Group Title: House document - 72d Congress, 1st session ; Document no. 229.
Title: Anclote River, Fla. Letter from the secretary of war transmitting report from the chief of engineers on preliminary examination and survey of Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of Mexico
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Title: Anclote River, Fla. Letter from the secretary of war transmitting report from the chief of engineers on preliminary examination and survey of Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of Mexico
Series Title: House document 72d Congress, 1st session
Physical Description: 20 p. : fold. map ;
Language: English
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subject: Anclote River (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Pasco -- Anclote River
 Notes
General Note: January 19, 1932 -- Referred to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors and ordered to be printed, with illustrations.
Funding: House document (United States. Congress. House) ;
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Bibliographic ID: UF00004577
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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't7 CoNGMess ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES { DOCUMENT
1st Session ) No. 229





ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.




LETTER
FROM

THE SECRETARY OF WAR

TRANSMITTING
REPORT FROM THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS ON PRELIMINARY
EXAMINATION AND SURVEY OF ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.., FROM
THE COUNTY BRIDGE AT TARPON SPRINGS TO THE GULF OF
MEXICO

JANUARY 19, 1932.-Referred to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors and
ordered to be printed, with illustration


WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, January 18, 1932.
The SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
DEAR MR. SPEAKER. I am transmitting herewith a report dated
January 13, 1932, from the Chief of Engineers, United States Army,
on preliminary examination and survey of Anclote River, Fla., from
the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of Mexico, authorized
by the river and harbor act approved July 3, 1930, together with
accompanying papers and illustration.
Sincerely yours,
PATRICK J. HURLEY,
Secretary of War.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,
Washington, January 13, 1932.
Subject: Preliminary examination and survey of Anclote River, Fla.
To: The Secretary of War.
1. I submit for transmission to Congress my report, with accom-
panying papers and illustration, on preliminary examination and sur-
vey of Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs
to the Gulf of Mexico, authorized by the river and harbor act approved
July 3, 1930.
7261--H. Doc. 229, 72-1--1







2 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

2. Anclote River is a small stream which enters the Gulf of Mexico
about 38 miles north of the entrance to Tampa Bay. The tidal
estuary at the mouth of the river extends 3.6 miles to the town of
Tarpon Springs. Under the existing project for improvement, a
channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep, widened at the entrance and
on the curves, has been dredged to Tarpon Springs, and a turning
basin 200 feet wide and 500 feet long has been provided at the head
of the channel. The mean range of tide at the mouth of the river is
about 1} feet and at Tarpon Springs about 2 feet. Strong northerly
winds lower the water level, and the district engineer reports that it
is not unusual to find channel depths reduced to 4 to 4 1 feet for two
or three days at a time from this cause. The improvement desired is
the deepening of the channel to 9 feet, with sufficient widening at the
entrance and at curves to facilitate navigation.
3. Tarpon Springs is the center of an extensive commercial sponge
fishing industry. About 60 boats with drafts up to about 7 feet
operate out of the port. The tendency in recent years has been
to replace the smaller and older boats by larger ones. When winds
depress the water levels the larger boats can not enter or leave the
river and the smaller boats are frequently damaged by grounding.
The commerce on the river in 1930 amounted to nearly 9,000 tons
valued at over $5,000,000.
4. The district engineer presents estimates of cost for channels 7
8, and 9 feet deep, each with a turning basin, at $21,000, $62,000, and
$95,000, respectively. The estimated cost of a 9-foot channel with-
out a turning basin is $88,000. A depth of 7 feet would not be ade-
quate for the larger craft now using the waterway. The estimated
transportation economies resulting from a channel 8 feet in depth are
about $7,500 annually. A depth of 9 feet would afford the meam
for the transportation of oil by water, and the total estimated trans.
portation economies resulting from a 9-foot project are $22,500. The
estimates of cost of channel are based on depositing the dredged
material on existing spoil banks or on shoals in the estuary. Local
interests request that it be placed on the low lands dljacent to the
river. The district engineer reports that the increased cost of placing
the material ashore is not warranted at Federal expense. No land
will be required for the improvement except possibly for the turning
basin proposed.
5. The division engineer, concurring with the district engineer,
recommends that the project be modified to provide a channel 100
feet wide and 9 feet deep, with a turning basin in front of the sponge
exchange wharf at Tarpon Springs, at an estimated cost of $95,000,
with $8,000 annually for maintenance.
6. The reports have been referred, as required by law, to the
Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors. Attention is invited t
its report herewith. At a public hearing held by the board, locl
interests stated that the turning basin was not essential, and that
local interests might contribute $20,000 to the cost of channel in
provements. The board recommends a channel 9 feet deep and 100
feet wide, without a turning basin, at an estimated cost of $88,00,
provided that local interests shall contribute $20,000 to the first cost







ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 3

7. After due consideration of these reports, I concur in the recom-
mendation of the board. A chanpel 9 feet in depth and 100 feet in
width is considered necessary to safe and economical conduct of the
business of the port, and the estimated transportation savings justify
the cost of providing such a channel. The local benefits from the
nmprovement are sufficient to warrant a contribution of $20,000 to the
first cost as recommended by the board. In view of this considera-
ble contribution the United States may, however, well afford to incur
the incidental additional cost of meeting the desires of local interests
in placing the material ashore, provided the necessary disposal areas
are furnished without cost to the United States. It is believed that
the additional cost of placing the material ashore under these circum-
stance should not exceed $2,000. I therefore report that the modifi-
cation of the existing project for Anclote River, Fla., is deemed ad-
visable to provide a channel 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep from the
Gulf of Mexico to the lower end of the present turning basin, the
channel to be suitably widened at the entrance and at bends, at an
estimated cost of $90,000, with $8,000 annually for maintenance,
subject to the provision that local interests shall contribute $20,000
to the first cost, the excavated material to be placed ashore if local
interests furnish suitable areas for the purpose without cost to the
United States.
LYTLE BROWN,
Major General, Chief of Engineers.


