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Group Title: A specimen of a commentary on Shakspeare: Containing I. Notes on As you like it.
Title: A specimen of a commentary on Shakespeare
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00004634/00001
 Material Information
Title: A specimen of a commentary on Shakespeare Containing I. Notes on As you like it
Physical Description: vii, 258 p., 1 l. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Whiter, Walter, 1758-1832
Publisher: T. Cadell
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1794
 Subjects
Genre: individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: II. An attempt to explain and illustrate various passages, or a new principle of criticism, derived from Mr. Locke's doctrine of the association of ideas.
General Note: Ink-stamped on t.p. verso: Duplicate, Harvard College Library.
General Note: Bound with: The honey moon / by John Tobin. New ed. London : Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1805.
Funding: Psychological study of the arts.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00004634
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000909135
notis - AEL8414
lccn - 18016437
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Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    To the reader
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
        Unnumbered ( 7 )
        Unnumbered ( 8 )
    As You Like It
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    Errata
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Full Text













A

SPECIMEN
OF
A COMMENTARY
ON

SHAKSPEARE,

&c. &c. &c.













SPECIMEN



A COMMENTARY
ON

SHAKS PEA R E.


I.
NOTES ON AS YOU LIKE IT

II-

AN ATTEMPT
TO
EXPLAIN AND ILI. UST ATE

VARIOUS PASSAGES,

ON A NEW PRINCIPLE OF CRITICISM,
DEtrvt. FRO-M

MR. LOCKE'S DOCTRINE

OF

THE ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS,


aonbon :


fRINTEI FOR T. CADELL, I- Tlt STREi.D.

0794.

























d~ it,.
- \'.














TO THE READER.



'As the vcer-f.ri!ful fiihjcS of Shakfpeare and
'' bis Commentators" Jlill continues to engage the
curofjity or to excrcife the candor of the public ;
even the SIPICIMEN of a criticin may perhaps
venture to appear under the favourable imprefion
of a popular topic. The vanity of the writer will
eafiy discover and applaud the importance of a
difcuimon, which he well knows to be f deeply amn-
neEled with the principles of general tajle and the
feelings of national entbufiafin. By the tile of the
refent work, I am defirous of exprefing the im-
ptrfet endeavours of an occasional Critic to advance
the progrefs of this enquiry ; and 1 have laboured
with considerable diligence to convince at once the
Reader and the Commentator that he flores of know-
a ledge







P R F F A C F.


le,!c at c :t iuli mat'ly ex.!hollcd in tbe clucidatiwo
of Sbhalft'are. I m;Iy be lemptcd, perhaps, on
fie future orcafnio to ,"'oced in the ref arcb, and
t enlarge the bouni.uries nf my SPI;cIMEN ; though
I Inm i te z I,' cw 'nl,'i t' reliunqt I' the execu-
li:9t offdir a d:i.:k i, i' vigouTr Jf m T'4 regular
r r,'l Tfns, nd tIf, f AIrmir f 7m'i' a ll',e 1 i` r es.
The olfriatio,:s on As You Liii.:: IT are dflincd
eitbrr to fjlabli/b fic interpetation, which bad
eluded /'!' fgai/y f f'rimer cr ics ; or /o defend
an original reading, which had been irjr'tted by the
concurrence of all Ith commentators, or at leafl by
the opinion of tIe befl. Mr. Malfone* will rejoice,
I I Lytl, to perc' iic ihat funthing may befiill added
to ite labour of thirty ) ears ; and that his indujiry
may be ciEtuc .fifllIiy emplod in removing from
the te.rt of Shlflrcare the capricious innovations of
ignorance or of t'meifily. In the ATTEMPT TO
EXPLAIN AND I..US'I ATE VARIOUS PASSAGES
ON A NEW PRINCIPL.l Of CRITJICSM; I have en-
SPrefce, p. I t. I have ctinfantly referred to the edition of
Sha! ;enit by Mr. Ml i:/:e, 1790 ; and I hawI generally ex-
prejfd the opimns p f the cmmntetators from the ?atrtment of that
aoc,'ratt t ar. I con/id the publication cf this edition at
firming a dlr.ng.g d Y r, iren /ie /Rudy ef Shakffear.
deavoured







P R E F A C 1'. il
deavoured to unfold tb fj cit iandi jubilc operations
of genius from the mfl ind,iltabl' dotrine in the
theory of meltap.yfics. As tIfe'f p ,ers of the
imagination have never, I behere, been a&'equately
conceived, orfjlenmatitally dif iu/id ; I may perhaps
be permitted, on this occasion, to adopt the Lii;zage
of f:ience and to ajqume the merit of I)isc:R vFv.
The reader will at leae be ihflyrnticd in a portion
of knowledge, which was before bidden frmi his
view ; Iowcver be may finally appreciate the in-
portance of the dofrMine or the dexterity of thb
teacher.
IfALTEIR IIIITER.
CLARE HALL,
May Jo, 1794.



















AS YOU LIKE IT.




it. AS 1 reiieimber, Adam, it was upon this
5dfifhioni: lie bequeathed ni by wilt hnu a poor
Tithoyfaina crowns; and, as thou fay'll, charged
:. r71 bother; on lis blcfning, to breed ie well"
t. sdl This is ,the reading of Sir \VWiiiam
I"kf"olo"hyDr.. 'Johnfoun reads, As I rcnecmhnmr,
6 4dam;1 itawis o .this fashion bequeathed me.
,iliBy-villLbut:a poor thousand crowns; and, as
.'--thol ;ifaccft,: &c:" The nomninative my fathr'"
ffdyDr,' Johnfoin) '1 is certainly left oni, but fi
teleft out that the auditor infeits it in Tfpie of him-
" felf" Dr. I.Inbi,,o', reads, and MIr. Capel/ is of
opinion, that lihere was never a lorle certain
"mendatioi," ''-A I ,I member, Adai., it vs upon
"My FATHER beucatlhed ,nm, U'." Amnidji thefe
various emendations, the reading and pointing of
tbkld.Copy Se certainly right, As I remember
g Alam it was. upon this fafbion bequeathed me
B by









" by will,-and as thou fail charged my brother
" on his blclng." Father is not the nominative
cafe to changed, but the confrulion muft be fups
plied by it was clheged. His by the artifice of the
poet relates to fometlilng underflood, that the au-
dience may ie imprefkfd with the idea of a pre-
vious converfalion ; and as if he had not fufficicntly
explained himself in this place, he afterwards adds
(122) My father charged you in his will" It
may he further observed on this patfagc, that the
old Copy reads but poor, a thwofaud roowwne, which I
believe to be right.

220. Marry, Sir, be better employed and be
" naught a while."] The fenfe of lhis paffage may
be collcl.d from the federal notes of the Com-
mentators, though it is extremely singular that the
true fenfe of the phrafe, Be naught awhile, fliould be
gathered from the pafTages which have been pro-
duced by our Critics to support three different in-
terpretations. Dr. Warburton thinks that the ex-
prellion, Be nought a while, is only a North country
proverbial curfc equivalent to a mifrchef on you. So
the old poet Skelton,

CorrcE firfl thyf elfe, walk and be nought,
Deeme what thou lift, thou knoweft not my
thought."

Mr. Steevcns thinks that this explanation is/far
fetchAd, and believes that the words be nought a
whi/ts









s ivle mean no moic than this, Be cotntt to be a
' cypker, till I /fail think fit to elevate you into confe-
' yence. This was ce thinly" fayss be) a pro-
* verbial faying. I find it in 7ihe Stoie of King
-' Darius, an interlude, i565."
Come away and he nought a whyle
Or furely I will you both dcfyle.

Again in K. Henry IV. p. 2. Falftaff fays to Piftol,
:', Nay, if he do nothing but fpeak nothing, lhefall
t be nothing here."
Though Mr. Malone allows that the words naught
and noughl are frequently confounded in old Englifli
books (which in the edition of 1785 he has hliewn,
by producing fome paflhgs where night is felt
caught;) and tRlough he once coincided with the
interpretation of Mlr. Stcevens, yet he is now in-
duced by a paffage in Sweetnan, a comedy, 162o,
io concut with the explanation given by Dr. John-
fon, who thinks, that Be better employ'd, and he
" nought a while," is iifed in the fame fenfi as we
fay, It is better to do minihicf than to do nothing. The
paffage from Sweelnarn is,

Get you both in and be night a while."

This is fpoken by a chambermaid to her miftrefs
With a lover.
.Now is it not nmaniftif, that in all there pafTages
Ifqnmr which our Commentators have extraEted fuch
appofite ilterpretaotitons the phrafe in queflion has
B 2 in-








[ 41
invariihly the fame meaning ? Be naugkt or norght J
.chile certainly means--Retire-begone, or as we now
fay in-a kind of quaint, colloquial language, make
yoUjelf SCARCE--vafl/t--vote yormfelf an LVANE-
SCENT Q.'AN rITY In the fame f) le e i ay, to
exprefs the ablfeni: c fa pei )fn whoV i we had goi(l
rcafon to expecl,- There's o of ?iilliam--I ci'
no Thomas ; aid in thii very play we find a finnlar
expreflion applied in the fame fenfe, though ith
an ironical meaning (208). Is it not pall t wo
" o'clock? And here Mrca Orlandot."--Mr. Ma-

I am diCpofed to think, that in the following palTfge, nnught
is taken in this fcnfe, or at left that a allusion is made to this
fcnfe of the word.
Men. Go, get ynu to your houfe ; begont, awy,
11 /will be tNA rnTc ilfe." (Coriolanus, i229.
i. e. ifju are not gone, nerry thin will begone.
+ Of this kind prrht, is a paffage in Henry V. which has
much divided our Communtators. Pflol fays to )Nm,
it 0 braggard vile, and damned furious wight I
The gra-e dat gaper, and dotingdeath is near;
Therefore ekalc." (AR 11. S. i. p. 479.)
E.!'ale" fayss Mr. Mlalone) a 1 believe, here fig nifis diin.,
or in Piflol's language. Ian/ or lug out. The flagedirraion
in the old Qarto (tey draw) confirms thil explanation.
t Mt. Strvcens thinks s]'Iol mea~s to fay, lreaitijyour nfl, or
I dir." Had Mr. Malone been anare of the following paffago
from Ji.nfin's Pctafc, he could not have been more fortunate in
the terms w which he has chofin for the c'.plnationi of exhale. Cir
pus, on being arrcfted by the Lifors, fay;, Nay, I befeech
you, gentlemen, do not t.a/l* me thus.....-TNua, hy ho*
loas










lone was mifled in his interpretation of the paffage
from Sweeinam by the equivoque contained in it,
which in its fecondarv flnfe certainly refers to
what Mr. Malone fuppofe,. A double meaning
was likewfc intueded by Shakqeware in tle fcn-
tence bcfure us, and there is an allufion to the pro-
verb, which Dr- YohfVo iimagines. This explanation
agrees with the fucceeding fpeect of Orlando,
'..Shal I keep )your hogs, and cat hulks with-
'* them?" That is, Shall I be driven from your
i' houji, and herd with your fine ?"

z12. I haye as much of my father in me as
-you i albeit I confess your coming before me is
Y. nearer to his reverece.] The note, ,lhici Mr.
Malone has added to this paffage, is calculated to

inv my good brace of blood-hounds ? Whiiher do you diag
the gcntIcaan [Afl III. S. iii.) Exhale certainly mean,
teto t ba or tlg awny iht prfin of Crifpinus, which in the
quaint lnguage of Piftol may be transferred to the halng, or
lagging .~, of Nym's word. If however thi verb may 1b ap-
ijd a neir fenfu to the removal fr he prfi, it may mean
Rtinr-brgh r, or what Nym before fays to Piflol, /log of.
(48.]-.There is another paffagc in Jonffutn Mafqut of Pan',
AIwiurrfary (p. 643), which is to be referred to thc fame mode
Iffpeaking. F rntr. What arc your sports for the purpofe I
a fay, if flingng, you hall be flng down, if dancing, danced
do dlvn.' there is no more to be done with you, but know
Swhat; which it is ; and ) ou are ,n /mole, gonep, apar'd, a-
.t ppi'd, blow,, and (as a man would fay) in a word of two
fyllablea, NorTn.i,"








[6]
milead the reader, by annexing the name of War.
burton to the following explanation : The reve-
rcnce due to my father is, in fome degree derived
to you, as the firfl born." VWe niglit from
hence imagine that fuch a fC'inf was adopted hv
Warburlon; but this he only- gives ;as a poflible
interpretation, and is filim/y perfiaded that the poet
had a different meaning. He proposes therefore to
read revenue for reverence ; and this cmendatiaon ap-
pears to have been generally admitted into the
text. Mr. Cape)l has obfcrved, that in the original
reading no reason can be given for the fildden anger
of Oliver, which is certainly occalloned by fomre-
thing offenfive at the conclusion of Orlando's
fpecLh. The reading however of the old Copy is
unqueflionably the true one. Reveence appears to
have been the appropriate term for the reve enfiia
a condition or charaEler of an old man." So in
A Muh Ado about Nothing, Benedick fays, I fltould
' think this a gull; but that the white-bearded
" fellow fpeaks it; knavery cannot hide himfelfhi
" fuch reverence." (A6 II. S. iii. p. 241.) Again
Leonato lays,

9 Thou haft fo wrong'd my innocent child and me,
" Th;t 1 am forced to lay my reverence by,
" And with grey hairs, and bruife of many days,
~* Do challenge thee to tryal of a man."
(AE V. S. i. p. 286)
Cordea'i









SCordelia Lays, in Lear,
S0 my clearfather I Redoration, hang
S'Thy. medicine oi my lips; and let this kifs
pair thofe violent haiims, that my it\M fillers
Have in ithy r-evo'ce inldc."
(A IV. S i p. 67 )
Again Gloffer reading the letter fi'ppofCd to be
written by Edgar, "' his policy, and trevi'',e of
!ag, makes ihe world bitter to the beft of our
tinmdi; keeps our fortunes from us, till our old-
r' W-f'cannot relill them." (Ad I. S. ii p. o08)
t'Ithe Second Part of Henry VI. we have the fol-
Strg lines,; wh'er Mr. Malone rfei& us o this
Spfiige in As You like it.

-O ,*o"" Wa Rthoit ordained, dear father,
"i'.o,~ofe thy y91th in peace, and to atchievr
y .The-fA!ver livery of advised age;
, r.And in thy revrenee, and thy chair-days thus
".*To die in ruffian battle." (A6 V. S. ii, p. 2p.)
In'the present inflance Orlando ufes the Word ini
in'ironical fenfe, and means to fay that his blo-
"'ther by coming before him is nearer to a refp'ect-
Sable and venerable elder of a family." The
fiafac, His reverence, is fill thus ironically applied,
~houghh with somewhat of a different meaning; aild
we'frequently ufT the PZpreflion of your wyo~hip both
with a grave and ludicrous fignificatioi neArly in
ifHe ame manher.-'The fenft, which I have herl
B 4 given,







(S]
given, is certainly right ; a:id will account for thr
anger of Oliver; and lir the words which they nu-
tually retort upon each oilier refpeEting their ages.
Orlando. Albeit I confties your coming before
" Ie is nearer to his revercwe.
O/iv. \1 hat, l/y !
10 la:do. COmi, coi, come, /r brother, you are
" too young ill this.

It is extremely curious, that our Poet has caught
many wonrdl and \%en turns of expreflioln belhlnging
to the novel, from which the play is taken ; though
lie has applied them in a mode generally differenLt
and often ,cry remote from the original. This'
has certainly ta;en placc' in the prefent inflance,
and the paflhgc which contains it will likewise
fupply us with another example. lRfader, or Or-
lando, is introduced making, for the firlt time, his
refleclions on the indignities which lie had fulfered
from his brother Saladine, or Oliver.-" As he was
" thus" (fa) s the Novelifl) ruminating his me-
" lancholy paffions, in came Saladine with his
" men, and feeing his brother in a browne fludy
" and to forget his wanted reverence, thought to
' flake him out of his dumps thus. (Eupkhes'
Golden Legacy.) Orlando fays in Shakfpeare, Go
" apart, Adam, and thou flhalt hear how he will
"flake me up." (12o). Our Poet, in his cha-
raEer of the good Adam, has omitted a compliment
Which he might have paid to his country. In the
novel







f 9 1
191
lovel lie is called Adm Api, er aI FnCg/inkn."
He has likcwife omilted (as our ComiLmentators
have remarked) to reward himn in the c.atalliophe
for his ffdieity,

125. f/hiut/d. \ihat think % on ,f filling in
" love ?
Clia. Marry, I pr'ytlice, do, I intake fort
C withal: but love tno tmiall in g...d e:'rlie. N; nir
t, no further in fp rlt neitller, lthaln itll fa', of a
Sure -bluflh thou nia) 'l ii hluio.un ( 1ine (ff
" again"] It ~s in this (dngernl s (dherlion, that
Rofalind indulges lecrflF- ill tie original novel.
'. She accounted love. a to,., ,ad fiia c a mInmn,
t tarie paffion, that as it A a' taken in ith a gaze,
m night be nhaken off w ith a winke."

. 130. i" The princenfes cnll fur you."] Tlie
9ld Copy reads (' i/i pritefti: ca/ls," whiicih is right.
jt is Celia only who calls for him ; and the anfwver
pf Orlapdo, I will attend them," as Celia is ac-
Fompanied by Rofalind, does not invalidate the
anciprt reading.

