Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of maps
 Chronological table
 Extent and population of the Western...
 Comparative view of the population...
 Pronouncing index of persons, places,...

Title: First book of history, combined with geography : containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003669/00001
 Material Information
Title: First book of history, combined with geography : containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere /
Series Title: First book of history, combined with geography : containing the history and geography of the Western Hemisphere /
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003669
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA5172
ltuf - ALH5996
alephbibnum - 002235536

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    List of maps
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 14b
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 100a
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 102b
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 140a
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 152a
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 168a
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Chronological table
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Extent and population of the Western Hemisphere
        Page 203
    Comparative view of the population of the United States
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Pronouncing index of persons, places, interesting events, etc.
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
Full Text






















.... 1 ___ s . .. .


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by


1n the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

IN SC.'HooL CoMMI-?rE MA .Cu 30, 1852.
The First Iookk of 1is~tory, combined with Geoguraihy," w.as this day adopted as one of the
text books in the Grammar SchoxJs of thi. city.
(Signed) EDWA RD CAPEN, Secretary.

The First Book of History combined with Geography was this day adopted as one of
the text books in the Grammar Schools of this city.
(Sined) JOSIUA SEAVER, Secretary.



AMONG the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an his.
torical nature; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study
in our common schools. This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself
to the purposes of instruction; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it is peculiarly adapted
to these purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated;
for most school books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables,
and offer nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such
works may be useful to people of mature age, but they neither amuse nor instruct the class
of readers for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily
attracts the attention, and lays hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narra-
tives of the enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind;
and these it is the business of history to display. Books which treat of the works of nature
and art, which exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural
philosophy -any or all of these will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his
choice, for a book of stories, delineating events in connection with the development of
human passions.
If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attractive of all studies, why is
it not regularly taught in all our schools ? It is not because it is deemed less useful than
other studies; the proper study of mankind is man," and it cannot be entered upon too
soon. After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God and our
neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been done
by mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
of our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprises us of the existence of
evil, and the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and shows us how
to attain it.
It cannot be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it is useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
which shall render them both interesting and profitable. Such, at least, is the conviction of
the author of this volume; and, believing that a First Book of History, for general use in
our schools, is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now offers to the public, the
present volume.
In preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the'first place it should be useful;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of a.y
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, and shores. Hle is
then briefly made acquainted with its present state, its towns and cities, and the occupations
of its inhabitants. These geographical details are conveyed to the pupT y narrasMt
supposed travels through various countries, in which he take a part.
The pupil, being thus acquainted with the present condition of a country, is than told its
history. The author has been careful to introduce precise dates; for without them it r wai
be impossible to give any distinct view of any portion of history. But he has sought, a
assiduously to select from the great mass of events those topics which would be most ceaW
lated to please and to improve the young reader. He has introduced many tale, aaoast&*
adventures, and curious particulars, for the double purpose of enlivemng the book, and


throwing light upon the periods and events with which they are connected. A large num
ber of engravings have been inserted, as well for illustration as for fixing certain ideas
permanently in the memory of the pupil.
A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on a now
plan. The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the tram of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. lie
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present condi-
tion. He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader
lipon the subject, proceeds to narrate the history. Avoiding general statements, he has
endeavored to keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches,
and tales, which may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.
It will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages.
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and, of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hem-
isphere, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, will be published.

WITH GEOGRAPHY, embracing the geography and history of the Eastern Hemisphere, and
PARLEY'S THIRD BOOK OF HISTORY, containing Ancient History, have been published and
extensively circulated. They are written in the same attractive style, and contain numerous
maps and engravings.

THE first edition of this work was published in 1832, since which time it has acquired a
very extended and constantly increasing circulation. It is now presented to the public in
a new and improved form. Within the period of twenty years, many important events
have occurred, and great changes have taken place in the political geography of the West-
ern Continent. In our own country, new states have been formed, and towns and cities
have been built as if by the hand of magic. Arkansas, Michigan, Florida, Iowa, Texas,
Wisconsin, and California, have all been added to the Union since the work was originally
written; the geographical part of it had, therefore, become exceedingly defective. To
remedy this defect, and to adapt the work to the wants of the present time, has been the
design of the reviser.
'he plan of the work has not been materially changed. It has been improved by an
introductory treatise upon the subject of geography, with such definitions of geographical
terms as are necessary to render the work complete in itself, as a text book for schools,
tpon the geography and history of the Western Continent. It contains nineteen maps,
dewly engraved upon steel, and colored, whicT contain the names of all the places referred
to in the work, and these maps are inserted in connection with the states and countries
which they represent.
The woatk has already met with unexampled encouragement, and it is hoped that this
hnmrod editoan may be found worthy of even more favor than the preceding ones.
BtoWN, March, IS52.


Geography. Form of the earth. Motions
of the earth. The seasons. Divisions of
the earth............ ................. 11
nitions ................................. 15
It' divisionss.... ...................... 16
Story of Columbus. Adventures. Thoughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella. He sets sail......... 18
ued.- First voyage on the ocean. Discov-
ery of land. Landing. Natives. Country.
Return to Spain. Procession. Other voy-
ages. Americus Vespucius. Divisions of
North and South America ................ 20
CHAP. 6. .MAINE. Geography. Railroads.
Business. Productions .................. 23
CHAP. 7. MAINE, continued.- Indian Old
Town. Penobscot tribe. Settlement in
Maine. Story of the Norridgewock tribe.
History of Maine ........................ 24
CHAP. 8. NEW HAMPSHIRE. -Geography.
Isles of Shoals. Sea serpent. 'Mountains.
Lakes. The Notch ...................... 26
CHAP. 9. NEW HAMPSHIRs, continued. -
Slide of a mountain. History. Attack on
Dover ................................. 27
CHAP. 10. VaBMONT.- Geography. Green
Mountains. Towns. Productions......... 29
CHAP. 11. VERMONT, continued. Inun-
dation. Battle on Lake Champlain. Of
Bennington. Settlement................ 30
CHAP. 12. MAssAcausBrrs.-Geography.
Commerce. Manufactures. Boston. Rail-
roads. Towns. Institutions ............. 31
CHAP. 13. MAssac UsTrre, continued.-
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
ton. Of Plymouth. Other settlements.
History .......... ....................... 33
CHAP. 14. RaoBD ISLAwD. Geography.
Roger Williams and settlement. History 34
CHAP. 15. COWxCwrcucr. Geography.
Norwich Indians. New London. The
dream. Towns. Manufacturers......... 36
CHAP. 16. Cowonrrtrr, continued. -Mr.
Chester in the woods. History. Charter
Oak ............ .. .............. 38
CHAP. IT. Nsw EWoLx.AD.--Geography.
Climate. Connecticut River. Anecdote.
School houses ........................... 39

CHAP. 18. NBW ENGLAND. continued.-
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Plym-
outh Rock. Samoset. Massasoit. Anec-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Dor-
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson ......... 40
CHAP. 19. NEW ENGLAND, continued. -
Two colonies, Plymouth and Massaotusett.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson. In-
dians. Capture of Mystic. Union of colo-
nies for defence......................... 42
CHAP. 20. New ENGLAND, continued.-
Hatred of the Indians. King Philip excites
them to war ............................. 44
CHAP. 21. New ENGLANn, continued. -
Springfield burnt. Slaughter at Muddy
Brook. War in Maine. New Hampshire.
Attack on Brookficld. The Narragansetts.
Death of Philip.......................... 4.5
CHAP. 22. NEW ENOLAND, continued.-
Charters of the colonies taken away. An-
dros imprisoned, and sent to England. Sup-
posed witchcraft at Salem ................ 47
CHAP. 23. NBw ENGLAND, continued.-
War between England and France. At-
tack on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan.
Mrs. Dunstan. Queen Anne's War. At-
tack on Deerfield. Port Royal taken.
Peace. Canada taken by the British .... 49
CHAP. 24. NFw ENGLAND, continued.-
Indian war in Maine. King George's war.
Capture of Louiaburg. PNsce. French and
Indian war. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American colonies and England,
beginning the revolution ................. 62
CHAP. 26. THE PURITANS.-Their char-
acter. Objct in coming to America. Per-
secution of the Baptists ................. 63
CHAP. 26. THa PURITANS, continued-
Persecution of the Quaker. Reflectiona.
Sabbath morning in the forests. Other
sketches .............................. 65
CHAP. 27. Nzw Yoax.--Oeogrphy. Ca-
nals and lhee. New York city. Pasge
up the Hedsoa ....*.....*...*........... 57
CHAP. 2H. Nw Yoxx, wartintA Al-
bany. Trenton Palls, t ad ad seidtt.
New York Indians. Salt Wells. NKas
Falls. stories. Internal IoprqvBp*p**
History *.......... u....*..ai,.... 69
CHAP. 99. NEW YTOM, oattIwe--%
Carial. History of setlenMCde
Indian wars. Surnrder to the f M
under the Dake of York .......a*..#owes


CHAP. 30. NEW YORK, continued. -The
Five Nations ........................... 64
PHAP. 31. NEW YORK, continued.- Leis-
ler. Burning of Schenectady. Governor
Sloughter. Exploits of Peter Schuyler.. 66
CHAP. 32. NEW YORK, continued. Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the
negroes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747. 67
I'HAP. 33. NEW JEBSEY. Geography,
Passaic Falls. Canals. History. Settle-
ment. Division into East and West Jer-
ey. Battle of Monmouth............... 68
[HAP. 34, PENNSYLVANIA. Geography.
Philadelphia. Independence. Fairmount
Waterworks. Girard College. Travels.
Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
Alleghany Mountains. Pittsburg. Alle-
ghany City. Coal Mines. Canals........ 70
CHAP. 35. PENNSYLVANIA, continued. -
History. William Penn. Settlement.
Penn comes to America. Founds Phila-
delphia. Returns to England. Rapid set-
tlement of Pennsylvania. Penn again
visits his colony. Death of Penn. Char-
acter. Indians......................... 72
I"HAP. 36. DELAWARE. Geography.
Size and situation. Travels. Breakwater.
Revolutionary war. Delaware regiment.
Settlement. Paradise Point. Indians.
Governor Risingh. Peter Stuyvesant.
Capture of the Dutch. History.......... 74
CHAP. 37. MARYLAND. Geography.
Mason and Dixon's line. Baltimore.
Trade with the west. Naval school. Cli-
mate.... ... ..... .......... ......... .. 75
CHAP. 88. MARYLAND. continued. -
North Point. War with England. Wash-
ington burnt. Baltimore.. Lord Balti-
more. Settlement. Indian villages. Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of Lord
Baltimore. His character. History..... 77
view. Geography. History............. 79
CHAP. 40. VIRGINIA. Geography.
Travels. Manners. Customs. Planta-
tions. Climate. Face of the country.
Natural curiosities. Ancient mounds.
Springs............................... 79
CHAP. 41. VtmoiwzA, continued.- Jef-
ferson. Washington. Jamestown. In-
dians. Spaniards. Chesapeake Bay. In-
dian chiefs. Settlement on James River.
John Smith. His adventures. Conduct.
Powhatan. Pocahontas................ 81
CHAP. 42. VIRaGoIA, continued.- State
of the colony under Smith's government.
'Th colonists dig for gold. Reflections.
Smith chosen president. Pocahontas.
Mimy of the colonists. Lord Delaware. 84
ftHAP. 4R. VraormA, continued. -The

colony flourishes. Captain Argal. Mar-
riage of Pocahontas. Death. First slaves
inthe colonies. Opecancanough. Slaugh-
ter of the colonists. Vengeance of the
English. History .................... 85
raphy. Travels. Plantations. Forests.
Tar. Gold digging. Towns. Produc-
tions. Settlement'y Episcopalians. Sit-
uation of the colony. Other settlers. Or-
igin of the names North and South Caro-
lina. Indians. The Six Nations. His-
tory............................... ...... 87
phy. Voyage. Charleston. Planters.
Trade of Charleston. Puritans. French
Protestants. History................. 89
CHAP. 46. GEoROA. -Geography. Face
of the country. Savannah. Improve-
ments. Okefinoke Swamp. Settlement
of Georgia. Situation of the colony. At-
tacks of Spaniards. General Oglethorpe. 91
CHAP. 47. FLORIDA. -Geography. Dis-
covery. Settlement. History. Semi-
noles. Key West....................... 93
CHAP. 48. ALABAMA.- Geography. His-
tory ................ ........... ....... 91
CHIAP. 40. MisqrssrIPP. Geography.
History................. ...... ...... .... 95
CHAP. 50. LO1ISiANA. Geography.
New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans.
History............................... 95
CHAP. 51. TEXAs. Geography. His-
tory............ ...................... 97
-Geography. 1ississippi Valley. Trav.
els on the Ohio River. Railroads, cities,
and towns. Education. History........ 97
CIAP. 53. INDIANA. -Geography. Trav-
els on the Ohio. History................ 100
CHAP. 54. ILLINors.-Geography. Trav-
els on the Ohio. The Mississippi River.
Illinois River. Canals. Lake Michigan.
Chicago. Prairies. History...........101
CHAP. 55. WIScowstI. Geography.
History............................... 102
CHAP. 56. MICHIGAN. Geography.
Lakes. Travels......................... 103
CHAP. 57. IowA. Geography. Indian
tribe.................... ......... ..... 103
CHAP. 58. MxssoUL -- Geography. St.
Louis. History. Santa Fe Commerce.
Schools. Principal towns.............. 104
CHAP. 59. AKANSAS. Geography. Al-
ligators................................. 104
CHAP. 60. TENNEssEE. Geography.
History................................. 105
CHAP. 61. KE~Trcxr.-Geography. Lour
isville. Mammoth Cave. Iitory....... 105


CHAP. 62. CALIFORNIA. Geography.
History................................. 107
CHAP. 63. THE TBRRITORIEs.-- Geogra-
phy. Indian Territory. Missouri Terri-
tory. Minnesota. New Mexico. Utah.
Oregon. Indians. Animals. Travels of
Lewis and Clarke. Government.......... 107
CHAP. 64. TaH FuENCH WAR.-Geog-
raphy. Colonies. French. Englis i.
George Washington. Governor Dinwddie.
Fort Du Quesne. General Braddock. Ex-
pedition against Fort Niagara. Crown
oint................... ............. . 111
CHAP. 65. FRENCH WAR, continued.-
England and France declare war. Fort
William Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne.
Ticonderoga. Deathof Lord Howe. Cap-
ture of Fort Froatenac. Quebec. Mont-
calm. Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken.
French possessions ceded to the Brit-
ish .................................... 113
ment of Great Britain. People of Amer-
ica. General Gage. Quarrels........... 117
CHAP. 67, REVOLUTION.-Tax on tea.
New laws. Cargoes of tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings........ 119
CHAP. 68. REVOLUTION, continued. -
State of the country. General Gage. Bat-
tle of Lexington. Excitement of the
people.................................. 121
CHAP. 69. REVOLUTION, continued.-
State of the country. Power of England.
Resolution of the Americans. Ticonde-
roga. Crown Point. Battle of Bunker
Hill. ............... ........ .... ... .... 123
CHAP. 70. REvoLUTrON, continued. -
Continental Congress. Declaration of It-
dependence. Washington crosses the
Delaware. General Howe. General Bur-
goyne. Battle of Saratoga. Surrender of
Burgoyne........1...................... 126
CHAP. 71. REvOLUTION, continued. -
Government of France. Great Britain.
Battle of Monmouth. Destruction of
Wyoming........................ .. .128
CHAP. 72. REVOLUTION, concluded. -
General Sullivan. Indians. Count Ro-
chambeau. Benedict Arnold. Story of
Major Andre. North and South Carolina.
Washington. Surrender of Lord Corn-
wallis............... ........... ......... 130
REVOLUTION. ,-Washington chosen presi-
dent. His death. Character. John Adams
chosen president. District of Columbia... 132
STATES................................. 134

ERNMENT. ............................. 138
dents. War with England. War with
Mexico......................... .,...... 139
flections................................. 140
NORTH AMERICA. -Divisions. Geogra-
phy. Travels. Lakes. Canals. Montreal.
St. Lawrence. Quebec. Newfoundlami
Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. P_ .
Edward's Island. Climate.
King William's, Queen Anne's,w
George's, and the old French w
History ................ .................
CHAP. 80. THE EsQuIxMAx.-Geogra-
phy. Country of the Esquimaux. Dogs.
Reindeer. Origin...................... 146
CHAP. 81. GREENLAND. -Whaling voy-
age. Islands of ice. White bears. De-
scription of the Greenlanders. Navigators.
Animals. Settlement. Captain Ross.... 147
CHAP. 82. ICEsL~ D.- Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Heela. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History........ 149
CHAP. 83. RussIAN POBssssIows. ...... 151
CHAP. 84. MEXIco. -Voyage to Mexico.
Vera Cruz. Travelling. City of Mexico.
Cathedral. Gold. Ancient ruins. -Santa
Fe. Travels and trade. Caravans........ 151
CHAP. 86. MExIco, continued.-Popn-
lation. Indians. Tenuchtitlan. Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indianattack.
Treaty of peace. Mexican warriors....... 155
CHAP. 86. MExrCO, continued. -Colony
at Vera Cruz. Message from Montezuma.
Cortez sets out from Tenuchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula. Tenuchtitlan.
Montezuma and Cortez.................... 157
CHAP. 87. MExico, continued. -Religion
of the Mexicans. Temples. Montezuma.
taken. Governor of Cuba. Narvaez. Span-
iards attacked by Mexicans. Death of Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the Spaniards........ 159
CHAP. 88. MBxIco, continued. -Small-
pox. Quetlevaca. Guatimosin. Attack
on Tenuchtitlan. Torture of Guatimoxin
and his minister. Government of Mexico.
City of Mexico. Fate of Cortes. History.
U. S. war. Conquests by U. S. Peace. 182
CHAP. 89. GUATIMALA. Mountaas.
Mahogany and logwood. City of Gatir
mala. Other towns. Government. UH.
tory. Mosquito Indians. Origin. Andient
palaces, carvings, temples.. ... **.... ...*.
-Geography. Climate. History. arth
quake. Simon Bolivar..................


CHAP. 91. NEW GRENADA. Geography.
Falls of Tequendama. History........... 168
CHAP. 92. EcUADOR.-Geography. The
Andfs. Chimborazo. Cotopaxi. Mines.
History ............................... 169
CHAP. 93. PEKU. Geography. Climate.
Productions. Animals. Division. Lima.
Qnicksilver and other mines. Cuzco. Pi-
za8 tr............................. ..... 171
CHAP. 94. PERu, continued.- Second ex-
hdition to Peru. Foundation of the em-
mm~mieception of the Spaniards. The
ro procession. Atahualpa taken pris-
****- .................................. 173
sm 515. PERU, continued. -Treatment
mW he Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
quest of eeru. Lima founded. Death of
Pizarro. History. Constitution formed.. 175
CHAP. 96. BOLIVrA.- Geography. Andes.
Mines. Potosi. Discovery of the mines.
Other towns. Constitution. Peru and
Buenos Ayres......-................. 177
CHAP. y7. CHILI. Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Jago. Araucani-
ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe............ 177
CHAP. 98. PATAGONIA. Geography.
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts. Os-
triches. Terra del Fuego. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan............ 179
CHAP. 99. BuEnos AYRss. -Geography.
Travels. Islands near Cape Horn. Trav-
elling. Anecdotes. Wild animals. Con-
dors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres. Face of
the country. Soil. Towns. People. Dis-
covery. Indians. Jesuits. History. Gov-
ernment. Death of Francia,............ 180

CHAP. 100. PARAGUAY. Geography.
History.................................. 183
CHAP. 101. URUGUAY. Geography.
History. ................. ... ...... ..... 183
CHAP. 102. BAZIL. Geography. Trav-
els. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People. Ex-
tent. Population. Indians. Vegetation.
Discovery. Landing of Cabral. San Sal-
vador. The Dutch. History. Government. 183
CHAP. 103. GIANA. Geography. Di-
visions. Climate. Indians. Poison.
Vampires. Snakes. Story of Captain
Waterton. Discovery of Guiana by Vas-
co Nunes. Sir Walter Raleigh. El Do-
rado. Settlers in Dutch Guiana. History. 186
CHAP. 104. WEST INDIES.-- Geography.
Vessels. Havana. Trade. Fruit. Cli
mate. Cuba. Discovery of Cuba. Don
Jago de Velasquez. Indians. History of
Hayti. Columbus. Anecdote. Disturb-
ances. Christophe. Independence of
Hayti. Division. Massacres. Porto Rico.
Jamaica. Discovery. History. Hurri-
canes.................................. 189
CHAP. 105. WEST INDIES, continued. -
Inhabitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Baha-
mas. Cat Island. Columbus. Caribbee
Islands. Discovery. History............ 191
Fame. Pierre le Grapd. Organization.
Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures. 193
CA. ..................................... 195

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE ..................


PRONOUNCING INDEX .................... 207







. 30

* .

. 40

=WT TYORs,. .



. 86

0HIO, 9s. MW St N rTATE%, 100. WISCONSIN, 102
MICHIGAN, 162. I9WA, 104

MES O, &e., .

. 140

.* 1s6
. 159
.. . .168

* .

. .

* .

* .



1. HISTORY is a narrative of past
events, and this book contains a brief
account of the principal events which
have occurred on the western continent
since its discovery by Christopher Co-
lumbus in 1492. It commences with
showing the present condition of the
different countries which occupy this
continent, and especially that of the
United States. But, in order that we
may clearly ualerstand the history of
any country, w must first obtain a
knowledge of its geography.
2. Geography is a science, the gen-
eral object of which is, as its name im-
plies, to describe the earth on which
we live; but, as the earth and sea are
generally considered the great compo-
nent parts of the terraqueous globe, a
description of both of them is usually
included in this science.
3. Our globe forms but a small part
of the universe. This word, universe,
is generally used to signify the collec-
tion of all created things, and we fre-
quently speak of the world in the same

sense; but, in geography, the term
world generally dafegr t tthe earth
4. In the sacred history of the crea-
tion, it is recorded, that "God made
lights in the firmament of the heaven,
to give light upon the earth, to divide
the day from the night, and to be for
signs and for seasons, and for days and
years. He made the greater light to
rule the day, and the lesser light to rule
the night. He made thetars also."
5. These lights, obeylag j stij n laws
of motion, are made sbm fMtI to the
great purposes for whblt %ey were
created. To explain tlfi liaws is the
province of Astronomy bot it is im-
portant that we should know a few facts
concerning the earth, when we view it
as one of the planets belonging to the
soar system.
This system is composed of the
am, which is in the centre; the pri-
mary planets, with their moons, or see-
ondary planets; and the comets. The
earth and the other planets derive their
light and heat from the s~ui armnd

4 What Ae0 Soripture reoozr of *"tShii" t

.-....--......the firmament"? How do tenr iS
1. What is history? 2. What is geography? the purposes for which they were create ara
. What is the meaning of the word siersie? t is astronomy i 6 Of what is the aliWtltM

___ _


which they revolve in their respective
paths or orbits.
7. Vast and magnificent as the solar
system seems to the human mind, it
forms but a small part of the heavenly
bodies, which occupy the infinite regions
of space. Stars surround it on all sides,
which are at so remote a distance from
it as far to exceed finite calculation;
and each of these stars is supposed to
be a separate sun, the centre of a sys-
tem like our own.
8. The figure of the earth is nearly
that of a globe or sphere, as is proved
by its circular shadow upon the moon
when that planet is eclipsed, and by
the experience of msxny navigators who
have sailed round it.

9. If we leave, in our imagination,
our planet, the earth, and view it as
one of the orbs in space, we shall see
it turning round upon its axis every
twenty-four hours, causing the succes-
sion of day and night to those who live
upon its surface. We shall also see it
moving in its orbit around the great
centre of the system at the rate of more
than a million and a half 'miles a day,
or between forty and fifty miles for
every breath we draw, and completing
this revolution in the space of one year.
This motion around the sun is of such
a nature as to cause the regular succes-
sion of the seasons, Spring, Summer,
Autumn, and Winter.

Spring begins March 21.


Autumn begins Sepember 21.
The Seasons.