REPORT OF THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND
HARBORS
SYLLABUS
The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors recommends modification of
the existing project so as to provide for a channel 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep
from the Gulf of Mexico to the lower end of the present turning basin, with
widening at the entrance and at the bends, at an estimated cost of $88,000, with
$8,000 annually for maintenance, subject to certain conditions of local coopera-
ton.
[Second indorsement]
BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS,
Washington, D. C., December 21, 1931.
The CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, UNITED STATES ARMY.
1. The following is in review of the reports on preliminary examina-
ion and survey of Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at
Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of Mexico, authorized by the river and
harbor act approved July 3, 1930.
2. The reports herewith contain information concerning existing
conditions, the improvement desired, and a discussion of the benefits
which might be expected to result from such a project. The reporting
officers consider a 9-foot depth advisable.
3. The city of Tarpon Springs is the center of the commercial
sponge fishing industry. About 60 diving boats with drafts up to
7 feet are engaged in taking sponges from the Gulf of Mexico. It is
customary for these vessels to remain on the banks for a period up to
three months at a time, supplies being sent to them in supply boats.







4 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

They are exposed to all kinds of weather, and it is desired to use
larger boats, which would be safer and more economical. It is not
possible to use such craft at present on account of the limited project
depth in the river. The tide does not increase the depth materially,
as the mean range is only 1.5 feet at the mouth and 2 feet at Tarpon
Springs, and the water level is frequently lowered 1 feet by strong
northerly or northeasterly winds. Probably for 15 or 20 days per
year, on the average, there is a marked lowering of the water level.
For 2 or 3 days at a time the minimum depth of the channel may be
4 or 4%2 feet, instead of the project depth of 6 feet. During such
periods the boats can not enter, and even the smaller boats are fre-
quently damaged by grounding.
4. The commerce of the Anclote River in 1930 amounted to 8,947
tons, valued at $5,483,676. In 1929, the traffic was 9,752 tons, valued
at $2,823,200. An increased tonnage of sponges and fish was handled
in 1930, but there was a corresponding decrease in shipments of ice.
5. Estimates have been submitted for channels 7, 8, and 9 feet
deep, of $21,000, $62,000, and $95,000, respectively. A 7-foot depth
would be of advantage to the smaller craft only. An 8-foot depth
would probably be sufficient for the existing vessels and migh result
in savings to the sponge industry of about $7,500 annually. A
9-foot depth would probably lead to the transportation by water of
the petroleum prodticts for the district at a cost which would eliminate
the 1 cent per gallon differential in price to the consumer over the
rate at Tampa. It would also make more certain the elimination of
repairs'and delays to sponge boats and would make possible the use
of larger craft. The total estimated savings on a 9-foot project are
$22,500.
6. In connection with its study of the case, the board held a public
hearing, at which local interests stated that the turning basin was not
essential and that the people of Tarpon Springs might contribute
$20,000 to the cost of the channel improvements. The estimated
cost of a 9-foot channel without a turning basin is $88,000.
7. The board therefore recommends modification of the existing
project for Anclote River, Fla., so as to provide for.a channel 100 feet
wide and 9 feet deep from the Gulf of Mexico to the lower end of the
present turning basin, with widening at the entrance and at bends, at
an estimated cost of $88,000, with $8,000 annually for maintenance,
subject to the provision that local interests contribute $20,000 to the
first cost.
8. In compliance with law, the board reports that there are no
questions of terminal facilities, water power, or other subjects so
related to the project proposed that they may be coordinated there-
with to lessen the cost and compensate the Government for expendi-
tures made in the interests of navigation.
For the board:
HERBERT DEAKYNE,
Colonel, Corps of Engineers.
Senior Member.






ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 5

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.
SYLLABUS
The district engineer believes that the estimated savings likely to accrue from
improvement of the Anclote River, Fla., are sufficient to warrant further consider-
ation to the extent of a survey. He recommends that a survey be made of the
Anclote River, from the 9-foot contour in Anclote Anchorage to the county bridge
"in Tarpon Springs, to determine the cost of deepening the existing channel and
turning basin to 9 feet at mean low water, maintaining the project channel width
of 100 feet, with such widening at entrances and turns as may be necessary to
facilitate navigation and commerce.
WAR DEPARTMENT,
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Jacksonville, Fla., November 20, 1930.
Subject: Preliminary examination of Anclote River, Fla.
To: The Chief of Engineers, United States Army
(Through the Division Engineer).
1. The following report on preliminary examination of Anclote
River, Fla., is submitted in compliance with a provision of the river
and harbor act approved July 3, 1930, reading in part as follows:
The Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to cause preliminary
examinations and surveys to be made at the following-named localities:
*
Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf
of Mexico.
The duty of making this preliminary examination and preparing the
report was assigned to the district engineer by letter from the Chief
of Engineers dated July 15, 1930.

DESCRIPTION
2. The Anclote River proper is formed by the Junction at Seven
Springs of a number of small streams rising in the swamps, marshes,
aff flatwoods of the central portion of Pasco County, Fla. From
Seven Springs the river flows in a general southwesterly direction a
distance of about 15 miles, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico about
38 miles north of the entrance to Tampa Bay. For the first 8 miles
of this distance, the river flows sluggishly in a very crooked channel
between fairly high and steep wooded banks; in this reach its width
is on the average 20 feet or less, and its average depth is about 3 feet,
with limiting depths of about 1.5 feet over a number of shoals.
Throughout the remainder of its course to the Gulf of Mexico, the river
winds through marshy flats, occasionally swinging over against the
higher land bordering the marsh. Its width gradually increases to
between 60 and 100 feet as far as Tarpon Springs, about 3.6 miles
above the mouth; below this point it takes on the character of a tidal
estuary, varying in width from 600 to 1,200 feet, and with depths
ranging generally from 2 to 8 feet. The drainage area is about 100
square miles, and the normal river discharge is about 500 cubic feet
per second.
3. About 3 miles offshore from the mouth of the river is Anclote
Key, nearly 3 miles long in a north and south direction and with a
maximum width east and west of about one-fourth mile, forming a
protective barrier between the open waters of the Gulf of Mexico
and the expanse of water between the key and the mainland. Shore-






