• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Dedication
 Introduction
 Preserving hints
 Preserves
 Jellies
 Butters
 Marmalades
 Sweet and fermented pickles from...
 Crystallizing citrus fruits
 The citron
 The shaddock & Canning grapefr...
 Citrus juice preservation
 Back Matter














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00004047/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 43 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Citrus fruits)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Isabelle S. Thursby.
General Note: "July, 1938."
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 75."
General Note: Revision of See no. 75 Apr., 1938
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00004047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA5738
ltuf - AMT7285
oclc - 44697817
alephbibnum - 002570971

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Dedication
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Preserving hints
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Preserves
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Jellies
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Butters
        Page 16
    Marmalades
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Sweet and fermented pickles from citrus fruits
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Crystallizing citrus fruits
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The citron
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The shaddock & Canning grapefruit
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Citrus juice preservation
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Back Matter
        Page 44
Full Text















etin 100 (A r viin oLt ~ ctin 7,5 .ily, 1

PRESERVING
FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS
By ISABELLE S. THURSBY
OK PqJqmfm


Bull


9.3







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and Jun. 30. 1914)
Auricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
I'lrilda State College for Women
Ani Unitedl Stint< Department ,if Agriculture
Co.peratinRg
Wllmon Nerwell. Dir..rlr


HOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. T.Iuty, Actitng ('iuirn wMn. Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT. M.A., LL.D.. President of the University
WILMON NEELL., D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.II., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RuRY NEWHAI.I., Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICI I.TURA. DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A.., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS. B.S.A.. Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK. A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN. B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRIHUF, M.AGR., Poultrymani
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal lHusbandman
C. V. NoBl.K, Pit.D., Agricultural Economist.
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
COOPKERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S.. Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CI.ARINE BEICHER, M.S.. clothingg Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent
I Part-time.









CONTENTS


Page
Introduction .................................... 5
Preserving Hints .......................... 9
Preserves ..._........... ................... 11
Preserved whole kumquats No. 11
Kumquat preserves No. 2 ........ 12
Grapefruit preserves .............. 12
Sour orange preserves ......... 12
Florida conserve 1.3
Jellies ..-.......................... ....... 13
Alcohol test for pectin ..... 13
Kumquat pectin jelly ............. 14
Mint and orange pectin jelly .... 14
Orange pectin ................... .....15
Sour orange jelly .................... 15
Grapefruit jelly .. 15
Butters .. .......... ...... ................ 16
Kumquat butter No. I ............... 16
Kumquat butter No. 2 ............. 16
Orange butter .................... ....... 16
Kumquat jam .......................... 16
Quick tangerine jam ................ 17
Marmalades ........... ................... 1.
Seville orange marmalade ........ 19
Sweet orange marmalade .......... 19
Sunshine marmalade ................ 20
Orange marmalade .................. 20
Combination marmalade .......... 21
Orange and lemon marmalade.. 21
Grapefruit marmalade No. 1 .... 21
Grapefruit marmalade No. 2 .... 21
Golden Glow marmalade .......... 23
Lemon marmalade .............. ....... 23
Tangelo marmalade .................. 23
Tangerine marmalade .............. 24


Page
"Coolidge" tomato citrus
m arm alade .................. ........... 24
Marmalade stock .................... 24
Sweet and Fermented Pickles
from Citrus Fruits .............. 25
Sweet pickled grapefruit .......... 26
Sweet pickled kumquats ........ 26
Sweet pickled calamondins ...... 27
Sweet pickled orangequats ...... 27
Tangerine sweet pickles ....... 27
Baked pickled orange slices ...... 28
Pickled kumquats ...................... 28
Citrus syrups and sweet spiced
vinegar syrups ..................... 29
Crystallizing Citrus Fruits .......... 29
The crystallizing process .......... 30
Utilizing the crystallizing
syrups ......... ................ ....... 32
Crystallized whole grapefruit .. 32
Quick methods of crystallizing
for immediate consumption .. 33
Graptfruit peel No. 1 .-....... 33
Grapefruit peel No. 2 ...... .. 34
Grapefruit peel No. 3 .............. 34
Grapefruit peel No. 4 ................ 35
Ponderosa lemon ................. 35
Crystallized kumquat chips ...... 35
Crystallized sour orange peel 36
The Citron .................. ... ........... 86
The Shaddock ................................. 38
Shaddock sundae ........................ 38
Canning Grapefruit ..................... 38
Citrus Juice Preservation ............ 40
Advantages of canning in tin.... 41
Orange juice ..............-.......... .. 42
Fruit punch ............................. 43




















"Dost thou know that sweet land

Where the orange flowers grow?

Where fruits are like gold

And the red roses blow?

Where the breeze ne'er is cold

And the birds sing so sweet?

Where each day of the year,

The honey bees appear?

Where exists like a smile or a rainbow quite new,

One eternal springtime, and sky ever blue?"

-Goethe.







PRESERVING FLORIDA

CITRUS FRUITS

By ISABELLE S. THURSBY

In Florida's citrus there exists a veritable mine of wonder-
fully attractive fruits. Their diversity of appearance, color,
texture, flavor and quality presents a fascinating field to the
preserver. These fruits-kumquats, limequats, orangequats,
tangerines, tangelos, pomelos, lemons, sweet, bitter-sweet, and
sour oranges and many other interesting types-combine into
jellies, marmalades, spreads, crushes, juices, syrups, relishes.
preserves, conserves, spiced and crystallized products that are
not only beautiful but better yet, toothsome and healthful.
The kumquat, the smallest member of the citrus family and
always a heavy fruiter, is hardy even in the northern sections
of Florida. The skin of the kumquat is spicy and aromatic and
the pulp delightfully acid. It enjoys the distinction of being
the only citrus fruit that is always eaten skin and all'. Kum-
quats make excellent preserves, sweet pickles, marmalade and
jellies and are ideal for crystallizing.
The limequat is a comparatively recent introduction of the
United States Department of Agriculture and is, as the name
indicates, a cross between the lime and the kumquat with the
yellow of the lime but none of the bitterness, and all the piquant
flavor of the kumquat. Limequats make excellent jellies, mar-
malades and preserves with a lemon flavor. They may he used
for making "ade" and are excellent for use in any way that
lemons are used in general cookery.
The calamondin is a small, beautiful, tangerine-like, very acid
fruit of high color and is used for punch and sliced for tea; for
marmalades, preserving and crystallizing it has no equal. The
calamondin is perhaps the most ornamental of all citrus fruits
and deserves a place, not only for the beauty it lends to the
garden but for its almost continuous fruiting proclivity, a crop
maturing nearly every month in the year.

'The Nagami, the largest oblong kumiquut, and the Muruini, the smallest
round kumquat, are both golden yellow in crlr with a ~,weet aromatic
rind and very acid juice and pulp of fine flavor. The Meivii, larger than tho
round Marumi kumquat, has a pulp that is of sweet and intriguing flavor.
the most delightful of all for eating ou. of hand. Every home should have
at least one planting of buth varieti-i of th,.se fruit- tliat have for cen
turies played such an important part in the dietary of the cultured Chinese.







Florida Cooperative Extension


From crosses with the calamundin and the citrange has come
still another interesting hybrid, the Glen citrangedin. The tree
itself is hardier, of even more vigorous growth and quite as
ornamental as the calamondin. The fruit is of the same shape,
size and color, but is lime or lemon-like in flavor. No home
garden in Florida is complete without some plantings of these
attractive and valuable small citrus fruits, budded, of course,
to the rootstock best adapted to locality.


F:g. 1. The Euetis lime ;uat. n h)brlt Irz -ii Inlic anl uraiua. it. a. n liurtic.ulurally
hardy -varCr y ,i f the lime. h .slin' thr niilt pulp juall t l1 tLhi key lime parent. The rind
partuakeim of thr klnir niullt ch'-llins :'r. u rv 11 u -fl l a marm.tla.tl. preserving and
cryaitaIlizin fruit. The lmkeilnn l Im,- .l'.: ,- ra .rr .iurlct). -Cut repruo! uced from
Journal of Ayrirulturl l Hi,-'*,.rrh

The so-called Rangpur lime is larger than the calamondin but
has the same deep orange coloring. The Rangpur may be used
in the same way lemons are used fur seasoning food and making
"ades". In fact, many prefer it to the lemon, because of its
high color and tangy flavor.
The ponderosa lemon resembles a grapefruit in size and color,
is somewhat oblong in shape and the whole fruit, with its thick,
clean-cut, lemon-flavored peel, cooks clear and translucent.
Fragrant, translucent citron, as found in the grocery stores
during the mid-winter season and purchased for use in fruit







Prserving Floridn ('ida,.h Jrruits


cakes and puddings, is an imported product. Yet the citron of
commerce, as distinguished from the citron melon which grows
on a vine, may be found growing thriftily and fruiting heavily
in many Florida dooryards in the citrus belt. This citrus fruit
which resembles an enormous lemon of handsome appearance
and delicious fragrance when mature has only one use. the mak-
ing of candied rind.


Fige. 2.-The cnlmsnllilrln .r a p.- ltlic a I I lltilnutiu. frulter. iA vcr( 11 tnngenne-
like fruit of hi.'h e.l,r. I nrei nl-il ,. r m trmnnl.ilr. ire.~ rvinv uni rvt i ll ing,. the
fre h fruit in usrd In tunch andl tl. i('ur l) Citrul Ex -..rimenit 5:tati. i

The kid glove groul-tangerines. mandarins. Salsunnis and
Temple oranges-may be combined into delicious variations of







Florida Cooperative Extension


marmalades and jellies when used with more acid citrus fruits
-limequats, lemons, limes, calamondins and others. These cook
clear and colorful and may be blended into many intriguing
flavors.
The grapefruit is most commonly preserved, spiced and crys-
tallized. The delicious, juicy segments or "hearts" as well as
the juice are easily prepared and ;may be canned by means of
ordinary household equipment, thus insuring a year-round sup-
ply of this healthful, zestful, appetizing fruit.


