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Group Title: House document / 56th Congress, 1st session ; Document no. 377.
Title: Examination and survey of inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida. Letter from the secretary of war, transmitting with a letter from the chief of engineers, reports of examination and survey of inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida
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Title: Examination and survey of inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida. Letter from the secretary of war, transmitting with a letter from the chief of engineers, reports of examination and survey of inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida
Series Title: House document 56th Congress, 1st session
Physical Description: 12 p. : fold. map ;
Language: English
Publisher: U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1900
 Subjects
Subject: Lemon Bay (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Sarasota Bay (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Sarasota -- Lemon Bay
United States -- Florida -- Sarasota -- Sarasota Bay
 Notes
General Note: February 1, 1900 -Referred to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors and ordered to be printed.
Funding: House document (United States. Congress. House) ;
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Bibliographic ID: UF00004573
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA5793
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56TH CONGRESS, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. { DOCUMENT
1st Session. No. 377.




EXAMINATION AND SURVEY OF INSIDE PASSAGE
THROUGH SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY,
FLORIDA.


LETTER
FROM

THE SECRETARY OF WAR,
TRANSMITTING,
WITH A LETTER FROM THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, REPORTS OF
EXAMINATION AND SURVEY OF INSIDE PASSAGE THROUGH
SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


FEBRUARY 1, 1900.-Referred to the Committee on Rivers and Harbors and ordered
to be printed.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, January 31, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a letter from the Chief
of Engineers, United States Army, dated January 30, 1900, together
with copies of reports from Capt. Henry Jervey, Corps of Engineers,
dated August 29, 1899, and January 18, 1900, the former of a pre-
liminary examination and the latter of a survey of the inside passage
through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida, made by him in com-
pliance with the provisions of the river and harbor act of March 3,
1899.
Very respectfully, ELIHU ROOT,
Secretary of War.
The SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.


OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,
UNITED STATES ARMY,
Washington, January 30, 1900.
SIR: The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, provided for a pre-
liminary examination and survey of inside passage through Sarasota
Bay to Lemon Bay, Florida, and I have now the honor to submit the
accompanying copies of reports of August 29, 1899, and January 16,
1900, with map, upon the subject by Capt. Henry Jervey, Corps of
Engineers.






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLO IDA.


From the report on examination it appears that there is no existing
inside passage between Sarasota and Lemon bays, and that to construct
an artificial passage by dredging would involve a cost not justified by
the interests involved; but the intent of Congress was construed to be
for the betterment of the channel connecting Sarasota Bay with Lemon
Bay, and Captain Jervey was directed, by authority of the Secretary
of War, to make a survey and report upon such portion of the route
covered by his preliminary report as connects the navigable waters of
these two bays.
Estimates for improvement in accordance with two plans are pre-
sented as follows: For a channel 75 feet wide and 3 feet deep, $41,000;
and for a channel 50 feet wide and 3 feet deep, $27,000. An annual
appropriation of $1,000 will be required for maintenance.
Captain Jervey states, however, that the extent and value of the
existing commerce do not justify an improvement as costly as that
proposed, and that, in his opinion, an improvement of less extent
would not materially benefit the commerce involved.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN M. WILSON,
Brig. Gen., Chief of Engineers,
U. S. Army.
Hon. ELIHU ROOT,
Secretary of War.

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF INSIDE PASSAGE THROUGH SARA-
SOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Tampa, Fla., August 29, 1899.
GENERAL: I have the honor to present the following report on the
preliminary examination of the inside passage through Sarasota Bay
to Lemon Bay," Flbrida, made in acco dance with the provisions of
the river and harbor act approved March 3, 1899.
The examination was made by Assistant Engineer W. H. Caldwell,
to whose report hereto appended attention is respectfully invited.
A strict interpretation of the language of the act of March 3, 1899,
would preclude any examination whatever of the locality, as there does
not exist an inside passage connecting the two bays named, while both
preliminary examination and survey of Sarasota Bay have long since
been made and a project adopted and partly executed for the improve-
ment as far as Caseys Pass, which is practically at the southern
extremity of the bay.
It is assumed, however, that the intention of the act is to provide
for an examination of such existing stretches of water in and around
Sarasota and Lemon bays as are capable of improvement, with a view
to increasing the available length of the inside passage along that part
of the Florida coast.
Sarasota Bay, included between the mainland and a range of sand
keys, consists of a succession of channels of varying widths and depths
extending from Tampa Bay to the southward and designated in order
as Sarasota Pass, Sarasota Bay, and Little Sarasota Bay. Its total
length from Tampa Bay to Caseys Pass is about 33 miles. The present
project contemplates a channel 5 feet deep to the town of Sarasota and


