LEEWARD ISLANDS. GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTORICAL MAP OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS. No. 45.
GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. HISTORICAL SKETCH.
63 62W.estTomIale Ta rom Geerwic 61
,,_- '___ ANGUILLA.
ANGUILLA, OR SNAKE ISLAND,
o --a THE history of this little island is obscure and unimportant. It belongs at present to the British.
So called from its winding, tortuous figure, is about 20 miles long. It produces sugar, cotton, tobac- I ,
co, and maize, and has about 800 inhabitants. E 1 S ." ST. MARTIN
2 '-I '' l.h. An mlla Was settled by the Spaniards soon after their discovery of the West Indies; but, finding it unpro-
ST. MARTIN, Gr IL ,,1 r .' 1 z ductive, they abandoned it in 1650. The French then took possession of the northern half; and the
Dutch of the southern. In 1689 the English attacked and plundered the French settlements, and
Five miles south of Anguilla, is about 12 miles long, and contains about 90 square miles. It produces made another incursion in 1744. In 1801 they took possession of the whole island, and retained it un-
sugar, cotton, and tobacco, but is principally valuable for its salt pits. The value of the exports, in til the treaty of 1814, when it was ceded to the king of the Netherlands, under whose government it
1810, was 18,3611. sterling. The population, amounting to -6100, consists partly of Dutch and French, l now remains.
partly of mulattoes and negroes. 8. o STM AR TII' -
... .._- -., H | i -.-- ST. BARTHOLOMEW
,.~.'" A? .,, ,,, Was settled in 1648 by a French colony under the direction of Poincy, governor of St. Christopher's.
Is a small island, about 12 miles S. E. of St. Martin, containing about 60 square miles. It produces "i. B R T H OE I The English admiral Thornhill attacked and plundered it in 1689, from which time it remained in the
sugar, cotton, cacao, tobacco, and manioc, also iron wood, and lignum vitae. There is no lake or spring I .. power of the English until the peace of 1697, when it was restored to France. Under the dominion
on the island. The inhabitants depend on the skies for water, which they keep in cisterns, and when of this government St. Bartholomew increased little in prosperity. For a long time it was little more
they fail it is procured from St. Christopher's. The shores are dangerous, and cannot be approached than a place of resort for privateers. At length, in 1785, France ceded it to Sweden, in whose posses-
without a good pilot. The only port is Le Carenage, on the west side, near which stands Gustavia, sion it till remains, and under whose government it has increased considerably in population and im-
the principal town. Gustavia is inhabited by Swedes, English, French, Danes, Americans, and Jews. portance.
The planters are chiefly French. The population is about 8000, two-thirds of whom are negro slaves. A B, SABDA
'__- II r'f=- 'The history of this little island is brief. It was settled by the Dutch in the early part of the seven-
A small island, 12 miles in circumference, lying 30 miles S. W. of St. Bartholomew, is dependent on r teeth century, and remained in their possession until 1781, when it was taken by the English. In 1783
the neighboring island, St. Eustatia. It consists of a delightful valley, which produces the necessaries T'E S A I A it was restored to its former owners, and continued under their jurisdiction until 1809, when the Eng-
of life, and the materials for several manufactures; but, being destitute of any port, its commerce is very lish again captured it. In 1814 it was restored to the government of the Netherlands. 1
inconsiderable. The sea is shallow and full of rocks, for some distance from the coast, and none but --8.'
small vessels can approach very near. The access to the interior of the island, is by a difficult road cut BARBUDA
out of the rock, by which only one person can ascend at a time. The population is estimated at 1600. I..
'ARBUDA, -Was settled by the English about the year 1628, and has since remained under their government.
BARBUDA, ST MCRIS TO P0 EV S v F,
s|W -,I ? -...., l '* ST. EUSTATIA.