IS -_ &.

Fig 3. A naiIr- in. r.." ir in Pi*,n.]Ia C'.unty Thr is 1 g ft ndifi fnrut. The
distinct1r, P 'lici,"I iimsp and dietetic ailue iit IhbA anid other rlirun fruits have indieared
them to millions.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


The so-called Seville, sour, or "wild" orange, oftentimes grow-
ing at our very doors, makes a delightfully appetizing mar-
malade.
Citrus jellies, marmalades, butters, preserves and conserves
not only have their place as a delicious "spread" for sandwiches,
for breakfast toast, griddle cakes, waffles, hot biscuits and butter,
but may be served as a pudding sauce and as a dressing for ice
cream and sundaes.
Citrus fruits have a variety of uses in fancy breads, cakes,
tarts and pastries. The juice may be served for liquid, the
pulp and peel may be used as filling and flavor for cakes, pas-
tries and puddings, or be combined with whipped cream and
meringues. Fresh grated or candied, the peel lends itself to
fine icings and frostings in a variety of delectable ways.
The delightful culinary uses of citrus fruits are legion.
Grapefruit, oranges, and indeed all citrus fruits are especially
excellent in salads of all types and in any number of dessert
combinations. They may well form the basis of fruit appetizers,
salads of all kinds, meat and vegetable accompaniments, sauces,
garnishes and desserts cooked and uncooked. Of their tart,
zestful flavor, the family need never tire.
The established value of citrus fruits in nutrition is generally
well known today. Their value as healthful and delightful
sources of the needed minerals and vitamins, their importance
in clinical medicine and in preventing and curing disease is
clearly recognized, and their vitamin content is stressed as one
of the necessities of human life.
The fact that properly canned grapefruit has practically the
same vitamin value as the fresh fruit should be a matter of
great satisfaction to those particular housewives concerned with
the family's food supply. Many there are who enjoy the canned
product, in all its ready availability, as much as the fresh fruit.

PRESERVING HINTS
A preserved fruit is one which has beeni cooked in sugar
syrup until it is clear, tender, and transparent. It should keep
its form and plumpness, and be crisp rather than tough or soft.
When finished the cells of the fruit should be filled with the
flavored syrup in place of the fruit juice.
The small citrus fruits like the kumquats, limequats. orange-
quats and calamondins may well be preserved in their entirety.
They should be of good color and free from blemishes. The






Florida Cooperative Extension


larger, heavier fruits, as the bitter-sweets, grapefruit, pon-
derosa lemon, and shaddock, should be cut into convenient
halves or quarters as preferred. Or a slice may be removed
from one end, the inside pulp removed and only the shells pre-
served.
When preserving any of these fruits it is essential that they
be cooked tender in an abundance of water, after the outer rind
has been carefully removed by grating the larger ones and punc-
turing the skins of the smaller fruits. In the case of the strong
flavored varieties, like grapefruit, shaddock and calamondin, it
may be necessary to parboil them in several changes of water
to rid them of excess undesirable flavor. Grating and punctur-
ing the skin allows for better sugar penetration, and makes for
a more tender and delicious product. In these preliminary cook-
ings the fruits should always be kept well covered with water
and later when in the syrup, if it is desired to keep the fruits
in good shape, they should have sufficient syrup to be completely
submerged at all times.
Cooking: Begin preserving in a thin syrup and cook rapidly
until fruit is clear. Rapid cooking gives a light, bright product
of good color, while slow cooking produces a dark, dull. unattrac-
tive product. Standing overnight or longer immersed in the
syrup to "plump" gives a better product in color, flavor and
texture. (over closely before removing from fire.
Density of Syrup: Uncooked fruit should never be dropped
in a heavy syrup as the fruit will become tough and shriveled
from the fruit juices being drawn out too rapidly. The outside
of the fruit becomes coated with heavy syrup and little syrup
can enter the fruit. Hence the correct method is to build up
gradually a heavy syrup so it can permeate the fruit slowly
and thoroughly, thus avoiding shrinking and toughening. Allow-
ing kumquats. grapefruit, and similar fruits to stand overnight
or longer immersed in their syrup causes more of it to permeate
the fruit. In fact, much of the fruit may be prepared by very
little cooking in the syrup. It is the hot syrup in which they
are submerged that may he allowed to do the cooking. For this
reason, after heing covered with the boiling syrup the product
is set aside and allowed to stand overnight. Then the syrup is
drained off, more sugar is added, the syrup is reheated and
added to the fruit and the product is left to stand as before.
Larger fruits require a longer time for finishing: smaller fruits






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


a shorter period. The essential point is that the syrup should
permeate the fruit thoroughly. The processes are not difficult,
but watchfulness, care, time and patience are required for
quality products.
Caution: Avoid cooking a small amount of fruit in a large
kettle as evaporation takes place too rapidly over the broad
surface. Sufficient syrup should be used to cover the fruit com-
pletely at all times. Heavy aluminum or porcelain lined kettles
are the best to use in preserving.

PRESERVES
Preserved Whole Kumquats No. 1
2 puunds wile kiuniiuals 2 pounds sugar
(after cooking) 1 quart water
Thoroughly clean the kumquats, rinse well and drain. If
necessary scrub the fruit with mild soap and warm water. Kum-
quats may or may not be given the soda bath. If soda is used,
either scald the kumquats with boiling soda water, or sprinkle
the fruit with the dry soda (about one heaping tablespoon of
soda to one quart of fruit), then cover with boiling water, and
let stand in the soda bath 10 minutes. Pour the soda water off
and rinse the fruit thoroughly in two or three changes of cold
water. Drain well and slit each kumquat with a sharp-pointed
knife across the sections to prevent them from bursting open
while cooking and to facilitate penetration of the syrup. Drop
into an abundance of boiling water and cook until tender. Drain.
Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes, add the
drained kumquats, and cook until the fruit is shining, clear, and
transparent. Then cover tightly and allow to plump 24 hours.
The fruit will keep its shape better if the cooking is done in a
partially covered kettle. Reheat and pack the kumquats into
sterilized jars, strain and pour the hot syrup over them, and
process pint jars for 10 minutes at 1800 F. and seal.
A group of 5 or 6 copper nails placed in a circle about 1/8
to 3/16 inch apart in a wooden spatula is convenient and ef-
fective for puncturing small fruits like kumquats, limequats
and calamondins. A stainless steel skewer also is good for
puncturing. Puncture both blossom and stem ends. Thus
treated, the fruit is not as likely to burst or split in cooking
as when cut with a knife.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Kumquat Preserves No. 2
Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into slightly
salted water and soak overnight; next day pour off salted water,
cover with fresh water and bring to a boil. Drain and repeat
twice in fresh water, cooking until tender.
For 1 pint of fruit add 1/2 pint of sugar, 1/4 pint orange blossom
honey and 1 pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit in the
boiling syrup and simmer until clear and syrup is slightly thick-
ened. Cover tightly while still boiling and remove from fire.
Plump over-night in the same vessel. The second or third day
place back on fire and cook until syrup is heavy.
Pack in jars as suggested in previous recipe. If candied kum-
quats are desired for immediate consumption, drain, put on wire
racks to dry and when dry, roll in granulated sugar.

Grapefruit Preserves
Select well ripened grapefruit of good color and thick peel.
Wash and grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Remove
peel and cut it into strips l/ inch wide. If preferred the pulp
may be left in the fruit and the fruit may be cut in halves,
fourths or eighths or in fancy shapes. To one pound of fruit add
3 pints of cold water. Bring slowly to a boil. Then change water
and bring to a boil again. At the end of 10 minutes taste liquid
on peel; if very bitter, drain off and renew. If only slightly
bitter, boil peel until tender. Drain and add peel to a syrup made
by using % pound of sugar to 1 pint of water for each pound
of peel taken and boil until sugar is dissolved. Boil rapidly until
peel is clear and syrup heavy. Cover and let stand 24 hours.
Next add the juice from the grapefruit used, 1/4 pound sugar and
cook until peel is beautifully clear, tender, yet firm and well
flavored and the syrup heavy. If evaporation during cooking
is great it may be necessary to add a little boiling water at
times in order to keep plenty of syrup on peel. Let stand 24
hours again. The preserves may be packed cold. Strain syrup
through cheesecloth. Simmer pints 15 minutes, having jars
completely immersed in the simmering liquid.

Sour Orange Preserves
Cut or grate off the outer oil cells from the oranges. Cut in
halves, squeeze out juice, being careful not to break the peel.
Put the orange halves into an abundance of water and boil 10






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


minutes. Change to fresh water and boil again. Change water
until as much of bitter flavor is removed as desired and fruit
is tender. Drain and boil in a syrup made of 1 part sugar and
1 part water, until fruit is transparent. As syrup boils down,
add water to keep at original density.
When transparent, cover; remove from fire and allow to stand
over night. The next day add the juice previously removed from
the fruit and cook again until syrup is somewhat thickened.
Pack in hot, sterilized jars, strain the syrup over the fruit and
process 10 minutes at simmering. Seal.