133. lMy better parts
Are all throwwndown ; nd that which here
fiands up
Is but a quipt'aine, a mere lir lef block."] Tile
propTiety of this comlp;ifm is yet undifcovcred.
'The explanation given by Mr. Guthrie is neither
juift










jut in thfelf, nor is it applicable to the care in
question; he appears to have been milled, by fip-
poling that the firfl part of the fpcech mull ncccr-
farily be included in the fimile, nnd' relate to the
Quintaine. Mr. Malone's intcrprltatiin ib ex.
tremely vapid and &df c&ive. I have not the leafl
doubt but that the lhape of the Quintainc anmon g
the rufics of our Poet's time, was fomltines in the
figre of a MAs, T'his gives fcnfe and fpirit to ilie
image. My bettle pa; r are a tl (roiwn dowin-the
" powers f my ir afon are overthrow' ; cau I fan;d he e
"*fetnfcAfs as tHie 9naiue, a MAN ONLY IN MY
" FORM." Among the French and Italians, the
Quintaine was commonly in a human flape. Menc-
prier, in his tiralifr on Touliaments, has the fol-
lowing curious account of this diverjion: 1.a
" Quintaine n'ef autre chofe qu'un tronc d'aibre
" ou un pilicr centre lcqucl on va rompre la lance,
" pour s'accoulumer a attcindre I'ennemi par des
" coups miefrez. Nous l'appelous la coaife atn Fqurt
* parcequ'on fe fert fouvant d'un faquin, on d('u
" portefaix, armed de toutes pieces; centre lequtl
" on court. Les italicts la nomnicnt /a con fe i
" l'homme am & le Sarrafin, parce qu'ils tranlsi-
" gurent ce faquin en Turc, en More, ou ctl
" Sarrafin, pour rend l cvs courfes plus mnylic-
" ricufes. On fe fert oirdinairemenlt d'une fige
" de bois en forme d'homme, pIlnntie fur un pivot,
" afin qu'elle foit mobile. Elle demcure ferme
" quand on Ja frappe au front entire cls ycux & fur
le








E 1i
, le nez; qui font les ni lleurs cups: & quand
" on la frappe ailleurs, clic tiurne fi rulciemnt
Sque fi le Cavalier n'cRt adroit pour cfquiver le
" coup, elle le frappe d'ni frilre de bois ou d'un
" fJac plin de e rc; cc qui dl.nne a i- aux fpecla-
" teurs." For this piffage I am indebted to
Minage in his Or-ginrs de la Langue Fiancoife. The
Italian proverb, E1]er S.a,cino di Piazza (Tf be 1de
Butt of every body) refers to the figure of the Saracen
In this exercise. (See 7oriiano in his Pr'oz';lial
Pkrafes fub voce Saracrno).
Moft nations appear to have had a martial or
,mock xercie of this kind, which woull certainly
be extremely various according to the genius of
the age and the manners of the people ; but we
.may aobferve, that under evely circumltance tie
moft obvious form for this objet of attack would
be the huAanJhape, of which, as it is not difficult
to. make rude and ridiculous representations, we
may well conceive, that among the limplell ruitics
it would often be affurned for the form of thd
Quintaine. In the figure of it, which is given by
Stowe, I have not the leat doubt but that the
tranfverfe moveable piece of wood, with the mode
of its aiing, was derived fiom the idea of the
human fhape, and was intended to reprcfent the
arms.--I have before hinted, that my better
" parts are all thrown down," is not connected
with the succeeding comparison, and our Comn-
nentators were deceived probably by the meta-
phorical









phorircl exprc lion thrown lovwn. This however is
not taken from the exerciferof the Quintaino, as may
be evident from the expilclion /fands up, which is piut
in opposition to it. Nothing is more certain, tlhin
that their terms are dh~elcd toa m or I rTII ;. In
the next fpcecl of Rofitlind, and the fuccecding one:
of Orlando, onWthtAro is ufrd with thle famne a;llu-
fion; and I am furprifld that our critics weec nut
aware of this coinlcdence.-If the reader llould
nquiIe wh) a finmil, appnarIently f' remnIte as the
Quntinnce, liould (o this occafion lbe prclcnted to
the mind of our Poet, I will inform hlI, that tile
afluciation was dc(rivcd from the feats of adivi(y
in which Orlando had been jift engaged ; and thl
lkte adventure with which they were contneled.
The diverfion of the Quintate (we know) was com-
mon at marriages, When Jac and Tom, Dic, I lob
" and Will ltrove for the gay garland ;" and their
exertions, we may fippolf, were not a little roufed
by the hopes of fuccceding with their myilreces. So
Randolph, in tile fame poem which Mr. Malone
has quoted,

A jolly fwain was lie
Whom Peg and Sufan after Vi.lory
Crown'd with a Garl;md they had ;lade, befc'
W ith Dniliec, Pinks and many a Violet,
Couflip and Gilliflowcr."

The reader will not peifecily underfland what is
intended bi this AjlTiation of Ideas, till he has pc-
ruled







[ r3 1
runed the obfcrvations winch form the latter part
of the volume.

142. lere feel we but the penalty of Adam,
The fcafons' difference ; as, the icy fang,
And churlifl chiding of the winter's wind;
Which when it bs billows pIIotl ilmy body,
Even till I hflink with cold, I mile, and fay,-
This is no flattery : thlfi are That feelingly pCTIiuadc me what I anm."J

The old Copy reads nti, which Mr- Theobald
changed into but. Thoiugh all our critics appear
to have coincided in this eincdation, yet I fill
perfuade myfelf that lhv origilal reading is right.
Mr. Theobald is of opinion, that the penalty of
Adam expreffed by the Poet -was the being fcfible
Sof the difference of the fcafuon I do iot thiki
hat this is the allusion intendcd. I read the whole
paflage thus,

." Here feel we not the penalty of Adam :
The feafons' difference, as the icy fang
And churlifh chiding of the intil's wind-
(Which when it bites ind blows upon my body
Even till I firink with cold, I file and fay
." This is no flatter)y ;)-there are counfcllors,
That feelingly perfuadc me what I am."

The penalty of Adam, to which our Poet hai
here alluded, may be gathered froau the fl"' ing
palg!es








fr 4 1
patnig's in Scripture : Curfed is the groundfor thy
Sfake ; in jbnow (halt thou eal of it all the days of
thy life." (Gen iii. 17.)-" In thefweat of thy
face halt thou eat bread (v. 19.)-" There-
fore the Lord God fent hlim forth from the
"' garden of Eden. I / /At i ground from whence lie
Swas taken." (v. 23.)-We' here plainly fee, that
the only curfe or penalty imposed on Adam.
which can have any reference to the condition o a
country life, is the tail of cultivating the ground,
ind acquiring by that lalour tlie means of fuf-
tenance. The Duke therefore juffly confoles him-
felf and his companions with the refle&ion, that
their banijiment into thofe woods from the paladife
ofa Court (if we may be fill permitted to continue
the allufion) was not alclte ed will the penalty
prononrccid on Adanm-a life of pain and of labour ;
but that on the contrary it ought to be confidered
as a philfopliical retirement of cafe and indep'li-
ence t.--\ itl rcfpcc to the minute inconvenience

7hit is the perc pronounced on Adam by the Poter Cr
I1 f in Bale's God's Pi'ni S.
He fall contnuic in laboure for h)y ratheneffe,
Hys only tweale fhall iprorde hy) food and rayment."
+ It is thus dercribcd in another place: Ihey fay, he ia
I already in the forct of Aiden, and a many merry men with
" him; and lere they lie like ie old Robin Hood of lng.
" I.il : they fi, many young gentlemen flock to him every
" day; and tfert tit time c anlers, as ihey did in the kde!
" ld." 123. In the original lory, from which the Flay il
which.








[ 15 ]
which they might fuffcr from the ditTerence of Ihe
feafons--the biting frolt and the winter's wind-
thefe (he obfeives) Ihould not he regarded in any
other view than as fharp but falutary counrellors,
which made them feel only for the promotion of
Their good, and the iinprovement of their virtue.

144. Left and abandoned of his velvet
friends."I The old Copy has fi nd, which is
tight. '11e fingular is often ufed for the plural
with a fenfe mnre abjfirc'trd, and therefore in many
inflances more poctical.

49. Rof. 0 Jupitcr' how weary are my
*' spirits !
S-." Touch. I care not for my fpirits, if my legs
Were not weary.
ir'f'(of I could find in my heart to dlihgrace my
* man's apparel, and to cry like a woman ; but I
I' muf comfort the weaker veCffei as double and

tken, the Duke and his companions nre made to poffcfs aricm
sodjtiom, which I imagine the penalty impofcd on Adam did
fpt permit him to enjoy. It hapned that day, that Gcrif-
* mond the lawfull king of France, banished by Torifmond, who
a with a hlitie crew of outlaws lived in that forest, that day in
Shonor of his birth, made a kaft to all his bolde yeomen, and
V froldhc it with flori of wige and venifon, fitting all at a long
".taUbl under the fladow of limon irces." Again; They
Scatld thnifelves with good detimter and grnatjirr of win.."
(Ldg's Rfa hnd.
hofe







[ ]
1ofe ought to lhow ilrlf courageous to petti'
"coat; therefore, courage, good Alicna."] On
this plaffage Mr. Malone has the following remark :
She invokes Jupiter, beciuf lie hewas fuppofcd
to be always in glld fpiriti. So afterwards :
0 mnol gentle JYiipter '"-A 7ovial man nwa
common piraife in our nutlor's time. One (if
Randnlph's plays is called ARISTlIl, s, or the
f" JOVIAL Philofoper, ; and a coinedy ,f Broollnc's,
The JOVIAL C(ezc, or 7Th MERRY eRggars. The
'~ old Copy reads, Howl MI: R R. 'The cmendation,
which the context and thll Clown's rply render
certain, i-as made by Mr. Theobald." TIh
context hloweMor, and the Clown's reply, added to
the comment of Mr. Malone, cfablilll the original
reading, and render tile enilndation of Mr. Tho-
bald ir-ni.', wv ovn. Does not tie reader percei c;
that the whole humour of the pauffge conlills in
the word Mr.Rlt, and thatl Rofalind fpcaks thul
ironically in order to comfort Celia ? 0 Jupiter !'
fayss lhci wlhat MIR IY fpirits I am in I To whicli
the clown replies, I cae not llhether niy fpi-
i its were good or bad, if my leg wcre nit
Ncar).'-' Indeed,' adds Rofailin id, to fpcak
the truth, tho' I pretend in my mannmi, characlcr
to be in good fpirits, and not to be weary, yet f
could find in my heart to disgrace my man's ap-
parel and to cry like a c'woian : as it becomes
me however t to ' affume a qua;lily -iwhich I hlatc not .--thcrfuorc,
''CO"








[ 17 1
" courage, good Aliena,-bear fatigue as I do, good
" Aliena." Nothing is more certain than this
explanation.

151. W'caryilg thy hearer in thy minirefs
" paife."] Tlhe old Copy has wenhing, which is
right. Weary is derived from wear. Quoninm"
fayss 7unius) quotidiano ufu conteri folent ea,
" quite allidue gerimus, hinc Anglis etiamnum, to
" wear or wafle away, eft Tabehfcre; atq. adeo
" quoq. ab hal pollrenia verbi acccptione, to
" weary, cepir accipi pro Fatigaie ; qu6d lafitudo
" corpora noffra maxime frangat arq. iplos quoq;
" fpitius vitalcs valde imminuat." (Etymol. An-
glican. fub vocc Wear.) But the following quo-
tation from Jonfon's lMarque of Tfe Gyp/ies puts the
matter out of difputc:
Only time and cars out-wearing."
(Page 625. Edit. 1672.)

151. And I remember the wooing a Peafcod
" instead of her."] Why should our Poet fix
upon a Peafcod to be courted by Touchfone for a
woman? It might be fuppofed that rome ludicrous
refemblance was intended; and however remote
the likenefs may appear,thec following proverb \ill
fhew that fuch a notion prevailed:
Sc la donna foffe coll picciola come c buona,
-II mininio bacello le farebbe una ventc & una corona.








[ I

If women were as little as they are good,
A Peafcod would make them a gowne and a hood.
(John Fiorio's second Frutes, p. 174. 159.)

153. And tune his merry note
Unto the fvect bird's throat."] The
old Copy has turned, which is certainly right. To
turn a tune, in the counties of York and Durham, is
the appropriate and familiar phrafe for modulating
the voice properly according to the turns or air of
the tune. This I learnt in a journey which I have
lately made into the North, where a Commentator
on Shakfpeare will find many peculiar expreffions
fill ufed in the fame fenfe which our author has
annexed to them.-He who travels into the
North may likewise learn that which is moll
precious in the intercourse of social life. He may
there fee the polifh of cultivated manners united
with the cordial feelings of hospitality.

155. Due ad me, Due ad me, Du ad me,
Here hall he fee
Grofs fools as he,
An if he will come to me."]
This is Sir T. Ilanmer's reading for Dudame ; and
an anonymous critic has proposed Hue ad me. Dr.
Farmer reads Ducdami with an accent on the laft
fyllable, and thinks it is a \uord coined for the
" nonce." Mr. Steevens informs us, as a con-
firmation of the old reading, that Dr. Farmer being
at








[ '9 ]
at a houre nor far from Cambridge, when news was
brought of the hen-rooft being robbed, a facetious
old Squire who was present, fung the following
" Stanza, which" fayss he) has an odd coinci-
'* dence with the ditty of Jaques."
Dame, what makes your Ducks to die ?
Duck, Duck, Duck,
Dami, what makes your chicks to cry ?
Cbuck, Chuck, Chuck.
-1 have been favoured with a couple of Stanzas,
which are common in the counties of Cambridge
and Norfolk, and which certainly belong to the
fame fong, that was fung by the facetious Squire:
ame, what makes your Ducks to die?
_What the prize ails 'em, what the pite ails 'em,
They kik up their heels and there they lie,
What the pixe ails 'cm now ?
Heigh, lHo! Heigh, 11Ho
Dame, what ails your Ducks to die?
What a pize ails 'cm, what a pize ails 'em ?
Heigh, Ho Heigh, Io !
Dame, what ails your Ducks to die?
Eating o' Pollywigs, eating o' Pollywigs. (i. e.
Tadpoles.)
Heigh, Ilo! Heigh, IIo!
In the foregoing Stanzas it is of no confequence
either as to the fenfe or the metre, whether Dame
be read in its ufual way, or whether we pronounce it
C 2 Dami









[ 20 ]
Dame wiith the accent on the laft fyllable. They
are all however manifefly addreffed to the Dame,
the good houfewlfe of the family, under whole care
me may fippofc the poultry to be placed; and it
may be obfervcd, that the Ducks are particularly
fpccified on account of the alihtratirn with Dame.
This beauty is mightily cultivated in eflirions of
this ror ; and indeed it is often the only lcalon for
the exiflence or the compolition.-- therefore fee
no difficult) in the derivaion of the word Dtudame,
which has fo much embarraffcd our Commentators.
\Vhat is more natural, or obvious, than to fuppofe
Due Dame or Dau Dame to be the ufual cry of the
Dame to gather her Ducks about her; as if fhe
flould fay, Ducks come to yowr Dame, or Ducks come to
yeur DamO ? The rhyme requires that we should
read it with Dr. Farmer Durdamv, placing the ac-
cent on the laft Cyllable. It is common for perfons
in their addreffcs to young and hclplcfs animals,
either to make diminutives of themfelvcs, or of
the animals which they are addreffing. The expli-
cation here given of this pafage is the only one,

The Dda ftems to haie becn a Icri of tnmdattamr in mrnf
languages. This is the origin of Itnaldy's famuus Crnenidaton in
the Plutus of Aiftlopharcs.

.lnaicular & palumbulam bland vocabat.
That great critic was certainly ignorant of 7mnaqul/ Faber's con-
jecture, who appears to lhe made the cmendation without bring
fertible of th: pirit of the paffage.







[ 2f ]
which at all properly corr fpondsa ith the context.
ift, According to this fenfe, Ducdamn, Ducdami,
Ducdami, becomes (what Jaques certainly intended
it to be) a ridiculous parody on the burden of the
former fong; Come hither, Come bhiher, Come hither.
This effect, I think, \ill hardly be produced by
an indired and infipid ranflation of Come hther
into Latin. 2dly, This fenfe hkewife accounts for
the ignorance of Amiens, and the explanation of
Jaques. It is no wonder that a courtier flould not
understand a term derived from th- occupation of
ruilcs; and the anfwcr of Jaques plainly points
out that the exprclfion was intended ior a certain
cry to collect together fome filly species of animals,
"'Tis a Greek invocation," fays he, to call
S" fools into a ciicle."-If Shakfpeare is to be ex-
Splained, neither the a writer nor the reader should
Become fafdiious at the ferious difcullion of frch
. riling topics.

.155. An if he will come to me."] Dr.
Farmer reads to Ami, that is, to Amiens, and
gives a reason for the rejection of the common
reading, which of all others it will not admit:-
.*, Jaques," he fays, did not mean to ridicule
himfelf," It is however, on the contrary, pe-
culiarly in character for fuch a humouri f as jaques
thus to ridicule himfclf; and he produces this very
fong as a parody on the former one, intending by
. it to expofe the folly both of himself and his com-
C 3 pantons.







[ 22 )

panions. /ny however is the reading of the old
Copy ; and is certainly right. It furely was in-
cumbent on the )DoEor, or fome of his fellow
critics, to have given us this information ; efpe-
cially as their attention muff naturally be awake
in the difcullion of fo difputed a paffage. I have
feldom found the interefls of leaning much pro-
moted by literary fellowfhips.

