Riparian ecosystems

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Riparian ecosystems their ecology and status
Physical Description:
xvi, 155 p. : ill., maps ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Flynn, Amanda-Paige Bush
Brinson, Mark M
National Water Resources Analysis Group (U.S.)
Eastern Energy and Land Use Team
Publisher:
Eastern Energy Land Use Team and National Water Resources Analysis Group, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Place of Publication:
Kearneysville, W. Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aquatic ecology -- United States   ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Research -- United States   ( lcsh )
Wetland ecology -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 127-154.
General Note:
"Biological Services Program."--Cover.
General Note:
"September 1981."
General Note:
"August 1981"--Cover.
General Note:
"FWS/OBS-81/17."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mark M. Brinson ... et al..

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:

oclc - 676874384
Classification:
System ID:
UF00004865:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement 1
        Acknowledgement 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
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    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text
THE HERB GARDEN
A COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS
FLASx"
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville. Florida
AMANDA-PAIGE BUSH FLYNN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SPRING 2000


"There is no such thing as a 'self-made' man. We are made up of thousands of others. Everyone who has ever done a kind deed for us, or spoken one word of encouragement to us, has entered into the make-up of our character and of our thoughts, as well as our success."
~ George M. Adams ~ (1878-1962, American Author)


THE HERB GARDEN
A COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS
BY
AMANDA-PAIGE BUSH FLYNN
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE UNIVERISITY OF FLORIDA IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTING OF HIGH HONORS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2000


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
As with all major undertakings in life, there are people who give you the support you need to see it through. From my heart I thank my husband, Roger, and my mother, Helen for their support, inspiration, love, and
dedication.
I gratefully acknowledge the patient guidance and support of my Honors Advisor, Dr. Walter Judd, who has always been available in my time of
need.
A big thank-you to Barbara Bennett at Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, for providing support, encouragement, friendship and spirit. Without you, this undertaking would never have been started, yet alone finished.
IV


Abstract of Thesis Presented to the University of Florida in Fulfillment of the Requirements for Granting of High Honors
The Herb Garden
A Collection of Medicinal Plants From Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
By
Amanda-Paige Bush Flynn
March, 2000
Honors Advisor: Walter S. Judd, PhD Department: Botany
There is nothing new about the use of herbs to promote recovery, health, and well-being. Every culture throughout the world has at some point used healing plants as the basis for its medicine and has had a basic healing flora from which remedies were selected. The range of plants varies from area to area depending on the local ecosystem, but the human problems they deal with are the same (Hoffman 10).
Remedies change, phenological patterns and cultural practices change, and names change in regards to medicinal plants used in certain areas. The plants treated herein were collected from the herb garden at Kanapaha Botanical Gardens in Gainesville, Florida. After collecting various species of plants from the herb garden, the names and identities of each were verified and updated as necessary. These plants were then pressed to make voucher specimens for the herbarium of the University of Florida. Taxonomic, nomenclatural, economic, and especially medicinal information was then accumulated for each of the plants and a collection of this information is presented using a variety of resources.
v


Table of Contents
FAMILY ADOXACEAE (Moschatel Family)..................................1
Elderberry..............................................................................2
Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Bolli
FAMILY APOCYNACEAE (Dogbane Family)...............................5
Snakeroot...............................................................................6
Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.
FAMILY ARALIACEAE (Ginseng Family)...................................8
English Ivy.............................................................................9
Hedera helix L.
FAMILY ASPHODELACEAE (Aloe Family)..................................12
Aloe.....................................................................................13
Aloe saponaria (Ait.) Haw.
FAMILY ASTERACEAE OR COMPOSITAE (Aster family)............16
Bears foot...............................................................................17
Smallanthus uvedalius (L.) MacKenzie ex Small
Echinacea..............................................................................19
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
Goldenrod..............................................................................21
Solidago odora Ait.
Joe-pye weed...........................................................................23
Eupatorium purpureum L.
Mugwort................................................................................25
Artemisia vulgaris L. cv. lactiflora
Saltbush.................................................................................27
Baccharis halimifolia L.
Yarrow..................................................................................29
Achillea millefolium L.
FAMILY BALSAMINACEAE (Touch-Me-Not Family)....................32
Balsam..................................................................................33
Impatiens balsamina L.
FAMILY EQUISETACEAE (Horsetail Family)..............................35
Horsetail.................................................................................36
Equisetum arvense L.
FAMILY GERANIACEAE (Geranium Family)..............................38
Geranium...............................................................................39
Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. ex Ait.


FAMILY LABIATAE or LAMIACEAE (Mint family).....................41
Basil....................................................................................43
Ocimum basilicum L.
Ocimum basilicum L. 'cinnamon'
Ocimum basilicum L. 'licorice'
Beebalm.................................................................................48
Monarda didyma L. Monarda punctata L.
Catnip...................................................................................52
Nepeta cataria L.
Chaste tree..............................................................................54
Vitex agnus-castus L.
Germander..............................................................................56
Teucrium chamaedrys L.
Lavender................................................................................58
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia
Marjoram...............................................................................60
Origanum majorana L.
Mints....................................................................................62
Mentha sp. 'Jerusalem' Mentha sp. 'Lavender' Mentha sp. 'Lebanese' Mentha sp. 'Vietnamese' Mentha aquatica L. cv. spicata Mentha arvensis L. x citriodora L. Mentha piperita L. ssp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Mentha spicata cv. crispata
Rosemary...............................................................................72
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
FAMILY LAURACEAE (Laurel Family).....................................74
Bay leaf.................................................................................75
Laurus nobilis L.
FAMILY MALVACEAE (Mallow Family)....................................77
Hibiscus.................................................................................78
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
FAMILY MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family)......................................80
Allspice.................................................................................81
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
FAMILY ONAGRACEAE (Evening-Primrose Family).....................83
Evening primrose.....................................................................84
Oenothera biennis L.


FAMILY PHYTOLACCACEAE (Pokeweed Family).......................87
Pokeweed..............................................................................88
Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida (Small) Caulkins & Wyatt
FAMILY PIPERACEAE (Pepper Family)......................................91
Pepper..................................................................................92
Piper auritum Kunth
FAMILY PORTULACACEAE (Purslane Family)...........................95
Purslane.................................................................................96
Portulaca oleracea L.
FAMILY RUBIACEAE (Madder Family).....................................99
Cleavers................................................................................100
Galium aparine L.
FAMILY RUT ACE AE (Rue Family)...........................................102
Curry leaf tree.........................................................................103
Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel
FAMILY SOLANACEAE (Nightshade family)..............................105
Datura...................................................................................106
Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. Ex Willd.) Bercht & J. Presl. Datura metel L.
FAMILY THEACEAE (Tea or Camellia Family)............................109
Tea.......................................................................................110
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntz
FAMILY TROPAEOLACEAE (Nasturtium Family)........................113
Nasturtium..............................................................................114
Tropaeolum majus L.
FAMILY VERBENACEAE (Verbena Family)................................116
Lippia....................................................................................117
Lippia graveolens Kunth
Phyla scaberrima (Juss.) Moldenke
FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE (Ginger Family)...............................120
Galangal.................................................................................121
Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw.
Ginger...................................................................................124
Zingiber officinale Roscoe


Works Cited............................................................................127
Works Consulted......................................................................137
Web Sites Consulted...................................................................139
Glossary.................................................................................140


FAMILY ADOXACEAE
(Moschatel Family)
Elderberry Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) Bolli
1