Florida Conserve
2 cups grapefruit pulp % cup seeded raisins
2 cups orange pulp g% gratep pineapple (canned)
% cup nut meats 2 cups sugar
Peel from one orange run
through chopper
Preparation: To finely cut orange peel add 1 cup of water
and boil gently 10 minutes, cover and set aside to cool. If fresh
pineapple is used cover the pineapple with water and boil briskly
for 5 minutes before adding to other fruit. Pineapple contains
an enzyme which will act upon the pectin and prevent the mass
from jellying unless this enzyme is destroyed by a sufficiently
high temperature.
Mix the grapefruit, orange pulp and orange peel, boil gently
for 20 minutes, add the sugar and when the sugar has dissolved,
add the pineapple. Cook until the mass thickens and will give
the jelly test. Add the nuts and raisins, boil for 2 minutes, pour
into sterilized glasses and seal.

JELLIES

Alcohol Test for Pectin
This test, while not altogether accurate, has its practical value.
Either pure grain or denatured alcohol may be used. Into a glass
or cup put 1 tablespoon of the cooled jelly stock. Gently add to
this 1 tablespoon of alcohol. Mix by gently turning the con-
tainer from side to side. Let stand half a minute. If the pectin
forms a single large lump of jelly-like material, it is safe to
add an equal volume of sugar to stock. If the pectin "precipi-
tate" is slightly broken, use only one-half to three-fourths
volume of sugar to 1 of stock. If the pectin is in small flecks,
the stock has not sufficient pectin to make a good jelly. Watch






Florida Cooperative Extension


carefully as there may be a tendency for the pectin to go back
into solution in a short time.
If fruit sufficiently acid for jelly making is deficient in pectin,
pectin extracted from some other source may be added. The
peel and core of apples, the white part of the orange peel and
the fleshy part of the citron melon are rich in pectin, and the
extraction from these is often used with fruits deficient in this
property.
Kumquat Jelly
1 lb. kumquats 1'1 pts. water
1 lb. sugar
The kumquats are washed, scraped, cleaned thoroughly, and
cut in slices. For each pound of fruit add 11/2 pints water.
Boil for 15 minutes, cover and set aside over night. Boil again
about 5 minutes, then remove from the stove and allow to stand
for 1 hour, then pour into a flannel jelly bag, press to obtain all
possible juice; drip through another bag to remove all particles
of fruit. This juice is placed in a kettle and brought to a boil,
at which time there is added 1 pound of sugar for each pound of
fruit taken. Stir until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved and
continue boiling until it reaches the jellying point.2
The jellying point is determined by dipping a spoon or wooden
paddle into the boiling solution and then holding it above the
kettle, allowing the syrup to drop. When it drops in thick,
reluctant flakes or sheets from the spoon, pour immediately into
clean, sterilized jelly glasses. After a few minutes the scum
may be easily removed with a spoon. When jelly is cold, pour
hot paraffin over it and store away in cool, dry place.

Mint and Orange Pectin Jelly
1 pt. orange pectin juice 2 drops oil of mint
2 tbs. lemon juice 2 drops green vegetable
1 lb. sugar coloring
One pint orange pectin juice (as prepared in following recipe)
is poured into a kettle, heated to boiling and 1 pound of sugar
and 2 drops of green vegetable coloring matter are added. The
boiling is continued until the jellying point is reached. At this
point 2 drops of oil of mint are added. Stir thoroughly and
'A chemical or a candy thermometer may be used as an aid in deter-
mining when jelly is cooked sufficiently. A good thermometer may be
purchased for as little as $1.50 and is a splendid investment for the house-
wife or club girl who wishes to take the guess out of jelly and marmalade
making.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


pour, while hot, into clean, sterilized jelly glasses. After a few
moments the scum which rises to the top may be easily removed
from the jelly with a spoon. Seal jelly as previously directed.

Orange Pectin
% lb. white portion orange 2 tbs. lemon juice
peel Water
Cut or grate the yellow from the peel of the orange; pass the
remaining white portion through a food chopper and weigh it.
For each 1/2 pound of the white portion of the peel, add 1 pint
of water; add the lemon juice; mix thoroughly and allow to
stand 4 to 5 hours. At the end of this time add 11/4 pints of
water and allow to stand over night. The next morning boil
10 minutes and allow to cool. Place in a flannel jelly bag, press
it to remove the juice and strain through a clean flannel jelly
bag.
A greater amount of pectin will be developed by letting the
materials stand over the second night and boiling 10 minutes
the third day.
This pectin may be used as a foundation in making jellies from
fruits which do not contain a sufficient amount of pectin. It
may be prepared, poured into jars while hot, sealed and kept
for later use.
Sour Orange Jelly
1 lb. peeled sour 2 pts. water
oranges 1 Ib. sugar
The sour orange jelly is made by preparing the juice as di-
rected in recipe for sour orange marmalade. No peel is used
in the jelly. For each pound of fruit taken add to the juice
1 pound of sugar. This is boiled until it reaches the jellying
point.
Grapefruit Jelly
1 lb. peeled 2 pts. water
grapefruit % lb. sugar
After the peel has been removed, weigh the fruit, cut into
small pieces, place in a kettle and for each pound of grapefruit
add 2 pints of water. Boil until it thoroughly disintegrates.
Pour into a flannel jelly bag and press until no more juice can
be obtained. Drain this juice into a kettle, and bring to a boil.
Add /'i pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. Continue boil-
ing until the jellying point has been reached.






Florida Cooperative Extension


BUTTERS
Kumquat Butter No. 1
Wash and scrape thoroughly ripe, juicy kumquats. Cut in
half and take out all seed. Run halves through food chopper,
using medium blade. Measure and set aside for each cup of
ground fruit / cup of sugar. To each cup of ground kumquats
add %-. cup water. Let stand 2 hours. Put in smooth sauce pan,
preferably heavy aluminum, and cook rapidly until peel is tender
and pulp is thickened. Now add sugar, continue cooking, stirring
carefully until thick and clear. Pour into small jars. Seal and
simmer 10 minutes.

Kumquat Butter No. 2
Prepare kumquats as in preceding recipe. Put through food
chopper. Measure. To each measure of fruit add 1 measure of
water and cook for 20 minutes. Allow to stand over night. To
each cup of this mixture add /% cup sugar and cook rapidly until
it gives the jelly test.
This recipe makes a product that is lighter in color and more
jelly-like in consistency than No. 1, and is of a delicate, delight-
ful flavor that is generally liked.
Caution: All butters should be cooked rapidly and in small
quantities to retain the desired flavor and color.
Do not over-cook-the product thickens considerably when
cool.
Orange Butter
The following recipe makes a product similar in many ways
to apple butter. It spreads better than most marmalades or
jellies, and is not so sweet. It is especially popular with children.
The fruit is washed, the stems and blemish spots being care-
fully removed. It is then cut into slices or small pieces or run
through a food chopper, covered with water and cooked until
the peel is tender; usually this takes two or three hours.
Sugar is added, V2 pound for each pound of cooked fruit. The
mixture is cooked rapidly with constant stirring until the desired
consistency is reached. It is best cooked beyond the jellying
point.
Kumquat Jam
The cooked pulp remaining in the jelly bag after the juice for
jelly-making has been strained off is very good stock for mak-






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


ing into jam. Combine with one pint of water for each pound
of fruit. Boil slowly for 15 to 20 minutes and add % pound
of sugar for each pound of original fruit taken. Boil until clear.
If fresh fruit is used, clean it in the same manner as for pre-
serves with the soda solution. After rinsing well and draining
the fruit, cover with water. Cook until tender, remove seeds and
slice or grind fruit, measure the pulp and allow I/ to % pound
of sugar for each pound of fruit, according to the acidity of the
fruit being used. Recook the pulp before adding the sugar, then
proceed as for making other jams.
Calamondins, orangequats, Temples, or tangerines blended
with lemons or other fruit containing more acid, make fine jams.

Quick Tangerine Jam
(Makes 2 glasses)
2 cups tangerine, pulp 1 tLp. grated tangerine
and juice rind
1 lemon, pulp and juice 11/ cups sugar
Be sure seeds are removed from tangerine pulp and juice.
Combine ingredients and boil quickly about 10 minutes, or until
syrupy and clear. Very good served warm on hot biscuit. Also
makes a splendid dressing for ice cream.