159. lIe, that a fool doth very wifely hit,'
Doth very foolihly, although he fmnart,
Not to feem fcnfelefs of the bob : if not,
The wife man's folly is anatomiz'd *
Even by the fquand'ring glances of the fool."]

The words not to" fayss Mr. Malonc), which
" are wanting in the old Copy to complete both

Bob and anatomize were the appropriate terms in the attacks
of ficcefsfid it. So Ben -JniA in his Cynbha', Rvrils, But
" then you have your pafage, and ibrchcatas in C.,r,/fi, as
" the bttir 1Bo in Wit." &c.--- You give him the rtverf
" froke with this Sanaa or Storks-bill, which makes up your
" wits Bob mail better (Ad V 1.) Hence jprhaIia is de-
rived the ulgar phrafe to bear a cb--to tear your par in the
rencountr, of 4it. In 7-l/us and CrTfda, Th o/,l fa1 of
Ajax, I lime bobb'd his brain, more ihan he lsa heat my
" hones." IA(t I. S. i. p. 87.) -In another place bob is ued
in a fnfe which it has among the uTlgar at present, and which is
like ife derived from its application to the effect of ou : '" You
" flall not ob us out of our melody." (pag. z211 )-- na
mize occurs escry where, aid means what ,e now quaintly exprefs
by the phrafe cut up.
bald."







r 23 3
" the metre and fenfe, e re added by Mr. Theo-
" bald." It is flrange, that our Commentators
should be defirous of making a text for the Poet,
when it is their bufinrfs to explain that which he
has given us. Neither Mr. Theobald nor Mr.
Malone need be folicitous about the metre; and
the fenfe is full as good in the original text as
with the emendation of Mr. Theobald.
I read and point the pafage thus:
He, that a fool doth very wifely hit,
Doth, very foljhly although he finart,
Seem fenfelefs of the bob if not &c.

That is, a wife man, uhofe failings liould chance
to be well rallied by a fimple unmeaning jeRcr,
even though he should be weak enough really to be
hurt by fo foolish an attack, appears [always infen-
fible of the ftroke. Nothing is more certain than
this explication.
With regard to the metre of our Poet, we may
obferve in general, that whenever the rythm of a
disputed verfe is decfcl ve to our car, we have good
reason to fufped it is corrupted ; fo, on the con-
trary, when the line is fmooth and eafy, it \iill not
be neceliary for us to diflurh the text on the autho-
rity of our fingers. As the poet did not write with
fuch a process, fo he ought not to be tried by fuch
a fefl. In fhort, the controversy about the metre
of ShakCpeare is merely a difpute of words. When
it is faid on the one fide, that the metre is defcetive,







[ 24 ]
it is replied on the other, that Shakfpcare only dif-
fers from other poets as to the number of fyllables
which the fame word is fuppofed to contain. (Sec
Mr. Capell's EIlay on Vcrfe, App. 227, and Mr.
Malone's Pref. 35.) If the verfe in quefiion he
repeated, nothing unplcafmnt or defecive %will he
difcoeicd by the ear; and if the reader flIhold be
farther dcfirous of reforming it to the toiucflone of
his fingers, he may fuppofe, if he pleafes, that fJirr
and bob are tfed as diflylablcs. Nothing however
can be more inharmonious than tile vcrfe as it is
supplied by Mr. Theobald, and the repetition of
not at the extremities of the line is particularly
rough and inelegant.

159. Till that the very zery means do ebb.]"
The old Copy reads The wcarie ierie," which is
certainly right. The fenfc is, till that the very
* means being weary do ebb.' Pey-very is an ex-
tremely lame emendation indeed !

165. Freeze, freeze, thou bitter fky,
That doll not bite to nigh
As benefits foot :
Though thou the waters warp,
Thy fling is not fo tharp
As friend remeniber'd not.")
The firange propensity in Commentators to reject
what is obvious, and to feck w hat is remote, ihas
been perpetually obfcrved. Yet I know not, whie-
ther








[ 25 ]
rher in the whole hiflory of cliticirm -e can find
fo final an example of this propensity as the pre-
fent minance will atoird us. Mr. Kcnrck remarks,
that the fiurface of waters, fo long as they remain
"' unfro/en, is apparently a pcrfcia' plan ; hereas
" when they ame frozen, this surface deviates from
" its exadc firners, or warps." Dr. johnfon ob-
ferves, with more good fcnfe than ufially belongs
to his remarks, that to u'arp was probably in
" Shakfpeare's time a colloquial woid, which
i' conveyed no diflanr allufion to any thing elfe,
" physical or mndiclnal ;" and yet ie adds, as ifit
wecre impoffible for him to continue long in the
fame vein of good fenfe, To v pr is to /urn, and
" to turn is to change: v.hen milk is dtangcd by
" curdling, we now fay, it is urnedi: 'hcn water
" is banned or itrr ed by froit, Shak fpearc fays, it
" is curdled. To be warp'd is only to be changed
' from its natural fatee" Mr. Steevens thinks
that Dr. Johnfon is right: and Dr. Farmer is of
opinion, that warp'd figllfies to be curdlid. Mr.
Malone feenis defirous of leaving his fellow Com-
mentators behind him in this contest of cnitcal
perverfion, and accordingly he doubts whether
there be any allufion at ll tn the operation of fioff.
" The influence of the winmtr's Iky or fe.fon"
fayss he) may, n ith fufllcient propriety, be faid
" to warp the furface of the ora,t' by agitation of
Otan /!-Iiut hl Ocan, Mr. Malore -If'.i rt f(ircit do
not ntceflTil) nwa, tl,.e w.uts of thc tan.--In li additi m,
Its








[ 26 ]


" its waves only." Did our Commentators never
learn, that warp fignifics to contrary, and that it is
to ufed without any allufion to the precife physical
procefs which takes place in that contracion ?
Cold and winter have been always described as
contratling-heat and summer as diffo/ ing orfofenmng.
The cold is find to warp the waters, when it con-
trals them into the folid flbalance of ice, and fuflers
them no longer to continue in a liquid or flowing
Rate. Hence iatcr is faid toflop-to he bound-to
tcae together, and one of the words to exprefs ice

however, to this note in the Appendix, he rays, That this
" paffage refers the turbulence of the kcv, and the confequent
" agitation of the ilcn, ar.d nlo to the operation of fdRt, may
' be colleed from our Author's ha ing in King cban dcfcribxd
" ice as uncommnnly smooth:
To throw a perfume on the violet,
To smooth he ice," &-c.
What ran b e he meaning of all this ? If our Poet by aunrs,
means the ocean, the word ,warp mull certainly refer to any thing
raher than to dir operation offrofl. An Englth poet mould not
draw a familiar image from fuppofing among ithe effcs of a rin-
atr's *wir, th frrczng of the oean. In thort, if later mncan
oCA e erD proof ahoutr .arp not relating tofrof is waflful
* and ridiculous xcrfs."

Such ii the incomparable genius of the Grelk language. The
word are .ary & nt, : the latter however (as every one
know) from this general fenfc of centraSng is ifelf become the
appropriate trm for the salon of frcucg. I imagine, however,
that in the fragment of Archikchu., from wlch li Horace bor.
rowed the paffage that I hate quoted in the ninth Ode, this word
among








[ 27 3
among the Greeks is derived fiom a verb which
fignifics to comprefs or contrad. Ever) fchool-boy
will immediately call to mind the common-place
descriptions of Spring and Winter; in which ex-
prcflions of this fort perpetually occur--the fohvur
acris hiemrs-Gelu tfumina cnjftacrini acuto, &c.
&c. Hie may perhaps likecifl recollect the fol-
lowing paflage :
Adfringit Scythico glacialcm frigore pontum.
(Lucan. Phar(al. i, 18. See too 5. 434-)
Pigrior adflriths torpuit Hebrus aquis.
(Claudian. Prefat. ad Rapt. Proferp.)
.Et coil adfritlis barbarus Ifter aquis.
(Ovid. EpiR.ex Pont, lib. 3. cp.3. 26.)
It would be an idle tafk to accumulate the trite
examples which relate to this fiubje; nor should we
have thought it neceffary to detail i hat is fu ob-

onght to be take in its nmerphorical lenf : the ri FL.uW watr
Are warp'd.
To, fi a Zir, & p4-.ya
Xoar, nrnArAi i't .7. PO I.
The ar fenfe of warp in Dr. Johlnon's Di)iionary is to crntra2
or rival. Under lie third fenfe ils plffage of Shakfprare is
quoted, where warp, he favs, is ufie to neprcr the efdTc of
"' frlt." Oblerve, thai to denote t, aimon of iurnig milk
(Ihiah Dr. Jolinton has tou-cd upo in his note wiih his ufuia
wtrs of explanation wxrds are uifd ldricild roln the idea of
lftra8lang-- o--contraho-viry,-curdle (bee Mihnlfhw fib
c urdle.} The word trn has r.o idea annexed to it Inut that
.ol a fimplc change.








[ 2S ]
vious, had it not been to fliangely overlooked or
rejeAed in the preceding interpretations. There
is however one paflhge in florace, which has much
divided his Commentators, and which the reader
of tafie will be plcafcd to fee illuftrated by two
authorities from an Erglifh Claf-,c.
pQuod fi bruima nives Allanis illiner agris,
Ad mare defccndet aLtes tuus, & fibi parcct,
Cantraftiuf; leger.
(Ilor. Epif-. lib. i- 7. v. 10, i r, 12.)
A man Ibrllg'd up with cold. (Pericles, 520.)
The jbrinkng flaves of lVinter. (Cymbclinc, 437.)
There paffiags are completely parallel; and ill
determine the opinion of the reader refpecing the
difputed fenre of Cattra7us.

165. As friend rcmember'd not."] Rtemm-
ler'd for rentnmbering, fays Mr. Malone. Certainly
nor. If ingratitude confills in one friend not re-
mnembleng another, it furely muff confill likewife
in one friend not being remembered by another. So
in the folr mr line, IeiTcfijfforgt"-by our friend,
or our friend forgettiig benefits, will prove him
equally ungrateful.

16g. He that hath learned no wit by nature
" nor art may rconplain rf good brleiing, or comes of
" a very dull kindred."J By one Commentator it
is read l>f!, and by another bad bcceding. Mr.
Malone








[ 29 J
Malone thinks it means-" may complain of a
" good education, for being fo inefficient, of fo
" little ufe to him." Dr. Johnfon is in doubt
* whether the cultomr of the language in Shakf-
" peare's time did not ;aulthorlii this mode of
" fpeech, and make o;nplain rf cood bredn,, the
" fame with complain o" the w \ s ol good breedir ."
This is a mode of Ijceech common, I believe, to all
languages; and the moll ignorant might have
taught Dr. Johnfon, that filuI a mode of expreffion
occurred even before the time of Shakfpearc:
l' r vp' .V/i'jw *7fn f E"P iai () sxi i--
( 11. 1. 65.)
1o Whether he complins of the w..ANT of prayers or
Sof facrficcs.

01jbfl. All the Picures faireRt limn'd
inas ,.'" Are but black to Rofalind."]
"'Thdeold Copy !as fire) linde, which is the true
teiding. The Poet means, that the molt beautiful
Mine or touches exhibited by art are inferior to the
i~tural traits of beauty which belong to Rofalind:
ti ;L.
"'i70o. It is the right butter-women's rate to
' market."] This is the emendation of Sir T.
flanmer; which Mr. Malone thinks is right. Dr.
Grey propofs rant : the old reading is rank, which
Mr. Capell imagines to be the order ohfervcd by
" fuch women; travelling all in one road with
" exad intervals between horfe and horfe." The
explanation








[ 30 J
explanation of Mr. Capcll will appear more forl
cible, if we consider that on account of the badnefs
of the roads in our Author's time the women muff
travel irom their villages in the manner which is
here defcl bcd. Something of this loit may be oh-
ferved at prelcnt Mr. Malone, as an addition to his
note on this pafige, thus remarks in the Appen-
dix: The following line in King Richard the
Third may be triged to fhew that the famlhar
image f the buttcr-, oman's hoije going to mar-
ket ias in our Author's thoughts:
But yet I run before my florfe to market."

May not the fame line be urged in confirmation of
Mr. Captll's lenic, to lhcw that the image of tra-
vcllcrs to maiketjucceeding each other was likcwife
familiar to the thoughts of our Author ? In fliort,
if rate conveys a fenfe suitable to the occasion, rank
will certainly be preferable; as it expreffes the
fame thing with an additional idea; and perhaps
the very idea in which the chief force of the com-
parifon is placed. The right Butter-wormen's
rank to market means the jog-trot rate (as it is
vulgarly called) with which Butter-women uni-
formly travel one after another in their road to
market: in its application to Orlando's poetry, it
means a Jet or firing of verfes in the fame coarfe ca-
dence and vlgar uniformity of rytbm.

272. Why flould this defertfilent be
For it is unpeopled? No;
Tongues








[ 31 )
Tongues I'Il hang on every tree,
That hall civil fayings ihow."]
Silent is the emendation of Mr. Tyrs hitt, and it
has received the approbation both of Mr. bceevens
and Mr. Malone. The old Copy ieads Why
I" should this desert be?" And Mr. Pope corrects it,
Why should this a dcfcrt be." ut ahlihough"
(lays Mr. Tyrwhitt) the metre mnl be aniitih
by.chis correfton, the fenlf is fill defedive; for
'. how will the hanging of tongies o cvcry tree make
it lefsa defert?" The old reading however, I
believe, is genuine. Mr. TyrwhiLt is fometLmeT
loft in the mazes of his own fubrtcty. Surely tile
,fat metaaphor has poiucr to people woods, which is
bhil to afford thcm fpeech.-Evenr Dr. Joihnfop is
,othis poinc correCt and perfpicuous. This
-dderc"''. (ays he) hall not appear unpeopled,
, for every.tree fhaUl teach the maxims or inci-
' dents of social life."-If the metre should be
thought defective; why may be taken for one of
'ur Poet's diflyllablcs, as he has ufedfirefire. (See
dMr. Malone's Pref. 35.) Let the reader of after,
who is ufcd to the rythm of Shakfpeaie, rcpeac the
line in question with a gentle pau e upon why ; and
be will find no reason to reje it for deficiency of
met re.

173, Helen's Cheek, but not her heart;
i Cleopatra's Majely ;
/talanla's better part;
Sad Lucrecia's Modclly."]
There








S 32 3
There is no paaffge in Shakfpeare which had
more emharraffcd his Commentators than this ce-
lebrated line, which enumerates among the per-
fections of a heaury the better part of Atalanta. Dr.
Johnfun obfcrverc, that the be'tr r part of Aalanta
feenis to hae icen her heels ;" yet he is inclined
to think that our Poet, though no defpicablce my-
thologi(t, has ntllaken fome other character for
that of Atalanra.-Dr. Fainier is of opinion, that
her bet,'r part is her -it, that is, the fif;/fi/ of Lr
nmd; and Mr. Malone oblcrves, thac a paftrge in
Marflon's Inftaseu Counaie might lead us to fuppofe
that the better part of Atalanta was her lps. Mr.
Toilet remarks, that perhaps the poet means her
beauty and graecfiu elegance of fhape, which he
would prefer to her fwttnefs;" hut he after-
wards alks, whether Atalania's better part may nor
mean her virtue or virgin chaflity *."

I eI nce was of opinion, that Lrt1r part was a kind of pro-
verbial phrafc, and that ir was confined to onme dillindt and
peculiar obi t; but I now find that it is ufed in the ordinary
fenfe ilich the words appear to conecy, and that it rceiire dif-
fcrent meanings according to the fccral modes of applying it.
There are the infiances winch I at prrefnt recollc.
But were I not the ittl part made mercy.
(The Duke to Oliver, 3Z1.)
My better parit
Are all thr d n dovn.'"
(133. 1 do not think that parts being in the plural
fhoull be cun iiieed as a Ihanging of the phlrafc.)
The








[ 33 1
The explication of Mr. Tollet is the only one,
which affords any uiitabic fenfe to this disputed
exprefllion yct I am pcrfuaded that the genuine
spirit of the image is)ct perfedly unknown. The
reader of talle, who is ardent in the fludy of our
Poet, will, I hope, be confideiably giatified when
I fliall hve placed before him the whole paffage
with a new vein of ifluf ration; nor nill he, I
truft, be of opinion that I have been too laboured
or minute in the difcuflion of a principle, which
refers not only to the prcfcnt inflance, but may be
frequently applied with fingular fuccefs in the clu-

*' Alcurfetil that tongue that ells me fo,
For it hath cow'd my riter fanr of man." (Macbeth, 433)
[This is quoted by Mr. Malone.]
And thou,-
Art not a whit aflamde (as far as I can fee)
To caf me of, wthcn thou bar culi'd the bettrrart of me."
(Raonur and julie, vol. 1 o. 6. Juliet is here re-
proaching Romeus for leaving her after poffeflion.)
Btetr part is derived likewise from a pafage in Scripture, of
which fence Mr. Whalley has produced an example in an old epi-
taph, which he imagines Mr. Stevenis, as well as himfelf, mmy
pofibly have read in a country clihrch-) ard.
Sarah's oldierce, Lydia'snopen lh t,
And Martha's care, and Mary's bti.r part."
ftntt iis fmonenlhat aflonifhing, that neithcr Mr. Wiilley himellf,
nor any of his brother Commcntraors, recollclicd the series writ en
by John MAltli to a virtu. ,urg lod,
The etter .art ,iith Mary and ilt l Ruth
Chofcn thou lail." (Edit. Warton, pag. jr.)


citation







r 34
citation of Shakfpcare. It is well known and
acknowledged, that our old Poets derived many of
their allusions and descriptions from p'iures and re-
prefitations in Tapnpfry which were then equally
fahnitar to tiicmnilccs and to their readers. We
mult not therciore be aflonllled if their imagery
should fomctimncs be deficient in that abjfrathin of
fentwniti which ec have been fo accullomcd to
admire in che dclincrwr ions of other Poets; nor is it
difliult to imagine, that their colourings would be
often marl,kci by fume peculiar allusions, which
can now only be undcrflood by conceiving, that
the iorks of the Artif were flill prefent to the
mind of the Poet, and: that the operations of the
fancy were controuled by the impreffons of the eye.
This observation, which is rigorously applicable
to our ancient bards, Chaucer, Ccwer, and Lydgate,
may be extended lkewife with considerable truth to
the Poets of fucceding times, and will afford the in-
telligent critic a very important principle in illur-
trating the v writers of the fixteenth century. It has

SWarton's Hll. of E. P. vol. ii. 215. See likewise ol. i.
29 ; and his Obherations on the Fairy Sueen. vol. i p. 176-7,
and vol. ii. p'. 2. 3 See t'o his Notes on Milton, p. 277.
In m.nym rafs it is im! nilffi' to certain wlheher tradition, the
legend, or ie pitlur, fip[ei'd he originafl materials. It is pro-
bable, that ilhefe [pIlar reprrefntariont whikh night be derived
fiom thr rrgotcn lrgends of one ige, became themfdlves the ori-
giral firccsr of ibe romances in another. The ,ard of Gray,
uIuhch .. a borrowed from a it.urc of Rapbharl is ifel the fubjcdt
of anLother ,ifure by IfU/.