10. The axis, which has just been
meenioned, is an imaginary line passing
thuglh the centre of the globe from

omase 7. What is said of the stars ?
iSlat is related of the figure of the earth ?

north to south, around which it re-
volves, somewhat as a wheel turns upon
its axle, while at the same time it

9. What is related of the earth's motion ? What
do these motions cause? 10. Describe what is


progre.-ccs in its orbit, as has been al-
ready stated; as a ball discharged from
a rifle turns over and over in the air,
and at tse same time goes forward to its


11. Now, if we draw near to the
planet once more, still supposing our-
selves as viewing it from a distance, we
find the surface to consist of unequal
portions of land and water. But, un-
til we have given names to these, and
have fixed upon some method of meas-
uring off the surface of the globe, we
cannot speak definitely of the different
objects that present themselves to our
12. Since there is no beginning or end
to a circle, hor to a spherical surface,
till we begin to mark it off by lines, so
we cannot well describe the various por-
tions of land and water on the earth's
surface until we have divided it by lines
that, will indicate the relative position
of its parts. The great dividing lines
which we resort to for this purpose are
some of them arbitrary, that is, selected
for the sake of convenience, while oth-
ers depend upon the relative positions
of the sun and earth.
13. If we turn our eyes again to the

meant by the axis of the earth. 11. Of what
does the surface of the earth consiat ? 13. De-

earth, we shall see that one portion of
it always points towards a particular
part of the heavens, and, if we oould
stand upon this point upon the earth's
surface, we should see a particular star,
which we term the North Star, directly
over our heads. As this would appear
in the same place, that is, directly above
us, in every part of the earth's orbt,
we may give a name to this portieb of
the earth, namely, the north; and the
point directly opposite on the other ide
we may call the south. Here, then,
we have two fixed points from which
to reckon. But now we may draw a
line round the earth so as to be just
between, or equidistant from, these two
points; and as this will divide the sur-
face into two equal parts, we may call
it the equator, or the divider.
14. If we look at the globe once
more, we shall see where this line di-
vides the land as well as the water, and,
as we have named our two points the
north and south poles, we an now
say whether a portion of tad or water
is north or south of the eMt )r. Btt
then this is too vadgfnM iilefinite.

We therefore divide the circumlereaoe
of the earth, at the poles, int 860
parts, or degrees. Them, an one quatrs
of this circle, or 90 degrees, wil ala

scribe what is meant by the equator. AMl


space between the equator and either
pole, no place upon the earth's surface
can be more than 90 degrees from the
15. Thus, if we fix our eyes upon
Philadelphia, we see that it is 400 from
the equator, and we say that it is in 400
north latitude, because it is in the
northern hemisphere, and so far from
the equator. Reckoning in the same
way, we shall find Cape Horn in lati-
tude about 55 south. But as the earth
turns round, we find there are other
places appearing in succession in pre-
cisely the same latitude; that is, a circle
drawn round the earth parallel, to the
equator, will be, in all its parts, equi-
distant from the equator, or in the same
latitude. Hence, when we have ascer-
tained the latitude of a place, we have
not definitely fixed its position upon the
earth's surface, and we therefore resort
to a second mode of division. In this
we are guided by the sun, for we see
this body always rising in the same, or
nealy the same, part of the heavens.
This we caf the East, and the place
where he sets we call the West.
16. If we return to our position away
from the earth, we see it turning on its
axis, from west to east, and the shadow
line which divides the earth from north
to south, receding as the light of the sun
advances upon its surface, from east to
west. This dividing line is continually
changing fs it will not answer our pur-
pose, but it am gite ts the idea of east
and west, sad 0 the division of the
earth into Eastern and Western hemi-
17. This division of the globe, like
the division of an apple into two parts,
we miy =ake erie we please; or we
is wo bl degree? 16. Describe what is
Mnaat by latitude 16. What ia meant by
taute adp d esteem hemispheres ? 17. What by

may take some prominent place on the
earth's surface, as some mountain, some
volcano, or great city, and imagine a
line passing through the object selected,
and drawn round the globe through the
poles, dividing its surface into two equal
parts. Then those parts of the earth
towards the sun's rising, from the object
selected, will be in the eastern hemi-
sphere; and those in the opposite direc-
tion, in the western hemisphere; that is,
supposing we reckon half round the
globe in both directions. Such lines
are employed by geographers, which
they name meridians of longitude.
18. Of these meridians we may have
an indefinite number, since every place
has its meridian; but it is necessary to
take one as a starting point, and that
which passes through Greenwich, near
London, is generally selected, on ac-
count of the great importance of that
city. From this we reckon half round
the earth, or 1800 cast, and the same
number of degrees west; and in de-
scribing the position of places, we say
they arm so many degrees east or west
from London. With these two sets of
lines, parallels of latitude and meridians
of longitude, we can define exactly any
19. Besides the general name of par-
allels, which we give to the circles run-
ning east and west around the globe
parallel to the equator, four of these
circles have particular names. One, at
the distance of 23f0 north of the equa-
tor, is called the northern tropic, or the
tropic of Cancer; and a second circle, as
far south of the equator, is called the
southern tropic, or the tropic of Capri.
corn. Besides these, there are two cir-
ces, each 23Y from the poles of the
meridians of longitude ? 18. From what place is
longitude usually reckoned? 19. What nanms
are given to the four great circles on the globe ?


?) ra 011. ~E ~

~pc it0;


~ii~ ZrA
J tO. If .2 .. I (b. eO 114

(A* al rl!,m
I fi~N

r p-ca

.40 rt

Zt E]19S 8 a, RE




.-Sltt rotv~E
I flb


earth, called polar circles; the one near
the north pole being distinguished as the
arctic, and the one near the south pole
as the antarctic circle.



20. These four circles are the limits
of the five different zones. The broad-
est zone, as we shall see by a little ex-
amination, is between the two tropics,
and this is called the torrid zone. Be-
tween the northern tropic and the arctic
circle is the northern temperate zone;
and in the corresponding place south of
the equator is the southern temperate
ppne. North of the arctic circle is the
northern frigid, and south of the antarc-
tic circle is the southern frigid zone.
Phese names, torrid, temperate, and
frigid, correspond to the temperature,
or different degrees of heat and cold, in
the different regions to which they are
respectively applied.
21. Having supposed the earth to be

20. Descnbe the zones. 21. In drawing a map of
the globe or world, why is it represented by two

thus divided into northern and southern,
eastern and western hemispheres, we
may proceed to represent it by an arti-
ficial globe, or by a picture, or map upta
a plane surface. In drawing a map of
the globe, we are obliged to represent the
hemispheres in separate circles, since we
can delineate upon paper no more of an
object than what we can take in at once
with the eye in one position.
22. Let us suppose, then, one of these
maps before us, and the great dividing
lines, the parallels and the meridians, to
be already drawn. [See Map of the
World.] We shall find it convenient to
number the parallels, on the outer circle
of the hemispheres, which is the merid-
ian that divides the globe; and as we
reckon from the equator towards the
poles, the figures which indicate latitude
will increase upwards on the northern
hemisphere, and downwards on the south-
ern. The meridians of longitude may be
conveniently numbered, at the equator,
on the map of the world, and at the top
and bottom of other maps. When tim
degrees of longitude increase towards
the. right, they are in east, and when
they increase towards the left, they are
in weit longitude.
23. The top of a map is always north,
the bottom south, the right hand east
and the left hand west.



1. ParSICAL geography trests of the
earth, as it proceeded from thbe hand
of the Creator.

circles ? 22. Deecribt the Ulin upon the dSt of
the world. 3S. Which p l of te map is aortM
south east west ?
1. Vht is physical gogsphy? I Of rUt


2. The surface of tec earth consists
of unequal portions of land and water.
3. Large continuous masses of land
are termed Continents. There are two
continents; the eastern, which includes
Asia, Africa, and Europe; and the
western, which includes North and
South America. The terms eastern
and western refer to the meridian of'
the Ferro Isles, from which longitude
was formerly reckoned.
4. Smaller portions of land, sur-
rounded by water, are termed Islands.
A considerable number of islands clus-
tered together is called an Archipelago;
as, the West Indies.
5. A part of a continent running out
into the sea, so as to be nearly insulated,
and connected with the main land by a
narrow neck, is named a Peninsula,
which signifies almost an island; as,
South America.
6. A narrow neck of land connecting
two large masses is denominated an
Isthmus. Thus the Isthmus of Panama
joins North and South America.
7. Inferior projections of hund into
the sea are variously named Capes,
Promontories, Points, and Headlands;
as, Cape May.
8. When the land rises above the
general level of the country, it is called
a Hill or Mountain; and the low ground
between the mountains is termed a Val-
ley. A mountain which throws out fire
is termed a Volcano.
9. The continuous body 9f water
which environs the land constitutes,
properly speaking, a vast single Ocean;

does the surface of the earth consist ? 3. What
are continents ? How many continents are there ?
4. What are islands ? What is an archipelago ?
6. What is a peninsula? 6. What is an isth-
mas ? 7. What are capes, promontories, points,
and headlands ? 8. What is a mountain? a val-
ly ? volcano? 9. What is an ocean ? 10. What

but it is convenient to regard it as di.
vided into partial oceans, each of which
has its separate name; as, the Atlantic,
the Pacific.
10. A smaller extent of water, es-
pecially if it penetrate far into the inte-
rior of a continent, is termed a Sea; as,
the Caribbean Sea. The more partial
intrusion of an ocean or sea into the
land is termed a Gulf or Bay; as, the
Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Fundy.
11. A narrow passage connecting two
seas together, or a bay with the pain
ocear., is styled a Strait; as, Behring's
Strait. It is also sometimes called a
12. A large inland body of water, not
connected with the ocean, or only com-
municating with it by means of a river,
is termed a Lake; as, Lake Superior.
13. A River is a body of water flow-
ing from elevated ground towards the
sea. The place where it rises is termed
its source.
14. A Frith is a narrow sea which re-
ceives the waters of some large river.
15. Having made these introductory
remarks to enable you to understand
the meaning of the geographical terms
which will frequently occur in this book,
I shall now proceed to speak of the
geography and history of the several
states and countries in America.

1. IF you look at the map of the
Western Hemisphere, you will see that
it represents one half of the earth's sur-

is a sea ? What is a gulf or bay ? 11. What is a
strait? 12. What is a lake ? 13. What is a
river ? 14. What is a frith ?
1. See Map of the World. How is the conti-


face. Between the two great oceans,
the Atlantic and the Pacific, you will
observe the continent of America. It is
divided into two parts, called North and
South America, which are connected
by the narrow Isthmus of Darien or
2. This continent is remarkable for
its numerous and extensive lakes, its
magnificent rivers, and its lofty moun-
tains. Lake Superior is the largest
lake in the world. The St. Lawrence,
the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Ama-
zon, and the &a Plata, are all of them
mighty rivers, and several of them sur-
pass in size all the rivers of the eastern
continent. The 'Amazon alone, with
its branches, spreads over a country
equal in extent to all Europe. The
Andes, with the Cordilleras and Rocky
Mountains, constitute the longest chain
of mountains in the world; it being
nearly eleven thousand miles in length,
including its winding. Many of their
tops are glittering with perpetual snow;
some of them pour forth torrents of fire
and melted lava; and some contain im-
mense treasures of gold, silver, and
other metals.
S3. It is but little more than three
hundred and fifty years since the people
of Europe, Asia, and Africa were to-
Bly ignorant of the existence of this
vlst continent; yet the lakes, the riv-
ees, the mountains, and the plains had
existed for ages. The sun had shone
upon them by day, and the moon by
night; summer had visited the land
with flowers and fruits, and winter had

nent of America bounded ? What ooean separates
the eastern coast of America from Europe and
Africa ? What ocean separates the western coast
from Asia ? What isthmus connects North and
South America? 2. For what is America re-
markable ? What is said of its lakes, rivers, and.
mountains ? 3. How long hai this country been

covered it with frost and snow. The
earthquake had shaken the hills, and
the whirlwind had rent the forest. AlI
the great works of nature had gone on
from the creation, though civilized man
was not there to witness them.
4. At what time or from what quar-
ter the Indians came to America, it is
impossible to tell. It is generally smp
posed that, two or three thousand years
ago, some small tribes came from the
north of Asia, across Behring's Stirta,
and thus gradually peopled the whole
continent. But this is mere cobje3fare,
and their entire history, from their fift
arrival in the country to the diseovtey
of America, is involved in mystery.
5. In various parts of the country,
there are mounds, evidently cons trWd
by men many hundred years ago. It is
certain that they were not consternda
by the wandering tribes who inhablid
the country when our forefathen ete
here; but who raised them, how long
they have existed, and what is thtr
story, we cannot tell. It is probable-ti"t
great events have happened---that a-
pires have risen,' flourished, and gone to
decay during the many s fte9 r
which time has thrown an everlasting
6. It appears that whole race of aai-
mals have lived in America of "wtiah
nothing remains but their bones. Tie
gigantic mastodon, which was four tiab
as large as an elephant, once roamed, in
great numbers, through the forest; aid
other animals, as well as trees and pimts,
now unknown, were common ia &e
country. We must recotiect, th~t Mi
the creation of the world to the yaw
1492, a period of more than five thMnd

known to the EuropeanO 4. What A~d
of the Indians? 6. What of the N -
6. What of the awials that lI li 11


years, all that took place upon this vast
continent is hidden from the view of
man, and only known to that Being who
knoweth all things.


1. I HAVE told you that America was
discovered by Christopher Columbus, in
1492. I will now tell you the story of
Columbas, and give you an account of
his discovery. This celebrated man was
born at Genoa, in Italy, in the year 1435.
lie was brought up a sailor, and was
very expert in managing boats and vessels
upon the water. lHe made a great many
short voyages in the Mediterranean Sea,
and sailed to the northern seas of Eu-
rope, which was then deemed a remark-
able enterprise.
2. After this, he returned to Italy, and
engaged in the war against the Venetians
and Turks. One day, he was cruising
in a vessel off the coast of Portugal,
where he met with a Venetian ship; an
engagement immediately followed, in
which the sailors on both sides fought
with the greatest spirit. At length,
Columbus was on the point of boarding
the Venetian vessel, when his own took
fire. In a moment, the fire was cominu-
nicated to the Venetian vessel: it spread
from sail to sail, till the whole rigging,
masts, spars, and ropes were involved in
one sheet of flame.
4. The vessels were soon on the point
of sinking. The sailors, therefore, were
compelled to leap into the sea, and being

1. When and by whom was America discov-
red ? When and where was Columbus born?
iW)t is said of his early history ? 2. What
happod to Columbus when off the oost of Por-
talgp 3. How did he reach the shore ? 4. What

near six miles from the coast, they were
all drowned except Columbus. lie, with
the greatest presence of' mind, seized
upon an oar, and did not despair of sav-
ing his life. lie was a good swimmer,
and, supported by tlie oar, he succeeded
in reaching the land.
4. He was now in Portugal, and after
recovering from his fatigue, he went to
Lisbon, the capital. Here he became
acquainted with several Portuguese sail-
ors, who were then the best navigators
in the world. You must know that, at
this time, there were no large ships, and
people were not accustomed to sail out
fearlessly upon the broad ocean, as now;
nobody had ever crossed the great At-
lantic, and the people of Europe, who
had only sailed timidly along,the shores
of the eastern continent, did not know
that such a country as America existed.
;. The shape of the earth was at this
time unknown ; some persons supposed
it flat, but nobody knew that it was
round. But the art of navigation was
rapidly advancing; seamen were ven-
turing farther on the deep, and an ardent
desire to explore the unknown ocean
was kindled. This curiosity had been
greatly stimulated by the discovery, by
the Portuguese, of Madeira and Porto
Santo, lying to the north-west of Afria,
It was at this period that Columtl
reached Lisbon, where he soon arMs
married the daughter of a celebrated
navigator, who was one of the discover-
ers of these islands.
6. His imagination was captivated
with the idea of seeing these places, and
accordingly he visited them. For sev-
eral years after this, he was engaged in
carrying on a profitable trade between
Madeira, the coast of Africa, the Azores,
and Canaries; but during all this time,
was known of navigation at this time ? 6. What
discoveries had been made ? 6. What places did


his mind was active and increasing in
knowledge. Whatever he learned he
always remembered; and, never being
satisfied with the information he had
gained, he constantly desired to know
7. At this period, the people of Europe
had considerable trade with India, but
no vessels ever having passed round the
Cape of Good Hope, the people did not
know the shape of Africa, nor did they
know that they could go from Europe to
India by water. They therefore sent
their goods across the Mediterranean, to
the ports of Egypt, whence they were
taken by land to the Red Sea. Here
they were transported in vessels, which
sailed through the Straits of Babelman-
del, and across the Indian Ocean to
India. By the same route goods were
returned to Europe.
8. This method of conducting so im-
portant a commerce was expensive and
tedious. The people therefore were
very anxious to find some way of going
to India by sea. This great subject oc-
cupied the attention of all Europe, and
Columbus, in particular, dwelt upon it
with the most intense interest. He
studied books; he consulted maps; and
often, while his little vessel was plough-
ing the sea, he would revolve in his
agWd all the facts which he had col-
Ieted relating to it.
9. At night, when the stars shone
down upon his ship, floating like a speck
on the bosom of the mighty ocean, he
looked up and mused, with curious won-
der, upon the heavenly bodies. From
these contemplations, his mind descend-
ed to the earth, and strove to solve the
mysteries that involved it. Was it a

Columbus visit? 7. How was the merchandise
of Europe conveyed to India at this time ?
8. What subject occupied the attention of the
people of Europe at this period? 9. What did

vast plain, stretching out to a boundless
extent ? Or was it a globe, swung in
the heavens, and revolving, like a pltm
et, around the sun ? After a great deal
of reflection, Columbus adopted this lat-
ter idea, and, applying it to the question
of reaching India by water, he concluded
that, if he sailed across the Atlantic in a
westerly direction, he should at length
come to India.
10. Full of this notion, he went to a
learned physician in Florence, and con-
sulted him upon the subject. This man
perceived the force of his reasoning, and,
believing his views to be correct, exhort-
ed him to make a voyage for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the fact. Strength-
ened by this counsel, Columbus resolved
to enter upon the grand scheme of sail-
ing westward upon the Atlantie, to dis-
cover what might lie beyond it. He
immediately made known his views to
the government of Genoa, with a request
that they would fit out a small fleet, in
which he might make the desired voy-
age. But these men, being ignorant,
rejected the offer with contempt.
11. He next applied to the court
of Lisbon, who listened attentively to
his scheme,.and "^n meanly fitted out
a vessel, and despmi ed it privately,
with a view of anticipajm Columbus ila
his great project. But the commander
of the vessel was incompetent to the
enterprise which he had undertaken,
and soon came back, having made no
12. Disgusted with this trick, Colum-
bus set out for Madrid, the capital of
Spain. The king who then reigned was
Ferdinand, and his queen was Isabella.

Columbus think of the form of the earth?
How did he think India might be reaebl4
10. To whom did he first offer his series to amr
dertqke the voyage ? 11. To whom did he next
apply ? 12. With what aucces did he meet in


Here he was favorably received, and
his project was listened to with atten-
tion. But the counsellors of the king
were narrow-minded men, and made
very absurd objections to the project.
One said it would take too long a time;
another, that Columbus could not be
wiser than every body who had lived
before him; and a third concluded that,
if the world was round, Columbus would
find a constant descent on the other side
of it, and would either slip off the globe,
or, at any rate, never return in safety.
13. Such shallow objections were
made to the forcible arguments of Co-
lumbus; and, as the most ignorant are
usually the most obstinate, he found
it impossible to change their opinion.
Having spent five years in tedious en-
deavors, he at length received a posi-
tive refusal, and was about to leave the
country, and offer his project to Eng-
land, when an unexpected change took
place in his favor. Two of his friends
made a final effort with the king and
queen, and, representing his views with
great force of reasoning, they at length
consented to give him the desired assist-
ance. Accordingly, three small vessels,
with ninety men, were fitted out, and on
the 3d of August, 1492, Columbus, with
his little fleet, set sail from Palos in

1. THE adventurers proceeded in the
first place to the Canary Isles. These
they left on the 6th of September, and,
sailing in a westerly direction, launched

Spain ? 13 How did he finally succeed ? When,
and from what place, did he sail ?
1, 2, 3. To what place did the adventurers first

forth upon the bosom of the unknown
deep. They soon lost sight of land,
and nothing could be seen but the skies
above and the water spread out around
them. They were going where no hu-
man being had ever been; they knew
not what was before them. A solemn
mystery hung over the sea, and, as they
advanced on their voyage, they could
not tell what dangers they might en-
2. To a bold man, like Columbus,
these things rendered the voyage in the
highest degree interesting. But most
of the sailors were ignorant and super-
stitious, and they soon began to be very
much afraid. But Columbus reasoned
with them, and persuaded them to con-
tinue the voyage.
3. Thus they proceeded for several
weeks, constantly sailing in a westerly
direction; but Columbus had great diffi-
culty with his men. They were exceed-
ingly alarmed at the idea of being at
such a vast distance from home, upon
an unknown sea; and he was obliged to
use various arts to prevent their setting
out to return. At length, their fears
were so much excited, that both the
officers and men, on board the three ves-
sels, positively refused to go any far-
ther. They even thought of throwing
Columbus overboard; and perhaps they
would have executed this design, if he
had not found means to pacify them.
He proposed that they should go on for
three days more, and if, by that time,
they did not discover land, he promised
to return. This was deemed a reason-
able proposition, and they all agreed
to it.
4. Accordingly they proceeded, and
very soon they met with floating sea-

proceed? Where are the Canary Isles? Relate
some of the adventures ofthe voyage. 4. What did


weed, and saw birds in tie air. Some
of these appeared to be weary, and
settled upon the masts of the vessels.
Here they remained all night, but in
the morning they departed, and flew to
the west. All these things made the
sailors believe that land was near; and
their hopes and expectations were soon
raised to the highest pitch.
5. One night, as Columbus was stand-
ing upon the deck of his vessel, looking
out upon the sea, he thought he discov-
ered a light. Iec mentioned it to some
of the men, and they, too, thought they
could see it. There was now no sleep
on board the vessels. Both sailors and
officers were gathered upon the decks,
or distributed among the rigging, strain-
ing their eyes to discover land. At
length it was two o'clock in the morning,
when a man, stationed on the top of the
mast in tlhe forward vessel, exclaimed,
SLand land This was soon com-
municated to the others, and the most
lively joy filled the breasts of all the
6. The morning c:atue, a:id assured
them that their hopes Nwere realized.
The shore lay before then in the dis-
tance, and the stin shone down upon it,
seeming in their eyes to give it an as-
pect of peculiar beauty. l)eeply atTect-
ed with gratitude to that Being who had
borne them safely over tile waves, arnd
crowned their bold adventure with suc-
cess, they knelt down, and offered to
Heaven their warmest expressions oft
7. Having approached the shore, Co-
lumbus and some of his officers entered
a boat, and went towards the land. They
perceived that it was covered with woods,
diversified with hills and valleys, and
watered by rivers. As they came near,
they see that indicated their approach to land ?
6, 6, 7. Describe the discovery of land. 8. De-

they saw a multitude of people almost
naked, and of a red color, collected upon
the shore. These were attracted by the
strange spectacle before them. They
had never seen vessels or white men
before; and, when the Spaniards ap-
proached the island, with colors flying
and amid bursts of martial music, their
astonishment knew no bounds.
8. At length, the boat reached the
shore. Columbus, richly dressed, and
having a drawn sword in his hand, first
sprang from the boat, and set his foot
upon the earth. His companions fol-

Columbus taking Possession of the Country.
lowed, and, kneeling down, kissed the
ground to express their joy and grati-
tude. The Spaniards now erected a
cross, before which they performed reli-
gious worship, and Columbus then took
possession of the country in the name
of the king and queen of Spain. These
events took place on the 11th of Octo-
ber, 1492. The island they discovered
was one of the Baamunas, now called Cat
Island. It was called Guanahani by the
natives, but Columbus gave it the name
of St. Salvador.
9. The Spaniards now began to ex-
scribe the landing of Cohiqbus. When did thee
events take place ? VWht place did they di
cover? 9. What was the appearance of the


ainie the place they had discovered. and queen, and tell
They found it to be quite fertile ; but cry, the inhabitants
the animals, trees, and plants were such curiosity to see him.
as they had never seen in Europe. The the city of Barcelol
people attracted their chief attention. resided, a grand prc
These were of a copper color, nearly in the following man
naked, and the men had no beards. I 12. First came tl
Their hair was decorated with feathers, lumbus had brought
and shells and gold plates were sus- in the manner of tl
ended from their ears and noses. They them was carried al
received the Spaniards with the greatest been procured by th
respect, and seemed to consider them a followed some pers
superior race of beings. They looked of pepper, bales of
with amazement upon the ships, and, stuffed birds, and
when they saw a cannon fired, they corn, cane poles tw
were struck with fear and wonder, and many other cu
10. At night, some of the Indians had been brought fi
went to the vessels, and, in the morning, Lastly came Columb
Columbus returned with them to the 13. The whole
island. He now asked the people where through the city t
they obtained the gold which they used where the king and
for ornaments. In reply, they pointed on a splendid throi
to the south, and intimated that there ceived Columbus wit
was a large island there, where there of honor. He then
was a great deal of gold. Columbus his voyage to the k
immediately determined to go there, and, those around him.
taking seven of the Indians as guides, breathless attention,
he set off with the fleet. After touch- an eloquent man, an
ing at two or three islands, he at length of the deepest inter
reached Cuba. Having remained here 14. The king was
some time, and having had several in- that he ordered a n
terviews with the natives, he proceeded immediately fitted ou
to Hayti. Leaving tlirty-eight of his mand of it to Colun
men on the island, he set out on his sure of the discover
return; and, after many dangers, he made, lie sent to the
reached Palos, on the 15th of May, questing a grant of
1493, after an absence of nine months the Atlantic Ocean.
and eleven days. the pope complied, t
11. lie was received with the greatest September, the fleet,
honor by the people; and, as he tray- teen vessels and 150
elled across the country to visit the king the port of Cadiz.
15. I have not r(
country? What of the people? How did I n
they receive the Spaniards ? 10. Where did 12. Describe the proecs
Columbus go to seek for gold ? Where is king and queen receive
Cuba? Hayti? When did he arrive in Spain ? did the king obtain of
11. How was he received by the people ? IWhat is said of the sec

them of his discov-
flocked with eager
When he came to
na, where the king
session was formed
ner :-
ie Indians that Co-
with him, dressed
heir country; after
1 the gold that had
me expedition; next
ons bearing chests
cotton, paroquets,
quadrupeds, Indian
enty-five feet long,
rious things, which
rom the new world.
procession moved
o a public square,
queen were seated
ne. Here they re-
h the greatest marks
gave an account of
ing and queen, and
They listened with
for (Columbus was
I his story was one
so much delighted
ew expedition to be
t, and gave the com-
nbus.. But to make
ries that might be
Pope of Rome, re-
all the land west of
With this request
ind on the 25th of
consisting of seven-
0 men, set sail from

oom to tell you the

sion. 13 How did the
him ? 14. What grant
the Pope of Rotne ?
ond voyage? 15. How


whole history of Columbus. It is enough ;;
to say that he made four voyages to
America, including the first. He dis-
covered many'of the West India islands,
and during his last voyage touched upon
the continent.
16. Many adventurers now came to
America, and among the rest, there was
an Italian, called Americus Vespucius.
Having sailed along the coast, arid ascer-
tained the existence of the continent, he
returned to Spain, and gave an account
of his discoveries. In consequence of
this, his name was given to the new
17. This continent, concerning the
discovery of which I have just been
telling you, is divided into two portions,
North America and South America.
North America is now occupied by Rus-
sian America, British America, Green-
land, the United States, Mexico and
Guatemala. South America includes,
at the present day, New Grenada, Ven-
ezuela, English Guiana, Dutch Guiana,
French Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay, Ur-
uguay, Buenos Ayres, Patagonia, Bo-
livia, Chili, Peru, and Ecuador. I will
now tell you of the geography and his-
tory of the United States, commencing
with Maine.

