why, from the animals. They must kill animals, of
course. They must for skins to clothe themselves."
I would rather have gone cold than do that," said I. I
do not see how they could bear to kill the animals."
It must have been a sad chapter of their new life," said
my uncle. "But necessity, my dear, is stronger than liking.
They were obliged to see the animals killing each other;
which I make no doubt they had been stayed from doing in
the garden of Eden."
Of all the women that ever lived," said my grandmother,
"it seems to me Eve must have been the most unhappy."
"Why, she could not have had a very hard time," said
Priscilla. "I don't think she could."
"Not like *hat a great many others have had. But then,
remember, she had come out of Paradise. We do not think
much of a little shiver of cold or a trifle of pain; and we
are accustomed to see wrong and sorrowful things. But
Eve would remember there were no such things in her life
once; and every one would go through her heart like a knife,
with the thought that it was her own doing-she herself had
brought it."
"That's true," said Priscilla. "I never thought of that."
"Uncle Sam," said I, "do you think they had to kill
animals "
"For sacrifice, we know they did," said uncle Sam; and
that would not lessen the pain. I do not suppose they had
any need to eat the flesh of animals; but skins may have
gone upon their roof, Tiny, or may have served for bed-
Uncle Sam," said Priscilla, "they would want a place to
put away fruits and things for rainy days."
What sort of things, Prissy the boys asked.


I don't know," said Priscilla. "Milk."
I daresay they soon learned that the milk of cows and
goats was a good thing," said my uncle; and no doubt, too,
there were days then as now when the fruits of the earth
could not be sought for or could not be found; and so they
would come to the ant's husbandry, 'which, having no guide,
overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and
gathereth her food in the harvest.'"
But what would they put milk and things in ?" said
"Cocoa-nut shells, if they had them, and gourds; and
they would soon think of weaving baskets of reeds and
rushes. And large leaves would be used at first for dishes
and vessels; as in Fiji and Hindostan they are used now."
Then, if they once got the notion of weaving, they would
soon go on to make mats, like the savages, and then cloth,"
said Daniel.
"Perhaps they would. Only take care that you do not
fancy Adam to have been a savage. He was no savage; but
a grand sort of man, perfect in body and in his mental
faculties, full of a great many kinds of knowledge already,
and quick to learn, and to take hold of all the needs of his
strange life;-such a man as there is not on the earth at
this day."
Don't you think Adam and Eve were very sorry for their
sin, uncle Sam?"
"I have no doubt they truly repented; and that is some-
thing more, Tiny, than being sorry. Repentance is giving
up sin, not with the hands, but with the heart. Yes, Eve's
words, when her first child was born, show that she had
come back from her folly, and looked to God for her good
things. She said, 'I have gotten a man from the Lord.'"
"She gave him a very ugly name," I said.
"Oh, no. Cain means a 'possession.' That is what she
thought of her baby when it came; that there was no trea-
sure in all the world like it."
"That is what every mother thinks of her baby," said my
grandmother; "but it is difficult to imagine Eve's joy. It


was a new thing to her; we have all seen babies; and she
had no neighbour or friend, no mother or sister; she was
almost alone in the world. And then, too, she would re-
member the promise-that the seed of the woman should
bruise the serpent's head; and most likely she thought this
was the child that should do it. Poor Eve her real sorrow
began now."
Why, grandmamma ?"
"You know what sort of a man Cain was; he could not
have been a good boy. And you do not know what terrible
grief it is to a good mother to see her child do wicked things.
But think what ever show of bad temper and disobedience
in her boy, as he grew old enough, would have been to that
mother. It was all owing to her."
Yes," said my uncle. "Adam was made in the likness of
God; and the likeness was lost. Adam's children, the Bible
says, were born, not in the image of God, but 'in his own
likeness, after his image.' And Eve had such grief and sorrow
of heart over her first son, that when the second was born
she named him Abel-which means 'vanity.' She had come
to the conclusion that everything in the world was a disap-
"What does 'vanity' mean ?"
"It means, used.in this way, Tiny, that the thing spoken
of, no matter how much you may have expected from it, is
nothing after all."
"But Abel was good."
Eve did not know what he would be, when she named
him. Perhaps he was not good when a boy. But as he grew
up he became a servant of God."
"And then Cain hated him," I said. "I wonder why he
hated him."
"The Bible tells, Tiny. 'Because his own works were evil
and his brother's righteous.' Don't you remember-it was
foretold that there would be enmity between the seed of the
devil and Christ and His people 1 Cain was of that wicked
"The Bible does not say he was a bad man, uncle Sam."


"I do not know what you -call a bad man, Liph. He
murdered his brother."
"Yes, sir; but I mean before that."
"It says his works were evil, my boy, and that therefore
he slew his brother-because Abel was better than he."
That seems a strange reason for hating any one," I said.
It is a general reason, Tiny. The enemies of the king
do not like to see the king's servants always before their
But Cain brought a sacrifice," said Liph, "as well as Abel.
He seems to have been religious."
What sort of a sacrifice was it l"
He brought of the fruit of the ground, sir; what he had.
He was a tiller of the ground. Abel was a keeper of sheep,
and he brought what he had."
"Then how came it that the Lord had respect unto Abel
and to his offering, but to Cain and his offering He had not
respect 1"
"I do not know, sir."
Look into the eleventh chapter of Hebrews, and you will
see what was the reason. It was, that Abel had faith, and
Cain had not."
"Faith in what, uncle Sam 1"
"Faith in God, Tiny; that is what the Bible means by
faith. Faith in the Lord's word and promise. Jesus is called
'the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world;' and at
the very beginning, God taught men to sacrifice animals as a
sign that they looked for Him. Now, you can imagine those
two men, Cain and Abel, bringing their gifts. Cain offered
the fruits of the earth; he was willing to acknowledge that
God was good, and that it was He who gave rain upon the
earth and fruitful seasons; it was proper to thank Him for
them. So he brought of the fruit of the ground; ripe ears
of corn, or, it might be, cakes made of the fresh flour. It was
a proud, self-satisfied offering; there was no confession of sin,
nor asking for forgiveness. But Abel brought of the first-
lings of his flock; killed the little creature-a lamb or a kid
-and laid the pieces, or the whole carcass, upon the altar.


It was as much as to say, 'I am a sinner ; such death is what
I deserve; and much more, even to lose my soul's life; but
I trust in that promised Deliverer, who will find a way to
redeem me.' Cain's offering was self-righteous."
"How did they know," Dan asked, "that Abel's offering
was accepted and Cain's was not ?"
"And what was the altar, uncle Sam ?" I asked.
"The altar may have been a pile of stones, or of earth
and sods; or a large rock may have been used. In either
case it was sacredly kept for that use alone. And I suppose,
Dan, that when Abel's sacrifice was laid on the altar, and
his humble prayer made, that then fire fell down from
heaven or came out of the rock, and burnt up the offering.
That happened many a time afterwards. It happened when
Aaron was made priest, the first time he offered sacrifices.
The glory of the Lord, it is said, appeared to all the people
-I suppose that was a bright light as of fire, 'above the
brightness of the sun at mid-day'-and'there came a fire
out from before the Lord, and consumed upon the altar
the burnt-offering and the fat.' Now, there was fire upon
the altar already, for burnt-offerings and sin-offerings had
been burning there one after the other that morning. You
remember the story of Elijah-when he and the priests of
Baal were pitted against each other, to show which served
the true God. And when Elijah prayed, the fire fell from
heaven and consumed the sacrifice and the wood and licked
up the water in the trenches round about the altar. So the
Lord answered David from heaven, by fire upon the altar
of burnt-offering. So it was when Solomon prayed at the
consecration of the temple."
"People do not have answers to prayers now-a-days, do
they, uncle Sam 1"
Uncle Sam put his arm round me and bent down and
kissed me.
"Tiny; do you remember who said, Ask, and it shall be
given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be
opened unto you?' Jesus Christ is the same yesterday,
to-day, and for ever."