Belonging to the English, is 54 miles E. S. E. of St. Bartholomew, and is about 16 miles long, and 12
broad. The land is low, but fertile, and produces cotton, pepper, indigo, tobacco, and especially co- The Dutch made the first settlement on this island about the year 1600. In the year 1665 it was cap-
coa trees, which are here extremely fine. There is no harbour, but a well sheltered road on the west h..l?' ... 1 turned by an English expedition. The French, however, soon afterwards expelled the British, and re-
side. It belongs to the Codrington family, by one of whom the revenue arising from this island, and
from several other plantations, was bequeathed to the society for propagating the gospel. The popu- N stored it to the war in 1697. In 1781 a large English retook it in 1689, and admiral odney, compelled the rmination ofb
nation is estimated at 1500. I itants, who were incapable of defence, to submit at discretion. The English commanders here acted
atn isUSTATIA,--------- esiae-est-i mt" a5...- -t- -. -- -. a part which ought to cover their memories with shame aind disgrace. Under the pretence that the
ST. EUSTATIA, people of the island had supplied the United States with naval stores, they confiscated all private pro
Fifteen miles S. E. of Saba, and 8 N. W. of St. Christopher's, is a huge rock, rising out of the waves, were pursued towards them, while the English officers enriched themselves with their infamous gains.
in the form of a pyramid, 29 miles in circumference. Sugar, cotton, and maize, are raised here, but the I In the same year, however, the island was retaken by a small body of French troops under the com.
principal production is tobacco, which is cultivated on the sides of the pyramid, to its very top. There ,. I mand of the marquis de Bouille, who compelled a much superior force of English to submit. St. Eustatia
is but one landing place, and that, though difficult of access, is strongly fortified. The number of in- ,. was again attacked by the English in 1809, and compelled to submit, but in 1814 the Dutch government
habitants is 18,000, of whom 4000 are whites, chiefly Dutch, and 14,000 negroes. (0^IiO fON TS ER A. T i n was restored.
ST. CHRISTOPHER'S, ST. CHRISTOPHER'S
Called by sailors St. Kirt's, is 8 miles S. E. of St. Eustatia, and contains 43,726 acres, or almost 70 Was discovered in November, 1493, by Columbus himself, who was so much pleased with its appear-
square miles. The interior of the island consists of many rugged precipices and barren mountains. E a ation- ane that he gave it his own christian name. ft was not, however, settled by the Spaniards. It was
Mount Misery, the loftiest summit, rises 3711 feet above the level of the sea. It is evidently a decayed the first British settlement in the West Indies, having been planted by an Englishman named Warer,
volcano. Near the shore the country is level, and the soil extremely fertile. No part of the West In- Bitied l with some other persons of that nation, in 1623. Two years afterwards, a settlement was commenced
dies is so well suited to the production of sugar. Particular spots have been known to yield five hhds. ......................i' on another part of the island, by a party of French. The two nations united in an attack upon the un.
of 16 cwt. each, to the acre, and a whole plantation has yielded four hhds. to the acre. Of the 43,726 rcL...................... G A A L 0 E A. D A fortunate Caribs, and triumphed over them with a great loss of blood. In 1627 they divided the island
acres which the island contains, 17,000 are devoted to sugar, 4000 to pasturage, and perhaps 2 or 3000 .......... B between them by a formal treaty of partition, and entered into a treaty of alliance offensive and defen-
to cotton, indigo, and provisions; the rest is unfit for cultivation. The official value of the exports and sire. Two years afterwards a sudden attack was made by a formidable Spanish force. The allies be-
imports amounted, p ing unable to make opposition, were forced to unconditional submission. Great cruelties were perpe-
Imports. Exports. -Itn treated by the invaders, who, having laid waste the principal part of the island, at length retired. Dis.