[ 35 ]
been remarked by our Commentarors, that Shakf-
peare has himself borrowed many of his images
from prints '--jatues t-paintiins t-and exhib/ios in
tapeflry; and we may observe, that fome allufions of
this fort are to be found in the play before us, and
especially I1 thofe places N\hich dlcciibc the beau-
ties of Rofalind There was how ever another

See vol. iv. l22. Vili. 579.
+ Vol. 110. o4. x. 154. ix. 713.
SVol. i. Part zd, pag. 3. il. 190.
And as minc e e doth his rffges witnel
"MoUt truly mn'd and living in your face." (166.1
All the piswre, fairet lin'd,
Are but black to Rofand." (70.)
The quintcffencc of every fpriie
Heaven would in liitt* fhow." 172.)
[* a miniature portrait.
Of many faces, eyes, and hearts,
To have te tourwbr deareft priz'd." (173.) [* Ii trait
I do remember in this fhepherd-boy,
Some lively touches of my daughter's favour." (z24.)
The defeription, which Phmbe afrerwarjs givci us of Rofllind,
ifit be not derived from a piaure, is at leaR admirably calculated
tofupply the painter with a/fljel. (See Ma!.ne, Merchant of V.
'44+)
SThere was a pretty renders in his lip;
A little riper and more lifly red
Than that mli'd in his check; 'twas jut the difference
Betwixt the confiant red and mingled damalk." (199 )
This furely is to1 definite and precise to be fiddenly formed hy
the fleeting powers of the imagination unfixe d and unaflild by
any object.
D a reason








[ 36 1
reason why this peculiar vein of allufion fliould
naturally abound in dramatic compositions, as the
flage was not only covered with arras or tapefry
bangings, but when that arras was faded or decayed,
they were accuflinmed to adorn it (according to
the expreffion of Jonfon) ith frefli piaures." 1
have nut the fnallcft doubt but that this practice
fiuggelled to Shakfpcaic the idea in lanmlct of
preventing before the Queen the portraits of her
t io hullbands:

Look here upon this pidure and on this,
The counteitcit prefentment of two brothers.

It is evident (as the Commentators have re-
marked) from the following words, A flation
" l.c the herald Mercury;" that there piOfures,
lihich are now produced on the flage as minia-
tures, were meant as lull lengths, being part of
" the furniture of the Queen's clofet-" and that
the introduction of thele miniatures is a modern
innovation. Mr. Malone is of opinion, that when
tragedies were aqcd, the flage was hung with
black ; and I am inclined to think in general that
the flage was often filnilicd with thofe picurcs,
i which were fomchat fuitable to the genius of the

Rof His iery hair is no tlle dlfrcmbling colour.
Cd. Something b rut' r thanJ udas's'." (igo.)
[' 1~ Ilsh" (.\ MI. h teevcn CI onflantly
tprrfenIcd in ancient faint '; or tirf, rj
." i' r led lir and bearJ."








I 37 1
performance. Let me \cnture hkew ife to conncc-
ture, that pofibly the fubhjc of their pictures, and
the representations on there hainigs, might be of
fuch a nature as to fipply the place of that d:nib
Jiw which Mr. Warton is lurjpnficd to find dif-
continued in the plays of Shakfpcare, nln for the
ablfence of which he profeffes hiimfel unable to
account. Let us now examine whether the pre-
fent paflgc may not he ilfliratcd by a prin iple
which has been alloccd univerfilly to operate on
our ancient Pots ; and hiich has been proved in
various inflances to have acted on the imagination
of Shakfpeare. I Jhae alh w s been liinly per-
fuaded, that the imagery, w\lich our Poet has fe-
leded to discriminate the more prominent peifec-
tions of Helen, Cleopatra, Atalanta, and Lucretia, was
not derived from the abhlraci consideration of their
general qualities; but was caught from thofc/pc-
culiar trails of beauty and charafer, which ate
impreffed on the mind of him who contemplates
their portraits. It is \cell known, that there cele-
brated heroines of romance were in the days of our
Poet the favourite fubjeds of popular eprefenta-
tion, and were alike visible in the coalfe hangings
of the poor and the magnificent arias of the
rich.-In the portraits of Heile, whether they
were produced by the fkilful artist, or his ruder
imitator, though her lice would certainly be deli-

SIlit, of Englfh Pocir, vol. ilI. 361.
D t neatcd








[ 38 1
negated as emincitly beautifill, yct ile appears not
to have been adorned with any of hole charms
which are allied to modefly; and ae accordingly
find that flic las generally dcpited aithl a loufc
and insidious countenance, f bich but too mani-
feflly bctraycd the inmaid mantonnefs and pi idy
of her heart. 1Te lullov, in; q(1' 1w ioll hoin Don
Quixote is lingularly in point, a. it I il ferve to
lew, us ihow ra.ivuciy the fiune cxpI.lialns of
fluthlilc beauLy were considered as t ihaLatcti ic of
the portraLts t Illilen--" lie \as lodged in a low
clhan, ci, to \ Ihch certain older worne cu taincs
of paintJed crgr fcrved in lieu of tapillry hang-
wings, as cominlonly they uf,' in country 11ilages.
II one of the pieces ilnght be ft cne pained by a
bungling and unillilful hand the iapc of Ilclin,
at w inht rine her fond hardy ghlic Hole her from
Menclaus. In another Mas tihe hillor) of Dido "

Ir muiil not be forgot n by til r:adlcr, that fonne port n of
this kind lhas llkcwlc f, grilled u t lr Pact with a cry releg.nt (.c-
In fuch a night,
'ioo;l Dido widl a willow in her and
Upron thie iild fen banks; and waft her love
'1o come again to Carthage." (Alrhant cf Virr, 9-a.)
Our CnmmenintatorI fin to be tfr larra.Tcd rcfrctiing tfie ouirce
from which this dcfcricion is dcti'ed. Mr. If arts fuggcle ,
that Sl-akfleare might p ilils iha. tiaken it from fome bldlad on
the fu'jcil ; and Mr. Ati. eni icnr gravely liferves, 1 hi paf-
fage o;l:aiin a fir 'il inll..-ce t t o mans t!at might be brought
" Ipro.c that Ii .:',-re cast no ica.i'r of tle LC/asI." I fiar
I la








i1 39 1
and i'nclia; 1 ,on i hK< tuiv-: l a "'-
makingliitn unto liC tigi it gh u lio on Ctle
f" ea caltrci iln II ilp ,ias Liiiting a.way IIoII hIC.
Don QuiAote ollcrit-ied HI til C 1io litK, tl;ir
Helen feemed not to b1c lLf' td nith hcr
raper; foTr f1 iilJt. .1> lIt *i ,' f/ u; ':frr
hand,. Whereas hitmrr I ,>i l \. ned ton i l e
r doil tecarcs fro l i it A. bir. a1, amlri, ."
(Shclton' Doin ()tixilte, Pati[ 1. 1p. 4No.)
W ith rcfp)CL Lo Ltle Af\ !/' 7 1,j L C /IAi//,, i, I 11:iy
be obfervcd, that its ntion, is nnt dnricli Inron
Claflical autlioioi bic tirom the mi1ore popular iloc-
houfc of legend alln roill.lcc: loi tihlllL ih n idile
many inflancsi of lhcr Mpl'r/:c aippeara.ncc anIl con-
dudt nighr lie crllected fiom tihe flrmcr foiCre,
yet I think that ihoti nivt ioni lleit'r bc ldl
tofpeak familaily of that quiltt, as the moti pro-

that mot of the inhranco re!atiig ir thi, k ,b:--- hi ii hal c boca
produced as iillpliltallbl e roa .ire }p'retiflc IIin i l.p u l tI
thepaJTlge before us.

S I doubt nor Iit tthat !te ilcI of th:e c ircs drppii ngi mi lfc
(which s familiar ito ourar ciert i'rcts i 3'e I, ;t ,Iri e
imitation of tears in .apiir)y nd p .gs. l oi" .,mbor in
i'rdluiandCrrfida. Pand. QIccn iHecuba l11IIII' t I I
" ti,, ran o'er." C,,. V nil P /'- rns." I l;.1 And It.
sgain 1wice ufres lus capreflion ITI Ri ,ird III.
Y s our esd p ip/i 7 /fl. rs, h5i .nf ic 'tivc, dri' tear.'" 4r 6.)
Clear. Bid Gluler link ni [li, ani he l ill l, i I "
AllJ lrd. A', ai/ /:'nte, ,1. il. un'd us o ix' ." 49, I


IllliCli'







[ 40 3
minent and didfinguilhed part of her charailcr.
When our Poet had afterwards occasion in his An-
tony and Cleopatra to delineate her portrait at lull
length from a Claffical original, we do not fnd
that the idea of her Majefly is particularly incul-
cated. I inifr therefore that the/famiih.o, of this
image was imprcfl, d both on the Poet and his
reader from ptcdurcs and icprclctations in tapelry,
ihich lec rthe lively and faithful mirrors of po-
pularromlancci.-Arlaalania, ve know, was considered
likewife by our ancient Poets as a celebrated
beauty; and we may be allired therefore that her
portraits were every where to be found From
the paffage in Pliny quoted by Mr. Toilet, we learn
that there were tio pit Lures at Lanuvium placed
by each other of Iclen and Atalanta, which uerc
both painted by the fame artill, and represented as
eminently beautiful; though the charms of the
latter were diftinguifled from thofe of the former
by the appearance of a vugi inodefly. Whether
among the painters of aftri ages, it wvas cunlomary
thus to contraif the dilinmIlar beauties of ielcn
and Atalanta, I cannot determine: we know how-
ever that fuch contrails are familiarr to the artists
of eery period, and the quotation which I have
above produced from Don Quixote, may ifew us,
that in the mofl rude and imperfcft pieces it was
not unusual to imitate the tcfinemenrts of more cx-

SSee a def drilion rof hr FiCure in tile rcadia, fol. 4. 1 599-
quilite








[ 41 ]
quifite performances. Since the flory of Atalanta
represents. that heroine as 'poflfled of singular
beauty, zcalous to prci-r\c her virginity even with
the death of her lo\cis, and accomprifling her
purposes by ctraordinary f il'eii l' in running, we
may be allu red that the kill of the aitilt ouild be
employed in displaying tile matoll perict eprllions
of virgin purity, and in dclincaring thle cfie pr tcrc'
and elegant fynrmmary of her peir-n.-"t Lucr:,,a" (e
know) vas the grand example of conjugal ide-
" lity throughout the Gothic ages," and it is this
spirit of unfhaken challity, which is heie cclclbraed
under the title of iiadely. The cpithetjad is but ill
calculated to reprefcnc the abflrdil nation of ~i-
jugalvirtue, and we may be affliied tllcic;fore llat it
was forced upon the mind of our Poet from a very
different imprcffion. I am aware however thatfad
may fignify in certain cafes (as Dr. Johnfon fiLp-
pofas it in the present) grave orfo/cmni'; yet cvrn in
this fenfe the idea of fomcthing Sgoom or unogagmg
is, I believe, generally undcrflood ; and it is cer-
tain that the epithet cannot t ith any propriety be
applied to the abflra& notion of that fpcLles of

SI am well aware of the several inflancr', ir wi.iic'l ii is tie J
fol grate orflhmni (fee Old Ihys, vul. ii. p, 177) np I i.iTi
llhllrate by a .hronologia fcnriel of quotation the .ariiis rcvolu-
tions in the meaning of this nfryltnat, wrd. JIs modern fInf
in the phrafes San dig,-SAD feiiv t, i,. we Tc, prccltely
opposite to its ancient acceptation. The uord fuflerCd Iightily,
I find, by the days of Purlan/mn,
belrty,








E 42 1
beauty, in which the charms of nature arc ren-
dered till more attractive by the cheerful though
compofcd graces of a genuine modelly. I am per-
fuaded that the meaning of fad in this paffage is
forroaf:;! or lamenting, and that it \as inipreflkd on
the imagination of our bard by the melancholy ap-
pearance which Lucretwa commonly bore in her
portraits and tepcefcntations Sir Philp Sidney
in his Derence of Podrf talks of the constant though
LAMENTING look of Lucrctita t. as fhe is exhi-
bited in pamn/its; and in our Author's Rape of
Lucrecc the epithet fad frequently occurs in the
fame fenfe, and is often applied to LUCRLTIA her-

SEvery thing that we read in our ancient unlors rrepcring
Luerttia, appear to remind us of the force from shich it is de.
rived, and to point out how famiiarly her pilurc or reprefnla-
tion is impreffed on the mind of tle writer. She feems to have
been a common fuhjet for engraving on feals. So in the ftvfib
h'trg (pug 55). By )nur lae, war.-Stfr ; and the imprrf-
furt Ihr L rr., v.iIh idch lte ufrs tofeal." She fiurniflc
lilkwife another image for the rcrfc contained in the icttei;
But filenc, like a Lucrece knife.
With bloodlefs froke my heart doth gore."
Nay, fo common were her portraits, that ihe became the figure on
the Stgs of the King's Printer Brnirt!te in Fcet-ireet, who finu-
rifhedabout the year 1540. (Warton's Hill. of nglif Poetry, iii.
416.) A cutt of 'cr is fometimns to be fcen in his books, (See
Ames, vol. i. pag. 416, &c.) l.t me add hkewife, that in our
Author's Poem on this fubjeAt Lucretia is lent for consolation to a
piece of ilfulpa in.ng., hidi deJpided a ihoufand lamentable
"' ohbjci'" in the ifeory of T'ty.
+ T~c Dsrfnct f Perfic, fol. 237. Edit, t 599.








[ A3 i
feif in the several mournitl ar.calions of her affcd-
ing flory. In the folloli in nles, which aie taken
from the above pnocn, cliid thlicadcfs of her coun-
tenance combined w ith the graces of her modefly:
Her pity-plcadingl cvcr are frdly flx'd
In the remos l[h-fs u I nkles of his tace;
Her meodef eloquence with lighs is mix'd,
Which to her oratory adds more grarr."
(l'age 1 19.)
-Tet us fuppefe therefore that the poitjaits of
there celebrated beauties, Helen-CNlrpatra-.talatta
-and Lucrctia, were dliineated as 1 have above
defcribed-that in the da)s of Shakfpciar they
continued to be the fariourite fuljccts of popular
reprefcntation, and that confcquIcutlyy tey cre
familiarly impiciecd on the mind of the Poet and
on the memory of his audience. Let us now in-
velligate what the bard, or the lover, under the
infuence of this imprellion, would feled as the
better pars of there celebrated heroines, which he
might wifl to be transferred to his oiwn miflrefs as
the perfect model of female excellence. In con-
templating the portrait of Helen, he is attracted
only by thofe charms which arc at once the moll
4difinguifehd, and at the fame time are the lealt
employed in expreling the feelings of the heart.
He wiflics therefore for that rich bloom of beauty,
which glowed upon her cheek, but he rejects thofe
lincamenta of her countenance which bctra)ed the
lonfc








[ 41 1

loore inconflncy or her Tmind-the infidious mile
and the wanton briliancy of her eye. Impreffed
with the effect, he paffes inflantly to the cafe. iHe
is enamoured with the better part of the beauty of
lelen; but he is fl(cked at the depravity of that
heart, which was too manifeilly exhibited by the
worfc. To convince the intelligent reader, that
cheek is not applied to beatuy in general; but that it

SOur Poer appears to hlie carghlt the idea of Rolini's sli.
anIl of all ite "ra es ieing united by nature in her person, frm
the following paflage in the original novel:
All in general applauded the admirabic riches that nature
" bellowed on the face of Roralind, for upon her bikes thcrr
" seemed a battell het&en thr Gre n, ,il fhoul i bellow aon
" favours to make her excellent."-Her bcrlek are again tius ie.l
fcribed :
Her eb/tkel are like the bluffing clouded
That beauriifs Auroraes face,
Or like the iJver Cimfnn fhroud,
That Phabus finiling looks doth grace.
And again,
By thofe fwrct che t where love incamped lics,
To kilff the mres of the fpringing )crt..
She is thus defribed in her charaftlr of Canrimld, In his c/ed
" the vermilion tindture of the role floufehd dpon natural ala.
" blafler, the blufh of the mornc and Lunac's fider fhew ecre fo
" likely portrayed, that the Tirjan that fills out wine to Jupiter,
" was not half fn beautiful." Our Poet las in this very play
fuppoed the power of love to be fcred in the citd.
Sdivns. 0 dear Phlbc,
IF ever (as that eer may be near)
You meet in fome rreh cheik the p our of/any,
Then Fhall you know the wounds imifible
I-at lIoce's keen arroI ma.ke," (i9,.








