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The Maule Dox System provides a fast, simplified,
low-cost method of constructing durable floors
and flat or sloped roofs from precast, reinforced
concrete planks. It is suitable for use in residential,
agricultural, commercial and industrial buildings.
Some of the Advantages of the Maule Dox System
Permits Spans With Flat Ceiling Side Requiring A Minimum Of Finishing. Permits
Wide Choice Of Floor Or Roof Covering Saves Space And Materials-Reduces
Building Height 4 to 6 Inches Per Floor* Assures Uniform Live Loads... Provides
Low Dead Load. Deflection Under Load Minimized by Built-In Camber... Excellent
Elastic Recovery. Precasting And Proper Curing Eliminates Hazards Of Improper
Field Construction Provides Full Ventilation Under Building Saves Time, Labor
And Materials. Simplifies Utility And Other Service Installations Conforms To
Standard Building Practices And Specifications Approved and Used by U.S.
Army and Navy, Federal Housing, etc.
For Detailed Information About Maule Dox Planks Write or Phone
3075 North Miami Avenue, Miami 37, Florida Phone 9-8653-2-7261
A. Modular surface of each beam quickly fills in floor
or roof area. Floor area thus becomes immediate
working deck for other tradesmen to use.
B. Tongue-and-groove design provides positive interlocking
of beams... distributes loads evenly over entire floor...
automatically aligns floor in tight, level position.
C. Specially designed openings in each block reduce weight
and facilitate installation of utilities, cold air returns, etc.
D. Recessed channels at bottom of block provide accurate
spacing and positive, safe anchoring of reinforcing rods.
E. Steel reinforcing rods give structural strength.
Built in camber further insures strength of beams.
"Make big plans; aim high in hope and work,
remembering that a noble, logical diagram once
recorded will never die, but long after we are
gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with
ever growing insistency. Remember that our
sons and grandsons are going to do things that
would stagger us. Let your watchword be order
and your beacon beauty."
These words by DAN BURNHAM are more
recognized as true today than when written
60 years ago. This is the time of our conven-
tion, the time for laying great plans and evalu-
ation of past accomplishments.
We can find many reasons for justifiable pride
in the past, but, more important, these successes
provide a springboard for greater visions and
Let us be impatient to get on with the work. 0
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
MAGAZINES ARE FLOODED with dramatic
photographs of ever new and exciting school
California represented here by a finger-plan that
walks up the mountainside, Texas there by
Venturi-tube lined with classrooms all masquer-
ading as a cute little bungalow. The various
ateliers have been responsible for a steady
stream of clever schemes ranging from string
musical instruments to the windowless monoliths
previously reserved for the assembly line fac-
No one can object to this free run of imagina-
tion, as it ranges throughout the whole panorama
of arts, searching for inspiration among musi-
cian's notes and sculptor's blocks. In each of
these, as in every field, the alert and searching
mind if freed from earth-bound thoughts of bond
issues, school board members and land values
can find stimulation which may translate itself
into architectural forms. Some of these vistas
can even be explored in actual building situa-
tions whenever the happy circumstances of a
sympathetic school board and an adequate
budget are found juxtaposed, but generally the
architect is somewhat restricted in his experi-
ments by sober heads and hands, by well-inten-
tioned codes and by coldly realistic fiscal offi-
Yet there remains one great field completely
open for the investigative mind. One in which
the architect is allowed free reign, for though
every man fancies himself as posessed of good
esthetic taste, he is quick to disavow special
knowledge in a scientific field. Thus the prob-
lem of classroom lighting becomes completely
the architect's problem.
That this is a most important factor in design,
is borne out by the interest shown in it. Recently
a national magazine attempted an evaluation
of new schools by an obvious, but theretofore
untried method of "client critique." Since archi-
tecture is for people and its success is not
emperical but based on what it does for people,
how better to judge a school than by interview-
ing the students and teachers? Their replies
showed an unexpected preoccupation with light-
ing. More comments were made regarding light-
ing by these persons using the schools day after
day, than about any other factor. Thus, con-
sideration of space and planning and esthetics
were passed over by many, but only one failed
to mention lighting.
Florida is blessed with a greater amount of day-
light than any other section of the country, and
this is especially true during the normal school
months. This constant sun, which lures thou-
sands to our beaches, and upon which we hinge
our whole economy, is a natural blessing praised
by all, but one which must be sympathetically
controlled in order to provide satisfactory class-
room conditions. All light, whether natural or
artificial, must give an even level of illumina-
tion throughout the room, and limited bright-
Architects must tame this natural phenomenon
by every means available. In the past, this
has been done by orientation and proportions
of window to wall area or floor area. Direct
sunlight was controlled by shades or other man-
ually controlled devices, which were of various
degrees of efficiency. This efficiency was further
varied by the human element involved in opera-
tion, as the best blind in the world is of little
use if not properly operated.
With natural sunlight such as we have in Flor-
ida, the problem generally is not the amount
of light but rather the quality, which, in turn,
effects the comfort in seeing and to some extent
the physical condition of growing children's
eyes. Extreme contrasts and differences of
brightness within the field of vision must be
eliminated in order to make seeing and study-
ing efficient and comfortable. Directly upon the
desk, where most of the seeing in school is con-
centrated, the brightness ratio should not be
greater than 1 to 1/3 between the seeing task
and desk top. The contrast of areas further
away may be greater, as the eye is not called
upon to adjust to them as frequently or for as
long a time. This ratio between the task and
the wall or the task and the floor, for instance,
may be up to 1 to 1/10. Similarly, if the area
is brighter than the task as the ceiling might
be, the allowable contrast would be 1 to 10.
