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Title: Vegetables for the hot, humid tropics
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetables for the hot, humid tropics
Physical Description: 8 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agricultural Research Service. -- Southern Region
United States -- Science and Education Administration. -- Office of the Regional Administrator for Federal Research (Southern Region)
United States -- Science and Education Administration. -- Agricultural Research. -- Southern Region
Publisher: Southern Region, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Available from the Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Place of Publication: New Orleans La
Mayaguez P.R
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Subject: Tropical crops   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
General Note: Vols. 2-3 published by Office of the Regional Administrator for Federal Research (Southern Region), Science and Education Administration,U.S. Department of Agriculture.
General Note: Vols. 4-8 published by Agricultural Research (Southern Region), Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003649
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA5130
notis - ALD0761
alephbibnum - 002190965
oclc - 04409505

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Full Text


VEGETABLES FOR THE HOT, HUMID TROPICS

A Newsletter
and
Annual Communication Among Research Workers


Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture


Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708








VEGETABLES OF THE HOT, HUMID TROPICS


Purpose and Mode of Operation


Within the tropics a relatively few major vegetables are emphasized while the
majority of minor vegetables are not well investigated nor even well distributed.
It is difficult to get reliable information about varieties and culture of many of
these. This annual NEWSLETTER, distributed free to any research worker or
institution that requests it, is designed to fill a special need through emphasizing
the lesser known vegetables and making them available throughout the tropics.

Contributions are sent in voluntarily by interested persons, and are edited before
printing. Items are published in English, Spanish, and French. Spanish and French
contributions should include a title in English printed below the Spanish or French
title, and a short summary in English at the end of the text. Deadline for all
contributions is June 1 each year. Receipt of contributions will be acknowledged
by a form letter. The following kinds of contributions are requested:

1. Review papers, .one each year on a particular vegetable of the hot,
humid tropics.

2. Short research reports, usually limited to 500 words.

3. Useful commentary related to the field, usually limited to 500 words.

4. Research notes or announcements of programs, usually limited to 200
words.

5. Descriptions of species or varieties, usually limited to 200 words.

6. News of general interest to investigators of vegetable crops of the
tropics.

7. Copies of publications to be mentioned or reviewed.

8. Offers of seed and propagating material.

9. Requests for seed and propagating material.


10. Any other material pertinent to this field.











TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Purpose and Mode of Operation .......................................... 1

Editorial ................. ..................... ....... ........ ........ 4

Review Article: Tropical Leafy and Fruit Vegetables in Nigeria.
By M. 0. Omidiji ............................ ................. .. 6

Research Reports: Crop Specific Descriptors for Capsicum Species.
By J. M. M. Engels ..................................... ..... 18

Multiplicacion Geometrica en Batata (Ipomoea batatas (L.)
Lam.) (Geometric Multiplication in Sweet Potato
(Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)), English Summary. Por
Fausto Folquer and Roberto F. Fernandez ....................... 32

Tomato Improvement in South-Western Nigeria. By
J. H. Simons .................. ............. ...... ............ 37

Performance of Tomato and Cabbage Seedlings on Four
Seedbed Soil Mixtures. By H. C. Liao .......................... 42

Studies on Intercropping Tomatoes and Cabbage.
By H. C. Liao and Franklin Montas ............................. 44

Cumulate Resistances to Pseudomonas solanacearum and
to Meloidogyne incognita with Determinate Growth in
Tomato. French and Spanish Summaries. By C. M.
Messiaen, H. Laterrot, and F. Kaan ............................ 48

Home Gardens and Horticultural Research in the
Wet Tropics. By G. J. H. Grubben............................. 51

Plans for a Small, Intensive Vegetable Garden for Year
Round Production. By F. W. Martin and R. Ruberte ............ 54

Performance of Vegetables at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
During the Rainy Season 1977. By F. Jimenez................. 58

Chemical Control Trial for the Insect Pests of Pepper,
Capsicum annuum L. var. Tatase. By T. A.
Akinlosotu ...................... .... ........ ... .............. 67








3


The Phosphorus Requirements of Yams on an Oxisol in
Hawaii. By Peter Vander Zaag................................... 70

Short Notes................. ............................................... 74

Announcements, News, and Commentary.................................. 88

Publications for Mention or for Review.. .............................. 90

Materials Requested or Offered .......................................... 93










EDITORIAL


PERENNIAL VEGETABLES

All plant parts that are edible can be classified as vegetables. Thus, the forms
that vegetables take are almost innumerable. In the search for appropriate
vegetables for the hot, humid tropics, it should not come as a surprise that the
appropriate forms are often different from the forms of vegetables found elsewhere.
Unfortunately, temperate zone preferences, often fast-growing annuals, have
penetrated the tropics so thoroughly that native "vegetables, often easier to grow
and more productive than imports, have often been forgotten. Part of the purpose
of this newsletter is to rediscover such vegetables.