1. TIHE State of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great portion of the interior and
many voyages did Columbus make ? 16. Why
was the continent called America ? 17. How is
the continent of America divided ? What coun-
tries in North America ? In South America ?
1. How is Maine bounded on the north? On
the east? On the south? On the west? In
what part of Maine are the principal towns and

northern part is still covered with forests.
It is distinguished for its many excellent
harbors, and the people are extensively
engaged in ship building and the lumber
trade. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages he
in the southern portion, towards the sea-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.
2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. There
are a multitude of streams and rivers;
these afford many excellent mill seats.
There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. If you were
to go to Maine in the summer, you would
see many things to delight you. The
little green islands scattered along the
coast are very beautiful; some of them
have very handsome houses upon them.
You would find the Kennebec and Pe-
nobscot to be large rivers, with many
handsome villages and towns upon their
3. You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a flourish-
ing city, extensively engaged in com-
merce. A railroad connects it with
Boston, and one is in progress extending
through Maine and New HIppshire,

villages ? 2. Name the principal lakes in Maine.
What is a lake ? Name the principal rivers in
Maine. What is a river ? Describe the Penob-
scot River; that is, tell where it rises, which
way it flows, and the bay or ocean intr which it
empties. Describe aRtnAMbec in the same
manner; the Androaft g ~ the 8aoo.
What bays upon the QopMrl bM rt lis
a bay ? What islands upowta4i am .Mati
What is an island? 3. D6ri t t
places; that is, tell where they use U ba a
what is said of them: Gardiner; Pormd;


which will terminate at Montreal. Oth-
ers have also been constructed to Lewis-
ton, Waterville, Bath, Hallowell, and
other places.
4. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
in some of the other New England States;
but you would see at Orono, Machias,
Calais, and Saco, a great many saw mills,
employed in sawing logs into boards and
planks. You would see many of the
men cutting down trees in the woods;
and at Bangor, Portland, Beltfst, Bath,
Wiscasset, and other places, you would
notice a great many vessels; some of
them loaded with lumber, and some with
firewood. At Thomaston and Camden
you would notice that some of them
were loaded with line, which is imanu-
factured at these places.
5. If you were to ask some person
where these vessels were going, he would
tell you that some of them were hound
to Boston, some to New York, some to
Charleston, and some to other places.
The firewood is carried chiefly to Bos -
ton; the lumber is carried to almost all
the seaports of the United States and the
West Indies.
6. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; and you would
see a great many fields planted with
corn, or sown with wheat and rye, where
the ground is almost covered with
stumps. If you were to inquire of the
owner, he would tell you, that, ten or fif-
teen years ago, his whole farm was cov-
ered with thick forests. The trees have
been cut down, and the land, by patient

Lewiston; Waterville; Bath; Hallowell. 4. Oro-
no; Machias; CalMs; 8ao ; Bangor; Belfast;
Wiscasset; Thomston ; Camden. 6. Where are
the products carried from these places ? Look
on the map of the United States, and describe
the oonne of a vessel in sailing from Bangor to
Boston; to New York; to Charleston. 6. What

labor, has been changed from a wilder.
ness into meadows and wheat fields.
7. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would find the
snow very deep, and the air exceedingly
cold. It would be well, while you are
travelling, to cover your ears with fur
and take care to be well wrapped i
or your face and fingers would free
Perhaps you will see people on the
rivers cutting blocks of ice, which
they are goiig to send to Charlesto.,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and other
hot countries, to be used in summer.
8. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
I you might have an opportunity of seeing
Sthe Indians kill a moose. This animal,
Sthe largest of the deer kind, is fund in
no part of the United States except
Maine, and even there they are scarce.
They were once common in all the
northern parts of New England.


1. IN the Penobscot River, forty miles
from the mouth, there is a little island,
called Indian Old Town. If you go
there, you will see about three hundred
Indians. They live in small houses, or
huts, built of sticks and boards, and cul-
tivate tl e land, catch fish, and hunt wild
animals. They are the remains of a
great tribe, the Penobscots, that once
inhabited a large extent of country in
2. You will observe among the Jn-
dians one man, whom they call chief.
is said of the farms in Maine ? 7. What of the
winter? 8. What of moose ?
1. What of the Indians in Maine? Describe
the picture. 2, 3 4, 6, 6. Relate the story thieh

S7 1., t. isv.1 I i-. 1s

N --


A 4;KAss


h- -

I u7

71 Lts~~ii(r W U-vin 1) ;rt..IIr4*A G


If you ask him to tell you the story of
the Penobscot tribe, he will inform you
that there were once many thousands
of them. They, with other Indians,
man years ago, possessed all the lands
in e.

Penobscot Chief telling of his Tribe.
3. There were then no white men
in this country. There were no towns
and no villages, except small collections
of Indian huts, called wigwams. The
Indians did not cut down the trees ; they
had no horses, and they had no tame an-
imals but dogs.
4. The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-
ests there were a great many bears,
panthers, wildcats, wolves, deer, moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
mals. The Indians then'did not culti-
vate the land, except, perhaps, that they
raised a little corn and a few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the
wild animals, which they killed with
their bows and arrows.
5. But, at length, some white men
came, and they began to cut down the
trees, and build houses. Pretty soon
they erected saw mills, and then they

the Indian would probably tell. 7, 8. Whatis said

cleared the land, and raised wheat, and
rye, and corn. At length, more white
people came, and they built more houses,
and cut down more tre.-, and cultivated
more land.
6. And so the white men increased,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained many
thousands, is now reduced to a small
number. Other tribes, once numerous
and powerful, are now extinct. Such
would be the story that the Indian
chief would tell you, and it would be all
7. As early as the year 1607, about
one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
mouth of the River Kennebec. The
greater part were soon discouraged, and
fifty-five returned in the vessel that
brought them over.
8. There were at this time none but
Indians in all New England, except the
white people of whom I am speaking.
These were pretty well treated by the
natives; but they found the winter ex-
cessively severe, and the next year they
all returned to England in a vessel that
came to bring them provisions.
9. The Norridgewock tribe of Indians
preserved, for many years, a story about
these settlers, which I will tell you.
The white people were jealous of the
Indians, and wished to get rid of them.
So they one day employed a large num-
ber of them to take hold of a rope, and
draw a cannon into the fort. When a
great many had taken hold, and the rope
was drawn in a straight line, the white
of the settlement in ]YMaleommnaoed in 1807 i
9. What story used to be told by the Norridg


people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it
is true, the white people behaved very
10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled perniateintly in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.
11. More white people went from
Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was united with Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a
legislature of its own; they meet once
a year at Augusta, the capital; and
there they make laws for the state.

1. THERE are many very interesting
things in New Hampshire. About elev-
en miles to the east of Portsmouth are
some islands, called the Isles of Shoals.
One of the largest belbngs to New
Hampshire. It is called Star Island,
and on it is a little town called Gosport.
The people are all fishermen, and are
occupied chiefly in cathing codfish.
2. These codfisb are caight with
hooks and lines. They are then carried
ashore and dried. A sea serpent is said

wock sldians? 10. When and where was the
first permanent setttemenf in Maine made ?
II. When was it united with Mas4sehusetts ?
Wten did it becoume-an i*m-sdent state ?
What is the capital, and where is it situated ?
1. How is New H]Bst suw bounded What
is the capital ? W urM-n W as in the state?
What rivers? What ~l tlb ar the coast?

to have been seen by several people
near these shores, many years ago. He

Catching Codfish.
came so near to a boat, that a man in
it could have struck him with an oar.
His color was nearly black. He seemed
larger round than the body of a man,
and about as long as the mast of a large
3. This state is sometimes called the
Switzerland of America, because it is
so mountainous. It has also been called
the Granite State, from the immense
quantities of granite which are found
there. The people are chiefly engaged
in agriculture. The land upon the banks
of the rivers is fertile, and many of the
hillsides afford good pasturage for cattle.
4. Railroads extend from Boston
through several parts of the state.
Nashua and Nashville are large manu-
facturing towns. The city of Manches-
ter, situated on the Merrimac River,
is beautifully laid out, and is fast in-
creasing in wealth and population. The
extensive manufactories erected on the
bank of the river are worthy of a visit,
2. Describe the picture. 3. What is said of the
face of the country ? Of the soil ? 4. Describe
thefollowing places; that is, tell where they are
situated, and what is said of them: Nashua I

, / )

li ,'' //7. A>* './ V.'i.; 'rt.


*4) ./


/I;,4/w.'< P

a,? ~j

klllOLCQ) k

Il~qprr ;t



Concord, the capital, contains an elegant
granite State House, and is a pleasant
5. There are many other pleasant
towns in New Hampshire. Exeter, the
seat of Phillips Academy, is a thriving
place. Dover is one of the most impor-
tant towns in the state. It is situated
at the falls of the Cocheco River, and
has some of the largest cotton manufac-
tories in the country. Great Falls is also.
a large manufacturing place. Ports-
mouth is the only seaport in the state.
6. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.
They make it into stoves, kettles, hollow
ware, and castings for machinery. The
mountains around this place are very
wild and beautiful. At Hanover is
Dartmouth College, an old and respec-
table seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.
7. There are several very fine lakes
in New H ampshirc. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, and very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They have a great many horses,
cattle, and sheep.
8. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend into
a valley. You will see the streams run-
ning rapidly down the sides of the hills,
and at the bottom of the valley you will
frequently find a sheet of bright water,
sparkling like a mirror.
Nashville? Manchester ? Concord? 6. Exe-
ter ? Dover? Great Falls ? Portsmouth ?
6. Franconia ? Hanover ? 7. What lakes in
New Hampshire? 8. Describe the scenery.

9. Before you return, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard *a great deal
about Loch Lomond in Scotland; but I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. It contains numerous
islands, and is surrounded by a country
abounding in the wildest scenery.
10. After you have seen this lake,
you should visit the White Mountains.
Fliese are the highest in the United
States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is more than six
thousand feet above the level of the sea.
11. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Ampong the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
12. This chasm affords a passage
through which the River Saco tans.
There is also a road through it, and, as
you pass along, you will be astoniaddl
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on both sides of you.


1. A FEW years since, an awful evlM
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ft-
9. Describe Lake Winaipiseogee. 10. What itl
said of the White MouataiM I? 11, 12. What at
the Notch ?
1, 2, 3, 4. What event one- occurred at the


tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to de-
scribe the scene. The mountains were
shaken for several miles around. The
air, put in motion by the falling mass,
swept by like a hurricane. The noise
was far louder than thunder. Rushing
down to the bottom of the valley, the
rocks overturned and buried every timing
before them.
2. The bed of the River Saco was
filled up; the road was covered over;
and acres of ground, before fit for culti-
vation, now exhibited a confused mass
of rocks split and shivered, and trees
torn up by the roots, their trunks broken
into a thousand pieces.
3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the sidc of the valley, a
small house, belonging to a man of the
name of Willey. IHe, with his wife and
two or three children, was in this house
when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran
out of the house to save themselves.
.-~ ..

Slide in the White Mountains.
4. But alas I the avalanche of rocks
and earth swept over and buried them
in the ruins. The house stood safe and
untouched, and, if they had remained
Notch? & When and where wa the Arst set-

in it, they, too, had been saved. The
house, I believe, is still standing.
5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by Indians; but in 1623, some English
people came and built a house on Pis-
cataqua River, which was called Mason
Hall. The same year some of the peo-
ple went farther up the river, and settled
at Cocheco, now called Dover.
6. In 1641, New Hampshire was
united with Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
King of England separated it from Mas-
sachusetts. It then beacune a royal
province ; the governor being appointed
by the King of England.
7. In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783. At that time, a new
constitution was formed, which remains
in force to this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.
8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the savages
made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white
people, and they determined on revenge.
But they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and, when
all was quiet, they softly opened the
doors. The Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty-

tlement in New Hampshire ? 6. What event
occurredin 1641? In 1679 ? 7. In 1766 ? In 1788?
8. What occurred in Dover in 1689? fDescribe
the attack.


nine away as prisoners, and fled with
such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
ple who came to attack them.

Vermont, as you see by the map, from
New Hampshire on the east. This river
runs through a valley of several miles
in width, which is very rich and beauti-
ful. The meadows here are exceed-
ingly fine. Very large crops of corn,
wheat, and oats are cultivated in the
valley. All of the river is in New
Hampshire, which extends to its western
bank; so that the Connecticut is really
not a river of Vermont, though it is as
near to it as it possibly can be.
2. Vermont has several very pleas-
ant towns along the Connecticut River.
Brattleboro' is one of the pleasantest
towns in the state. It has several
manufactories, and is a place of much
business. Bellows Falls is situated
where the river tumbles very pictur-
csquely over some rocks.
3. There are a great many mills at
this place, and there is a bridge over
the cataract, from which you can look
down upon the whirling water. There
were once a great many salmon in Con-
necticut River, and the Indians, about
one hundred years ago, used to kill a
great many of them with spears, as they
attempted to ascend the falls. They
were very expert at this, and would
often take several of them in the course
of an hour. You can see now some
1. How is Vermont bounded ? What is said
of the Connecticut River ? Name the rivers in this
state. 2. Where is Brattleboro' ? What is said

figures, which the Indians cut in the
rocks near the river, below the bridge.
4. Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable business. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It Is
very lofty, and, when you are on the
top, you can see all around you to an
immense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.
5. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will cross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
The railroads which cross them paW
through many pleasant and flourishing
6. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on Lake
Champlain towards Canada. You #ill
be very much pleased with Burlington,
for it is one of the handsomest towns in
New England. It is situated on the
shore of the lake, of which you haye a
fine prospect from the town. At this
place is a college, called the University
of Vermont. You will also find a col-
lege at Middlebury. In this town there
are a great many manufactories, and a
quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble.
7. Montpelier is a handsome town,
and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per.
ceive that most of the people are f1n&
ers. They raise a great many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.
The horses are very fine ones. Many
of Irllows FaUs ? 4. Where is Windsor
6.What mountains in Vermont ? 6. Describe Bqr.
Biato; Lake Chanplain; Middletary. 7. Moat


of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
8. During the winter, the weather is
cold, and the snow falls to a great depth.
It is sometimes four or five feet deep.
The people have four or five months
fine sleighing. Although the air is very
sharp, yet the winter is a merry season
in this state. The children ride on their
sleds down the hills, and the people glide

swiftly over the hills and valleys in their
sleighs. It is in summer one of the most
beautiful of the New England States.




1. MANY years ago, a very singular
event occurred in Vermont. There was
a very large pond, os lake, in the north-
western part of the state; it was three
miles long, and one wide. One day,
some men were at work at a bank of
earth, at the end of this pond.
2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at the place

with great violence. For several miles
it rolled on in a torrent, sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, an4
barely giving the inhabitants time to es-
cape. It d not tp till the whole pond
was exhausted. Where the pond used
to be, there is now only the bed of a
small river.
3. During the year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Cham-
plain, between some American and Brit-
ish ships, which took place in sight of
Burlington. There were thousands of
people along the shore to witness it.
There were several American vessel:
and several British vessels engaged in
the battle. The American ships were
commanded by Commodore Macdon-
4. They fought each other with can-
non for more than two hours. At length
the British ships were beaten, and the
Americans took nearly all of them.
This happened during the late war with
England, of which I shall tell you more
before I get through the book.
5. In August, 1777, there was a cel-
ebrated battle fought at Bennington.
General Stark, with some, New Hlamp-
shire and Vermont troops, attacked some
British soldiers, commanded by Colonel
Baum, at that place.
6. The British troops were dressed
in fine red coats and white pantaloons.
They had beautiful music, and their
officers were mounted on fine horses.
But the Vermont and New Hampshire
men were not regular soldiers; they
were farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
chants, who went to war merely to drive
these British soldiers from the country.
7. The Americans were dressed in
their common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-

plter, tLhe 8. What is said of the war 3, 4. Describe the battle of lake Champlaia in
fi Vmo) 1114. 6, 7, 8. Decrib the battle of B4aWlag


.d l 11

/;;*, R/ Mti 0Ni.,i IN/ T .


. ..I ii1 .. .
10 ,' .11

I --- *7
;;' I .*nritet.l' 11 liio <.i. O*in>i.

ove. rs*/. y<,,


spised them. They called them Yan-
kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began, the
laughter of the British troops was over.
The Americans fell upon hem, and killed
a great many of them, and by and by the
British fled.
8. As they were running away, they
met a good many more British soldiers.
Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,*
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hundred of the
British were killed and wounded. Col-
onel Baum was killed, and the rest of the
British ran away. This battle took
place during the revolutionary war, of
which I shall tell you more by and by.
9. Vermont was not settled by the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
a fort built near Brattleboro', in 1724,
called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Indians.
10. Vermont was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along the Con-
necticut River, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for along time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.
11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New York, and
consequently, the government of that
colony began to sell the land to any per-
sons who would buy it. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and determined
to resist. New York then sent troops
into Vermont, and there was some fight-
ton. Where is Bcnnington? 9,10. What of the
early settlements of Vermont ? 11. What took

ing, These difficulties were not settled
till years after.
12. During the revolutionary war,
SVermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wilder-
ness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now, it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and

1. MASSAcnHSETTS is not a large
state, but there are a great many people
in it. Those who live along the sea-
board, at Boston, Salem, Marblehead,
Gloucester, New Bedford, Nantucket,
and other places, own a great many
ships, brigs, sloops, and schooners.
Some of these ships are sent to England.
and other parts of Europe, and they
bring back various kinds of goods.
2. Other ships are sent to China, and
they bring back tea. The trade carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their oil. Oth-
-er vessels go out to catch codfish and
mackerel. A great many sloops, and
schooners, and brigs, go to New York,

place in 1764 ? 12. When did Vermont become
one of the United States?
1, 2. How is Massachusetts bontded ? What
is the capital ? What rivers in Massachusett ?
Describe them. What capes ? Where is Boston
situated? Salem? Marblehead? Gloucester?
New Bedford? Naatucket ? Where are the
vessels sent from these places ? Look on the
Map of the World, and describe the course of a
vessel from Boston to England; to China; to
New York: to Philadelphia; to Charleston; to


Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
and other places.
3. They carry a good many articles
away which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exch nhge for them,
other articles that are wanted there.
So, you see, there are a great many
people constantly occupied in managing
these ships. You may often see several
hundred vessels of various kinds at
4. In those parts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms,
and the people manage them extremely
well. There are also very extensive
manufactories in Massachusetts.
5. Lowell is remarkable for its rapid
growth, and the variety and perfection
of its manufactures. Immense quantities
of broadcloths, carpets, and cotton cloth
are here manufactured. There are man-
ufactories at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, Fall
River, Fitchburg, Pawtucket, and other
places. The goods manufactured in
these places are chiefly carried to Bos-
ton, and are thence taken to New York,
Philadelphia, Charleston, New Orleans,
and various foreign markets.
6. Boston is the largest city in New
Epgland. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people men, women,
and children, on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog Pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swim about, and get them I
It is now filled with water from Lake

New Orleans. 3, 4. What is the occupation of
the people ? 6. Name the principal manufactur-
ing towns, and tell where each ot them is rutt-
ated. 6. What is said of Boston ? Name some

Cochituate, and a beautiful fountain or
naments its centre.
I- -. -^^a-

Boys playing on Boston Common.
7. The State House is finely situ-
ated, and it has a good appearance.
When I was young, I used to like to go
to the top of the State House, from which
there is a splendid prospect. I could pee
the ocean, with a great many islands in
it, and I could see a great many fine
towns all around Boston, and I could look
down upon the city itself, and see almost
all that was going on in the streets.
8. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston, among which
is the Quincy Market. I do not think
there is a more beautiful market in the
world. The Tremont House, King's
Chapel, St. Paul's Church and Trinity
Church, the Boston Athenaeum, the
Merchants' Exchange, and the United
States Custom House, are very elegant
9. Boston is connected with the prin-
cipal cities and towns in the common-
wealth, and with other states, by several
well-constructed railroads. Salem is a
wealthy city, and many of the people are
engaged in commerce. Newburyport is
distinguished for commerce and manu-
factures; Lynn for the manufacture of
of the principal buildings. 7, 8, 9. Of Salem ?

-J I~iJ~ '

I ~'i 4

j j

I 4' M i?

c n

~C 1

flpr j2 ~

1 __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


shoes; New P dford and Nantucket for
the whale fishery; and Worcester is
noted for being the place where a great
many railroads connect with each other.
Massachusetts abounds in beautiful cities,
towns, and villages, and in travelling
through it, you will observe a great num-
ber of churches and school houses.
10. At Cambridge there is a college,
called Harvard University. The library
contains near one hundred thousand vol-
umes. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
Great attention is paid to education, and
common schools are supported by law in
every city and town in the state.
11. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. There are a great
many railroads; yet, if you wish to see
the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near Northampton is
a high mountain, called Holyoke. From
the top of it you can look down upon
Connecticut River, winding through
meadows so rich and beautiful, that they
seem like a carpet woven with various
bright colors.