Between the windows or other light sources and
the adjacent surfaces, the ratio should not be
more than 20 to 1.
Direct sunlight entering a classroom, though
cheerful, is at the same time a most unfortunate
source of glare and extreme brightness. In the
past we have merely measured the foot candles
on the last desk, which implied if the minimum
condition was satisfied, then all conditions above
the minimum had been satisfied. Actually, the
ideal lighting situation should provide a uni-
form level of approximately 30 foot candles
throughout the classroom, so special attention
must be given to approach uniformity. This has
been attempted by the common orientation of
finger-plans to eliminate direct sunlight so that
only north light can enter the classroom. This
was a considerable improvement, but large vis-
ible sky areas, even if north light, are so much
brighter than anything else within view, as to
cause discomfort. A balancing light source on
the opposite side of the room is needed. This
can be provided by well shaded windows, sky-
lights or plastic domes inserted in the room.
These, naturally, need to be shielded in some
manner to avoid direct sunlight, thus insuring
the same quality of light from all sides.
Natural light must be augmented by artificial
light on occasion and the greater use of schools
for adult education or other night-time duties
emphasizes the need for adequate artificial
light. The luminaires must be so located and
switched as to be able to progressively take over
the lighting task as natural illumination fails
and full artificial illumination becomes neces-
sary. At night, artificial light should be ade-
quate and balanced with as much consideration
as day lighting is given.
It has been estimated that 80% of our knowl-
edge comes through our eyes, so they are prec-
ious beyond measure. As a commentary on the
success of our past efforts at providing a proper
sight environment for our children, it has been
noted that the need for eyeglasses increases
from 5% to 25% from kindergarten to high
school. Will we as architects, accept the chal-
lenge of these statistics? *
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
LAST MONTH I was in enthusiastic theoretical
agreement with a friend who said that Florida
needed a well-controlled hurricane before we
build more subdivisions on islands pumped a
foot above normal high water. We have just
been subjected to the backwash of a minor blow
in this area. I write this surrounded by candles,
damp comic books, and all the essentials and
trivia a family gathers together hurriedly when
nature gets out of hand and it seems wise to
move to higher ground or a firmer fortress. In
the flickering dimness of lanternlight I have
watched helplessly over my wife and children
while the roof roared and rain came wind-
driven through cracks that were never there
before. I still agree that disaster may be the
only way we will learn. But my agreement
now is neither so enthusiastic nor so theoretical.
Floods and winds plagued most of Florida in
the grand equinoctial climax. The returns
aren't all in, but streets were flooded, sewers
overflowed, highways washed out, schools closed,
factories shut down, septic tanks ran over, drain-
age canals backed up, the Everglades were brim-
ming, roofs blew off, and the papers were full
It takes an enormous amount of excitement,
bother, danger and loss to make us get busy
and really take care of things which need doing.
Even then, we slack up as the memory fades.
Given windstorm, tide, fire or flood which does
big damage in a quick and spectacular manner,
we tighten up and get to work. For a while,
pressures for shoddy construction meet solid op-
position, the building inspector gets the extra
help he needs, people suddenly realize that the
fire chief knew what he was talking about all
these years, subdivision regulations get passed,
swamps are no longer automatically zoned for
industrial use, the Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District finds that sniping from
the political underbrush is less frequent, people
quit building homes where the foundations will
wash out from under them-in short, we begin
to use our heads, which is the essence of plan-
Now for most people this enthusiasm for the
application of foresight and common sense
doesn't last longer than the pain in the recol-
lection of whatever it was that started them off.
This may or may not be long enough to get
some intelligent action. Given a reasonably
frightening disaster, investigations are launched,
people are called on the carpet, and if the busi-
ness doesn't drag out too long, some ordinances
may be passed and a habit of enforcement
established, or some other kind of action may
be taken so that the people find themselves
somewhat less vulnerable to similar occurrences
in the future.
We need violent disasters oftener, because if
they were more frequent they would be less dis-
astrous. Certainly planners should be alert to
potentialities of post-disaster periods as times to
take long strides forward while public support
There is another kind of disaster which is vastly
more expensive in the long run, which we have
always with us, and which at present goes rela-
tively unnoticed. If crisis is so powerful a stim-
ulus to action, perhaps planning boards should
give more attention to calling attention to this
variety, the crawling calamity or creeping dis-
aster. Who has seen headlines like these?
NEW PLANT OPENS IN MEADOWS DISTRICT
Annual Repair Costs Estimated at $50,000
Wage Losses During Shutdowns
To Average $125,000
SPOT ZONING ACTION WIPES OUT
$150,000 IN PROPERTY VALUES
PARKING TIE-UP FROM NEW CITY HALL
TO COST DOWNTOWN MERCHANTS
CITY-WIDE PAVING PROGRAM THIS YEAR,
ENLARGED WATER LINES, NEW
SEWERS IN '55
SCHOOLBOARD SAVES $25,000,
SELECTS CHEAPACRES SITE
No Expansion Possible, But May Not Be Needed;
Extra Operating Costs $10,000 Yearly
These are the heads for a few unwritten stories
about creeping disaster. It costs us more each
year than fires, floods, earthquakes, explosions,
tornadoes and hurricanes combined. It is pres-
ent all the time in every city in some form. It
is no less dangerous or destructive because it is
slow and subtle. Planning is supposed to seek
out and devise for dealing with it.