6 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

ward of Anclote Key is a natural channel about 1 mile wide, parallel
with the shore line, and with available depths ranging from 9 to 13
feet; this is known as Anclote Anchorage. Entrance to Anclote
Anchorage from the Gulf of Mexico is afforded by channels both
north and south of Anclote Key, the southern channel, with depths
of 9 to 15 feet, being the deeper and more direct entrance for boats
making the Anclote River. The deeper water of Anclote Anchorage
is separated from the entrance to the river by sand shoals about 1X
miles wide, over which natural depths of from 1 to 6 feet are found.
The existing project channel, described hereinafter, is dredged through
these sand flats to the mouth of the Anclote River and up the river as
far as Tarpon Springs. Details of the locality may be found on
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey chart No. 178, and on the
map 1 accompanying this report.
4. The mean range of the tide is about 1.5 feet at the mouth of
the river and 2 feet at Tarpon Springs. The normal extreme tidal
range is about 2 feet at the entrance and 2.5 feet at Tarpon Springs.
Strong southwesterly winds raise the water level about 1 foot; strong
northerly or northeasterly winds lower the water level about 1.5 feet.
The tidal effect is normally perceptible for a distance of about 9 miles
upstream from the mouth of the river.
5. The county bridge at Tarpon Springs, referred to as the upper
limit of this examination, crosses the Anclote River about 3.6 miles
above its mouth. The bridge is a 5-arch concrete structure, with a
2-leaf steel bascule lift span occupying the center arch. The horizon-
tal clearance of the lift span is 50 feet when open; the vertical clear-
ance at the highest point when closed is 11 feet at mean low water.
There are no other bridges over the Anclote River between this
bridge and the Gulf of Mexico.

PREVIOUS REPORTS

6. Previous published reports of examinations and surveys of the
Anclote River are listed below:

Congressional document
Section covered Date of report Recommend-
tion
No. Congress Session

Tarpon Springs to mouth ---- Nov. 3,1884 H. Ex. 71_ Forty-eighth_ Second ___ Unfavorable.
Do _-------------------- Jan. 5,1887 H. 58 ---- Fiftieth--.---- First------ Do.
Anclote River ------------ Dec. 21, 1894 H. Ex.160 Fifty-third---- Third-__- Favorable
Tarpon Springs to mouth.------ Dec. 27,1897 H. 200____ Fifty-fifth----- Second__- Do.
Do -------------- ------ Nov. 15, 1912 H. 18 -- Sixty-third --- First-- Do.
Upstream from Tarpon Springs_ July 2,1915 H. 1112-- Sixty-fourth_---do---- Unfavorable.

EXISTING PROJECT

7. The existing project provides for a channel 100 feet wide and
feet deep at mean low water, with widening at entrances and on curve,
from Anclote Anchorage in the Gulf of Mexico to the county bridge
at Tarpon Springs, with a turning basin just below the county bridp
200 feet wide and 500 feet long. The total length of the project
channel is about 4/2 miles. The project was adopted by the following
1 Not printed.







ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 7

river and harbor acts: The act of March 3, 1899, provided for a
channel 6 feet deep to Sponge Harbor and thence 4 feet deep to
Tarpon Springs (H. Doc. No. 200, 55th Cong., 2d sess.), and the act
of January 21, 1927, extended the 6-foot depth from Sponge Harbor
to Tarpon Springs (H. Doc. No. 18, 63d Cong., 1st sess.). Work on
the improvement was begun on May 23, 1900, and continued inter-
mittently as funds were made available; final project dimensions were
secured on May 1, 1929. The total cost of this improvement to
June 30, 1930, has been $142,854.85, of which $76,051.86 was for new
work and $66,802.99 was for maintenance. The total expenditure
has been $142,854.85. Existing controlling depths are 6 feet in the
.aannel and 8 feet in the turning basin. Scattered ledges and pin-
nacles of rock are encountered in the existing channel below project
depth.
IMPROVEMENT DESIRED
8. Local interests desire that the existing channel be deepened to
afford 9-foot depth at mean low water, with a bottom width of 100
feet, and sufficient widening at the entrances and curves to make
navigation of the somewhat tortuous channel as easy as possible.

PUBLIC HEARING
9. No public hearing was deemed necessary in connection with this
examination, the data for the report being collected by correspondence,
personal interviews, and an inspection of the locality.

LOCAL COOPERATION
10. No local cooperation has been required in connection with the
present project, nor have any local expenditures been made except in
the construction of the terminal facilities hereinafter described.

WATER POWER, ETC.
11. There are no questions of water power, land reclamation, flood
control, or other allied subjects which can be so coordinated with the
proposed improvement as to reduce the cost thereof to the United
tates or render the improvement advisable for other reasons than
those of commerce and navigation.

TERMINAL FACILITIES
12. The principal commercial terminal is a timber marginal wharf
330 feet long, at Tarpon Springs, on tlje south bank of the river
immediately downstream from the turning basin. Adjoining this
wharf is the sponge exchange, a 1-story brick structure built around
three sides of an open court, and divided into cells in which are stored
the sponges as brought in by the sponging fleet. Five small marine
ways and machine shops are located on the south bank of the river
in Tarpon Springs, and one at the village of Anclote, between Tarpon
Springs and the mouth of the river. Three fish docks and three
petroleum-products docks are located in Tarpon Springs; the remain-
ng terminals consist of small privately owned docks and boat houses







8 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

scattered along the river banks. The municipal wharf is always
crowded with boats of the sponge fleet; otherwise the terminal facili.
ties are adequate for the needs of the existing commerce. There are
no rail connections to any of the terminals, transportation on shore
being entirely by truck or other vehicle.

COMMERCIAL CONSIDERATIONS
13. The city of Tarpon Springs, with a population of about 3,000,
is the commercial center of a district comprising the northern portion
of Pinellas County, the northwestern portion of Hillsborough County,
and the southwestern portion of Pasco County. It is about 27 miles
distant by highway from Tampa, with which it is connected by the
Seaboard Air Line Railway and Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, and
by good hard-surfaced highways. The principal commercial activi.
ties of Tarpon Springs and its tributary territory are the sponge
industry, fishing, collection of bird guano, growing of citrus fruits,
building and repair of sponging and fishing boats, and the distribution
of petroleum products and other supplies.
14. The following table, prepared from data published in the annual
reports of the Chief of Engineers, shows the amounts and values of
the annual water-borne commerce on the Anclote River for the years
1924-1929, inclusive:

TABLE I.-Amount and value of annual commerce on Anclote River, 1924-1999
[Amounts in tons of 2,000 pounds]

Yearalue Passengers
Year Tons (estimated)

1924 ------------------ ------------------- ------ 9, 766 $2, 491, 090 11, 1O
1925 ---- ---------------------------------- 10,078 2,429,948 12,00
1926 ------ --- --------------------------- 9, 168 2,495,868 5,00
1927---------------- ------------------------------ 10,422 2, 904, 850 5,0
1928 --------------------------------------------------- 9,790 2,760,990 6,50
1929 -- -------- --------------------------------9, 752 2,823,200 5,00