nL






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


3 feet deep to Caseys Pass. Below Caseys Pass there is an expansion
of the bay toward the land side called Roberts Bay. From Roberts
Bay for 5 miles south to Alligator Creek, which is at the head of Lemon
Bay, there is no inside water route. An artificial one could be made
by digging a canal, but at great expense. The land through which
such canal would be cut is a rich loam with clay subsoil, which is said
to be underlaid with shell and rock.
Lemon Bay, including Gasparilla Sound, which is merely the south
ern extension of the bay, is about 23 miles long and from 200 feet to 1
mile in width. It is separated from the Gulf at its upper end by a
long, narrow peninsula; lower down by a range of keys from 50 to
5,000 feet wide.
Between Lemon Bay proper and Gasparilla Sound is an obstructive
bar known as the Cut-off," which is bare at low water.
The most northerly entrance or pass from the Gulf of Mexico into
Lemon Bay is some 10 miles south of the head of that bay and is
known as Stump Pass; it has an available depth of 7 feet. When the
projected improvement of Sarasota Bay has been completed all craft
leaving the inside route by Caseys Pass will have 15 miles of outside
navigation to reach Stump Pass. This can be reduced to about 5
miles by opening an entrance into the head of Lemon Bay and by
dredging the upper part of the bay.
There are two other passes leading into Lemon Bay proper, and two
into Gasparilla Sound.
Taken in order from north to south they are as follows:
New Pass, with an available depth of 10 or more feet; Bocilla Pass,
with 4 feet; Boca Nueva, with 1 foot; Gasparilla Pass, with 3 feet.
The navigable depth of Lemon Bay as far as the Cut-off" varies
from 1 to 7 feet; in Gasparilla Sound from 1 to 10 feet.
From information obtained in regard to the present commerce it
appears that the only people to be benefited by reducing the length
of outside passage from Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay are the Tampa
fishermen, whose smacks frequent these waters for their excellent fishing
grounds. Of more importance is the improvement of the existing chan-
nels in Lemon Bay and Gasparilla Sound, whereby the population of
the coast can obtain an inside waterway to Charlotte Harbor and the
town of Punta Gorda. The latter result would be secured by dredg-
ing through the "Cut-off" with minor dredging at other points of
Lemon Bay.
The fishing trade first mentioned will be greatly aided by the com-
pletion of the Sarasota Bay improvement, and is worthy of further aid
by providing a more northerly entrance into Lemon Bay. The traffic
is not sufficient to justify the expensive and probably impracticable
undertaking of dredging a canal between Roberts Bay and Alligator
Creek.
Statistics gathered indicate the value of the commerce for the year
ending December 31, 1898, to be as follows:
Sarasota Bay (receipts and shipments) .., .-------.-----.. ---.. ---..---- $369, 995
Lemon Bay (receipts and shipments) ---------.--.-------.------- --- 75, 160
Of these amounts the value of the fish and oysters shipped is about
$290,000 from Sarasota Bay and about $50,000 from Lemon Bay.
Ninety-five per cent of the former and 25 per cent of the latter ship-
ments find their way to Tampa, Fla., while the remainder goes to Punta
H. Doc. 83--27


3






4 SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.

Gorda. Lemon Bay points trade almost exclusively with Punta Gorda,
which is the nearest railroad station.
Lemon Bay fishing grounds are stated to be superior to those in
Sarasota Bay, and the shipments to Tampa would increase if naviga-
tion for small craft were safer.
In view of the existing commerce and 'the probable benefits result-
ing from improvements of small extent, I am of the opinion that
Lemon Bay is worthy of improvement by the Government in so far
as to increase the navigable depth of existing inside passages to 3 feet
at mean low water. The construction of an artificial inside passage
between Lemon Bay and Sarasota Bay is not considered worthy of
being undertaken by the.ational Government.
The estimated cost of a survey of Lemon Bay is $2,000; no further
survey of Sarasota Bay is required at present.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HENRY JERVEY,
Captain, Corps of E~;ujinces.
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. WILSON,
Chief of Ef>giu.e:rs, I. S. A.
[Third endorsement.]
OFFICE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,
U. S. ARMY,
October 9, 1899.
Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.
The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, included a provision for
a preliminary examination of the "inside passage through Sarasota
Bay to Lemon Bay." Both of the bays named are in the State of
Florida, and form parts of a line of water communication (not continu-
ous as an inside route) between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor.
In the report upon this examination submitted by Capt. Henry
Jervey, Corps of Engineers, the fact is presented that there is no
existing inside passage between Sarasota and Lemon bays, and to con-
struct such an artificial passage by dredging would involve a cost not
justified by the interests involved; but for reasons given by Captain
Jervey, he considers the call of Congress to have reference to the
betterment of the channel connecting Sarasota Bay with Charlotte
Harbor through Lemon Bay and Gasparilla Sound. While the
improvement of the line of communication covered by the preliminary
examination is undoubtedly at the present time of interest to quite an
extensive fishing commerce, it is not believed the wording of the item
of the act of Congress would justify consideration of any portion of
the line of communication south of Lemon Bay.
Considering, though, the line of communication between Sarasota
Bay and Lemon Bay, it appears that by certain improvement at the
head of Lemon Bay the portion of the line outside can be reduced from
15 miles to about 5 miles, and it may be permissible under the word-
ing of the item to provide for a survey of such portion of the route as
will enable an estimate to be made of the cost of extending the inside
portion of route connecting navigable waters of Sarasota and Lemon
bays to as great an extent as conditions will permit.
It is recommended that Captain Jervey be authorized to







SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


make a survey and report upon such portion of the route covered by
his preliminary report as connects the navigable waters of Sarasota
and Lemon bays.
JOHN M. WILSON,
Brig. Gen., Chief of Engineers,
U. S. Army.
[Fourth endorsement.]

WAR DEPARTMENT,
October 19, 1899.
Approved as recommended by the Chief of Engineers.
By order of the Secretary of War:
JOHN C. SCOFIELD,
Chief Clerk.



REPORT OF MR. W. H. CALDWELL, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.

% UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Tampa, Fla., August 28, 1899.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report on a preliminary exami-
nation of the inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay," Florida.
In accordance with your instructions I left Tampa in the forenoon of Saturday,
August 19, 1899, and proceeded by steamer to the toWn of Sarasota. Sailboats were
chartered for the examination of the bays. From Lemon Bay I crossed over to the
town of Punta Gorda, and thence returning by railway, arrived in Tampa on
Wednesday evening, August 23, 1899.
The examination of Sarasota Bay was confined chiefly to the collection of com-
mercial statistics, for a preliminary examination was made of the bay in January,
1889, by Assistant Engineer D. B. Dunn, and a survey of it in July and August of
the same year by a party in charge of Assistant Engineer J. H. Bacon-both the
examination and survey having been under the direction of Capt. (now colonel)
W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers, United States Army. (See Report of the Chief
of Engineers for 1890, Hart II, pp. 1615 and 1617.)
A project for the improvement of the bay channel was adopted October 1, 1890,
and modified July 7, 1896. Progress of the work, and the great benefits to commerce
resulting therefrom, are detailed in the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for
the years succeeding 1890. The commerce of the region adjacent to the bay prom-
ises an enormous increase in value whenever the proposed improvement is completed.
The lack of adequate transportation facilities is the sole check to present commercial
growth. There is no railroad near this water route, nor none likely to be built.
Already a steamer line-making triweekly trips-has been established between Tampa
and the town of Sarasota, and small sailboats act as feeders for the line between
Sarasota, Osprey, Venice, and other points on the lower bay.
Strictly speaking there is no inside passage between Sarasota Bay and Lemon Bay,
for in the vicinity of Horse and Chaise Point there is no inland waterway. From
Roberts Bay to Alligator Creek is a distance of about 5 miles. Roberts Bay is the
southern expansion of Little Sarasota.Bay, and Alligator Creek empties into the
northern extremity of Lemon Bay. I carefully examined the land between them;
the surface is a rich loam, with clay subsoil. I was reliably informed that shell and
rock had beeinfound under the clay. For reasons previously given the topographical
and hydrographic features of SaIsota Bay will not be described. Its commercial
statistics will be tabulated and submitted at the end of this report.
Lemon Bay, including Gasparilla Sound, which is merely the southern arm of the
bay, is about 23 miles long and from 200 feet to 1 mile in width. It is separated from
the Gulf of Mexico by a long, narrow peninsula at its upper end; lower down, by a
succession of keys which vary in width from 50 to 5,000 feet. The topographical
features of Lemon Bay are similar to those of Sarasota Bay, for at its middle point is
a bar separating it from Gasparilla Sound, which corresponds to "The Mangroves,"
dividing Big Sarasota and Little Sarasota bays. The bar in Lemon Bay is locally
known as the "Cut-off;" it is bare at low water. The passes, or inlets, leading into