MARMALADES
A good marmalade should be bright and clear, free from all
cloudiness with the pulp and peel suspended in the jellied juice.
The jelly should be sufficiently soft to spread easily, the solids
evenly distributed throughout and transparent to translucent,
according to the variety of citrus fruits used. Most citrus fruits
cook to the utmost transparency but the sweet orange and some
others do not. The fruit should be in thin, uniform shreds or
slices of a length that allows for ease in serving. While the
fruits used may be either prepared by slicing thinly or by grind-
ing through the food chopper, a sliced marmalade rates the
higher of the two types.
Variations in the acid and pectin content of citrus fruits occur
with the season and the locality. Fruits must be selected care-
fully and procedures followed closely. The fruit should be suffi-
ciently ripe to have developed good favor and color, but never
over or under ripe. Fruits lacking acidity like tangerines, for
instance, should be combined with those high in acidity, like
lemons and limcquats.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Citrus fruits in general are rich in pectin when used at the
proper stage of maturity. Pectin as well as acid is necessary
for making jelly. Slicing the peel very thin, 1/32 inch if pos-
sible, facilitates the extraction of pectin and flavoring constitu-
ents. Allowing the prepared fruit and added liquid to stand
several hours or over night is also advantageous for developing
pectin and other desirable qualities.
Weigh or measure the combined fruit pulp and water. Add
sugar at the rate of 12 to 1 pound per pound of fruit, depending
on the acidity of the fruit and the amount of pectin present.
The jelly stock is boiled until the fruit is tender. Then the
mixture is usually allowed to stand for several hours. Then
the required amount of sugar is added and the cooking is con-
tinued rapidly until the jelly stage is reached. The mixture
must then be allowed to cool slightly with gentle stirring before
being poured into the containers. This permits an even distribu-
tion of the peel throughout the jelly, rather than rising to the
top when poured in the jar. The containers should then be
sealed and processed below simmering for 10 minutes for 12
ounce or pint jars.
From the Seville or sour orange, brought to Florida during
the days of the early Spanish explorers, is manufactured the
orange marmalade with such a tang and aftertaste as to have
made England and Scotland famous in every corner of the globe.
Just as this popular delicacy, the Dundee marmalade, has estab-
lished a place for itself in the dietary of the entire world, so
should this or some other delightful tonic and appetite and
digestion awakening marmalade be served at breakfast in every
Florida home.
Of all the array of jams and jellies, citrus marmalades are
perhaps best suited for serving with hot toast, muffins and
biscuits. Literally thousands of families start the day in many
parts of the world using a little orange marmalade. With the
opening of the citrus season in the fall and winter months, the
many colorful and flavorful citrus fruits should receive the en-
thusiastic attention of the particular Florida housewife who
wishes to add zest and interest to her menu.
In addition to being an excellent sandwich spread, marmalades
may be used as a filling for cakes and pies, as a pudding sauce,
an accompaniment for meats, griddle cakes, toast and waffles,
for many cooking purposes, to make marmalade biscuit, to flavor






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


cakes, pies, breads, frostings, sundae dressings and for other
special service.
Seville Orange Marmalade
1 lb. peeled sour oranges % of peel removed from oranges
2 pts. water I lbs. sugar
Preparation of Peel: Wash fruit, remove peel, discard two-
thirds of the peel, reserving the third freest from blemish and
with a knife remove any blemishes that may be on the peel. Cut
this peel in thin slices. Place in a kettle and add water (four
times weight of peel). Boil 10 minutes, then drain. Repeat
this process from three to five times, each time boiling the
water for 5 minutes. Peel should be tender. Bitter taste may
be removed by changing the water a sufficient number of times.
Preparation of Juice: After the peel has been removed, weigh
the remaining fruit, cut into small pieces, place in a kettle and
for each pound of orange taken add 2 pints of water. Boil until
it thoroughly disintegrates. Pour into a flannel jelly bag and
press until no more juice can be obtained. Strain this juice
again through a clean flannel jelly bag without pressing.
Making the Marmalade: Pour this juice into a kettle, add peel
and bring to a boil. Add 11/ pounds of sugar for each pound of
fruit. Continue the boiling until the jellying point has been
reached, which is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from
spoon.
When over-ripe oranges are used, the amount of sugar should
be reduced to 114 pounds for each pound of fruit.

Sweet Orange Marmalade
1 lb. peeled sweet oranges 2 pts. water
%4 peel removed from oranges % lb. sugar
Preparation of Peel: Wash fruit, remove 141 of the peel, which
should be free from blemish. Cut this peel in as thin slices as
possible or run through a food chopper. Place in a kettle with
four times its weight in water. Boil 10 minutes, drain free of
water. Repeat this process twice, cooking in the last change of
water until tender.
Preparation of Juice: After .:i of the peel has been removed
from the oranges, with a sharp knife remove the yellow part
from the remaining peel. leaving the white part containing
pectin. Weigh the fruit; cut it into small pieces; place in a
kettle, and for each pound of orange taken add 2 pints water.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Boil until it thoroughly disintegrates (about 20 minutes). Pour
into a cheesecloth bag and press until no more juice can be
obtained. Strain the juice again through a clean flannel bag
without pressing.
Making the Marmalade: Pour the juice into a kettle and
bring to a boil. For each pound of fruit taken add /s cup of
sugar. When this comes to a boil add the peel which has been
sliced or run through a food chopper and cooked until tender.
Bring the whole to a boil and continue boiling until the jellying
point has been reached. (Usually obtained at 222 F. or 1060 C.)

Sunshine Marmalade
When oranges have been cut in halves and the juice has been
squeezed from them or the pulp removed with a spoon, a delicious
marmalade may be made from what remains. Separate the rind
and the membranous skin or rag that covers the section of fruit.
Discard the rag.
Shred peel very thinly or put the peel through a food chopper.
To the shredded or chopped peel add twice its weight in water
and 2 tablespoons lemon juice for each cup of water used. Let
this stand for 1 hour, then add the same amount of water as
originally taken and boil gently for 3 minutes, cover and set
aside to cool. When cold, press through a jelly bag to extract
the juice. Keep one-half of the prepared peel to add later to
the boiling juice. Test for pectin and add such an amount of
sugar as the pectin test indicates that the juice will carry. Bring
to a boil, add one-half of the prepared peel and cook until the
jellying point is reached (2220 F. or 1060 C.).

Orange Marmalade
3 Ibs. oranges 1% pts. water
3 lemons 3 Ibs. sugar
Wash, remove peel and seeds, cutting one-half of peel into
very thin strips, and add it to pulp and remainder of peel, which
has first had the yellow portion grated off and has been passed
through a food chopper with the pulp. Cover with water and let
stand over night. Boil for 10 minutes the next morning; allow
to stand for 12 hours; add sugar and again let stand over night.
Cook rapidly next morning until the jelly test can be obtained
(about 2220 F.). Cool to 1760 F. Poar into sterilized glasses
and seal.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


Combination Marmalade
1 orange 1 grapefruit
1 lemon Sugar
Wash and run the fruit through a food chopper, add three
times the bulk of water, boil for 15 minutes, and let stand over
night. Next morning boil for 15 minutes, or until the peel is
tender, and let stand again. When cold measure pint for pint
of sugar and cook over a rapid fire until jelly stage is reached
(222' F.). A variation may be made in this by the addition,
when sugar is added, of 1 cup shredded pineapple previously
boiled for 5 minutes.

Orange and Lemon Marmalade
4 medium or 4 lemons
3 large ranges
Slice the fruit, unpeeled, paper thin. Measure and add 5 times
as much cold water as fruit. Allow to stand from 12 to 24
hours, then boil vigorously for 35 to 45 minutes. This should
render peel tender and reduce quantity one-half. Measure into
two or four-cup lots. Cooking four cups or less at one time
gives better flavor and color.
If oranges are rather sweet or over-ripe, add additional lemon
juice at this stage-about 1 tablespoon to 1 cup fruit. Boil 8
minutes. Add % cup sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil rapidly
until the jelly point is reached.
Pour into hot, sterilized glasses or seal in jars. This yields
12 to 18 glasses.
The tree-ripened Florida Villa Franca, Perrine or Meyer lemon
is ideal for jelly or marmalade making.

Grapefruit Marmalade No. 1
1 lb. grapefruit 1 lb. sugar
2 pts. water (based on pectin test)
% peel removed from grapefruit
This marmalade is made by following the same directions as
for making sour orange marmalade.

Grapefruit Marmalade No. 2
A second method of making grapefruit marmalade which gives
a product that is but slightly bitter is as follows:
Peel the grapefruit, remove and discard the white membranous
skin that covers the pulp. Measure the pulp and for each cup of







F :I~j- OmperuI'tirr Es tefl:j1i1


pulp taken add 1 cup of water and boil gently 20 minutes. Cover
and set aside until cold. Strain a small portion of the juice and
test for pectin. If the pectin precipitate is very light, return the
vessel to the fire and boil the contents for 5 minutes more. Cover
and set aside until cold. Strain the juice through a jelly bag,
pressing the fruit so as to obtain all the juice. Strain through a
second bag without pressing to remove particles of fruit from
the juice. Test the juice so obtained for pectin and determine
the amount of sugar to he used for each cup of juice that is taken.
Bring the juice to a boil. Add the sugar and peel prepared as ill
Recipe No. 1. boil until the mixture reaches the jelly point.


lig. 4. The Perrine lemon. another introduction to thof I'. S. Department of Agricul-
ture. is a hYyril renltinE i rm i cror.- made in lIu0 betreer: the Wts. Indian lime and
the G-rloil imTenil. The Plr' rin -0.-m- t, tit the *demnn t Iir a lemon of tanndllrd rize. fluvnr,
aronima and fruitfulnea; It is more ur le;s ev*'rbearir.n, r.irr"yin fruit of usaleh condition
Svight or nine months of the year. The Ire in -6,nelu[a nw*re hardy thanl the common lime
and appear. lightlyy more hurdi, than th- lemon.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


Golden Glow Marmalade
Wash grapefruit, peel with knife, leaving on the white mem-
branous skin or "rag" that lies under the peel. Break in half and
cut out tough, pithy portion of rag that lies in central part of
fruit around seed, also discard the seed. Cut sections of fruit
and rag in half lengthwise.
To each measure of pulp add three measures of water. Let
stand over night, then boil gently until rag is tender, about
to 3i. hour. Let stand again over night, then measure. Add
pint for pint of sugar, ', as much grated pineapple, and cook
rapidly until jelly stage is reached (222- F.). Pour into steril-
ized jars and seal immediately.