In 1809, to 3266,064 132,845 1 r "at cord soon arose between the two nations. For nearly half a century an unhappy scene of outrage and
1810, 253,611 89,362 ... violence was exhibited. In 1664, the French succeeded in overpowering the English, and drove them
The population, in 1794, was 25,000, of whom 4000 were whites, and 21,000 negroes. By an esti. .,,' t, ;'t -.-7,. .. 'n T .,r to i' out of the island. The latter returned on the peace of 1667, and, on the revolution in England, were
mate, in 1805, the whites and people of colour amounted to 1998. In 1823, according to Humboldt, the driven out again in 1689. This violence is assigned as one of the causes of the war between France
population was 23,000, of whom 19,500 were slaves. Basseterre, the capital, is on the S. W. coast, at J a", and England, which broke out the next year. The English, under general Codrington, returned soon
the mouth of a river, opening into a bay called Basseterre Road. It contains 800 houses, and is defend- '"'" afterwards in great force, and obtained a complete triumph over their opponents. Eighteen hundred
ed by three batteries. "- ... ..... --~,. of the French inhabitants were transported to Martinico and Hispaniola. In 1705 the English posses-
A T'- T--- ------ L, ... f'_ ^j~ S t.L _, eIPi'ir sions were laid waste by a French armament, but no further attempt was made by the colonists of that
NEVIS. R. I Y. N N TE nation to repossess themselves of their settlements. By the treaty of Utrecht, the island was wholly
,p,,rr ,S r\ t ceded to the English, and the French possessions were publicly sold for the benefit of the British govern-
This beautiful little spot is nothing more than a single mountain, rising like a cone in an easy ascent 2 '.l I ., meant. In 1782 the island was compelled to surrender to a French expedition; but, by the treaty of
from the sea, 3 miles S. E. of St. Christopher's. The circumference of its base does not exceed 24 r peaceof the succeeding year, it was restored to England, under whose government it has since con
miles. It is well watered, and the land in general fertile. About 8000 acres are devoted to the culti- ; I ,', -- i tmued.
ovation of sugar, and the annual crop is 4000 hhds. The island was undoubtedly produced by a volcano, NEVIS
for there is a crater near the summit still visible. The population consists of about 1000 whites, and
10,000 negroes. Charlestown, the capital, is on the west side of the island, and is defended by a fort. Was first planted in 1628 by a small colony of English from St. Christopher's, under the direction of
V-rC^ST-!* /t i. "i^SI' f'-V ,^, i ,,r-r.irrh^ .Ja ,-- sir Thomas Warner. The system adopted at the outset of the settlement was a judicious one, and the
ANTIGUA, AI I N, U ) "- "' colony soon acquired strength, and enjoyed prosperity and tranquillity for many years. The wars of
,r.JI I,-- -.j Sr ,, P Europe, however, extended their blighting influence to this delightful island. The French captured
Forty-four miles E. of Nevis, and 25 S. of Barbuda, is 50 miles in circumference, and contain 93J tIo it i.n 1n ed tre litstdn In 1in it ag in fell into their hands, and in the same year was
square miles, or 59,838 acres. The island is generally level. There are two kinds of soil, one a black ag g y
mould, on a stratum of clay, which is naturally rich, and when not checked by excessive droughts, to I DOM INI I .. ,I A TIG.A
which Antigua is peculiarly liable, very productive; the other a stiff clay, on a substratum of marl, ANTIGUA
much less fertile than the former, and abounding with a species of grass which it is impossible to eradi- C. at *: m .t
cate, and which overpowers every other vegetable. Of the 59,838 acres which the island contains, I/. ,.re. ':" Was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and named after a church in Seville, Santa Maria de la Anti-
34,000 are appropriated to sugar, a small part is unimprovable, and the rest is devoted to cotton, tobac gua. The first settlement was made in 1632 by a few English families. In 1663, Charles II. granted it
co, and pasture. The-official value of the imports and exports were, chu lRn to lord Willoughby. In 1666 a French expedition, uniting with the Caribs, invaded the island; laid
Imports. Exports. Lo waste the settlements; and committed great cruelties. The island was re-settled a few years after-
In 1809, 198,121 216,000 wards, through the enterprise of colonel Codrington, of Barbadoes, who was appointed commander in
1810, 285,458 182,392 chief of the Leeward Islands. In 1706, and during the three succeeding years, Antigua was cursed
The population, in 1774, consisted of 2,590 whites, and 37,808 slaves, besides free negroes. In 1817, by the government of a ferocious and unprincipled tyrant, whose varied crimes and tragical end will
according to official returns, there were 2102 whites, exclusive of the troops; 2185 free blacks and peo- not soon be forgotten in the West Indies. The administration of governor Park seems to have resem-
ple of colour, and 31,452 slaves; in all, 35,739. St. John's, the capital, is built on the west shore, on an bled more closely the barbarous despotism of Nero or Caracalla, than the governments of modern times.