6


SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


Lemon Bay are five in number and they, too, resemble those of Sarasota Bay.
There are three of them leading from the Gulf into Lemon Bay proper, and two into
Gasparilla Sound. Taken in order from north to south they are as follows:
(1) Stump Pass, with an available depth at mean low water of 7 feet; (2) New Pass,
which formed about two years ago and is not given on charts extant, has an available
depth of 10 or more feet; it is nearly one-half mile below Stump Pass; (3) Bocilla
Pass, available depth 4 feet; (4) Boca Nueva, 1 foot; and (5) Gasparilla Pass, 3 feet.
The southern entrance to Gasparilla Sound from Charlotte Harbor is wide and
roomy.
The navigable depth of Lemon Bay as far south as the "Cut-off" varies from 1 to
7 feet; in Gasparilla Sound, from 1 to 10 feet.
There are several small settlements and two villages on the shores of Lemon Bay,
but it is not believed the combined population exceeds 250 souls. Little business is
done there and few or no settlers are coming in, on account of a lack of transporta-
tion facilities. The nearest railroad station is Punta Gorda-25 miles distant. The
mails are transported partly overland and partly by sailboat. For even a small boat
to pass from Gasparilla Sound to Lemon Bay, it is necessary for it to go out through
Gasparilla Pass, sail up the Gulf 5 miles, and enter Bocilla Pass. At most seasons the
outside passage is perilous for small boats, and during nor'westers the craft are often
wrecked. Similar results ensue while fishing smacks are rounding Horse and Chaise
Point in sailing from Big* Sarasota Pass to Stump Pass. Such imminent risks are
taken because Lemon and Sarasota bays afford splendid fishing'grounds.
Englewood is a post-office village on the eastern shore of Lemon Bay, about 10
miles from its head. It has one store, a hotel, and a large sawmill. Grove City,
about 4 miles farther down the bay, has a post-office, store, and large hotel. At
Stump Pass, northern side, is a small store for the accommodation of fishermen.
I conferred with resi cents along the shores of both bays to elicit their views on
channel improvements. Also, the Tampa and Punta Gorda fishermen whose smacks
frequent those waters have been interviewed. The citizens along Sarasota Bay are
unanimously in favor of the speedy completion of the project there, and so are the-
Tampa fishermen. All of the latter and a few of the former desire a channel 50 feet
wide and 3 feet deep at mean low water between Little Sarasota Bay and Lemon
Bay. The citizens of the latter bay unanimously desire a 5-foot navigable channel,
50 feet wide through the "Cut-off," but are not interested .in a channel connecting
the two bays. The fishermen of Punta Gorda are indifferent to the improvements,
as their principal fishing grounds are in Pine Island Sound, south of Charlotte Harbor.
The commercial statistics for Sarasota Bay include those of Sarasota town, Hunerst
Point, Osprey post-office, and Venice post-office. The statistics for Englewood and
Grove City are included in those for Lemon Bay. The tables show the approximate
quantity of all items shipped or received by water during the year ending December
31,1898.
Shipments tnd receipts from Sarasota Bay.

Articles. Quantity. Estimated
Articles.
Designation. Weight. value.

SHIPMENTS. Tons.
Fish ....................... Mullet, pompano, and mackerel ................. 3,600 $288,000
Oysters .................... 600 barrels ....................... ........... 67 900
Salted fish................... 130 barrels ................ ..................... 20 585
Fish roe ..................... 520 dozen (13 barrels)... ..................... 2 150
Grape fruit ............... 1,000 boxes ........ ..... ....................... 40 5,000
Oranges .......... ....... 10,000 boxes ........ ........................ 400 20,000
Limes ....... ............ 20 barrels........................................ 2 160
Vegetables .................. 2,000 crates .................................. 60 2,500
RECEIPTS.
General merchandise ....... Groceries, dry goods, furniture, etc .............. 135 38,000
Fertilizers ................. .. ... .................. .....................20 700
Grain............... ......... ................ .................................... 170 12,000
Hay ................. ................................................ .... .... 20 500
Lumber ..................... 100,000 feet .................................... 200 1,500
Total shipments and
receipts............................................................ .... 4,736 369,995







SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


Shipments and receipts from Lemon Bay.

Articles.Quantity. Estimated
Articles.
Designation. Weight. value.

SHIPMENTS. Tons.
Fish ........................ Mullet, pompano, mackerel, etc .................. 625 $50,000
Oysters ............ .... 200 barrel ... ................................. 22 300
Irish potatoes ............ .. 30 barrels ........................................ 2 210
Lumber .................. 100,000 feet...................................... 200 1,100
RECEIPTS.
General merGhandise........ Groceries, dry goods, etc......................... 72 22,000
Fertilizers ................................ ...................................... 10 350
Grain.................... .... ................................................ 14 1,000
Ora ge trees................. 500............................................. 1 200
Total shipments and
receipts.................... ......................................... 946 75,160

I am indebted to the following gentlemen for commercial statistics and other infor-
mation: Mr. John Savarese, and Captain Thompson, of the steamer Mistletoe, Tampa,
Fla.; Messrs. Coarsey, Turner & Co., and Mr. Harry L. Higel, Sarasota, Fla.; Messrs.
Geo. Higel and W. E. Stevens, of Venice; Messrs. Mitchell and Clark, of Englewood;
Messrs. Golf and Pope, of Grove City, and Messrs. Bloxsom and Lewis, of Punta Gorda.
In my opinion Lemon Bay is worthy of improvement by the Government. A
3-foot channel, or even a 5-foot one, can be made for moderate cost. Such channel
would enable the fishermen and farmers to carry their products safely and quickly
by steamer or sailboat to the railroad terminus at Punfa Gorda. It would afford also
a ready means for passenger traffic, and a certain route for the mails.
The present commercial demands are not sufficient to justify the expenditure of so
large a sum as would be required to construct an inside passage from Sarasota Bay to
Lemon Bay. In any event, it would be of no service until the Sarasota Bay improve-
ments are completed.
A survey of Lemon Bay, including the portion of Little Sarasota Bay which is
south of Caseys Pass, and the strip of land between the two bays, would cost about
$2,500. In the estimate is included the cost of surveying Gasparilla Sound, which, as
before stated, is merely a continuation of Lemon Bay.
Very respectfully,
W. H. CALDWELL, ,
Assistant Engineer.
Capt. HENRY JERVEY,
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.