ELDERBERRY
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis
Plant Family ADOXACEAE
PARTS USED Leaves, flowers, and berries
CONSTITUENTS Flowers: flavonoids (rutin), phenolic acids, sterols, volatile oil, mucilage, tannins; Leaves: cyanogenic glycosides; Berries: flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins A and C
ACTIONS increases sweating, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, purgative, expectorant
ECONOMIC flowers are used in skin lotions, oils, ointments, and to make champagne; leaves are made into insecticidal spray
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (Elderberry)
In Europe, the Elder has long been a tree of superstitions. It was believed to be inhabited by a dryad, known as the Elder-tree mother. If someone was to cut down the tree, ill-luck would be brought upon them and they would be haunted by the Elder-tree mother. In earlier days, the Elder tree was supposed to ward off evil influences and give protection from witches.1 Elder has been called "the medicine chest of the people," providing remedies for most common complaints.2 Elder has been an important medicinal plant since ancient times.3 Historically, all parts of S. nigra are used medicinally, but modern usage favors the flowers.2
Elder flowers are ideal for the treatment of colds and influenza.2 The infusion is relaxing and since it is a diaphoretic, it produces a mild perspiration that helps to reduce fever.4


They are indicated in any catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract such as hayfever and sinusitis.5 They are also prescribed for chronic congestion, allergies, ear infections and candidiasis.4 The flowers can also be used for sore eyes, irritated or inflamed skin, mouth ulcers, and minor injuries.2 The flowers also possess mild diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and laxative properties.3
Elderberries have been used to make Elder wine which has been said to banish the pain of sciatica and other neuralgias1, including migraine.3 The berries, which are rich in Vitamin C, have been taken for rheumatism and erysipelas.4 They have also been used in the treatment of syphillis.1 The juice will also promote all fluid secretions.6 By aiding in the removal of waste products, the berries are of value in arthritic conditions.4
Elder leaves are used in the preparation of an ointment, which is a domestic remedy for bruises, sprains, chilblains, for use as an emollient, and for applying to wounds, burns and scalds. Both the leaves and the bark are purgative.
The berries yield a delicious wine and jam. The bark and roots produce a black dye, the leaves produce a green dye, and the berries produce a purple dye.6 The leaves have an unpleasant odor when bruised and have been used as insect control in preventing aphids, caterpillars, flies and mosquitoes.1
3


Elderberry, Southern Elderberry
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) Bolli
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Tree, ca. 4-6 m tall. White flowers. Juicy blue-black drupe.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1043 with Barbara Bennett
28 October 1999


FAMILY APOCYANACEAE
(Dogbane Family)
Snakeroot
Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.
5


SNAKEROOT
Rauvolfia verticillata
Plant Family APOCYNACEAE
PARTS USED roots from plants that are at least 15 months old
CONSTITUENTS 25
alkaloids, including reserpine
ACTIONS sedative, euphoriant, lowers blood pressure, slows heartbeat
Rauvolfia verticillata (Snakeroot)
Rauvolfia spp. have been used for centuries in India for treating madness, hysteria, and restlessness. Mahatma Gandhi is said to have drunk it regularly for its calming effect. It contains about 25 alkaloids; the most important of which is the tranquilizer reserpine, a potent hypotensive.1
The root has been used as a sedative, euphoriant, and to treat high blood pressure.2 It is also used for abnormally rapid heartbeat, as it slows heartbeat, and may be used for nervous and mental disorders.1
***Side effects may include dry mouth, nasal congestion, depression, and slowed heartbeat. This herb is subject to legal restrictions in some countries1***
6


Snakeroot
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Small shrub, ca. 1 m tall. White flowers and red berries.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1030 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


FAMILY ARALIACEAE
(Ginseng Family)
English Ivy
Hedera helix L.
8


ENGLISH IVY
Hedera helix
Plant Family ARALIACEAE
PARTS USED Leaves and berries
CONSTITUENTS ivy contains emetine, an amebicidal alkaloid and triterpene saponins
ACTIONS it is an antibacterial herb that lowers fever, relaxes spasms, is expectorant, and constricts veins
ECONOMIC ivy is a very hardy groundcover
Hedera helix (English Ivy)
Ivy was in high esteem among the ancients, who used the leaves to form a poet's crown. Throughout the ages, ivy has been regarded as the emblem of fidelity, and many brides use ivy in their wedding bouquets. Ivy is a great ornamental covering for unsightly buildings and it is said to be the only plant which does not make walls damp.1
Ivy was once used to remove the effects of intoxication by bruising a handful of ivy leaves and then gently boiling them in wine which is then drunk. Flowers decocted in wine helped to restrain dysentery and the yellow berries were good for those suffering from jaundice. To remove sunburn, it was recommended to smear the face with tender ivy twigs boiled in butter.1
Ivy contains emetine, an amebicidal alkaloid and triterpene saponins, which are effective against liver flukes, mollusks, fungal


infections, and intestinal parasites. Currently ivy is used internally for gout, rheumatic pain, whooping cough, and bronchitis.2 The leaves are used externally for skin sores, cuts and dandruff, although they may cause dermatitis.3 Poultices made from ivy leaves may have antiseptic4 and antibiotic qualities.2 It is also used externally for skin eruptions, swollen tissues, painful joints, neuralgia, toothache, burns, warts, impetigo, scabies, and cellulitis.2
***IVY, WHEN TAKEN IN EXCESS, DESTROYS RED BLOOD CELLS AND CAUSES IRRITABILITY, DIARRHEA, AND VOMITING. FOR USE BY QUALIFIED PRACTIONERS ONLY.***
10


English Ivy, Ivy
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Hedera helix L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Creeping or climbing shrub. Dark green, lobed leaves. Aerial roots.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1005 with Barbara Bennett
28 October 1999
Ik W


FAMILY ASPHODELACEAE
(Aloe Family)
Aloe
Aloe saponaria (Ait.) Haw.
12


ALOE
Aloe spp.
Plant Family ASPHODELACEAE
PARTS USED fresh gel, yellow resin, leaves
CONSTITUENTS aloectin B anthraquinones (aloin, aloe-emodin), resin, polysaccharides, tannins
ACTIONS heals wounds, emollient, stimulates secretions of bile, laxative, emmenagogue, vermifuge, insecticidal, antiinflammatory
ECONOMIC used in cosmetic Aioe saponana (Soap aloe) and pharmaceutical preparations
Aloe has quite a long history associated with its use. Aloe vera has been identified in wall paintings in ancient Egypt where it was used to treat excess mucus and as an embalming agent.1 Cleopatra is said to have attributed her beauty to the skin lotion prepared with Aloe vera.1
Extensive research since the 1930s in the United States and Russia has shown that the clear gel has a dramatic ability to heal wounds, ulcers, and burns, putting a protective coat on the affected area and speeding up the rate of healing. This action is in part due to the presence of aloectin B, which stimulates the immune system.2
The yellow sap from the base of the leaf when dried is known as "bitter aloes." It is a strong laxative, useful for short-term constipation.2 The gel when taken internally it is a powerful cathartic, and it also may increase menstrual flow.3 The gel can be used for
13


chronic constipation (especially following iron medication), poor appetite, digestive problems, and in colonic irrigation.1 It can also be taken for the treatment of diabetic leg ulcers and to relieve arthritis.4 It also destroys intestinal parasites and stimulates the uterus to contract,1 which aids in lightning.
The yellow juice is a famous burn remedy.5 A leaf is broken and the juice (mucilage) is applied to the affected area for the treatment of burns, bruises, sores, and foot corns.6 It is also used externally for the treatment of sunburns, minor burns, bug bites, irritated skin, chicken pox, acne, scalds and scrapes,4 and to prevent nail biting.1 It has been used by mothers to make their nipples distasteful to weaning children.5
*Not to be given to pregnant women or to patients with hemorrhoids or kidney disease***
14