Too often, when planning does, public reaction
is disappointing. "No roofs have blown off. No
buildings have burned down. Nobody has been
killed. So it isn't important enough to worry
about yet. If it gets worse we may do something
What comes next may not sit well with those
who feel that planning is an art and science
for the production of plans, and that if the
public won't follow the plans, so much the worse
for the public. But for those who believe that
the function of planning is to produce intelligent
action, perhaps it is time to think about improv-
ing our methods for inducing an awareness of
crisis, of impending disaster. We have perhaps
overemphasized the things which could be done,
and underemphasized the terrible results of not
doing them. If we can make creeping disaster
anything like as stimulating as the more violent
forms, we will have a powerful tool for reducing
public lethargy. We should of course keep up
with what Clarence Stein is doing, but we could
also learn some things from Orson Wells and
When we have learned to keep the public in-
formed as to what is about to happen to it,
interested in what is about to happen to it, and
even a little afraid of what will happen to it if
nothing is done, the solutions which planning
offers will be much more generally accepted.
If Mr. Revere, operating without any advance
preparation of the populace, had passed down
the highways and byways of Massachusetts
handing out elegant brochures (tastefully illus-
trated with woodcuts) setting forth the advan-
tages of American independence, we might still
have been a British dominion. Instead he went
charging through the night shouting to an
alarmed, informed and alert bunch of New
Englanders "The British are coming! Fall out!"
They fell out. 0
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
A S THE STORY goes, a model mechanics lien
law was proposed in the middle thirties by
a national committee, the adoption of which was
to provide a uniform nation-wide solution to the
many, many problems of protecting those who
build for others. After four years of consulta-
tions, draftings and re-draftings a joint Senate-
House Committee succeeded in adopting this
uniform statute to the construction industry in
Florida. The result of this committee attempting
to take cognizance of the "interest of laborers,
contractors, material dealers and all others in
the building industry." This was a general
hodge-podge which made no one happy. From
that day to this the Mechanics Lien Law has
been the target for well meaning criticism from
every group forced to operate under its pro-
Each session of the legislature sees several bills
proposed amending various sections to eliminate
a protested injustice here or a loop-hole there.
Occasionally a completely new law is ambitious-
ly offered as the panacea to remedy all the ills
of the industry. None of these has met with
During the last session Senate Bill 241 was pro-
posed and on the surface seemed innocuous.
The Associated General Contractors who are
more directly concerned with this bill actually
supported it, though not with much vigor. Our
legislative committee, recognizing some of the
inconveniences and the additional duties im-
posed on architects came out in passive opposi-
tion though. We did not feel it vital enough
to risk our positive legislation by any vigorous
That we were not able to foresee some of the
long range problems is obvious when we note
the state-wide ferment in the building industry
which has bubbled up into meetings, panel dis-
cussions and radio programs. Only the material
men and bonding companies seem satisfied.
From the vantage of this point in time we can
see that this law, and it became law without
Governor Dan McCarty's signature, will have
several grave circumstances. A recent panel
discussion in Miami listed these:
1. The 90-day time limit in the old me-
chanic's lien law for filing claims is wiped
out. Under the new law, a contractor, ma-
terial dealer or laborer may file a claim
any time in the future, years afterwards,
thereby raising the question of whether
an owner who improved his property could
ever be sure of an unclouded title.
2. Unless an owner gets a contractor to
post a performance and payment bond on
a construction project-and the law doesn't
TEXT OF BILL
In the event a direct contract calls for the expenditure of
three thousand dollars ($3,000) or more, the owner may re-
quire and in such event the contractor shall furnish the
owner a surety bond issued by a company authorized to do
business in this state or with at least two good and sufficient
sureties, payable to the owner in at least the amount of the
original contract price, conditioned to pay all laborers, sub-
contractors and materialmen.
If for any reason the contractor fails to furnish the bond
and notwithstanding the provisions of any other section of
this chapter, the owner shall not pay any money on account
of the direct contract prior to the visible commencement of
operations and any amount so paid shall be held improperly
paid, and the owner shall withhold 20% of each payment
when it becomes due under the direct contract.
And in no event shall the owner pay more than 80% of
the contract price if the bond is not furnished until the
contract has been fully performed and final payment is due
and the contractor has furnished the owner statement under
oath required by subsection (3) of section 84.04.
If the statement recites any outstanding bills for labor,
services or materials, or if the owner has knowledge of any,
say the contractor has to-the owner then
becomes responsible for payment of valid
claims for material suppied or work done.
3. No owner can advance a contractor
money until there has been "visible com-
mencement of construction." And hardly
anybody knows what constitutes "visible
commencement of construction."
4. If the contractor doesn't post a bond,
then the owner is required to-withhold 20
per cent of each payment due the contrac-
tor and must determine the validity of any
claims filed and make payment on a pro
the owner shall pay such bills in full direct to the person
or firm to whom they are due, if the balance due on the
contract is sufficient, and deduct the amounts so paid from
the balance due the contractor.
If the balance due on the contract is not sufficient to pay
all bills in full, the owner shall pay no money to anyone
until such time as the contractor has furnished him with
the difference. In the event the contractor fails to furnish
the difference the owner shall determine the amount due
each laborer, lienor, materialman or subcontractor and shall
disburse to them the amounts due by him on the contract
in accordance with the order of liens established in section
84.05. In the event the improvement is abandoned prior to
completion, the owner shall follow the above procedure and
disburse the funds withheld by him before commencing com-
pletion of the improvement.
