WINDWARD ISLANDS. GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTORICAL MAP OF THE WINDWARD ISLANDS. No. 44.
WINDWARD ISLANDS. -
HISTORICAL SKETCH, (continued.)
63 TnJatTsna'tde Frm Gretuit o0 61 610 '0600 T L CIA
Lies 10 leagues S. S. E. of Dominica. Is is 50 miles long from N. W. to S. E. and contains e .on d-m 6 --- 6V 61' 6) 0! ST. LUCIA.
about 370 square miles. The island is very uneven, and intersected in all parts by hillocks, MR
wic are chiefly of a conical form. Three mountains rise above these smaller eminences, one This island has undergone frequent political revolutions. The English seem to have made
ofwhich, in the north-west, is obviously an extinguished volcano. The soil is generally very the first settlement here about 1635; but the Caribes, assisted by the French, drove them
good and well watered. The principal productions are sugar, coffee, cassia, cotton, cacao, off a few years afterwards. The French then settled it about 1650. The island was reduced by
ginger, &c. Thevalue of the exports inP1788, was 1,201,8751.; in 1810, 791,7731. The popu- / k. C ,' the English in 1664, and evacuated by them in 1666. The French immediately resettled the island,
nation, in 1700, was 21,660; in 1788, 88,870; in 1810, according to a return made to the but weie driven away by the Caraibes. After this there was foursome time no fixed colony at St.
tis o e of7 commons, 6 13, of whom 78,577 were slaves, 8630 free persons of colour, I. > .' I3a \l I T J V ICO Lucia; it was only frequented by the inhabitants of Martinico, who went thither to cut wood. In
and 9206 whites. In 1823, the population, according to Humboldt, was 99,000, of whom 78,000 1718,itwasaga settled by the French; but four years afterwards the duke of Montague was
were slaves. Fort Roya, the capital, is on the west coast, on a large bay, forming one of the best sent by the British court to take possession of it. In 1731, however, the two nations agreed that,
hawere slaves. Fort Ioalehe ca a ison t he wet s coase 15 miles north-west of Fort d' .| 1 md.-t till their respective claims should be finally adjusted, the island should be evacuated by both par.
harbours in t entr d the most West Indiesommercial town on the island. It contains about 2000 r. i.,., ties. In 1763, St. Lucia was ceded by the English to France. In the hands of the latter it re-
Royal, is a port 000 inhabitants. The bay is of a circularshape, and easy of access, but unsafe in gained until 1779, when it was taken by a British expedition; but at the peace of 1783 was restored.
houses, and 12,0 ay ,. It was again taken by the British in 1794; but in 1795 the inhabitants, who had suffered grievous-
storms. ly from the arbitrary and predatory system of the British, rose in arms, and were so successful,
4.ij'f.. f I .; that in a short time they were in possession of the whole island, having compelled the garrisons to
T. UCA surrender. In May, 1796, however, the island was retaken by a powerful body of British troops
ST. LUCIA 1 under general Abercrombie. It was ceded to France in 1802, by the treaty of Amiens, again taken
Lies 9 leagues south of Martinico. It is 32 miles long from north to south, and contains 225 stored to France.
square miles. The country is hilly, the climate healthy, and the soil generally good, yielding
all the tropical productions. There are 45 plantations devoted to the sugar cultivation, 225 140 --
to cotton, and 133 to coffee. The population, in 1769, was 12,794; in 1776, 14,199; in 1803, 140 QJQ
16,640, of whom 1290 were whites, 1660 coloured persons, and 13,690 slaves. In 1823, the popu. VINCENT
lation was estimated at 17,000. Little Carenage bay, on the west side of the island, is the best ."r
harbour in all the Caribbean islands. It is large and deep, has an excellent bottom, is free from S T VICL I
worms, and perfectly safe, even in hurricanes. A L .. "jI CL
worms, and perfectly safe, even hurricanes i This island was discovered in 1672, and the English soon afterwards made several unsuccessful
-its*"'T .,^? F "'^7,' ..".'" *attempts to settle it. In 1685, a slave ship from Africa, with a cargo of negroes, was wrecked on
P 11"' Bequia, a little island two leagues south of St. Vincent. Thither they soon went over, and were made
ST. VINCENT ., ,<,/,", slaves by the Caraibes. Finding their numbers increase, the Indians came to the resolution of kill-
ST. VINCENT ing all the male children of the negroes, on which the latter revolted and defeated the design.
Les 7 le e S Wo tna ts4 e f, ad c i gr ., The Caraibes afterwards occupied the northern part of the island, and the blacks the southern.