"But people do not always get what they ask for, sir,"
said Liph.
"No, my boy-and fire did not always fall from heaven
upon the sacrifice. Witness Cain."
"But, sir," said Dan, "do even good people always get
an answer to their prayers F'
"The fire fell upon the offering, Dan; never upon an
empty altar. When your heart is such a sacrifice, when it
is all the Lord's, with the life and strength of it-all given,
like the flesh and the fat of the burnt-offering-then, my
boy, believe me, the Lord will take possession of it. It will
be His; and no petition it will make will go without an
answer. You will not ask anything, in faith, that the Lord
will not give."
I wondered at Dan a little, for I saw that he looked
troubled. He turned his head aside, I thought, to hide his
eyes, and began to pull spears of grass out of a tuft that
grew near him. I should not have been surprised at Liph;
but Dan was always a good boy.
"There is a beautiful prayer in the Psalms," uncle Sam
went on, "a prayer of the church for the king.-' The Lord
hear thee in the day of trouble; the name of the God of
Jacob defend thee. Send thee help from the sanctuary,
and strengthen thee out of Zion. Remember all thy offer-
ings, and turn to ashes thy burnt-sacrifice.' Think of those
two brothers, Cain and Abel, before the altar;-the fire
descending upon Abel's lamb and burning it up; and Cain's
offering of corn or meal lying cold and neglected in the
sunlight. Maybe Abel had warned him that he was in the
wrong. If so, Cain would have been the more enraged."
"But still, uncle Sam," said my sister, "that is a very
little thing to make one man kill another."
Hundreds and thousands of people have been killed for
just that same little thing," said my uncle. "Cain's works
were evil, and his brother's righteous."
"How Eve must have felt then!" I said.
"And Adam! Ay, it had all the dreadfulness of the first


time. They did not know what. death was before that,
except as they had seen it in the animals. And I doubt if
they knew now. I think it is most likely that Cain buried
his brother's body out of sight; and so thinking his deed
hidden, was bold to make his answer when the Lord asked
him where Abel was,-'I know not. Am I my brother's
keeper I'"
"And the Lord said, 'The voice of thy brother's blood
crieth unto me from the ground,' "
"True, Tiny; that looks as if the Lord would tell Cain
that He knew what he had hidden. Cain thought, very likely,
as other men have thought-' Is not God in the height of
heaven 4 How doth God know ? can He judge through the
dark cloud F' and now, when he thought nobody would see
Abel's grave, comes the question and the judgment. 'Thou
art cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to
receive thy brother's blood from thy hand.'"
"What did that mean, uncle Sam "
"It meant, I should think, Tiny, that he should get no
comfort from the earth any more. He had been a tiller of
the ground; proud, very likely, of his skill and success and
improvements. Now that was gone; he would have no more
fine crops and full vintages; his occupation was taken away.
He would never be a shepherd, like his brother whom he had
killed. Without rest or peace, he would be a fugitive and a
vagabond on the face of the earth."
"Uncle Sam," said Liph, "that does not seem such a very
great punishment."
"Cain thought differently from you. He said it was
greater than he could bear."
"'I don't see why."
"There is an old sacred book of the Hindoos, which they
say was written by the first man that ever lived, and contains
laws which were given to him by the Creator. One of these
laws appoints that for certain crimes-and murdering a priest
is one of them-the criminals should be branded in the fore
head with a hot iron; and then it goes on-


SWith none to eat with them.
With none to sacrifice with them,
With none to be allied by marriage with them;
Abject, and excluded from all social duties,
Let them wander over the earth;
Branded with indelible marks,
They shall be deserted by their relations,
Treated by none with affection,
Received by none with respect.'
Do you think that would be an easy life to live, eh?"
"Why, that is exactly like Cain's curse," said I.
"Cain had somebody to eat with him," said Eliphalet.
"He had his wife."
"Ah, you do not touch the hardest part of the curse," said
uncle Sam,-"which Cain felt. Do you notice how this bold,
bad man had become a coward ? He was trembling with the
fear that somebody would kill him. That terrible scene had
unsettled his nerves. And now he knew that he had lost the
favour of God. 'Thou hast driven me out this day from the
face of the earth ; and from thy face shall I be hid.' Cain
never thought about that before; now, conscience and danger
faced him, and his spirit was shaken."
"How was he driven from the face of the earth ?"
"From all pleasant look of it, Tiny. As it was written of
others-' They shall look unto the earth; and behold trouble
and darkness, dimness of anguish.'"
Where did he go 1 "
Somewhere off to the eastward of Eden, away from his
family and away from the presence of the Lord; that is, from
the place where God's altar was and where He was wor-
shipped; for you know, wherever people seek God in His
appointed way, there God draws near to them."
"But can't people do that anywhere ?"
"Now they can, Tiny; and then they could; but in the
old time there were specially-appointed places, where the Lord
set His name, and where He often gave a visible sign of His
"And then Adam and Eve were left alone again I


"Why, no, they were not," said Daniel. Cain had his wife,
you know."
"But Cain's wife went with him."
Of course. But there were a good many other people in
the world by that time. You know Cain was afraid they
would kill him."
"What people?"
"Why, Tiny," said Dan, Adam and Eve had other children
besides Cain and Abel; and daughters too ; and the brothers
and sisters married each other; and then they had children."
But they were little children," said I.
"They had plenty of time to grow up," said uncle Sam.
"All this about Cain and Abel happened when they were
more than a hundred years old; and there were plenty of
grandchildren and great-grandchildren of Adam and Eve in
the world."
I was dumb for a minute, this was so strange to me.
Prissy asked where the land of Nod was.
"Can't tell," said uncle Sam. "It means only the land
of exile. It is where Cain wandered. He was an exile from
God. Boys, there is no such exile as that 'Hide not thy
face from me, lest I be like unto them that go down into
the pit,' was once David's prayer."
"Do you think Cain never became a good man "
"There is not any hint of it," said uncle Sam. "As far
as we know of his family, they seem to have been clever and
"What do we know about it, sir Liph asked.
"Only what is in one or two chapters of Genesis. But
when a book is all gold, like the Bible, every word of it is
worth a great deal."
"I do not remember anything about Cain's family," said
Liph ; only some names."
"Names have a meaning sometimes," said my uncle. "I '11
give you half an hour to study the record, while I take a
nap; and after that I'11 go over the whole antediluvian
world with you, if you like."
Only one thing first, uncle Sam," said L If Cain and


Abel were a hundred years old, they must have offered
sacrifices before that time?"
"No doubt of it, Tiny."
Then why did not all that happen before ?"
"That's right, my little girl; use your wits. Tiny, I sup-
pose Cain had been growing stronger and bolder in wicked-
ness, as-bad men do, and had never ventured on such a dar-
ing denial of God's truth and authority until that day.
Either he had brought no offerings, or he had done as his
father and brother did. Perhaps up to that time Adam had
been the priest of his family-as Job was of his."
"When did Job live, sir ? "
After the deluge, and before the time of Moses; in the
patriarchal times of the old world. Boys, I'll take my nap.
You may go to your books."



UNCLE SAM went off to a little distance and stretched him-
self on the moss in a shady place. The boys and Priscilla
set themselves then to clear away the dinner, and rushed off
with their baskets to the house, as eagerly as if the woods had
not been full of that soft warm air which made uncle Sam
sleepy. They brought back my Bible and their own; and
then we all read the chapters: but I for one could make
very little of them. Dan and Liph studied and pored over
Why, there is nothing at all!" said Priscilla.
"Yes, there is," said Liph.
"Well, how goes it ? "said uncle Sam. His nap was over;
he had come up without our seeing him. Now he sat
down on the moss and we all closed round, eager for the
talk. Uncle Sam took my open Bible.
"The first thing we notice after Ciin's exile, is his build-
ing a city."
"Well, that was a good thing," said Liph.
"Indeed, no," I said; "I wish people had never built
"I think it is very significant," said my grandmother,
"that the first city should have been the work of a bad
Why, what harm was there in it said Liph.
"What did Cain want of a city? said uncle Sam. "Let
us see. It was not a city like New York or London, you
must remember. The houses were probably mud houses,
such as are made in those eastern lands at this day by the
poorer class of people; the walls laid with stones, perhaps,
or mud bricks, with mud for mortar; the roofs covered with


branches and reeds and a thick plastering of mud laid over
that. But.in the Old Testament cities mean 'fenced cities;'

that is, a collection of houses shut in by a wall. The wall
would be made of mud too, unless it were a hedge of thorns
or prickly cactus; and the use of the whole was defence.
Peaceable, quiet, well-behaved people did not want such
defence. Cain's restless fears had pursued him; or, perhaps,
he had gathered a band round him of men like himself,
whose life made it good for them to live within walls. One
Hebrew name for city signifies, to keep watch."
"Perhaps too, cut off from his old way of life," said my
grandmother, "his ambition took a new channel. He called
the name of the city after his son's name. That is an old
device of pride. 'Their inward thought is, that their houses
shall continue for ever.'"
"Dwellers in cities have never been famous for unworldly
living," said uncle Sam. But after all it may be that Cain's
restless intelligence and activity were only seeking a new
outlet, though I cannot think it a good one. The same
qualities appear in his descendants. We do not find it to
be sure, until we get to Lamech's children; but one of them
was the first inventor of musical instruments, and another
made great improvements in the working of iron and copper;
and the third was the beginner of another new way of life
' He was the father of such as dwell in tents and have
Didn't Adam and Abel live in tents I"
"This fellow Jabal was the first, and he was six genera-