15. The classification of this commerce by commodities, as pub-
lished in the annual report of the Chief of Engineers, shows that in
1929 the receipts on this waterway consisted of 400 tons of fish and
577 tons of sponges, the latter item, valued at $1,557,900, being the
most important single item. The shipments, aggregating 8,775 tons,
were made up largely of groceries, gasoline and oil, ice, and general
merchandise, and comprised almost exclusively commodities carried
by supply boats to the sponge fleet operating in the Gulf of Mexico.
16. The above statistics indicate accurately the fact that prac-
tically the entire commercial activity of the Anclote River is connected
with the sponging and fishing industries. A small amount of bid
guano is brought in on barges from racks located in the adjoining
waters of the Gulf, but this. constitutes a small item in comparison
with the total. The amount and value of this commerce has been
very uniform for the past six years, and there is no indication of any
imminent increase or decrease therein.
17. A discussion of each of the principal commercial activities of
the vicinity, with an estimate of its bearing upon the proposed
mprovement, is given in the succeeding paragraphs.






ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 9

SPONGE INDUSTRY
18. Until about 30 years ago, the headquarters of the sponge
fisheries of Florida were at Key West. Sponges were then taken
from shallow waters by divers operating without diving equipment
or by the use of hooks or tongs. Mr. John K. Cheyney, of Tarpon
Springs, is credited with establishing the first Greek spongers at
Tarpon Springs and of introducing the use of the diving suit,
permitting the securing of sponges in waters up to 150 feet deep.
The quality of the sponges recovered from the deeper waters is
so much superior that the industry grew rapidly and the sponge
market there is now said to be the largest single source of this com-
modity in the world. The Greek colony now constitutes about one-
third of the population of Tarpon Springs, and in addition to exercising
a virtual monopoly of the sponge fishing, Greeks are engaged in the
other commercial activities of the city; they are practically all
naturalized citizens of the United States.
19. About 60 diving boats are now engaged in this industry. These
range in size from 30 to 46 feet in length and from 32 to 7 feet in draft,
12 of them drawing between 6 and 7 feet. During the past few years
new boats built to replace those no longer serviceable have been larger
in general than those formerly used. It is stated by those familiar
with the industry that provision of a depth of 9 feet in the channel
would be followed by a gradual replacement of the existing fleet by
larger boats, with added safety and comfort for the crews and in-
creased economy of operation. These boats operate into the Gulf of
Mexico to distances as great as 200 miles from shore and remain on
the sponge banks for periods up to three months at a time, supplies
being sent out to them in supply boats.
20. The sponges gathered by the divers are hauled aboard the boats
in baskets; the soft pulp is squeezed out and the skeletal framework,
which constitutes the sponge of commerce, is stored on the boat until
return to port. The sponges are then transferred to the storage cells
at the sponge exchange, graded, strung on yarns in bunches, and sold
at auction to the buyers. The aggregate annual payments to the
spongers are about $800,000.
21. Those familiar with conditions state that the sponge industry
would be benefited in three ways by provision of a 9-foot depth in the
channel. It would allow the building of larger and, therefore, safer
and more economical boats, the tendency toward which has already
been marked. It would save a considerable sum annually in repairs.
necessitated by groundings of the larger boats on the scattered rock:
ledges and pinnacles in the river. It would avoid loss of time due to.
inability of the boats to navigate the river under extreme low-water
conditions. In this latter connection it should be noted that, although
a controlling depth of 6 feet at mean'low water now exists in the chan-
nel, lunar tides frequently go below mean low water and strong north-
erly and northeasterly winds lower the water level still further.
Records of the Weather Bureau office at Tampa show that northerly
winds prevail in that vicinity for about 10 per cent of the year and
northeasterly winds about 30 per cent of the year, and that for prob-
ably at least 15 or 20 days of each year, on the average, these winds are
of sufficient velocity to cause a marked lowering of the water level in
97261--H. Doc. 229, 72-1-- 2







10 ANCLOTE EIVER, FLA.

Anclote River. It is not unusual to have a minimum depth of only
4 or 4Y2 feet in the channel for two or three days at a time, instead of
the project depth of 6 feet; during such periods the larger boats can
not enter or leave the river, and even the smaller boats are frequently
damaged by grounding. Inasmuch as the daily take of a sponge boat
will average in value about $100 to.$125, a considerable aggregate
annual loss may be entailed by delays thus occasioned.
FISHERIES
22. Three companies and a number of individuals are engaged in
commercial fishing from the Anclote River. They operate a total of
22 motor boats; which range in length from 22 to 56% feet and in
draft from 2 to 5 feet. The present catch consists of mullet taken
from shoal waters near the coast and Spanish mackerel taken from
deeper water offshore. The fish are packed in ice and shipped by rail
to markets in the north, being transferred from the fish houses on the
river to the railroad by motor truck. Existing depths in the river
are adequate for the present industry; provision of a 9-foot depth
would not result in any saving or stimulate noticeably the volume of
the mackerel and mullet catch. In one respect, however, the pro.
posed improvement would extend the local fish business, in that at
least one of the fishing companies would engage in the snapper fishing,
which is now done largely by boats from Pensacola. In summer the
snapper are taken from the snapper banks about 30 or 40 miles west
of Tarpon Springs in the Gulf of Mexico; in winter they move farther
south, and the snapper boats follow them to banks off Yucatan and
Tampico. The snapper are caught from auxiliary schooners drawig
from 10 to 15 feet; if the proposed improvement should be effected,
it is stated that at least one such schooner with a draft of about 10 feet
would be built and operated out of the Anclote River, which is about
200 miles nearer the snapper banks than is Pensacola, the present
headquarters of this industry. It is claimed that .this advantage i4
distance would result in getting the fish to market more rapidly and
cheaply than can be done at present; it seems doubtful, however,
whether any substantial general saving in cost would result from such
operations, although the additional activity would undoubtedly be
advantageous locally to those who might engage in the industry.
BIRD GUANO
23. A comparatively recent, and at present minor,\industry is the
collection and marketing of bird guano, in which two individuals on
the Anclote River are now engaged. Bird "racks" are built along
the coast in water usually 6 feet or less deep, near shoals where water
birds congregate in numbers; these racks are board floor platforms,
supported on piling above the reach of wave action, and furnished with
"elevated roosting rails above the floor. Pelicans, cormorants, gulls,
and other sea birds roost upon the rails and the guano collects upon
the floor below; about once a month the racks are visited by motor
boats towing small barges, in which the guano is collected and trans-
ferred to shore, where it is bagged and shipped by rail to fertiliar
manufacturers in Tampa and Jacksonville. About 200 tons of thbi
material, valued at $100 per ton, are brought into the Anclote Rivir







ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 11

annually, and the business appears to be expanding. Existing channel
depths in the Anclote River are adequate for the boats and barges
used, and no advantage would accrue to the operators from any in-
crease in the present project depth.