1. ON the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There were the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the
Of Newburyport ? Of Lynn? Of New Bedford
and Nantucket ? Of Worcester, and other
places ? 10. What colleges in the state ? What
is said of education ? 11. What of the winter in
Massachusetts ? Of the scenery from Mount
Holyoke ?
1, 2, 3. When was Boston settled ? 4, 6, 6, 7,

,president of Harvard College, and a
great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Bos-
2. It was a very bright day, and they
all assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
sides, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was. delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South Church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.
OEM&--.. .

Celebration of the Settlement of Boston.
3. Now you will be curious to know
what all this parade was about. I will
tell you. It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.
4. Ten years before, in 1620, s6me
persons had come from England, avi
settled at Plymouth. At that period
many of the people in England were per-
secuted, and could not be happy there.
They chose, therefore, to come to AzWr-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indlafs
and wild beasts around them, rather than
stay there.
5. Accordingly, fifteen hnim&d pevr-
8, 9. Give an account of the settlement of mti


sos came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, Roxbtuy, and
other places. A man by the mune of
Blackstone came to the place where
Boston now stands, and liking it pretty
well, he told some of the people about it,
and they went and settled there.
6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. They were almost
starved, too, for want of food. A great
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.
7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. What a wonder-
fift omge has taken place in two hun-
dred years I The spot whwe Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
his attd the istads were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
arost d. Now, tke Indiads are all gone.
aMi thdne are about one hundred and
Thousand people living in this
; and in the towns around it there
after t least as many more.
S. The forests have all been cut
down, the hills have been levelled, the
valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams. The
bAy, where then you could see only a
few Indian canoes, is now covered with
hundreds of vessels; and in the streets
yea hear the noise of a thousand wheels.
where then were heard only the cries of
wid beasts and savage men.
9. Such are the mighty changes that
have tak f pace in this country since it
*m~ .auled by the white people. It is
timy meresting to look around, and see
tI aWl1mno a lQlaso of towns, cities, and
m 4$mi. it 1 think it is still more
IaI e go back and study the

Apothe pllses in its icinity: 10. When and

history of places, and see wJlat happened
there in times that hsve gone by.
10. The first sett ent in New f
land was made at Plymouth, in IW
The settlers were english people, caa
Puritans. Within ten years after, ft
lem, Dorchester, Charlegtown, and If
ton were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the
colony grew very rapidly.
11. They had a great many difficulties
to encounter. Before they could raise
grain to make bread, they were oblfged
to cut down trees and till the land.
They had also to build houses, to make
roads, and defend themselves against the
Indians. Their condition wa& indeed a
very hard one, and some of the people
who came over died from want and
fatigue, as I have said before.
12. Many of them were killed by the
savages; but in spite of all these evils the
colony continued to increase. The wv~te
people penetrated farther into the inte-
rior, cut down the trees, built towns and
I villages, and soon spread themselves over
the whole country that is *w called
13. But after a while, the revolution-
ary war broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hill, and many other interesting things.

1. RHODE ISLAND is the smallest of
the United States; but there are a great
where was the Anrt settlement in New Englaud
made? 11, 12. What dificaltie were settl1s
obliged to encounter ?
1. How i Rhode Islad6 bounded ? Whit is






A'" -



I 4


1' 1 I'.

r-it j


many manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At North Providence there are some
very extensive cotton manufactories.
These are situated on the falls of the
Pawtucket River.
2. Providence, one of the capitals, is
a large city, situated at the head of Nar-
raganset Bay, and is extensively en-
gaged in trade and commerce. Brown
University, one of the best colleges in
the country, is located in this city. The
people are distinguished for their gen-
erous support of common schools. If
you ever visit Providence, you should
go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport, where tlhe
legislature also meets. You will sail
down Narraganset Bay, which, I think,
is one of the most beautiful bays in the
world. As you ,go along,.you will see
Bristol on your left. It is a very pleas-
ant town, and there are a number of
beautiful houses there.
4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Iope. This is very cele-
brated for having been the residence of
a fianous lhdian chief, named Philip.
His story is very interesting, and I shall
tell it to you by and by.
5. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea breezes.
6. The first-white man that settled in
Rhode Island was Roger Williams. lie
said of it ? What of North Providence ? What
are the */itals ? 2, 3, 4, 6. What is said of
Providence ? Of,Bristol? Of Newport? 6,7,

was a clergyman and lived in Sotoktrg
but he did not think exactly as the other
clergymen of 'Boston did, and so he wal
banished from Maesahuaetta.

Roger Williams emigrating to Rbode lal
7. He went away with his familek t
the woods. After travelling a eoKa e.
able time, he stopped, and began to buid
himself a house. Here he mode a eA
tlement, and called it Providence. thb
took place in 1636, and was the fir
settlement in Rhode Island. 31e wlm
kindly treated. by the Indiaas who
seemed pleased at Iis arrival@ tgMo
8. The colony, thus begun, increase
rapidly, and in the revolttionary war
it united with the other colonies Ia the
struggle for freedom. It became Qne
of the United States in 1790.

1. CONNECTICUT, with t& U r
of Rhode Island, is the isml the
New England States; but ipla moei
8. What of the firet setahlmi Wkhin Si'
Rhode Iltmld become-onM oe hal a-_ '---
1, 9t Vow is Conn ticub Calea? Wba)


inhabitants than any of them, except
Massachusetts and Maine. The country
is very hilly, but it abounds in streams
and rivers, and is generally quite fertile.
2. The people are very industrious.
A~Bga many of them are occupied in
ctguayetng the land, and they cultivate
it rw wel. They raise a good many
cfit horses, hogs, sheep, and some
grain, an= kitchen vegetables. A great
many of Me people are occupied in
man~aetoriea, and a considerable num-
ber are engaged Si commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
3. Let us suppose th~aiB begin at
the ast8sr part of the state, and travel
through it. We will commence our
journey at Norwich. This town is situ-
ated do the Thmtnes, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York,
Pbiladelphia, and Charleston. There
are several falls in the river at Norwich,
and these afford fine mill seats, where
there are some very extensive cotton
manufactories. A railroad connects this
place with Worcester and Boston, and a
steamboat runs from Norwich to New

4. The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
some high rocks.
5. Their enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
a aetp precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning
are the capsi;at1.t Eat is said of Connecticut ?
&. Wt~t haie $A state ? What is said of
Nerwidh? Wrste is the River Thames ? 4,5,
6. What is said of the Mohican Indians?

came, the party of Indians first men-
tioned were about to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.
6. They made a short resistance, but,
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.
7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat and go down the River
Thames, to New London. At this place
we shall see a good many vessels.
Among them we may see a large ship
fitting out to go to the Pacific Ocean, to
catch whales.
8. We shall, perhaps, see another
vessel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three )years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm oil and a
good deal of whalebone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whalebone is for umbrella frames, and
many other purposes.
9. Near New London we shall see
two furts. One of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort. Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the River Thames.
10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton about the
year 1812. There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected they would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton as their bar-
11. One night, as they were asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The
7, 8. Of New London? 9. What arts in the
vicinity ? 10, 11, 12. Relate the incident thm


-- (I' o -
-~~~~~~~ -=.--.. -. J /'.-- ('"~ -"y ' -^ j ~j/ ^


r3 '61~PI


Irums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enenv landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of
cannon in the distance.
12. The officers assembled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. lie dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he exclaimed, Alarm! alarm!
the enemy are coming!" This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance.
13. After we have examined New
London, we will go to Hartford. This
is a very fine city, situated on Connecti-
cut River. We must visit the Deaf
and Dumb Asylum, where we shall see
about one hundred and fifty deaf and
dumb pupils, who are taught to read
and write, and who can converse by
signs almost as well as we can by talk-
inrg. We shall also see at Hartford a
place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they arc taken care
of, and many of them are cured. Be-
fore we leave the city, we must go to
Trinity, formerly called Washington,
College, which is a fine institution.
14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, which is beautifully
situated on Connecticut River. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our way
from Hartford, we shall pass through
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some

occurred in Groton. 13. What is said of Hart-
ford? 14. OfP Middletown? Of Wetherafield ?

Sof them go as far as Charleston, New
SOrleans, and the West Indies.
15. After leaving Middletown, we
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive as
New Haven, which is one of the ha d-
somest cities in New England.
16. At New Haven we shall see Yale
College. This consists of several brick
buildings, in which there are three or
four hundred students. We must go
into one of these buildings and see the
cabinet. This is a collection of betgti-
ful minerals from all parts of the wowld.

View in New Haven.
17. It is very interesting to exanur~
this cabinet, for we shall see stones in i~
which have been brought from variomB
parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Ama06
ica. There are two stone pillars tbhef
which came from the famn)us Qiamt
Causeway, in Ireland.
18. There are also some specingau
of stones which fell from the *ir a
Connecticut, many years ago. Thai
stones formed a part of a vnt J~
meteor that flew along the sky, aW
finally exploded with a great o2ae.
The stones fell in the town of Wasomw

Of Durham? 16, 17, 18. Of New Haven?


19. If we travel in other parts of the his way. IIe wandered about for a great
state, we shall find many of the people while, hoping every moment to get out
busily engaged in manufacturing cotton of the woods; but the farther he went,
and woollen goods, and various kinds the thicker were the trees, and the deep-
of tin, iron, brass, and other wares. er was the forest.
Many of them travel to the Southern 5. He now grew very anxious, for the
and Western States, and even as far as I night was approaching. He hallooed
Mexico, to sell the articles that are made and shouted for help, but no one came.
in this state. At length it was night, and the forest all
around was covered with darkness. The
wanderer listened, but he could hear no
human voice; he could hear only the
C A ER X I. I howling of wild beasts.
CONNECTIC UT- Cox TIN V ED. 6. Ile climbed a tree, and there he re-
C i. mained, in great anxiety, till morning.
1. T firs house built in Conecti- orn out wit watching and fatigue, and
cut by the white men was erected at fhint for want of food, Mr. Chester still
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from mde exertions to escape. He ascended
Massachusetts. Two years after, about to e to o a hill, and there he obtained
sixty persons came from Massachusetts, to te, top ofit hill, and there he obtained
sixty persons came fom Massachusetts, a sight of the country all around.
and settled, at Windsor, Hartford, and
and settled, at Windsor, artford, ad ut it was one boundless forest on
Wethersfield. They went across the sides. Ie was now i tl:e greatest
wilderness, instead of going round by sites. Tle was now in the greatest
water, as the first settlers had done. d e w w
water, as the first settlers had done. could not see the sun, so as to direct his
2. The next year some more persons course, and he had no hope but to lie
removed from Massachusetts. They, down and perish in the wilderness.
too, went by land through the woods. Butt this oet i ar caught
There were then, of course, no roads!I
There were then, of course, no roads; a distant sound. lie listened attentively;
the whole space was an unbroken forest. ait t be.t o i s drum. i hetrd a
it was the beat of a drum. Ile heard a
They had nothing to guide them but u ad a call. answer, and
a pocket compass, which they carried.
soon he was in the arms of his friends,
They had a number of cows with them, who had come in search of him. The
which they drove through the woods; and ethesfie ha fe
D people of Wethersfield had felt great
they subsisted principally on their milk anxiety for his absence, and imarning
during their long and difficult journey. that he lost te woods th men
i .. tbat lie was lost iii the woods, the men
3. I will tell you a story of what hap- had set out in various directions to look
uaiSd at Wethersfield a few years after for him.
0A4 place was settled. A very respec- 9. By this means he was discovered
eman lived there, whose name was and taken back to his family. His grave-
Wester. One day he went into the an
-ester. One day he went into the stone is still to be seen in the burying
wooda to see about his cattle, ground atWethersfield. The place where
4. By and by, he set out to return, he was lost is called Mount Lamentation.
but he soon discovered that he had lost You will pass it on the road from Hart-
ford to New Haven.
19. Name some -f zk principal manufactures. 10. At Hartford there is a celebrated
1, 2. Whatjif EN the early history of Con- 10 At Hartford ther
necticat ? 3, 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9. Relate the story about Mr. Chester. 10, 11, 12. What is said of


tree, called the Charter Oak. There is
a story of that tree, which I will tell
you. In the year 1686, James II., King
of England, sent Sir Edmund Andros
to take away the A<-ters of the Amer-
ican colonies. A charters were
papers, signed by the king, granting
the colonies certain privileges; and the
people of the colonies did not wish to
give them up.
11. Sir Edmund Andros came to Hart-
ford to get the charter of Connecticut.
Some of the people being assembled at
evening, the charter was brought in.
Sir Edmound was present, and was about
to take the charter away, when the
lights were all suddenly blown out, and
the people were left in the dark.
12. By and by the candles were lighted
again ; but the charter was gone, and it
could not be found. Sir Edmund was
therefore obliged to go away without it.
After a long time, the charter was
found in a hollow place in this old oak

Charter Oak, at Hartford.

tree, standing in the southern part of
the city. It was hid there by Captain
Wadsworth, who took it, and carried it
off, when the lights were blown out.

the Charter Oak ? By whom was the charter
taken away and placed in the tree ?

1. I HAVE now given you some account
of the six states which bear the general
title of New England. In travelling
through this portion of our country, you
will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the 1st of December. Spring re-
turns in April. There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There are plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestlnts, and melons in abundance.
3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. It is a beautiful stream, and waters
four of the New England States. There
is not a river on the globe whose batks
afford more charming scenery than this.
I have seen the Thames in England, the
Rhone in France, and the Rhine in
Germany ; and they are all less pleasi~a
to my eye than this.
4. You should see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If yot
are there in May, you will see the fsh*
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous. In
former times there were a great many
salmon also in this river; but for some
reason other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on
1. What is said of the na of the country-in
New England? 2. Of the climate? Of fruits)
3, 4. Of the Connecticut River ? What two state
does it separate ? What two ttes does it intfer


account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it.
5. Not many years since, salmon were
often taken as far up as Vermont. They
even used to ascend the little streams
that come down from the mountains, and
were often caught in them. An old gen-
tleman told me, that, many years ago, lie
was travelling at night, on horseback,
among the mountains in that state. As
his horse was going through a small
stream that ran across the road, he heard
a great pounding and plashing in the
water. He went to the spot, and there lie
found a salmon that weighed nine pounds,
which had got into a shallow place, and
could not get out. He easily caught it
with his hands, and then carried it home.
6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated; and
you mM see a great many churches and
meemg houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
7. There are still a good many forests
and much unoccupied land in New Eng-
land. But a great part of its surface is
under cultivation. There are more than
one thousand towns and villages scat-
tered over its hills, valleys, and plains, and
there are about three million inhabitants
within its borders. The people are gen-
erally industrious, and are engaged in
the various pursuits of agriculture, com-
merce, and, manufactures.
8. Such is New England now; but
what was it more than two hundred years
ago? A mere wilderness, inhabited by
bear, wolves, and other wild boasts, and
by scattered tribes of Indians, who lived

ect ? 6. Relate the story of catching salmon.
f. What is said of school houses and churches ?
7. Of the population ? 8 Of the condition of
New England two hundred years ago ?

in wigwams, hunted with bows and ar-
rows for subsistence, and were constantly
slaying each other in battle.
9. What a great change has taken
place in a shor mee of time! Yet
many interesting~ gs have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back and trace the history
of former times. Theic is no part of
our country -not a town or village -
that has not some interesting story con-
nected with it.
10. I shall endeavor to collect the most
amusing and instructive portions of New
England history, and tell what I have to
say in such a manner as to please you.
You are now acquainted with the geog-
-raphy of this section of the country; I
shall therefore take you back at once
to the period when our forefathers first
landed upon these shores.

1. MORE than two hundred years ago,
there were in England a great many
people called Puritans. They were not
happy in England, for they had peculiar
opinions about religion. They were
cruelly treated, and some of them at
length fled from the country. They went
first to Holland, but finally they conclud-
ed to go to America.
2. They set out in two vessels, but one
of them was leaky, and went back. They
all entered the other ship, and after a
long and stormy passage, they reached a
broad harbor. They then sent some
people ashore, to examine the country.
These found some Indian corn in baskets,
buried in the sand. They also discov-
1. What were the people called who first set-
tled in New England? 2, 3. What is said of



a' 1

:- !-. - --.---- f -

*'.: -: .

J #

S\,, -; 4
/ i A i
-- -- 1 .f ) ; :

/ .,. ... 4"
J-'" '

71 !"nl I i
t / 'f rE ,1 ,,,' m-
S V/ K\... 4 ,

71, a. I. u

7., 4;
r I

& Sc ale tiles .
4 e*t attit l tft3 *e*ta 3'

. ... I I



ered Indian burial-places, surrounded by
sticks stuck in the ground.
3. One night, the exploring party built
a fire in the woods, atdalept by the side
of it. In the mxni ome arrows,
pointed with eaglNV, and sharp
pieces of deer's horns, 1F among them.
These were sent by some Indians who
came to attack them. The white men
fired their guns at them, and the Indians
ran off in great alarm. At this time the
savages had no guns, and they imagined
that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and
4. Having examined the shores, the
emigrants pitched upon a place where
they concluded to settle. December 22,
1620, they landed on a rock there, and
called the place Plymouth. It was va-
ter when they arrived, and the count-y
had a most dreary aspect. There were
no houses to receive them; there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them but a gloomy forest,
inhabited by savages and wild beasts.
There was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony con-
sisted of one hundred persons. They
were divided into nineteen families, and
each family built itself a log house.
5. For some time, the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They
saw a few soon after their landing, but
these ran away as if they were very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among them, saying, in Eng-
lish, "Welcome, Englishmen! Welcome,
6. This surprised the white people
very much. The Indian told them that
their voyage and settlement? 4. When and
where did they settle? 6. What is related

Shis name was Samoset, and that he had
learned to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.
7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the settle-
ment, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. lie was at first afraid to go down
into the village, but by and by he went
down, and the people saluted him with t
drum and fife, which he liked very much.

Making a Treaty with Masasoit.
8. Then he went into the governors
house, where he ate a very hearty din-
ner, and drank a prodigious draught of
rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peaae
with them. This treaty he and his
descendants kept faithfully for fifty
9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very- fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not fipd their way' back to
the village. At length, night came oal
and as it grew dark, they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.
10. They were very much alarmed;
for they did not know what w"lw teaa
might be in the woods. All 'night Ad
of Samoset? 7, 8 Of MmM1iutl 9, 1&ME


continued in the storm, shivering with
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
thcy heard. At length, the morning
came, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
howling of wolves.
11. The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
accustomed to enjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number had died.
12. Notwithstanding these discoura-
ging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the settlers,
so that, in ten years after, the whole
number amounted to three hundred. In
the year 1630, more than fifteen hun-
dred persons came from England, and
settled at Boston, Dorchester, Salem, and
other places in the vicinity.
13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of tkem possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in a
very delicate manner. Their sole object
in coming to America was to enjoy their
religious opinions without restraint. But
they had not foreseen the sufferings that
were before them.
14. The winter, set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great depth,
and the cold became intense. Assembled
in log houses, which afforded but a poor
shelter from the driving blasts, the emi-
grants had to endure hunger as well as
cold. Their stock of provisions became
nearly exhausted, and many of them

late the story of men lost in the woods, to illus-
trate the trials of the early settlers. 11. What
hardshipstiad they endure? 12. How did the
settlement.of Plymouth increase in ten years ?
Wre"I were settlements made in 1630 ? 13. What
-l-hd them to some to America? 14. What

were compelled to subsist on clams,
muscles, nuts, and acorns.
15. Unable to sustain these privations,
many of them~ a. Among these was
one woman e has always excit-
ed peculiar y. This was Lady
Arabella Johnm. Her father was a
rich man in England, and she had been
brought up in the enjoyment of every
16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. IHer
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came with
her, and great care and kindness were
bestowed upon her, yet in about a month
after her arrival, she died.
17. Such were the sufferings that at-
tended the first settlers in New England.
Yet these were sustained with the utmost
fortitude. Those who died left a state
of sorrow, in the consciousness of having
done their duty, and the strong hope of
entering a state of peace beyond the
grave. Those who lived prayed to
Heaven for strength to support them in
their troubles, and their prayers seemed
to be answered.
18. Thus prepared for life or death,
they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire.

1. I HAVE now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Plym-
outh was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The colony
hardships did they endure ? 15, 16. Relate the
story of Arabella Johnson.
1. From what was Massachusetts named ?


of Massachusetts was so named from a
native Indian tribe. This colony in-
creased much more ajdy than Plym-
2. Such favorable were given
of it in England, thairmy persons of
distinction came from that country, and
settled in Boston and other parts of the
colony. Among these was Sir Henry
Vane. He was but twenty-five years
old when he arrived, but he was so grave
that lie won the hearts of the people, and
they made him governor.
3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1C36, Roger
Williams was banished from Massachu-
setts, and he settled in Rhode Island.
New Hampshire was first settled in 1623,
and Maine in the same year. In 1638
a settlement was made at New IHaven,
which was afterwards called the colony
of New Haven. Vermont was not set-
tied till 1724.
4. About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was Ann H-utchinson, began
to preach strange doctrines in Massachu-
setts. She had a pleasing address and
fluent speech; and she persuaded many
persons to believe as she did. Among
these was Sir Henry Vane.
5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the subject.
They talked a great deal about it, and
some of them became very angry. At
length, Ann Ilutchinson's doctrines were
condemned by a majority, and she was
banished from the colony. Sir Henry
Vane was very much displeased at this;
so he went back to England, and after
several years he was executed, by hav-
ing his head cut off, for high treason
against his king and country.
6. For a long time, the Indians did
2. What is said of Sir Henry Vane ? 3. When
were the several colonies settled 1 4.5. What is

not molest the inhabitants of the Plym-
outh and Massachusetts colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them;
but the Pequods, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the people there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-
brook, and at Wethersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.
7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done. It was determined to send a body
of men against the Indians. About
ninety white men and seventy friendly
Indians were soon assembled. They
were all placed under the command of
Captain Mason.
8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down the Connecticut
River to Saybrook. Here they resolved
to make a sudden attack upon Mystic,
an Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now sta:ids. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.
9. They reached the spot about day-
break. The Pequods had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. At this instant the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
savages were killed; but very soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely.
10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerouA
than the white men, and the latter wete
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The mtimam aught
said of Abn Itutchissoa 4 #6 7, 8, 9,0 11, 1 I
What is related of their troubles with thePeqaue
Indian ? Where is Saybrooik Wetheranstdt


quickly, and, sprecaling from wigwam to
wigvwam, soon set them all in a blaze.
11. It was, an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wig\vwarn were reduced to asnics, and six
or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.
12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequods, and they fled, with their chief,
Sas;aicuzs, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the rmlnlinitng
Indians, and the Pequods gave the colo-
nies no more triruble.
13. In 1643, the four colonies of'
Plymouth, Mas.-sachusetts, Connecticut,
and New Haven entered into an agree-
ment for purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the
Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people iru.-chieif.

1. WE now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they themselves were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.
2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them bitterly to hate the English.

tonington ? Fairfield ? 1. What event took
place in 1643 ?
1, 2, 3. Relate what is said of the feelings of

Besides this, quarrels occasionally arose
between the white inhabitants and the
savages. Whwthr these originated with
the Englisl I Indians, the latter
were alwao be thought in the
wrong, and MMpuunished by the white
people accoatgly.
3. In short, the Indians had discov-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were likely soon
to become their masters; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the English towards the sav-
I ages.
4. There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
King Philip by the English. He was
chief of the Wampanoags, and lived at
Mount Hope, near BristoL The coun-
try was then called Pokanoket.
5. Philip, being a man of great sa-
gacity, saw that, unless the English col-
onies were checked, the Indians would,
in the course of a few years, cease to
exist as independent tribes. After re-
flecting upon these things, he resolved
to make one great effort to drive the
English from the land, and free hil
country from such dangerous intruders.
6. Accordingly he visited, in secret,
several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that, if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would cease to be
their inheritance. He described the
English as crafty, longsighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship,, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-

the Indians when they perceived the rapid in-
crease of the white men. 4. Who was King
Phitip ? 6, What resolution did he adopt in
reference to the white men? 6, 7. What meas-


sessed every foot of land east of the
7. He prophesied, Ie gradual de-
crease, and the tion, of all
those tribes who -lai over the
whole land. He to%~lm laat their

Jhilip addressing the Indian Uhiefs.
forests would be cut down, that their
hunting grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves.
8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.
9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period, the Indians were
supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,
and they had learned, to use fire-arms
with considerable skill.
10. In a few moments, therefore, eight
tre did he adopt to carry -MdM1lution into
effect ? 8. What did he p 10, l When

0or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was immedi-
ately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the inhabitants from all
quarters. An attack was made upon
the Indians the next morning, and sev-
eral of them were killed.
11. This resolute conduct awed the
Indians; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope with
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and, entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.
12. The English, finding it impossible
to encounter the enemy in the swamp,
determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

1. I CAN hardly tl4 you all that hap-
pened during the bloody war that fol-
lowed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to bel *)ed by I
spirit of deadly revenge, 'hey set the
town of Springfield on fire, aA
than thirty houses were consume an
2. About eighty young men weag~ai
tacked at Muddy Br~ak as they *ere
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at haod.
They had stopped a moment wit, their
and how did the war c5mme, v? Where fi
Swanzey ? 11, 12. What was te rmalt of the
attack the next morning? WheOM Maont
Hope? Tizemji i
1. 'WiQipi ntoe~ ttied atOpringfiel? Whet
is SprinM ? 2, 3. At Muddy Brook ? Whwe


teams, and were gathering some grapes
by the roadside.
3. Sudden as the thunderbolt the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
Indians; and, having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.
4. In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabitants.
At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and other
places, they committed the most dreadful
5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except Qne, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-
santly, they poured their musket shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls
passed through the sides of the house,
but only one person in it was killed.