tions after Abel. Abel and others had kept sheep too; but
they lived in a settled home, with no more flocks than they
could pasture around them. Jabal began the wandering
life of those who do nothing but pasture flocks, and live in
tents, moving about as the wants of their flocks require. So
the Arabs live at this day."
But what makes you think they were wicked as well as
clever, uncle Sam ?" I asked.
"The Bible says not a word of any one of them being
good. Cain had gone away from the place where God was
loved and worshipped; his children missed all the influence
of holy things, and were busy, it seems, only with worldly
arts and pleasures. Cain built the first 'fenced city;'
Lamech was the first man that had two wives; Tubal Cain
wrought in tools, and I suppose in weapons; Jubal dealt in
the luxuries of life, and his brother Jabal had more cattle
than he could live at home with. And Lamech seems to
have been a violent man. There is nothing but one or two
of their names to make us think they remembered God at
all. Methusael means, 'a man of God.' Mehujael means,
' smitten of God.' Lamech means, 'humbled.' The record
tells us no more of them. But about the children of Seth
we hear particularly; and precious the record is."
I don't see much record," said Liph. They were born
and died, that is all."
"Not by a great deal," said my uncle. "It tells us
besides when each one was born and when he died; so that
we know how long the world existed before the deluge; that
is a great thing for us to know. Then it tells us that Seth
was the appointed child of Adam and Eve, in whose line the
promised seed should come. The meaning of Seth is 'ap-
pointed.' Eve seems to have understood this in some
fashion. Then, when Seth was grown to manhood, men
began to call themselves by the name of the Lord, as it is in
the margin. That is, the servants of God began to separate
themselves and to draw off from the men of the world, and
to be known as a distinct party. For already the world was
getting to be very wicked."


"It is strange that should have been so soon," said Dan.
"One would think the story of the garden of Eden would
have kept them straight a little longer."
"It did not," said uncle Sam. Let us follow the record,
and we shall find one reason why. Adam lived nine hundred
and thirty years, and then died. Then at last the sentence,
'dust to dust,' was fulfilled upon him. The golden bowl
was broken after it had held the wine of life almost a
thousand years. Let us see how the world was then. Seth
was living yet, and all of his seven descendants mentioned
in this list before Noah. It was seven hundred years since
men had separated openly into two parties, the servants of
God being known as distinct from the others. Enoch was
prophesying that the Lord would come 'to execute judg-
ment upon all, and to convince all that were ungodly among
them of all their ungodly deeds which they had ungodly
committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly
sinners had spoken against him.' You see the world was
becoming ready for the deluge. It was two or three hundred
years already since Tubal Cain had found out how to work
copper and iron to such advantage; it was more than that
since people had begun to live in defended places. Arts and
manufactures, and cultivation and traffic, were going on
with swift strides, and had reached a very great proficiency,
and with long life and great strength men were pushing
everything forward."
I always fancied they did not know much in those days,"
said Dan.
Why, if men learn so much and do so much in seventy
years," said my uncle, "what would they do in seven
hundred ? Very likely Tubal Cain was yet living and carry-
ing on his manufactures, at the time when Adam died.
Now-a-days a man makes some discovery or improvement
and dies often before he can see its full results. All he can
do for who comes after him is to put his knowledge in a
book. But in those days a man could tell and show his
successors what he had done-watch their improvements,
and go on with his own for hundreds and hundreds of years.


The world must have moved fearfully fast in those times.
If Roger Bacon could have lived on, some Fulton would have
started up to verify his ideas about steam-power long before
this day."
But they had so little to begin with," said Liph.
"No they hadn't," said uncle Sam. "It wasn't little.
Adam had a great deal of knowledge to begin with, a first-
rate intelligence, and perfection of strength and health.
What he knew, his sons for many hundreds of years had
him to tell them. Remember that. He did not die at
seventy years old. Why, my boy, when Tubal Cain began to
work, Adam was five hundred years old. Think what must
have been known before that time. Tubal Cain worked in
copper and iron. Where did he get copper and iron to work
with ?"
"I don't know, sir; I suppose he found them."
"Where is iron found do you know It is almost never
found in the form of pure iron. We get it in the form of
an oxide or a carburet; that is, changed by its combination
with some other substances; and then buried in beds of
clay among coal seams, or locked up in rocks of granite or
limestone. It is iron ore that we find in nature, and that
not without taking terrible pains for it. Copper is sometimes
found pure, but not commonly; that, too, is in the form of
ores of different sorts; and for both copper and iron we
must dig deep and painfully; me must blast the rocks, or
hew them out. Indeed, how the ores were ever first dis-
covered, and their hidden treasures made known, is a wonder
and mystery to me."
I never thought of that," said Liph.
And when the ores are found and quarried, have you any
notion of the processes that are necessary to separate the
metal? Iron ore is first roasted; that is, subjected to a
great burning in layers with coal; as a preparation for smelt-
ing. Then it is put in a furnace and brought to fusing heat,
that the metal may run off. The furnaces are of very pecu-
liar construction too. And the heat that would melt the
metal would not melt the rocky substance with which it is


Page 61.


joined; to make this flow, and disengage the iron, some other
substance must be mixed with the mass, different of course
in the cases of different ores; and here knowledge of chemis-
try is required, as well as skill in ores. So see what elabor-
ate, delicate, and difficult processes must have been gone
through before Tubal Cain could have had a single pig of
iron to place on his anvil, or in his refining laboratory. For
this coarse iron is very far yet from steel."
"Is copper as difficult to manage ?"
"It is not so hard to find. I don't know about the manage-
ment. I should think it was more difficult, as the manufac-
ture is carried on now. But the fact is, that iron has been
the last metal for nations to discover, and one of the most
refractory to reduce to order. Nations have had all other
metals in use before they got hold of this. In old times
copper was often its substitute; they had the art of hardening-
it so as to make it do what we cannot do without iron. Tubal
Cain had iron and copper both."
"Where do you suppose men first got fire, uncle Sam ?"
"The Moslem tradition is, that the angel Gabriel taught
Adam and Eve how to make bread. When they had built
an oven as he showed them how, then, the story runs, he
brought fire from the infernal regions for heating it; but on
the way the angel stopped to wash this fire seventy times in
the sea, as otherwise it would have burnt up the earth, instead
of heating the oven."
But what do you think, uncle Sam ?"
"Tiny, I know as little as you do. However, I confess I
think it is likely that the use of fire was one of the things
taught them from heaven. They had no steel to strike fire
with flint; and they could not have got it by rubbing two
dry pieces of wood together, as savages do, because till they
knew it they would not seek it. I think the Lord gave it
them. Lightning might have kindled it in a dry tree-or
imperfectly cured hay might have blazed out in the stack, as
happens now sometimes; but even then, unless taught, I
think men would have been only frightened, or in wonder at
the sight-not made wiser. We know there have been people


who had not the use of fire, and never knew it till it was
brought to them. It was so in the Phillippine and Canary
Islands-they did not know it before Europeans came there.
Savage tribes exist in Africa and America who do not know
the use of fire, and eat their meat raw. In another place, the
Mariana Isles, I remember, when the people first saw fire they
thought it was a wild beast feeding on the wood; and that
the creature's breath burnt them. It is doubtful, I think,
whether any people would or could find out the use of fire
for themselves."
"Then do you think they could ever have had it ? How
could they have lost such a thing, uncle Sam ?"
"As they lost better things, Liph. Coming to a warm
region, where fruits ripened easily, and they had not war or
trade to stir them up, a people without religion would sink
"down, down, into indolence and ignorance and vice, grow-
ing more and more animal, until they came to the condition
of the Hottentots. Nations without the knowledge of God
can lose everything. But to go back; if the world had got
so far by Tubal Cain's time, what must it not have done in
a thousand years more, when every clever man lived on
hundreds of years to carry forward his discoveries and im-
provements ?"
"I would have liked to live in those times," said Liph.
"No, you wouldn't," said uncle Sam. "There were giants
in the earth in those days; and as they were wicked giants,
of course they oppressed the weaker people. You would not
have had a good time, unless you had been a giant too."
"But it was grand to live so long," said Liph.
"In a wicked world No. For wickedness went on with
great strides, for the same reason that knowledge and arts
did; long life gave people a great chance to do mischief,
and made them feel secure in it. In spite of the fact that
Adam was living, and could tell them all his story; though
Cain carried about the mark of God's curse upon him;
though Enoch preached and Noah prophesied-what did all
that matter to people who had a thousand years to live ?
So they went their own way, and lived lives of violence and