[ A^ 1
is here ufed in iti appropiiate and onilinal fcuic,
we Hall produce a very curious pafllge from one
of our Author's Sonnets, by i which it w ll appear
that the portraits of Helen were dlllinguitfhd by
the confumnmate beauty wihu.h was ilipilycd upon
brf cheek.
Defcribe Adonis, and the ', t;tecrfcic (' i.e. 'iC:!;
' Is poorly imitated after you.
On Helen' c dci all ant oL beauty fit,
-And you in Grecian tires are paMted ne-w.
(cninEcr 3.)
-In viewing the portrait of C(icopatra, c flould
all naturally agree in admnilng the l\atrly air and.
majellic appearance of her pcrfon ; though in the
bare contemplation of her cbaralder, we shouldd not
bllyc equally concurred in fpcaking la.nilialy of
bar ajefty as the moft eminent and dillinguithed
qfher qualities.-In furveying the portrait of Ala-
lanta, and in refleihng on the character which it
displayed, the lover would not find it difficult to
fcle& the better part both of her mind and of her
(fom, which he might wifh to be transfufed into
th~ composition of his miilrcfs. He mould not be
defirous of that perfection in her person, ihich
contributed nothing to the gratification of his paf-
fion, and ie would reiec that principle of her foul
which was adverse to the objcit of his iflics. lie
would be enamouled nith the line proportions and
elegant fymmctry of her limbs; though his paiion
would








[ 46 ]
would find but little rcafon to be delighted with
the quality of fwiflnef, with which that fymmetry
nas conic6led.-Hle would be captivated with the
blufhing charms of unfullied %irginity; but he
would abhor that unfcclng coldncfs, which re-
filted the inipulfe of loic; and that unnatural
cruelty which tcjoiced in the murdcr of her lovers.
-The Poet lailly w iflns ;or the Modefly of the fad
I.rrenta--that firm and ilicp-rooitd principle of fe-
n:ale chaflint, which is lo rifibly depi&cd in the
fadneji of her countenance lamcnting for its invo-
luntary lofs; and which has rendered her through
all ages the pride and pattern of conjugal fidelity.
-Such then are the ilhes of the lover in the
formation of his milrcfs, that the ripe and bilhant
beauties of Helen Thould be united to the elegant fym-
metry and virgin graces of Atalanta; and that this
union of charms flould be fill dignificd and en-
nobled by the mnrlytqc i:en of Clcopatra and the
matrof mcde/y of Lucrria.
Finally; it is extremely observable, and will in-
deed considerably confirm the diligent reader of
our Poet in the truth of this new interpretation,
that allut/ons to Piglures, or at leafl terms, which are
on all hands acknoi% ledged to be derived from Paint-
in, are found to accompany the paffage which is
the fubject of our prefcnr commentary :

S lie r l eaider r i fee he /hil force of tis remark, till he
ha. read lihe oi i .loniii, wlich are annexed to thefe notes on the
X c .:..n 1' f l''"i .








[ 47 ]
But upon the fairef boughs,
Or at every sentence' end,
Will I Rofalinda write;
Teaching all that read, to know
The quinitcrcnce of every Iprlte
Leaven would in iltle lovw.
Therefore ieaven nature charged
That one body flould be fill'd
With all graces wide cnlarg'd :
Nature presently diflil'd
Ilclen's check, but not her hart;
Cleopatra's Majcfly;
Atalanta's better part;
Sad Lucrctia's Modcfly.
Thus Rofalind of many parts
By heavenly fynod was dcvis'd;
3., Of many faces, eyes, and hearts,
To have the touches dcareft priz'd.
,--Iwill conclude this'note by obferving likewise
what our Commentators appear not to have colni-

hin httlt jbo. The allufinn is to a miniature portrait
' The current phrase in our Author's time was painted in lilt.
(MIaloeu.
So Hamlet. It is not very range; for my uncle is king of
" Deomark, and thole, that would make itIoaIh at him while
" my father lived, give twenty, forty, fifty, an hundred ducata
" a piece for his plure in hile." (At II. S. ii. p. 268.)

"*f:'Th; I~uab.] The ftatues ; tl Jain. Johnfon.
I believe hat pris'd is a word of this fort.








I 48 1
dered, that our Poet, in forming this model of
female excellence, has not flewn himself forgetful
of that description which hL had before given us of
Rofalind. She is represented as more than common
tall, and on that account bell qualified to affume
the drefs and appearance of a man.

XWcIc it not better,
Bccaufe that I am more than common tall,
That I did futt me all points like a man?
A gallant curtle-ax upon my thigh,
A boar-fpear in my hand. (r41.)

The Poet therefore might very properly inv'cl
her with the majellic air of Cleopatra; and that
figure, which was fo well adapted to become the
curtle-ax and the boar-fpear, would naturally fug-
gefl to his recolJeLion the manly though elegant

Obfer likeife, that in the defciption which Phnbe gives
of Rofalidi, er leainsat-ig and cb/ek are among the objeta of
Phibe's admiration .
ie 1i nor ry tall, yet for his years he's tall:
lis lrg is but Fo fo; and ye 'tis well."
There was a pretty rednefs in his lip;
A little riper and more Infly red
Than fhar mi'd in hiis rheI; 'reg jcfl tie dhfernce
Betwilt the conflant red, and mingled dma:l;." (199.)
T' i' 'cry pfecife dicri mination between the shades of colour on
the lip and the check vill frrve at once to confirm our hypothebis
rrefr-:ing th.e dl-k ef IL, ln aind at tie fame uime to point out
the force from hlich it is itrlf derived.








( 49 1
lppcaraince of AIal;nlta nattid for the cxri-ife of
the courfe, or fiunilhed wth lhe drcfs and inlile-
nmrnts nf thie hafe : We may obfervc, that in our
ancient poets the huintrcfu, aind the f/: ,ffooted
Atalanlta, fc tin t Ila c I )cni oinloivld d As I
tonlidcr the IfuhLtI of itis note to bh iniimnaily
co0illttcld witlh a lhelt", '\hich I prop" l aflTr-
waids to unfold, I have not hlicltatd to be thus
minute and t rclininlani 'l ilT OIh, Xj'pldiiiirill Off 111is
pafagec, Ihait ith reader niguii b1w at once pofli'll-d
w hi Ia g cltl il i otin of a 1peccies il iiii- a] i llu-
liou, whilh cul -; pr'Tpetual) in our fU 1icif: poets,

In this note I ha been bardc able to give the reader a
gatinarlJ hon of hlle flbjc: it would require anld deferIe a rfpa-
rare diffelrioa n. I is roam this ource that our old writers were
fo intim.tely and trejo.'i/ ariquinted with hie illuftious cha-
raders in fcriptiur. 'he vrrr accurate defcription which the
'e eiralle lhid has given us of tlhe ages. igures, beards, hair, &c.
of the wife men, who brought their oRferil g to Chrift, is now
I" to be feen" (ft s Mr. Waraon) in the old pictures and popular
, rrnrecfeatalioin of the ,'ir minr ofleri.s." (2nd Difflerat
ol. i.) We cannot produce a more curious and convincing in-
llance of lll .niLicnt prel,.leince antd famiflrity of thefe allufions,
Ihjn by lev.ig that ,he) Rill remain in be quaint language of
the vulg.r. The phrafes N rarr forea and Aniiii drunk (if
.e may believe the Clofical Dirmnaly, 2nid. Edition) re to be
referred to this oigin. By the foirmcr inderenl exprcflion is
denoted the foretop of a ,ig made in imitation of the hair of
Chtift Is, rteekonccd by /ur'ers and fnljf s ; "A by It, latte
s meant one who is in lhat joylefs nla: of uncomfortable incoxica-
tion as to rercliblr the triifu figure of Mary Magdalenc, fuch as
the was formerly reprefentd in faiirit* and lafr/'/. There
will be litle rcafu1 to doubt the jufnels of this explanation whlie









and whbh, tvwhn duly iuderfllod, will afford us I
new and imiform light in difcovcring the peculiar
spirit of their deferiptions, and the ajjociatm, princi-
ple of their imagery In the prejcnl inflanci it will
not, I trufl, be obic'led, that I have impofid a
meaning on the pailigc, which is too ample both
for the words whith (i onver it, and thl occafiori
which I have imagined to ftggeft it. The reader
of taflc will not fail to remember, that tlh iegroiu
language of the poet will cxprcfs cencirly Nih hat ie
at once conceives richly; i lillc the humble critic
muft be contentedc to i//tlAyae by a long, a labouredc,
and a feeble commenntary.
i79. Not lo; but nai/-e.r you riyt painted cdl/.]
This phralcology, which Mr. Malone calls fingular,
is very common in Shakftpcar. I am aflonified
that our commentators did not recollcf a Nery
pointed example in the preceding fine, Nay but
" the devil take mocking fpi'ak ju.d brow and tre
" maid." So in Othello (23) Drunk ? And
" fpeakm parrot ? And fqiubble In the Loei-'s
Complaint we have
" When he moft burn'd in heart-wifli'd luxury,
" He praci-'d prpe nia-d, and praised cold chaflity.'
Vol p. 370.

it is ricollelcld that in this verv play we find a familiar alluion to
the bhrot 'ar of jOadr." I r o.) and in the Mlej Iy f t of
irifaor to the jytllo' dari "' Cin. il 3-j (See Old Pla,
vol. iii, p. 98.)
iS.2. (" I dravre






( 31 )
184- I diave mz filthI fti, his hmad hluinoiii
Sof love, to a li:'i j huimour io nuladnicf.") Dr.
" Johnfodi"( fiys Mr. Maione) propofes to read-
" from his mad hliiiour of love, to :a /o'ht humour
". of madnfs; that is, from ;a nmadiel.i that was /,ve,
" to a love thit w:a mi ,; /. I)r Flaljinr would
ic rcad--to a humour oi / un limadil k." Mr.
Malone hiimlflf imagines that a; LI i. /n'monur
of madness is, in our author's licentious language,
tc a hunmour of nV',ig madiif ; a mad hIlli mour thlt
" operates on thice miodc of /ci;g; or, in olwr words,
" and more nccriately, a ,A..l ii.w of /i Prr-
haps the following line from Othello may throw
light on this paffilge.
Oth, Give me a livix reason that lie's difloyal.
(A&. 3. S. iii. p. 560.)
Thai is, give me a dired, abfo/ute, and unequivocal
proof. Why then may not the living humor of mad-
flef mean a confirmed, abfolbte, and dhte fate of
andineir ? This fignification is cafily deduced from
Sthe fenfe which the original word bears in the
phrafes of Done or expreffcd to the life"-ad
vivJ u exprlfium.
185. Doth my simple feature content you ?")
Feature appears to have three fenfTs. Ift. The
calt and make of the face. 2d. Beautv in gene-
ral. 3d. The whole turn of the body." (See
Appendix, 588. and vol. vii. page 484.) Out of
innumerable inflances take the following, which [
have chosen as the nilo unequivocal:
E







I 5t )
John (2 Si to I I bert, rTefrinilg 0o what he before
called his abhlirr'd n/pc "
1. Forgive the cnnment that my paflion made
Upon thy feature." (King John, 539.)
i. Her grace, geClre, and beautic liked them all
extremely, aind made them account Don Fer-
nando to be a man of little underfianding,
seeing he cointmned (uli feature." (Siclton's
Don Quixote, part I 3oo.) (See too 40o.) Pues-
tanta beli/ea defecha\a." Tom. ii. p. 277. Ed.
Bowles.)
3. I that am curtailed of this fair proportion,
Cheated iffiatme by diffcmbling nature,
Diform'd, unfinilh'd." (Rich. 111. 45.)
I cannot lhelp obferving, that in two inlancies
quoted by Mr. Malone, as well as in the paifage of
Shakfpear'e,featiur is joined with content.
I fee then, artlefsfea~nr e can content."
(Daniel's Cleopatra, 1594.)
My fa-cr is not to content her fight."
(Span /, Tragdy.)
This is not merely accidental. Content has a
peculiar and appropriate fenfe, and it marks the
gralicfin;n which is derived from the attractions
of perfon or of f'x Rofalind, as it appears, alludes
to this fenfe in hlr addrrfs to Silvih. I will
" conent you, if what pleafes )ou contents you,
" and you tflal be married to-morrow." (page 2 1).
That is, I will io.eurnt ou by marrying you to a
woman wlIofc lcaity vwn tnis you. In Lodge's
Euphtes,








( 53 )
Euplues, from which this play is derived, we have
"able to coinent the eye with /ca;i' "---l'at:io fays
to Bcimnperia in the SpaM/i Tw,,e,/v, Act ii. \1. 45 )
Now, NM:,ubnm. linc by fa.vo\iu of )omuw o e,
Our hidden fnlnk is ltun'd tn pui flinri,
And th;:t with lnks and words wc I.7 d rur
thoughts,
(" Two chicf conz/ci;s) wvhete more cn-inmol Ih iad,.."
We have Ih.- fiiloW ng paiinge like 'if, in Rcmca
end Yht. (,t .S 31
Read o'cr the volume of voung Paris' fact,
And fidl delight writ there with Beauity' pen;
Examine every inarried linearnmnt,
And fee how one another clinds .o;ti;l."
In lie lI'idow's Tatrs, liudola deliberating about
taking a dilinnd, fays,
What might a wi\e wido w ]i~f',lve ilpon this
point now
Ciei tl::eny is the end olf ;ll wildly be ings."
(Old Plays, 6. p. 16;.)
In the fame play, Thnor/ho fabou whom the is
leliberatingi requefls of her" f.mnic inafurmf fa; our
from her fwcet tongue, or her fi\ecter lips," or
what clfc" (fays he) )our good ]adhllip fhiall
elicem more conIduiible to your di ine content-
meir." (ld. p. 175.)
Let the bx'f joys of I vmien compass h.r,
And her young hufland, my Eluguniu,
With full c outht."
([.'ll -,zar, Old Pla -, v. 7. p
E 3 A.mn:beli.