Indians boiegIng a House.
6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempt
is, eerfeld? Hadley ? 4. What even toeiAi
Hamnshire And Maine? W'ereA9 Lq4:&7aj3' N
ver ? Exeter? For what arlrthbimTjlceWrawm
di, tz 7,4 Descri"he saest*acko ew uip-)
sI s, 7,.a PDecrihesae>tlftcl oti- ap-

to set fire to the house. With long
poles, they thrust against it firebrands
and rags dipped in brimstone. They
shot arrows o ouL it, and finally
they loaded e ~ flax and tow,
set it on Uj hhed it against the
7. The cmog flame was soon com-
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savages
took their station so that they might cut
down those who& should attempt to es-
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upon
the flames, and at once extinguished
8. Soon after, Major Willard, with
some soldiers, came to their relief. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled.
9. At length it was thought necessary
to humble the Narragansetts. They
were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
10. There was but one entrance to
the fort. This was accidentally discov-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed. They were
at length obliged to retreat; but, by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
|fat an the, opposite side, and at the same
romenai the attack was vigorously re-
newed at the entrance.
11. The Indians w~s now cut down
-with dreadful slau jier. lThe fort was
taken, and six haludred wigwmas w~re

on Bieo0 is Brpok$eld 9, 10, 11


set on fire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
were taken prisoners.
12. Such were sorl e events
of this remarkable war r two
years, almost every pa Eng-
land was a scene of blo l. But,
although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses which
they experienced.
13. Although there were, perhaps, ten
times as many of them as of the white
people, yet such were the superior skill
and management of the latter, that the
Indians were effectually defeated, and
their power in New England was finally
14. At length the war was closed by
the death of Philip. He was found in a
swamp near Mount Hope, with several
other Indians. Captain Church, with a
few white men, surrounded the swamp
at night.
15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
rushed towards the spot where some of
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Indian, who was of the party, took de-
liberate aim, and shot the chief through
the heart. Thus fell the most celebrated
of all the Indian chiefs. From this time,
the Indians, finding further resistance
vain, began to submit to the English.
The struggle was continued a while in
Maine, but that soon ended, and no gen-
eral effort was ever after made, on the
part of the Indians, to subdue the Eng-
16. This war, the story of which I
12, 14. Describe the attack made upon the Nar.
ragansett Indians. 14, 16. What event closed
the war ? 16. How long did the wa continue ?

have just related, continued from the
year 1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.
17. Their chiefs and their principal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig-
wams were burnt; they were driven
from their homes; and now, defeated
and subdued, their situation was one
which may well excite our pity. Sav-
age life, in its happiest state, is a mis-
erable condition; but the New England
Indians had now lost their independence,
and all that savages hold most dear.
18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a mighty people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

1. SOON after Philip's war, the ~so
nies began to be involved in dififlr b
with England. The King of Ieglan.
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the Parliament, made certen
laws respecting trade and comfetrW
with Akaerne
2. Now, ityrWbs ftefided that *the~t-
onies had violated these laws, and Olte-e-
fore the king determined to take y
their charters. These dbaterwa ate rcot
great importance, for they vre the cl-
onies maay privileges. The king Who
Describe the losIes of S.t.e4Mulati. 4kXLf Se
Indians. 38. I[PstLan their codWW flom
this time?
1, 2. In Whtai nf'ts"the .*ottotsb'hf


reigned in England at the time was
James II. lie sent Sir Edmund Andros
over to this country, to take away the
charters of all the New England colo-
nies, except Plymouth.
3. lie also appointed Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how the charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
4. At first he governed the people
pretty well; but by and by, he did many
things which displeased them very much.
Many unjust and oppressive laws were
passed, and the people saw that Sir
Edmund had no regard to their halppi-
ness and prosperity in his administration.
5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., King of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam III., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct towards them, and
especially on account of the governor,
Sir Edmund Andros, whom he had sent
to rule over them.
6. Under the excitement of this joy,
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and about fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to
volvet with England during the reign of James
II. ? 'Whom did he send to take away the char-
ters ? What is a charter ? Answer. A writing
bestowing privilegpr rights. 3. Whomdid the
king appoint governor? 4. How did he a&nin-
Late tke government ? 6. What event occurred
in Bnghsai in 1688 ? How was the news of this
relation received in the oqntry? 6. What
wrl done with Sir Edmund and his associates ?

England, to be tried for their miscon-
7. I will now relate what may seem
to you very strange. In the year 1692,
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister in
Salem i ~setts, were taken sick.
They ted in a very singular
manner e physicians were sent for.
They were at a loss to account for the
disorder, and one of them finally said
they must be bewitched.
8. The children, hearing this, and
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and, in a
state of agitation and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.
9. By and by, other children ima-
gined that they were affected in a similar
manner, and they said that they were
secretly tormented by an old woman in
the neighborhood. All these things
were believed, and more children and
several women soon declared themselves
bewitched. They charged several per-
sons with being the authors of their
10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key-
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles.
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in the
room where one of the bewitched was
wailing and shrieking, from the pinches
of the witch.
11. Strange as it may seem, this mat-
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 16, 16. Give an account
of the Salem wittch.raft


ter, instead of being regarded as a delu-
sion, was thought to be founded in reality.
The people in those days believed that
the devil sometimes gave to certain per-
sons great power for purposes of evil.
These persons were sial with
the devil, and they wer'ed very
12. The business they were supposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
craft, and any person under their influ-
ence was said to be bewitched. In Eng-
land, Parliament had thought it neces-
sary to make severe laws against witch-
craft. Several persons there had been
condemned and executed under those
laws. It was now thought proper to
proceed in a similar manner at Salem.
Accordingly, those persons accused of
practising witchcraft upon their neigh-
bors were put in prison, and a court was
formed to try them.
13. Many of them were examined
and found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at length reached a very alarm-
ing height. Nineteen persons had been
executed, one hundred and fifty were in
prison, and many more were accused.
14. In this state of things, the people
began to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-
ject more carefully, and were very soon
satisfied that they had acted rashly.
The judges of the court also began to
take different views of the subject.
Those who were brought to trial were.
therefore acquitted, and those in prison
were released.
15. Thus ended this extraordinary
delusion. We at the present day, who
know that there is no such thing as
witchcraft, cannot but wonder that our
ancestors should have believed in it, and
that many persons should have been

hung for a crime that was only ima'i-
nary. uit we should remember that it
was a conlllonl error of that age.
16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural that they
should act agreeably to them. We must
do them the justice to say, however, that
they very soon discovered their error,
and expressed their sorrow for it.


1. Soon after the accession of Wil-
liam III. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. At this time, the French had
several settlements in Canada, extending
along the River St. Lawrence, and in-
cluding Montreal and Quebec. They
had also several forts on Lake Cham-
plain and Lake George.
2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, arni
carried large numbers of men, women,
and children into captivity.
3. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. Towns were
1. What war occurred soon after the accession
of William III. ? Note. When James II. abdi-
cated the throne, he fled to France. The king
of that country lent him an army to assist him
in his attempts to regain the throne. This led
to a war between France and England, which
extended to the colonies iqtis country. Where
had the French settlements in this country ?
Describe the River St. Lawrence. Where is
Montreal ? Quebec ? Lake C.hmpTaii ? Lake
George? 2, 3. What was don"ly the Frewh


:tt:ruked :,t midnight, and in midwin-
ter; the pcpople were oftenn killed in
their beds, a1nd those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and
obliged to endure sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little readers; I will,
therefore, only tell them one story of this
cruel war.
4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
Haverhill, MIassachusetts. Among the
people of that town was a Mr. Dunstan.
lie was in a field at work, when the news
of the attack reached his ears. lie im-
mediately started, and ran to his house
to save his faunily. IIe had seven chil-
dren, and these he collected for the pur-
pose of taking them to a place of safety
before the Indians should arrive.
5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. lie now hurried
to her, but before she could get ready to
leave the house, Mr. Dunstan perceived
that a party of the savages were already
close to his dwelling. Expecting that all
would be slain, he ran to the door and
mounted his horse, with the intention of'
taking one of his children,-the one
that he loved best,-and flying with
it to a place of safety.
6. But which should he take ? Which
of his seven children should he" leave to
the savages ? HIe could not decide, and
therefore, telling the children to run for-
ward, he placed himself between them
and the Indians. The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun too, and lhe
fired back at them.
7. Then he hurried his little children
along, loaded his gun as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile--protect-

and Indians ? 56, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Relate the

ing his little family, defending himself,
and keeping the enemy at a distance.
At length, he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which

c 01

Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.
cannot be described, he placed his chil-
dren beyond the reach of the Indians.
8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials. Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of' Ilaverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
formed on foot through the wilderness.
9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the little in-
fant occupied much of their attention,
snatched it from the mother, and killed
the little innocent by striking it against
a tree. After a toilsome march and the
greatest suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.
10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany

story of Mr. Dunstan and his family. 12


!ite. When they reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
Core determined, if possible, to make their
11. One night, MrPs tan, tlhe
nurse, and another womlg E secretly
while the Indians were al3!p. There
were ten of them in the wigwam where
they weire. These .the women killed
with their own hands, and then departed.
After wandering a long time in the
woods, they reached Haverhill, and Mrs.
Dunstan was restored to her family.
This is a strange story, but I believe it
is perfectly true.
12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war occurred between England
and France, which extended to the col-
onies in this country, and occasioned
great distress. It was called Queen
Anne's war. This war commenced in
1702, and the French and Indians im-
mediately invaded New England. In
1704, a party of French and Indians
made an attack on Deerfield. It was at
night, and in the midst of winter. All
the people were asleep; they had no
fear that an enemy was at hand. The
sudden yell of the savages burst on their
ears, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.
13. The town was set on fire, forty-
seven of the people were killed, and one
hundred men, women, and children were
carried into captivity. Among these
were Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and
his wife and five children. They set out
What war occurred in 1702 ? Note. England,
Holland, and Germany formed an alliance against
France in 1701, to prevent the union of France
and Spain. The war which followed in 1702 is
known in English histories by the name of the

on foot, and began their journey through
the snow.
14. On tihe second day, Mrs. Williams,
who was in bad health, was very weary,
and unable to keep up with the rest.
Her husband was not allowed to assist
her, and she seemed to be on the point
of fainting from weakness and fatigue.
At this time, one of the Indians came up
to her and killed her.
15. The other party then went on, but
seventeen other persons were killed by
the savages before they arrived in
Canada. Mr. Williams was kindly
treated by the French people there, and
after two wars he returned, with fifty-
seven other captives, to Deerfield. He
was minister of that town for twelve
years after his return, and then died.
16. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port Royal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.
17. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace with each other
in Europe, and the war ceased there,
and in the colonies also. From this
time, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
belonged to the English. Canada still
belonged to the French, and continued
so till the year 1763, when it was ceded
to the British; and it has since remained
subject to that government.
war of the Spanish succession." In this coun-
try it was called Queen Anne's war." 12, 18, 14,
15. Relate the attack on Deerfield. 18. How long
did the war continue ? 16, 17. What wia tAe re
suit of the war ?


1. I AM sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painful to read the history
of times gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the
generations that have lived before us.
But painful as it is, we must still read
it. It may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.
2. In the past ages of the world, kings,
and generals, and great men have been
fond of making war, and I am afraid
that some people are disposed to applaud
them for it. But the wisest and best
of men look upon all wars as evils, and
they deem those persons very wicked
who promote a war that can safely be
3. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon the
English settlers. These Indians often
attacked the people in Maine, Massa-
chusetts, and New Hampshire, and an-
noyed them very much. But in 1725,
this war ceased.
4. In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George II.
was then King of England, and this war
is called King George's war, or the war
of the Austrian succession. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly-fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the Island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

1. In reading the history of wars, what lesson
can we learn ? 2. How do wise and good men
regard wars ? 3. What troubles occurred with
the Indians in 122 ? 4. When did King George's
war commence ? What important event oc-

5. Here they kept many ships, a lied
in time of war, these drove away the
English and American sailors, who went
to the banks of Newfoundland to catch
codfish. To take Louisburg was, there-
fore, a gj;tfject. To accomplish this,
the coloint ited, and sent about four
thousandm te hundred men against ir,
under the command of Sir William Pep-
perell. They went in twelve ships and
some smaller vessels.
6. They arrived at Louisburg the
last of April, 1744. They were occu-
pied fourteen days in drawing their can-
non across a swamp, so as to bring them
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequent
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.
7. This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
Island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.
8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies once
more enjoyed tranquillity. But this did
not last long. A still more extensive
and important war was at hand. This
commenced in 1755, and it is called in
this country the French and Indian
war. I have seen many of the old
soldiers that were engaged in it, and
they have told me many stories about
it. I shall tell you some of these by
and by.
9. But as several colonies besides those
of New England were engaged in this
war, and as it was carried on chiefly in
Canada, and along the remote parts of
curred during this war ? 5, 6, 7. Describe the
capture of Louisburg. 8. When did the war ter-
minate ? What war was commenced in 1755 ?
10. What places became subject to Great Britain


the country, it does not seem proper to
give an account of it while I am only
telling you the history of New England.
After I have told you about the other
colonies, I shall give you an account of
the French war.
10. I need only say no -at New
England took an active parcr in it, and
that her soldiers contributed very much
to the success of the British arms. The
whole of Canada was conquered by the
English, and from that time to the pres-
ent, it, together with Nova Scotia, New-
foundland, and Cape Breton, has been
subject to Great Britain. This war was
closed by a treaty of peace, made at
Paris, in 1763.
11. It was about the time that this
peace was concluded, that the people of
America began to be agitated by the
coming revolution. The conduct of the
British king and Parliament was marked
'wifi self-ihness from the first settle-
ment of the country.
12. I mean by this, that in the laws
they had passed, the regulations they
had made, and the officers they had
appointed, for America, they had it less
in view to promote the happiness and
prosperity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to England, the mother
13. Yet, in spite of this unjust policy,
the people here loved and honored the
king, and cherished the strongest attach-
ment to Old England. Many of the
irhabitants had come from that country,
and the rest had descended from Eng-
lish emigrants. England was, therefore,
always spoken of as Home, the Mother
Country, the Land of their Fathers.
By such tender epithets did the colo-
nies express the affection they felt for
at the close of this war ? 11, 12. What new
troubles agitated the people soonv after the treaty
of peace in 1763? 13. How did the people feel

14. But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British Par-
liament passed a series of acts relating
to. America, from 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the revolutionary war.
New England took a leading part in
this noble struggle.
15. I shall have occasion to tell you
many interesting things that happened
in this section of the country during
that war. But as the whole nation was
engaged in it, I shall defer my account
of it till I have told you the history of
the other colonies.

1. As stated in the preceding chap-
ter, the separate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the last French war. They
then began to act in concert with the
other colonies, and from that period their
history is soon lost in that of the nation.
But before that time, the history of New
'England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.
2. The Dutch, having settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse be-
tween New England and the more south-
ern English colonies; but they were not
more separated by this circumstance than
by difference of character. New Eng-
land was settled almost wholly by the
3. These were very peculiar people

towards England ? 14. What caused the revo-
lutionary war ?
1. When did the people of New England be-
gin to act in concert with the other colonies ?
2. What tended to interrupt the ratercourse be
tween New England and the English colonies at
the south ? 3, 4, 6, 6, 7. What is said of the


They ieihl religion to be of :l.- g:'ate.st,
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of tl.eir great-
est enjoyments to meet together and
worship in their own way. They spent
much time in praying to God in s'cret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep
and careful interest, and 'they heldi it to
be the great business of this life to make
prepa ration for another.
4. Such were the views and f~.cina13
of the Puritans. In Engl:Ln miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinion. in pea;cc-. They wvcre
ridiculed, despised, and lpers.-cied. To
them, therefore, the wildirn.ess of Amer-
ica was a better place than England;
for there, in the wood?, they could as-
semble together, anlu wCrsllip God in
their own way, without ':.mr.:ach :;r(:
wit lou t opposition.
5. In coming to thlis I.ouint:'-, there-
fore, the principal object, of these pe)ople-
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divide,:
in opinion ; and, taking; the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.
6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came among them. and
began to preach doctrines ditflremn from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-
ions different from those held by the
first settlers.
7. They had no idea of free toul'ration
to all religious; they therefore conmmit-
ted the same error that had driven them
from England. They wvithhleld charity
from their opponents; they gave them

Puritans? 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Relate some of the

hard imie ;; they imprisoned somi.,e, ban"
ished some, and put others to death.
8. I have told you how Roger Wil-
liams was expelled, and I will now teE
Syou some other things of a similar na-
ture. A the year 1650, several per-
sons in tlt~ mouth and Massachusetts
colonies Tlpted the sentiments of the
Baptists, and were, of course, excom.-
Luniut.il;d1l from the ilhurches to wlhieL
they belonged.
9. After this, Mr. Clark, a Baptist
clergyman of Rhode Island, came intc
Ma;ss;acl setts, with two other Baptist,
named Holmes and Cranfield. One Sab-
bath morning, as they had assembled for
worship, lthey were seized by the public
officers, and forcibly carried to the Con-
grega;tionil Clhrch, where they 'weve-
kept during the service. Mr. Clark
refused to take off his hat; so he sat
with it on, and w\heni the minister bega.r
to pray, he took a 1, .,,k out of his pocket,
and amused liii iel with reading Where
the service was done, lie addressed the
people, and explained his .oniduct.
10. Th1c.t three Baptists were irim:.
by a c.,urt, a fortnight after this, all
sentenced as fldlow.s: Mr. Clark wasn
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
l:irs, Mr. Holmes about one hundred ani.
fifty, and Mir. Cranfiell about twenty-
five dollars. In case they refiuse.d, they
were to be publicly whipped. They all
refu-scld; but Mr. Clark's fine was pri-
vately paid by his friends. Craufiehl
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.
11. He received a number of cruel
lashes upon the naked nbck, which he
endured 'with great. fortitude. Two of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was ov(.e, they shook hand-
with him, and praised him for his cour-

proceedings of the Puritans towards the Bapt'ste.


age and constancy. For this act, these
men were tried and sentenced to pay
forty shillings, or to be publicly whipped.
The fines were, however, paid by their
12. Such were some of the proceed-
ings against the Baptists m t still more
cruel steps were taken iltspect to the
Quakers. Of these I will now give you
some account.

1. THE first Quakers that came into
Massachusetts were Mary Leisher and
Anna Austin, who reached Boston, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1G56. They brought with them some
Quaker books, which the deputy gov-
ernor caused to be burnt by the hang-
man, while the women themselves were
put in prison. Here they were kept
in close confinement for five weeks, no
person being permitted to converse with
them even through the window. They
were finally sent back to the West In-
dies, in a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bible for his trouble.
2. A short time after this, eight other
Quakers came to Boston, who were im-
mediately put in prison, where they
were kept eleven weeks. Very severe
laws were then passed, banishing alli
Quakers from the colony, upon pain of
death. But the greater the cruelty with
which they were treated, the more they
flocked to the colonies.
3. At length, four of them, who had
been banished, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out,

1, 2, 3. How did the Puritans treat the Qua- I

and executed, agreeably to the sentence.
They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.
4. These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree with them Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter; but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that
every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men. Our forefathers
were not alone in their narrow views;
all over the world mankind were in
darkness on this subject.
6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.
7. Let us not, therefore, think too
kers ? 4. What effect did their cruelties have
5, 6. What can be baid in extenuation of then
faults ? 7, 8, 9. Describe the virtues, the wis


harshly of the New England fathers for
their' limited views upon this subject.
Let us look rather at their virtues; their
patience under misfortune; their steady
endurance of cold, hunger, want, and
privation; their deep and fervent piety;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.
8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. They immediately established
schools for the education of all classes.
This was a noble thought, and one that
had not yet entered into the heads of
the wisest men in Europe. Observe
their courage, vigor, and enterprise in
war; how ready they all were to assem-
ble at the moment of danger, whether it
came from their savage or civilized foes !
9. Consider their self-denial. The la-
bors of the field, the services of religion,
the calls of war, and their domestic
duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements; they had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-
dained it; yet resolute in discharging all
the duties of life so long as it lasted.
10. To give you a more lively idea of
the character of our New England an-
cestors, I will sketch a picture of what
might have been seen, in any of the New
England villages, in the earlier part of
their history.
11. We will suppose it to be the morn-
ing of the Sabbath. Surrounded by a
few houses, some of them built of logs,
and some of boards, is a small brown
building, without a steeple; this is the
meeting house. At the appointed hour,
the worshippers are seen gathering to
the church from various quarters.
12. But each man carries a gun, and
over his shoulder he has the trappings
doam, and the self-denial of the Puritans. 10,
11.12. Describe the picture. 13, 14,15, 16. Why

of a soldier.
together near
and one man

The guns are all placed
the meeting-house door,
is stationed there to give

A New England Church in early Times.
the alarm, if the Indians are seen to be
approaching the spot. Thus prepared
to fly to the defence of their houses and
their families, they enter the house of
God, and there they worship. How
powerful must have been the motive
which drove our fathers from England
into the wilderness, to live a life like this !
13. I will sketch another picture. We
will suppose it to be a week day a day
of labor. You see a man going with his
scythe into the field; buit he is armed
with a musket. You see a man plough-
ing, and another hoeing his corn; they
have each muskets lashed to their backs.
14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another; he,
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the means of
instant defence.
15. Thus lived our New England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack; always supposing that
the next instant an Indian arrow, or an

did they go constantly armed ? 17. What effect


Indian bullet, might he in the air, speed-
ing with a deadly aim to the heart.
16. Nor was this all. The woods were
full of wild animals. At night, the
wolves would come about the houses and
barns, and often carry off a sheep or a
lamb. If a traveller on foctigered in
the forest till sunset, he hea'T the howl
of these hungry beasts upon his track;
or perhaps a bear crossed his path, turp-
ing back with a wistful look; or a pan-
ther glared on him from the branches
of some aged oak; or the lonely cry of
the wildcat filled his ears.
17. A people living under circum-
stances like these, surrounded by dangers,
inured to toil, strangers to relaxation and
amusement; living partly on the flesh
of deer, which they hunted in the woods,
and partly upon the fruits yielded by the
fields to their own labor ; were likely to
possess great courage, sternness, and de-
cision of character. And such, indeed,
were leading peculiarities of the New
England settlers.
18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blessings, in New England, have
descended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
thers. The abundance of our schools,
the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, as consequences of these, the intel;
ligence and morality of the people gen-
erally, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-

1. NEW YORK is the richest and most
populous of the United States. Its ter-
ritory is very extensive, but it is not so
did their trials and sufferings have upon their
character ? 18. What are some of the blessings
transmitted to us by the Puritans ?
1. How is New York bounded ? What is said

large as some of the other states. The
land is ill general fertile, and some of' it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
Communications in this state are unri-
valled: in the eastern part is the Ilud-
son River, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and sixty
miles. On the east and north are Lakes
George and Champlain, the St. Law-
rence, and Lake Ontario. On the west
is Lake Erie.
2. The Erie Canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great lakes
with the Hudson. This river and canal
are connected, by branch canals, with the
Ielaware, Susquehanna, and Alleghany
SRivers on the south, and with Lakes
Champlain and Ontario on the north.
Besides these, there are, in the interior,
a great number of smaller streams and
lakes, navigable by boats. I believe
there is not a spot of the same extent on
the earth .more favored by water com-
munication than the State of New
3. The produce of almost every portion
of the state may be easily carried to the
city of New York, which is the largest
city in North America, and one of the
greatest commercial places in the world.
It contains upwards of 500,000 inhabit-
ants. Situated at the mouth of the
Hudson River, it receives not only the
produce of the State of New York, but
of other states bordering on the great
lakes. This produce is sent in vessels to
Boston, Charleston, New Orleans, Cali-
fornia, Liverpool, Havre, and other parts
of the world.