For the hot, humid tropics, perennial vegetables often are very useful. These
produce over a long period of time with a minimum of inputs. Although useful
for the home garden, the subsistence, and the small farm, nevertheless, some are
also excellent for the market. Contrast these to varieties bred for the temperate
zone. These must grow rapidly under intensive culture, must be uniform, highly
productive, and must mature all at once. Tropical vegetables should mature
every day of the year, if possible, and should thus furnish a steady stream of
nutrients to the family.

Can we the readers of this newsletter, share with each other really superior
perennial tropical vegetables for year round production? We challenge you to find
better vegetables than these:

As sources of green leaves, are these: the horseradish tree, Moringa oleifera;
Ceylon Spinach trained as a bush, Basella alba; the sun hibiscus with its mucila-
ginous leaves, Hibiscus manihot; cassava, Manihot esculenta for its root,
harvested when convenient, and its leaves year round; the young leaves of belembe,
Xanthosoma brasiliense, queen of the spinaches; and chaya, Cnidoscolus
chayamansa, planted once and harvested for 5 or more years. There are many
more.

Are there other classes of vegetables where perennials are so important? Among
the starchy vegetables there are the bananas and plantains, Musa sps., the bread-
fruit, Artocarpus altitis. The yams (Dioscorea), aroids (Colocasia and
Xanthosoma, and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), are perennials produced as
annuals that do not combine the advantages perennials offer. Cassava does, but of
all the roots and tubers, it is the least nutritious. Thus, bananas, plantains,
and breadfruit are choice low maintenance perennials.

Among legumes, those vegetables so important for the diet, very few perennials
exist. These are often little known, under utilized, and certainly merit attention.
How important to the tropics can be Adenanthera, Afzelia, Albizia, Acacia,







5


Bauhinia Cassia Cordyla, Erythrinia, Ina Inocarpus Leucaena, Parkia,
Psophocarpus, Eterocarpus, Sesbania or any other tree that is easy to produce,
rapid to establish itself, highly productive, resistant to the hot, humid tropics,
and completely safe to use as pods, unripe, or dry seeds?

The tropics probably contains such vegetables, but someone needs to notice them,
to establish the facts, to write about them, and to distribute them. Can our 500
readers come up with a few real winners?



Franklin W. Martin










REVIEW ARTICLE


TROPICAL LEAFY AND FRUIT VEGETABLES IN NIGERIA

By: M. 0. Omidiji
Institute of Agricultural Research and Training
P.M.B. 5029, Ibadan, Nigeria


INTRODUCTION. There are large numbers of vegetables that are cultivated in
Nigeria for their edible leaves, stems, roots and fruits. Many others which are
also edible, occur as weeds in disturbed areas or are wild in the forests.
Chemical analysis on some of these vegetables have shown that they are rich
sources of minerals, vitamins and to some extent, protein (8, 16, 17, 20). Some
of the vegetable seeds as Citrullus lanatus (cvs. Bara, Serewe and Sofin),
Cucumeropsis edulis (var. Itoo) are commercial sources of highly nutritive edible
oil. The nutritive quality of the oil can be appreciated from its fatty acids, which
are largely of linoleic (52-58%), oleic (14-22%), palmitic (11-19%) and stearic
(13-17%). The protein quality is high, the amino acids composition is quite
comparable to those of soybean and whole hens' eggs, except for the fairly low
contents of lysine and methionine (18).

It is, however, unfortunate that due partly to ignorance, the dietary importance of
these vegetables are not fully realized and are, therefore, not sufficiently used in
food preparation. Some people are even of the opinion that local vegetables are
not as nutritive as the exotics. However, there is abundant evidence that the
nutritive values of some local leafy vegetables are as good or sometimes better
than those of some exotics (3, 20). In general, vegetables are consumed to
supplement the bulky, staple starch foods and to give the diet a variety of tastes
and flavor.