Lemon Marmalade
Cut firm, brightly-colored lemons in very thin slices, discarding
only the seeds. Allow one orange to each six lemons, cutting it
also into very thin slices or use sliced kumquats instead of the
orange. Measure the fruit and mix each quart of fruit with
three quarts of cold water. Cover and let stand over night.
Next day boil rapidly until the fruit is tender, measure and add
one cup sugar to each cup fruit. Heat slowly to boiling point,
then boil rapidly until the mixture gives the jelly test. Pour
into hot jars and seal.

Tangelo Marmalade
1 lb. peeled tangelos % of the peel removed
1 lb. sugar from tangelos
1 pts. water
Preparation of Peel: Wash the fruit, remove the peel, discard
one-half, reserving the portion freest from blemish, and cut into
slices as thin as possible or run through food chopper. Boil for
10 minutes, drain free of water, and add water again. Bring to
a boil and allow to simmer until tender.
Preparation of Juice: After the peel has been removed, weigh
the fruit, cut into small pieces and place in a kettle. For each
pound of tangelo taken add 11,2 pints of water. Boil until it
thoroughly disintegrates, about 20 minutes. Pour into a cheese-
cloth jelly bag and press until no more juice can be obtained.
Strain the juice again through a clean flannel jelly bag without
pressing.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Making the Marmalade: Pour this juice into a kettle, add
drained peel, bring to a boil, add 1 pound of sugar for each pound
of fruit. Continue boiling until the jellying point is reached.

Tangerine Marmalade
(Makes 24 glasses)
3 Ibs. tangerines 8 large lemons
Sugar
Quarter tangerines, but do not remove peel. Slice very thin,
removing all seeds. Add finely shredded or sliced lemons. Meas-
ure fruit and add five times as much water. Boil until quantity
is reduced nearly one-half-from 1 to 14, hours. For light
amber marmalade, cook 2 to 3 cups at a time. Add % cup
sugar to each cup boiling fruit and continue boiling until it
gives the jelly test of thick heavy drops from the side of a
spoon. It will take 10 to 20 minutes. Pour into sterilized
glasses and when cool, seal with paraffin.
Serve with hot toast, biscuit or as meat accompaniment. This
marmalade may be used also in cooking to flavor icings, make
cake fillings and so on.

"Coolidge" Tomato Citrus Marmalade
4 qts. ripe tomatoes 3 oranges, thinly sliced
(dry measure) 1 full stick cinnamon
3 lemons or I tbsp. whole cloves
1 qt. kumquats or Sugar
18 calamondins, thinly sliced
Scald, cold dip and peel tomatoes. Remove core. Pour off
juice from tomatoes. Don't discard, as it is a delicious, whole-
some drink. Weigh the tomatoes and set aside an equal weight
of sugar. Add thinly sliced fruits and put in heavy aluminum
or iron kettle and cook moderately until the citrus peel is tender.
Then add sugar and spice and cook to the jelly stage.
Green tomatoes may be used equally as well as the ripe fruit,
in which case add 1/2 cup water to the sliced fruit.
Note: The above marmalade was said to be a great favorite
with the late President Coolidge, hence the name.

Marmalade Stock
Marmalade stock may be prepared for later finishing by boiling
thinly-sliced or ground sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, lime-
quats, lemons, or calamondins, or a mixture of any of the fruits
with water and then canning or scaling, boiling hot, the product






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


so obtained. It will be rich in pectin and acid if prepared before
the fruit becomes over-ripe. The mixture will be amber in color,
slightly cloudy, and possess the characteristic flavor of the
cooked fruit.
When concentrated by boiling with the proper proportion of
sugar it should yield a clear, firm jelly of pleasing color and
flavor. It is necessary that the mixture of thinly-sliced peel and
the juice be cooked only until tender-without sugar. Place in
glass jars while boiling hot. Seal immediately. Sterilize quarts
10 minutes at boiling. Store stock in cool place. When wanted
for marmalade making, add required amount of sugar and cook
to jelly stage.
By preparing jelly or marmalade stock in this way, small lots
of jelly or marmalade may be prepared at any time of the year,
and the storage of large quantities of jelly or marmalade in
paraffin covered glasses may be avoided. This practice is to be
recommended.

SWEET AND FERMENTED PICKLES FROM
CITRUS FRUITS
Delicious and most interesting pickles may be made from all
the citrus fruits that can be preserved. Grapefruit in particular,
kumquats, orangequats, limequats that Florida grows so well
can be made into the most delectable and inimitable sweet pickles.
Grapefruit, shaddock, Seville orange and other large citrus fruits
should be carefully grated and cut into convenient halves, quar-
ters or strips, as desired; the smaller fruits, like kumquats,
should be left whole. These fruits when preserved can easily
be made into pickles by draining off the rich preserve syrup
and adding to it a small amount of high grade vinegar, lemon
slices, and whole spices-cinnamon, cloves, allspice and ginger
being commonly preferred. Pour this boiling hot spiced syrup
over the preserves and allow to stand to permeate and penetrate
the fruit. Within the next day or two, drain off the syrup,
reheat and repeat the operation until the fruit is thoroughly
saturated and flavored and is clear, translucent and shapely.
With some of the more acid citrus fruits, a higher proportion
of sugar, :!, pound to 1, pound of fruit, produces a finer quality
product than when less sugar is used. Spices should be tied
loosely in a cheesecloth bag and be pounded lightly to increase
the flavor.






Florida Cooperative Extension


These sweet pickles call for many boiling of syrup which
is poured back, boiling hot, over the fruit on successive days
rather than giving one long cook. Too much cooking will spoil
the shape and texture. On the other hand too short a cook,
when being made tender in water, will result in slow penetra-
tion of the sugar, dark color and toughness. Citrus preserves
and pickles should never be "mushy" or excessively soft. At
all times there should be sufficient syrup to cover the fruit well.

Sweet Pickled Grapefruit
The grapefruit shells left from the breakfast or other service
may well be used for this delicious and unique pickle. The whole
fruit may be used, leaving the segments intact, or they may
be removed as preferred.
Wash and grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Leave
in halves or cut into convenient quarters or in half inch strips.
Cover abundantly with water and bring slowly to a boil and
boil 10 minutes. Then change water and bring to boil as before.
Taste liquid and if very bitter, drain off and renew. If only
slightly bitter, boil peel until tender. Drain and add peel to
a syrup made by adding % pound sugar to 1 pint of water for
each pound of fruit used. Boil until peel is clear and syrup
heavy. Add 1 cup white vinegar to each pound of fruit, and
whole spice-cinnamon and cloves-tied in cheesecloth bag and
lightly bruised. Bring to a boil and let stand covered 24 hours.
Reheat and pack. The peel should be beautifully clear, tender,
yet firm, well flavored and the syrup heavy.
Sweet pickled citrus fruit should be among the most popular
of Florida pickles.
Sweet Pickled Kumquats
2 Ibs. whole kumquat 1 cup vinegar
1 Ibs. sugar Whole spice
1% pts. water
Thoroughly clean well ripened kumquats by scraping with
a paring knife and stiff brush. Rinse well and drain. Make a
slit with a sharp pointed knife into and across the sections of
each kumquat to prevent them from bursting open and to
facilitate penetration of the spiced syrup. The procedure also
allows some of the seed to work out. Some prefer to pierce or
puncture the fruit from stem to blossom end with a stainless






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


steel skewer or an ice pick. Drop kumquats into an abundance
of boiling water and cook until tender.
Drain and add to sugar syrup. Cook briskly until kumquats
are clearing and syrup is becoming thick. Cover and allow to
stand over night. The next day drain off syrup, add vinegar,
1 stick cinnamon broken, 1 tablespoon each of cloves and all-
spice tied in bag. Bring mixture to a boil and boil 5 minutes.
Add kumquats and allow to stand covered over night again.
Drain off syrup again and repeat as before. When fruit is well
flavored and syrup spicy and thick, pack kumquats in sterile
jars, adding a small amount of spice. Heat syrup, strain over
fruit, seal and process pints at simmering for 5 minutes.

Sweet Pickled Calamondins
Follow directions as given for kumquats.

Sweet Pickled Orangequats
Orangequats may be pickled as directed for kumquats; also
limequats may be used in the same way. For further informa-
tion on fermenting fruits and vegetables, see Bulletin 83, Pickles
and Relishes from Florida Fruits and Vegetables.

Tangerine Sweet Pickle
Choose small, firm tangerines of uniform size and unblemished
skins. Wash. Push a large knitting needle entirely through
each fruit 6 or 8 times. Let fruit stand over night well covered
with salt water and weighted down with a plate.
In the morning put the fruit with an abundance of cold water
in a large preserving kettle and boil gently until tender, chang-
ing the water twice. Remove fruit with skimmer. Make a syrup
sufficient to cover the tangerines well. using 1 cup water and
1 cup pickle vinegar to each pint of sugar. I stick cinnamon,
10 whole cloves and 1 lemon sliced. Stir until sugar is dissolved,
add fruit and cook until syrup is thickened and tangerines are
somewhat clear. Let stand over night or several nights.
Boil again until fruit is transluc-iit aml syrup hcavy. Pack
carefully in jars. Process pints at simmering 15 minutes. This
is an unusual and delicious pickle to serve with chicken, veal
and other meats. If additional flavor is desired, tangerine, grape-
fruit or orange juice may be used instead of water.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Baked Pickled Orange Slices
Navel or other seedless oranges are preferable for these de-
licious slices. Use four medium size fruits. Grate carefully,
puncture and cook in an abundance of water one hour or until
tender, changing water once and adding salt to the first boiling.
Drain, cut into 1/4 inch slices. Prepare the following spiced
syrup:
2 cups of sugar 20 whole cloves
% cup corn syrup 2 two inch pieces of stick
1 cup vinegar cinnamon
1 cup water 12 bruised coriander seeds.
Boil 5 minutes, add orange slices, and boil 15 minutes. Trans-
fer to a casserole and bake % hour in a slightly hotter than
moderate oven (400 F.). If syrup does not completely cover
the fruit, baste occasionally. This is delicious to serve with
hot or with cold meats.