of it ? Describe the means of water communi-
cation. 2. Describe the Erie Canal. Withwhat
other waters are the Erie Canal and Hudson
River connected ? 3. To what great city is the
produce of the state mostly carried ? What is
said of New York city ? To what places is the


4. There are many curious things to
be seen in the city of New York. We
must visit Broadway, which is one of the
finest streets in the world. Here we
shall see a great many ladies and gentle-
men, very gayly dressed, and we shall
see some old women sitting down on the
pavements, with oranges, and apples, and
nuts to sell. And we shall see a great
many coaches, omnibuses, and drays, in
the streets, and we must be very careful
that we are not knocked down and run
over by some of them.
- 5. We must stop and admire the City
Hall, which is an elegant building of

City Hall in New York.
white marble. In the Park we shall see
a beautiful fountain, supplied by the
Croton Aqueduct. This aqueduct is for-
ty-one miles long, and supplies the city
with an abundance of excellent water.
The Merchants' Exchange in Wall Street,
Trinity Church in Broadway, and the
Custom House, are splendid and costly
6. We must now go down into Pearl
Street, and there we shall see the mer-
chants so busy, and in such a hurry, that
they almost run over each other. There
ptoduoe brought to New York sent ? 4, 5, 6.
What are some of the curious things to be seen in
t0e city of New York ? 7. What is said of the

we shall hear a great rattling of carts,
and we shall see every body walking very
fast, and a great tumbling about of bales,
boxes, bags, and barrels. After this, we
must go to the Battery, which is a hand-
some promenade on the border of the
Bay. Hl we shall see a multitude of
vessels froa all parts of the world, whose
masts look like a forest stripped of leaves.
These, and the steamboats constantly
crossing the river and bay, and occasion-
ally arriving from distant cities or foreign
ports, show the extensive trade and com-
merce of this great city.
7. The State of' New York is remark-
able for the natural objects which attract
the attention of the traveller. The sce-
nery along the Hudson is unrivalled for

Scenery on the Hudson.
its beauty. It was upon this river that
steamboats were first brought into use.
They were invented by the celebrated
Robert Fulton, of New York, in the
year 1803. There was but one beat on
the river for a mng time. But now there
are a great many. Sometimes one of
these boats carries more than a thousand
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a

Hudson River ? Whatis its course ? Where does
it empty ? What is said of its scenery ? Of the








-ca --4

4- I



1' N I'


~I---1- ~-- ----~ -----~-~------. --

,< i


distance of one hundred and fifty miles,
in about seven hours.
8. It is delightful to go up the Hudson
in one of these boats. Let us suppose
that we make a trip, in this state, from
the city of New York to Niagara Falls.
Away we go, dashing through the water
in fine style, passing some of the most
beautiful scenery in the world; and by
and by, we come to the Palisadoes, which
are very high, perpendicular rocks, on
the west side of the river. In some
places they rise to the height of 500 feet.
9. We soon arrive at West Point,
where there is an excellent academy, in
which young men receive a military
education. Soon after leaving this place,
we reach Newburg, of which we have a
full viewfrom the river. We next come
to Poughkeepsie, one of the handsomest
towns in the state. After this, we come
to the Catskill Mountains. These are
tall, blue mountains, which seem to reach
to the clouds. A great many travellers
ascend them, and they tell us that the
prospect from them is truly sublime.
There is here a beautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. These moun-
tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, wolves, and cougars.
10. It is not many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountains, when, coming to
a hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length, one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his

steamboats ? 8, 9. In sailing up the Hudson
River, what are some of the objects to attract
our attention ? Name some of the places which
we should pass, and notice their situation upon
the map. 10. Relate the story of the two hunts-

companion. He found his dog, at length,
torn in pieces; and by and by saw a
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of a tree. He fired his
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the
huntsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The party found the cougar dead, and
by it the body of the unfortunate sports-
man, who was also dead.


1. O. passing Catskill we proceed to
Hudson, a flourishing city on the east
bank of the river. It is built principally
on the summit of a hill, and commands a
fine prospect. The people are largely
engaged in trade and the whale fishery.
We next arrive at Albany, the capital
of the state, where we shall see many
elegant public buildings, and find the
people busily engaged in receiving and
forwarding merchandise by several ca-
nals and railroads. We will here take
the cars for Buffalo, stopping at some of
the intermediate stations, and occasion-
ally leaving the road to visit objects of
interest and curiosity.
2. On arriving at Schenectady, one
of the oldest towns in the state, and the
seat of Union College, we will leave the
cars and proceed to Saratoga Springs.
This is the most popular watering-place
in the United States, and one of the most
celebrated in the world. It is a great
resort for invalids, who come to drink
1. What is said of Hudson ? Of Albany, the
capital? In which part of the state is Buffalo ?
2. Schenectady ? What is said of it ? Of Sara.


the mineral waters, andl for persons of !
pleasure from all parts of the country.
3. Returning to Schenectady, we will
resume our journey. On arriving at
Utica, we shall be surprised to find so
large and beautitil a city. The build-
ings are principally built of brick, and
many of them are very elegant. We
must now go in a carriage, about twelve
miles north of Utica, and see Trenton
Falls. A small river here tumbles over
the rocks, and presents several exceed-
ingly beautiful cascades. A very sad
accident happened here a few years ago.
A young lady, from New York, camne
with some of her friends to see the cata-
ract. She was standing on the edge of
one of the highest rocks, and her friends
were at a little distance. Suddenly she
disappeared from their view. They ran
to the spot, and looked over the preci-
pice. She had fallen to a great depth
below, and had been instantly killed.
4. We must be particular to go and
see the Indians at Vernon, about seven-
teen miles west of Utica. There are
near one thousand of them, and they are
the remnants of two f:unous tribes, that
once inhabited this part of the state.
These Indians are called Oneidas and
Tuscaroras; they are partly civilized,
for they till the land, go to meeting, and
live peaceably. They are, however, a
degraded people, and will rather excite
your pity than your respect. We shall,
perhaps, on our way, meet with other
Indians, the poor remains of the cele-
brated tribes which I shall have occasion
to mention by and by, under the name
of the Five Nations.
5. Resuming our journey, we shall
soon arrive at the flourishing town of
toga Springs ? 3. Of Utica ? Of Trenton Falls ?
Relate the accident described. 4. What is said
of the Indians at Vernon? 5. Of Syracuse?
Where is Auburn ? Canandaigua? What is

Syracuse. This place and the surround-
ing1 villages are noted for extensive salt
works. The salt is manufactured from
water taken from salt springs, which are
found here in great abundance. After
leaving Syracuse, we shall pass through
Auburn and Canandaigua to Rochester.
This city owes its rapid growth and
present greatness to the vast water power
created by the tflls in the Genesee River.
We may here visit the largest flour mills
in the world.
6. We next proceed to Buffilo, the
great commercial city of the Lakes.
Here we shall see steamboats, schooners,
and sloops, constantly arriving and de-
parting, laden with produce and merchan-
dise from various ports. We may take
the cars for Niagara Falls, where we slall
witness the sublimest cataract in the
world. These falls are formed by an
immense mass of water, which comes
from the great lakes, and pours over the
rocks to the depth of a hundred and fifty


Falls of Niagara.
feet. The roar of these waters is like
thunder. Sometimes it is heard at the
distance of many miles. The earth
trembles around, and a thick cloud of
vapor rises high into the air, stretching
itself far away over the hills and valleys.

said of Rochester ? 6. Of Buffalo ? Of Niagara


7. A few years ago, some people
procured a large vessel, and placed in it
a wild bear and other animals. They
then brought it near the falls, and left it
in the swift current. Many thousands
of people were there to see the sight.
The vess-l was instantly drawn along by
the current towards the falls; it came to
the edge of the rocks, and down, down it
.vent, and was broken into a thousand
pieces. The poor bear went over with it.
For a long time he was buried in the
water, but at length he rose upon the
surface, and then sprang ashore.
8. I will tell you another story of these
falls. There was an Indian sleeping in
his canoe, on the lake. He was not far
from the falls, but the canoe was tied,
and he felt safe. But by and by, the
string was loosed by some accident, and
the canoe floated out upon the water. It
went silently along, and the Indian still
continuedd to sleep. Soon the current
began to take the boat towards the falls.
It went more and more rapidly, and soon
was near the cataract. At this moment
the Indian awoke; he saw his situation,
and knew that it was vain to struggle
against his fate. He therefore seated
himself erect, wrapped his blanket closer
round his body, and, folding his arms,
went down with the thundering tide.
9. After crossing the Suspension
Bridge, which is eight hundred feet
long, forty feet wide, and two hundred
and thirty feet above the water, and vis-
iting other objects of curiosity, we may
return to Buffalo. Thence we go to
Dunkirk by steamboat on Lake Erie,
where we can take the cars for New
York city on the New York and Erie
Falls ? 7, 8. What is said of the vessel and ca-
noe that went over the falls? 9. Where is
Dunkirk ? What railroad from Dunkirk to the
city of New York? By what other routes can
we return? Look on the map and describe

Railroad. We may, if we prefer, re turn
by way of Lake Ontario to Ogdensburg,
thence to Montreal by steamboat on the
St. Lawrence; or by railroad to Bur-
lington, Vermont. From this place we
can cross Lake Champlain in a steam-
boat to Whitehall; thence by canal boat
and railroad to Troy, a beautiful city on
the Hudson, six miles above Albany,
from which place we can return by the
Hudson River Railroad to New York.
10. By the time we return, we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us with
surprise. It now presents many large
towns, and a multitude of thriving vil-
lages; yet it has been almost wholly set-
tied within the last fifty years. A more
thriving, intelligent, and happy people, it
would be difficult to find. Fifty years
ago, there was not a house in Rochester,
and it has now more than thirty thousand
inhabitants. Utica had then scarcely
fifty houses ; but it has now more than
seventeen thousand people. Buffalo has
more than forty thousand inhabitants,
and is constantly increasing in its trade
and commerce.
11. The increase of population in this
part of the state seems, indeed, quite
magical. I recollect a story of something
that happened near Rochester, within
the last thirty-five years. Two persons
were travelling on horseback through
the woods in winter, guided only by a
horse path. The snow had recently
fallen to a great depth, and they at
length lost their way. They undertook
to retrace their steps; but night came
on, while they were still in the midst of
the forest.
12. They knew they were at a con-
them. 10. What is said of the western part of
the state ? 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Relate the story
of the persons lost near Rochester.


siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe. The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.
13. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. This he took out, and the trav-
ellers set about making preparations to
build a fire, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches; they then began to
prepare the tinder-box, but on examining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.
14. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again the
effort was made, but without success.
With feelings of the deepest anxiety, the
travellers bent over the box. Life and
death were on the issue. If the spark
caught, they were safe; if not, they must
perish. To such a narrow point is hu-
man fortune often reduced.
15. The flint is now struck with great-
er force. The fire descends in a shower,
but without avail. Again, again, and
again they make the trial, and they are
on the point of giving themselves up in
despair. Another blow is struck; its
spark is caught by the tinder, and a
match is lighted; some small fibres of
wood are set on fire, and in a few min-

utes the travellers ar arming them-
selves by a bright b_ .- Here they
remained during the night. In the
morning, they mounted their horses, and
reached the place of their destination in

1. I THINK you cannot fail to admire
the great Erie Canal, in the State of
New York. It is three hundred and
sixty-two miles in length; it is forty
feet wide, and has eighty-three locks.
It is one of the longest canals in the
world, and it is certainly one of the most
useful. It is frozen up in winter, but
during the spring, summer, and autumn,
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
passing to and fro upon it.
2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 1825. It was made by the
people of New York. Many men were
occupied, for eight years, in digging the
earth, in cutting through the rocks, and
in building walls and dams for the locks.
The whole cost of the canal was eight
million dollars. They have since been
obliged to enlarge it, to accommodate the
increasing business.
3. I will now tell you the early his-
tory of this great state. In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Dutch
people to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little farther.
4. He saw, then, along the banks of
1. What is said of the extent of the Erie Canal i
2. When was it built ? 3. When and by whom
was New York discovered ? 4. What change


the river nothing but trees and Indians,
and wild animals. What a change has
taken place The island at the mouth
of the river, which was then covered
only witl trees and shrubs, is now the
seat of a mighty city; and the banks of
the Hudson, then so solitary, are now
sprinkled over with towns, cities, villages,
and country seats.
5. Five years after Hudson's discov-
ery, some Dutch people came to Albany,
and commenced a settlement. This was
in the year 1614, six years before the
Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. It was
the first settlement made in New York.
About the same time, they built a few
houses on an island called by the Indians
Manhattan, where the city of New York
now stands.
G. You will observe that New York
was settled by Dutch, not English peo-
ple. They came from Holland, or the
Netherlands, and the colony, which in-
creased rapidly, was claimed by that
7. In 1643, a war broke out with the
Indians. The Dutch governor employed
t brave captain, by the name of Under-
hill, to go against them. He had been
at soldier in Europe, and knew well how
to conduct the business of war. He took
with him one hundred and fifty men, and
they had a great many battles with the
Indians. The latter were defeated, and
four hundred of them were killed during
the war.
8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near Horseneck.
Greta, numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
Thle dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland's Plain, and one hun-

has since taken place ? 5. When was Albany
settled? 7. What event occurred with the In-
dians in 1643 ? 8. In 1646 ? 9. What disputes

dried years afterwards the graves were
still to be seen.
9. There were some disputes between
the people of New England and those
of New York about the boundary of
their territories. At length the Dutch
governor went to Hartford, where he
met some people sent by the New Eng-
land colonies, and they came to an agree-
ment about the land. But King Charles
of England said that the Dutch had no
right to any of the land, and granted what
the Dutch had settled to his brother,
the Duke of York and Albany.
10. In 1664, the duke sent Colonel
Nicholls with three ships to New York.
On his arrival, he commanded the people
to surrender the town. They refused at
first, but in a little while they gave it up,
and he took possession of it. The name
of this place, which was before called
Manhattan, was then changed to New
York, and the place on the Hudson
where the first settlement was made,
which had been called Fort Orange, was
called Albany. These names have since
been retained.

The Dutch Commander surrendering New York.
11. In 1673, the city of New York
was retaken by the Dutch. The fort
did they have with the people of New England ?
10. What event occurred in 1664 ? 11. In 1673 ?


and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding
officer, without firing a gun. The next
year, peace was concluded between Eng-
land and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.
12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the ty-
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors ; and
in 1682, the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.
13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, which could not go into
force till they were ratified by the duke.
This arrangement was satisfactory to the
people, and the colony now felt the bless-
ings of good government.

1. I WILL now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
nally inhabited by five nations, called
the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das, and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and
being very powerful, they protected the
"inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.
2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But

12. Whom did the Duke of York send to govern
the colony after it was restored to the English ?
When were the people permitted to choose rep-
resentatives ?
1. What is said of the Indians in the northern
part of New York ? 2, 3. What is said of De la

I his troops suffered very much from hard
ship and sickness, and many of them
3. Being surrounded by his enemies,
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages whom he had come to destroy.
He sent to the chiefs of the Five Na-
tions, requesting them to come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the chief of the Onondagas as
follows :-
4. Chief, listen to what I have to say.
I am sent to this country by a great king,
who commands many armies. Hie is
Good to his friends, but he is terrible to
his enemies. What are ye, his friien1ds
or his enemies ? I tell you that ye are
his enemies.
"You protect the English, and vu:
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for peace and war. You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading grounds of the French,
and now they carry away the furs which
the French ought to get.
5. Such is your conduct, and that of
the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these
things ? He can send an army into this
land, that shall scatter your tribes, as the
dry leaves of autumn are scattered by
the whirlwind; and this he will do, un-
less you change your conduct, and instead
of enemies become his friends."
6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls De la Barre Yon-

Barre and the Indians ? 4, 5, 6. Relate the
speech of De la Barre. 6. How did the Onon-


nondio, and the English governor Cor-
lear : -
7. Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
warriors that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your speech;
I now begin mine. My words make
haste to reach your ears; hearken to
them. Yonnondio, you must have be-
lieved, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our country inaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had over-
flowed their banks and surrounded our
castles, so that it was impossible for us
to get out of them.
8. Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so ; and the curiosity of so great
a wonder has brought you so far. Now
you are undeceived; fbr I, and the war-
riors here present, are come to assure
you that the Senecas, Cayugas, Onon-
dagas, Oncidas, and Mohawks are yet
9. I thank you, in their name, for
bringing back into their country the pipe
of peace, which your predecessor received
from their hands. It was happy for you
that you left under ground that murder-
ing hatchet, which has been so often dyed
in the blood of the French. Hear, Yon-
nondio; I do not sleep,; I have my eyes
open; and the sun which enlightens me
discovers to me a great captain, at the
head of a company of soldiers, who
speaks as if he was dreaming. He says
that he only came to smoke the great
pipe of peace with the Onondagas. But
Garrangula says, that he sees the con-
trary; that it was to knock them on the
head, if sickness had not weakened the
arms of the French.
10. We carried the English to our

daga chief receive the speech? 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.

lakes, to trade with the IJtawawas, and
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdocs brought
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. We may
go where we please, and buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are your
slaves, use them as such ; command them
to receive no other but your people.
11. "IHear, Yonnondio; what I say is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
tree of peace in the same place, to be
there carefully preserved, that instead of
a retreat for soldiers, the fort might be
a rendezvous for merchants. Take care
that the many soldiers who appear there
do not choke the tree of peace, and pre-
vent it from covering your country and
ours with its branches. I assure you
that our warriors shall dance under its
leaves, and will never dig up the hatchet
to cut it down, till their brother Yonnon-
dio, or Corlear, shall invade the country
which the Great Spirit has given to our
12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But know-
ing his weakness, he was obliged to make
peace. Not long after, another French
governor went against these Indians,
with a still larger army than that of De
la Barre. But the cunning Indians con-
cealed themselves till the French were
near, and then suddenly fell upon their
army, and obliged them to retreat out of
their country. These wars made the
Five Nations hate the French, and at.
tached them to the English colonies.

What was his reply ? 12. What was the result
of this interview ?


1. IN the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles II., and
became King of England, under the title
of James II. I have told you before
that this king was hated by the English
people, and he was equally disliked in
the colonies.
2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people. This caused him
to be much disliked by them. They were
therefore very much rejoiced when the
news came, in 1689, that he had been
driven from the throne, and that Wil-
liam, Prince of Orange, had succeeded
3. Elated by this news, and stimulated
by the example of the people at Boston,
who had seized and imprisoned Andros,
they began to make preparations to de-
pose the governor, whose name was
4. Alarmed at this, he fled by night,
and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler's
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William's war, of which I have
told you something in the history of New
England. Count Frontenac was now
governor of Canada.
6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a

1. When did James II. become King of Eng-
land? 2. Why was he disliked by people in
America ? How was the news of his leaving the
throne received ? 3, 4. What events took place
on hearing that William III. had succeeded him ?
5. Who was governor of Canada at this time?
., 7, 8, 9. 10. Relate the destruction of Schenec-

i! small party of French soldiers and In-
dians to attack Albany. These concluded
to destroy Schenectady first. The peo-
ple of Schenectady had been warned of
their danger, but they would not believe
that men would come from Canada, a
distance of two or three hundred miles,
through the deep snows of winter, to
molest them.
7. But they were fatally deceived.
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided themselves
into small parties, so that every house
might be attacked at the same instant.
Thus prepared, they entered the place
at about eleven o'clock.
8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place. With
a noiseless step, the enemy distributed
themselves through the village, and at a
given signal, the savage war whoop was
sounded. What a dreadful cry was this
to the startled fathers and mothers of
this unhappy town!
9. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire ; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet.
10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners.
Some attempted to escape, but, as they
were naked, and the weather was ex-
tremely severe, and as they had a con-
siderable distance to go before they could
reach a place of security, a part only
arrived in safety, while twenty-five lost
their limbs by the cold.
11. To avenge these cruelties, and
others of a similar nature committed in
tady. 11. What did the people of New York and
New England determine to do to avenge these


New England, i an attack upon Canada
was determined upon. An army, raised
in New York and Connecticut, proceed-
ed as far as Lake Champlain, but finding
no boats to take them across, they were
obliged to return. Thus the whole ex-
pedition failed, and this was attributed to
the imbecility of Leisler.
12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Colonel Henry Sloughter to
be governor of New York. But he was
totallyy unfit for the office. When lie
arrived, Leisler refused to give up his
authority. He sent two messengers,
however, to confer with Sloughter, who
were immediately seized by the governor,
'nd put in prison as rebels.
13. This alarmed Leisler and his as-
sociates, and they attempted to escape.
But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
was taken, tried, and condemned to death,
for high treason. The governor, how-
ever, refused to sign the warrant for their
execution, as he did not wish to sacrifice
two men who had been rather weak than
14. But the enemies of Leisler and
Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
struction. They made a great feast, and
invited Governor Sloughter to go and
partake of it. He went; and when he
was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death warrant of the two
prisoners. This he did, and before he
had recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-
fered an ignominious death.
15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter died.
The same year, a man by the name of
Peter Schuyler, at the head of three
hundred Mohawk Indians, went to make

cruelties ? What was the success of the expedi-
tion ? 12, 13,14. What occurred between Colonel
Sloughter and Leisler ? 16. Describe Peter
Schuyler's expedition.

an attack upon thle IFrnclI settlements
!at the north end of Lake Clainmplain.
A body of about eight hundred men were
sent from Montreal against him. With
these, Schuyler and his Mohawks had
several battles, in all of which they were
successful. They killed more of the
enemy than the whole number of their

1. IN 1692, Colonel Fletcher was made
governor of New York, and in 1698, he
was succeeded by the Earl of Bellamont.
About this time, the American seas were
very much infested with pirates. These
bold men attacked such ships as they met
with on the ocean, plundered them of
whatever they wanted, and either mur-
dered the crew and took the ships, or
sunk them both together.
2. Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he
and some other individuals determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates.
3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea captain, whose name was Robert
Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate himself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.
4. So he became one of the most in-
famous pirates that was ever known.
He attacked many vessels upon the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans, and after three
years returned. After burning his ship,
I. What is said of the pirates ? 2. What
Measures were adopted to take them ? 3, 4. o.


Kidd went to Boston, where lie was seen
in the streets. IIe was soon seized and
carried to England, where he was tried,
condemned, and executed.
5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of Captain Kidd. It is said
that he buried a great deal of gold in
pots, somewhere along the coast. A
great many attempts have been made to
find this gold, but without success. I
suspect that Kidd and his sailors spent
all the money so wickedly got, and never
buried any of it.
6. I must now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
of very great importance occurred in
this colony. Though several governors
had been sent from England, most of
them were utterly unworthy of the trust.
7. About the year 1736, circumstances
occurred in the city of New York, which
it is painful to dwell upon. Some per-
sors of very bad character circulated a
report that the negroes, of whom there
were a good many in the city, had formed
a plht to burn the town, and make one
of their number governor.
8. A great many fires had taken place,
and these led the people to believe that
the rumor was true. Many of the ne-
groes were therefore arrested and put in
prison. Other accusers now came for-
ward, and so strong was the prejudice
against the negroes, that, when the trial
came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.
9. Thus left without defence, these
unhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one e we trans-
ported out of the country It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defeaceles are not
Relate the story of Egbert Kidd. 7, 8, 9. What
uafortunat-eweat occurem in New York about
the year 1736 ? 10. What goveror was appoint-

exposed to such cruelty and injus.
10. In 1743, George Clinton was sent
over as governor of the colony. He was
warmly received by the people, and his
administration was, on the whole, accept-
able to them. In 1745, during George
II.'s war, New York was much distressed
by the incursions of the Indians.
11. Saratoga was destroyed, and other
parts of the colony suffered very much.
Some of the Indians came to Albany,
and concealing themselves in the neigh-
borhood, lay in wait to take prisoners.
One savage, bolder than the rest, called
Tolmonwilemon, came within the city it-
self, and carried off people by night.
12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from,the distresses brought upon
them by the war.
13. I have thus told you of some of
the principal events in the history of New
York, up to the time of the French war,
which commenced in 1755. From that
time the colonies acted in concert; and
I shall therefore leave the separate his-
tory of New York here, and give you a
view of what remains to be said of it, in
the general account of the French war
and the American revolution.