If for any reason the owner fails to comply with the re-
quirements of this section, he shall be liable for, and the
property improved shall be subject to, a lien in the full
amount of any and all outstanding bills for labor, services,
or materials furnished for such improvement regardless of the
time elements set forth in this chapter.
Thus the burden is placed on the owner, he
must either add 1 per cent to his building cost
for bond premiums or else protect himself as
best he can by exacting an affidavit under
oath from his contractor assuring that no bills
are outstanding. Any error on the part of the
owner makes him liable for the full amount
of any claims without the former limitation of
the contract price, and he is liable forever.
The courts must give the final interpretation
of this law but the consensus is that a bad bill
has become a bad law in spite of vigilance by all
phases of the building industry. 0
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
,f 4ac ,do
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 19
3:00 P.M. EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING
Chapter members and invited
(Pre-Convention Registrants claim
packets at registration desk)
Open to public-Art Club-Beach
,Drive and Second Avenue North
JUDGING, OF ARCHITECTURAL
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 20
8:30 A.M. REGISTRATION CONTINUES
9:00 A.M. OPENING BUSINESS SESSION
Pres. Igor B. Polevitzky-presiding
REPORTS by officers and Standing
Appointment of Convention Com-
1:00 P.M. WELCOMING STAG LUNCHEON
Elliott B. Hadley, Generdl chairman
Hon. Samuel G. Johnson-Mayor;
William F. Davenport-Ex. Director
Chamber of Commerce; Richard E.
Jessen Pres. Florida Central
INTRODUCTION of distinguished
guests and speakers
ANNOUNCEMENT of Awards-
ADDRESS by Edmund R. Purves-
Ex. Director of American Institute
ADDRESS by Elliott C. Spratt-
Pres. Producers Council
2:30 P.M. BUSINESS RESUMED
Pres. Igor B. Polevitzky-presiding
George H; Spohn,. Immediate Past
Pres. of Florida Central Chapter-
ADDRESS by Hon. R. A. Gray-
Secy. of State
ADDRESS by Emil A. Nordstrom,,
Executive Director St. Petersburg
ADDRESS by Douglas Doubleday-
Architectural Editor, St. Petersburg
4:30 P.M. "PUBLIC RELATIONS WORK-
by Walter M. Megronigle of
Ketchum Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa.
6:00 P.M. REGISTRATION CLOSES
7-00 P.M. COCKTAIL PARTY
8:00 P.M. ANNUAL BANQUET
Pres. Igor B. Polevitzlky-presiding
INTRODUCTION of .Speakers by
Archie G. Parish, Pres. State Board
"INSIDE A.I.A."-address by Clair
W. Ditchy, Pres. of American Insti-
tute of Architects
ADDRESS by Roger Allen, Distin-
guished Architect, Humorist
Dancing in Huntington Gardens
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 21
8:30A.M. EXHIBITS OPEN
9:30 A.M. CLOSING BUSINESS SESSION
Pres. Igor B. Polevitzky-presiding
REPORTS of Committees
ELECTION of officers
11:30 A.M. PANEL DISCUSSION
G. Thomas Harmon-
III A.I.A. Regional Director-Moder-
Edmund R. Purves-A.I.A. Ex. Di-
Walter Megronigle Public Rela-
Douglas Haskell Editorial Chair-
man Architectural Forum
Emil A. Nordstrom-ChairMan En-
gineer Relations Committee
1:00 P.M. MANUFACTURERS EXHIBITS
2:00- PUBLIC RECEPTION
6:00 P.M. St. Petersburg Art Club Beach
Drive and Second Avenue North-
to view the Architectural Exhibits.
Ladies Committee in charge.
ALL ARE INVITED
CONVENTION 1953 BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
H U RRI
FLORIDA IS KNOWN the world over as the
land of balmy breezes-unbelievably cool in
the summer and warm in the winter. Yet it is a
not too well kept secret that during the fall
months, we occasionally experience something
more than a breeze. In spite of Chambers of
Commerce, there is a type of weather disturb-
ance going by the name of hurricane which
roars up from the Carribbean with terrible winds
and torrential rains, passing near or over our
State. This is a fact we cannot ignore.
This phenomenon tries the souls of men, and in
addition, imposes a unique test upon building
materials. Walls, roofs, windows and doors are
often buffeted by steady winds of over 100 miles
per hour and even stronger gusts. The rains
ferret out any imperfections, any slightest open-
ing through which, under the pressure of such
wind, water can penetrate. Just as intently as
we check the hourly weather bulletins, we must
check the building materials we use, and the
designs we evolve. In regard to windows, for
instance, the routine check long practiced
throughout the country, has been to subject the
window to a static pressure of a 25 mile per hour
wind. This normal wind tunnel test obviously
has little to do with the condition encountered
in hurricanes, so some other test was needed.