Lies 7 leagues S. S. W. of St. Lucia. It is 24 miles long from north to south, and contains '- .h By the accession of runaway slaves from Barbadoes, the blacks became so numerous as to drive
about 84,000 acres, or 131 square miles. The country is generally very rugged and moun- P i their former masters into a corner of the island. The French from Martinico attacked the negroes
tainous. Of the 84,000 acres in the island, about 47,000 are cultivated. The remaining 37,000 I -T in 1719, but suffered considerable loss. The English met withno bettersuccessin 1723. In 1763,
are unfit for agriculture. The soil of the good land is a fine mould, composed of sand and clay, France ceded her right to this island to the English. At this time the number of negroes amount-
and well adapted for sugar. The sovereignty of the island is divided between the English, and U. B.-..l.,t' J | ed to 2000, while of the Caraibes there were only left 100 families. The first step of the British
a race of independent negroes, called Black Caraibes. The English part is in the south-west, t.ltW i was to parcel out the lands, whether occupied by the natives, or untenanted. This excited a war
and includes about half of all the land fit for cultivation. The rest belongs to the black Ca- twas to parcel out the lands, whether occupied by the natives, or untenanted. Th
and includes about half of all the land fit for cultivation The rest belongs to teack a '13 with the Caraib negroes, in the course of which, as we are told by some writers, the British govern-
raibes, who live in the north-east. The population, in 1791, consistedof 1450 whites, 11,85 ment conceived the design of exterminating this unhappy race, either by the sword, or by convey.
slaves, 500 red Caraibes, and about 10,000 black Caraibes; in all, 24,000. In 1823, Humboldt BBR B ) E S ing them to a barren island on the coast of Africa, where they would have perished by famine.
estimated the total population at 28,000. The produce of the island, in 1787, was exported in The remonstrances of the military appointed to carry the project into execution, it is said, induced
122 vessels, measuring 12,636 tons, and manned by 969 men. It consisted of 65,028 cwt. of su- he government to desist from the attem to add that other statements of the trans-
gar, 88,266 gallons of rum, 9656 of molasses, 634 cwt. of coffee, 761,8801bs. of cotton, 143 cwt. action represent it in a different light. In 1779, St. Vincent was taken by the French from Marti-
of cacao, and various small articles, making a total value of 186,4501. Kingston, the capital, is i nico, whose operations were assisted by the negroes. The peace of 1783 restored the island to
built on a bay on the south-west coast, to which it gives name, the British, in whose possession it has since remained.
Lies 32 leagues east of St. Vincent, and is the most eastern of all the West India islands. It
is 21 miles long from north to south, and contains 106,470 acres, or about 166 square miles, Barbadoes is'said to have been discovered by the Portuguese in the course of one of their voy-
most of which is under cultivation. The soil in the low lands is black, on the hills of a chalky ages from Brazil, and from them it received its present name. When the English first landed here
marl, and near the sea generally sandy. Of this variety of soil, the black mould is best suited in 1605, they found d uninhabited by human beings, the Caraibes having for some reasons
for the cultivation of the cane; and, with the aid of manure, has given as great returns of sugar,t NA 1 unknown to us, deserted it. The earliest English settlement was made in 1624. A ship of sir
in favourable seasons, as any in the West Indies, the prime lands of St. Kitt's excepted. The is
produce of the island, in 1787, was exported in 243 vessels, measuring 26,917 tons, andman- the master and crew, on their return to England, made so favourable a report of its fertiity, that
ned by 1942 men; and consisted of 137,766 cwt. of sugar, 415,489 gallons of rum, 13,489 ofCourteen formed the des of establishing a colony upon it. He accordingly sent about thirty
molasses, 2,705,9751bs. of cotton, and other smaller articles, making a total value of 539,605. persons who lirmed the foundesign of a townabishingch, in colony upon it. He accordingI., they enominated Jamesbout thirty
The population and produce of the island were formerly much greater than they are at pre- town. The colony rapidly increased, and, during the civil wars in England, the emigration be-
sent. In 1670, it is said there were 50,000 whites, and 100,000 negroes, whose labours employ- town. The colony rapidly increased, and, during the civil wars from its first establishment, it was computed there
ed 50,000 tons of shipping; but this account is supposed to be exaggerated. The population, were twenty thousand white men in Barbadoes, one-half of whom were capable of bearing arms.
in 1786, was 79,120, of whom 16,167 were whites, 838 free blacks, and 62,115 slaves; in 1811, or did the ratio of increase decline much in the succeeding twenty-six years, for we find that in
according to returns made to parliament, there were 81,939 inhabitants, of whom 16,289 were
whites, 3392 free people of colour, and 62,258 slaves. In 1823, according to Humboldt, the po- that time, however, the increase of population and prosperity has t been by any means on the
pulation was 100,000, of whom 79,000 were slaves. An alarming insurrection of the blacks broke I that time, however, the increase of population and prosperity has not been by royalists, who es
out in Barbadoes, in 1816, which was suppressed after the loss of many lives. The island has !_ I .a or poed the cause of the monarch so warmly, that the few planters who were favourable to the com-
suffered severely from hurricanes. That of October, 1780, destroyed 4326 lives, and property 'e monwealth e he island, and seek refuge in England. To punish these op-
to the amount of 1,320,5641. Bridgetowon, the capital, is one of the finest cities in the West In-on heir authority, the parliament resolved to send a powerf armament to the West Indies.