( 54 )
Anamb/ha. Oh, how thefce ol'n contents
Wounl print a model criimfon on my checks,
lad any but my hearL's delight prevailed."
(' Ti. p' / it 'j a t: f,'e.
Old Pla)s, vol. 8.p p 3
Be/Rlain,.n. Why would Ph\Iider
Cut wedlock's gordian, and with nlofer eyes
Do;it on a common wanton 7 Wh;lat is pleasure
.MAore than a lullfil motion in the fcnfe ?
The i ,fI" .'L iii full uf ,uxious fears,
Tl, end repentance. Tho' content be cali'd
Tho (il of aEion, and licentionus manl
Propounds it as the reafon of his life."
(MAfiiroofnnus, Old Plays, 9 p I48
I cannot hlip ii>fcrving that this pafhilge contains
an allhitionail LOnirmation of the fInfe, in Wvh101
weaAen (" wv dken mention ) is ufed in Othello. p. 46 1.
'I o ii \ in fwcIv iicohtciOnnim with a ifre," occurs
in the G1;i Co/llie of Cr-oyon. (Old P'lays, I1.
p. 196.) and in the Parfon's Vedding (1664) by
Kil/igrew, we have, I would do as little to give
" micn contr'ln as an)y the in town The traces of
this flenie appear in the Paradife Loftf and there is
one very fingular paffage, which derives all its
grace anm d(Ilicacy froln the tentt allufion to this
pnuhtl finifiliatlin. It is from ihene that the hea-
venly vision becomes, as it were, brighten'd with a
fiile by anticipating the objet to which the
thouglts of Adaim were direllcd, amd by rejoicing
at







( 55 )
it hle capls it of inapiniic<. s % ilII s a, dl (inAd for
i nature of man. Alda;m thui bi)' a,.. his condition
beifre the creation of E' e.
In f litude
What lihanpp:cf, who caln lenijy alone,
Or all CinilO; g, what conTrl. r Ix t lindi
hlub I p1l lniptuous. and thi Ih i'mi Ibirhit
As ith ajf;.l more brighten'd thu iepl 'i,"
(B. v 64. &Sc. Sec B. to. v. 97
1S7. /A,1 [ a nuot a f(,lf thi' I thaIk the
Gods I ami foul")
Sir Thomas IHanTller undcrflands ib /?j/, coy or
fior:.>l.g M.r. Tirnhlutt tlilks that /.o/ is the
rniiic proirnlliciation for U/Sl, :nid addls s u ap-
pelFrs) ,i) great gravity, that Aud\ti was more
" likc to h ank t' G;ods for a bejll-fu'll than for
" her bcing cov or fio:,m(,s?." Mi. MNilloi co ,
firms lri. Tvrwlhi's conijcctre. \% hat can lih
m1lre mamIlle than tllt the litlltiur ofl" iltl, af-ih .
({tch as it i, conllifis 11 the eqvui'I;cal finfc i /f ',
which in our pout's tihe not only ligntlied Nihat it
does at prcfrnt, but inmanlt likeilc p'4:,- r .imi, ?
ii is frequently ufed in the latter lignifi itlnii in this
play. PFoi is moft/fon, being foli io b.' a ( iuco r."
(197.1 That ij, lays Dr. Johloin, the ugl fecml
;' molt ugly, when though ugly they are fi offers."
193 or. I you i l fee ;a p BetUcu in lhe pa;le compl)kri ii of tic lJo e
And the re glow of fiom :antl proti difdain,
Go hence a little, and I I l lll onducti \ol,
SIt you will ilk it.")
1 4 1 hI,







( 36 )
This (<'vmt, of/, e fiems tol have been, hnprcffd
on the mind of our poet. So in the Mh Ifiwn,'er
Nl;it's DOeam, Puc flys to Oberon :
Captain of our fairy band,
Helena is here at hand ;
And the roiniti niflook by mle,
Pleading fr a ivr's, fee ;
Shall we their foin pageant fee ?
Lord, what fools Ilhee mortals be I
(A. 3. S. 2. p. 4941
Will Ite fpeech fTour h//flo receiver anll illuilra-
tion frnm thefe lines We, that ate true lover',
" run into firane-gcapcrs : but as all is moral ill
'" ature, fo is all nature in love viltal in fll-"
(152.) Perhaps it means, all nature-crven wV,, ie
fiiperior intclligences of nature, when in Ae, are
equal in folly to the ordinary race of mortals.
195. that tho' yon have mo beauty,
(" As, by my failh, I fee no more in you
Than without candle may go dark to bed)
Mluli you be therefore proud and pitilefs ?"
The old copy reads no, which Mr. Malone has
changed into mo. This emendation is extremely
inelegant, and totally oppolite to oui author's
meaning. The spirit of the pafnge is well ex-
plained by Mr. Cape/. The rejection of the nega-
tive makes the poet" fayss he) a very bad rca-
" foer in the line that comes next to this Lentence,
" and guilty offelf-contradition in federal others"-
by robbing him of a lively cxpreffion, and a
pleafantry








( 57 )
p" pcftrlnry tIruly iomick; for. as the fentelte
inlai s in the old copy, the cmifequence that
" fbltlld lae lecnll frolin her bear'vy, he di awis from
' her no /heiA .' andl c-'.tllr i fi!e It i'1l';ling
" y('iVr cplCti'1iIn i'Thi i A' iwu of I'iHL -h's is
" lIi b1IrdI n i 't ;ll tRifainld.\ f'p (hcl s flir11 hI1Rnc(C
" to tier c'xi 'Mr. Tollh likcewife conlicldrs the
olId itacllli as a hullRinronusi of cxprclfing
" her liNk tlia.re If lhaut," thiloulgh the inl inctv
which ih pxroduuLc is ftlini to tlhe p'rp' 'l dak
an exainplc in p'i:t fin this very pin' Truly,
" )'i)Ull,; g ttl['*IiiCo, l/ th,'rC wS i9 giTL; nl.tler
" in ll ditty, vyt lth noet w; ver !itmiiiblC."
(z2 ) lS tle nui lfc in Al; R 'ad .ict, p 86.
" R Ir,' ,no1, c.ot hu: though his face ,-he better
<" thIlln i' g i:all', L his 1IC XCt'iIS all mel's ; and
" for a i indl and a (lot, and a body,--tmo llhey
" be not to be talked on, yet ihey arc pali conn-
" pnre."
206. Rof If you break one jot of your pronife,
" or come one minute behind your hour, I will
" think you thi moft pathetical break-promie, and
" moft iolluw lover ") Mr. Steevens obfernes, ti at
the epitllt occurs again in Love's Labour /lot. and
with a;s little apparent meaning ;-" nmolf plath)isfl
" nit." By pathetiral bicak-promnife. Mr. Malone
thinks is meant a lover whIol falfchoold Iould umoll
deeply aifer his miftref,. Patheura, in its fl l fe fe,
ncans full rf PAssioN and SENTIMENt-. in a
ludicrous fen(e, a palirctial b, catk-p; mi is a i: ,.'^,
(^iiln.g









antnig, prmnipcb.'-ii: fra-t. Olr poet, pcilhaipt
caught this word from th,' no\cl, to whi h he '.
indebted for his plax. The inovclif is frjaking
of Pkhrbe, andl Siltv, or AL1, i)ti::!s, But ihce mina-
" furilg all Ihf pailioilM withl a <.) d(idul;ie, aind
" triumphbir'g in the poor li.'phead's pak'/:.''
" hlumors, &c." (Loilge's EIpIcs J Pat.,eirca' :r,
in Love's Labour lf, is fp"okn by Cq/L';id of A ,ma.o's
page, and mein an a little c ea.tu'! Cf rfe', j''ri, aai
War.
And his page o't'other hid, tilt hanidli of I it
SAih! heavens, it is a mon padiir-ri/ /t !"
(Aai 4. S. I.)
Arntado himfelf applies tlis word to the liv.ly
fayings of his page, Swece invocation of a child i
" mofl prey and patJeicark" (AI i. S. 2.)
In the IFrdaws Tears we hm e, lhefe ai flrange
" occurrents, brother, but pictty and patheial."
(Old Pl s, v. 6.p. iSi)
In a quotation produced by Mr. Malone on an-
other occallon, we have the title of Nafie's cele-
brated pamphlc, a it appeared in the firf edition.
" Pierce Penniilcre, hli fupplicalion to ille Dvell,
' describing the ovcr-fpreading of vice and flip-
" prellion of vertue PIcafaitly interlaced wvilh
" variable delights, and pathelially intcrmixt with
" conceipted reproofes."
(Malone's Hill. of the Stage, p. 133.
ti9. Rof. Know of me then (for now I fpeak
to fome purpose), that I know you arc a gentleman
of








S59 )


"of good conceit: 1 fpeak not this, that you flould
' bear a gnod opinion of my knowledge, infomuch
" I fiy, I know you are.") This thought we find
in Hamlet.
Ofik. You are not ignorant of what excel-
" lence Laeric, is.-
Hamlet. I dare not confefs that, left I fIould
' compare with him in excellence ; but It klow a
' man well, were to know himfclf."
221--. "I I hope it is nodilhonell defire, to lc-
" fire to lbe a wiomani of the world.") To go to the
" world fayss Mr Steevens is to be married." So
in Mluh ado about Nolhing : ITus fayss Beatrice)
" every one goes to the wor/l but I." Th1 pjhrafc
again occurs in Al//'s well ita ends zye// (372.) But
" if I may have your ladylhip's good-b ill to go to
F' the world." To there inllances, which our coni-
mentators have noticed, add the following from
John Florio's Second Frutes, p z9.
P. Why? is it fo great a inne?
A. Yea, Sir, to \ifite women.
P. Yea, boldly women. Si le done del mondo.
A. Be not all wLomen of the wold ? Tuttc Ie donne,
non fono dcl mondo.
P. Yes, Sir, but vet not all worh-dl. Signor Ii, ma
non tutte mondanc.
22z. It was a lover, and his lafs,
With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
That o'rr the green corn-fiwld did p,'f,
In the firing time; the only pretty)rni time.
When










When birld do fing, lhe ding a ding, ding;
Sweet lovers love the fp ing.

II
letw een the a( res of the rhe
I\ ith a Che, &
lThlc pretty tun i lrhi, "Ilk v.wld lie,
"' In spring line, &' "]
The old copy rcadr 1I.-! (ine. Dr. Jolinf,'n
" fioltLk illn coIl-It |," .iad i ad ,,, '& ; I' I P
rcadi fr, a;:d \Ir Ste"'c'ls pIr'a, r'," lIt
that is, thi aptefi tumin fr mainge. I fern that lhe
]lTter reading des not pLrJcctilY coincide withthe
fpirit of the context Mr Malone imaging tlat
the paffage does not dcefri, much confidiratioi;
though I c.iniuut difCnvcr \lhat exquilite reafin"
he can hame for thus dvotIing it to neglect and ob-
fcurity.-Wh ny ma\ not .avr time be tiltein for
range tlie, and thle o,1 ) p/I' range im',c \ ill iihn
figliIy Ithe only fvicajant t imc fr fiang orjin) or a r
about ?
There is little remain to doubt the truth of this
explanation. The fpcling of tie words is not in
be regarded in our :nciint writers. The termi
ranging is particularly applied to archer ; and fion
Hence it is trann'crird to tle prelcnt ignificati'n.
(See Evans' O!d Ballad., oul, I. pfim,).















AN ATTEMPT

1T

EXPLAIN AND ILLUSTRATE


VARIOUS PASSAGES


SAKSPEAor
SHAKSPEA RE,

o)Z


A NEW PRINCIPLE OF CRITICISM,

D ollR ED FROM

MR. LOCKE'S DOCTRINE

or


"HIE ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS.

















AN ATTEMPT

&c. &c. &c.




THE Af/ciation of Ideas is a fruitful and popular
theme in the writing- of meta;lii, cians; ian thy
have supplied us with inniumcrablc examples, which
prove at once the extent ald the aci'ity of its in-
fluence. IlThy 1hav taught us tlat our modes of
teafoning, our habits of life, and c en the motions of
our body, are affected by its energy; and that it'
operates on the faculties by a kind of fascinating
control, which we fometimes cannot difcovcr, and
which generally we are unable to countera, The
consideration, however, of this doctrine (curious
and extenfive as it may appear) has commonly been
confined to the admirers of metaphyfical refearches ;
nor has the the r, I believe, ever been fyftemati-
cally dircuff ns a point of tale, or as a fubjcft of
criticilin. We have feen the qtuction totally ex-
haufted, as it refers to the general powers of the
Underlianding, and the habitual exercise of the
, reafoning








( (i4 )
reafld;ing faculty ;, hI we may jufllv be aftonithcd
that the efiTfT s of this principle floulld never hav*
been invefli ated, as it operates on tIlh wiIer in the
ardor of invention, by imposing on his mind fome *
remote and pecuhlar vein of language, or ofimagcrn
If, in the ordinary cxrtioins of the underflanding.
the force of fachl a:n A'6:ljion lhis been found fo
powcrfll and cltenlive, it may furcly hie concluded,
that ilt influenLe would prcduinintle with abfolite
authority oricr the rigrous wotkinigs of a wild and
fertile niaginatiin. In lth pages of the poct,
therefore, imay we expct to b- fupplied with the
muno curious and abundant materials for the dif-
cufion of this principle ; and in none can we hopl
to find fuch frequent all finlgllar examples of its
cifect, as may puobablly Ib discovered by the diFl'
gent reader in ihe writings of Shnkfpeare.
By the aoiaztig pr;'/pc 1 do nit mean (as it
jpp.' r to 13b undtiftood by foine nmtaphyficians)
Ihat fatc ulty ofn tho undirliranding, by -lhich, on all
iccliilons, thec ch.dii of our ideas is generated anl
,pref' red : nr, as refrrcd to the Cgeais of the poet,
do I mean that ad;L power, \whit-h pafTls rapidly

i Ideai, that in thenrl. es are not at all of kin, come to b,
I to united i t lnic .a e's ini l, ar it is v s y h.brd to reara
4' item; thlci aiwav p b a cro pai, and the' ne no fooner at
" any lie concs in;o ihc undcitandmg., but Is anji te appear
I with it; and if dlty .ar more ihan two whidc arc thus united,
" te v:ole gang always inleparablic fnle tlmfilves together."
LLocke's Eliay, i, 2, C. 3, 5.)
thronugl







r 6; ]
through a vailety of fucceffive images, vhAich diCf
covers with fo wonderful an acutenefs their relations'
and dependencies; and which combines them with
fuch cxquifitc effe& in all the plenaing forms of
fitlion and invention. In this indefinite and unli-
mtited fenfe, the afociation of ideas, when applied to'
tie general operations of the mmnd, cxp-reLes little
lets than the whole arrangement of the reasoning
principle, and as referred to the workings it imagi-
nation muff signify all the embellilhmnents of elo-
quence, and all the graces of poetry.
In the theory of Mr. Locke, by the term afociation
is not underflood the combination of ideas naturally
connected with each other; for thefr (as he ob-
ferves) it is the office and the excellency of out
" r4afon to form and p)referve in that union and
" corrcfpondence, which is founilded on their pccu-
" liar beings." On the contrary, it is undcr.ood
to cxprefs the combination of ihofe ideas, which
have no 'natural alliance or relation to each other,
but which have been united only by chance, or by
culom. Now it is obfervable that no talk can be
imposed on the underflanding, of greater difficulty
thaii to feparate ideas thus accidentally combined;
as tlie'mind is commonly pallive in admitting their
rginal formation, and often totally unconscious of
tfe fpyce and pjinciple of their union.
I ithe applicationof this theory to the fubje6t of
the present enquiry,the definition of the term afoca-
ion might remain unaltered ; though (as it may well
F be








[ r6 1

eU imagincld) there will not appear to be the fGI ill-
et rLfiiiblallce bciwcen the ilhiftrations which
lhae ibeen LfQLdily I produlc.d to dlcfribe its cIffcE in
the one cal e, and thofe various infl:nces which I
now pr.i o Ic to lai b 'f ilic th .adcr as IwI ain
curious examples of i(b %xificnce il tile uthEr '.

Though the carmilcj of this pi.l7,ar ,g, ple may bear no
teoml Il.n'Il c., II nl her, ) cr the el et f it in l0 th cafl will i'
oftcn rx remmrl) fnar. As th- aifocation atifrs from a tirt.um.
Lance gtnerlni irre[tntie, and ('ometicues totally oppofic to llr
ribicit it fel, e ih ll In mduiai. d perhaps to fimic at the ludicrous
conbin.atrios s~lhli arc lrcqiinly formed on the e occafiont.
i'er one calli to mind Mr. [.iLke's dory of tht gentleman, who
had learned ti danc in a roeam lhre an old trunk was part of the
furanurc 1Th Iride." if1is MIr. Icke, of this remarkable
' piece o(f Ihilchold uiil had lfo mnied itself ith the turns and
i Lep of all his dluiLC, that thnughl in that ha mlber he could
Sdanc: ec.ll.tily scll, )et it was only whiil th at trunk was
Sltheire; nor .cnuld le iprrrm well in any other place unlefs that,
or fime fuch other trunk, had its due position in the room."
(~ 16.) Mr. Locke add,, tlhait lidicrous as this affocialion nay
apcpar, there are very fw inquiitive crfuns who read this, w-ho
have not met with accounts, if not cxamplcs, of ihis nature,
dtat may parallel, or at leat jiftify this." The cij'rience of
er)ry moment is pregnant with fuchl example. He whl in the
voice and language of colverfarion, in a walking or a fitting pf-
tnu, is extremely uolublc and jrcfpicuous, becomes flow and em.
barrhifed, when the affociation is broken by a change of thofc cur-
romRannces, with which his volubility is usually conncitd. 1 he
ftime Irfon, when he is tailding upright without motion, and
dcliering clen tlhe anme opinion in a continued rain, and witr
ln krart. i voice, at once lofe all facilry in'anguage, and veryy
idre on the fulrft appears suddenly to hare dcferred him. 'The
.gad.r, swho is not accwuomied to the forms of public fIpaking,
mlay








[ 67 3

Though I am strongly impreffcd lilrwife with the
truth of the well-known maxim that o define is

may cafily be convinced of this factl and confcquently of the great
power of alTociatinn, by inflanmly ring from liis (at, and ha-
ranguing to himself in the manner that I have jllt defcriied, oil
any fibjell which he may chance hel to uilI rfl.al, and tbich ha
difuffcs in familiar convwefaion with lt~e utmoi radiinefs ad
prrfpicuiry. le will ind, 'if I am not niflakcn, that his oratory
is equally delfitute of fenfe and of language, It i ex.trnncly
curious to ober e a celbrated fpekcr in private convcrfation,
and in public debate, as, le rifes in tlie former, and finks in tll
latter, by engrafting on the one the flyle ad manner, which ar
appropriate to the other. We may there trace out the gradations
of 'olubilhy, a's he fcveral circuntlanccs, that complcea thie affe-
ciation in both cafes, arc incr.fcd or ,enwiniftied. To this
theory, perhaps, a ecry curious and ceclbrated fact ought, in force
degree, to be referred. I mean that the moll eininlilt orators in
tie ,rofcllon oi the law, when ihe) have attempted to difplay their
talemu on lthe theatre of the IHouf of Commons, are gcnrally
found to be inadequate anti unifuccefful. The eloquencce, which
appeared fo luminous at ith har, iilnes diarly in the fenat; not,
indeed .with the beams of departed (plendor, but with the dimunfa
of original oblcuriry.
Bafl and unintusia as the fmoky light
That's fed by flUnking tallow.
A portion of this inferority may be explained from the prLn-
ciples f ot theory. The affociautins of the bar haue Iwcn fo long
conncted in the mind of the orator with the happwil effuSions of
iis eloquence, lha ben this union is detroyed, ie becomes totally
unable to produce thofe (pecimens of iis killed, which, on other
ocrions, e has been found fuccreffully to exhibit. It muft be
addtd, likewifc, tiat a rnemoval of thefe mechanical affifances, and
acmp9arifon with hlat genuine eloquence, ulichl is enrich d by
the rfoualte of inallct, w ill dilcovcr a liil more important
F z r-cfon









dangerous, and fully fenfible, that it is almost im-
poffible to describe with precifion at one view every
cafe to which the question may be extended; yet I
am ftill defirous of attempting a plain anid concifi
definition of the general principle in its peculiar ap-'
plication to the objeEt of my enquiry. I define
therefore the power of this afqtciation.over the genius
of the poet, to confift in fupplying him with words
and with ideas, which have been ftiggefted to the
mind by a principle of. union unperceived'by him-
felf, and independent of the fubjeat, to which they
are applied. From this definition it follows, ift
That as thefe words and fentiments were prompted,
by a caufe, which is concealed from the poet,- fo
they contain no intentional allyfion to the force
from whence they. are derived and 2ndly, Th.a
as they were forced on the recollection of the
writer by fome accidental concurrence not necdffa-t
rily dependent on the fenfe or fpirit'of the fubjeEr,
fo they have no rieceffary refemblance in this fe-
condary application.to that train, of ideas,, in which

reason for this decided inferiority, and may ferve more fully to
inform us why the orator should feem rather to be unable than
unfortunate; not is if his powers were suddenly obfcured, but
rather as if they never had been apparent. Every one acknow.
ledges and laments that deplorable ravage on the finer faculties of
the mind, which a continuance in the fiudy and- practice of the
law has been found almost uiiierfally to produce: as the exceptions
are few, fo they are ilruftrious.--For my own part, I feem to bid
adied for ever to the man of genius, when he configns himfelf to
the glories of the liw.
5 they