PATTERN OF PRODUCTION. Vegetables are produced in all parts of the country,
largely by peasant farmers on small holdings using manual labor. They are
cultivated either as sole crops or in mixed cropping with maize, yams, cassava
and guinea-corn. Some of the vegetables so planted included Solanum species,
Capsicum spp., Abelmoschus esculentus and Citrullus lanatus. The production on
government farms or research institutions is limited. Production is always plenti-
ful in the rainy season and, therefore, vegetables are cheap. In the dry season,
however, vegetables are scarce and very expensive. Dry season production is
largely restricted to riverine areas or other suitable places where there is a nearby
water supply. Some irrigation facilities, especially for large-scale dry season
tomato production, are available in some parts of Northern Nigeria. There is at
present no large-scale commercial vegetable gardening in the country. There is,
however, a general awareness of such a need.










PATTERN OF CONSUMPTION. Some vegetables, notably Amaranthus spp; Celosia
argentea, Corchorus olitorius, Citrullus lanatus, Abelmoschus esculentus, Capsicum
spp. are consumed in all parts of Nigeria. Others, however, have restricted
acceptability. For example, Telfairia spp. and Vernonia amygdalina have their
largest consumers in the eastern states, while others such as Talinum triangulare,
Solanum macrocarpon, Basella species, Crassocephalum spp., Cucurbita spp. are
more popular in the western states. There is no doubt that the present barrier
against general acceptability of some vegetables could easily be removed when such
vegetables are readily available to other states and the people are more aware of
their nutrient values. Nevertheless, strong preferential taste, availability, and
nutrient contents are among the desirable characteristics for general acceptability
of most vegetables. Certain vegetables with persistent culinary odor as in
Crassoccephalum species, and bitterness in Vernonia amygadalina (bitter leaf), and
Solanum aethiopicum are highly valued by some people, while others found them
unacceptable for the same reasons. Thus, vegetables have to be produced to suit
different tastes and preferences.

TYPES OF VEGETABLES. Some of the different types of leafy and fruit vegetables,
their families, edibility and the general propagative methods are present in Table
1. The vegetables are mostly cultivated, a few others that are wild or weedy but
edible are included. Many of the green leafy vegetables and fruits are annual herbs
or short-lived perennial shrubs, producing large succulent leaves that can be
harvested over a period of weeks or even months.

Amaranthaceae. The most commonly cultivated species of the genus Amaranthus
are A. hybridus and Amaranthus viridis. These are plants which grow up to 1.0 m
high, are sparsely branched with rather smallish profuse flowers borne on terminal
or axillary inflorescence, and set abundant, tiny seeds. Leaves are deep to light
green with or without purplish color. The green varieties are preferred to
purplish, although this prejudice is unnecessary as the color is removed after
boiling. It has been reported that the purplish Amaranthus species tend to contain
more vitamin C than the colorless (15). Spiny forms which are presumed wild
also occur, but these are inedible. There are many varieties and some of these
probably might have been formed through natural hybridization between existing
species and cultivars. The green amaranths are only cultivated for their edible
leaves which are usually prepared into soups and served with the starchy staple
foods. They have been found to be rich in minerals particularly Ca, P, and Fe,
and also contain vitamin C (19). However, they also contain fairly high oxalate
contents (9), although boiling tends to remove them. Vegetative production is high,
up to 50 mt/ha with farmyard manure, which also increases the potassium content
of the leaves (2). Leaves and tender shoots can be harvested 3-4 weeks after
planting and thereafter at 2-3 weekly intervals for good vegetative yield and
optimum nutrient contents. Propagation is by seeds, sown broadcast or drilled.








Table 1.--Some characteristics of the commonly grown vegetables in Nigeria


Scientific names

Amaranthus hybridus
(Amaranthaceae)

A. viridis
(Amaranthaceae)

Celosia argentea
(Amaranthaceae)

C. leptostachya
(Amaranthaceae)

Basella alba
(Basellanceae)


B. rubra
(Basellaceae)


Crassocephalum crepidiodes
(Compositae)
C. biafrae
(Compositae)
Vernonia amygdalina
(Compositae)

Cucurbita pepo
(Cucurbitaceae)

Citrullus lanatus
(Cucurbitaceae)