The University of Miami, being perhaps more
aware of and interested in this problem because
of its location directly along the pathway fol-
lowed by most of the storms, gave early thought
to a more realistic way of testing materials on
a controlled basis. Their Housing Research
Laboratory devised a test procedure which they
describe as follows:
There are two major sources of damage during
hurricanes-roof damage and damage due to
infiltration of water through windows. While
less spectacular than roof damage, the infiltra-
tion of water through windows resulting in dam-
age to valuable furnishings, warping of floors,
the loosening of plaster, etc., is of great con-
cern. This bulletin on-glass jalousie windows
will be followed later by a study of roofs which
is now under way here and will be published at
a later date when conclusions are confirmed be-
In the past few years a new type of window,
a glass jalousie window has come into consider-
able use in South Florida and to some extent
in other parts of the country. Its use is gradu-
ally extending farther and farther north and
also south into the Caribbean Area and South
America. This is an adaptation in glass of the
jalousie, made of wood louvers set at an angle
to allow ventilation but to retain privacy, which
has long been used in Spanish speaking coun-
tries. In the modern glass jalousies, the louvres
are adjustable to any angle to permit ventilation
over a very high percentage of the opening.
Since the louvers in such a window are normally
less than 41/2 inches wide this leaves a great
length of overlap through which air and water
might infiltrate and, as a result, the value of
such windows under hurricane conditions has
been questioned by insurance companies, archi-
tects, builders, and home owners. In order that
the facts might be known, five of the leading
manufacturers decided that tests should be
made. Having no success in interesting com-
mercial laboratories in undertaking the neces-
sary research to establish such a test, they
agreed to finance this work at the University
of Miami and established a fund for this pur-
pose. Since then many tests have been made
not only on many jalousie windows but on case
ment windows, awning type windows, double-
hung windows, etc.
DETERMINATION OF TEST PROCEDURE
In order to simulate hurricane conditions it is
clear that wind velocities well in excess of 100
miles per hour must be produced and accom-
panied by water since torrential rain usually
accompanies a hurricane. Since windows were
to be tested this necessitated rather large scale
equipment and so a Pratt and Whitney 1830
airplane engine was selected as the motive
power. This was equipped with a variable pitch
propeller with the blades cut off to a length of
52 inches. This was done to avoid possible
propeller vibrations which might have been de-
structive. When set at full pitch these blades
provide a wind velocity of 140 miles per hour
at 2400 rpm at the maximum point of air flow
and at all speeds provide ample cooling for the
engine without the necessity of using directing
vanes or hoods. The engine is mounted on a
welded steel frame which in turn is bolted to a
pair of I beams. Wheels are provided on the
frame so that it may be moved to different
positions along the beams over a distance of
In the position finally selected the center line
of a propeller blade is 20 feet 3 inches from a
cement block test house. This house is 12' x 12'
with a flat roof. The height is 8 feet to the
underside of the eaves. Two precast cement
window frames are placed side by side in the
front of this house of a size to accommodate a
standard 24-24 windows. These frames permit
easy installation and removal of windows. One
is kept always in position as a control and the
window under test is placed beside it.
Beside each window is placed a large cone with
a 6" x 6" throat at the apex. An anemometer
is placed in this throat to measure the air which
infiltrates through the window and all of which
must escape through this throat. Water coming.
through the window filters through a felt strip
at the lower edge of the cone and is collected
in a collecting pan.
Water is introduced into the air stream through
a horizontal perforated pipe and a spray nozzle
so directed as to cover evenly the entire front
of the test house. In the event of cross winds
the pipe can be adjusted before the engine is
started so as to counteract the cross wind effect,
if any. In the sheltered location of the equip-
ment cross winds have been nearly negligible
and in contrast to the directed air stream have
shown no measurable effect.
After numerous experiments it was found that
a test of 12 minutes duration was sufficient to
get an easily measurable quantity of air and
water through a window, and a test was finally
decided upon in which a wind of not less than
100 miles per hour velocity at the maximum
point should be used for 10 minutes and gust
conditions of from 80 to 120 miles per hour
maximum for two minutes. The "pumping" ac-
tion of these gusts tends to show up a window
of such flimsy construction that considerable
deflection results. Under these conditions a win-
dow is considered satisfactory if air infiltration
is not more than 75 cubic feet per minute and
water not over 0.20 gallons per minute. This
may seem like a lot of air and water but few
hurricanes are ever as severe as this test and
the water introduced into the air stream (20
gal./min.) is to say the least "torrential." The
conditions were made to represent extreme con-
ditions and also to get easily measurable quan-
tities of air and water in as short a running time
of the engine as possible for obvious reasons
The amount of water used is equivalent to a
four inch rainfall in 12 minutes directly against
the side of the house. If you are mindful of the
fact that the average rainfall in Miami is 57.77
inches, the severity of the test is apparent.
Almost as much water beats against the side
of this test house as falls in Miami in a month
-and the rainfall is at a considerable angle-
not directly against the wall. Any window which
passes this test is reasonably certain to be com-
pletely free of water infiltration under any con-
ditions which might be expected in the Miami
Preceding and during a test the measurement of
many variables which might concievably affect
the results are taken such as relative humidity,
various temperatures, barometric pressures, etc.,
etc. So far no effect due to these factors has
been noticed but they are nevertheless taken
as a matter of record.
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
The outstanding guests attending the 39th An-
nual Convention of the Florida Association of
Clair W. Ditchy, F.A.I.A., of Detroit who was
elected the 34th president of The American
Institute of Architects at its 85th Convention
in Seattle, Washington.
Ditchy had served six years as secretary of the
Institute, as well as three years as Great Lakes
Regional director. He had also been active in
his State and local architectural organizations,
having served as president of both the Michigan
Society of Architects and Detroit Chapter,
Clair Ditchy's first experience was gained in the
Detroit office of Albert Kahn, from 1915 to
1917 and from 1919 to 1921. A distinguished
member of the architectural profession, he has
been in private practice in Detroit since 1921
and has specialized in schools, hospitals, and
Ditchy became a member of The Institute in
1924, was elevated to Fellowship in 1944, an
honor bestowed for distinguished performance
in design, education, literature public service
and service to the Institute.