excellent harbour, the entrance to which is defended by a fort. Parham, on the north side, has a fine hbar- Ample vengeance was taken by the people, who, driven to madness by oppression, rose in a body,
hour, and is regularly built and fortified. Falmouth, on the south side, has a good and well-fortified bar- b ._ .. ......., overpowered the regular troops, tore the living body of the oppressor limb from limb, and gave the
bour. 6V -o" W LrnigtuilE .-.. .. li. ^ fragments to beasts of prey. So well was this punishment thought to be deserved, that the British go-
Antiga constitutes, along with St. Christopher's, Nevis, ontserrat, and those of the Virgin islands ntigua verment ratified the act by granting a general pardon to all concerned in it, and shortly afterwardsislands
which belong to the English, a separate government. The governor, who is styled captain-generalofthe promoted two of the principal actors to public offices. No event of importance has occurred in the re
Leeward and Caribbean islands, generally resides at Antigua, and occasionally visits the other islands, cent history of Antigua, which still remains under the British government.
Thirty-two miles S. E. of Nevis, and 30 S. W. by W. of Antigua, is 9 miles long, and contains about GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS, (continued.) HISTORICAL SKETCH, (continued.) Was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and derives its name from a mountain in Barcelona. It was
50,000 acres, or nearly 78 square miles, almost two-thirds of which are mountainous or barren. Of the settled about the same time with Nevis and Antigua, by a colony from St. Christopher's, who were
cultivated land, about 6000 acres are appropriated to sugar, 2000 to cotton, 2000 to provisions, and 2000 principally catholics. The French invaded this island in 1712, but restored it to England by the treaty
to pasturage. The produce of Nevis and Montserrat united, in 1787, was exported in 122 vessels, mea- SAINTES of Utrecht. In 1782 it was again taken by the French, and regained by the British in the succeeding
surfing 10,287 tons, and manned by 904 seamen; and the whole value for that year was 214,1411. The SAINTES MARIEGALANTE year, since which time it has been in the possession of the latter.
population, in 1805, amounted to 10,750, of whom 1000 were whites, 250 free people of colour, and
9500 slaves. Consists of three small islands, situated between Gaudaloupe and Mariegalante. was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and settled by the French about 1647. It was twice taken
by the Dutch, and by the English in 1691 and 1759, and has generally followed the fate of Guadaloupe.