Pickled Kumquats
(Fermented)
Either fully mature kumquats still in the green stage, but
just before they turn yellow, or ripe, well colored fruit may be
used for making into fermented pickles. The little Meiwa is
especially nice to use.
Use freshly gathered fruit, clipped, not pulled from the trees.
Wash and scrape thoroughly to remove any scale or dust. Pack,
without crushing, in all-glass containers to within 1 inch of
top, and place weight or some slats across the fruit in such
way as to prevent their rising in the pickling solution. Cover
with a solution made in the proportion of /4 cup cooking salt and
1/4 cup vinegar added to 1 quart water. At no time should the
kumquats be exposed above the solution. Adjust rubber and
glass top on jar and partially seal. As fermentation takes place
and liquid recedes, it should be replaced with new brine. In
four or five days the jar may be completely sealed.
Kumquats should be cured in about six weeks to two months.
They will be found to make an admirable substitute for olives
and for the imported pickled limes, a popular product with the
generation past. With the super-abundance of kumquats in
Florida they should be pickled in quantities. Calamondins and
other small citrus fruits may be used in the same way.
Caution: Do not wait until fruit is becoming dry before using.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


Citrus Syrups and Sweet Spiced Vinegar Syrups
Citrus syrups and sweet spiced vinegars left from preserving,
crystallizing or pickling, with their rich, characteristic flavors
are especially desirable for use in general cookery and for both
sweetening and flavoring party punches.
Citrus syrups are delicious to use diluted with hot water to
baste baked ham or roast lamb, the sweet, spice and sour all
adding greatly to the final flavor. The syrup stiffened with
gelatine as a jelly for piquant garnish for cold meats or for
jellied fruit or vegetable salads, for fruit salad dressings or
the sweetened vinegar used alone as a dressing for lettuce is
liked by many; a half cup of the rich syrup may serve for part
liquid and part sweetening in spice cake and for sweetening
fruit juices. In all there are many uses for this combination-
good vinegar, sugar and spices combined with fruit juices.

CRYSTALLIZING CITRUS FRUITS
The preservation of fruits by saturating them with sugar
and then covering them with a coat of sugar crystals is one
of the oldest known methods of fruit preservation. Because
of the lengthy and tedious process involved in the manufacture
of crystallized fruit and the excessive amount of sugar used,
the product must of necessity command a high price.
Crystallized or glac6d products are fruit impregnated with
sugar, 75 to 80 percent of their total weight being sugar. The
crystallized fruit has a coating of tiny crystals, while glace fruit
has a dry, smooth, shining surface. The two products are pre-
pared in the same way, differing only in the mode of finish.
Both are prepared by allowing the fruit to boil and stand
in a thin syrup until the fruit juice gradually diffuses out of
and the sugar slowly diffuses into the fruit. The sugar syrups
are slowly built up as the fruit gradually takes up more and
more of the syrup. Care must be taken not to apply too heavy
a syrup at the beginning or at any stage of the process, as
the water will be drawn from the fruit more quickly than the
sugar will be absorbed and the cell walls of the fruit will then
become shriveled and hardened. Instead, build up the concen-
tration of sugar in syrup gradually.
Since delicate flavors will be masked by the large quantity
of sugar absorbed in the crystallizing process, citrus fruits
because of their pronounced and varied flavors are ideally suited
for this purpose. However, for the best retention of color, flavor






Florida Coope rat ive Extev.ion


and texture, the fruit should never be heated in the syrup, but
instead the syrup should be drained off, brought to a boil and
poured hot over the fruit. Allow the fruit to stay in that syrup
for one to two days before adding more sugar, a slight amount
of water and again reheating and concentrating as before.


Fi. 5. -CrYuslli!ed lhcm uf choice pink lhadlluck, candles Krgraperuit peel and shtll
of kumquat combined with penna. Note the thick pel of the pink shaddock. This thick
peel with the tasty roi" red segmrnts add both a new and Intrii-uing fla ,r and beautiful
color t.. a plate of Flrnla citru conf.-ctionn. It also adis further variety of both flavor
and nilor it, rmi lilin s :inil liinirg. Ito stramed pudding and to fancy breads.

The fruit should be well ripened and full flavored for high
quality products.

The Crystallizing Process

For crystallizing fruit when it is desired to keep the fruit
for a long period of time:
1. Preparation of Fruit: All citrus fruits should be of a
bright color. %witlihut blemish. Grapefruit. ponderosa lemon,
sour orange and other large fruits must be grated sufficiently
to break the oil cells and to remove blemishes. The bitter peel
is removed by changing the water in boiling to make tender,
the number of changes depending upon individual taste.
Kumquats and other small citrus fruits are left whole, first
washed, thoroughly cleaned, and then punctured or pricked for






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


better penetration of syrup, then boiled until tender in an abund-
ance of water.
2. All fruits must be cooked until tender before being put into
first syrup. Make a syrup of equal weights of sugar and water
to cover fruit completely; to this add fruit equal in weight to
that of sugar and boil to 218" F. or until fruit is clear. If fruit
is not clear, cook at this temperature until clear. This tempera-
ture is maintained as long as desired by the addition of boiling
water at necessary intervals. Let stand in this syrup at least
24 hours. The fruit should be kept weighted down below the
surface of the syrup at all times. A dinner plate may be used.
3. At the end of 24 hours cook to 224- F. or 1073 C. Seal
while hot. To make a marketable product, keep this preserve
sealed for at least six weeks before finishing. The process of
crystallizing fruit will give the most satisfactory results if it is
extended over a period of several weeks, at least.
If the fruit does not appear clear, plump and glistening in the
last stages of the syruping, it may be improved by bringing
syrup to a boil and boiling gently 10 to 15 minutes. Boil the
fruit in the last syrup for several minutes, pack hot into hot
jars or cans, and seal immediately to avoid any chances of
fermentation occurring during the storing period.
If crystals of sugar appear during this time, heat until they
dissolve before draining the fruit to dry to make ready for
finishing coat.
4. After storing the fruit for several weeks (or months) re-
move from the syrup, dip for a moment in hot water to clear the
surface from adhering syrup, and dry for about 24 hours at
room temperature in hot sunshine or in an evaporator at 100
to 120' F.
5. Allow about 3 pounds sugar and /, pint water for about 4
pounds of fruit. Mix well and bring slowly to a boil, dissolving
all the sugar. Cook without stirring to 228 F. The sides of
the kettle should be brushed with a fondant brush or wiped with
a damp cloth to keep down crystals. Remove carefully from fire,
keeping kettle covered with damp cloth. The fruit may be
dipped in the same kettle, or a portion removed and used for
dipping until the syrup appears cloudy, when a new batch must
be taken from the warm, clear syrup. Unless the dipping syrup
is kept fresh and clear, the coating on the fruit will appear white
and opaque.






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The pieces of candied fruit may be dipped, then lifted with
two forks and placed on a wire rack or tray to drain and dry
in hot sunshine or in the evaporator, being turned occasionally
if needed, so that they will dry evenly on all sidess.
Wooden boxes lined with oiled paper or moisture-proof cello-
phane are considered the best type of containers for packing
candied fruit and fruit pastes. These candied fruits do not keep
well over a long time, even if stored under the best conditions;
the storage period should not exceed two or three months.
If crystallized fruits are stored in tin boxes or glass jars, they
should first be wrapped in waxed paper, even when kept for
only a short time. Containers that allow ventilation are to be
preferred.
UTILIZING THE CRYSTALLIZING SYRUPS
The finishing syrup drained off may be diluted with water and
used in the initial preserving stages.
The other syrup remaining may be bottled boiling hot and
sealed for future use in canning fruit macedoines, fruit chutneys,
for sweetening punch, for pudding sauces, for dressing ice cream
and in many other ways.