Each corporate member bf the Brow-
ard County chapter has been awarded
an Honorary Membership in the
Broward Builders' Exchange as a
token of appreciation for their offer
to do sketches and working drawings
at actual cost, for their proposed
Eero Saarinen, in the first of a series of articles
by world-famed architects, discusses in Archi-
tectural Forum six outstanding trends in modern
architecture and their common creed that great
architecture is more than efficient shelter.
Saarinen declares "architecture alone among
the arts must fulfill a practical, physical and
worldly purpose. And yet like all the arts it
must simultaneously declare mankind's aspira-
Copiously illustrated, the article discusses the
organic unity of Frank Lloyd Wright's designs,
handicraft architecture exemplified by Wurster
and Belluschi; Aalto and the European individ-
ualists; Le Corbusier's function and plastic
form; Gropius' architecture for the machine age
and the "giant form-giver" Mies van der Rohe.
Chapter members interested in schools
have been invited to display their
work in the architectural exhibit of
school buildings which the American
Association of School Administrators
is sponsoring on February 13 18,
1954 in Atlantic City, during its na-
It was pointed out forcibly to representatives of
the architectural profession in a recent round-
table discussion that one of the great (if not
the greatest) detractions of engaging architects
is the failure of architects to be competent in
the matter of estimating construction costs. If
we architects could perfect ourselves in this
essential aspect of our services, and if we could
acquire a reputation for reasonable accuracy in
cost estimating, then to a large extent we could
successfully ward off the encroachment of the
"package dealer," to say nothing of enhancing
the prestige and reputation of the professional.
It is understandable that during an inflationary
period the difficulties of cost estimating are
aggravated, but surely with the assistance of
cost indices and other data, cost estimating
would be facilitated. There is an obligation on
the part of The Institute to make a study of this
problem and to afford its membership such
guidance, advice and statistics as it can. The
architect must be courageous enough to furnish
his client with the real facts even at the appar-
ent risk of losing a possible job. Probably in
the long run more jobs will be gained through
an honest and courageous approach than will be
"gained" through timidity.
The Institute continues to lend its as-
sistance in promoting the use and de-
velopment of modular coordination.
The Board notes with satisfaction the
increasing adoption of the modular
system by manufacturers of building
products and by architects, and fore-
sees in the not too distant future a
complete acceptance of this proved
and economical system.
A notice has been received from U. S. Civil
Service Examiners stating that under the pro-
visions of Public Law 271, 83rd Congress, com-
petitors who file applications on or after Oc-
tober 13, 1953, must make a passing grade of
70 without regard to veteran preference.
Alfred Browning Parker has carried
off the prize for the most publicized
residence of the year. The November
issue of "House Beautiful" magazine
is complete devoted to an exhaustive
pictorial examination of his home, its
1954 Pace-Setter House.
At a special panel discussion at the California
Council of Architects Convention for Junior As-
sociates and students from California architec-
tural schools, the subject of "Preparation for
State Board Examination" was thoroughly cov-
ered, according to Walter Althausen, Jr., Asso-
ciate President. Moderator John Rex headed
a panel composed of members of the State Board
of Examiners, deans of architectural schools and
editors of architectural magazines. Of particu-
lar interest was the proposal by Arthur Gallion,
Dean of Architecture at USC, that the written
part of the State Board Examinations be elim-
inated. He suggested that required office ex-
perience be extended from two to four years,
prior to taking a comprehensive oral examina-
tion. Also interesting were the statistics quoted
by Goerge Simonds of the State Board of Exam-
iners on the precentage of those who pass the
examination the first time they take it (10%)
and of those who ultimately pass (30%).
Before the war, taxes amounted to ap-
proximately 2% of the cost of a resi-
dence according to Dow Service-
while the present rate is estimated at
The Architectural League of New York City
holds an annual Blood Bank Day at the Red
Cross Center. Although most of the contribu-
tions are sent directly to Korea, the League
maintains a bank for the use of those architects
who contribute and their families. /
One of the concrete examples of pub-
lic relations in action was the recent
appearance of Morton Ironmonger on
the Betty Dickens Show over WIOD,
Miami, for a ten-minute evaluation of
"Trends in South Florida Architect-
The new list of colleges accredited by
tional Architectural Accrediting Board
following southern schools among the
total of forty-five:
Alabama Polytechnic Institute
Clemson A. S. M. College
University of Florida
Georgia School of Technology
North Carolina State College
University of Virginia
Virginia Polytechnic University
The fourth annual exhibit of the
works of the members of the Georgia
Chapter, A.I.A., will be held at the
High Museum in Atanta, November
1 to November 22, 1953.
A man whose work has been admired by a gen-
eration of American architects, Willem Dudok,
is currently touring the country in a lecture
series sponsored by the A.I.A. He spoke to the
students at the University of Florida on October
21 saying: "What demands our immediate at-
tention is the relation which must be established
between the town as a whole and its environ-
ment-the surrounding country."
The Palm Beach Chapter has been
meeting with the local chapter of the
ACC concerning local bidding prac-
tice. The ACC formally requested the
chapter to affirm its compliance wtih
A.I.A. document No. 333.