SURVEY OF INSIDE PASSAGE THROUGH SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON
BAY, FLORIDA.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE, '
Tampa, Fla., January 18, 1900.
GI&ERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report upon a
survey of that portion of the inside water route connecting the navi-
gable waters of Sarasota and Lemon bays, Florida, authorized by
Department letter to this office dated October 25, 1899.
The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, contained a provision for
a preliminary examination of the "inside passage through Sarasota
Bay to Lemon Bay." A report upon this preliminary examination
was submitted by me on August 29, 1899, attention being invited to
the fact that there is no existing inside passage connecting the two
bays named and that the construction of an artificial passage or canal
by dredging would involve an expense not justified by the interests to
bW benefited. In view of the fact, however, that an improvement of






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


the upper end of Lemon Bay in connection with the existing project
for the improvement of Sarasota Bay would provide a greater length
of possible inside navigation for small fishing boats, it was recom-
mended by the Chief of Engineers that the district officer "be author-
ized to make a survey and report upon such portion of the route cov-
ered by his preliminary report as connects the navigable waters of
Sarasota and Lemon bays." This recommendation was approved by
the Secretary of War, October 19, 1899.
The survey was made during November and December, 1899, by a
field party under the charge of Mr. Alexander Thompson and under the
supervision of Assistant Engineer W. H. Caldwell. Attention is
respectfully invited to the detailed reports herewith.
Sarasota Bay and Lemon Bay form parts of a water route between
Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Sarasota Bay is under
improvement, and there is now an available depth of 5 feet from Tampa
Bay to the town of Sarasota. The existing project includes an exten-
sion of inside navigation with a low-water depth of 3 feet below.the
town of Sarasota to Caseys Pass, which is practically at the south end
of Sarasota Bay. Upon completion of this improvement, craft leav-
ing the inside route by Caseys Pass will have 15 miles of outside nav-
igation to reach Stump Pass, the present most northerly entrance
into Lemon Bay. The outside portion of the line can be reduced to
about 5 miles by opening an entrance into the head of Lemon Bay and
dredging the upper portion of the bay.
The extent of improvement demanded is governed by the extent of
the improvement in Sarasota Bay between Sarasota and Caseys Pass.
The dimensions of a dredged channel should, therefore, not exceed 3
feet in depth by 75 feet in width. A less width will probably meet
the requirements of commerce for some years to come.
The survey was made to include the head of Lemon Bay and to
extend to New Pass, about 1i miles south of Stump Pass, as the latter
is said to be shoaling up, and the New Pass offers an easier entrance
from the Gulf. Cross sections *re taken across the peninsula sepa-
rating the head of the bay from the Gulf, with a view to cutting
through it.
The survey shows a sufficient depth, 3 feet and over, from New
Pass north to about 24 miles above the village of Englewood. From
there to Red Lake, which is the head of Lemon Bay's navigable
waters, the depth gradually shoals to 1 foot mean low water. Some
dredging would be required on the shoal opposite Englewood to widen
the channel. The material to be dredged is found to be soft sand and
mud, the sand having the characteristics of quicksand. Timber
retaining walls will probably be required to keep the banks in posi-
tion during the progress of the work, and it is doubtful whether the
channel could be maintained unless the whole work could be executed
in one season and a current established throughout the new cut. The
pass or cut proposed across the peninsula at the head of the bay,
between Red Lake and the Gulf of Mexico, will probably be subject
to shoaling during storms, and will require annual dredging.
The following estimates of cost are submitted:
For a channel 75 feet wide and 3 feet deep:
Dredging 142,632 cubic yards soft material, at 25 cents---.--. ....------ $35, 658
Engineering and contingencies ...... -------..------.. -----..-.--.. 5,342
Total............................................................ 41,000