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Aloe saponaria (Ait.) Haw. < Asphodel aceae>
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Succulent plant with light pink/peach flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1021 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


FAMILY ASTERACEAE OR COMPOSITAE
(Aster family)
Bearsfoot
Smallanthus uvedalius (L.) MacKenzie ex Small
Echinacea
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
Goldenrod
Solidago odora Ait.
Joe-pye weed
Eupatorium purpureum L.
Mugwort
Artemisia vulgaris L. cv. lactiflora
Saltbush
Baccharis halimifolia L.
Yarrow
Achillea millefolium L.
16


BEARSFOOT Smallanthus uvedalius
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED root
CONSTITUENTS ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, fiber, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, calcium, niacin, ash
ACTIONS stimulant, laxative, anodyne, poultice, salve
ECONOMIC there are no known culinary or econimic uses for this herb
Smallanthus uvedalius (Bearsfoot)
Bearsfoot root was used by Native Americans as a stimulant and laxative remedy. In the 19th century, it became a widely popular healing herb in North America as a treatment for mastitis (inflammation of breast tissue).1 It was also used to treat rheumatism.2
Bearsfoot is best known for its use as a hair tonic and is an ingredient of many American hair ointments and lotions. It is used to stimulate hair growth.3 The root may be taken internally as a treatment for non-malignant swollen glands and especially for mastitis.1 The root is thought to have a beneficial effect on the stomach, liver, and spleen, and may be taken to relieve indigestion and liver malfunction.1 It is valuable in malarial enlargements of the spleen and dyspepsia caused by the spleen.3 The herb has laxative properties, and it may also act to relieve pain1 and to purify the blood.2 A poultice of the bruised root has been used as a dressing and salve on burns, inflammations and cuts.4
17


Bear claw, Bearsfoot, Uvedalia, Leaf.cup, Yellow leaf cup, Hairy leaf cup
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Smallanthus uvedalius (L.) MacKenzie ex Small
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 1 m tall. Light-yellow flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1025 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


ECHINACEA
Echinacea purpurea
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED roots, rhizomes
CONSTITUENTS alkamides (mostly isobutylamides), caffeic acid esters (mainly echinacoside and cynarin), polysaccharides, volatile oil (humulene), betaines echinolone
ACTIONS antibiotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, detoxifying, anthallergenic, immune stimulant, increases sweating, alterative, aromatic, aphrodisiac
Echinacea purpurea (Echinacea)
Native to North America, echinacea is one of the world's most important medicinal herbs. Research shows that it has the ability to raise the body's resistance to bacterial and viral infections by stimulating the immune system. It is currently being investigated as a treatment for HTV and AIDS. Echinacea is also antibiotic and helps to relieve allergies, and has been used for centuries to clear skin infections.1
As an antiseptic, it is used for boils, erysipelas, septicemia, cancer, syphilis and other impurities of the blood.2 Apply externally to heal minor cuts and scrapes, insect bites, and herpes.3 It also has useful properties as a strong alterative and aphrodisiac.2 It is especially useful for infections of the upper respiratory tract such as laryngitis, tonsillitis, and for catarrhal conditions of the nose and sinus.4 It is also used to stimulate digestion.5
19


Purple Coneflower, Echinacea, Coneflower, Black Sampson
0
1 Ja \ m �
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.5-1 m high. Purple flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1029 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


GOLDENROD Solidago odora
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED flowers, leaves, roots, essential oil
CONSTITUENTS saponins, essential oil, bitter principle, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic glycosides
ACTIONS antiseptic, aperient, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, stimulant, tonic
ECONOMIC oil is used in perfumery and in scenting soaps; mustard, orange, and brown dyes are produced from whole plant
Solidago odora (Sweet Goldenrod) r r
Many goldenrod species have been recorded in native N. American medicine: the flowers of S. canadensis were chewed for sore throats, S. odora was listed as a stimulant and diaphoretic in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (1820-82), and S. rigida was made into a lotion for bee stings. S. virgaurea has components which are antifungal and antiinflammatory,1 and are used in the treatment of upper respiratory catarrh,2 urinary tract infections, nephritis and cystitis.3 Goldenrod was used by the American Indians in treating fever, sore throat, toothache, chest pain, and bee stings.4
Sweet-scented goldenrod, S. odora, is used as an astringent in dysentery and ulceration of the intestines. The essence has been used as a diuretic for infants, as a local application in headache, and for flatulence and vomiting.5 A tea made from the leaves is useful in the treatment of coughs and colds.6 The flowers are aperient, tonic, and astringent, and their infusion is beneficial in gravel, urinary obstructions, and simple dropsy.5 An infusion of the dried powdered herb is antiseptic and the root can be chewed as a treatment for sore mouths.6
21


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Solidago odora Ait.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Solitary stems are slender, ca. 1-1.5 m tall. Leaves numerous, sessile. Panicle of yellow flowers blooms in fall.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1022 with Barbara Bennett
stems/leaves 12 June 1999 flowers 21 September 1999


JOE"PYE WEED
Eupatorium purpureum
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED rhizomes, roots
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil, flavonoids, resin
ACTIONS astringent, diuretic, nervine, tonic, alterative, antirheumatic, emetic, laxative, diaphoretic, adjuvant, antacid, blood cleanser, aphrodisiac
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-Pye Weed)
Eupatorium is a slightly bitter, restorative, cleansing herb that acts especially on the genitourinary organs and uterus.1 It is primarily used in preventing the formation of kidney stones or gravel, and may diminish existing stones.2 It may be beneficial is urinary infections such as cystitis and urethritis and may play a role in the treatment of rheumatism and gout.3 The root is thought to help the latter two conditions by increasing the removal of waste by the kidneys.2 This species has been used as an astringent, diuretic and tonic.4 It is also taken for prostate problems, for painful menstruation or a history of miscarriage and difficult labor.1
23


Sweet Joe-Pye Weed, Green-stemmed Joe-Pye Weed, Queen of the Meadow, Sweet-scented Joe-Pye Weed
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Eupatorium purpureum L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 0.5-1.5 m tall. Creamy-white flowers. Vanilla scented.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1024 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


MUGWORT Artemisia vulgaris cv. lactiflora
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED leaves, root, flowering tops
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil, sesquiterpene lactone, flavonoids, coumarin derviatives, and triterpenes
ACTIONS anthelmintic, diuretic, antiseptic, expectorant, stimulant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, carminative, purgative, antispasmodic
ECONOMIC insect repellent, insecticide, larvacide, timber
Mugwort has a long history of use in herbal medicine especially in matters connected to the digestive system, menstrual complaints and the treatment of worms.1 It was used as a stimulant, tonic, nervine for treating cerebral palsy and epilepsy, and a remedy for fevers, flu, and rheumatism. It was also employed to cause uterine contractions.2
Mugwort has a mildly nervine action in aiding depression and easing tension, which appears to be due to the volatile oil.3 It is a diuretic and diaphoretic of proven value for bringing on menstruation. It is one of the most popular of women's remedies.4 It is antiseptic and is used in the treatment of malaria.5 The leaves also have an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of many bacteria.1 It is taken to improve appetite, digestive function, and absorption of nutrients; it also increases bile flow and mildly induces the onset of menstruation.5 A weak decoction is given to children with measles and a few drops of juice of the leaves are prescribed for whooping cough.6
Artemesia vulgaris cv. lactiflora (Mugwort)
25