Crystallized Whole Grapefruit
Select bright, smooth fruit with thick peel. Wash and grate
lightly with medium fine grater, removing all yellow oil cells.
Cut circles three inches in diameter from stem end of fruit and
remove meat and connective tissue, being careful to leave all of
the thick part of peel. Boil until tender and if it is desired to
remove the bitter, change the water during cooking, each time
putting the fruit into cold water and bringing it slowly to the
boiling point.
Several changes of water often are necessary to accomplish
this. If too much of the bitter flavor is removed, an undesirable,
insipid, characterless product results. Be careful not to get peel
overly soft or the fruit will not retain its original shape.
Cool fruit and put into a syrup made of equal parts of sugar
and water. Sufficient syrup must be made to float the fruit.
Cook to 2200 F. and let fruit stand in syrup 24 hours, then
'Do not dry too quickly or coating turns white. It must remain color-
less, as its object is not only to help preserve the fruit but alsu to give
it a "glace", make its color appear brighter. This sugar coating must
improve the appearance of the fruit, not cover up defects or detract from
its appearance. Many confectioners use glucose in part, claiming it gives
brighter color and fruits are firmer and more transparent.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


cook to 2220 F. Let stand again, then drain off syrup, add 1
cup of sugar and 1 tablespoon of water and bring to boil. Boil
3 to 5 minutes. Pour over fruit and allow to stand as before,
gradually building up syrup until a density of 2260 or 228 F.
is reached. Finally, take out and put in sun to dry. If fruit
is very large and will not hold its shape, turn over a glass or
olive bottle to dry (24 hours).
Fill the fruit with small pieces of crystallized fruits, nuts or
other confections. French fondant with nuts may be used as
a filling. When this is done, it is then cut as one cuts a cake.
It may be used for a garnish when prepared in this way.
If it is desired to keep the fruit any length of time, it is
necessary to leave the fruit in the heavy syrup for at least
three weeks.
QUICK METHODS OF CRYSTALLIZING FOR IMMEDIATE
CONSUMPTION
Grapefruit Peel No. 1
1 lb. grapefruit peel 6 oz. water
1% Ibs. sugar
Preparation of Peel: Select bright fruit with a thick peel.
Wash carefully. Grate lightly on an ordinary grater to break
the oil cells. Cut the peel in quarters and remove from the fruit
and weigh. Cut this peel into strips 1~ to 1/ inch wide; or cut
into small shapes. Place in a saucepan of water and for each
quart of peel taken add 3 pints or more of cold water. Boil 10
minutes and pour off the water. Repeat three times or until
as much of the bitter flavor is removed as is desired. Dry the
peel between folds of cloth, pressing gently.
For each pound of peel used add 11,/ pounds of sugar to 6
ounces of water. Bring to a boil and cook until the sugar is
dissolved. Add the prepared peel and boil until the syrup is
absorbed. Remove immediately from the fire and roll the fruit
in granulated or powdered sugar.
Finishing Point: Cooking continued too long and evaporation
carried too far will cause the product to be hard and unattractive.
The point at which the product shall be finished may be deter-
mined by rolling a piece of fruit when it IMs become transparent,
in granulated sugar. If after a few minutes the fruit stiffens
enough to retain its shape it is sufficiently cooked. A strip of
peel is preferred to the small shapes in making this test.






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Grapefruit Peel No. 2
1 lb. grapefruit peel L4 pt. clear corn syrup
1% lbs. sugar % pt. water
Proceed as in Method No. 1. It is more difficult to reach
crystallization by this method, slower cooking being required,
but due to the glucose in the corn syrup the finished product
remains soft much longer than when prepared by Method No. 1.
Grapefruit Peel No. 3
Wash the fruit and remove the peel. leaving as little of the
white material attached to the fruit as possible. The peel can
be more readily detached if the fruit is dipped in boiling water
for a few minutes. If peel is to be used from fruit from which
the juice has been pressed, the segment walls can be easily
removed with the fingers. The peel is cut into strips 2 inches
long by 41, inch wide. into disks I/L inch wide or into squares of
the same size, as preferred.
Two methods of cooking can be followed, one using water
alone, the other giving a preliminary treatment with lime water.
Under certain conditions the finished product has a slightly
tough layer at the surface which was the outer surface of the
original peel. This tendency can he overcome by the use of the
lime water method, but usually results are almost as good where
water alone is used. In using lime water, use only the clear
water, do not use milk of lime. Lime water contains only a few
tenths of 1 percent of lime in solution and will not injure the peel.
Place the prepared peel in a kettle and cover with a mixture
consisting of 2 parts of water and 1 part of clear lime water,
cover and boil for half an hour. Pour off the liquid, again cover
with water and boil for half an hour. Do not use lime water
after the first cooking. Where lime water is not available, use
plain water for all cooking. Repeat the boiling with fresh water
each time until a piece of the peel, when removed, cooled, and
tasted, has about the same bitter taste as desired in the finished
product. The final product will be a little less bitter than the
peel at this stage, as some of the bitterness disappears on further
cooking. Usually three treatments will be sufficient where a
rather bitter flavor is desired; five or six produce a mild flavored
peel; more than that number will result in a product without
grapefruit flavor-not to be desired. When the peel has reached
the desired flavor, pour off the water and drain the peel; the
excess of water can he removed by gentle pressure.






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


Now prepare a syrup, using equal parts of granulated sugar
and water, and cover the peel with it. Boil very slowly for an
hour or so. and allow the peel to remain in the syrup over night
or longer if convenient. Finally, boil again until the syrup
becomes thick, stopping the cooking at the usual point for jelly
making; on a candy thermometer this is about 219 to 2220 F.
The peel is satisfactory even if taken off before it reaches this
point; over-cooking tends to make it hard. While hot, drain the
syrup from the peel as completely as possible, shaking repeatedly
to remove the last drops. Now roll the peel in powdered sugar,
separating any pieces that stick together. Cool and allow to
remain in the air for several days to dry. Then place in air-
tight jars or cans where it will keep for months. A better keep-
ing and softer product will result if one of the commercial invert
sugars is used in place of cane sugar.
This peel makes a fine center for chocolates and can be used
as a substitute for citron in baking.

Grapefruit Peel No. 4
Prepare peel as in Method No. 1. Boil sugar and water until
the syrup will spin a thread. Add the peel and cook until trans-
parent. Pour this into containers and let it stand for 10 days
or longer. When ready to finish, lift from the syrup, put on a
rack and sun. If the day is clear and dry a few hours will com-
plete the product. This product remains in good condition for
several weeks.
Ponderosa Lemon
Follow the same directions as for grapefruit peel. The oily
part of the rind should be grated from the peel before boiling.
This makes a more tender product and reduces the time of
cooking.
Crystallized Kumquat Chips
Clean kumquats thoroughly, sprinkle with soda, using 1 table-
spoon of soda to 1 pound of kumquats. Pour sufficient boiling
water over this to cover fruit. Let stand for 10 minutes, pour
off water and rinse through three changes of water. Cut kum-
quats into quarters. These slices are dropped into a boiling
sugar solution, prepared by dissolving 1 cup of sugar in 2 cups
of water. Boil for 30 minutes, and then drop into a heavy syrup
made by dissolving 1 cup of sugar in 1 cup of water. Boil for






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30 minutes, allow to stand until cool and the next day boil for
30 minutes in the same sugar solution. Remove and place on a
platter to dry. The chips may then be rolled in sugar.

Crystallized Sour Orange Peel
Follow the same directions as for grapefruit peel, except that
two changes of water are sufficient.

THE CITRON

The citron, known as "citron of commerce" as distinguished
from the citron melon which grows on a vine, is used widely
in making fruit cakes and plum puddings. The fruit is large
and the rind is thick and usually rough. The fruit when ready
for use should be still green ini color but fully mature. A well
ripened, yellow citron may have a rich, agreeable fragrance,
but when preserved it has less flavor than the fruit that is
mature but still green in color.


Fig. 6.-The citron iA a ravurit itngroJaint for fruit cake,. fnrit puiddings. nil varina
fancy breads. Shown In the container in preanTrve citron and in the platter is preverled
itfron which has been rmnveld, drained. and allowed to crystallize and is now ready for
une. Both a large and a small variety of citrn are pict)ured on the platter.

Brining or Curing Citron: Cut the fruit lengthwise in halves.
The pulp is difficult to remove from fresh citron and may be left
in during the fermentation process. Put iii a brine made from


L






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


6 to 7 ounces dairy salt and 1 gallon water, keeping the pieces
completely submerged. Any weight such as is used for pickles
is suitable for this purpose and the container may be wood,
crockery or glass. The citron should be put into the brine very
shortly after removal from the trees, as the undesirable yellow
color tends to develop even after the fruit is in the brine. Use
only sufficient salt to prevent spoiling; an excess has a tendency
to extract flavor and to toughen the citron.
The desired result in curing citron is to obtain a firm, yet
tender rind, with the bitter flavor removed and the agreeable
citron flavor retained and developed. The time required for
curing varies with the size of the pieces of citron, the degree
of maturity of fruit and the temperature. The tissues expand
and become translucent. This takes from 15 to 30 days and
even longer.
Preserving the Citron: When the fermentation is completed,
remove the pulp, place the citron in water, changing until suf-
ficiently freshened. Do not remove all salt, as a small quantity
improves the flavor. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil.
Boil until fairly tender. Put in cold water 24 hours to restore
crispness.
Crisping is followed by the sugar preserving. Begin with a
thin syrup and gradually increase its density. The rapidity of
passage from syrup to syrup depends somewhat on the size of
the pieces and the temperature maintained. By using more heat
the preserving process can be shortened, but the product will be
darker in color and less delicate in flavor. Slower processes in
which little or no heat is used are tedious but more likely to
result in fine quality. After the citron has been in the first syrup
24 hours, taste to see if enough salt has been removed. If too
salty, this syrup should be discarded. Do not make separate
lots of syrup, merely add sugar to increase the density of the
one previously used, each time heating the syrup and pouring
it over the citron in the syrup. More than 24 hours between
changes, especially in the last heavy syrups, is advisable.
The citron should absorb about 8 pounds of sugar to 10 pounds
of citron. Spread on wire racks to dry if desired to use fairly
soon. It is recommended otherwise that the fruit be brought
to a quick boil. then placed in jars and sealed immediately.
Remove and drain for use as needed.






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THE SHADDOCK
The West Indian pink shaddock is a large, succulent variety
of citrus fruit with a thick, flesh-colored rag and watermelon
pink pulp. It is far less sweet and much more acid than the
grapefruit.
The flesh is firm and its beautiful coloring and high flavor
makes it a salad fruit de luxe. In addition the flesh-colored
peel and segments make excellent preserves and confections of
a flavor and coloring all their own.
This fruit is often called the "marmalade fruit" by Eurasians,
due to its flavor resembling the imported British marmalade.
There are two varieties of this fruit, those of pink pulp and
those with straw yellow pulp. Many other interesting varieties
of shaddock are found growing in Florida that have been in-
troduced into this country through the efforts of the United
States Department of Agriculture.