selfishness, until God saw that the wickedness of man was
great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts
of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the
Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved
him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man
whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man,
and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air.'"
Why must they be killed, uncle Sam 1"
"The whole place was so foul, Tiny, the Lord would wash
it all away, and make a new world for a new family."
I should think Adam would have been glad to shut his
eyes upon it," said my grandmother.
"I have no doubt he was. His children were born in his
likeness, and his heart must have been bitter within him
when he saw what sort of a likeness it was. Let us hope he
had the comfort of knowing that 'as in Adam all die, even
so in Christ shall all be made alive.'"
"What does that mean, uncle Sam ?"
"It means this, Tiny. That Adam stood as the father of
all mankind, and by sinning drew down a curse upon them;
and that Jesus stood as the Saviour of all mankind, and by
dying lifted the curse off. Life is bought for everybody,
unless they persist in going on to sin; if they do, there re-
maineth no more sacrifice for them."
"Uncle Sam," I said, "I guess Adam knew it."
"I think he did, Tiny. And in this record of him and
Seth's children, which tells how long he lived, and when
each died, there is a beautiful account given of two among
them. Enoch 'walked with God'-and so did Noah. In
the midst of all the wickedness and confusion around them,
those two men walked with God."
"How is that, uncle Sam said I, when all the others
were silent.
"How is it when you and I go into the forest together "
"Why, you carry me in your arms," I said.
"Jesus carries the lambs in His bosom," said uncle Sam,
gravely. "But how is it when a servant walks with his
master "


Why, he keeps near him, and watches to see what his
master wants him to do."
"'As the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their
masters, and as the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her
mistress, so our eyes wait upon the Lord our God.' And
the Lord says, 'I will guide thee with mine eye.' But can
two walk together unless they be agreed?"
"No, uncle Sam."
Then, if we walk with God, we must love what He loves,
and hate what He hates, and be ready to do the work He
wants done. We shall say-' I have set the Lord always be-
fore me; because he is at my right hand, I shall not be
moved.' And God will say, 'I the Lord thy God will hold
thy right hand, saying unto thee, Fear not; I will help thee.
When thou passes through the waters, I will be with thee,
and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when
thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned;
neither shall the flame kindle upon thee.'"
Uncle Sam stopped speaking, and they were all silent. I
thought I would like to walk so with God, and I wished
God would walk with me; but it seemed so wonderful and
great, I could hardly understand it.
"So I suppose the Lord was with His servant in those
bad old times; and Enoch had this testimony, that he
pleased God; and then-he was not; for God took him."
"Didn't he die "
"No, Tiny; he went to heaven without dying. He and
Elijah-those two, of all the world."
"Why should they, those two particularly ? Daniel asked.
"Yes; I suppose other people have been as good as they ?'"
said Liph.
"I cannot tell," said uncle Sam. "Only this we know:
that those two stood almost alone for God in the midst of a
wicked world; preached and strove and fought for God,
with wonderful faith, when everybody else went the other
way; and how hard it is, boys, to go alone against all the
world, you will never know till you try. Three hundred
years Enoch did it; and then the truth of those words was


proved-' He that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.'
Enoch was gone; he was not found, because God had trans-
lated him. All that his friends knew was that he was gone.
He had not been sick; he had not died; God had taken
him straight home."
He didn't live so long as the others ?" saidLiph.
"I don't know what youcall living," said uncle Sam. "He
never died-and he is living yet."
"I mean he wasn't so long in this world," said Liph.
He was three hundred and sixty-five years."
"How long was that before the flood, uncle Sam "
"Enoch was the father of Methuselah, and Methuselah was
Noah's grandfather. Let me see-it was just six hundred
and sixty-nine years from Enoch's death to the deluge; and
by that time there was only one good man left in the world.
Boys and girls-it is time for your grandmother to go to the
house and take her afternoon nap."
0 uncle Sam," I said, won't you tell us about Noah I"
"Then you will want me to go on and tell you about
"I wish you would, uncle Sam."
"I say, let's go straight on," said Liph.
"I'll go straight, if I go at all," said uncle Sam. "Well, I
don't know but it would be as good a thing as we could do.
I'm agreed for my part."
"Hurrah, for the Deluge !" said Daniel.
"Uncle Sam,-you are very good !" said I.
"Let us all be as good as we can, Tiny."


IT was in the peace of a Sunday evening that we had our
talk about the flood. Of course, we had not dined out that
day. Evening came, and we were all gathered in the old
tumble-down porch, which just held us; and we were en-
joying the stillness and the sweetness and the light. For a
great fragrance came out from the firs and pines in the
forest, and the sun was throwing golden lances through the
Couldn't we have Noah ?" said Daniel, softly.
"Are we coming down the line of the Ages?" said my uncle,
with a smile.
It would be as good a thing as you could do," said my
grandmother. "Tell the children what you know."
"I do not know a great deal," said my uncle ; "I should
have to read up. But I can tell them what I have seen."
And you have seen almost everything, uncle Sam," I
"Not the ark," said my uncle; "though I have seen the
mountain where people said the pieces of the ark were left.
But let us begin a little further back.
"Sixty-nine years after Enoch went up to heaven, a little
baby was born into the world, whom his father called
'Comfort.' Lamech had somehow found the world a weary
place; and when this child was born, its father's heart
hoped to find rest in it. 'This same shall comfort us con.
cerning our work,' he said; concerning our work and toil
of our lands, because of the ground which the Lord hath
cursed.' That name is what many parents have given their
babies, but not all with such good reason. I suppose the
world was growing a hard place to live in, and Lamech's


heart getting faint. How little he guessed what work that
baby 'Comfort' would live to do !"
"He lived to do his father's heart good for five hundred
and ninety-five years, and then Lamech died. Shem, Ham,
and Japheth were born; the eldest of them was ninety-five
years old; it was five years before the flood; and the ark
was, I suppose, nearly finished. Old Methuselah was linger-
ing on to his last days, and Noah was preaching the judgment
to come; and nobody heeded him."
How long was the ark building, uncle ?"
I cannot say, Tiny. Some people think it was a hundred
and twenty years, and that so long was the time God gave
the world for repentance,-have you got your Bibles ?-look
at the third verse of the sixth chapter. At any rate it must
have been a good while; for the apostle Peter speaks of the
time 'when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days
of Noah, while the ark was a-preparing'-and we know the
patience and long-suffering of God are very great. It is
never a little time that He waits for sinners to come back to
Him. But the world had grown so bad then that the Bible
says it 'grieved' the Lord, and He could not bear the people
whom He had made. But Noah found grace in the eyes of
the Lord. He is the third example given in the Bible of the
great things that faith can do."
"I do not understand what he did that was so very great,"
said my brother Liph.
"'By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen
as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark, to the saving of his
"Well, I should think so he would," said Dan. "So
would I."
"And you would come into it when it was prepared ?"
"Well, when you have tried," said my uncle, "then you
will know what it is, to believe and declare publicly what no
one else in the world believes. But Noah did more than
that. You all know the story,-and yet you don't know it.
Imagine that you were back in those times, a year or so


before the flocd came; and that there, in a green meadow,
you saw an immense building, like neither a house nor a
ship, but bigger than the largest ship that ever floated. It
is far away from the sea-not even a river within some dis-
tance of it. You ask what that thing is ? 'Oh, that,' you are
told, 'is Noah's folly; have you never heard of it? he is a
crazy fool, whose mind is overset with the idea that he is
going some day to be drowned; and for a hundred years he
has been building a boat to swim in. Everybody has seen it,
from a hundred miles round, and everybody has heard him
talk about it. He is clean mad-a fool-he can talk of
nothing else. He declares there is a flood coming .to
swallow us all up; where does he think the water is going
to come from?' This was what Noah had to face, for all
that time the ark was a-building. It is easy to think there is
a storm coming when you see a cloud, and it is easy to
believe and act as everybody around you does. But it is the
sign of great faith or great wisdom to be far in advance of
the age in -h hch you live. So you think you would have
gone into the ark 1"
"Why, yes, sir," Dan answered, rather doubtfully. But
my uncle went on.
"The day came at last when all was ready, and Noah and
his family went into their place of shelter. And the Lord
shut him in. And then, we know how it was around them.
They, no doubt, were in great sorrow and fear and awe, for
that which was coming upon them and their poor neighbours;
waiting with beating hearts for the first signs of the calam-
ity; but outside, people were gay; they feared nothing.
'The heavens were of old,' they thought, 'and the earth
standing out of the water and in the water;' why should
they fear any change ? 'They did eat, they drank, they
married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day
that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came and
destroyed them alL' But still, after Noah had gone into the
ark, there was a dreadful seven days of waiting. All sunny
and bright and quiet, the whole earth, as if nothing bad could
happen; and everybody gay and busy and careless. And