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Artemisia vulgaris L. cv. lactiflora
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. .5-2 m. tall. Leaves are green above, white underneath.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1008
12 June 1999


SALTBUSH
Baccharis halimifolia
Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED roots, leafy branch tips
CONSTITUENTS leaves and flowers contain a glycosidal saponin
ACTIONS palliative, demulcent, stomachic, febrifuge
ECONOMIC fuel, hedge, soil stabilizer
Baccharis halimifolia (Saltbush)
Baccharis is used as a palliative and demulcent in consumption and cough.1 The Southerners used the root to treat cold and stomach pains. The leafy branch tips are used for fever.2 Symptoms, though not well-documented, include incoordination, diarrhea, weakness, and heart and respiratory disturbance.3
Tests on chicks and mice at the University of Georgia rank most to least toxic as: Baccharis glomeruliflora, Baccharis halimifolia, Baccharis angustifolia. Only extracts of B. angustifolia caused death; however, the leaves of the first two caused death to the chicks. The leaves of Baccharis may be deadly to smaller animals.3
27


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Baccharis halimifolia L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Bush, ca. 3 m tall. White flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1042 28 October 1999 with Barbara Bennett


YARROW
Achillea millefolium Plant Family ASTERACEAE
PARTS USED aerial parts
CONSTITUENTS up to 0.5% volatile oil containing azulene, flavonoids, including rutin and apigenin; tannins; a bitter alkaloid
ACTIONS diaphoretic, diuretic, hypotensive, astringent, stimulant, antiseptic, tonic, emmenagogue
ECONOMIC essential oil is used in perfumes, hair oil, and commercial food flavoring
.chillea millefolium (Yarrow)
Yarrow is a native European plant, with a long history as a wound healer. In classical times it was used to staunch war wounds.1 In fact, this plant was named for Achilles, the mythological Greek warrior, who used yarrow leaves to aid in healing the wounds of his soldiers.2 It was called by the Ancients, Herba Militaris, the military herb.3
Yarrow is an aromatic, bitter, astringent herb that reduces inflammation, increases perspiration, relieves indigestion, and has diuretic effects. It is also effective in lowering blood pressure, relaxing spasms, and arresting hemorrhage.4 Yarrow is one of the best diaphoretic herbs and is a standard remedy for aiding the body to deal with fevers. A diaphoretic herb aids the skin in the elimination of toxins and promotes perspiration.5 Yarrow (especially the warm tea) encourages sweating which can reduce fevers and take pressure off the
29


kidneys and help remove toxins from the body. It opens the pores freely and purifies the blood, and is recommended in the early stages of children's colds, and in measles and other eruptive diseases.3 Animal studies have shown that yarrow protects the liver from chemical damage and can be used to treat hepatitis.6
Yarrow has long been used as a strengthening bitter tonic. Yarrow helps recovery from colds and flu and is beneficial for hay fever, menstrual problems and circulatory disorders.1 It has a healing and soothing effect on the mucous membranes.7 Yarrow has been used extensively to stop bleeding of all kinds, externally and internally.6 Apply externally for hemorrhages, wounds, cuts, bruises, burns, sores, rashes, piles, and other bleeding problems. Yarrow is also used to protect against thrombosis after stroke or heart attack.4 It is taken internally (dried herb, tea) for digestive disorders, anxiety, insomnia, high blood pressure, colitis, colds, fever, flu, sore throats, viral infections, gas, and diarrhea. Since yarrow contains sterols it can help to regulate the menstrual cycle.8 In Norway, it is employed for the cure of rheumatism and the fresh leaves are chewed to cure a toothache. In Sweden, it is used in the manufacture of beer.3 An ethanol extract of yarrow contains several compounds with mosquito repelling properties.9
WARNING: The fresh plant juice can cause allergic skin reactions and excessive amounts taken medicinally may cause a photosensitive response in humans. Don't use if you are pregnant.
30


Common Yarrow, Milfoil, Military herb, Old Man's Pepper, Soldier's Woundwart, Thousand weed, Nosebleed, BLqo$w<$j, Staunchweed, Sanguinary, Devil's nettle
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Achillea millefolium L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Ground covering herb, ca. 0.3 m high. When in bloom, stems with flowers reach about 1 m in height. Creamy-white flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1000
12 June 1999


FAMILY BALSAMINACEAE
(Touch-Me-Not Family)
Balsam
Impatiens balsamina L.
32


BALSAM Impatiens balsamina
Plant Family BALSAM IN AC EAE
PARTS USED whole plant, leaves, flowers, seed
ACTIONS antibiotic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, tonic, cyanogenetic, laxative, astringent
ECONOMIC leaves, young shoots and seed are edible; dye; oil
Impatiens balsamina (Balsam)
Impatiens spp. have long been used by native North Americans to relieve the pain and irritation of rashes, eczema, and poison ivy rash.1 Balsam is cathartic, diuretic, and emetic and is used in the treatment of pains in the joints.2 It can also be used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea, inflammation, neuralgia and uterine polyps.3
In Chinese medicine, the seeds of balsam are used for difficult labor and extracting teeth.4 The seeds also are expectorant and have been used in the treatment of cancer.2 The flowers are used for snake bites, lumbago and to improve circulation.4 The flowers are cooling and tonic and are useful when applied to burns and scalds. The flowers also possess marked antibiotic activity against some pathogenic fungi and bacteria.2 The roots and leaves are used to remove objects in the throat.4 The leaf juice is used as a treatment against warts.2
33


Balsam, Garden Balsam, Rose Balsam
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Impatiens balsamina L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. < 1 m tall. Elongate slender-toothed alternate leaves. Various colored axillary flowers (purple and white located).
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1023 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


FAMILY EQUISETACEAE
(Horsetail Family)
Horsetail
Equisetum arvense L.
35


HORSETAIL Equisetum arvense
Plant Family EQUISETACEAE
PARTS USED stems, aerial parts
CONSTITUENTS alkaloids (including nicotine), various minerals, silica, gold, flavonoids, steroid
ACTIONS anodyne, antiseptic, atringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine, abrasive
ECONOMIC abrasive properties that are used for scouring pots and pans, especially pewter
Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)
Horsetail is an astringent, healing herb that acts mainly on the genitourinary system and controls both internal and external bleeding. Internally used for prostatitis, incontinence, cystitis, and urethritis.1 Horsetail is an excellent clotting agent2 and is taken internally and externally for hemorrhage.1 It is also used to staunch wounds, stop nosebleeds, and reduces coughing up of blood.2
The herb is also prescribed to treat rheumatic and arthritic problems, for chest ailments such as emphysema, for chronic swelling of the legs, and for various other conditions. It benefits slow-healing sprains and fractures, as well as certain skin conditions such as eczema.2 Externally it will also reduce the swelling of the eyelids,3 help with hemorrhoids, and helps reduce outbreaks of acne.4
It has a beneficial effect on the elasticity and firmness of ligaments and it is hence used after orthopedic operations and also to treat painful conditions of the lower back muscles.5 Decoctions, poultices, and teas are used for various forms of cancer.3
36