CITRUS FRUITS
24. The territory surrounding Tarpon Springs is very largely
planted to groves of citrus fruit. Figures furnished for this report by
one of the leading citrus growers of Tarpon Springs, Mr. William
Clark, show that within a radius of 12 miles of Tarpon Springs there are
produced annually approximately 700,000 boxes of oranges and grape-
fruit. This fruit is hauled from grove to packing house by motor
truck, and shipped from the packing houses by rail, most of it going
to northern markets direct, although a considerable and growing
portion of the crop is shipped by rail to Tampa for reshipment by
water in refrigerated boats to northern or foreign markets. No
movement of the fruit crop over the Anclote River, even if improved
as proposed, may be anticipated.
25. A phase of the citrus production of considerable interest and
importance is the grapefruit canning plant of Tugwell & Wisemann,
located at Tarpon Springs. This plant uses drop or cull fruit which,
although sound, is unsuitable for packing by reason of superficial
blemishes, odd shape, or other imperfection. Such fruit was formerly
largely wasted until the introduction of the present canning methods.
The plant at Tarpon Springs is expected to turn out this season at
least 125,000 cases of 24 No. 2 cans each; about 100,000 cases, weigh-
mg 48 pounds each, are expected to be shipped by rail from the
siding at the factory to Tampa, whence they will move by boat to
Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and other North Atlantic and for-
eign ports. The freight rate on this commodity by rail from Tarpon
Springs to Tampa is now 7% cents per 100 pounds; the probable
water rate by barge would be about 20 cents per 100 pounds. Con-
sequently no movement of this product by water over an improved
channel is to be expected.

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
26. District distribution depots are maintained at Tarpon Springs
by the Standard Oil Co., Gulf Refining Co., and Texas Co. The
Pan-American Petroleum Corporation maintains a district distribu-
tion depot at Port Richey, about 7 or 8 miles north of Tarpon Springs.
All these distribution depots are located on the railroad, and petro-
leum products are brought to them in tank cars by rail from Tampa
or Port Tampa and distributed from them to filling stations and
consumers by motor tank trucks. It is stated that about 1,500,000
gallons of gasoline are distributed annually from these four depots
to consumers in the adjoining territory, a large proportion of this
being delivered to the sponge and fish boats at Tarpon Springs.
The freight rate by rail to Tarpon Springs is about 1/3 cents per
gallon and to Port Richey nearly 1 \ cents per gallon, and in addition
the oil companies must own or rent the tank cars in which the prod-
uots are handled. As a result, there is a price differential on gasoline
of 1 cent per gallon for all points in this district, as compared with
Tampa, which must be paid by the consumer in the district.






12 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

27. Local representatives of the oil companies state that the ques-
tion of removing the depots from railside to the river at Tarpon
Springs, with transportation of supplies from Tampa or Port Tamp&
by water in barges instead of by rail, has been under consideration
for some years. All four companies have land for such depots already
available on the river, and three of them maintain marine filling sta-
tions for the sponge and fish boats just below the municipal wharf
at Tarpon Springs. Local representatives of the oil companies state
that the cost of transporting gasoline by barge from Port Tampa to
Tarpon Springs would be about one-half cent per gallon, and addi-
tional savings would be realized by eliminating the cost of transfer.
ring in tank trucks from railside depots to riverside marine filling
stations the large proportion of the total fuel which is consumed by
the sponge fleet and fish boats. As a result of these possible savings,
local representatives of the oil companies predict that dredging of
the Anclote River Channel to a depth of 9 feet would be followed
by removal of the four district distribution depots, including that of
the Pan-American Petroleum Corporation now at Port Richey, to
the riverside at Tarpon Springs, with resultant elimination of the
1-cent differential on gasoline in the district and a consequent saving
to the entire population of the district. Petroleum products are
now distributed in barges by these companies frolh Tampa or Port
Tampa to St. Petersburg, Cedar Keys, Punta Gorda, Sarasota, and
other near-by Gulf points where sufficient depth of water exists to
insure reasonable certainty of uninterrupted delivery, and the proven
economy of this method of distribution is such that the predicted
change in location of the depots, with resultant decrease in cost of
petroleum products to the consumer, would appear probable in case
the proposed improvements were made.
MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL FREIGHT
28. Certain local interests have claimed that the proposed improve-
ment of the Anclote River would result in the transportation by
water from Tampa or Port Tampa of a considerable quantity of the
general freight now moved by rail or motor truck, such as ship
chandlery, canned groceries, building materials, and other nonperish-
able and bulky commodities. Investigation of the situation dis-
closes that this claim does not appear to be founded on probability.
The distance from Tampa to Tarpon Springs by Seaboard Air Line
Railway is 35.8 miles, by highway about 27 miles, whereas by water
it is about 80 miles. A barge rate of 20 cents per 100 pounds wU8
stated by a local resident familiar with conditions of water transporta-
tion as being the minimum at which bulk general freight could be
moved in barges by private initiative at a reasonable profit; compan-
son of this rate with existing rail rates on a number of the commoditis
suitable for water transportation shows that in general the existing
rail rates on this type of freight are lower, and even hauling by motor
truck appears more economical. With the single exception of petro-
leum products mentioned hereinbefore, which would be deliverd
without question of private profit and in the case of which the rail
rate is unusually high, it is believed that no development of wati
borne commerce in other commodities may be expected to follow it
proposed improvement of the channel.






ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 13

ESTIMATE OF SAVINGS
29. From the various claims as to savings which might be expected
to be effected by provision of the proposed improvement, the following
items have been selected as being sufficiently substantiated by the
facts to merit acceptance:
(a) Savings in repairs to sponge boats due to groundings.
(b) Savings in delay to sponge boats due to extreme low water.
(c) Saving to district by probable elimination of 1-cent differential in cost of
gasoline.
(a) Figures furnished by the bookkeepers of marine ways and repair
shops at Tarpon Springs show that about $40,000 a year is spent by
the owners of sponge boats for maintenance and repairs. What
proportion of this sum is spent for repairs of damage due to groundings,
and what proportion for repairs due to ordinary wear and tear, is
uncertain. For purposes of an estimate, however, information
collected from those familiar with the situation indicates that not less
than $5,000 annually may be charged against damage due to ground-
igs in the channel. No charge is included in the estimate for time
lost from sponging by boats on the ways, as it is assumed that they
would in any event be in port for other reasons during the period of
repairs.
(b) Assuming that for 15 days each year northerly or northeasterly
winds produce abnormally low water in the Anclote River, and that,
on the average, five sponge boats are prevented either from entering
or leaving the river during this period, a total delay of 75 boat-days
would result, which, at an average daily catch of $100, would mean
an annual loss of $7,500. However, in the interest of a conservative
estimate, it is assumed that two-thirds of this delay does not actually
result in any loss, being subsequently compensated for by spending
time on the banks which would otherwise have been spent in port.
This leaves an estimated annual loss due to delay by low water of
$2,500.
(c) It is believed probable that deepening of the channel to 9 feet
would lead to transportation by water of petroleum products for the
district, at such reduced expense to the companies that the 1-cent-per-
gallon differential in price to the consumer would be abolished.
Should this occur, the reduction of 1 cent per gallon on the price of
1,500,000 gallons distributed annually in the district would mean a
saving to the consumers of $15,000 per annum.
30. From the above considerations it is believed that provision of
a 9-foot depth in the Anclote River would result in annual savings to
the sponge fleet of $7,500 due to elimination of repairs and delays, and
a probable additional saving of $15,000 to the residents of the district
in lower price of gasoline.
SUMMARY
31. The commercial activity of the Anclote River is at present con-
fined to operations of the sponge fleet, commercial fishing boats, and
the gathering of bird guano. The existing channel dimensions are
adequate for the operations of all but the larger sponge boats. Owing
to the prevalence of northerly and northeasterly winds, however, the
project depth of 6 feet at mean low water is not in fact available during
considerable periods of the year. This fact, in conjunction with the







14 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

tendency of the spongers to build larger, safer, and more economical
boats, establishes the fact that the existing channel depth is not
sufficient to meet entirely the needs of the sponge industry. The
proposed deepening of the channel to 9 feet would fully meet all
requirements of existing and probable future commerce and result in
certain savings in repair bills and lost time to the sponge boats, as well
as probable economies in the use of larger boats, which latter econ-
omies, however, are not susceptible of accurate estimation.
32. The only additional activity which may reasonably be expected
to use the improved channel is the transportation of petroleum prod-
ucts by barge from Tampa or Port Tampa to distribution depots
located on the river bank in Tarpon Springs. There appears to be
cause to credit the claim of local representatives of the oil companies
that provision of the proposed 9-foot depth in the channel would result
in sufficient savings to the companies to eliminate the 1-cent per
gallon price differential on gasoline between the district and Tampa,
resulting in considerable savings to the residents and business inter-
ests of the district.
CONCLUSION
33. The district engineer believes that the estimated savings are-
sufficient to warrant further consideration to the extent of a survey to,
determine the quantities and costs of the proposed improvements.

RECOMMENDATION
34. The district engineer recommends that a survey be made of the'
Anclote River, from the 9-foot contour in Anclote Anchorage to the
county bridge in Tarpon Springs, to determine the cost of deepening
the existing channel and turning basin to 9 feet at mean low water,
maintaining the present project channel width of 100 feet, with such
widening at entrances and turns as may be necessary to facilitate
navigation and commerce.
L. V. FRAZIER,
Lieutenant Colonel, Corps of Engineers,
District Engineer.
[First indorsement]
OFFICE OF DIVISION ENGINEER,
GULF OF MEXICO DIVISION,
New Orleans, La., November 25, 1930.
The CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, UNITED STATES ARMY:
1. Concurring in the views and recommendations of the district
engineer in paragraph 34 of the report.
MARK BROOKE,
Lieutenant Colonel, Corps of Engineers,
Division Engineer.
[Third indorsement]
BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS AND HARBORS,
Washington, D. C., December 9, 1930.
The CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, UNITED STATES ARMY:
1. For the reasons stated herein, the board concurs with the district
and division engineers in recommending a survey to determine the







ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 15

kdvisability and extent of the improvement. Estimates should be
ubmtitted of the cost of channels 7, 8, and 9 feet deep.
For the board:
HERBERT DEAKYNE,
Colonel, Corps of Engineers,
Senior Member.
SURVEY OF ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.
SYLLABUS
The district engineer recommends that the dimensions of the Federal project
for the Anclote River, Fla., be modified to increase the project depth from the
present 6 feet to 9 feet at mean low water in the Gulf of Mexico, maintaining the
present width of 100 feet with widening at bends, and providing a turning basin
9 feet deep, 500 feet long, and 200 feet wide in front of the sponge exchange
wharf at Tarpon Springs, at an estimated total cost of $95,000, with $8,000
annually for maintenance.
WAR DEPARTMENT,
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Jacksonville, Fla., August 8, 1931.
Subject: Survey of Anclote River, Fla.
To: The Division Engineer, Gulf of Mexico division, New Orleans,.
La.
1: The following report is submitted in compliance with a provision
of the river and harbor act approved July 3, 1930, reading in part as
follows:
The Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to cause preliminary
examinations and surveys to be made at the following-named localities:
*
Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of
Mexico.
A report of preliminary examination was submitted by the district
engineer under date of November 20, 1930, and the survey was
authorized by letter of the Acting Chief of Engineers dated Decem-
ber 11, 1930.
SCOPE OF SURVEY
2. The survey was carried out to determine the nature and quanti-
ties of materials to be removed from, and the estimated cost of pro-
liding, a channel 9 feet deep at mean low water, and 100 feet wide,
with required widening at the entrances and turns, from the 9-foot
contour in Anclote Anchorage into and up the Anclote River to the
Sponge exchange wharf at Tarpon Springs, as recommended in report
Of preliminary examination.