then the rain came, and the fountains of the great deep were
broken up."
What does that mean, uncle ?"
The sea was let in upon the land."
"How, sir?"
I do not know; perhaps by the surface of the land being
depressed, as happens to us now and then on a small scale.
All that the inhabitants of the land would know, would be
that the sea was flowing in and kept flowing in at a terrible
rate, as if the tide would never cease rising. The rivers were
soon flooded, of course, with the great rain, and the skies
seemed whole water; but besides this came that terrible
tide of the sea, flowing in and in, and rising higher and
higher. Then the thought of Noah's prophecy would have
come on them at last as a death-peal"
"It must have been a terrible time for Noah!" said my
grandmother. "It always struck me as a merciful thing
that there was no window in the ark through which he
could look out."
"And it was a significant thing," said my uncle, "that the
Lord shut him in. He could not open the door."
But there was a window, uncle Sam," said Priscilla.
Not one that anybody could look out of, to see anything
but the sky. It was in the top of the ark somewhere. The
ark was not a ship; it was more like a great floating chest;
only meant to float safely, not to sail Noah's first tidings
how deep the waters were must have been when he felt the
ark moving upon them."
"Then he knew that everybody was killed, of the people
outside," I said.
"No, Tiny, not then. The ark must have been built on
low ground, where materials could be brought easily; and it
would be lifted up and go on the face of the waters before
they had yet reached the higher country. People that could
would flee to the mountains. Noah would know nothing
about all that. Only, for forty days it rained; and then the
waters lifted up the ark. And then, how deep they grew,
those within the ark could not tell. But the sea kept coming


in, a ceaseless dreadful tide that never ebbed, until height
after height was reached, and at last all the tops of the high
hills were covered; and the water was about twenty-six
feet over them. From that point they began to abate. God
made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters were
assuaged. But Noah could know nothing about it, till he
felt the ark strike ground under him. That happened just
five months after the rain began. Five weary, strange
months they must have been; of rain and darkness and
"And then he sent out the raven and the dove."
"Why, no, Tiny; not yet. There was no land to be seen
yet. The ark lay deep in the water, you must remember;
the bottom of it would feel ground a good way down. Be-
sides, the ark must have rested on a high peak of land; for
it was nigh two months and a half after that before the tops
of the mountains were seen. Those were the mountains of
You have been there, haven't you, uncle Sam i"
"Yes. I have been there."
And have you seen the mountain where the ark rested?"
"Tiny, I do not know. I have seen the mountain where,
in old times, and now, for that matter, people say the ark
rested. Indeed, they will have it that remains of the old
building are up there yet."
Didn't you go up to see ?"
"Prissy, I did not. I have climbed so many steep places
in my time, that I concluded to let this one alone. It is
scarcely possible to reach the top; sometimes the mountain
is covered with snow down to its very base; and in the best
of times the snow reaches four thousand feet from the sum-
mit. The long region of cold makes it next to impossible to
get to the top, though the thing has been done. But it is
one of the most magnificent mountains in the world. As
you come from the north, and see it from the plain through
which the river Araxes runs, it is one of the grandest things
I ever saw. Up, fourteen thousand feet from the plain,
with lesser mountains thrown around its base as if to make


a pedestal for it, its two snowy heads shining and glittering
with sunlight, away up into the blue heaven-it is as beau-
tiful as such a thing can be. It is worthy to have been the
resting-place of the ark; and I felt like taking off my hat
when I looked at it. Somebody has said it seems as if the
hugest mountains of the world had been piled upon each
other to form this sublime immensity of earth and rock and
snow.' "
I wish you had gone up, uncle Sam," I said.
"To see the bits of the ark ? I don't believe they are
there, Tiny; but I can tell you there is a town in that region,
some leagues off, said to be one of the oldest towns in the
world, that is called, Nak-schivan; and nak means ship,' and
schivan means 'stopped,' or 'settled.' The old tradition is,
that. Noah settled there when he came out of the ark. Cer-
tainly he could not have stayed up on Mount Ararat long.
And now I must tell you of the country of Ararat, and what
a beautiful place it was for the ark to rest.
Boys, one of you go into the house and bring out the
big atlas. We have good light yet. Now open it here on
the floor, where you can all see. Now you see, here is the
Caspian,-here is the Persian Gulf,-here is the Medi-
terranean,-and here is the Black Sea, or the Euxine. This
part of Asia, a great deal of it, is very flat. Here, in the
midst between these great waters, out of this vast region of
plains, rises an island of rock, as somebody has described it
well; a little country of high lands, having a level about
seven thousand feet above the surrounding plain. This is
called Armenia now, this hilly country; that is, IHar-minni
-the mountains of Minni. From this table-land, some six
or seven thousand feet high, springs up the mountain peak
of Ararat, and other mountain peaks; and on some one of
them certainly, if not on that one, the ark rested. This was
a grand centre for the new beginning of the human race; the
passes and ascents to this table-land are easy; and by the
valleys of the four rivers that spring there, and by the great
waters of these gulfs and seas, men could spread away, as
they did when they wanted room, to re-people the earth."


What four rivers, uncle Sam ?" I said.
Here, Tiny, is one; the Araxes, emptying into the Cas-
pian Sea. On the other side, here is the Acampsis, running
away, which it does, very fast, into the Black Sea. Now,
between these-you see-rises that great river, the river
Euphrates, and takes its long course down through the lower
plains, to the Persian Gulf. And a little east of it runs the
Tigris, another great river, beginning up there in the heart
of Armenia, and joining the Euphrates a little way from its
mouth. Now, wherever there is a river, generally speaking,
there is a valley through which it flows; here are four rivers,
and in the valleys of those rivers some of the greatest nations
of old time had their homes. You see the mountains of
Ararat were a grand starting-point for men that were going
out to people the world.
"By the mountains of Ararat, I do not mean simply that
one great mountain, the Finger-mountain,' as it is called,
because it sits all alone in its greatness pointing up into
heaven; but I mean all these hills that spring from the high
table-lands of Armenia, and the table-land itself. Here, west
of Ararat, runs one range; and a little below it is another;
both lying east and west. This lowest is the south border
of Armenia; and these are called the mountains of Koordis-
tan now."
Isn't it a cold country, sir ?" asked Dan.
"Yes, the climate is sharp enough in winter; and the
summers are short and hot. It begins to freeze hard at
night early in September; and warm weather does not set in
till May. In April you will find the plains down here be-
tween the Euphrates and the Tigris all scorched up with the
heat; and on the borders of the Black Sea I have left wild
azalea and rhododendron in bloom,-got up to the Armenian
plateau and found it all white with snow."
I hope Noah did not come out of the ark in snow time?"
said Priscilla.
"I always think it must have been in spring," said my
uncle, "when vegetation makes such a quick burst into
greenness. The sun does its work very fast up there when


it begins; and it is not such a barren place as you would
think. There are no trees, indeed, on the Armenian table-
land; but the grass and herbage spring luxuriantly, and
furnish pasture for myriads of cattle. There the Koords
feed their flocks at the present day; even as in old time the
great production of Armenia was horses and mules; they
were the wealth of the country. But besides the rich pas-
tures of the high land, the valleys grow the grape well; and
wheat and barley ripen at much greater heights than they
will on the mountains of Europe; the vine ripens its fruit
nearly twice as high as it can be found on the Alps; and in
the south valleys I have found mulberries and figs, peaches,
olives, pomegranates, walnuts, and grapes, all growing to-
gether, and Indian corn and cotton ripening, and oleanders
in bloom, and other flowers among the grass. You need not
pity the people, as far as that goes."
"But Noah came out upon the cold part of the country,"
I said.
"Not so very cold, if it was May. What a coming out
it must have been for those eight people! A whole year
they had been shut up in the ark, feeding their extensive
collection of animals; able to hear nothing, unless they
could hear the rain, and the wind, and the sound of waves;
and able to see nothing, out of the ark, except they looked
up through their skylight to the cloudy sky. I suppose
they had the sunshine, too, in time. But they must have
been weary, thinking of the desolation outside."
I should think the rain would have come in through the
skylight," said Liph, "if it was a skylight."
"Which makes me think," said my uncle, "that their win-
dow had glass in it. I think it is very likely. No doubt
many inventions had been found out by men before the
flood which were lost then, when people had to begin all
over again. However, at any rate, they could see nothing
except through the window. And there were first the terrible
days of storm and darkness; and then the days of patient
waiting, while the ark went upon the face of the waters.
Then. after five months and a half the ark rested. But still