( 69 ]
they originally exifted. We might thus perhaps
arrange in a more ample yet .inadequate manrier;
the principal obje&s of the general definition;
though the examples only will enable tis to under-
ftand the force.and propriety of the arrangement.
I. It will often happen that a certain word;
expreffion, sentiment, circumstancee,. or metaphors
will lead the writer to the ufe of that appropriate
language, by which they are each of them diftin,
guifhed, even on occafions where the metaphor is
io longer continued, where there is no allufion in-
tended to the circumftafce, nor is there any fenfe
conveyed under this language, which bears a pecu-
liar reference to the words or fetitirients that ex-
cited it. It is rherely accidental, that the imagery,
hi whofe service the language thus fuggefted is em-
ployed, has any affinity to the fubjc66 from which it
is borrowed. Now, as it is the bufinefs of the
critic to discover and eftablifh the original language
of the author, and to rejeEf what is sometimes called
1the improved text of an ingenious commentator, we
fiall inflantly perceive, that from this principle may
probably be derived a very important canon for the
confirmation of disputed readings, which have per-
haps been too haftily condemned, as quaint, remote,
or unintelligible. If the difcerning critic should
discover that the train of thought, which had juft
occupied the attention of the writer, would natu.
rally conduct him to the ufe of this controverted
-epreffion, we. should certainly have little difficulty
F3 in








1 70 J
in ndmitting the reading to be genuine, even
thmlgh it had before appeared to us under a quef-
tinable fll;pe, from the singular mode in hiLth it
was applhid. On in art not tapablc of demonfira-
tiin, furely no princpl' can be engrafted more
ufre and illnIJJblc I haj) that, w hlih is derived from
fome acknowledged powers in the understanding,
routed and controlled as tlhy arc by an active and
a regular influence.

2. Certain terms containing an equivocal imcan-
ing, or founds ruggertiig fui often ferve to introduce other words and expi'cllions
of a linilar nature: Tlhis fiGilarity is formed by
having in force cafes a coincidence in fenfc, or an
affinity arising from found ; though the fignifica-
tion, in ihicli they are really applied, has never
any reference and often no flmilitude to that, which
caused their affociation.

3. The remembrance of a similar phrafcology,
of a known metaphor, or of a circumfnance, not ap-
parent in the text, \\11 often lead the writer into
language or imagery derived from there sources;
though the application may be fometimes totally
different from the meaning and fpirit of the
original.

4. An imprefion on the mind of the writer,
arising from fcmclhing whichh is frequently pre-
fvnted to his fenfes, ur which paftes within the
fphcer








r 71
fphcre of hls "rdilnm ii'brvatiin, will fupp1i himh
with the union of worcI and fentierlntl, which ar>,
not nccefi[rily cmnncREtd Nith each other, and
which are combined only from the powerful in-
flUIIce 'IC eC t rnal i prcllimis in the lCl tiltics of
the under lmanling.

There oljiies may be general, and therefGie
equally apparent I, ti: ,Ir i l' ver o' cler' I .ind ;
but the more curious (a\niiples of this nature uill
be derived fi.n ithl tif iimpielllons wli( d anl peCII-
liar to the counlrv, the iae, and the fititation of
the writer. I [er likewife we are il11 to under-
fland, that as therc combination, were not formed
by the invention, but forced on the fancy oF' the
pool, he is totally unconficious of the effi cn and
principle of their union. 'I his thlln is a portion
of crilicifm, to which the dilii'genceC of coinllnin-
tators has never, I believe, heen 1t rcinatically ;p-
plied.-lThey haic exhaulled the albundance of
their knowledge in diifovering the cinef, though
sometimes perhaps ohfiuile alluiions, which the
poet has iaelwioii//b made to tie c tlolls Of iis
own age, and to the various vices, follies, pailnils,
and prejudices, which are the pointed ollje6t, of
his fatire or his prailr. But the coinilentatirs
have not marked thofe b indie? antd otrt references,
which are produced hy the writer wilh no inten-
tionalal llufion ; or rather they have not illfolded
thofe trains of thought, alibk pregnm; t with the
F 4 matcrials







[ 7" 1


materials pr uiiar to his age, whi-h often prompt
the combinations of the poet in the wildeRf exer-
tions of his fancy, and which conduitl him, uncon-
fcious of the effect, to the various perdiartics of
his imagery or his language. To illullratc paf-
fages which are dictated by a train of thought
abounding with therf materials, the critic. Tinuf
exert the famen knowledge in the phrafeology and
cuftoms belonging to the age of his author, which
he employed in the explanation of direEl nnd ia-
iJ ijiona alilun ,i a y thy li ke contain the fir-
gotten circurmfances of a remote period, and differ
only in the mode by which thefe circumllances are
presented. As the poet indeed rifls in genius, as
he advances to the rank of that felctt and exalted
band, who are not for an age, but fur all time,"
it is certain that his attention will be proportionally
abitratied from the Ilecling topics of his own period
and the minute concerns of his pt uhlar Gfitlation :
He will perhaps fludioully avoid ill Iocations of
fatire on the charactcis of his age, and all dr;c.
allusions to the occurrences before im.--His pie-
tures of nature and of life will be drawn from broad
and general views of our condition; frqo fccnes
to which the eyp of every age is wilnefs, and from
thofe pafiions and aflitIins of men, which hiav
been perpetually found to amir-f or agitate o'r
being. Still however, the feirret cneigv of local
influence will continue to operate on his mind:
His lodes of conception will be Hill affccld by
thr







[ 73
the ideas, which were moll familiar to the habits of
his life. In the fifions, the thoughts, and the
language of the poet, you may ever mark the deep
and unequivocal traces of the age in which he
lived, of the employ'ments in which he was en-
gaged, and of the various objeEts which excited
his paflions or arrested his attention. Nothing
therefore is wanting but the fagacity and diligence
of the critic to discover and illunr:lte the examples,
in which tlhefe effects may be evidently traced ; and
the reader will inmmudiately acknowledge, that the
principles of this theory are capable of affording a
conviction, which the art of criticifn cannot of it-
felf be expected to produce. To the ordinary re-
fouiccs of the critic we have applied an additional
confirmation, derived from the moff indubitable
principle in the do&rine of metaphyfics.

As the writers of one period may be diftinguifhed
from thofe of another, by dtren references to the
customs of the age in which they lived; fo they
may more certainly be difcriminated by a minute
invcfligation of tlhefe indired and involuntary al-
lulions. And here we hall easily underfland, that
this part of our theory may be applied with singular
fuccefs, to decide on a very important question,
which has been often agitated in the republic of
letters. What fubjeft has more embarraffed the
critics, than to determine on the merits of a caufe,
min







S74 1
in which it is affirmed on the one fide, that a cer-
tain composition was to be referred to ain author of
a difiant period, and contended on the other, that
it is nothing but the production of a modern forger,
who lias elndlaourcd to iitatl the lhnguagc anll
to adopt the cualoiis of the age in wihi.) his ima-
giliary writer was fuppoft d to baN exiled. \Vhien
the various modes, by vw-hi quellion olf hlis kind
have been ifilally llied, are found to be in dequatc,
we may conlidently report to the prefent tIeory ac a
fulc and nitidhbl touilfionll If ti llt li.'ul ol 1n-
dcm phrafcology flould be apparent in the corm-
porition, this may certainly have prorceded flor
the indifcreet forgcly ot a modern artii, but it
may likewise be nacribed to the ignorance, the
rafhnefs. or the negligence of a modern t anfir,/ir.
If the flyic of fuch a Lcnopolition Ihould be thought
to polfefs the excellencies of a more advanced and
cultivated period; it is certain that lie, who imi-
tates the wNritings of a former age, may incautioufly
adorn his performance with the graces of the pre.
lent; yet we mull likewife remember that the ex-
crtions of an original genius ale not bounded
wiitiin the limits of his own age, and that the knows
ledge of succeeding generations has fonmtimes
taught us only to underfiand and admire the pro-
grefs of a fingle being, who has hinmfelf begun and
endud the career, who at once onIceived and conl,
fuminated his art. It was referred for the knowledge
age,








[ 73 1
of the prefcnt age, to discover that Shakfperc hai
enriched and ennobled our poetry with new forms of
language, r)thmi, filion, and imagery, which we
know that he firl iri'cntcd, and blclecrv that he has
finally completed If ;igan tlhre ict should app.ir in
this difput d ( ompofiliondireEl and point d ialhllits
to the Lullms and manners of a certain age, tlhefe
indeed might very jufnly Ie attributed ito an author
of that period; but we mull tlill be lindlul that
they might like if have falthn willing ihe know-
ledge of a recent forger; and therefore may be
equally confidercd .s thtu production of a mludern
writer. We fee therefore, that with the prfe;t re-
fources of cliicifm, the arguments on a disputed
qucftion of this nature may be equally balanced,
and that the judgment nmy rell fufpcnded in doubt
-and uncertainty. Our conviclion, ho ci er, would
be immediate and ilincible, if we flould diflover
in this quellionable compolition, the manners and
circumstances of a dillant age, not indeed dire'ly
and immediaei/y delineated by the inmenion of the
writer, but apparent only in the Jlye of his deferip-
tions, and in the co/lomin of his sentiments, his
thoughts, or his language. For what can exceed
the evidence arifing from a principle, which flall
conduct us even to the very mind of the writer, and
discover to us the causes and cfl'nEs of its internal
operation, unknown even to hinlfelf; which hall ex-
hibit to us the train of hiia ideas impregnated with
the








[ 76 1
the o'bji.s peculiar to his age, and whkh (hall
enable us, w-lhn we again review the composition
itfelf, to mark the deep and diflinl traces of the
fame idea, though undez a new modification, v.ith all
tile kindred peculiaities of the original inpicllion
As thii fubtl, fp~e ics of niclpliyfical forgery has
never t)c been atolImptildr or cLincci'cd ', c hlioui
pronounced with the in uili pcifeI t conlfidcncc, that
the writings 'whiic atc liu marked l itl the r i-
prcrnions c" a di;iant qge, \\re certainly no! the
pioduclions ot miodtrn iiinention.

Though I do not think that the effcfls of there
ideal/forms, which are appropriate to excry age, will
ever be fuccufsfully repicfcuted by the moll con-
fummwalte ranalr in the all of ilmitaiion, yet I
cannot but imagine, that they might be invcfliga-
ted and defcribed wtlih ufficintit accuracyy for the
purposes of criticifln, by the f;ga;ity of an intclli-
gent enquirer. From a minute lildy of the genits
of a certain age, its language ild its progress in the
arts of civil flciety, fi-om a knowledge of the more
general objects and occurrences of domeltic and

This argument i; tllacioul, if the poems under the name of
Rowley, are the produIaionn of Chatterton. In this conapofiion,
th (fpecis of rt elphyifcal forgery, which 1 lhve defcribecd, lu
been conceded, atrempted, and fuccefsfully executed. I find in
there poems all the effels of an anwtnl mind, which my theory
had caught me to cpett.







[ 77 1
public life, its pmfiuik, pleafures, and opinions-
from an accurate enquiry into the charaltcr and
situation of the author himfcllf a judicious critic
light perhaps conjeaure with conidlcrable proba-
bility, what would Ib the IUfi- which there in-
preflions, continually working on the mind, would
netceifrily produce on til compolilion of the
writer. Ampng the various circumilancs, which
might he fclhed on this occasion, there ire two
particulars cninc!ntly difiinguilhinig the prefent
time fIom tlli ge of SIhaklticare and the periods
preceding, whhilil n ff operate witl fingulair cffte
qn the gen\ius of thle poet, as they nre connclaed
with the great resources of hi art, witll the colour-
ings of description and the variety of invention: I
meah the universal cuflln in thofe days of covering
the walls of their th:ainlers wUih arras or tapeifry
hangings, which represented the c'Jcbratcd flories
oCf acicnt or modern tines j and the frequent ex-
hibition of nafques, pageants, and procelions'
In therf wild,anud motley fpc'tacles, the illuflrious
perfonaics of Ililorv, LOmajlcec and mythology
il tales and ficions of ce ry period, whether they
wre: d Grecian, Gothic, Roman, Saracen, or
clinif4i, origin the crcatures of the imagination
and thle ]iiing chara Elrs of the woild, were all
bliendd and confounded by the licentious fancy or
S* Tghee is up r.der.oftatle, who will not on is acafioan be
itminded of the Delgire Cn tl-, c of E.'ae. r'-.







[ 73 1
the ignorance of the inventor. T'le reader will
itll antly perceive that tlihe miiutl influence with
conliderable energy the imagination of the poet;
as the former will impart to his descriptions certain
traits of a preciLc and definite coloring, which are
ad% entitious and accidental, rather than general
ndl charaleriflic, whiclih long rallher to the in-
preflRons of the c e, than to thoie abilrait and uni-
verfal conceptions that are formed by lice con-
tcmplantion of the mind: The latter will enrich
the forces of hiq fancy with wild annd onriginl
t.ombitnatiuns, with a splendid train of lively and
various imagery, and above al with the mof sample
materials for allegorical fiEtions and perfonificd
agencies. To thcce objecls, friking and familiar
as they would be to the eye of an observer, we may
not peihaps frequently discover direap and imme-
diate allufions in the writings of a ,ard, whofe
powers enabled him to range over the various
feenry of uniiveifil poetry: he would find little
reason to be gratified n ith the coarfe or inadequa:l
representations of the tapeiry ; and he would be
often flocked at the motley abfurdity of the pa-
grant ; fill however, they would rngra e upon his
mind a deep and lafling imprclion ; of which the
qfT'ls may be perpetually traced by the observing
critic, when the poet hihnflf is totally unconfcions
of this pr'clbmminating inlluence. Of the effeiis
produced by the former, I have given a general
view







r 79 i
view in my remarks on- the I/eler part of Atlanta
and I have taken oCCfion ill the Ifolowing pages
to introduce ccitain obfcrvations on the power of
the latter.

I hall now proceed to Ilie eampk.s themfelves,
which are itcnd:d to ilulrite or confirm thi
theory of thisi ;albt citing principle. I halve only
to rcqtlacl the itndcr liat they in) not I, haflly
peruled, but iiigentIly fluid a, Ihe Itra ,of to
fubtle ;in influence nill o(tln lie nvilible to the
hafly glance of a fupcrflcial will be apparent to a mi,'lt irfiul view in Oifi,;o
and unequivot< l chara6ttcrs I muft again ftlgg"..'
to the rea.dr, that he inill be frequently irdixxed to
wonder or to fUile at the minuct an even iliciilotlus
comhinatlions, which have been thus inmnlUdcEi on
the mind of the poet, and %lhich are a;htl to dl'-
ccive and control lthe molt acute and ponweiful
ilderftanding. I have been defirous fiiom various
motives, to onifine within thlefe narrow li:nits, lhe
present dliertatlion, which might calily have bcell
extended to a more iinple form, and connili t'd
with other branches of cutical inquiry ; and I hli-
only to add, that if the enfuing pages ihojild not
convey to the reder :ill the com'.iilii which they
might he expected to afford ; I hans oIly to ob]e i-t
that tlihe author has been lunfit ittnatc in the proof,
not unfounded in the principals. It is uniicrflly
,a icknow-







[ so 3
acknowledged that fuch an influence exills, nor cart
it be doubted that it muff thus operate on. the
composition of the poet. I may therefore at leaft
affume the merit of opening a new path to the re-
fcarches of the critic, and of supplying a future
theme of inrrieigation to a more fagacious or a more
diligent enquirer.