REDONDO A N MAR IE ALA T Was discovered by Columbus, in 1493, but remained in the possession of its native Indians for up-
ED N 0DESEADA AND MARIEGALANTE wards of 140 years before any European attempted a settlement upon it. At length, in 1635, a party
s n uninhabited rock situated nine mile N W ofMontserrat e' E of of French established themselves on the island. During the first years, they experienced great cala-
Are dependencies of Guadaloupe. Deseada is 10 miles long, and 5 broad. It lies 12 miles N. E. of DESEADA mitiesfrom want of provisions, and hostilities with the natives. When these difficulties had been sur-
GUADALOUPE Point Chateau, the eastern extremity of Guadaloupe, and contains about 900 inhabitants. Mariegalante mounted, they found themselves exposed to the visits of bands of pirates, who levied contributions,
is of a circular form, 14 miles in diameter. It lies 15 miles S. of Guadaloupe, is very fertile in sugar, modern date, though the island was discovered by Columbus in his second voyage. It and to the hardly less profligate expeditions of the English. The colony, however, gradually acquired
Is situated 40 miles S. by E. of Antiga, and consists really of two islands nearly equal in size, divi coffee, cotton, &c. and contained, in 1788, 12,385 inhabitants, of whom 1938 were whites, 226 free peo. has genera colony of modern date of Guadaloupe; island was, like that colony, is now in the possessiond voyage. It and to the hardly less profligate expeditions of the English. The colony, however, gradually acquired
ded by a short and narrow channel called the Salt river. That part of the island which lies N. E. of ple of colour, and 10,121 slaves, into the hands of the English, but at the peace of 1763 was restored oessto France. During the war of the
this channel is called Grande Terre, that on the S. W. Basse Terre. The channel which separates them DOMINICA Americagovernor from the other remanch isan th disturbed possess a annually in of the Freased. In 1794, a larger
is more than six miles long, and in some places not more than 90 feet broad. It runs north an so DOMINICA English armament arrived in the West Indies, and compelled the small body of French troops in Guada-
and tchat oi te soutP eith t ul de Sac, Bnotd islinOs ofyte iland are ofvlcanllec ori, and co.er. Li 25 miles S. S. E. of Guadaloupe. It is 30 miles long, by 14 broad, and contains 186w436 acres, loupe to submit. A few months afterwards, an expedition from France again obtained possession of
ed with rugged mountains, particularly Basse Terre, in which the volcano La Souffriere, or the Brim- or 29i square miles. It has many high and rugged mountains, though it is interpersed with fertile discovered by Columbus, on Sunday, the 3d of November, 1493. the island, and forced the British troops to surrender. Great numbers on both sides perished with the
-stone Mountain, rises to a great height, and continually throws out thick black smoke mingled with allies, and watered by upwards of 30 rivers. Several of the mountains contain unextinguished Derives its nh e frof th avin bendcred b ty of Frenchmen made the first settlement here. By yellow fever, and the horrors of war were heightened by the aspeinty of party dissentions betweeit the
fire Basse Terre is much the most fertile part, being well supplied with water, which fails in Grand volcanoes. Coffee is the great object of agriculture. In favourable years the island has produced Aboutaththe bgienn shi of the natives, the colony advanced without impediment in strength. By republicans and the royalists. From this period, Guadaloupe remained in possession of the French,
Terre The reduce is the same with that-of the other West Iia islands In1810, the exports con- 3,000,0001bs. There are 200 coffee plantations, and 50 of sugar. The population, in 1805, consisted of ultivetiathofrienlds he nvs agreed that this island should remain neutral; but in1759, the En- until 1810, when it capitulated to a strong British force under general Beckwith. In 1812, Great
ssted of 12,7004371bs of sugar, 1,334,387gallons of rum and molasses,2,661,7261bs. of coffee, 12,2081bs. 1594 whites, 2822 people of colour, and 22,083 slaves; in all, 26,499. Charlottetown, formerly called li reafdin iplo, t possession of it, and it was confirmed to them at the peace of Britain ceded this island to Sweden, but no transfer of possession took place, and, on the conclusion of
of cotton, and 2162lbs. cacao.- The population, in 1755, was 50.783; in 1767, 114,050 ; in 1812, accord- Roseau, the capital, is in the S. W. part of the island, and contained, i.n 17, an hoss, bsd s 63 In e78, it was captured by some French troops from Martinico, but was restored to the En- the war, in 1814, Sweden consented that the island should be restored to France, under the govern-
ing to a return made to the British House of Commons, 114,839. of whom 12,747 were whites, 94,328 cottages. The next largest town is Portsmouth, situated on the west side of the island, about 20 miles since remained in their possession ment of which power it now remains.
slaves, and 7764 free negroes. In 1823, according to Humboldt, 120,000, 100,000 of whom were slaves. N.W. of Charlottetown. li pwrinoreas