Noah waited; there was nothing for him outside, he knew.
Two months and a half longer, and the tops of the moun-
tains were seen. Noah was too high up to see them from his
window. Forty days more he waited; then he let go a
raven out of the window, and a dove. The dove came back,
so he knew there was no place for her yet."
"Why did not the raven come back, uncle Sam ?"
"The raven is an unclean bird, Tiny; it feeds on decaying
flesh; and there was too terrible provision for her, floating
about and stranded on the rocks. The waters were on the
face of the whole earth yet, all except the higher points.
Noah waited till the next seventh day, and tried the dove
again. All day she was gone; at evening she came back
to the window, and in her mouth was a green olive leaf
pluckt off How good that little green leaf must have looked
to the weary dwellers in the ark! How they must have
thanked God over it! It was like a bit of home again."
"Uncle Sam, if there had not been glass in the window,
how could Noah have seen the dove when she came back ?"
"Very true, Tiny."
"Why, the window might have been open," said Liph.
Then the dove could have flown in," said Priscilla ; and
she did not. Noah put out his hand and pulled her in."
"Why did Noah wait any longer then 1" said Dan.
"He was a wise man, and a patient. He knew it would
not do to carry all his animals out of the ark until there was
something for them to eat outside of it. He waited seven
days more. When a man only wants to do God's will, Dan,
he is never in a hurry-unless his obedience outruns his faith.
At the end of the week he sent forth the dove again. This
time she did not come back; so he knew she had found
shelter and food, and that green things were getting to be
plenty, or very soon would."
"I think," said my grandmother, "Noah is one of the most
beautiful examples that can be found of the humble, child-
like spirit of a child of God. After his weary imprisonment
in the ark, a year long driven about on the waters or stranded
on the mountain top, in something that must have been, for


pleasantness, a compound of a ship's hold and a stable; still,
when the waters were dried, he waited in his place, just
content to be and do as the Lord gave him, until the Lord
himself appointed a change. It is beautiful I After the dove
was sent forth that last time and did not come back, Noah
waited yet another seven days before he even ventured to
indulge himself with looking out; then he removed the
covering of the ark so that he could get a view of the earth.
And then he saw that the face of the ground was dry. And
yet, it was nearly two months more that he abode patiently
in his place, waiting for God's command to go forth. Who
of us is so patient under trials-so willing to wait the Lord's
time for putting an end to them I"
That is what it is to love God and trust Him," said my
Uncle Sam, what sort of a leaf is an olive leaf ?"
"A little like a willow leaf, Tiny, but more delicate. It
is very pretty. The spikes of flowers are very delicate, too,
coming out between the leaf and the stem; a soft yellow
spike of blossoms at first; when the flowers are full opened
they are white with only a little yellow in the middle. The
whole.tree is beautiful, I think. An orchard of olives, with
the wind brushing their gray-green leaves, is to me one of
the prettiest sights in the world."
"Gray-green, uncle Sam ?"
"Yes, it is a soft kind of tree altogether, to lopk at; the
wood is hard enough. An olive leaf is just the thing the
dove would bring, Tiny, if she could get it; for the olive
groves are the places where the doves like to be. They build
their nests in them; and go into an olive grove anywhere,
and you may hear the soft sound of the dove's voice all the
day long. And, besides that, the olive leaf would let Noah
know how things were outside the ark. The olive-tree does
not flourish on very high grounds; it likes warm, sheltered
places; so Noah could tell by the fresh leaf the dove brought
home, that the waters had been long enough dried away from
some such places to have the vegetation spring. I guess the
dove had to take a long flight to get that leaf ; for olive trees


do not grow on the cold slopes of Ararat, and scarcely in
Armenia at all. Only in southern valleys, and low down; it
will not flourish as high up as the mulberry, and walnut,
and apricot do."
I wonder what was the 'covering of the ark,' which Noah
removed," said Liph.
"Boards, perhaps," said my uncle, "or shingles, or thatch.
You suppose the ark was built with boards, don't you?"
Well, do you suppose the pasture had sprung, on those
high lands, by the time he brought the animals out ?"
"Yes. Let us see. Two months after the dove had found
her home among the green olive-trees far lower down; yes,
the herbage on the table-land of Armenia would be in full
luxuriance; and not that only. Different kinds of food, you
know, the different inhabitants of the ark would want. It
must have been good to Noah and those that were with him,
to remove the covering, and look abroad, and let in the sweet
face of the blue sky; and one would say, it must have been
hard to wait any longer; only faith does not say that any-
thing is hard. But when the order came, to go forth-what
a coming into the world that must have been The green
rich meadows, the flowers, the hills, the sunshine-how sweet
they must have been! but then, the world was empty!
Everybody was dead; the very birds and beasts and insects
were gone from the fields and woods; a strange, still, green
world! I do not wonder that the first thing Noah did was
to build an altar."
To give thanks, uncle Sam 1"
"Ay, Tiny, and to pray. To pray that God would never
send a flood again."
"Well, if he prayed that, he got his prayer," said Pris-
"I guess he got whatever he prayed for," said my uncle.
"He was one of the men whose prayers the Lord hears.
Once, long after, when the Lord was declaring that He would
punish the nation of the Jews for their wickedness and would
not be persuaded against it, He said, 'Though Noah, Daniel,
and Job were in it, they should deliver but their own souls


by their righteousness.' So I suppose by that, if God would
regard anybody, He would regard those three men. 'Noah
found grace in the eyes of the Lord.' Ah, but that is a sweet
record to be made of any man !"
Was it because he was so patient, uncle Sam ?"
See, Tiny. In the first place, he was just man; perfect,
the Bible calls him. That is, his heart was whole towards
God; it was not divided; whatever he saw to be duty, that
Noah did. 'According to all that God commanded him, so
did he;' with a sweet unquestioning obedience. And his
faith in God was strong enough to make him go against the
jeers and the unbelief of the whole world and stand alone, a
preacher of righteousness, for the hundred and twenty years
the ark was a-preparing. God loves the people that trust
Him so."
"But people cannot trust Him so now," said Priscilla.
"Can't they? said my uncle.
"I mean,-they cannot show their faith so now, uncle
"Are you sure of that? Turn to the Second Epistle
of Peter, Prissy, and read the fifth verse of the third
Priscilla turned to the place and read, while the boys
peeped over her shoulder.
"'By the word of God the heavens were of old, and the
earth standing out of the water and in the water whereby
the world that then was, being overflowed with water,
perished: but the heavens and the earth which are now,
by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire
against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly
"Do you believe that 1" said my uncle.
"Yes, sir," and "yes, sir," they all said as his eye went
from one to the other.
"You think you do," said he; "but if you did, you would
flee into the ark. Your belief is not worth much."
The ark ?" said Eliphalet.