Hortetail, Field Horsetail, Scouring Rush, Devil's-guts
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Equisetum arvense L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Vascular plant, ca. 0.5-2 m tall. Jointed, hollow stems. No flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1031 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett


FAMILY GERANIACEAE
(Geranium Family)
Geranium
Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. ex Ait.
38


ROSE GERANIUM
Pelargonium graveolens
Plant Family GERANIACEAE
PARTS USED all parts of plant, leaves, oil
CONSTITUENTS menthol, linalol, limonene, citronellol, citral
ACTIONS anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatherapy, astringent, sedative
ECONOMIC essential oil has a rose fragrance and is used in aromatherapy, skin care, flavoring; leaves are used in potpourris
Pelargonium graveolens (Rose Geranium)
Scented geraniums contain very complex volatile oils. Over ,000 components have been found, including those with discernible similarities to orange, lemon, peppermint, rose, nutmeg, and eucalyptus. Many areas solely grow geraniums for their fragrance, mown as geranium oil. However, many species are used medicinally, mainly for digestive, bronchial, and skin problems.1
Rose geranium is an aromatic, rose-scented herb that has elaxant, antidepressant, and antiseptic effects, reduces inflammation, and controls bleeding.1 All parts of the plant are astringent and it is used internally in the treatment of premenstrual and menopausal problems, nausea, tonsillitis and poor circulation.2 Externally, it is used to treat acne, hemorrhoids, eczema, bruises, ringworm and lice.1 The essential oil from the leaves is used in aromatherapy and is also applied locally to cervical cancer.2 The oil is also used in perfumery, skin care, and food flavoring. The dried leaves are added to potpourris.1
39


Rose geranium, Scented geranium
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. Ex Ait.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 1 m tall. Strongly aromatic; rose-scented.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1033 12 June 1999
-�-


FAMILY LABIATAE or LAMIACEAE
(Mint family)
Basil
Ocimum basilicum L. Ocimum basilicum L. 'cinnamon' Ocimum basilicum L. 'licorice'
Beebalm
Monarda didyma L. Monarda punctata L.
Catnip
Nepeta cataria L.
Chaste tree
Vitex agnus-castus L.
Germander
Teucrium chamaedrys L.
Lavender
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia Marjoram
Origanum majorana L.
41


Mints
Mentha sp. 'Jerusalem' Mentha sp. 'Lavender' Mentha sp. 'Lebanese' Mentha sp. 'Vietnamese' Mentha aquatica L. cv. spicata Mentha arvensis L. x citriodora L. Mentha piperita L. ssp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.
Mentha spicata L. cv. crispata
Rosemary
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
42


BASIL Ocimum basilicum sp.
Plant Family LABIATAE or LAMIACEAE
PARTS USED Leaves, flowering tops, and essential oil
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil (1%) which contains linalool, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, cineole, and other terpenes
ACTIONS relaxes spasms, lowers fever, improves digestion, and is effective against bacterial infections and intestinal parasites
Ocimum basilicum (Basil)
Since the days of the Egyptian pharaohs, basil has been grown in many countries throughout the world, as an important culinary and medicinal herb.1 This herb is an annual and comes in a wide variety of flavors, colors and sizes depending on what kind of seeds you choose.2 Basils are rich in volatile oils and this composition of oils in a particular plant affects its aroma, flavor, and uses, and may make identification difficult.3 The leafy stems, cut off at the beginning of the flowering period, are used medicinally and are the most important part of the plant in terms of the concentration of essential oil, tannins, and ancillary substances.1
Basil is a restorative, warming, aromatic herb that relaxes spasms, lowers fever, improves digestion, and is effective against bacterial infections and intestinal parasites.3 It is taken internally for
43


poor digestion, gastroenteritis, migraine, insomnia, low spirits, and exhaustion. Hot tea made from basil leaves is good for treating nausea, gas pains and dysentery. When combined with peppercorns, the tea is used to reduce fevers.4
The essential oil contains methylchavicol as the main component. The drug has a beneficial effect on the digestive system in that it stimulates the flow of bile, improves digestion and relieves flatulence and painful spasms in poor digestion. In folk medicine it is noted for its calming effect, this being apparently due to its beneficial action on digestion that results in the contentment and calmness of the person involved. The drug has a very agreeable flavor as well as fragrance.1
The essential oil also possesses insecticidal and insect repellent properties, effective against houseflies, mosquitoes, and fruit flies. It is also bactericidal against Salmonella typhosa.5 The oil is applied externally for cuts, wounds, abrasions, bites, stings, as a face wash for acne,2 for loss of smell and for skin infections.3 The essential oil is also antispasmodic and may boost the immune system.2
Tea leaves also make a good addition to salads, veal, poultry, soups, fish and egg dishes. Basil leaves, when placed in a wallet or purse, are believed to attract money, success and prosperity.2 The essential oil is also used in cordials, cosmetics, perfumes, soaps, and spices.5
***Basil should be avoided in early pregnancy***
44


Basil, Sweet basil, Garden basil
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Ocimum basilicum L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 1 m tall. Typical basil aroma.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1048 with Barbara Bennett
28 October 1999


Cinnamon Basil
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Ocimum basilicum L. 'Cinnamon'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 1 m tall. Purple flower spikes. Cinnamon-basil aroma.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1009 28 October 1999 with Barbara Bennett


Licorice basil
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Ocimum basilicum L. 'Licorice'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 1 m. tall. Light purple flower spikes. Licorice-basil aroma.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1010 28 October 1999 with Barbara Bennett


BEE BALM
Monarda spp.
Plant Family LABIATAE
PARTS USED Whole plant, leaves, flowers
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil containing thymol
ACTIONS emmenagogue, stomachic, thermogenic, appetite stimulator
ECONOMIC used as a tea, flavoring, and to scent and color potpourris
Monarda didyma (Scarlet Beebalm)
The genus name, Monarda, was bestowed in honor of Nicolas Monardes, a Spanish physician, whose herbal of 1569 detailed the medicinal uses of a number of New World plants.1 Monarda punctata is considered the only plant indigenous to North American which is a fruitful source of thymol, the key constituent of its volatile oil. However, Monarda didyma is said to yield an oil of similar composition, though not to the same degree.2 Having a strong volatile oil, Monarda is primarily used for digestive and upper respiratory problems.1
Monarda didyma is an aromatic, stimulant, expectorant herb that lowers fever and benefits the digestion.3 It may also be used to relieve flatulence, depression, heart ailments, insomnia, pain and sore throat.4 This plant is famous as the source of "Oswego tea," named after an area of New York near Lake Ontario, where it grew abundantly. The leaves are also used to make tea, as a flavoring, and
48


the flowers are used to scent and color potpourris.3
Monarda punctata is a bitter, pungent, diuretic herb that increases perspiration, benefits the digestion, and is rubefacient when applied topically. Internally, it is used for indigestion, colic, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, feverish chills, colds, and backache.3 It also strongly stimulates menstruation and is an appetite stimulant.1 Externally it is used for neuralgia3 and as a counterirritant. It helps to lessen the pain in arthritic and rheumatic joints by increasing the flow of blood in the affected area, thereby hastening the flushing out of toxins.1
49


Bee-Balm, Oswego Tea, Berjjpot, Scarlet Beebalm, Scarlet Monarda
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Monarda didyma L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. < 1 m tall. Glabrous, appears sugered. Flowers extremely rare in this region.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1020
12 June 1999