1. I WILL now tell you about New Jer-
sey. It is not a large state, but in trav-
ed in 1743 ? 11, 12, 13. What troubles occurred
with the French and Indians during the war of
George II. ?
1. How is New Jersey bounded ? Where it



.. ,^ o,- r_
'If -
-~ g A




selling through it we shall see many things
that arc interesting. We must start from
New York in a steamboat, and cross the
Hudson River to Jersey City. This is
done in a few minutes. Then we get
into the cars, and ride nine miles, over a
railroad, to Newark.
2. This is a beautiful city, with several
handsome churches, and many handsome
houses. We shall see many of the peo-
ple busy in making shoes, gigs, coaches,
omnibuses, stages, and wagons. Newark
is the largest city in the state; it has
nearly forty thousand inhabitants. The
whole of Northern New Jersey is as busy,
with its various manufactures, as a hive
of lbees.
3. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Paterson, to see
the Passaic Falls. These are formed by
the Passaic River, which rolls over the
rocks to the depth of seventy-two feet.
The spectacle is very brilliant and beau-
tiful. Paterson is a brisk manufacturing
town, situated near the cataract.
4. We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall observe
many fine orchards; and if it is autumn,
we shall see abundance of very excellent
apples. The cider made here is very
5. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry ; when he rings the bell,
the passengers jump into the cars, and
away we go.
6. We shall pass through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we shall at length reach
Jersey City ? Newark ? 2. What is said of New-
ark? 3. Where is Paterson ? What is said of
the Passaic Falls ? 4. Where is Elizabethtown ?
6. New Brunswick ? Princeton ? 7. Trenton ?

Princeton. Here we shall observe a
large building, with a green lawn in front,
covered with shady trees. This is Prinoe-
ton College, which is quite celebrated,
and a great many young men are edu-
cated here.
7. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at Trenton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. W2 shall
here notice a fine bridge across this
river. I think we had better take the
steamboat now, and go down.the Dela-
ware to Philadelphia; though we can,
if we choose, go on in the cars, as there
are two railroads from Trenton to Phil-
8. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river we shall see many very hand-
some towns. Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
cast to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see, at Bor.
dentown, the house formerly occu si
by Joseph Bonaparte.
9. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and was once KiM
of Naples and afterwards of Spain Tbh
house, which is large, and quite difereUt
from other houses in the state, is novw
place of public resort. The1 is a vry
lofty tower on the grounds, called as
observatory, from the top of which th"s
is a very extensive and beastial pro*..
10. A very common way of travelling
across this part of New Jersey, now, is,
to leave New York in a steamboat, which
carries us up the River Raritan to Am-
boy: at this place we may get into the
railroad cars, and go to Camden, where
Describe the Delaware River. 8, 9. What shall
we see at Bordentown? 10. Describe the route
from New York to Philadelphia, by way of Am-
boy. Where does the Raritan empty ? Wher

'2HEE F:13, S T 3 .11 OF HTUSTO0RT.

there is a ferry boat ready to take us
to Philadelphia.
11. By this route we pass through
Burlington, where, by taking a stenm-
boat, we can reach Philadelphia in aI
short time. If we go into the market
at Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of fine apples, pears, peaches,
and other fruits. Many of these things
are brought from that part of New Jer-
sey which lies on the Delaware, opposite
to Philadelphia.
12. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
people differ considerably from those of
New England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the Elglish, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and

Settlement of Elizabethtown.
13. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624. Some
Dutch and Swedes soon after made set-
tlements in the territory. The popula-
tion was, however, very smalL In 1664,
New Jersey came, with New York, into
is Camden? Burlington ? 11. What are some
of the products of New Jersey ? 12. From what
nations did the people in New Jersey originate?
13. When and by whom was the first settlement

the hands of the English, and the nexi
year a settlement was made at Eliza-
bethtown, by three men, who purchased
the land of the Indians.
14. The same year, Sir George Car-
teret was appointed governor, and the
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native of
the Island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.
15. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. P'rom this date to the revolution-
ary war, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be in-
teresting to you.


1. THIs is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state, and our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. It is situated between the Dela-
ware and Schuylkill Rivers, about six
miles above their confluence, and, in my
-opinion, is the handsomest city in the
United States. The streets are straight,
and cross each other at right angles.
The public squares are ornamented with
fountains and beautiful shade trees.
2. There are many beautiful buildings

made ? When did New Jersey become an Eng-
lish colony ? 14. From what did New Jersey de.
rive its name ? 15. What event occurred in
1676? In 1702?
1. What is said of Pennsylvania ? Name
the boundaries. What is the capital? Name
the principal rivers. Where is Philadelphia ?
2. Describe the objects of interest in this city.


rI the city, among which we may men-
tion the Custom House, (formerly the
United States lMank,) the Mint, and the
Exchange. The Old State House, in
Chestnut Street, is distinguished for
being the place in which the Declaration
of Independence was adopted by Con-
gress, on the 4th of July, 1776. The
Hall of Independence presents the same
appearance in its furniture that it did
on that eventful day. It contains, also,
a statue of Washington, and several fine
3. We must go and see the Fairmount
Waterworks, about two or three miles
out of the city. These are situated oni
the Schuylkill River. Here are several
large wheels, which are so contrived as
to force the water from the river up into
reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
romi thence the water flows to the city,
..nd supplies the whole place.
4. A little way from Fairmouunt we
.'hali see Girard College. The build-
ings are of white marble, and are very
beautiful. The college, which is in a
highly flourishing condition, was founded
by the late Stephen Girard for the edu-
cation of orphan boys, and was organ-
ized in 18-17.
5. We will now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. If we go in
a carriage, we shall travel over excellent
roads, with line stone bridges, and we
shall see a great many large farms, with
abundance of excellent cattle. As we
pass along, we shall notice a great many
Quakers, and I think you will be much
pleased with them. They are very friend-
ly, and dress in a singular manner. We
shall also meet with a' good many people
who can talk nothing but German. Some
entire villages are composed of Ger-
mans and their descendants, who have
3. What is said of the Fairmount Waterworks?
4. Of Girard College ? 5, 6. Whore is Pittsburg ? I

almanlacs, newspapers, and some books,
printed in their language.
G. At length, we shall reach the Alle-
ghany Mountains. These consist of a
great many separate ranges. We shall
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of them
are very high, and their sides are ex-
ceedingly steep. After travelling a
whole day, we shall find that we have
passed over these lofty mountains. They
were once inhabited by many wild ani-
rmals; and deer and elk are still found
there, as well as wolves and foxes. The
wildcat and cougar are also occasionally
met with. After crossing the mountains,
we shall soon arrive at Pittsburg.
7. But the easiest and quickest route
to Pittsburg is by the Columbia and
Pennsylvania Railroads. Taking the
cars at Philadelphia for Harrisburg, we
shall pass through Lancaster, an ancient
manufacturing place, but now one of
the most beautiful cities in the-counaty.
Harrisburg, the capital of the state. is
situated on the Susquehanna Rit~r.
Formerly the route from this place was
by the Pennsylvania Canal and the Por-
tage Railroad; but we shall now take the
cars upon the Pennsylvania Central Road.
and, after passing through several pleas-
ant towns and villages, and crossing the
Alleghanies, we shall arrive at the end
of our journey.
8. Pittsburg, situated at the confluence
of the AUeghany and Monongahela Riv-
ers, which here unite to form the Ohio,
is one of the largest manufacturing cities
in America. It has a direct trade, by
means of the Ohio and Mississippi Riv-
ers, with New Orleans, St. Louis, and
the intermediate places. Alleghany City,

Name some of the things to be seen in going
there from Philadelphia. 7. Describe the route
by the Columbia and Pennsylvania Railroads.
Describe Lancaster, Harrisburg. 8. What is


Birujtnghb r, BEaver, LrEwC:-iKlEvinle,
Temperanceville, and other towns and
villages in the vicinity, all situated in
the midst of inexhaustible mines of coal
and iron, are largely engaged in manu-
factures, and are very flourishing places.
Great attention is paid here to the edu-
L'ation of youth.
9. We shall hardly have time to de-
scribe all the interesting things to be
seen in Pennsylvania. There are the
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines, from
which the people get a great deal of

Mining Uoal.
coal, which is carried down in little cars,
on railroads, to the canals, and put into
boats, or into cars on the Reading Rail-
road, and then carried to Philadelphia
and other places.
10. Reading, Pottsville, Honesdale,
all situated in the coal region, are flour-
ishing towns. There are several fine
canals in the state, many railroads, and
some of the most beautiful rivers in the
world. The banks of the Schuylkill, the
Juniata, and the Susquehanna, are truly
enchanting during the summer. On the

said of Pittsburg ? Birmingham ? Beaver ?
Lawrenceville ? Temperanceville? 9. Describe
the picture. 10. Where is Reading? Pottsville ?
Honesdale ? What is said of the face of the
country ? Of the climate ? The soil ?

'whole, we shall ii:nd Pennsylvania a
most interesting state. It is not so cold
there in winter as in New England.
Many parts of it are fertile and highly
cultivated, and the comforts and luxuries
of life are very cheap and abundant.

1. I WILL now tell you the history of
Pennsylvania; but I must begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was the
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
but he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
scure and persecuted sect.
2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fdU
of the same year, a good many personsL
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
and came to America. These people
settled on the Delaware River, near
where Philadelphia now stands.
3. They brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians. In this he
said to them, "that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the same disposition;
and, if any difference should happen be-
tween them, it might be adjusted by an
1, 2. What is said of William Penn ? When
and by whom was the first settlement made ?
Where did they settle? 3. Recite William


equal number of men, chosen on both
4. In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
came to the colony with two thousand
emigraifts. While he was in the coun-
try, he met some of the Indian chiefs,
and made a treaty with them. His mild

Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.
and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.
5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got up
and began to hop, too, and soon showed
that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered
him with feelings of love and veneration.
6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
of Philadelphia, by which is meant "the
city of brotherly love." Before the end
of the year, this place contained eighty
buildings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.
Penn's letter to the Indians. 4, 5. What is said
of Penn's visit to the colony ? 6. What city did
he found ? When did he return to England ?

7. No part of America was settled
more rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile, the climate mild and
agreeable, and the deer and other wild
animals were abundant. The govern-
ment, too, arranged by Penn, was just
and liberal, giving perfect freedom to
every man to worship God in his own
8. Thus at peace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I have mentioned, numer-
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania;
and in four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.
9. In 1699, Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people, to remove which he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that part of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it.
10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, in 1703, and had a
distinct assembly, chosen by the people,
who made their laws. The same gov-
ernor, however, presided over Pennsyl-
vania and Delaware.
11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
He was twice imprisoned in England,

7, 8. What was the condition of the colony ?
9. When did Penn give them a new charter i
10. What place was separated from Pennaylrt
nia ? 11. When did Penn die? What isua~d.


by the government, for his religious
opinions ; and his enemies accused him
of very wicked conduct. But he lived
to see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation; and his life teaches us
that the world fails -ot to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.
12. His colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-

1. THIS is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and, like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it, we shall ob-
serve some of the finest wheat fields in
the world.
2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best flour
mills in the country. Newcastle, Dela-
ware City, and Dover, which is the seat
of government, are very pleasant towns;
and if we proceed-to Lewistown, at the
southern part of the state, we shall see
the people engaged in making salt from
sea water. The Delaware and Chesa-
peake Canal crosses the northern part
of the state, from Delaware Bay to Ches-
apeake Bay. One portion of this canal
of his character? 12. Of the conduot bf the
Indians ?
1. What is said of Delaware ? How is it
bounded ? 2. What is said of Wilmington ?

is called the Deep Cut, where it passes,
for a distance of four miles, through a

xIe Jueep uut on te vanal.
hill ninety feet high. A bridge of a
single arch crosses it.
3. At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and near Cape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was build
by the government of the United States,
to protect ves-els, which may be ati
anchor in the bay, from the waves that
roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating
down from the rivers in the spring.
This breakwater is near three quarters
of a mile in length, and is a truly grand
and useful work. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance some
of it from Massachusetts, and some from
other places.
4. In the revolutionary war, the peo-
ple bf this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Car-
olina, 1780, the Delaware troops, with
some belonging to Maryland, were com-
Where is it situated ? Where is Newcastle ?
Delaware City? Dqver ? 3. What capes at the
mouth of the Delaware Bay? What is said
of the breakwater? 4. What is said of the


i:;,'Ild vy a i,'lh otlir' 1, 1n1tinud De
albi. Tlii- lirve iii:in was wounlled
in el cr n ipla:n.-. :iinl died on tld! lill .
.-Ie wa- so iwar-l*so'..,'d with the .:adliut
Ci onduet of his Delaw:-tr' alnd 1Marylarul
sldier-, th.at wilt his ditli breath IIIUt
.xpr,'.-.'td his rg;ard for them.
.". But it is Inot my inlititilln to tell
you of the rtv.lii il:ia; ry war now. I
liiust take vou litack to a nitu.h terier
ctio . IMorc tlan two llillIr'-l 'I ;,1y1"ars
o, there lived in Sw\\edii a famous
king, malni.. Guj-'tavur ; Adolplihu. IUn-
ditr his iail r)lon:i.', sulni Swedet:- : and
Finnl-. or Flin iilers, i .'(nfl to A ie nricai.
:..id lil-il at Capi IIHenlop, n. in 1i27.
At was a beautiful pot. eovuTred with
<.r'r'ni tre'v. btl. ,atlh which .-pll rtk'd the
'wild dh-ier, with their youninl tfaun-. Tihe'
people wv.i-- ..o charmi-ii. with the 1p!.'<',
i1 at they c-all d it Pa r;i.l-. Point.
6. Ti'y Ilr\.w pro .-die.d I l';r irli' up i
ll,'' ,.iy, and h:i'I ? -( I;'". Ildilan-. The latl t r tre il. thltiiil
;, lllly, :ianll .ohl them I;unt .tni both -idl- !
of the wa:ittr. 'The .setlr's noI"w *'ci .l-
i',ol lhm'ti ;ihsl lear W\illitioll nii, ilt
call' 'I ti'e couniltry New Swedtii.
7. But the eoiloiny %wa not pelt'niittt-i
to ( njoy its fine lands and delightfull cli-
mate in peace. Tlhe Dilutli cl:iinlcd the
tl.rrittry, auid :after annioying them in
varitiui ways, inrally built a fibrt at New
Castle. A man by thu name of Rit.-iilgh
\wa; thot governor of the Swedi.-h colioni,
8. One day, lie proposed to the colil-
nianlder of the Dutch fort to pay him a
friendly visit. This was acetepted, and
Risingh went, accompanied by thirty
men. They were received with kind-
ness, and treated with great hospitality.
conduct uf the people of Delaware during the
revolutionary war? 5. When ind by whom was
Delaware settled ? 6. Where did they settle. and
what did they call the country? 7. What trou-
bles did they have with the Dutch ? 8,9, 10. Give

Bili. ,1irrii riling this, tli'y tr.rea'li'roiisly
lok p".-'-i(n of the fort, andl made
prio,'e.r of the !'arri:lIi.
9. Tic. goverlinor of NX-w York at thii
tiinr. \:i- Peter Stivv.-;;ant. whom his-
torv d,.-.' l, S ,- ;i p i..-t%'-*-iu! a lpre-tty hot
)tn I [r. Sl,.Ilr a 11il:i wa'- not likely to
pi.r- nit 111 tr:. 'hry uf Riii,'l to go
uii\ eL'-..'.Il. Sa he tit..il out an arma-
mi,,.t, w ,hilh nvit Ii iiit ;ti ft. Sw -.d,,.
in several v,-^lb., in the yviar 1655.
10. Ti',-r, e wa,; c( -u t thi Dulltcli i\ -r virtli'ioi:s. a;id hav-
inllg t:k, tih' Sw.'1,li;ih frrts, they :itlowedi
a few tt'f ti' illnh;tlitanti- to reml:in and
sent illr rest ipri-l'nrri to Holl:iil. The
settlement ciontiitnur l in tlhe hands of the
Dutch till 166.1, when it came into the
p,,--'s-ioi of fllr~ Englilh. with thie sur-
i":"'ilrT of Ne'w York.
11. In li'.s'2, the territiiry w:t; Ipr-
,i':i-,,l bV W illiall. PCTin, andil until
17 :;;, foiurn'dI a part of PennsylvarIia.
At iOt:it tinic, it wa:s partially separated
f'tiii that toltlny, hav-ing a distinct is-
s"']ily t]ltio'ii by the people, though
tiIt .I(-trnie ovtrnor that riull over Ptrin-
-ylvainia rulhel 'illo over De'lawar;t. The
t'hln(itry rt'iiitnd in this situation till
1775, ihi-n it beutlne an independent

1. IMAIALND is divided, by Chesa-
peake Bay, into two parts, called the
Eastern and Western Shores. In trav-
elling through this state, we shall find

an account of them. When did the English take
possession of it? 11. When did William Penn
purchase the territory? When did it become a
part of Pennsylvania ? An independent state ?
1. How is Maryland bounded ? What bay in.
tersects it ? What is the face of the country in


that the land on both sides of the bay is
generally level, or moderately uneven.
If we proceed into the more western
parts, between the Potomac River and
Pennsylvania, we shall find hills, moun-
tains, and valleys.
2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about the boundary of this state,
between the heirs of William Penn,
proprietor of what is now the State of
Pennsylvania, and the heirs of Lord
Baltimore, proprietor of what is now
the State of Maryland. In 1762, Mr.
Charles Mason, of the English Royal.
Observatory, London, and Mr. Jeremiah
Dixon, were appointed to run a line be-
tween the lands of the two parties. This
line was called Mason and Dixon's
3. In the states north of Maryland,
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil,
and have taken care to abolish it. But
in Maryland, and the states south of it,
the laws permit people to hold slaves.
Many persons, even there, believe it
wrong; but it has been long practised.
There are many thousands of slaves in
the country, and it is, therefore, not
easy to devise any plan by which they
can safely be set free.
4. We shall observe many fine wheat
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. TJis plant is culti-
vated in rows, like Indian corn, and it
has broad leaves, like the mullein. We
shall notice that almost all the labor in
the fields is performed by the negroes.
5. You will be delighted with Balti.
more. It is a large and beautiful city,
the western part I Where is the Potomac Riv-
er 2. What dispute rose between the heirs of
William Penn and the heirs of Lord Baltimore ?
What was the result of it ? 3. What is said of
siaverir 4. What proedute shall we see in Ma-
ryland ? 6. What is said of Baltimore ? 6. What

and contains many fine buildings. The
Roman Catholic Cathedral is one of
the most beautiful churches in America.
From the number of monuments in Bal-
timore, it is sometimes called the Monu-
mental City. There is a tall one, with
a statue of Washington on the top, that
you cannot fail to admire.
6. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard Street, where
you will notice a great many wagons,
loaded with flour. Baltimore is one of
the greatest flour markets in the world.
Thousands" and thousands of barrels are
brought here every year from various
parts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Western
States. It is then sent in ships to New
York, Boston, Charleston, and various
foreign countries.
7. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and the
states west of the Alleghany Mountains.
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling

Railroad Cars.
back and forth, and hundreds of cars
are constantly occupied in transporting

is said of the flour market ? 7. What is said


goods and produce to and from thiis
market. When the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad is completed, it will form the
nearest route from the waters of the
Atlantic to the Western States.
8. The scenery upon this route is
truly magnificent. On leaving Balti-
more, we pass over the "Carrollton
Viaduct," a granite bridge elevated
sixty-five feet above the water, and soon
arrive at Ellicott's Mills, where immense
quantities of flour are manufactured.
Passing through Fredericktown, a beau-
tiful city with wide streets crossing each
other at right angles, we proceed to
Harper's Ferry, in Virginia. The sce-
nery here will be sure to delight you.
The passage of the Potomac through
the Blue Ridge, at this place, is regarded
as one of the most stupendous scenes
in nature. Proceeding through several
thriving towns and villages, we shall ar-
rive at Cumberland, which is beautifully
situated on the north bank of the Poto-
mac. From this place the road will
soon be completed to the Ohio River.
9. There are many pleasant towns in
Maryland. Annapolis, the seat of gov-
ernment, has a handsome State House.
There is a Naval School here, where
young men are educated to be officers
in the navy.
10. The climate of Maryland is very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes
of New England are frozen over, the
creeks and inlets along Chesapeake Bay
are covered with flocks of wild water-

of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ? 8. Describe
the route to the Ohio River. Where are Elli-
cott's Mills ? Where is Fredericktown ? Har-
per's Ferry? In what state is Cumberland,
through which ihe road passes ? 9. What is the
capital of Maryland ? Where is it situated?
10. What is said of the climate ?

1. BALTIMORE is situated on the River
Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
about fourteen miles from the city. On
the northern side of this river is a piece
of land running into the bay, called
North Point. You should visit this spot,
for a famous battle was fought there on
the 12th of September, 1814. At that
time, our country was at war with Eng-
land. A great many English soldiers
and ships were sent over to fight with
our people.
2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troops
there, they burnt the Capitol, and sev-
eral other public buildings, and the presi-
dent's house. The president himself was
obliged to ride very fast, to keep out of
their way.
3. After they had done this, the Brit-
ish went to attack Baltimore. They
entered the mouth of the Patapsco with
a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
above mentioned, six thousand troops
were landed at North Point.
4. Now, the people of Baltimore were
not in the humor for having their city
taken by the British soldiers; so there
was a great bustle in the streets. Men
were seen running to and fro, with mus-
kets in their hands, and countenances
full of resolution. The merchants left
their counting rooms; the lawyers, their
offices; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the ffes
screamed; and, assembled under the
command of their leaders, the bravest
and best men in the city went down to
meet the enemy.

1, 2, 3, 4, 6. Where is Baltimore situated
Describe the battle which, took place at North


5. They met, and there was hard
fighting. The cannon roared, and the
musketry rent the air for a long time.
Many brave men fell on both sides.
But the Americans, being few in num-
ber, were obliged to retreat. General
Ross, the British leader, was killed;
and finding, by the experiment they had
made, that the people of Baltimore were
inclined to treat them too roughly, the
British went away, ships, sailors, sol-
diers, and all.
6. In one of the public squares of
Baltimore, they have erected a beauti-
ful marble monument, to commemorate
this event, with the names of those who
were' killed in this battle. Such are
some of the brave deeds that took place
in Maryland during the last war with
England. Let us now contemplate the
period when the white people first set-
tled upon these shores.
7. More than two hundred years ago,
the Catholics in England were perse-
cuted ag the Puritans had been before.
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter-
mined, therefore, to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled for some time.
But he found the people there as little
disposed to treat the Catholics kindly as
in England. So he went back to Eng-
land, and begged.the king to give him a
charter of the land lying on Chesapeake
Bay, then occupied only by the In-
S8. This request was granted; but be-
fdre the business wt completed,-he died.
tis son, Cecil, also1 called ULbrd Balti-
i4ore, determined to ecary int6 effect the
pns of his father. So'he obtained the
gtant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-
Point. 6. What has been done to commemorate
the event? 7, 8. Give an account of the early
settlement of Maryland. Whei withit settled?

dred Catholic emigrants, to setle upon
the land on the Chesapeake.
9. When they arrived at the mouth of
the Potomac River, they found an Indian
village there, called Yoamaco. This
village they purchased of the savages,
and thus obtained good shelter, till they
could build better houses. They also
acquired some good land, which had been
cultivated. Their situation was therefore
very comfortable.
10. The colonists found plenty of wild
deer in the woods, and abundance of fisl
along the shores of the bay. The sea"
fowl were also numerous. There wer1
countless flocks of ducks skimming aloin
the water, and settling down around the
islands; and there were nun ters pf
wild geese at the mouths of the creek
and rivers.
11. The colony flourished, as well in
consequence of its pleasant situation as
the liberal policy of its goverurrent,
These Catholics did not persecute those
who differed from them in religious
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and Roger
Williams, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, about the same time
that every man has a right to worship
God as he pleases. Thus Rhode Island
and Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
12. Yet the colony, whose story I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A man by the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they made war on the settlers. Tiis
continued for several years, and the pdo-
pie suffered great distress. In 1645, the
same Clayborne induced some of the set-
tiers to- rebel against their. rule, and
9. What did they do on arriving at the thuth of
the Potomac ? lO.What did they find for food ?
11. What is said of the liberal policy of the gor-
ernment ? 12. What troubles did they have


jr< -.-s--U,



~J (
-.,i; Atr

': A

;A i.6 As 1
3..c~u~~ 7: I~ ... .'. -,t'. e..ee.e i

It I*&

.1i -lee.e


~ltt.,iI is,
Nvak-& %fil

- t. s%*0ItT


Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.
13. In 1666, the colony contained
about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, who
possessed the amiable qualities of his
14. In 1689, King Willian. assumed
the government of the colony; but in
1716 it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
colonies in the revolution, and Lord
Baltimore's claims ceased.