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA. 9

For a channel 50 feet wide and 3 feet deep:
Dredging 95,000 cubic yards soft material, at 25 cents ..----......----. $23,750
., Engineering and contingencies ...................................... 3,250
Total..--...--...-----...............----...-- ...------------...--- 27,000
The length of the proposed dredged channels is 19,551 feet; the
mean rise and fall of the tide is 1.2 feet.
An annual appropriation of $1,000 will be required for maintenance.
A tracing of the surveyed area, scale 1:10,000, is submitted here-
with. The topography and hydrography not included by the scope of
the survey are talen from the United States coast charts.
The shore of Lemon Bay is sparsely settled. Grovel City and
Englewood, each with a population of about 100, are the only villages.
They are winter resorts, and have no commerce beyond a weekly sloop
bringing supplies.
The only people to be benefited by the proposed improvement of
Lemon Bay are the Tampa fishermen, whose smacks frequent these
-waters. It is stated that small boats are often wrecked on the coast
above Stump Pass and that a safe inside route would diminish the loss
of life and property among those engaged in the fishing industry.
The proposed improvement will add about 12 miles-from Red Lake
to New Pass-to the inside navigable water, and when the Sarasota
Bay project is completed there will remain only about 5 miles of out-
side passage. The value of the commerce to be benefited, however, is
small. Statistics gathered indicate the value of the commerce (receipts
and shipments) of Lemon Bay for the calendar year 1898 to be about
$75,000. Of this, $50,000 represents the value of the fish and oysters
shipped, and probably only 25 per cent of this is tributary to Tampa
and would make use of the proposed improvement. This will doubt-
less increase as soon Es the navigable channel through the southern
part of Sarasota Bay becomes available.
The extent and value of the existing commerce do not justify an
improvement as costly as that herein proposed. The probable increase
due to the completion of improvements now in progress is uncertain,
and it is therefore my opinion that the locality is not at present worthy
of improvement by the General Government to the extent proposed,
and that an improvement of less extent would not materially benefit
the commerce involved.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HENRY JERVEY,
Captain, Corps of Engineers.
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. WILSON,
Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A.


REPORT OF MR. W. H. CALDWELL, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.
TAMPA, FLA., January 16, 1900.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report upon a survey of the
"inside passage through Sarasota Bay to Lemon Bay," made in the months of
November and December, 1899; also, estimates for extension of inside portion of the
route connecting the navigable waters of Sarasota and Lemon bays."
As you directed, the survey included the head of Lemon Bay only; that is to say,
from Red Lake to New Pass. Likewise, estimates for improvement of the route con-
templated a cut through the peninsula westward of the head of Lemon Bay and a
dredged.channel through the shoal portions of the bay. Estimates of cost are based
upon a channel width of 75 feet and mean low-water depth of 3 feet.






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.


The surveying party was in charge of Mr. Alexander Thompson, assistant engineer,
whose detailed account of the work is submitted herewith for your consideration.
The plan of survey was based upon that portion of the report of a preliminary
examination, made in August, 1899, of the "inside passage through Sarasota Bay
to Lemon Bay which refers to the northerly end of Lemon Bay. That preliminary
examination, made to comply with the river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, was
conducted by myself, acting under your orders. A report of the results of the
examination was handed you on August 28, 1899.
1. Triangulation.-The scheme of triangulation covered the head of Lemon Bay.
It extended from Englewood to the head of Lemon Bay's navigable waters, viz, Red
Lake. The extreme distance in length covered was 7 miles. The area of the
triangulation was approximately 4 square miles.
2. Base lines.-A primary base line was measured at the southern end of the trian-
gulation system. It was found convenient to use a broken base. The angle intro-
duced into the base line was 1780 57' 03". After the broken base had been reduced
to a straight line, its length was 2,013.155 feet.
Two complete measurements of the base were made. The probable error of the
mean result is 1 in 41,000.
Near the northern end of the triangulation system two measurements of a check-
base line were made. The check base was located so that it might form a side of the
triangulation system. Its mean value was 863.71 feet; the probable error of which
is 1 in 1,300.
The length of the triangulation side (as computed from the primary base line)
corresponding to the check-base line agreed satisfactorily with the measured distance.
Twelve quadrilaterals and two triangles intervened between the primary and check
bases and their solutions were computed in order to derive a value of the check base
for comparison with its measurements.
3. Stadia survey.-A survey of the inside water route above Red Lake was made
with transit and stadia.
The extreme distance covered was about 2 miles, and an area nearly equal to three-
fourths of a square mile.
4. Reconnoissance.-Between the town of Englewood and New Pass a reconnaissance
was made. The hydrography was found to agree very well with United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey chart No. 175. A detailed survey of New Pass was made, and
its distance southward of Stump Pass determined.
5. Profile leveling.-Profiles of the peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the
upper waters of Lemon Bay were obtained at four places. The datum plane for eleva-
tions or depressions of the surface of the ground is the mean low-water level. The
first profile was run across the peninsula at a point about 1 mile northwestward from
Englewood. The next one is 2* miles above the first. The succeeding one is 24
miles above the second, and the last (or most' northerly one) 1I miles Above the third
section.
6. Tides.-A tide gauge was established'at the Englewood Inn Wharf, and later, one
at the wharf of the Englewood Investment Company. The zero of the latter was set
at the same level as that of the former gauge. The readings were recorded during a
lunar month, and the zero level of the gauges found to be 0.3 foot below mean low
water. The average rise and fall of the tide for that period was determined as 1.2
feet.
7. Currents.-Current observations were taken at all stages of the tide and under
varying conditions of wind and weather. The velocity of the current was found to
be from one-half to 1 mile (nautical) per hour; its general direction, northwest by
north and southeast by south. ,
8. Soundings.-All soundings were made from rowboats by means of poles gradu-
ated to feet and tenths from either end. The soundings were taken on the diagonal
lines of the triangulation system, and on lines at right angles to the bay's general
direction. The time interval of running each line having been recorded and their
lengths computed, the soundings were easily located, for the boats.were rowed at a
regular speed. Intersections of the lines were a check upon the work; agreement of
the depths of such intersections was uniformly close. The bottom was found to be
mud and sand. One small bed of oyster shells was encountered.
9. Map.-A chart of the surveyed area has been plotted on a scale of 1:10,000. A
tracing of it is herewith submitted. The topography and hydrography not included
by the scope of the survey were supplied from the United States Coast and Geodetid
Survey charts, Nos. 175 and 176.
10. Estimates for dredging.-The survey shows that a depth of 3 feet or over exists
through the "inside passage" from New Pass to a point about 21 miles above Engle-
wood. From there to Red Lake, which is the head of Lemon Bay's navigable waters,
th depth gradually shoals to 1 foot, mean low water.






SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA. 11

To improve the passage between Sarasota and Lemon bays and make it conform
with the Sarasota Bay project will require dredging to the northward from the 3-foot
contour in Lemon Bay. In addition, a small amount of dredging would be required
to widen the channel through the shoal opposite Englewood.
In accordance with your instructions the following estimate is for a channel 75
feet wide and 3 feet deep from the Gulf of Mexico through Red Lake and Lemon
Bay to New Pass. The estimate includes cutting a canal or pass through the peninsula
between the Gulf of Mexico and Red Lake. The dredged channel would have seven
sections in it, whose'aggregate length would be 19,551 feet.
The estimates are based on place measurement. One foot is allowed for backfilling,
and a slope of 1 on 3 for the sides of the channel.
Removing 142,632 cubic yards of soft material, at 25 cents .............------- $35, 658
Engineering and contingencies -------.------.------------------- 5, 350
Total...----.-------..........--------- -------------------------. 41,008
This improvement would enable vessels bound between Sarasota and Lemon bays
to shorten the outside passage by nearly 12 miles. It is that distance from New Pass
to proposed pass at Red Lake, the head of navigation in Lemon Bay. The class of
vessels engaged in the fisheries along that coast, as well as local trading craft, would
be eminently benefited by such an improvement of the "inside passage." I believe
the project worthy of due consideration
Very respectfully, W. H. CALDWELL,
Assistant Engineer.
Capt. HENRY JERVEY,
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A


REPORT OF MR. ALEXANDER THOMPSON, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.
TAMPA, FLA., December 18, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the survey of Lemon Bay,
Florida:
On November 10, 1899, the survey of Orange River was completed and the survey
party returned to Myers, Fla., where preparations were at once made to start for
Lemon Bay, Florida. The survey party for Lemon Bay consisted of the same mem-
bers as that engaged on Pine Island Sound and Orange River with the addition of
four boatmen and one gauge reader.
In accordance with instructions transportation for the party was secured by the
steamer Belle and the party left Myers at 5 a. m., November 12, 1899, for Lemon Bay.
Boca Grande Pass was reached at 1 p. m. of the same day, but the sea was too rough
then to attempt going outside and the steamer proceeded toward Little Gasparilla
Pass. When about 2 miles north of Devils Bay and Cat Key the steamer went
aground in about 31 feet of water, although the chart showed 5 feet. After getting
off, several attempts were made to proceed but without success. I then decided to
reyrn to Boca Grande and if possible to go outside to Stump Pass. We arrived at
Boc Grande too late to make the trip, and the sea still being high I decided to wait
until the next morning, anchoring in a small bayou south of Boca Grande.
The next morning at 4.30 the steamer left Boca Grande on the outside for Stump
Pass. Arriving there, we attempted to enter, but went aground, so we returned to
New Pass, about 1I miles below Stump Pass. There we had no difficulty in entering,
but the pilot, not being familiar with Lemon Bay, ran the steamer aground opposite
Stump Pass in Lemon Bay. The party was transferred to Englewood, Fla., on Lemon
Bay, in small boats, and arrangements made for quarters and subsistence of the party.
Field work began the next day, November 14, 1899.
Tidal observations.-On November 14, 1899, a tide gauge was set off the hotel wharf
at Englewood and a bench mark (being the top of an iron pipe) established on shore
50 feet north of the Wharf and 10 feet from high-water mark on the beach, the zero
of the tide gauge being 2.379 feet below the bench mark. Tidal observations were
taken from that date, from 6 a. m. to 6 p. m., inclusive, at half-hour intervals, up to
December 15, 1899.
On December 4 another tide gauge was set off the store wharf at Englewood, the
zero of this gauge being 2.379 feet below the bench mark.
Base line.-A broken base line was laid off at Englewood 2,133.1 feet in length, and
on this the triangulation was begun.
riangulation.-The triangulation was carried from Englewood up to Red Lake.
For 3 miles up the bay the triangulation points were all prominent points of land