One of the Pasadena Chapter's outstanding pro-
grams was "Developing Our Personalities
Through Speech." Some of the points brought
out were that an executive is no different from
anyone else except that the executive puts out
a little more effort. If one would put out just
25% more effort, the results would be astound-
ing. A top executive is 15% knowledge and
85% personal quality. The primary require-
ments for improving one's personality is desire
-then one must use effort. The 10 points to-
wards a pleasing personality are: 1. Appear-
ance. 2. Voice. 3. Smile-it may be worth a
million dollars but it doesn't cost you a dime!
By learning to smile, salesmen were able to in-
crease sales 18%. 4. Organization. 5. Services
-give extra services. 6. Development of mem-
ory. 7. Development of special abilities. 8. Self-
control. 9. Sincerity. 10. Human touch.
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
While writing I would thank you for your reply
to our questionnaire and also point out, in case
no one else has, the erroneous piece of informa-
tion included in the Kiplinger Letter you pub-
lished. The A.I.A. Standard of Practice definite-
ly would preclude any one of its members sign-
ing a contract which would guarantee that a
building could be built for a certain amount.
I don't know whether this is important enough
to carry a correction in your next issue, but
even the present Standards says under its Man-
datory Standards "An architect shall not guar-
antee any estimate of construction costs." I
have found so much misunderstanding among
architects with respect to these facts that I am
not surprised to see that Kiplinger misunder-
JOHN L. R. GRAND, Head
Department of Architecture
I should like to congratulate you on your issue
of the BULLETIN. I know what you are up
against, and if there is anything I can do to
help you continue to produce such a high quality
publication you can command my services.
I am transmitting herewith the latest issue of the
CHARETTE. The "Charette" is a substantial
development from the days when I was an editor,
which was sometime between 1939-1945. At
that time, the editor depended on browbeating
other architects for magazine material and the
business manager contacted friendly local build-
ing service outfits for advertising.
Yours very truly,
Frank P. Patterson
Thank you for your letter of June 24 telling us
about your plan for pointing up mutual prob-
lems and suggested solutions between our asso-
ciation and yours. Surely this is a step in the
right direction, and I look forward to future
communications with you.
A large number of architects are tied up in one
way or another with planning and zoning, some
as members of boards and commissions and
others as a result of their work.
Our circulating technical rental library is a very
good one, we think, and includes much informa-
tion which architects need which might not be
in their personal libraries. For instance we have
a considerable amount of material on making
market surveys for shopping centers, a matter
which might be of considerable importance to
an architect working on a shopping center proj-
ect. We have a considerable amount of infor-
mation on parking garages, on street naming
and property numbering (a matter which might
be of interest to an architect laying out a major
subdivision) and so on. Then we have a tech-
nical inquiry service which is set up to serve
those who write in with questions, and a limited
consultant assistance program to give on-the-
Fred H. Bair
Florida Planning and
P. 0. Box 206
We wish to express our pleasure with the Aug-
ust issue of FAA bulletin. The article "Kiplinger
on Architects" is the best piece of journalism
focused on the potential client since that fine
brochure PRESENTING YOUR ARCHITECT
With best wishes for future success in public
(Mrs.) Winfield Lott
Branan C. Franklin, Jr.
Craig, Francis W.
Gomon, W. R.
Griffin, Harry M.
Leete, David A.
MacDonough, Alan J.
Peek, Grouverneur M.
Sayers, Joel W. Jr.
Smith, Walter K.
Sneed, Edwin M.
Spicer, Ralph F.
Walton, Francis R.
Bailey, Fred J.
Clark, William C., Jr.
Gehlert, Craig J.
Kemmerer, Alfred G.
Moore, J. G.
Reynolds, Harry L.
Arnett, William T.
Bryson, Joseph H.
Burns, Harry E., Jr.
Cellar, A. Eugene
Chappell, Logan S.
Dodd, John B.
Drake, W. Kenyon
Duncan, E. Bryan
Duncan, J. Vance
Fearney, E. M.
Fetner, S. Ralph
Fulton, Guy C.
Goin, Sanford W.
Grand, John L. R.
Greeley, Mellen C.
Haas, Joseph B.
Hanes, Myrl J.
Hart, R. Daniel
Hollingsworth, F. A.
Hopkins, A. C.
Jackson, William K.
Kemp, William D.
Leitch, Hugh J.
Lindsey, Harry Lee
Look, James H.
McVoy, J. D.
Mizrahi, R. S.
Moughton, Elton J.
Powell, Harry C.
Saxelby, Harold F.
Schultz, Walter B.
Segerberg, C. E.
Sheftall, Lee Roy
Sindelar, F. J
Smith, Ivan H.
Stephens, Willis L.
Torraca, P. M.
Van Dusen, Fred C.
Wilkinson, S. R.
Boardman, Robert E.
Cummer, W. W.
Gordon, Wm. S.
Meehan, J. A., Jr.
Seibert, Wm. H.
Stevens, J. P.
Baber, W. E.
Bochiardy, Howard Byron
Broward, Robert Charles
Buecheler, Wm. G.
Burroughs, R. A.
Caylor, F. N.
Charles, L. H.
Eaton, W. B.
Ewart, Thomas E.
Farris, Edward L.
Arms, J. B.
Hoag, Wayne D.
Kelly, C. L., Jr.
Marshall, W. M.
Methesan, S. A.
Myers, Wayne R.
Petty, A. W.
Pillsbury, H. A.
Raddenberry, N. R.
Reeves, F. B.
Scheel, C. C.