Common/Yoruba

Spinach (greens),


Spinach (greens),


Spinach (greens),


names

Tete Elewe


Tete Elewe


Sokoyokoto


Spinach (greens), Ajefawo


Spinach (greens), Munututu
funfun


Spinach (greens), Munututu
pupa


Spinach (greens), Ebolo


Spinach (greens), bologi/
worowo

Bitter leaf, Ewuro


Pumpkins, Elegede


Watermelon


Edible parts

Leaves and succulent stem


Leaves and succulent stem


Leaves and succulent stem


Leaves and succulent stem


Leaves



Leaves



Leaves


Leaves


Leaves (very bitter)


Leaves, succulent stem
and fruit

Fruit


Methods of propagation

Seed drilling, broad-
cast or transplanting
Seed drilling, broad-
cast or transplanting

Seed drilling, broad-
cast or transplanting

Seed drilling, broad-
cast or transplanting

Direct seeding, or trans-
planting, supported by
wooden frames
Direct seeding or trans-
planting, supported by
wooden frames

By transplanting


Stem cutting, shade loving


Stem cutting


Direct seeding, or trans-
planting

Direct seeding or trans-
planting









Table 1. Continued

Citrullus lanatus
(Cucurbitaceae)

Cucumeropsis edulis
(Cucurbitaceae)

Cucumis melo
(Cucurbitaceae)

C. sativus
(Cucurbitaceae)


Lagenaria siceraria-
(Cucurbitaceae)


Trichosanthes cucumerina
(Cucurbitaceae)


Telfairia occidentalis
(Cucurbitaceae)

Abelmoschus ecculentus
(Malvaceae)

Hibiscus sabdariffa
(Malvaceae)

Talinum triangulare
(Portulacaceae)

Lycopersicon esculentum
(Solanaceae)


Local melons, Bara
Serewe, Sofin

Local melon, Itoo


Cantaloupe, sweet melon


Cucumber



Gourds, calabashes



Snake gourd, Tomati Elejo



Fluted pumpkin, woroko


Okro, Ila


Roselle, Isapa


Waterleaf, Gbure


Tomato


Seeds


Seeds


Fruit


Fruit



Seed



Fruit



Leaves, succulent stem,
seeds

Fruits, leaves


Calyces, succulent shoots
and leaves

Leaves


Fruits


Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Direct seeding or trans-
planting, supported by
wooden frame

Direct seeding or trans-
planting, some cultivars
require support

Direct seeding or trans-
planting, supported on
woods

Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Direct seeding


Direct seeding


Transplanting, stem
cuttings

Direct seeding or trans-
planting, requires support








Table 1. Continued

Solanum aethiopicum
(Solanaceae)


S. macrocarpon
(Solanaceae)

S. gilo
(Solanaceae)

S. nigrum
(Solanaceae)

S. anomalum
(Solanaceae)

S. melongena
(Solanaceae)

Capsicum frutescens
(Solanaceae)

C, annuum
(Solanaceae)

Corchorus olitorius
(Tiliaceae)


Bushy green, Osun



Bushy green Igbagba, Igbo


Igba, Ikan, Local eggplant


Bushy green, Odu and Ogumo


Igba yenren


Exotic eggplant


Pepper, Rodo


Pepper, Ata wewe


Edible jute, Ewedu


Leaves and succulent stem,
fruit sometimes, but
extremely bitter

Leaves and succulent stem,
some with edible fruit

Fruits


Leaves and succulent shoots


Fruits, but extremely bitter


Fruits


Fruits


Fruits


Leaves


Direct seeding or trans-
planting


Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Direct seeding, trans-
planting

By transplanting


By transplanting


Direct seeding or by
transplanting

Direct seeding or
transplanting

Direct seeding or trans-
planting

Seed drilling, broadcasting
or by transplanting











Celosia argentea is another popular vegetable grown extensively for its edible leaves
and young stems. It is an upright herbaceous plant with petiolated alternately
arranged dark-green leaves. The plants are either green or colored, the former
being more popular. "Native" varieties are early flowering and less vegetative,
while the introduced varieties are more vegetative with large succulent leaves and
stems. Wild forms as C. leptostachya also occur as weeds of disturbed areas or
in forests. These have smaller and less fleshy leaves than the cultivated species,
but they are otherwise, very delicious.

Basellaceae. The genus Basella is a monotypic species represented by two forms
often distinguished as B. alba (white) and B. rubra (red). Both are grown for their
thick, succulent leaves, which are green or red. The flowers are small and borne
on axillary spikes. The fruits are fleshy, containing watery purpliah fluid which
is sometimes used as a dye. The plant is propagated vegetatively or by seeds.
It is a climber, often surviving over a year. It is more commonly planted near
dwelling places and tends to survive the dry season with little watering, although
the leaves may be smaller and less fleshy.