dies. It lies on the south-west coast of the island, on Carlisle bay, which is large enough to p onents of their authority, the expedition, arrived to send a er, 1651, a nd succeeded in compelling
contain 500 ships: but the rocks at the bottom often cut the cables of vessels. The city con- TObA the people of Barbadoes to submit. This was not effected, however, until after a stout resistance,
tains 1200 houses, built mostly of brick, and about 12,000 inhabitants. It has often been destroy- I-. which so exasperated the parliament, that they put in operation a scheme they had for some time
ed by fires and hurricanes. 1 projected, of prohibiting all foreign ships from trading with the English plantations, and not per
S ._ ---- -- mitting any goods to be imported into England, or its dependencies, in any other than English bot-
GRE AD l | ~ toms, or in ships of that nation of which the merchandize imported was the growth or manufacture.
GRENADA Thus arose the celebrated navigation act of England, which produced the most ruinous effects up-
"- L -S on the trade and prosperity of Barbadoes. No important event appears to have occurred in the
Lies 18 leagues S. S. W. of St. Vincent. It is 24 miles long from N. E. to S. W. and contains o th -- history of Barbadoes sone that period.
about 80,000 acres, or 109 square miles. The interior is mountainous, but no where inaccessi-
ble. The soil, on the whole, is in a high degree fertile. Of the 80,000 acres, nine-tenths are
probably susceptible of cultivation, yet the quantity actually cultivated has never exceeded
50,000. The produce of the island and its dependencies, in 1787, was exported in 188 vessels, -
manned by 1824 men, and measuring 25,764 tons; and consisted of 175,548 cwt. of sugar, 670,390 GRENADA.
gallons of rum, 8812 cwt. of coffee, 2716 cwt. of cacao, 2,062,4271bs, of cotton, and other small.- A ,, B TR I XI D. I D
er articles, making a total value of 614,9081. The population, in 1700, was 776, of whom 251
were whites, and 525 blacks; in 1785, 24,926, of whom 1000 were whites, and 23,926 negroes; I
were whites, and 525 blacks; in 1785, 24,926, of whom f which1000were wte, n w whit396 es, .- When Grenada was discovered by Columbus, in 1498, it was inhabited by a numerous and war-
in 1811, according to a return made to parliament, 31,362; of whichnumber771 were whites,like people. It was not until 1650, that any settlement was formed on the island. In that year,
1210 free people of colour, and 29,381 slaves. St. George, the capital,formerlycalled Fort DuParquet, governor of Martinico, landed with two hundred men, and having, partly by fraud
Royal, lies on a spacious bay in the south-west part of the island. Its harbour is one of thebest and partly by force, dispossessed the natives, commenced the establishment of a colony. In a few
in the West Indies, and is defended by a fort. le years the unfortunate Caraibes were completely exterminated. In 1656, Du Parquet sold the island
The Grenadines are a cluster of small islands dependent on Grenada, and lying between that -- ------- -to count Cerillac, and he some time afterwards to the French West India company, on the abolition
island and St. Vincent. Cariacou, the largest, contains 6913 acres, is very fertile, and produces 1 of whose charter, in 1674, it became vested in the crown. Grenada remained in the hands of the
annually 1,000,000lbs. of cotton, besides maize, yams, potatoes, and plantains. Isle Rhonde con- French until 1762, when it was taken by the English. The surrender was confirmed by the trea
trains 5 acres, voted to pasturage and cotton.French until 1762, when it was taken by the Engish. The surrender was confirmed by the treat
tains 500 acres, devoted to pasturage and cotton, ty of 1763, and the English government soon afterwards attempted to levy a duty on the produce
exported, similar to that paid at Barbadoes. The demand was resisted by the inhabitants, and at
,length the question was referred to the judges of the king's bench in England; and in 1774,
judgment was pronounced ;by lord Mansfield against the claims of the crown. In 1779, Grenada
TOBAGO was captured by a French expedition under the count D'Estaing, but was restored to the English
S rK f by the treaty of 1783, and has ever since remained in their possession. The white population has
Lies SO leagues S. E. of Grenada. It is 30 miles long from N. E. to S. W. and contains 140 rrea
square miles. The country is in general undulating, but in the north-west mountainous. Its L- ------l i 60 59 1600; in 1777, to 1300; in 1793, to 1000; and in 1811, to only 771.
soil is chiefly a rich black mould, well suited for all the fruits.of the climate. In 1788, it yield- 6
ed 20,250 cwt. of sugar, 159 cwt. of coffee, and 12,318 cwt. of cotton, besides other articles to a 2I"_ t___ _ __0P5
small amount. The population, in 1788, was 13,931; in 1805, there were 900 whites, 700 peo- ..., ,.r
ple of colour, and 14,883 slaves; in all, 16,483 souls. The island lies out of the usual track of TOBAGO.
the hurricanes, and in this respect has an incalculable advantage over those farther north.