RESULTS OF SURVEY
3. The results of the survey are shown on the map in 7 sheets 1
accompanying this report. Sheet 1 is a general location map, sheets 2,
n, and 4 show soundings in the channel, and sheets 5, 6, and 7 show
wash borings to rock.
NATURE OF MATERIALS
4. The survey discloses that over 90 per cent of the required exca-
vation will be soft material, principally sand and shell, and less than
1 nly sheet No. 1 printed.








16 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

10 per cent will be rock. The results of previous work in this channel,
confirmed by the survey, indicate that this rock consists chiefly of loose
bowlders which can, it is believed, be removed by a suitable hydraulic
dredge with the use of explosives. In any event, removal of the rock
encountered in the survey will involve no very great difficulty or un-
usual expense.
CHANGES IN CHANNEL

5. The principal commercial use of the Anclote River is by the
sponge fishing fleet which bases on the sponge exchange wharf at
Tarpon Springs. These vessels draw from 3% to 7 feet, and the tend-
ency of recent years has been to replace the smaller and older boats
by larger ones. These vessels do not now use the existing turning
basin above the sponge exchange wharf, but make the turn in the
river immediately in front of the wharf. To facilitate this turning,
the location of the turning basin has been changed as shown on the map,
and the alignment of cuts J, K, and L has been slightly altered to
afford a straight approach to the turning basin and also to bring deep
water in the channel closer to the docks of the Gulf Refining Co.,
Standard Oil Co., and Pan-American Petroleum Corporation, below
the sponge exchange wharf. Otherwise the channel improvement
follows the present channel alignment.

ESTIMATE OF QUANTITIES AND COSTS

6. The following estimate of quantities and costs is for a channel 9
feet deep at mean low water in the Gulf of Mexico, 100 feet wide, with
slopes of 1 vertical on 3 horizontal, and including an allowance of 1
foot extra for overdepth dredging, and for a turning basin approxi-
mately 500 feet long by 200 feet wide, and 9 feet deep, in front of the
sponge exchange wharf, as shown on the map accompanying this
report

Cubic yards of
Section Length material Unit Cost
(feet) price
Soft Rock

A- ---------------------------------------- 7,250 75,000 $0.015 $11, 0
15,,6,9W
-B ------------------------------------- 4,306 46,000 ---- .15 6, 00
C---------------------------------------- 3,443 33,000 00 2.00 2,000
D----.--------------- ----------------- ,443 33, 000 --o. .15 2, 50
...... ... ,000 1ne. .15 2,250
E------ ---------------------- ------2,652 30,000 None. .15 4,
F.......... ............. ... ....... ............ 1,312 15,000 -200 2.00 250
G----------------------------------------- ------,1 964 9,000 2 200 2 500
{2,500 2.000
__ooof-_ 15 750
.......................... ... ..... ............ 560 000 2.00 00
--------- -----------------------------------603 7,000 200 2. 00 00
J, K, L, and T. B...--.....-............-.-.-..... 2,815 50,000 { 1 200 7, 00
Total................................--.. 285,000 19,700 ..-- ---- 82,150
19. 1 2 050

Total--------------------------------------------- 285,7t000 700
S-5___ -A00


Engineering, supervision and contingencies, approx- 102, O-
im ately 15 per cen t .--.........-- -- -- -_... ... ...- -- -
Estimated total cost.__ -------- -------- ----- -- 95'000







ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 17

7. There have been no changes in the physical conditions affecting
the work herein considered since the submission of the report of pre-
liminary examination. Recently letters have been received from
certain residents on the river shores, protesting the disposal in the
open river of spoil from the channel dredging, and requesting that it
be placed on low lands along the shore, with the object of improving
the appearance of the river, aiding in the elimination of mosquitoes,
and maintaining existing navigable depths in the river itself. Such
disposal of spoil ashore would require in general the use of from 200 to
600 feet of additional discharge pipe, with the added expense of crib-
bing this pipe across shallow water and shifting it from place to place;
it seems unavoidable that this would increase somewhat the cost of
the improvement, and it is not believed that this added cost should
properly be incurred by the United States. If and when the improve-
ment should be authorized and work begun, it might be that owners
of property would be willing to have the spoil from the channel placed
on low lands on their properties, by personal arrangement with the
contractor and with no additional cost or responsibility on the part
of the United States. No objection to such a course is seen. How-
ever, the estimates of cost herein given contemplate the disposal of
the spoil on the existing spoil banks or shoals in open water.
8. From the commercial statistics for 1930 to be incorporated in
the annual report of the Chief of Engineers, the total commerce of the
Anclote River in that year was 8,947 short tons, a decrease of about
8 per cent from that of 9,752 short tons in 1929. The total value of
the commerce, however, increased from $2,823,200 in 1929 to $5,483,-
696 in 1930. This result was due to the fact that the decrease in
tonnage was caused principally by a falling off of 2,000 tons in the
reported shipments of ice, which was partially compensated for in
tonnage, and much more than made up in value, by large increase in
the tonnages of fish and sponges brought into the river. Receipts of
fish increased from 400 tons in 1929 to 1,500 tons in 1930, and of
sponges from 577 tons valued at $1,557,900 in 1929 to 1,549 tons,
valued at $4,182,300, in 1930. Thus the real commercial activity of
the waterway, which would chiefly be benefited by the improvement
herein considered, has shown a marked improvement since the report
of preliminary examination was submitted, and the district engineer
believes that the reasons advanced therein as a justification of the
improvement appear to carry even more weight under present condi-
tions than then.
9. The provision of the turning basin 200 feet wide in front of the
Sponge exchange wharf in Tarpon Springs, as discussed in paragraph 5
of this report, would involve cutting away a strip of shore line along the
bend on the north bank of the waterway,. as shown on the map accom-
panying the report. The owner of all the land north of the proposed
'turning basin, Mr. Granville E. Noblitt, was approached with
reference to his readiness to provide the land needed for this improve-
ment free of cost to the United States. Mr. Noblitt stated that the
south boundary of his property, as given in the legal description
thereof, is a meander line which lies 30 feet or more north of the north
line of the proposed basin; it is believed that spoil placed upon Mr.
Noblitt's land during past dredging operations has extended the
FShore line southward to its present position. Mr. Noblitt was








18 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA.

uncertain whether he owned this new land south of his original prop.
erty line, but expressed himself as entirely willing to have the work
done, provided the spoil was placed on the remainder of his property.
No difficulty or expense to the United States is therefore foreseen u
the accomplishment of the work of providing the turning basin die
cussed herein, so far as acquiring the necessary land is concerned.