12 SARASOTA BAY TO LEMON BAY, FLORIDA.

jutting into the bay, which gave a very satisfactory set of quadrilaterals with a mini-
mum amount of clearing. Above this to Red Lake the stations on the west side were
located on the crest of Palm Ridge to keep clear of the cedar and scrub-oak hammock,
and those on the east side set back from the edge of the bay to avoid the swampy
land. This gave a good set of quadrilaterals throughout the triangulation work.
Check base.-About 1 mile below the end of the triangulation work a check base
863.71 feet in length was measured, this check base being one side of a quadrilateral.
This distance was found to agree satisfactorily with the computed length as deter-
mined from the triangulation.
Stadia work.-From Red Lake to Buzzard Lake (opposite Horse and Chaise Point)
a stadia line was run to determine the course and length of the small creek connecting
the two lakes.
Level work.-Four cross sections of Palm Ridge from Lemon Bay to the Gulf of
Mexico were run, these being located as shown on map, and a line of levels run from
Red Lake to Buzzard Lake.
Soundings.-Lemon Bay from Englewood to the head of Red Lake was sounded by
means of diagonal lines crossing each other and cross sections at opposite intersections
on shore of the diagonal lines. The channel was sounded out from Englewood to
Stump Pass and New Pass and a channel depth of 5 feet and over found at all points.
New Pass was sounded on these lines and a channel depth in the pass of 6 feet, with
a width of 150 feet as a minimum, found to exist. Over 8,000 soundings were taken.
Currents.-Observations of the current were made half hourly throughout the last
ten days of the survey by means of a weighted board secured by pins at middle of
each end to a light Y frame, so that the board would at all times remain in a vertical
position, the Y frame working on a pivot near the upper end. This pivot was secured
to a floating framework, and the upper end of the Y frame fitted with indicating hand,
showing on a semicircular scale alongside the deflection of the frame due to the cur-
rent. This scale was marked in degrees, and by means of float observations the read-
ings reduced to miles per hour. The velocity of the current was found to be from
one-half to 1 mile (nautical) per hour, with the ebb slightly stronger than the flood.
The general direction was parallel with the bay, being northwest by north and south-
east by south.
Character of bottom.-Below Redfish Point (the first point on the east side of Lemon
Bay below Englewood) the bottom consists of hard sand and shell, and the agree-
ment of soundings taken by me with those of the Coast Survey showed that there,
was little if any change in the contours of the bottom.
Above Redfish Point to the limits of the survey the bottom consists of soft sand
and mud, the sand having the characteristics of quicksand. The shoals are all mud
flats except the one below A G, which consists of oyster bars. It was possible at
all points to sink a rod from 7 to 8 feet below the bottom surface without difficulty,
except at this shoal.
New Pass.-The New Pass formed in the last few years below Stump Pass was sur-
veyed by stadia and sounded out as previously stated. The north point df the pass
is 6,200 feet below the south point of Stump Pass, and the pass itself 600 feet wide at
the narrowest point. At present this pass is the preferred entrance, the channel
leading direct from the Grlf in on the northerly side of the pass, although fishermen
report a bar forming on the outside.
Channels, etc.-The channel from Stump Pass to Englewood is well marked by
permanent stakes, but from New Pass to Grove City and from New Pass to opposite
Stump Pass it is not marked and should be located.by permanent stakes.
Commerce, etc.-The only villages on the bay are Grove City and Englewood, the
population of each being about 100. Both are winter resorts, and outside of a weekly
trip of a small sloop to each place there is no water traffic. From Stump Pass and
below that fishing industry is very active, but at present the fishermen do not operate
more than one-half mile above Stump Pass, at which point is the most northerly
fish house.
Vessels to and from Tampa Bay and from Tampa Bay to Charlotte Harbor would
undoubtedly use the inside passage formed by Lemon Bay if a new pass were cut
through Palm Ridge, near Englewood, or preferably at the head of navigation at
Red Lake, particularly in the winter months, when northwest gales are prevalent.
The amount of capital involved in this coastwise traffic is very great, and an improve-
ment of this character would undoubtedly prevent many losses of property and lives.
Conclusion of survey.-The survey was concluded on December. 15, 1899, and the
surveying party returned to Tampa.
Respectfully, ALEXANDER THOMPSON,
Assistant Engineer.
Mr. W. H. CALDWELL,
Assistant Engineer.
0




















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