This island was discovered and named by Columbus in 1498. A small colony of Dutch settled
on it in 1632, and called it Neo Walcheren, but were soon exterminated by the Spaniards and natives.
TRINIDAD, In 1634, the duke-of Courland sent a colony thither, which planted itself on the west side of the
TRINDAD island at Great Courland bay. In 1737, the island passed into the hands of the British. In 1748,
Boef by agreement between France and England, Tobago, together with St. Vincent, Dominica, and
ludes all the islands stretching along the northern coast of the Spanish Main. This island lies were either killed or driven out of the islandHISTORICAL SKETCHon iswhich, in a few years after their arrival, the French were St. Lucia, were declared neutral; notwithstanding which, it was captured by the British in 16,
opposite the months of the river Orinoco, being divided from the continent by a Strait 10 miles leftothheswlh occuphntprvedoutceedto heebytlttratoofthgfoloingyeguneFrchcapurdtterswadhn 181
1700 uare miles or 1088,000 acres, of which it is estimated that 870,400 are capable of culti- windward French settlements, and began to emerge into importance. Its trade was extensive, and the
ovation. The interior is covered with woods. Three distinctridgesofmountains cross the island profits brought immense sums into the island. The war of 1744 put a period to this prosperity, and after
from west to east; the northern, middle, and southern. Between them are extensive plains peace was restored its trade was seriously injured by the impolitic system of the French ministry. In 1762,TRNDA
and fertile allies. Of the 870,400 acres capable of cultivation, only a very small part is actually MARTINICO. it fell into the hands of the British, but was restored by the treaty of the succeeding year. It had lost, how- TRINIDAD.
improved. The sugar plantations cover 6900 acres, the cotton 2531, coffee 4886, gram and ever, the trade from which its chief prosperity was derived, especially the contraband traffic on the Spanish
Scotton 4496lwt. of coffee, 280 wt fcacao, s37395 galns of rum, d 28 09 ga ons of The settlement of this island is of more recent date than that of many of the other West Inds. In 1635, coast. T ruinous s of themthercuntryinrespe eof La SantrcniescntinssimaTuedtperateadversenidad. The-
molasses. The population, in 1803, was 28,477, of which number 2261 were whites, 5275 free M. Desnambre, a French planter, brought the first colony, which consisted of only one hundred men, from ly to the interest of Martinico, during the period betw rvis ee n 1763 and the French revolution. In 1794, Marti- Co mbus, who discovered this island in 1498, gave it the name of La Santsv added by sir Walter Ra-
coloured persons, 19,709 slaves, and 1232 Indians. In 1823, according to Humboldt, the popula- St. Christopher. They completed thesr settlement without opposition from the natives, who gave up the nioo was taken by a British expedition, under sir John Jervis and sir Charles Grey. It remained in the first settlement was made by the Spaniards. In 1595, the island was invaded by s ir Walter Ra-
colt io n was 41,500, of whom 23,500 were slaves. In 1825, according to a statement appearing to be western and southern parts of the island to them. In a short time, finding the evil consequences of their ands of the British until 1802, when it was surrendered by Franeaty to its former masters. Soon after this leigh, who broke up the Spanish settlements. The Spaniards afterwards re-ountil 1797, when
authentic, the number of whites was 3340, free coloured persons 13,392, Indians &c. 920, slaves hospitality, they rose i a body upon the colonists; but were repulsed with the loss of 6 or 700 of their event, Martinicd, St. Lucia, and Tobago, were formed by Frahee into one government, under a captain. French plundered it in 1676; but it remained in the possession of the Spaniards until 1797, when
23,2 or f ne n st corner of the island, s the principal seaport, an ew s. After this a reconciliation took place, and peace appeared to be settled. But several of the set- general, who resided at Martinico. I 1810, Martinico was aain taken by the British, and restored to Frane it was taken by an English expedition; and at the treaty of Amiens, in 1802, was ceded by Spain
23,227. Port of 8pain, near the north-west corner of the island, is the principal seaport and ers having been murdered in the woods, the rest took an ample measure of revenge. The unhappy natives by the treaty of Paris, in 1814. to England.