[ 81 J
TIIEf. lirfl cvainple, \ hiiL I hall producei,i tke
Very palr.i'- %i ot o0 in.4 l lcd to U t1o lc pi -Ci:at
tnqlluirv.-In 7T,;,9' of //./*;,, v in;I "1 IIni(n as re-
tired ,into the oods, A irll ii)( rtits thus uiplbal, il;nl
% ith t ie Intl all of ['.i t .!Id j i1 t t I n dlli0 i) :
1 h.t, th' k'R
That the bleak air, T in lhoilleromii 'a,. ':in,
\V\ill put tbh //fr on wainn? \1ilL theic NoisT
prices,
That have ojulv'd the cagle, page thy heais,
And Ikip %%hen thoul pouitt out?"
(ALt IV. b. iii. p. 100.)

Si Thomas I arnmcr for soif reads vriy cilegantly,
fays Dr. Johnfon, mIfi'd. Mr. Scc'cns L.nfiirms
the emendation by examples ; and Mr. Maione be-
lieves it to be the true reading. I .gre witl (our
Commentators, that mojs'd is a more elegant epi-
theit, and at the fame time better calculated to
exprcfs the antiquity of trees that haze out v'd the
tagle. It is certain hoWiever that t;oif Iis not alto-
gcther deftitute of force and propriety; as in many
parts of old and rotten trees, a kind of mcifl cxfu-
dation is ofien to be [tren, though pcihaps other
parts may be dry and i itherrd b)y age. i tlh'rrefe
I can lhew with extremlce piobab'li:y, from fome
acknowledged principle in the iilIrd, i by rill' pe-
culiar mord might be fuggeflcd to our PIit, it
furely ought to be confidcred as a valuabic touch-
flone in the Art of Criticlui, of % hliih it is Ler-
tainly the bufincfs to diicovcr and afiertairn U at
G the







[ 82 1
the author really /i,, riren, and nor what lihe
?e,/t to h.ave ldoi.-- t h rcadLr then is to be in-
iformed, hanr wnrm alnd mao;/ were the appropriate
terms in the days of Shakfpcarc for what we flould
ino call an rn'd and a dimp flnrt. So aJon Florio
(catd 'Ie,/cs, 591 .) t a d aIlogue bcrcc the
mailer 7orqualc, and his Icrvant Ruijpa.
T. [)fpatii anld give Imn af', It ?
R. l ie is one v. ih i lli s.
T Thou (dolte, feeet thou not how nmosf it is?
R. Pardon me, igo Sir, I was not aware of i.
9. Go into the kitchen and warme it."

Can the reader doubt (though he may perhaps
fmlle at the affociation) that the image of the
Cl':mbtirtn pllting the fl/r on warn imprelfcd the
opposite ord mowa on the imagination of the Poet ?
' hough he was himself unconscious how he came
by it, and certainly never would have applied it as
an epithet to tree, if it had not been fixed on his
mind by a kind of fascinating power, which con-
craled from him not only the origin but the effect
ihkewife of to firange an affociation.




IT is certain that thofe ideas are apparently very
remote from each other, which relate to drefs-to a
,oifome plant-and to that which is expreffive of
friig or acccmnmdali.: and )et the curious reader
will be aftonifhed to difcover, that the Poet isofteh
led








r 83 ]
led to conned fome of thefe dihnliiar ohie e-s, be-
caure they have been by accident combined under
the fame round; and becatife certain wolds, hy
which they are exprelldi, are fomecrimc; fimund to
be coinciidcn in fen., The 'words to hil h I
allude are SIu i and W \ r i, a which fii n Iheir equi-
vocal fences have firangcly opcra.td on the mind of
the Poet to produce, without his oan knoilcdge
and wihoull confusion of n'etaphor, the union of
the words or the connexion of the ideas.
The (rll iiLtince I flhal produce is from /s 2oiu
Lik It, in which drefs-p'tmon and the plant follow
each other.

7aques. I am ambitious for a [ioticy coat.
Duke S Thou flalt have one.
Jaq. It is iny only s iia;
" Provided, that you wri F youlrbettr ter judgments
" Of all opinion that grows rank in them ;
" That I am wire." (A. II. S. vi. p. 158.)

This the reader muft acknowledge to he a fingu-
jar combination. I agree with Dr. johniin, that
fuil means peltion, not drtf; and I think that Mr.
Steevens is miflaken in fuppofing hait tle Poet
meant a quibble Let me obferve in this place,

SIt is observable, that our Poet often falls inin aarrnt quit-.
bles or ir oln ntlar affociationns of this fort, wliLi o ii their occa-
ftons the fame fibjelt has fupplied him ith a vein of nlrentonal
quibbling. Mr. Srcei en produces hle folliming inltne out of
this very play: I Not out of your apparn; and vr out of our
C 2 fuji."








F 84 ]
that there is a fpecieq of quibble, which may be re-
feired in a certain fenfe to the principle which I am
dlf.lulirng; andl it ii thercfrre necellary to remind
my rt.ldor, thli 1 meanm onlh to produce thole in-
lDancts of ,!c.,, i her Ie t Aoubor himfelf was
tunionf1 IOLulS l iri oli 1t. I ihail moreover, in the
courlf of lim n lui take occasion from this doc-
trlin to deriind our Poet in a variety of inflances
againll the charge of an intended quibble, which
the ('nnCommntators have oltcnr unjullly imputed to
him. I he aid is, that our Critics have dikfovered
the 4ffociatton, nhich had efcapcd the ardour of the
\ writer.
In the following pafiFge drfrf is united to the
plant :
SBeliiles, they are our outward confciences,
"1 And preachers to us all; adniontlhung,
That e should drcip us fairly for our end.
hus may %c gather honey from the wLED,
And make a moral of the devil himself."
(Henry V. A& IV. S. i. p. 539-)

ut." (At IV. S. i. p. 2oz.) To which I will add another
example from Henry IV. IPar I. Fal. Well, Hal, well; and
" in fime fort it jumps with my humour, as well as waiting in the
" court, I can tell )ou." P. H. For ohiiining of /n?"
" Fal. Yea, fr obtaining of /ijs: whererf rlthe hangman habh
" no Icln aridroe." (At 1. S. ii p. 113.)
Our Poet has gain quibbld on this word from a different fouce
in Lo.ue' Labour Lofi, p. 36z; and again in A il' IliI ellat End,
U'W/, p. 361. Sce likcwife Comedy /f Errorhs p. 178.








[ s5 1


The argument, which I am illunrarin.n ill not
be aIffei ed by rlic fcnfe in lltch iti;j' is taken;
whether it lfilgmh n2ead:, to peraM:e, or dicf to
cloatli as the allociation atifie Irom lie irile
found bc'riing n cqvutocal fnle le l h Cti Wq ly
remarkable.
I believe however with tMr. Sc'emn, that the
word is-taken in its coiinion iaccepiatin lie pro-
duces the I'olloling pall.gc as an llliancc in point:
" They cone like facrtlices in their tnim." l.t me
add likewise, that the word fairrv confirrns this in-
terpretation; which is again flrengrhcned by the
paffage produced below.

But, by the mals, our hearts arc in the trim."

In the following paffate drrfs is connected with
fun in its f enfe of acco..m.cdtio,,i. Braery (as every
one knows) is fplendour in iers.

Or what is he of baifcft union;
That fays, his bravery is not on my colt,
(Thinking that I mean him), bur therein su rs
His folly to the mettle of my speech ?"
(As lou Like II, Ac II. S. vii. p. 19-160.)


The two following pafages are the mnat friking inftances
which I have futind i this eill kno. n fignfica.mon f bra.ttj.
I am unwilling ltat tli latter fiould be lhi, as it coi rains a iif-
tin(rion hlcween us pifrtn ani ancient tenfe. e lay lierfelfe
was all clad in greene, fo bra ve and rich, th.it i, a very itfclf was
transformed into her." (Shelion's Don r.vsl, J. .96.)-
G 3 Tan








[ 86 ]


The following pallage is extrcmdly curious:

Lo! this device as fent me from a Nun,
Or Sifner landiliild, of holiclt note;
Wh'ih late lhvr n,'l c i i ll COulnt diI fllun,
V'lioTfe iell hIa'ings n,.ile tle bloffoims dote;
"' For fie wa~s flouight by Spimis oti lchc[i ical,
1ur k pr c,.l dllaince, and did thelie reul\c ;
To fpend her livin'i in cterlnal love."
(,-I Lcv; Conmp'iani, p. 364.)

By Spirits of richest coat is certainly meant,
as the Commentators have obfcrved, niles, w hofe
4' high dtLrent is maik'd by the number of quar-
" ters in their oats of arnm ;" and it is remarkable
in this aflbclation, that the wond jrat recalls to
the Poet's inind, as in former inliances, the idea
of drcfs, and the term exprefling it; though that
term coat beating a double fenfe is applied with a
different lignification.

In the following panlage from Coriolanus c.ved
in the ienii of drefi is con',eided with the word /ft
in the fenfe of ptiion; and there is like ife a new

STan tl.zrra Y ricramenr, que la milifina iarria cnihn ranf-
* formiaa en cla" (3. 231. Edit. Iio les.)
*" Al.r. I ncommendei hut their v ut, Madam, and their Ira-
' ,reIts, ] neier rInnL i tniard tlIcir vual 'irt.
LH,.M. hir Dauphine is ,'alant, and a it 1 nn, it feemr.
"la*, And a Bfil ii to.."
(The Stl/nt Ilman, At IV. S. vi )
notion








[ "7 3
notion annexed, which relates to a peculiar mean-
ing of the equivocal word filt.

Befides. forget not
With ,uhat contempt he fe i e ti hunimble r r r n
hIOW ill s U1i ll he foirn'd u Ib .it your loves,
Thinking upon his /rvire, tiok from )ou
The apprehension of his present portance,
\Vhch mol gibingly, ungi iely, he did fyl7.iO
After the inveterate hate ih be.rs sou."
(Ad II. S. iii. p. 216 .)

In the foregoing paifTge the remarkable Miords
are weed-fidlt-fi'reu--fajison; and the reader, I
hope, will not imagine that I refine too much,
when I inform him that the word fervices is to be
referred to the fame afliclarion; and that it \as
fuggefed to the Poet by another ignification which
fruit fomctimes bears of /tr:'v-the peculiar diels by
which the fervants and retainers of one family \ecre
dillmguil(cd from thofe of another. In our Poet's
days, thefc diflinclions were considered as matters
of great importance; and we accordingly find that
both in him and in all our ancient writers allulions

W't anA fut, iihclir in di6firntn fenfe n r referring to the
fame object, apwper to hii' brcn particularly combined in the
imagination of our Bard. So In L-ar,
Ccr. Be hitter fuird,
" 'ThicCe veeds are memories orf hole worcfr hours."
(At IV. S.. p. 65.)








[ s8 ]
of thz fort perpetually occur, and that the idea of
frvice is otten connected with the libge or d-'e( by
whichh it is accompainid. The following pafiige
from ", l;r Le It, i rii chte ohlervtarns annexJed
vdll be lllllrattIve of this full clc :
" W'c-ir this for l ; one out of sr IT, with foitunc;
" 1 hat.could gie more; but that her hand laiks
Inans." ( \ -I S. ii. p. 133.
Mr. SteeI ens hblieve, that c l offi!, w"ithl fl-,rne
RcIan tui n.cd out of her fi :,ce, and 0lripp;dc of her
cr',r ; and Mr. Malone confirms this icnle by the
folol, ing paffage in the inmei play, where elia
fays, But turning ltle vittls out ol fi4'tue, let us
" tlk in good carne." (IP 137.)
To which add the following more decisive pal-
fage from Henry V.
But, by the mars, our heart. are in the iryn:
And mr poor i.ldiers tcll me-let ere night
They'll be in fre(hfer robes; or they wili pluck
The gay new ccits o'er the Flench foldivrs heads,
And lurnI the aoi of fc ,'iet."
(Ad ItV. S. iii. p. 562.)
The fucceeding palfages from lar/lon's Aalcontent,
1604, arc fill mote to the point:
Therefore I tell thee, Celfo,
I find the wind begins to come about,
I'll ihift my fuit offortne'."
(Old Plays, IV. p. 62.)
My








[ so ]
My lords,
Address to pubic counsel, 'tis moff fit,
The tratn offotune is borne up by wit." (ld. 76.)

I could produce iinmberlfs pa lTges, in which
familiar mrtaphlois are durccly taken Imm rthe dir-
tinguiilluiig l, tFs of fcranrs; but thole inflali es
only are dirteied to explain my prelc-nt arrumnent;
in whicl :c'', Pi aiicn tO a certain fubji ct, lloioiglt
not all ay'il:f to it, have been connected with each
other by an in luntairy affociation. To illustrate
more fully the pail)ge produced above from Corio-
lanus, take the following quotation loin AIs You
Like It, in which fe vice and fashion ate likc ife again
united.
Or. 0 good old man; how well in thcc appears
" The conflantfi'rvce of the antique world,
" When i/rvtirce cat for duty, not for mred!
" Thou art not fou the faction of thcle times."
(A t II. S. iii. p. i48.)

Suit and fervire, we know, are terms familiar to the
language of our Feudal Law. No ideas arc more
imprclfed on the mind of our Poet, than thofc
which have reference to the Law. In the follow-
ing paffages, firt andfervice are again united :

Baff. I know thee well; thou haft obtain'd thy
flitt :
" Shylock, thy master, fpoke with me this day,
And








I 90 ]
Andil hlit prcferr'd the I it be piefcrmcnl,
To 4.1.c a ricl j|rN i 'r to become
The folo'xwer of to ponl a gentleman."
(Mercarbilt of V"lir, Ac 11. S. ii. p. 29.)
P incerfi. Biro diM fk. car himlfIfowt ofatil it.
M ian. Durai iti A .ti n i/ r, and Is ord."
(L. 's L.. IcAf, Adt S. i. p. 408.)
Pin. Studies i, laT), ? Mif:rerr, look on me;
" Behold the I inJo of my hecirt, mine eye,
" What hImirllej'Pa attemju thy anli Lr there
* Impofc fomenicji -:' on me for rli love."
(Id. the lati Scene, p. 434.)
Let the curious reader once more review the
quotations rclniIng to ib]i- fLuhica; and I am per-
fuaded that he \wl coincile with me in admiring
this flrange aflociattm of liflniilar images, which
on fi many occasions had ibrmend ifelf in the mind
of our Poet.


ALL preparation for a bloody fiege,
And mercres proccceding by there French,
Confronts youa city's ees, your wn:ing gates 1
And, but for our approach, thoul'e sleeping flones,
That as a aaill do gudlle )ou about,
B) the compulsion of their ordnance,
By this time from their fixed bds of lime,
Had been dllhabhtcd."
(Ktg 7ch-r, Ac II. S. i. p. 472.)
Can








C 9' 3
Can the reader doubt that the words fJ.'epin and
bed in the above palfage Cre imprcnled on our
Author by the preceding image of the city's cves
and the scink'ng gtes ? The metaphor is not conti-
nued, thniugh the words belonging to it fuccccd.
The follun Ioi paffTagc ill leave us lItLe reafon to
douht rcfpcuing tl;e truth of this conjecture; as it
will llhew us that our Poet has intentionally formed a
conlbinlation of Li1i nRaure.

Iere lies your brother,
* No better thin the carth he lies upon,
" I( he were hat which nqm he's like, hat's, dead;
" Whori I ,alb this obcdici)lilcl,thrcee inches of it,
' Can lay t, bid for c er: v hiles you, doing thus
' To the IeIpLtitl, maI:nkt for aye might put
SThis aniciLt inorfli ihis Sir Prudence."
('epef?, AI II. S. i. p. 45.)




I i app-ars fom-tinme to figniry/fle in general, or wih n
epither to be pculiarly applied to a d*ep and afiunitfjle So in
the 'intJer'j Talc,
Ay, and thou,
His cup-bearer,-----------


-- might'i be-fpice a cup,
To give miner enemy a leafing juin."
(Ad I. S. ii. p. 14o.)
M r. Steevns on this pafTge produces the lines in the Tcmop








[ 92 ]
TI I ER EFOR E, out of my love to you, I came
" hither to acquaint you withal; that either you
"' night lay him frnom his intendmcnt, or brook
"' futh di!Ira.c ,cl as I, t (hiall irr; lto."
(i T' o Like It, Ad 1. S. i. p. 124.)

I have no )!hr hbif rh.at rw was foggcfled to the
Poet b) it aflotuariin ith the equivocal word
brook; ani t i)r. l'aiiji's ldia nhich, I think,
very r ,inireLn fmi ii l.ld I le .opted, the foloiwcil
paffhge iS to be referred to an ali hcation of this
fort :
PFcl. lie hath fl dy'd her wdr, and tranfated
" her weed. out of hone(ly int o Ernllti.
N ,m. The anchor is dcr : Will that humour
' pafs? (AlIcy i Ives of If. Ac 1. S. ii.)

From this equivocal word" (tsell), fays the
Doctor, Nymn at lhes the idea of deepnef:" I
have nor the lcal) doubt but that this arCalnc meta-
phor of the idecpnfs of the Anchor \ias filggeted to
Shakfpcare by the equivocal meaning of el/l, and
the phrafe o.,t rf might contribute ltkc" fc to ope.
rate on the mlind of our Poet. Let nie add, that
the ord : Ce/ is romewN hat am k "ardly introduced in
the palagec of is 2 ou Like ft. With refpe6q to the

as parallel. Let me add the allowing quoatlion from Mlarfln'
IAa 'content :
The Rfon'ing fcvihe-man dthat loth harb ire filed,
Thou la:keift nL njur: in night all creatures fleep,
Oi Only dce M4Ocntein." (Se UOld I'JPys. IV. 60.)




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