RECOMMENDATION
10. The district engineer recommends that the dimensions of the
Federal project for the Anclote River, Fla., ba&modified to increase
the project depth from the present 6 feet to 9 feet at mean low water
in the Gulf of Mexico, maintaining the present width of 100 feet,
with widening at bends, and providing a turning basin 9 feet deep,
500 feet long, and 200 feet wide in front of the sponge exchange wharf
at Tarpon Springs, at an estimated total cost of $95,000, with $8,000
annually for maintenance.
L. V. FRAZIER,
Lieutenant Colonel, Corps of Engineers,
District Engineer.
REPORT OF THE DIVISION ENGINEER
SYLLABUS
The division engineer recommends the modification of the existing project for
Anclote River, Fla., to provide a depth of 9 feet in the channel and turning basin,
at an estimated total cost of $95,000, with $8,000 annually for maintenance.
WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE DIVISION ENGINEER,
GULF OF MEXICO DIVISION,
New Orleans, La., September 18, 1931.
Subject: Survey of Anclote River, Fla.
To: The Chief of Engineers, United States Army.
1. The following report is submitted in compliance with a provision
of the river and harbor act approved July 3, 1930, reading in-part
as follows:
The Secretary of War is hereby authorized and directed to cause preliminary
examinations and surveys to be made at the following-named localities *
Anclote River, Fla., from the county bridge at Tarpon Springs to the Gulf of
Mexico.
2. The Anclote River, formed at Seven Springs by the junction of
a number of small streams which rise in the central portion of Pasco
County, flows about 15 miles in a general southwesterly direction and
empties into the Gulf of Mexico about 38 miles north of the entrance
to Tampa Bay. Below Tarpon Springs, the upper limit of the
improvement, 3.6 miles above the mouth, the river becomes a tida
estuary from 600 to 1,200 feet wide with depths ranging from 2 to
8 feet.
3. About 3 miles offshore from the mouth of the river is Anclote
Key, which forms a protective barrier nearly 3 miles long. Shore-
ward of the key is a natural channel about 1 mile wide and from 9 to
13 feet deep, which is known as Anclote Anchorage. Channels north
and south of Anclote Key lead into the anchorage from the Gulf of
Mexico; the southern channel, with depths of 9 to 15 feet, is the deeper






ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA. 19

and more direct entrance. Sand shoals, where natural depths are
1 to 6 feet, extend from Anclote Anchorage to the mouth of the river.
The improved channel was dredged through these shoals and up the
river to Tarpon Springs. The mean range of tide is about 1.5 feet
at the mouth and 2 feet at Tarpon Springs. Strong southwesterly
winds raise the water level about 1 foot, and strong northerly or
northeasterly winds lower the water level about 1.5 feet.
4. The existing project provides for a channel 100 feet wide and 6
feet deep at mean low water, with widening at entrance and on curves,
from Anclote Anchorage in the Gulf of Mexico to the county bridge
at Tarpon Springs, with a turning basin 200 feet wide and 500 feet
long just below the county bridge.
5. Local interests desire the modification of the project to provide
a channel 9 feet deep at mean low water with a bottom width of 100
feet, and sufficient widening at the entrance and curves to make
navigation of the tortuous channel as easy as possible.
6. In 1930, the total commerce of the Anclote River was 8,947 tons
valued at $5,483,696; in 1929, the commerce was 9,752 tons valued at
$2,823,200. It is noted that decrease in tonnage was caused by
reduced shipments of ice, and that the traffic in fish and sponges,
which represents the real commercial activity of the waterway, has
shown a marked improvement since the report on the preliminary
examination was submitted.
7. Terminal facilities at Tarpon Springs include a municipal
marginal wharf on the south bank of the river immediately down-
stream from the turning basin, 3 fish docks, 3 petroleum products
docks, and a number of small privately owned docks and boathouses
scattered along the river banks. Five small marine ways and machine
shops are located on the south bank of the river at Tarpon Springs
and one at the village of Anclote near the mouth of the river. The
municipal wharf is always crowded with boats of the sponge fleet,
otherwise the terminal facilities are adequate for existing commerce.
There are no rail connections to the terminals. Tarpon Springs, with
a population of 3,000, is connected with Tampa, about 27 miles dis-
tant, by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and the Seaboard Air Line
Railway, and by good hard-surfaced highways.
8. The benefits expected from the improvement would include
savings that would accrue to the sponge and fishing industries from
the use of larger, safer, and more economical boats, and the savings to
the public from the elimination of the differential on petroleum prod-
ucts between this district and Tampa. The district engineer estimated
that provision of a 9-foot depth in the Anclote River would result in
annual savings of $22,500.
,9. The survey discloses that, for a modification of the project to
provide a depth of 9 feet, over 90 per cent of the required excavations
will be soft material, principally sand and shell; and confirms the
indications of previous work in this channel that the rock to be
removed'consists chiefly of loose bowlders, the excavation of which
will involve no very great difficulty nor unusual expense. As detailed
in paragraph 6 of the district engineer's report, the improvement
would require dredging estimated at 285,000 cubic yards of soft
material and 19,700 cubic yards of rock.
10. The district engineer recommends that the dimensions provided
by the Federal project for the Anclote River, Fla., be modified to






20 ANCLOTE RIVER, FLA,

increase the project depth from the present 6 feet to 9 feet at mean
low water in the Gulf of Mexico, maintaining the present width of
100 feet, with widening at bends, and providing a turning basin 9
feet deep, 500 feet long and 200 feet wide, in front of the sponge
exchange wharf at Tarpon Springs, at an estimated cost of $95,000,
with $8,000 annually for maintenance.
11. The division engineer concurs in the opinion of the district
engineer that the estimated savings from the further improvement
of the Anclote River, to provide a depth of 9 feet, are sufficient to
justify the additional cost of construction and subsequent mainte-
nance.
12. The division engineer recommends, therefore, that the existing
project for Anclote River, Fla., be modified to provide a channel 100
feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean low water, with widening at the
entrance and at bends, and to provide a turning basin 9 feet deep,
500 feet long, and 200 feet wide, in front of the sponge exchange wharf
at Tarpon Springs, at an estimated total cost of $95,000, with $8,000
annually for maintenance.
L. V. FRAZIER,
Lieutenant Colonel, Corps of Engineers,
Acting Division Engineer

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