Sebold, Howard R.
Stults, Wm. R.
Thorsen, H. S.
Toske, LeRoy C.
Urbanus, D. M.
Webb, D. N.
Wilkes, J. A.
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
Bigoney, William F.
Crawford, William G.
Gamble, G. Clinton
Gilroy, William A.
Hansen, Robert E.
Ironmonger, Morton T.
Jahelka, Robert G.
Knox, Van W., Jr.
McKirahan, Chas. F.
Meyer, Theodore A.
O'Neill, John B.
Pauley, Walter E.
Pownall, James K.
Stewart, A. Courtney
Vaughn, William T.
Waddey, George E.
Wiesman, George C.
Zimmer, Jack W.
Tracy, William G.
Sproul, C. Cranford
Ross, R. Webster
Lukens, Bayard C.
Moberg, Claus R.
Moeller, Donald H.
Start, Cedric H.
Adams, Franklin 0.
Atkinson, Carl N.
DeLoe, F. Earl
Hadley, Elliott B.
Harvard, Wm. B.
Hitt, Lawrence W.
Keiser, George Camp
Levison, Robert H.
Lott, M. Winfield
Miller, W. Kenneth
Parish, Archie G.
Rogers, Jam. Gamble, II
Six, Norman F.
Wakeling, Roy W.
Zimmerman, Wm. W.
Fishback, Martin P., Jr.
Heim, James A.
Howell, A. Wynn
Jolly, Blanchard E.
Sellew, Roland W.
Cox, William A.
Lewis, Granville K., Jr.
FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL
Craft, Chester Lee
Mendenhall, H. D.
Morrison, Wm. Stewart
Woodward, Albert P.
Wyke, Edward D.
Benda, Charles J., Jr.
Caler, W. Kemp
Clarke, L. Phillips
Hanna, Richard T.
Holley, Maurice E.
Kessler, Frederick W.
Johnson, William R.
King, William Manly
Kohler, Paul E.
Nevins, Robert M., Jr.
Obst, Harold A.
Plockelman, R. H.
Pope, Henry V.
Robinson, David S.
Seelman, Frederick G.
Shriver, David S.
Simonson, Byron E.
Stewart, Wm. A.
Taylor, Wm. G.
Wyeth, Marion S.
Brainerd, William W.
Prescott, W. Coleman
Stetson, Frank K.
Toth, Charles E.
Willson, Jack S.
Albert, Leroy K.
Coffin, George A.
DeBrita, Joseph J.
Ewing, Upton C.
Fink, H. George
Fusco, J. Alden
Garland, James E.
Haas, Geo. J.
Hall, Harold E.
Johnson, Guy Platt
Knight, Howard B.
Kruse, H. Samuel
Petersen, John E.
Rowland, Thomas J.
Russell, T. Trip
Severud, Gordon M.
Simberg, A. J.
Skinner, John L.
Smith, Donald G.
Smith, Robert Fitch
Tschumy, William E.
Weed, Robert Law
Wolfe, Earl V.
Simmons, Jerry P.
Allen, Bartle J., Jr.
Fink, H. George, Jr.
Grimshaw, John 0.
Norlin, Ernest C., Sr.
Sniffen, L. M.
Strahle, R. G.
Broward, Charles J., Jr.
Buckely, Warren B.
Zinkel, Ronald 0.
Zinkel, Russell C.
Graf, Robert G.
Hensel, Robert S.
Kemp, James 0.
Gans, Sheldon P.
Washer, Norman E.
Branch, Dan P.
BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
Betts, Wayne F.
Schlotterlein, Frederick W.
Wilson, James 0.
Burgess, Willard B.
Pollack, R. S.
Pinard, Frank T.
Hardwick, William C.
Russell, Melvin E., Jr.
Barth, Alf 0.
Roberts, J. W.
Robbins, R. J.
Wallis, Thomas H., Jr.
Wright, Clifford W.
Caldwell, Phillip B.
Jensen, Ray K.
Dixon, Lawrence M.
Mayo, Thomas T., Jr.
Rotlriguez, Juan H.
Brown, William H.
Merwin, L. N.
Vollvracht, Franz L.
Peterson, Edward M.
Ridgway, James C.
Melody, Walter H.
Hynes, Robert H.
Anderson, Alfred F.
Jones, Jack R.
Clark, Robert W.
Parrish, Don J.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 07012 7765
WOOD AWNING WINDOWS
"Pioneers of the Awning Type Window"
Member of Producers' Council, Inc.
fair weather or foul,
Gate City means
When selecting windows, remember the days when all will
not be blue sky and sunshine. There are such days even in
Florida, and it is just as important that your client have pro-
tection during cold snaps, rain squalls and hurricanes as
for him to have ventilation during warm, sunny weather.
You can assure your client of BOTH fair-weather com-
fort and foul-weather protection by specifying Gate City
Wood Awning Windows. There is no gamble with Gate
City for their ALL-WEATHER performance has been proven
through thirteen years of satisfactory service over the
state of Florida.You can specify Gate City with confidence.
Maximum Air Conditioning Efficiency is Possible Only
with Tight Closing Wood Windows.
ALL GATE CITY WOOD AWNING WINDOWS ARE NOW EQUIPPED
WITH ENCLOSED GEAR OPERATORS AND ARE COMPLETELY
Refer to Sweet's File 16c/Ga. for specifications. Our en-
gineers will welcome any opportunity to assist you with
window problems. Write Dept. A3, Gate City.