Dotted Monarda, Horsemint, Spotted Beebalm
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Monarda punctata L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Shrub, ca. 2 m tall. Flowers cream-color to yellowish with purple spots.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1019 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett


Nepeta cataria
LABIATAE
PARTS USED Aerial parts, leaves, flowering tops
CONSTITUENTS iridoids, tannins, volatile oil mainly comprising alpha- and beta-nepetalactone, citronellol, and geraniol)
ACTIONS anti-spasmodic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic
ECONOMIC flavoring for tea, stuff cat toys
Nepeta cataria (Catnip)
Catnip is a bitter, astringent, cooling herb that lowers fever, relaxes spasms, increases perspiration, and has a sedative effect.1 By encouraging sweating, it is a fever reducer.2 Catnip is one of our traditional cold and flu remedies. It is a powerful diaphoretic used in any feverish condition, especially in bronchitis. As a carminative with anti-spasmodic properties, catnip eases any stomach upsets, dyspepsia, flatulence and colic. It is a perfect remedy for the treatment of diarrhea in children. Its sedative action on the nerves adds to its generally relaxing properties.3
It is taken internally for anxiety, colds, fever, flu, menstrual cramps, stress, and for relief of indigestion.4 A tincture makes a good friction rub for rheumatic and arthritic joints, and, as an ointment, treats hemorrhoids.2 The infusion is also applied externally to bruises, especially black eyes.5 It is used for nervous headaches and as an emmenagogue, and may also relieve hysteria.6 Catnip tea has been said to cure cancer, and chewing the leaves may relieve the pain of a toothache.7_
52


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Nepeta cataria L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Erect perennial, ca. 0.3-1 m high. White flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1029 21 September 1999
with Barbara Bennett



CHASTE TREE
Vitex agnus-castus
Plant Family LABIATAE W
PARTS USED fruit, seeds
CONSTITUENTS iridoid glycosides, which include aucbin and agnoside; flavonoids, including casticin, isovitexin and orientin; essential oil
ACTIONS diaphoretic, febrifuge, sedative, stomachic, emmenagogue, tonic, women's complaints
Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste tree)
The Chaste tree was well known in ancient times and featured in I Homer's 6 -century BC epic, the Iliad, as a symbol of chastity capable of warding off evil. As the name "chaste tree" implies, it was thought to reduce sexual desire, and traditionally it was chewed by monks to reduce I unwanted libido.1
The Chaste tree is a pungent, bittersweet, slightly astringent, relaxant I herb that regulates hormonal functions, promotes lactation, and relieves spasms and pain.2 The fresh ripe berries are used as a tincture for the relief of paralysis, pains in the limbs, and weakness.3 Current research indicates that the berries have a progesterogenic effect, acting on the pituitary gland which regulates the menstrual cycle. The greatest use of the Chaste tree lies in the normalizing the activity of female sex hormones and is thus indicated for dysmenorrhea, pre-menstrual stress,4 bloating, breast swelling and tenderness, irritability, depression, migraine, acne, and other disorders related to hormone function, including increasing fertility levels.1 It may |also be used to prevent involuntary ejaculation.2_
54


Chaste tree, Lilac chastetree
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
I medicinally important plants in alachua county
SPife
* Vitex agnus-castus L.
I
n
^ alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens,
\ 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Tree, ca. 4-5 m tall. Light-purple flowers arranged in spikes.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1032 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


WALL GERMANDER Teucrium chamaedrys
Plant Family LABIATAE
PARTS USED whole herb
CONSTITUENTS iridoid glycosides (including harpagide), diterpenes, volatile oil (60% caryophyllene), tannins, polyphenols
ACTIONS anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, aperient, aromatic, astringent, carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant
ECONOMIC leaves are used to flavor liquers, vermouths, and tonic wines
Teucrium chamaedrys (Wall germander)
Germander has been used medicinally since ancient Greek times, when iDioscorides recommended it for coughs and asthma. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V (1500-1558) was apparently cured of gout by taking decoctions of the | herb for 60 days.1 It was also used to stave off plague.2
Wall Germander is a bitter, astringent, anti-rheumatic herb that reduces I inflammation, stimulates the digestion, and lowers fever. It has antiseptic, diuretic and decongestant effects. Internally it is taken for loss of appetite, gallbladder and digestive disorders, summer diarrhea in children, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, excess nasal mucus, and bronchitis.1 It is also taken to aid in weight loss.2 It was also used as a tonic in intermittent fevers, uterine obstructions, visceral obstructions, and to relieve dropsy in its early stages.3 Externally, it is taken for gum disease, skin eruptions,1 and as a lotion to help heal wounds.2 The powdered seeds are good against jaundice and the flowering tops, when steeped in white wine, will destroy worms.3 The plant is widely used in making alcoholic drinks with a bitter I base, which have digestive or appetite-promoting qualities.4
"Warning: This plant can cause liver damage. French practitioners have voluntarily banned its use'
56


Germander, Wall Germander
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Teucrium chamaedrys L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Herb, ca. 0.3 m tall. Small, glossy, dark green leaves. Small, rose-colored flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1047
12 June 1999


LAVENDER Lavandula angustifolia
Plant Family LABIATAE
PARTS USED flowers, oil
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil (containing linalyl acetate, cineole, linalool, nerol, borneol), flavonoids, tannins, coumarins
ACTIONS antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatherapy, carminative, aromatic, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic
ECONOMIC flavorings, dried flowers are used in potpourris, oil is used in perfumery and toiletries
Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender)
Lavender is an aromatic, tonic herb with a sweet scent. It relaxes I spasms, benefits the digestion, stimulates the peripheral circulation and uterus, and lowers fevers. It has antidepressant effects and is antiseptic.1 The plant has a mild sedative action on the central nervous system and slightly lowers high blood pressure.2 This is an effective herb for stress headaches and is also used to soothe and promote (natural sleep.3
The flowers when applied externally are insecticidal and I rubefacient (irritant and stimulating to the local circulation).4 They may be used cause mild inflammation of the skin in the treatment of rheumatic and sciatic pains.2 The essential oil has significant antiseptic and antibacterial actions. It reduces pain and nervous excitability. The oil is also used to heal burns, wounds and sores. Lavender also soothes indigestion and colic, relieves gas and bloating.4


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Lavandula angustifolia Mill ssp. angustifolia
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial shrub ca. 1 m tall. Spikes of violet-blue flowers extend above the foliage.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1004 12 June 1999


MARJORAM Origanum majorana
Plant Family LABIATAE
1
Origanum majorana (Marjoram)
PARTS USED whole plant leaves, seeds, oil
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil (sabinene hydrate, sabinene, linalool, carvacrol, other terpenes), flavonoids
ACTIONS antiseptic, tonic antispasmodic, aromatherapy, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic
ECONOMIC food flavoring, soaps, liquers, perfumery, and hair products
While used mainly as a culinary herb, sweet marjoram is also medicinally valuable due to its stimulant and antispasmodic properties. It treats flatulence, colic, and respiratory problems.1 Internally it is taken for bronchial complaint, tension headaches, insomnia, anxiety, minor digestive upsets, and painful menstruation. Externally for bronchial congestion, muscular pain, arthritis, sprains, and stiff joints.2 It is used as an external application for sprains and bruises, and is also used as an emmenagogue.3
In humans, 35% of cancer is considered to be caused by diet. Two flavonoids found in marjoram, galangin and quercetin, act as desmutagens. In addition many reports show that the dietary flavonoids have various biofunctions including the anticarcinogenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatoric and gastro-protecting.4 Origanum essential oils, widely used in the flavoring of food products and alcoholic beverages, are known to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antimicrobial activities.5