1. I HAVE now given you a brief
sketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their situation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were set-
tled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes; some for trade, some
to improve their fortunes, and some for
religious peace.
2. We do not find so much resem-
blance among the people of these five

with the Indians ? 13. How many inhabitants
were there in 1666 ? Who succeeded Lord Bal-
timore ? 14. What change took place in the
government in 1689? In 1716 ?
1. What is said of the Middle States ? 3. What

states as exists among the people of
New England. Their houses, dress,
manner of tilling the land, thoughts,
feelings, and opinions differ in different
parts of this section of the Union.
3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the three largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the Hudson is one of the
finest rivers in the world for navigation.
4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others sit-
uated upon the Atlantic. They are gen-
erally very fertile, producing grain and
fruit in the greatest perfection and abun-
dance. They are equally removed from
the severe winters of the north, and the
burning summers of the south.
5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with separate interests. They have,
therefore, no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.


1. WE have now reached Virginia,
one of the oldest states in the Union.
In travelling through the country, we
shall see that, in most places, the houses
large cities in these states ? What riven ?
4. What is said of the soil and climate ? 5. Whe
did these states first act in concert ?
1, 2. How is Virginia bounded? Name the

'rTI It R IS'IT 1:3Ii o0 K IIS'rO II 1,

are. scattered, and that tht e land. instead
of beirn. divided into small fiarmn;. is l:dil
out in xtaetii've plantationsl of several
hundred acres each. Instead of nim:d-
ows, apple orchard:-, and small patclies
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see v;Lt plains covered with crops of to-
bacco. wheat, and hemp. We shall s.o.
that tlh whole labor of the field is per-
formed, on these plantations, by the nec-
grues. The planters tlnhmselves have
large houses, and live in excellent style.
2. We shall not meet with many tav-
erns; it may, therefore, be convenient to
stop for a night at a planter's house. We
may be sure of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. If it is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great many of these
twimals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is very hot in Eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow drifts, we may travel at our
case in the Southern States.
3. Virginia may be divided into three
parts. That which lies towards the sea-
coast is level and saudy; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, -and the white people
labor on the farms.
4. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rooks.. It is two
hundred and fifteen feet high, and its
average width is eighty-five feet. A
principal rivers. What mountains? In travel-
ling through the country, what shall we observe ?
3. Into what three parts may Virgiuia be di-
vided? 4, 5. Name some of the natural curiosi-

little river flow.s Ibcel.th it at the bottom.
Wier's Cave is an a.Ltoni..lhing work of
nature. It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thiousandl feet in length. The sides are
covered with beautiful crystals. If you
enter the cave with a light, it is reflected
by these crystals, anid you will be aston-
ishied at the wonderful brilliancy of tlhe
5. There are several other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called til:
Blowing Cave. From this so powerful
a stream of air issues, as to blow down
the grass and weeds to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.
6. The principal springs of faihiona-
ble resort are the White Sulphur Spring,
in the county of Greenbrier, and tilh
Warm and Hot Springs in Bath county.
Thousands of people annually visit their.
in search of Ihealtli or amus-ment.
7. In the western part of the state
near the Ohi,, is a remarkable rmaouir
of earth, filled with human bones. it
is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long be-
fore the white people came to America.
It is probable, indeed, that it was con-
structed many ages since, even before the
race of savages with which we are ac-
quainted occupied the country. It was,
no doubt, the work of a people who lived,
flourished, and passed away, leaving no
record behind them but these mounds
to tell that they ever existed.
8. Richmond, the seat of government
in Virginia, is the largest city in the
state. It is situated at the head of tide
water on the falls of James River, and
has excellent facilities for commerce and
manufactures. Large cotton and wool-
ties to be seen in the state. 6. What is said of
the springs? 7. What of a remarkable mound
in the western part of the state ? 8. What is


en factories, iron works, and flour mi'ills
have recently been erected. Great quan-
tities of flour, hemp, and tobacco, the
staples of Virginia, are sent down James
River from Lynchburg to this place by
a canal, called James River and Kenawha
9. In going south from Baltimore, we
can take passage in a steamboat upon
the Chesapeake Bay, and go to Norfolk
and Portsmouth, situated upon the Eliz-
abeth River. Norfolk has a fine harbor,
and more foreign trade than any other
place in the state. At Portsmouth you
will see a United States Navy Yard and
a Dry Dock. From this place we can
take the cars for Weldon, in North Car-
olina, and unite with the route through
Washington, Petersburg, and Richmond.

1. BEFORE we leave Virginia, we
must visit Monticello, the seat of the late
Thomas Jefferson. lie was once presi-
(lent of the United States, as I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 1826.
2. There is another place in this state
that we must not fail to visit. This is
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
Here General Washington lived, and at
a little distance from the house where
he dwelt is a tomb, in which his body
reposes. I shall have many things to
tell you of this great and good man.
IIe died in the year 1799. I recollect
when the event happened, though I was
then a child. Such was the sorrow of
the capital of Virginia ? What is said of it ?
9. Describe Norfolk; Portsmouth. Where is
Petersburg ?
1, 2. For what are Monticello and Mount

tli people, when Ithie sul news came,
that the bells were tolled, and every
I body went into mourning.
3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is on a little island in James River, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins ; but, if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.
4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tell you a part of it; I am
sorry that I have not room for the whole.
I must commence at a period when no
English settlement had been made in
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by more than twenty-three millions
of people, was. then a wide hunting
ground for the Indians. They alone
dwelt in its valleys, roamed over its
hills and mountains, and sailed upon its
rivers and bays.
5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure.
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hav-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spttched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventurers, for the new world.
6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a.
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-
Vernon celebrated ? 3. What is said of James-
town ? 4. What was the condition of the coun-
try before it was settled by the, Europeans ?
5. What induced the English to settle in Vir.
ginia ? 6, 7. Give an account of their voyage


tiful river, which they determined to
ascend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them

Interview with the Indians on James River.
kindly. One day, as some of them were
ashore, an Indian chief came to them,
with a bow and arrow in one hand and
a pipe in the other, and asked them for
what purpose they came.
7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.
8. On the 13th of May, 1607, the
emigrants landed, and began their estab-
lishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
River, and the village they called James-
town. This was the first permanent
English settlement in North America;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.
9. The colonists soon began to expe-
rience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provisions they brought
with them were at length exhausted;
and, having planted nothing, they were

and settlement. 8. When and where did they
commence their settlement ? 9. What difficul-

in great want of food. Besides this, the
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were taken sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.
10. They were now in great distress,
and hardly knew what to do. In this
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
11. Here he entered the army of the
Emperor of Austria, and at length ob-
tained the command of a troop of horse.
One day he challenged a Turk to fight
with him. This was accepted, and,
mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.
12. After this, he was in a battle with
the Turks, and, being wounded, was
taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to
Constantinople. Here he was made a
slave, and was treated cruelly by his
master; but his mistress took compas-
sion on him, and sent him to her brother,
who lived at a great distance, requesting
that he might be treated kindly. But
her directions were not followed, and
Smith received the same harsh treat-
ment as before.
13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
master. He then travelled in various
countries, meeting with strange adven-
tures wherever he went. He finally re-
turned to England, and joined the expe-
dition to Virginia. While they were at
ties did the colonists experience ? 10. What is
said of John Smith? 11, 12. What adventures
did he have while in the Austrian army ?
13. What happened to him during the voyage to

O'iBINE1) \vi'rll GEOG1I.AP11XY.

F.a. the emliirants bc.ul'. jealous of
1:m. and ,put hini in (.,,fi intent In
this condition he re'laini,',l until the dis-
itre's of the colony r.iel,'n'd hIs assist-
ance necessary.
14. Tlh-y then granted him a trial ;
;iand leing ;i 'Iuittied. lie i nI e di. t ly
i i -d i -i'.1- r,- for reinedil inf l the
.-xiiing evil-. He set about building
a fort, to protect the people from the In-
4 t:!].I. and mI:Il lon11 journeys into the
wiliern'-., to l,'i'-ure c(irni and othi.r
I. ,l oof the natives.
15. On one o.cca.ion, ,ie obtained an
idol, m;ilac of -kins, and .iltuffed with
,i'-. This the savage, rL.'Veiieced very
much; and, in order to get it back, tlhey
,:i\,e hiim nw inmuIl corn ;a Ibe asked fir.
16. Nothling could exceed the b(oll-
i '-s, and enterprise of this singular min,
yet it must be (cnf.-sed that his conduct
\waI not alwav.y regulatted by justice or
truth. In his intrrcouri- with the s\--
a.'es, he r4ort-t l to stratlamrn or 'ilo-
lenet, if he could not succeed in his
plans by other means. It was partly on
this account that the InTli:an began to
hate the white people ; andt Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings
of revenge which he had excited.
17. He went one day to explore the
little River Chickahominy. Having as-
cernded as far :-; he could in a boat, he
left it in charge of his mn, and pro-
ceedcd along the hank of the river, with
two white men and two Indian guides.
But not long after he was gone, the sav-
ages, who were lurking in the woods,
surrounded the men in the boat, and
took them prisoners.
18. They then pursued Smith, and,
soon coming up with him, killed his
white companions with their arrows,
and wounded him. But. with an un-
America ? 14, 1-5, 1I. What is said of him in
his intercourse with the Indians? 17, 18, 19,

j daunted -pirit, he fired upon his ,.iie~nies
S! antd. tying,. on,' of tf:l Inlin guidc-, to
Shis side, he continued to retreat towards
iithe boat. Awed by his bravery, the
r savages kept aloof; but at length he
camn to a place \vire hee simk in the mire
19. Beinr, unabh, to extricate himself
; his emnmies now seized him, and took
Shim in triumph to Powhatan, their king
I A council was now held, to determined
what should d be done with the prisoner
and it wa4 decided that he should die
i e w:.i a:cordinly brought forth, and
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.
20. Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a large club, and,
raising it high in the air, wa- about to
give the fatal blow, when his daughter,

Pocahontas saving Smith.
Pocahontas, moved by pity, rushed to the
prisoner, and sheltered his body by her
own. The astonished chief brought his
club slowly to the ground, and a murmur
of surprise burst from the lips of the
savages who stood around.
21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and, seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affheted her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.
20, 21. Relate his adventure with PoWhatain and

VIRGINI A-Co i n r :i).
1. ON his return to Jai-ii -,tiwn, Smith
found the number of c.lonii i< reId dt c
to thirty-eight. Th y were so dli-h art-
viled. that most of them had detenrniuiI-d
to abandon the settlleniuit, and go back
to England. Smith remonstr'ated, but
they would not stop. lThely vintir,-d a
sii:ll vessel. and pru,-pared to sail i,,wn
the river. He determined that they
.-hould not go; so he pointed lioth. _iins
of the fort at the vessel. and thrcatviived
to sink her, if they did not rttrn.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
projicrt. and came ashore.
2. The colony wav n1ow almost in a
sta:rving conditinli ; but Smith, by this
little, had acquired such a replitatio: for
couragee among, the Indians, that tlhey
did not dare to refuse supplies. Poa-
hiontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such artic..- as
were most needed. Thus the colony
was able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.
3. Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
lowel. About the same time, the pas-
sion for gold, which had indtuced many
of the settlers to none to the country,
\vw: again excited. Some particles of
yellow shining earth were found in the
hank of a little stream, north of James-
town, Captivated with the idea of get-
ting suddenly rich, the colonists left their
1. What was the condition of the colonists on
his return to Jamestown? 2. How did Smith
render assistance to the colony ? 3, 4, 6. Relate

i"tp '" rIl'Ylmnts. ani wv. Io II,_
What they supposed to be gil.
S4. Smlit endeavored to di.--i:lle
them, but they would not listen to hin.
N ,tllIiIil % ,,-:i, t1h'rl.ht, of, or talked of,
but g. lt. .o tl: all went to illiiig
the ship witli the crith, which they .-up-
poI-'' to contain particles of that pr'cin s
metal. At length she was loulded, :ian
sailed fir England. When she arri\l.1
ithee,. the :,rin, was '--N.miinc!.ed and ti ound
to be tii tlhin.r but common iin;l. fillh I1
with little piei' ,> -hil. _ing stone.
5. Tlin-''r is a le-,,ni to be dlr:Iv;1n froii,
this i,,int of ii-t,,rvy. "All is i't I,:,
tl:it glitters." says the proverb; and so
the Vir.giinians found it. I lipi. my
readers, if they are e\ t' tenimpt! d by any
-slinin'z pr,-i 't to dipl.:irt from the p:itl,
of duty, N ill recollect that what .,emt n
to be goI <,it'!'. pri \t-. to be only ulga-r
6. Smith, tnadin tl.:it he -.11,1 not
bo 1 ,-., l-.'t, tlh fo1 ,,1,l, : ,il went hi,,-,-l" to explore the
,'(:l.ts of the Clihe-:ip-:ilke Bay. Having
li-en absent siome timri. he returned. :ind
:afit-r a while went ag:,iit to traverse the
wilderness. le oft en met the Indi:ais.
and traded with son.w. fought with soime.
:and :iriin went back to the settlement.
|l:lviting with the nati\es an awful im-
lpressi(io of his valor.
7. He wav now chosen president, and,
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Hltbits of in-
dustry were resumed, and peace and
plenty ,soo( smiled upon the colony.
8. In 1609, the London Company sent
out nine ships, with nine hundred emi-
grants to the colony. On board of one
of these vessels there were some officers
the account of digging gold. 6. What did Smith
do while the colonists were thus employed ?
7. What was the condition of the colony hltile
Smith was president ? 8. What is related of the

THE F`I2~tST 01' ! :ST~; T


.ppolinttd to rulk vcr,. them. This, un-
lhappily, was driven by a storm upon tlhe
Beranudas, and detained for a long time.
'1T othl'r vessel- arrived a:fely; but tihe
piir'sonI who camen in them were of a
"%i.'ious character, and refused to permit
Smith to govern them. Hle determined,
however, that lie wuIuld b: obeyed. and
;t,:cordingly he seized upon several of
tihl., and put them ii prison. This
ahL:tri.d tlh ref. tld order was ag:1ain
9. It wa: about t his tiin: that the
Indi:ian-. fi.ariing that the white il.,fl-p
would h'*-ronllt too po~we\rfilI, dtcr tiir,.-d
to make a sudden atta('k kl Lui thiinm, and
kill tlirn all. Povaholntas. heard of this
-hieir.e, and resolved, if possille:', to .-ave
ilt. l.'birish. A,',trdi:;zly, oue dark and
-t(orinIy night. :lh,' left lir father's wi,-
warn, ;and w altt alo, tlirou-,hi the fir-
eMts. to .TI;uin'-town. Here she fiirnd
Smith, :n1l1 appri.eid hlini of the threat-
eneud danger. Sihe the.n rtw artled, and I
Smith took ilrlkdiate( iaai:aiures to put
the colbliy in a .f:iatv of defencte.
10. 'Tli'e Idi.ins, liidiL.,L the p'opl.e
watchful :andl prepared. g.tve up tllhir
l-F('rt. Thus ag nin did Pt'almnita-
;\'.LV the lift. of Snitli.; .I well as tlhr lives
of all the white lpeopl.j in the colony.
11. About 1hi- timl., Silmith received
:a dantll:,roi woii l, \\liichi obli',d l ini
to go to FInglalld, to consIult a .irllr~on.
The India-ns. findinit the only man tlvhe
tctredI was gont, attackel the t<'oI(,
;and, cutting off their snuppliie'., reduce-d
them to the greatest extr'miity.
12. Such, in a hliort timen, was their
iniserahhi condition, that )they (devoured 1
the skins of their horses, the bodies of
the Indians they had killed, and the
flesh of their dead companions. In six
-- -
emigrants sent out in 1609 ? 9, 10. What service
did Pocahontas render the colony when the In-
dians intended to attack them ? 11, 12, 13. What

llntiIih.<, their number was ruluced. from
more than five hundred, to sixty.
13. At this linl, the persons who
had lii.'tn wnI -k'ed at IThrmuda arrived ;
but thllte, with the other settlers, all
agreed that it was bet. to quit tlhe set-
th11mirnt, iiid return to England. Ac-
cordingly the'y -.:ile.d down thl river for
that purplo-e.' Fortunately, they were
met by Lord D:la:warlr, who had come
in a vessel from Enghlad, loaded with
provi. ,sii. ''llii revi'v d their courage,
and they we\-nt l,.wk to J;nnlitstown.

1. Tr': colony now b)eC,'In to enjoy
more tlh\orablh- pr(,spjcts. Lord Dela-
\:;ret', who w:i< governor, restored order
;nt riore lnu.hit to respect and fear the
EnUlish. In 1611, new settlers arrived,
and other towns were fiunidd ; and un-
der a -iic,'.sio,:l of wise governors, Vir-
.i.ifi.i,L .c:nie a 1iiurishiing ;i.n1d extensive
' colony.
2. In 1612, C:qaptin Argal went on a
Itridi Lg v iv:uI-, up the Potoulac, 111nd
heard that Pocahontas was in the neiAlI-
hblilood. He invited her to conie on
1h,;rd his vc-sel, :and she aiune. He
tliii let.:inled her, and carried her to
Jamne.town. iHe know that Powhat;un
loved his danuhlitr, and thought, while
she was in the po(.se'~iun of the Eng-
li.lh, that he would be afraid to do them

was the condition of the colony after Smith had
returned to Englaud ? Why did they not return
to England ?
1. What was the condition of the corf fundet
Lord Delaware? 2, 3. Relate the adventure of


3. But the noble-hearted chief, indig- ma n, wonn, nnd child throughout the
nant at the treachery that had been prac- colony.
tised, refusepp to listen to any terms of 7. To conceal their purpose, the In.
peace ti lls daughter was restored. dians now prtfe-sstcl the greatest friend-
4. "lWti~ocahontas was at James- ship for thel English, and, the evening
town, a respectatab young Englishman, before the attack, brought them presents
named Rolfe, became very fond of her. of gamn The next day, precisely at
She was, indeed, a very interesting wo- twelve o'clock, the slaughter began, a
man -simple, innocent, and beautiful, three hundred and forty-seven men, %u,
Pocahontas soon became attached to Il, en, and children were killed in a few
Rolfe, and, with the consent of Pow- hours. More would have been destroyed,
batan, they were married. This was fol- lid not the plot been revealed by a friend-
lowed by peace between the colony and ly Indian, in time to put several of the
all the tribes subject to Powhatan. Soon towns on their guard.
after, Rolfe visited England with his A. This dreadful scene roused the
bride. She was reecei\ d by the king Enlish to vengeance. They pursued
and queen with the respect due to her their enemies into the woods, burnt their
virtues as a woman, and-.her rank as a wigwams, hunted them from forest to
princess. When she was about to re- forest, killed hundreds of them. and drove
turn to America, she died, hl:eain.g one the rest. b,;k into remote retreats. But
child, from whom some of the most re- although victorious, their numbers were
spectable families in Virginia have de- very much reduced.. Out of eighty set-
scended. tiemen1ts, only eight renmained ; and iD
5. New settlers now frequently ar- 1i24, of the nine tosand thoan hat had come
rived, and the colony rapidly increased. to the colony, 'igh'tc.n h u:ilred only were
In 1619, a Dutch vessel came to James- living.
town, bringing twenty Africans, who were 19. It is impossible, in this little book.
purchased by the people. These were to tell you every thing in the history of
the first slaves brought into our country, Virginia that is interesting. In 1676,
and thus the foundation was laid for the the colony experienced all the miseries
system of slavery which now pervades of civil war. Natlianiel Bacon, a law-
the Southern States. yer, put himself at the head of a rebel-
6. In 1622, in the midst of apparent lion, during which Jlme:ntown wa\;s burnt,
peace and prosperity, the colony was on and the adjacent districts laid waste. At
the point of annihilation. Powhatan, the length he died, and Governor Berkley
friend of the English, was dead. His resumed his authority. Notwithstanl-
successor, Opecancanough, was a chief ing these troubles, Virginia continued to
of great talent; but he secretly hated the flourish, and in 1688 contained sixty
English, and formed a scheme for fheir thousand inhabitants. From that period
destruction. By his art and eloquence, till about the year 1756, nothing occurred
he persuaded all the neighboring tribes *which I think would interest you.
to unite in an effort to kill every white .
SIndian massacre. 8. What course did the colo.
PoDno ntta with Captain Argal. 4. What is nists pursue? What was their condition in
said of her marriage and visit to England ? 1624 ? 9. What is said of the civil war which
k WhaNt 1i said of the first slaves brought into occurred in 1676 ? How many inhabitants did it
the^"onltry ? 6, 7. Relate the account of the 1 contain in 1088 ?

"4'. --- -
-'I ,,* t

Zr -r ~ e *aA-.

S 4
a.- r-. I

Iu NC: j: b

*-,, *, r ,
*~ I
I V *. '" ,.

< .i .. t-, *-'' '

: K..
.j .. A
-I- C
- 9.. .-. .

-. A

9- -. l


* --'p

- -


Bi b'a




IN -r



2-. I-




(1 .



i-- ,. :

. ...

- ,i

,.. -

I: %

1 I _

__ __~_

_.I .1_1 -- -- -111


1. ArlTERI leaving Virginia, we shall
enter North Carolina. In travelling
over the state, we shall observe that, like
Virginia, it is divided into three parts;
the level. sandy region towards the sea,
and occupying nearly one half of tlhe
state; the hilly country in the middlle;
and the mountainous districts in the
western portion.
2. We shall remark that all the labor
of the field is perfortlmed by negroes.
We .-hall see a great many pltntations
ot tobacco, cotton. and rice. We shall
meet with great florets of pine in the
eastern part of the state. Matiy of
these tr.e.s, which are cut down by the
people, are made into o:r:wds. ;iad s.t cat
to tIforign markets. (;ret q ua;ntitic-e of
pitch aml tar are also extracted from tlie
pine trees, put into casks, and sent away.
3. If we proceed to the hilly country,
along the banks of the Yadkin River, we

People seeking for Gold in North Carolina.
shall meet with people in various places
hunting for gold. This is found in small

1. How is North Carolina bounded ? Into
what three parts is it divided ? 2. What prod-
ucts shall we see in passing through the state ?
3. What is said of the gold mines ? 4. What

graius, mixed with sand, and sometimes
inl lumps of considerable size. Some
persons have gone from New England
to dig for gold in this state. I suppose
they hope to become suddenly rich; but
They had better stay at home ; for where
Ione man becomes wealthy by digging
ftor gold, a thousand get rich by staying
at hoIle, and quietly cultivating their

4. ]1' you look on the map, you will
see, in North Carolina, three capes
stretching out into the Atlantic Ocean.
These are dangerous places for ships.
!, Often. 'when they are sailing by, they
iare driven by the wind upon these
ci ape-, and dashed to pieces by the roll-
in" waves.
i5. \Whileh in this state we should visit
RU ahigh. We shall find a handsome
SStat IHouse here, where the legislature
Sheets to enact laws. A beautiful statue
i uf white marble, representing Washing-
Ston sitting, with a paper in his hand,
Used to Ibe shown here. It was exe-
cuted in Italy, by a famous man called
Canova, and cost several thousands of
dollars; but a few years ago it was de-
stroyed by tire.
6. We shall not find any very large
towns in North Carolina. Fayetteville,
Newbern, and Wilmington are the most
important places. A railroad crosses the
state from Welden to Wilmington, from
which place travellers going south take
a steamboat to Charleston. A great piut
of the tobacco, rice, and cotton, raised in
this state, is sent to Charleston, in South
Carolina, and is thence distributed to all
parts of the world. A great deal of the
cotton is. taken in large bags to New
England, where it is worked up into
cloth. The tobacco is taken to various
three capes in North Carolina ? 6. What is the
Capital? What is said of it? 6, 7. Where is
Fayetterille ? Newbern? Wilnington ? What

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs