-- II :"r T:r ~LLIIIC~~LII1 I LL_ .1 L _~ IIII IIIIIL~IEIIL III*I
I I I .
The discovery of Brazil, has, by some, been attributed to Martin Behem, who
is said to have visited the coast so early as 1484; but the better opinion has allow-
ed the merit, if it can properly so be called, of having first seen this part of South
America, to Pedro Alvarez Cabral. Emanuel, king of Portugal, had equipped a
squadron of 13 sail, carrying 1200 soldiers and sailors, for a voyage to the East
Indies, under the command of Cabral. The admiral, quitting Lisbon on the 9th
of March, 1500, struck out to sea to avoid the storms off the Cape of Good Hope;
and, steering his course southward, fell in accidentally, on the 24th of April, with
the continent of South America, which he at first supposed to be a large island
on the coast of Africa. In this conjecture he was soon undeceived, when the na-
tives came in sight. Having discovered a good harbour, he anchored his vessels,
and called the bay Puerto Seguro. On the next day he sent a boat on shore, and,
having secured two of the natives, treated them so kindly, that when they were
set free, their report drew their countrymen to the beach, where they welcomed
the Portuguese with shouts and rejoicings. Cabral then landed with a body of
troops, and having erected the cross, and celebrated high mass under the spread-
ing branches of a lofty tree, he took possession of the country in the name of his
sovereign. In token of the cross which he had thus erected, he called the land
Santa Cruz ; but the name was afterwards altered by king Emanuel to that of Bra-
zil, after the red wood which the country produces.
Having conceived a high idea of the fertility, and other natural advantages of
the country, Cabral dispatched a ship to Lisbon, with an account of the event.
The Portuguese, however, notwithstanding the flattering report of Cabral, enter-
tained for some time no very favourable opinion of the country, having found by a
survey of the coast, and of the rivers and bays, that it afforded neither gold nor
silver, the great objects of ambition in those days; and, accordingly, they sent
thither none but convicts, and women of abandoned character. Two ships wpre
annually sent from Portugal, to carry to the new world the refuse of the lhIman
race, and to receive from thence cargoes of parrots and dye-woods. Ginger was
afterwards added, but, in a short time, prohibited, lest the cultivation of it might
interfere with the sale of the same article from India. In 1548, the Jews, many of
whom had taken refuge in Portugal, were persecuted by the inquisition, and ban-
ished to Brazil. Here they would probably have perished, but for the assistance
of some enterprising friends, with whom they had been formerly connected, and
who enabled them to procure sugar canes from Madeira, and to begin the cultiva-
tion of that article. The court of Lisbon, notwithstanding its prejudices against
* the settlers of Brazil, began to perceive that a colony might be beneficial to the
mother country, without producing gold or silver, and, like other mother coun-.
tries, having left the colony to struggle unassisted through the difficulties of the
first settlement, sent over a governor to regulate and superintend it, as soon as
those difficulties were surmounted. Thomas de Souza, a wise and able man, was
the first governor. Notwithstanding the talents he possessed, De Souza found it
very difficult to succeed in inducing the natives, who were dispersed through the
forests and plains, to associate with each other, to fix on settled habitations, and to
submit to the Portuguese government. Dissatisfaction ensued, which at length
terminated in war. Souza did not bring with him a sufficient number of men to
conclude hostilities speedily. By building St. Salvador, in 1549, at the bay of
All Saints, he established a central and rallying point for the colony: but the great
object of reducing the Indians to submission was effected by the Jesuits, who, in.
sinuating themselves among the savages, and gaining their affections bypresents
and acts of kindness, brought them to regard the Portuguese as a humane and be-
The increasing prosperity of Brazil, which became visible to Europe at the be.
ginning of the 17th century, excited the envy of the French, Spaniards, and
Dutch, successively. The latter, however, were the principal enemies with
whom the Portuguese had to contend, for the dominion of Brazil. Their admiral,
Willekens, was, in 1624, detached with a powerful squadron, and a considerable
number of soldiers and marines ; and, having cast anchor before St. Salvador, he
landed his forces, expelled the inhabitants, and took possession of the town, and
of the whole country, in the name of the United Provinces. His first act was the
publication of a manifesto, in the name of the States, allowing liberty of conscience
to all who were willing to take an oath of fidelity to the republic of Holland.
Having plundered the people of St. Salvador of their wealth, he returned to Eu-
rope, leaving colonel Van Dort, as governor, with a strong garrison for his sup-
port. The Spaniards next sent out a formidable fleet, under Frederick de Tole-
do, manned with 12,000 soldiers and marines, who, immediately on their arrival,
laid siege to St. Salvador, and compelled the Dutch to surrender, after an obsti-
nate resistance, and the loss of its governor, Van Dort. When the affairs of the
Dutch assumed a more favourable aspect at home, they despatched admiral Henry
Lonk, in the beginning of 1630, with 46 men of war, to attempt the entire con-
quest of Brazil. After several obstinate engagements, he succeeded in reducing
Pernambuco, one of the most considerable and best fortified provinces of the
country. Having returned to Europe, he left behind him troops which reduced,
in the years 1633, 1634, and 1635, the three provinces of Temeraca, Paraiba, and
Rio Grande. These, as well as Pernambuco, furnished yearly a large quantity of
sugar, a great deal of wood for dyeing, and other commodities. The Dutch were
so elated with the acquisition of wealth which flowed from the sale of these pro-
ductions, that they determined to conquer all Brazil, and entrusted Maurice, of
Nassau, with the direction of the enterprise. This distinguished officer reached
the place of his destination in the beginning of 1637. He found his soldiers well
disciplined, and their commanders experienced and able men. He was successive-
ly opposed by Albuquerque, Banjola, Lewis Rocca de Borgia, and by Cameron, a
Brazilian, who was devotedly attached to the Portuguese, and who wanted no
qualification necessary to a general, but to have learned the art of war under able
officers. These commanders exerted their utmost efforts to defend the posses-
sions under their protection, but their endeavours proved ineffectual. The Dutch
seized upon Seara, Seregippe, and the greater part of Bahia. Seven of the fifteen
provinces which composed the colony, had already submitted to them, and they
flattered themselves that one or two campaigns would make them masters of the
remainder, when they were suddenly checked by the revolution, which banished
Philip IV. from the throne of Portugal, and gave to the Portuguese independence,
and a native sovereign. The seven provinces of Brazil, which had remained un-
subdued, imitated the example of the mother country, by throwing off the Span-
ish yoke. The Dutch then, as enemies of the Spaniards, became friends to the
Portuguese. The two parties soon came to an agreement. The Dutch relin-
quished that part of Brazil which they had not conquered, to the Portuguese, and
the latter, in their turn, confirmed the title of the Dutch to the seven provinces
of which they were in actual possession. This division gave rise t0the name ofi
the Brazils, in place of the former appellation. The Dutch government sopn he-b
gan to oppress the Portuguese colonists, who took up arms in self defence ; and,"
after an obstinate contest, and without an open support from the mother country,
drove them out of several of the provinces. Finding they were not able to retain
possession of the country, the Dutch entered into a treaty, by which they ceded
all their interest to the Portuguese for a pecuniary compensation. The dominion
of Portugal was now extended over all Brazil, which was honoured by giving title
to the presumptive heir of the crown. During the 18th century, Brazil remained
in the peaceful possession of the Portuguese, with no other exception than the
transient occupation of the fortress of St. Sacrament, by the Spaniards, which was
restored soon afterwards by the treaty of peace.
From that period until the beginning of the present century, no event of impor-
tance appears to have occurred in Brazilian history. In the year 1806, Portugal
having been invaded by the French, the royal family, to escape the danger of the
captivity, embarked for Brazil, under convoy of a British squadron, which was at
that time blockading the mouth of the Tagus. From the moment of their arrival
at Brazil, a revolution took place in the character and situation of the country.
From the station of a province, Brazil rose at once to the dignity and importance
of an independent nation, and Portugal sunk from her ancient superiority to the
appearance of a province. The consequences of this change were in the highest de-
gree favourable to the prosperity of Brazil. Commerce was thrown open with
other nations, and a sudden spring was given to improvement, which even the im-
politic regulations of the court did not check. The revolutionary ferment which
had displayed itself in other parts of South America, extended to Brazil. In
1817, an insurrection broke out in Pernambuco, which it was first supposed would
spread over the whole country : but the port of Pernambuco being blockaded, and
troops arriving from the surrounding provinces, the insurgents were overpowered,
and their leaders executed. On the formation of a free constitution in Portugal,
the king was compelled to return to Lisbon, the seat of the monarchy. This
event, which had been in contemplation for several months, took place in July,
1821, the heir apparent being left in the government as viceroy. Since the poli.
tical revolution in Portugal, similar agitations have been felt at Brazil, and the
establishment of a free constitution appears to have been effected, though not
without bloodshed and confusion. The absolute and formal independence of this
country on Europe, appears to be an event not far distant.
after the emigration of the court to Rio Janeiro, the old restrictions were done
away, and a commercial treaty was concluded with Great Britain, by which all
the ports of the country were opened to British vessels and British produce, on
payment of a duty of 15 per cent. British manufactures of every description are
now imported to a great extent. Portugal continues to send oil, wine, brandy,
linens, and cottons. From the United States are imported flour, salted provisions,
household furniture, and naval stores. The principal exports are cotton, coffee,
sugar, tobacco and Brazil wood from the northern provinces; gold and diamonds
from the middle; and wheat, hides, horn, hair, and tallow, from the southern.
The religion is Roman Catholic, under one archbishop and eight bishops.
Brazil was until 1806 a Portuguese colony, governed by a viceroy. In that year,
when Portugal was invaded by the French, the royal family, to escape the im-
pending danger, removed to Brazil, and established the government at Rio Janeiro,
which continued for 14 years to be the capital of the Portuguese possessions in
both hemispheres. The king has now returned to Europe, but whether B3razil
will be reduced to its former state of colonial dependence on the mother country
CHIEF TOWNS, continuedd._)
Santos, situated on the coast W. S. W. of Rio Janeiro, is a place of considerable
commerce, being the storehouse of the capitania of St. Paul, and employing many
vessels in the coasting trade to the Rio de la Plata. Population, 7000.
St. Paul, the capital of the capitania of the same name, is an interior town,
about 40 miles from Santos, in the neighbourhood of gold mines, which were for-
merly very productive, but have been exhausted for more than a century. Popu-
Rio Grande, or St. Pedro, near the southern extremity of Brazil, in about lat.
320 S. is a new but very flourishing commercial town. The port is dangerous to
enter, the water being shoal, and a violent sea always running. There is, not-
withstanding, a great trade carried on from this place to all the ports of Brazil, in
brigs and small vessels, that do not draw above 10 feet water. The vicinity of the
town is very populous, the number of inhabitants in a circuit of 20 leagues being
estimated at 100,000. Their principal occupation is the breeding of cattle, and
the number of hides exported from Rio Grande is almost incredible. Wheat is
also shipped from this port to all the towns on the coast.
Villa Rica, the capital of the province of Minas Geraes, is in the interior, 250
miles north of Rio Janeiro, in the vicinity of gold mines, which for many years
were esteemed the richest on the globe. The population is about 20,000.
Tejuco, the capital of the diamond district, lies 200 miles north of Villa Rica,"
near the sources of the Jigitonhonha, a branch of the Rio Grande.
Cuiaba, the most western of the mining stations in Brazil, is on a river of the
same name, 96 leagues from its confluence with the Paraguay.
ally bad; but there are some which
re tolerably good. The road from the
stains, is carried through deep forests,
lolid rock at a vast expense. The usual
!duce is by mules. The communication
:t around Cuiaba, is carried on from St.
'ening rivers. The following is the com-
Im St. Paul's to the banks of the Tiete,
in a few leagues of the town; then down
Parana to the mouth of the Rio Pardo,
ling up the Rio Pardo and its branches,
)ranches of the Taquari, a branch of the
taquari, you descend that river to the
to the Porrudos, and up the Porrudos to
laba to the town of the same name. By
Oent annually by the government of Bra-
subjected by the Portuguese govern-
y the colonial system of Europe. But
The roads in the interior are gene
have been made at great expense, and
coast to St. Paul's, passes over lofty mou
and frequently a path is cut through the
mode of travelling and of transporting pi
between the coast and the mining distri
Paul's and Santos, by means of the inter
mon route from St. Paul's to Cuiaba.
a branch of the Parana, which passes wit
the Piete into the Parana, and down th
which falls into it from the west. Proceed
you arrive within a short distance of the
Paraguay. Crossing the portage to thej
Paraguay, and proceed up the Paragua
the mouth of the Cuiaba, and up the C
this route, salt, iron, ammunition, &c. art
zil to the western districts.
The commerce of Brazil was former
ment to all the usual restraints imposed
SITUATION, BOUNDARIES, AND EXTENT.
Brazil, including Portuguese Guiana, is situated between 4 N. and 340 S. lat.;
and 350 and 720 W. long. It is bounded on the north by the Republic of Colom-
bia, French Guiana, and the Atlantic Ocean; east and south-east by the Atlantic
Ocean; west by the United Provinces, Peru, and Colombia. Its mean length from
north to south is about 1800 miles, and its mean breadth 1700, the area being
3,060,000 square miles, or 19,584,000,000 acres.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, AND PRODUCTIONS.
A ridge of mountains, termed the Brazilian Andes, runs parallel with, and at no
great distance from the coast, 100 to 32 S. lat. with the steepest side towards the
sea, and sloping more gradually towards the interior. In the west, the country
again rises, and by gentle gradations attains to the height of from 3000 to 6000
feet above the level of the sea, where it spreads out into those barren and sandy
plains, known under the name of Campos Parexis, which occupy the very centre
of South America, around the sources of the Tapajos and part of the head waters
of the Madeira. Nearly the whole of Brazil is covered by a vast forest, scarcely
20,000 square miles being as yet brought under cultivation.
The soil, so far as it has been explored, is extremely fertile and well watered.
In so extensive a country the productions must of course be very much diversified.
The northern provinces produce cotton, sugar, coffee, tobacco, and all the com-
mon fruits and vegetables of tropical climates; while in the south, wheat and
other European grains are raised in abundance, and in some districts the country
swarms with innumerable herds of cattle. The forests every where abound with
the greatest varieties of useful and beautiful wood, well adapted for dyeing, for
cabinet work, or for ship-building. But the most precious productions of Brazil
are diamonds and gold, which are abundant, especially in the capitania of Minas
Geraes. They are chiefly found in the beds of the mountain torrents or in deep
allies, in a stratum of rounded pebbles or gravel, from which they are separated
by washing. All the head waters of the great rivers which flow northward, and
fall into the Amazon, as the Araguaya, the Xingu, the Tapajos, and the Madeira,
are found fertile with gold. The principal diamond ground is in the capitania
of Minas Geraes, among the mountains in which the Rio Francisco and the Rio
Grande have their rise. What is termed the Diamond district, extends about 50
miles from north to south, and 25 from east to west around the sources of these
rivers. This territory is under military government, and guards are stationed on
all the roads to examine travellers, and detain persons suspected of smuggling
The principal tributaries of the Amazon, beginning in the west, are, the ,Madei.
ra, the Tapajos, the Xingu, and the Tocantins, all of which flow from south to
north, and the least of them has a course of more than 1000 miles. The Para-
guay, the Parana and the Uruguay rise in this country, and pass into the United
Provinces. These rivers open a navigable communication from the ocean to al-
most every part of the interior.
The most remarkable streams which fall directly into the ocean, beginning in
the north are: 1. the Parnaiba, which discharges itself from the northern coast,
in long. 420 west: 2. the Rio Francisco, which rises on the western declivity of
the Brazilian Andes, near the parallel of 200 S. lat. and, pursuing a northerly course,
at last turns to the east, and discharges its waters under the parallel of 11 S. lat.
after a course of 1000 miles: 3. the RioGrande, which rises near the sources of
the Francisco, and falls into the ocean a little north of Porto Seguro, in lat. 150 S.:
4. the Doce, which rises near the 21st degree of S. lat. near the elevated town of
Villa Rica, and being joined by several considerable streams, falls into the sea in
about 190 30': 5. the Paraiba, which pursues a northeasterly course of 150 miles
along the foot of the eastern declivity of the mountains, and discharges itself in
lat. 220 S.: 6. the Rio Grande, the second of the same name, discharges itself in
lat. 320 S.
This extensive country, stretching from the equator to 34 degrees south latitude,
has a diversified climate. In some places the heats are great, but tempered by
the mountains and the humidity of the climate. In the southern parts the weather
is mild and temperate, the thermnnometer sometimes falling below 40; and the whole
is considered healthy.
CIVIL DIVISIONS AND POPULATION.
Portuguese Guiana includes all the part north of the Amazon. The rest of the
country is divided into the following 12 provinces, called capitanias:
1. Para. 7. Rio Janeiro.
2. Maranham. 8. St. Paul.
3. Seara. 9. St. Catherina. (Island on East coast.)
4. Pernambuco. 10. Rio Grande.
5. Bahia. 11. Goias.
6. Minas Geraes. 12. Matto Grosso.
The total population, at present, is estimated at 2,400,000. In 1792, it consist-
ed, according to Hassel, of 2,184,273, of which number one-sixth were whites of
Portuguese origin, one-half negroes and mulattoes, and the remainder indepen-
Rio Janeiro, or St. Sebastian, stands in lat. 22 54' S. on the shore of a large bay
or harbour, at the foot of several high mountains which rise behind it. The har--
bour is easy of access, and one of the finest in the world for capaciousness and
security. The entrance, which is about two miles wide, is bounded on one side
by a conical hill, 700 feet in height, and on the other by a huge mass of granite,
which supports the castle of Santa Cruz. Near the middle lies a small island, on
which Fort Lucia is built. The channel through which ships enter, lies between
the two forts. Though at first narrow, the harbour gradually widens to about
three or four miles; in several directions it branches farther than the eye can
reach, and is interspersed with numerous little islands and peninsulas. The town
stands on the west side of the harbour, four miles from the entrance, on a pro-
jecting tongue of land, at the extreme point of which is a fort commanding the
town. Opposite this point, and separated from it by a deep and narrow channel,
is Serpent island, around which are the usual anchoring places for the shipping
that frequent the port. The town is generally well built, the houses being usual-
ly of stone or brick, and the churches and convents are numerous. The popula-
tion is estimated at 100,000, of whom about one-half are negroes. This city is the
chief mart of Brazil, especially of the provinces of Minas Geraes, St. Paul's, Goias,
and Matto Grosso, which contain the mining districts.
St. Salvador, or Bahia, is in lat. 120 45' S. on the bay of All Saints, which puts
up from south to north about 40 miles, and is eight miles broad at the mouth.
The town is built on the eastern shore of the bay, commencing about one mile
from the point at the entrance. It extends upwards of three miles along the
coast, and near the centre, more than a mile into the interior, gradually narrow-
ing, however, towards each extremity. A single street runs along the shore the
whole length of the town. Immediately back of this, the land rises suddenly to
the height of 400 feet, and the principal part of the town is on the top of the hill,
from which there is a magnificent prospect of the bay, and the surrounding coun-
try. The descent from the upper to the lower town is steep and laborious, and
heavy packages are conveyed up and down by cranes and other machinery. The
harbour is well defended by numerous forts and batteries, and affords good an-
chorage close to the shore, where vessels lie perfectly safe from every wind. The
town contains numerous churches and convents, many of them elegant, and the
houses are almost universally of stone, and handsomely built. The population is
estimated at upwards of 100,000, of whom 30,000 are whites, 30,000 mulattoes,
and tlhe rest negroes. The commerce is very extensive.
Pernambuco lies on the coast, north-east of St. Salvador, in lat. 8 south. The
town consists of three divisions, Recife, St. Antonio, and Boa Vista. The division
of Recife, which is nearest the sea, and where the principal part of the business is
transacted, is built at the extremity of a long narrow sand bank, which projects
southward from the main land. The division of St. Antonio, the largest and hand-
somest part of the town, is on a sandy island, connected with Recife by a narrow
bridge. Boa Vista, situated on the continent, and united with St. Antonio by a
wooden bridge, consists chiefly of small houses built in a straggling manner. The
harbour is formed by a reef of rocks, which runs in front of the division of Recife,
and parallel with it, at a very small distance. It has two entrances, defended by
two forts. The tide enters under the bridges, and forms a large expanse of water,
more than three miles in length, having much the appearance of a lake, on the
north side of the town. Pernambuco is a thriving place, inhabited by many opu-
lent merchants, who carry on considerable commerce, chiefly in cotton. The po-
pulation is estimated at 32,000.
Para, the capital of the province of the same name, is on the river Tocantins,
60 miles from its mouth. It contains 10,000 inhabitants. .Maranham, or St. Luis
de .Maranham, is on an island of the same name, at the mouth of three small rivers,
which discharge themselves on the northern coast, in long. 43 37' W. It has a
convenient harbour, and 15,000 inhabitants.
GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTORICAL MAP OF BRAZIL.