Sweet Marjoram, Knotted Marjoram
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Origanum majorana L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb < 1 m tall. Pinkish-white flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1003
M? '
12 June 1999


MINTS
Mentha spp.
Plant Family LABIATAE
PARTS USED Aerial parts
COLLECTION The aerial parts are collected just before the flowers open.
CONSTITUENTS Up to 2%
volatile oil containing menthol, menthone and jasmone; tannins, bitter principle
ACTIONS Carminative, antispasmodic, aromatic, diaphoretic, anti-emetic, nervine, analgesic, anti-catarrhal, anti-microbial, emmenagogue, rubefacient, stimulant
Mentha piperita citrata var. (Eau de Cologne mint)
Mints are very useful plants. There are many different species and varieties of mints such as Curly Mint (Mentha spicata) and Eau de cologne mint (Mentha piperita cv. citrata) that are primarily used in making teas, perfumes, and condiments, such as mint jelly. Other types of mints such as Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata) have medicinal properties.
All fifteen species of mints are used to treat digestive disorders.1 They are rich in volatile oils of variable composition. It is menthol, a main component of the essential oil, that gives mints their typical smell and taste, which are simultaneously cool and warming. Menthol is an antiseptic, decongestant, analgesic compound that predominates in peppermint. It is mildly anesthetic, giving the cooling-numbing sensation experienced when smelling or tasting peppermint.2 The
62


constituents of the essential oil give the drug its antispasmodic and antiseptic1 (both antibacterial and antifungal)3 properties, soothe the irritated lining of the stomach, relieve flatulence, promote the flow of bile and furthermore make the drug palatable to most patients.1
Mints are used in the treatment of fevers, colds and flu due to its ability to induce sweating. The tea can be taken for abdominal pain, fever, colds, flu, chills, colic, cramps, dizziness, gas, diarrhea, dysentery, agitation and migraine headaches.4 Mint tea is also used to relieve the feeling of nauseousness, especially during pregnancy and travel sickness. This is due to the volatile oil which acts as a mild anesthetic on the stomach.5 Diluted oil is used as an inhalant and chest rub for respiratory infections.3 Apply the essential oil externally for aches, cold sores, ringworm, pains, bruises, skin problems,4 and rheumatism.6 It also relieves itching and inflammation.5
63


Jerusalem mint
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha sp. 'Jerusalem'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m. tall. Light purple-pink flowers. Mint odor.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1014 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha sp. 'Lavender'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Pale-purple flower clusters. Mint odor.
col I. Amanda Bush Flynn #1013 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett


Lebanese mint
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1012 with Barbara Bennett
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha sp. 'Lebanese'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Pale-purple flower clusters. Mint odor.
21 September 1999


Vietnamese mint
V 0 .
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha sp. 'Vietnamese'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Light-purple flower clusters. Mint odor.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1017 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


Candy mint
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha aquatica L. cv. spicata
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Cone-shaped clusters of light-purple flowers. Mint odor.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1016 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha arvensis L. x citriodora L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 4700 S.W 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Cone-shaped clusters of light-purple flowers. Mint odor.
colli. Amanda Bush Flynn # 1015 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett


Eau de cologne mint
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha piperita L ssp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W.58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Pale-purple flower clusters. Mint odor.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1011 with Barbara Bennett
21 September 1999


Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Mentha spicata L. cv. crispata
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Perennial herb, ca. 0.2 m tall. Crinkled leaves. Pale-purple flower clusters. Mint odor.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1018 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett
*w-


ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis
Plant Family LABIATAE
PARTS USED leaves, flowering tops, oil
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil (containing borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole), flavonoids (apigenin, diosmin), tannins
ACTIONS antiseptic, aromatic, antispasmodic, atringent, tonic, carminative, diaphoretic, nervine, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic,
ECONOMIC food flavorings, extracts are used in hair, skin, and bath preparations
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Rosemary is an aromatic, restorative herb that relaxes spasms, I relieves pain, and increases perspiration rate. It also stimulates the liver and gall bladder, improves digestion, and controls many pathogenic organisms.1 The oil is bactericidal, fungicidal, protisticidal, and has antioxidant activity. The leaf is said to cure cancer, is poulticed on hemorrhoids,* and may have potential in the treatment of toxic shock syndrome.3 The tea is good for colds, colic, dyspepsia, Iheadcolds, and nervous tension.2
Internally, the drug has diuretic action and also stimulates the I digestion, the circulatory system, and the nervous system. It is mildly inflammatory, has antiseptic effects, and is used in the treatment of slow-healing wounds and rheumatic pains.4 Externally it may be used to ease muscular pain, sciatica and neuralgia. It acts as a stimulant to the hair follicles and may be used in premature baldness.5
72


Rosemary, Rosemarine, Polar plant, Compass-weed, Compass plant
"t*"'fi* ****
-V' 1
-
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Rosmarinus officinalis L. 'Prostratus'
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Shrubby herb, ca. 1 m tall, with pine-like leaves. Small flowers are pale blue in color.
ml J ~
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1044 with Barbara Bennett
28 October 1999


FAMILY LAURACEAE
(Laurel Family)
Bay leaf
Laurus nobilis L.
74


BAY LEAF Laurus nobilis
Plant Family LAURACEAE
PARTS USED leaves, essential oil, fruit
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil containing methyl eugenol, pinene, geraniol, cineol, tannins, mucilage, resin
ACTIONS antiseptic, aromatic, stimulant, stomachic, carminative, emmenagogue, abortifacient, narcotic, emetic, astringent
ECONOMIC flavoring, cabinetry, perfumery
Laurus nobilis (Bay) National Arboretum, Washington, D.C. compliments of Walter S. Judd
Bay is a bitter, aromatic, stimulant herb that improves digestion and is locally antiseptic.1 It is used mainly to treat upper digestive tract disorders and to ease arthritic aches and pains.2 It is settling to the stomach and has a tonic effect, stimulating the appetite and the secretion of digestive juice.2 It is taken internally for colic, flatulence,1 to promote the onset of menstruation,2 and to promote abortion.3
The leaves and fruits have aromatic, stimulant, and narcotic properties and were once employed for amenorrhea, flatulent colic, cough and hysteria.4 The essential oil contains 4% of methyl eugenol, which produces sedation at low doses and reversible narcosis at higher doses. The oil also has bactericidal and fungicidal properties.4 The leaves are regarded as a diaphoretic and in large doses as an emetic.3 Externally it is used for dandruff, rheumatism, bruises,1 to relieve sore limbs, and to treat sprains.5 The oil was dropped into the ears to relieve pain.3 Bay leaves also contain compounds that are insecticidal and repel cockroaches.4
75


Bay, Grecian Laurel, Green^H
ted
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants
Laurus nobilis L.
craven county, north carolina: New Bern, In the formal garden, Tryon Palace. Evergreen large shrub, ca. 3-4 m tall; Ivs. dark lustrous green; flowers cream colored with yellow stamens.
coll. F.G. Meyer #16392
11 April 1978


FAMILY MALVACEAE
(Mallow Family)
Hibiscus
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
77


HIBISCUS Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Plant Family MALVACEAE
PARTS USED flowers, juice from petals
CONSTITUENTS quercetin, cyanidin, glucosides, florachrome B, hibiscetin, hentriacontane
ACTIONS emmenagogue, abortifacient, aphrodisiac, astringent, expectorant, laxative, purgative, venereal
ECONOMIC juice from petals is used in China as shoe polish and mascara
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Hibiscus)
Hibiscus is a sweet, astringent, cooling herb that checks bleeding, soothes irritated tissues, and relaxes spasms.1 It also has a soothing effect on the mucous membranes that line the respiratory and digestive tracts.2 The juice from the pounded leaves, with a little water, is drunk to treat stomach ache, to bring on a delayed menstrual period, and is also given to expectant mothers about to give birth in order to promote labor and ease delivery. However, it must not be given in large doses or this will cause abortion. It is also used as a cleanser by mothers who have recently given birth.3
Internally it is used for excessive and painful menstruation, cystitis, venereal diseases, feverish illnesses, coughs and to promote hair growth.1 A hot decoction is used to treat constipation and is also taken to overcome difficulty in flow during menstruation and to shorten the delivery time of expectant mothers. The plant is used in Samoa to treat gonorrhea and chronic stomach catarrh.3 It may also be taken for asthma, boils, bronchitis, cancer, carbuncles, fever, flu, sores, swelling and tumors.4
78


Hibiscus, Chinese Hibiscus, Shoe-back Plant
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Bush, ca. 2 m tall. Flowers pink/mauve.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1033 28 October 1999 with Barbara Bennett


FAMILY MYRTACEAE
(Myrtle Family)
Allspice
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
80


ALLSPICE
Plant Family MYRTACEAE
Pimenta dioica
Pimenta dioica (Allspice)
PARTS USED leaves, berries, oil
CONSTITUENTS volatile oil (2-5%), eugenol, caryophyllene, cineole, palmitic acid, limonene, methanol
ACTIONS antioxidant, stimulant, bactericidal, fungicidal, stomachic, carminative
ECONOMIC spices and flavorings, leaves are used for tea, oil and berries are used in perfumery
This plant was given the name "allspice" by an English botanist, John Ray (1627-1705), who likened their flavor to a combination of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.1 It is primarily used as a spice in the food industry.2
Allspice is a pungent, warming, aromatic herb that improves digestion, has a tonic effect on the nervous system, and is locally antiseptic and anesthetic.1 It is an aromatic stimulant and carminative to the gastrointestinal tract,3 and is used medicinally for diarrhea, dyspepsia, and flatulence.4 It is also employed as an addition to tonics and purgatives and as a flavoring agent.3 The essential oil is carminative and antioxidant.1
Externally, allspice is used for chest infections, muscular aches and pains,1 and bruises.4 It may be applied as a compress in cases of rheumatism and neuralgia.2
81


Allspice, Jamaica Pepper, Clove pepper, Pimento
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Tree, ca. 2-4 m tall.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1040 with Barbara Bennett
28 October 1999


FAMILY ONAGRACEAE
(Evening-Primrose Family)
Evening primrose
Oenothera biennis L.
83


EVENING PRIMROSE Oenothera biennis
Plant Family ONAGRACEAE
PARTS USED oil, leaves, stem, bark, flowers
CONSTITUENTS oil are rich in essential fatty acids - linoleic (about 70%) and gamma-linoleic (about 9%)
ACTIONS alterative, astringent, hypotensive, anticholesterolemic, sedative
ECONOMIC oil is added to skin preparations and cosmetics; often combined with vitamin E to prevent oxidation
Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose)
Evening primrose has long been used for gastrointestinal problems and for certain female complaints, such as pelvic fullness.1 The medicinal uses of evening primrose oil are a recent discovery. The oil contains gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), an unsaturated fatty acid that is a precursor to Prostaglandin El, which assists in the production of hormone-like substances. This process is commonly blocked, causing disorders that affect uterine muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and metabolism.2
The bark and leaves are astringent and sedative and have proven useful for gastrointestinal disorders, such as dyspepsia, and for whooping cough and asthma.3 They have also been used externally for wounds and skin eruptions and internally for coughs, depression, and as a sedative.4 The poulticed root is applied to piles and bruises, and a tea made from the root is used in the treatment of obesity and bowel pain.3_
84


The oil, applied externally, is beneficial in the treatment of eczema, certain other itchy skin conditions, and breast tenderness. Taken internally, the oil has an effect in preventing the clumping of platelets.5 It is also taken internally for pre-menstrual symptoms6 (such as for tension and abdominal bloating),5 to balance hormones, to reduce anxiety, to lower blood pressure and to lower cholesterol levels.6 Multiple sclerosis may benefit from internal treatment as well as rheumatoid arthritis,5 coronary artery disease, alcohol-related liver damage,2 and other problems relating to the circulation.5
85


Evening primrose, Tree Primrose
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
medicinally important plants in alachua county
Oenothera biennis L.
alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Shrub, ca. 1-2 m tall. Yellow flowers.
coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1027 21 September 1999 with Barbara Bennett
�HHHn


FAMILY PHYTOLACCACEAE
(Pokeweed Family)
Pokeweed
Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida (small) Caulkins & Wyatt
87


POKEWEED
Plant Family PHYTOLACCACEAE
Phytolacca americana
PARTS USED roots, berries
CONSTITUENTS triterpenoid saponins, lectines, proteins, resin, and mucilage
ACTIONS emetic, purgative, alterative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, mitogenic
ECONOMIC the berries yield a strong red dye that was added to confectionery and alcoholic drinks, includiing port wine
Phytolacca americana var. rigida (Pokeweed)
Native to North America, it was widely used by Native Americans and European settlers as a poultice for skin diseases, sores, ulcers, and tumors. It was also given internally to relieve pain and to induce vomiting.1
Phytolaccas have an unusual chemistry that is currently being researched for anti-AJDS drugs. They contain potent antiinflammatory agents, antiviral proteins, and substances (collectively referred to as "pokeweed mitogens") that affect cell division. These compounds are toxic to many disease-causing organisms, including the water snails that cause schistosomiasis.2 Authorities differ as to its value in cancer, although it is stated to be of undoubted value as an internal remedy in cancer of the breast.3
Pokeweed is a bitter, pungent, alterative herb that reduces inflammation, stimulates the immune and lymphatic systems, and clears toxins.2 It is a slow emeticvand purgative with narcotic_
88


properties that may be used for chronic rheumatism and granular conjunctivitis.3 The root has also been used to treat respiratory tract infections, such as sore throats and tonsillitis, as well as swollen glands and chronic infections.1
Externally it is used for skin complaints (including fungal infections), joint inflammation, hemorrhoids, mastitis, breast abscesses, and varicose ulcers.2 As a poultice or ointment, it is applied to sore and infected nipples and breasts, acne, folliculitis, and scabies.1
***Warning: In lower animals convulsions of death from paralysis of respiration may be caused. Overdoses may produce considerable vomiting and purging, prostration, convulsions and death.3 Do not take during pregnancy***
89


Pokeweed, Poke, Pokeberry
Herbarium of the University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
J medicinally important plants in alachua county
\ Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida (Small) Caulkins & Wyatt i
j alachua county: Gainesville, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens, [ 4700 S.W. 58th Drive; Herb Garden. Shrub, ca. 2 m tall. Purple stems and purple-black berries. White flowers.
\ coll. Amanda Bush Flynn #1007 28 October 1999 with Barbara Bennett
90


FAMILY PIPERACEAE
(Pepper Family)
Pepper
Piper auritum Kunth
91