"Who is our ark now, Tiny? An ark of gopher-wood
would not save us in the day of that fire."
"But Jesus will"-I said softly.
"' He is able to save them to the uttermost that come unto
God by him.' The name of the Lord is a strong tower; the
righteous runneth into it and is safe.' There is no condem-
nation,' "- my uncle went on.
"But, sir," said Eliphalet, "it is not such a proof of faith
for people now to trust in the Saviour, as it was for Noah to
build the ark."
"To obey the Saviour is a great proof of faith, Liph, now
as then; and makes a person just as unlike the rest of the
world. Only now he is not alone in his faith; that makes a
difference; and we have the advantage of much greater light
than Noah had. But to this day, if a man will be for God
only, as Noah was, he will have the world against him. And
as I said, your faith is not worth much. You see it is not
enough to make you go into the ark."
But, sir, the flood was very near; that made it different."
"So may the day of Christ's coming be very near."
But I thought it was a great way off."
"' Of that day and that hour knoweth no man.' It may
come to-morrow. And if those I love were all ready for it
I wish it would !"
"But, uncle Sam," I ventured, "won't it be a dreadful
day ?"
When Jesus comes ? Not to those that love His appear-
ing, Tiny. That will not be the day that the world will be
burned up-there will be a long space between ; but whether
Christ comes to the world, or death takes us to Him, in
either case our part and lot in the transactions of that last
great day will be equally fixed and settled beforehand."
"Uncle Sam," said Eliphalet, "how do you suppose all
the animals were got into the ark ?"
"How do you suppose they were got into the garden of
Eden 1"
O sir," said Liph-" if you mean a miracle"--


"I do not mean anything," said my uncle. "If you can
make anything but a miracle out of it, you are welcome."
"Uncle Sam," said I, "how high is Mount Ararat ?"
"How shall I tell you, Tiny ? If I told you, you would
not be able to imagine it. The glory of it is, that it springs
right up from the plain, almost alone, instead of being sur-
rounded with other high grounds which would half conceal
it. Right up from the plain, more than fourteen thousand
feet; a beautiful great cone, with its head in eternal snow,
and a crown of glittering ice on its brow, that shines in the
blue heaven in the sunlight like a crown of glory. I have
seen it from different quarters, near and far off; always the
same regular white cone, in solitary height and majesty, with
its glittering ice diadem. I do think it is the most beautiful
mountain in the world."
Is it a volcano, sir ? "
The whole land of Armenia is volcanic; that is, it was
thrown up at some time by volcanic action; and Ararat
seems to have been once a volcano itself; for below the
region of snows on its head, there is a barren terrible tract
covered with great masses of lava and cinders and porphyry.
However, within the memory of man there has never been
an eruption there, nor tradition of such a thing. I suppose,
if the mountain was ever at work, it has not been since
Noah's time. It is thought that a great cleft on the north
side may be the token of a former crater. A village used to
stand there a few years ago, until a terrible earthquake shook
down such masses of rock and rubbish from the upper part
of the mountain, that the village was buried. The principal
shock happened in the day time, so that but some fifty lives
were lost. But there were clouds of smoke and a strong
smell of sulphur about, after the earthquake, which spoke
for the old character of the mountain."
It is time to go into the house, children," said my grand-
"One minute, ma'am," said Priscilla. "Uncle Sam, do
you know what gopher-wood is ? "
"It is cypress-wood, my dear, I believe; the same wood


which the ancient Phoenicians used for their ship-building.
It is both light and durable, and grows in those regions of
"How beautiful this talk about Noah and Ararat has
been!" I said, as uncle Sam put me down from his knee. He
stooped down and kissed me.
"But remember the other Day, Tiny, and the Ark. 'A
prudent man foreseeth the evil and hideth himself.'"


AFTER a morning of business we had our dinner out in the
woods again; uncle Sam this time taking with him one or
two books, which as the boys said looked like work. To-day
we changed our place, and went a little farther, to the top
of a spreading rock which gave us a most beautiful view
through one of the forest glades, with a blue mountain
rising up far in the distance. The rock was warm with the
uninterrupted rays of the sun; and the moss gray and crisp
as if it had been dried. We found a shelter under some
scrubby pines which had foliage enough to serve us for a
canopy; and though uncle Sam declared that the rock was
hard, I think he liked it as well as we did. Grandmamma
had a carpet of shawls to sit upon and the trunk of a pine-
tree to lean against; and I cannot tell how beautiful the
lights were across the grassy glade below and upon the faint
blue mountain far away.
How far is it, uncle Sam ?" the boys asked.
"That mountain? said my uncle. "It must be at least
seventy miles away. So events look to us through the dis-
tance of ages. We get the outline-we get a notion of their
greatness but the features of the case, the lights and
colours, are all faded away in'the undistinguishable mist of
the space between."
Does the Flood look so to us, uncle Sam ?"
Ay, Tiny We read it like a story that has grown cold
with telling. We hardly see any of its features. Imagine
that this was the time of the Flood; and that we were
gathered on this high place as the nearest point of safety;
and that over that lower ground, and between us and yonder
blue mountain, all over, there was a heaving tide of water;


coming in from we could not tell where, and growing, grow-
ing, higher and higher, creeping up the sides of our rock,
and up the stems of the forest trees. Suppose we had been
here two days already, with scarce any food; and while.
watching for our lives to see whether the water would begin
to go down, we could only see that it was constantly,
steadily creeping up. And suppose that, away in the dis-
tance, we could see the floating ark; carrying off its little
company in the safety which we had refused to share."
"I wish you would not talk about it, uncle Sam," I
"Now we look back at it as we look at that blue moun-
tain. Only it is like a mountain which can be seen from
every part of the world. From every part of the world men
look back at it; through more and less mist of the atmo-
sphere through which they look."
"From every part of the world 9" said Liph.
"From every quarter of the world. Do you think such a
thing would be forgotten by Noah's children ? But as they
wandered away from other truths, so they lost a great deal
of this. It is just the distant blue mountain. As you might
expect, the people who live near the spot where the ark
rested, have kept the clearest traditions of the matter. They
all say Armenia was the place. But Noah goes under all
sorts of names.
"For instance. One of the best traditions is the Chal-
dean. An old historian of that nation gives it in this
way: There was a king of Babylon, the tenth king, called
Xisuthrus. The god Kronos told him that on such a day
a flood would come which would destroy the earth. So he
bade Xisuthrus build a vessel, stock it with provisions, fill
it with animals, and take on board all the people that he
cared about; which Xisuthrus did. He built a ship three
quarters of a mile long, and more than a quarter of a mile
broad, which would hold a good deal. The flood came, and
in process of time went off again. Then Xisuthrus sent out
birds from his ship, which came back to him. He waited,
and sent them out a second time. This time they came


back with mud on their feet. Afterwards he made a third
trial, and the birds came home no more. Then Xisuthrus
made an opening in his vessel-it seems to have been an odd
kind of a ship-and looked out, and found that he was high
and dry on a mountain in Armenia. So he came forth and
offered sacrifices to the gods."
"That is a pretty good story, uncle Sam," said DanieL
"Pretty good. The Persians got further off from the
truth. They had it, that the world had grown wicked, and
itwas needful to purify it by bringing a flood of waters over
all living inhabitants. So the water came down in drops
as large as the head of a bull, and the flood rose until all
men were killed. They had no tradition of Noah and the
ark; they held that after the flood there was a new creation
of human creatures. But then, over against this lame story,
there was a city in Phrygia-in Asia Minor, you know-
which was named Kibotos, or 'the ark;' and so late as
the time of the emperor Septimius Severus-how late was
that, Liph ? "
"I do not remember, sir, exactly."
"It was two hundred years after Christ," said Dan; "the
time of the fifth persecution of the Christians."
"Ay," said my uncle. "Well, the town I speak of-a
great trading town of Asia Minor-had a coin struck in


the time of Severus, having on its face the representation
of a square box of a vessel, floating on water, with the heads
of a man and a woman appearing at an opening. On the


vessel a bird is perched, and another bird is flying towards
it with a branch in its claws. Outside of the vessel the
man and woman are seen again, got out upon dry land, and
with hands lifted up in attitude of adoration. On some of
the coins the letters N. O. E. are struck in Greek characters."
"Why, isn't that extraordinary !" said Priscilla.
"It was the custom in that age to have the coins of cities
relate some point of their religious history. But none came
so near the truth as this little town of Apamea. That was
its later name."
"Well, uncle Sam 1" said Daniel.
"I cannot tell you all the stories, my boy. They are all
over the world. In China they had one in many respects
very close to the Bible account. Fdh-he is the name of
Noah there. He escaped, they said, with his wife, three
sons, and three daughters, from whom the earth was peopled
again. Dr Gutzlaff saw a beautiful picture in China, which
showed Noah in his ark, on the waters, the dolphins swim-
ming around, and the dove coming with the olive branch.
But in India we find it all mixed up. The god Brama told
the good man Manu that the flood was coming, and bade
him build a ship and store it with all kinds of seeds. Then
Brama took the form of a horned fish, and making the vessel
fast to himself, he drew it about for a long, long time. At
last landed it on the loftiest peak of Mount Himerat-in
the Himalaya range. Then Manu was permitted to create
a new race of men, who were called Manudsha, or born of
Manu.' That is the Hindoo story. Then when we come
over to America, we find a new set of stories."
"Where, uncle Sam ?" said I, wondering.
"Among the North American Indians, Tiny-and the
Mexicans, and the neighboring nations. They have their
traditions; and the old nations of Europe had theirs."
"The Greeks had a beautiful one," said Dan, "about
Let us have it, Dan. I don't like to do all the talking."
"The first race of men were violent and wicked," Dan
began, and they were punished for their wickedness by a