Shaddock Sundae
1 large shaddock % cup juice lemon, calamondin
Thin syrup or other sour fruit
Wash and dry the shaddock. With a sharp knife cut a thick
slice from both ends into the flesh of the hearts. Then cut the
rest of the peel and rag off in wide slices, cutting from one end
to the other, following the rounded outline of the fruit with the
knife to avoid waste. Remove the segments from the remaining
rag and separate each juice sac. Drop these juice sacs into a
medium syrup (1 cup sugar to 2 cups water) and cook rapidly
for about 15 minutes. Cover container and let stand over night.
In the morning add lemon juice and 1 cup sugar and cook until
thick. Pour immediately into hot, sterile jars.
This is a distinctive and delicious dressing for ice creams or
puddings or for use in punch.
Grapefruit sundae may be made in the same way as the
shaddock sundae.

CANNING GRAPEFRUIT
Canning grapefruit provides tasty, juicy segments for salads
and for desserts when the fresh fruit is not available.
Method: Wash and dry good, sound grapefruit. With a sharp
knife, remove all peeling and rag. There are different methods
of doing this: one is to cut a slice from both ends past the rag
into the flesh of the hearts; then cut the rest of the peel and







Prese rviylly F'loiridn (CiIrIIs Fruits


rag off in wide slices, cutting from one end to the other. When
this operation is completed, there remains a juicy ball, minus
all rag, with all the segments exposed. It is then an easy matter
to run the blade of a knife-or better yet, a pliable, flexible,
bamboo paddle-between each two segments and separate them
from the rest of the membrane or rag. It is possible in this
way to remove every segment entirely whole, free from all
rag and seed. (The seed usually remain attached to the core.)


Fig. Pr.-i miimK tI,. '- hln.ic U. JunL > -r'a i. ,'.- ,4 ,I l.--.I u r '..r I .I ,.g, IMuth
emffrnnt' nn- juitre are I"ai!) prepire1 annt may :innTil ty mannnl .if ordinary house
hul.I euipment.

With the segments freed from rag and seed. pack solidly
in a sterilized fruit jar aft r adding 1 tablespoonful of heavy
sugar syrup to bottom of each pint jar (' t teaspoon salt may
be substituted for the sugar). When jar is full, adjust rubber
and cover and process 35 minutes at 180 F. If canning in tin,
exhaust for I1) minutes, process for :'(2 minutes and plunge into
cold water to stop further cooking.' Store in cool, dry place.

'Just as in making fine, standardized jellie.s and marmalades, a ther-
mometer is a necessity. so in the preservation of grapefruit juice and
segments or "hearts". the thermurneter is needed in order to hold to the
recommended temperatures.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Cull Fruits: Sound, fresh, ripe fruits, free from all decay,
but undersized or oversized may be used for canning.

CITRUS JUICE PRESERVATION
Because grapefruit. juice offers the most. stable of all the
citrus juices, it is more widely and successfully canned than
any other variety of citrus. It holds second place in popularity
in the United States as a "before breakfast" appetizer and for
the party punch. Although the vitamin content of citrus juices
is not their only virtue, it has been largely responsible for bring-
ing their use into vogue, particularly in the diet of children.
Therefore, juices from citrus fruits should be from selected
fruit, extracted and processed so that they retain their original
vitamin C content and the full, fine flavor of the fresh fruit
as nearly as possible.
First of all, it is highly important that the juice used for
canning come from freshly picked, tree-ripened fruit, free from
any unusual defects, except that they may be off size, blemished
or perhaps have some mechanical damage. No "drops", frosted
fruit, under or over ripe, decayed or split fruit may be used
for canning purposes. The quality of a food product cannot
be any better than the raw material from which it is prepared.
There is no magic in canning methods that can introduce or
restore flavoring constituents lost through staleness, decay or
other means. Good juice can be made only from freshly picked,
sound fruit of a suitable variety and of optimum maturity. The
Duncan grapefruit is considered one of the best for canning
purposes in Florida.
Proper extraction of juice is also highly important. There
are many good devices for extracting the juice which should
be reamed from the fruit. The glass or porcelain juice cone
is satisfactory for preparing a small amount of juice. For larger
quantities the mechanical juice extractor used at soda fountains
is especially good.
By use of this reaming method much of the rag and cell tissue
and oil is kept out of the juice. This is desirable because there
are substances in this "rag juice" brought out when the fruit
is crushed that considerably affect the keeping quality of canned
juices. There is danger also that when oil is introduced it will
impart a strong, objectionable flavor which becomes decidedly
worse upon storage of the juice. Extraction also under condi-
tions that curtail the amount of air incorporated into the juice






Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits


is particularly important as well as pouring it immediately into
the containers for a prompt and efficient exhaust. The exhaust
removes the air (oxygen) and reduces the destruction of vita-
min C.
The juice to be canned must not be allowed to stand exposed
to air and the entire procedure from extraction to the final
sterilization process should be carried on continuously.
In some commercial plants the apparatus or equipment used
in canning juices permits the entire process being done in ap-
proximately 5 minutes. Such speed, of course, is not possible
in the home under the limited facilities available.
METHODS OF CANNING JUICES
The following outline for preserving citrus juices is suggested:
1. Select fresh, ripe fruit of suitable variety. Wash carefully.
2. Cut in half and extract juice by reaming, observing care
to avoid "squeezing" out too much of the "pulp and peel juice".
3. Strain out seed and coarse pulp. Work fast to avoid un-
necessary exposure to the air.
4. Fill into hot, sterile cans or bottles to over-flowing and
exhaust pints at about 165 F. for 30 minutes. Use ther-
mometer.
5. Seal tins or cap bottles immediately.
6. Heat for 20 minutes at 1650 F.
7. Cool tins rapidly in cold water.
8. Store in cool, dry place, placing bottles on side.
Grapefruit juice may also be canned by heating the freshly
extracted juice in a covered double boiler to about 170- F.. filling
quickly into the hot bottles or tins. capping or sealing and putting
containers in water bath at about 120- F. and allowing to remain
in bath until cool. The containers should be covered for at
least 2 inches with the hot water.
Advantages of Canning in Tin: Some years ago glass bottles
were the usual final containers for all fruit juices. Today with
the great improvement that has been made in tin plate and in
the development of special linings, more and more of the juices
are being packed in cans.
Cans have certain advantages over glass: 1. They give better
protection against deterioration by light. 2. The juices can be






Florida Cooperative Extension


cooled more quickly and consequently retain better flavor. 3.
Tin prevents browning of the juices.
Since citrus juices even more than other fruit juices develop
an undesirable, over-cooked flavor as a result of prolonged heat-
ing, tin cans are preferable to glass because of reasons cited
above.
The pasteurizing vessel, which may be a syrup kettle, wash
boiler or any similar container should, when filled with water,
be of sufficient size to cover completely the bottles or tins several
inches. This pasteurizer should be filled with water and be
brought to the required temperature before the bottles or tins
are taken from the exhaust or before being filled with the heated
juice. There should be no delay between processes at any time.
Bottles should be laid on their sides on a false bottom or rack.
The bottles should be of the crown type, used by manufac-
turers of grape juice. These bottles seal with crown caps that
can be had at small cost from any hardware or 10 cent store.
These caps are much to be preferred to corks. Sealers for use
with these caps may be purchased for as little as 10 cents at
these same stores.
ORANGE JUICE
Fresh orange juice is delicious and healthful. However, no
satisfactory method has been devised for keeping orange juice
canned in the home any great length of time. Its original fresh,
delightful flavor tends in the bottle or tin to develop in six to
eight weeks a stale and disagreeable taste. For this reason
it is not recommended that it be canned unless blended with
the more stable grapefruit juice or perhaps with tangelo (Samp-
son) juice, the latter being of high color, flavor and acidity.
The use of sugar with citrus juices, particularly orange.
greatly decreases the tendency to develop "stale" or "off" flavors.
A mixture of orange juice, grapefruit juice, sour orange juice,
lemon, calamondin or other very acid juice makes a palatable
and wholesome drink.
Mix 2 parts acid juice to 3 parts of sweet orange and grape-
fruit juice and add 2 to 3 parts of sugar to each gallon of juice
depending upon the acidity of the juice. Heat until all sugar
is dissolved. Bottle while hot and pasteurize at 1650 F. to
1750 F. for 30 minutes. To serve, dilute with twice its volume
of water, carbonated preferred.







Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits 43

FRUIT PUNCH
An excellent light syrup for use in punch can be made by
blending 1 part of a very acid citrus juice as lemon, Seville
orange, limequat, calamondin, with 2 parts of orange and grape-
fruit and 2 parts of Youngberry, strawberry, pineapple, mango
or tamarind juice, according to juices available, to 2 parts of
sugar. Heat gently until sugar all dissolves. Pasteurize at
1650 F. to 1750 F. for 30 minutes.
Dilute this mixture and add crushed pineapple, thinly sliced
oranges, peaches, mangos, bananas or other fruit sufficient to
improve appearance of punch bowl.


Acknowledgments.-Appreciation is expressed for the valuable sug-
gestions made by T. Ralph Robinson and Harry W. von Loesecke of the
United States Department of Agriculture, and others interested in the
utilization of Florida's excellent citrus fruits.

























Every night my prayers I say,
And get my dinner every day;
And every day that I'he bin good,
I get an orange after food."
-Robert Louis Sterson




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