dreadful rain which, flooded everything. But besides the
rain, the water burst out from all parts of the earth. Deu-
calion was a good man and was saved. He packed all his
wives and children into a large chest which he had"-
It must have been very big !" said Priscilla.
-" And went in himself; and just as he was going in,
came beasts and creeping things and all sorts of creatures
running to him two by two. So he took them in, and
Jupiter made them so good and peaceable that they made no
disturbance, but behaved themselves together to the end of
the voyage."
"Well!" said Priscilla; "that was a most extraordinary
"Deucalion's voyage lasted only nine days; then his chest
came to land on the top of Mount Parnassus-that is a
famous mountain in Greece, Tiny. Deucalion and his wife
came out, and seeing the earth was left without inhabitants,
they went to consult the oracle at Delphi as to what was to
be done."
But what is an oracle 1" said I.
"Tiny ought to read history," said Liph.
"The oracles were places where the gods were supposed
to give answers to the questions of men," my uncle said; "or
they were the answers themselves. There were many famous
such places; Delphi was one, where Apollo was consulted.
There the answer was delivered through a priestess, who was
thought to be inspired, and delivered the answer in a fit of
raving. At other oracles the answers were differently given.
Go on, Dan."
"Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha consulted the oracle at
Delphi, what should be done to repeople the earth; and
they were told they must throw behind them the bones of
their grandmother. At first that seemed a perplexing di-
rection; but finally they guessed what it meant. The bones
of their grandmother were the stones of the earth. So Deu-
calion and Pyrrha stood and threw stones over their shoul-
ders; and all he threw became men, and all she threw be-
came women."


"That is very ridiculous!" exclaimed Priscilla. "Did
people believe such stuff?"
It is hard to say what people will not believe, when they
wander away from the truth," said my uncle. "Wise philos-
ophers, of course, did not believe such a fable; and they did
not know what was truth; but groped about in the dark for
it, after it had been lost. This legend, you know, belonged
to the refined and cultivated Greek nation. A great philos-
opher of modern times had a desire to get to some region
of the earth that was quite removed from all communication
with these peoples of Europe and Asia, that may be sup-
posed to have learned from each other. So he travelled off
and wandered away, till he got among a tribe of savages on
the banks of the Orinoco, in Western America. And there,
where certainly the Jews and the Greeks had never taught
anybody, he was told this story. Once there was a great
flood that overwhelmed everything; and one man and his wife
escaped to the top of a certain high mountain and were saved.
Then, seeing that everybody else was dead, to supply the
land with inhabitants, they threw over their heads date-
stones, or the fruit of a palm-tyee, which sprung up men and
women. I suppose, after that, M. Von Humboldt concluded
he could not get away from traditions of the deluge.
"How very curious !" said Dan. "That is good."
"Humboldt says that the different Mexican nations have
paintings representing the flood and Noah. There he is
called Coxcox, and Tezpi, and Teocipactli; and his wife is
XochiquezatL And Colhuacen, one of the Mexican moun-
tains, stands for Ararat. Coxcox was saved in a vessel or
on a raft, they think, with his wife and children, some
animals and grain. When the waters subsided, Coxcox sent
out a vulture first, which found so many dead bodies float-
ing about that it did not come back. Then he sent out some
other birds, and a humming-bird brought him a green branch.
So Coxcox, or Tezpi, came out of his vessel. And even in
the Fiji islands there is a tradition of the flood. They say
that eight persons were saved by the god of the carpenters
and his head workmen, in two large double canoes; and


landed on one of their islands ; and the chiefs of that island
are said for that reason to take particular honour to them-
selves. In times past, the story is, canoes used to be kept
ready lest another deluge should come."
"Uncle Sam," said I, "I think it is very strange all these
people should have got the story so twisted."
"I think it is strange they should have kept so near the
truth," said Dan.
"Perhaps you are both right," said uncle Sam. "Some-
times I wonder at the one thing, sometimes at the other.
The Mexicans have a confused tradition of Babel mixed up
with the flood. After the flood, they say, the men that
were born were born dumb; and in one of their paintings a
dove from the top of a tree is seen giving them tongues. The
tongues are represented as so many small commas."
How funny !" said Priscilla.
But we have not got the tower of Babel yet," said I.
"Yes," said uncle Sam. "We must go back to Noah."
"Coxcox does not seem to have been Noah," said Dan.
"But as to Tiny's wonder," uncle Sam went on, "there is
this to be said. I think she is right. Consider that for
almost one hundred years of Shem's life, he knew and talked
with his grandfather Methuselah; and Methuselah for nigh
two hundred and fifty years of his life had seen and known
Adam. All that Adam had to teach and tell, Methuselah
had heard from his own lips; and he could give it fresh from
its fountain to his grandson Shem. Then remember how
long Shem lived to tell it. He had learned from the man
who had spoken with Adam; and he himself lived to re-
port what he knew, to all who would listen, until Abraham
was come out of Haran-until nine years after Isaac was
"Why, uncle Sam did he said Daniel
Certainly. So see how well the truth must have been
known for so long in the world's history after the flood.
But-'they did not like to retain God in their knowledge.'"
They could not forget the flood entirely," said Dan.
"No, that was too terrible to be quite forgotten ; and


even the cause of it was remembered. Well it might. Boys
no man ever yet took such a voyage as Noah took. We
think thirtydays a long time to be shut up on board ship.
Noah was a whole year, and never out on deck once.
Think of it. And first there had been that week of awful
waiting, after the Lord shut him in; then the terror and
horror of the tremendous storm and of the work it was
doing and going to do. Then the sad patience of all the
months till it was done, and the earth had been stripped and
cleansed. Children, we never can tell what the coming out
of the ark must have been to that man and his family. The
still, fresh, green world, emptied of its wicked inhabitants;
the sweet sunshine, that lighted on no heads but their own;
the deliverance, and the destruction; and Noah's new position
as the head of the new race of men. No wonder he flew to
prayer and praise the first thing. 'And Noah builded an
altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast, and of
every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar.
And the Lord smelled a sweet savour.'"
"What does that mean, uncle Sam 7" I asked.
"It means, that the Lord was pleased with Noah and with
his offering."
But-what were the clean beasts and birds 1 "
"The lamb, and the kid, and the dove, and the ox, were
some of them; and the various kinds of deer and buffalo;
and ducks and fowls and geese."
And were all those killed ?"
"One of each kind; the seventh one. Of all thbse, you
remember, there went into the ark three pairs and one odd
one. Those are the most useful animals, and the most whole-
some to eat; and they are what God appointed to be called
clean; that is, fit for using in His worship. Nothing but the
best and purest, you know, is fit for that."
"But what was the 'sweet savour I'" I asked.
The boys laughed, and uncle Sam smiled, but then hegrew
"Not the death of the innocent animals, Tiny; not that in
itself. 'In burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast


had no pleasure'-the Bible says. But the real offering and
sacrifice, which these pointed at, was our dear Lord Jesus-
whose blood does really take away sin; 'who gave Himself
for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet-smelling
savour.' God is always pleased with that; for He so loved
the world that He gave His own Son to save it; and now, or
in those old times, when a sinner came making his offering,
with his heart looking beyond it and trusting in God's pro-
mise, God saw only 'the Lamb slain from the foundation of
the world,' and was pleased; and pleased for His sake with
the poor sinner who came trusting in Him."
But then, dear uncle Sam, why were the animals killed ?"
"People had not a Bible, and a church, and a long history
of the church behind them, then. Everything had to be
taught; and men, you know, were very quick to forget.
Even good men themselves might have come to forget about
a promised Redeemer and their terrible need of Him, if they
had not had these sacrifices to keep them in mind. A man
could not very well forget, as he drew his knife across the
throat of an innocent little lamb, killed for his sin, that his
life must be bought by some better price if it was to be
saved at all"
Sir," said Eliphalet, "do you suppose Noah understood
all that?"
"It has been doubted how much he knew of a coming
Saviour. But I remember what is said of him and of Abel,
and Abraham and Abraham's sons-' These all died in faith,
not having received the promises, but having seen them afar
off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them.' But
the more dimly they might have been understood, the more
need of this lively image and sign before even the believer's
eyes, witnessing to the blessing promised and to his own
need of it."
I was quite satisfied. I understood now, and did not at
all wonder that the Lord smelled a sweet savour. Liph, too,
was silenced.
There is another thing that sacrifices meant, which you
must never forget. They were a sign that the worshipper

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