Compositae. The commonly grown vegetables in this family include Vernonia spp.
(bitter leaf), and Crassoceohalum species. Vernonia spp. are noted for their
extreme bitterness, while Crassocephalum species are distinctive for their persist-
ent culinary odor. Vernonia amygdalina is a shrub and tends to be perennial. It
is well-branched and bears large petiolate dark-green leaves. The plant is known
to be day-length sensitive, for most varieties set flowers at short-day lengths (11).
It is propagated most commonly by cuttings or sometimes by seeds. Only the
young leaves are used as pot herbs. The leaves are cut into small pieces, washed
and squeezed several times to press out the bitterness. It is not usually prepared
alone, but often added to soups in small quantities to give it a distinctive bitter
taste. Another related plant, Struchium spargancphora is not usually cultivated.
It grows as weeds in marshy places along river banks. This is less bitter. The
roots of the upland varieties are very commonly used as chewing sticks, possibly
for their anti-bacterial activities and as an appetizer. Crassocephalum spp. are
all herbaceous annual, upright or scramblers. C. crepidiodes is often cultivated
or weedy. It is pubescent. The leaves are short petioled and of irregular margins.
It is propagated by seeds. C. biafrae usually occurs as weeds, mostly among tree
crops, which provide a suitable shaded environment for its good growth. It is a
scrambler, glabrous, with dark-green leaves, more or less triangular with lateral
protuberances. Propagation is vegetatively. There are related wild forms, but
these are not commonly eaten. Among the less important vegetables in the family
is Lactuca laraxacifolia. This is a weedy herb producing swollen roots which tend
to make it perennial. Plants are upright, up to 115 cm, usually less branching
with sessile, alternate lyrate leaves which are light-green. The stem is hollow
and secretes yellowish-white latex when bruised. The leaves are edible though quite
harsh, but its use is more commonly associated with the worship of some traditional
Yoruba goddess. Propagation is usually vegetatively, but it can also be established
from seeds.









Cucurbitaceae. This family includes some important vegetables that are highly
valued for their leaves, fruits and seeds. Among these, are Telfairia occidentalis
(fluted pumpkin), a tendril climber with deep-green 5-lobed palmate leaves. The
plant is dioecious, producing male and female flowers on separate plants. Fruits
are large and longitudinally ridged, up to 8 kg in weight, within which are large
flattened seeds rich in oil. The seeds are eaten boiled just before the fruits are
fully mature, otherwise, they tend to be bitter. Young leaves and immature vines
are prepared into stews; they are known to be very palatable. This is a highly
cherished vegetable in the Eastern States of Nigeria. The plant is established
from seeds. It is usually supported, but when grown as a field crop, such support
is not necessary, Cucurbita pepo and other related species are also commonly
grown for their succulent leaves and fruits. The plants are all tendril scramblers
with stout, harsh hairs. Leaves are large, long petiolated and variable pubescent.
Female flowers are larger than males, although the latter are more numerous and
earlier. There are many varieties in cultivation. Fruits are variable in size,
shape, texture and coloration, the flesh being yellow, orange or whitish-yellow.
Young leaves and tender shoots are prepared into soups, while the fruits are eaten
boiled or used for stews after drying. The tastes of the flesh are also variable,
some very watery or fibrous, while others are almost as good as water yam
(Dioscorea alata). The plants are established from seeds.

Other vegetables in the family which are very famous for their valuable oily seeds
are melons (Citrullus lanatus). The seeds are very high in oil content (45-57%),
crude protein (31-37%) and other minerals (16, 18). The seeds are used as condi-
ments after grinding, while the oil which is commercially extracted is extensively
used for cooking and frying. The residue can be converted into highly nutritive
and palatable cakes or pastes. The plant is a tendril scrambler almost morpholo-
gically indistinguishable from watermelon, and cross-fertile with it. The leaves
are highly dissected. Plants produce more male than female flowers. The
different varieties can easily be recognized by their fruits, being mottled deep green,
light-green or whitish-green, as are also their seeds which have their edges
thickened black (Bara), white (Sofin) or un-thickened (Serewe). Yields of dry seeds
are generally low, but up to 600 kg/ha have been obtained on experimental plots
(22). The proportions of dry seeds to fruits is about 2-3%, while that of shell to
seeds is about 23-35%, depending on the variety. Unlike the flesh of watermelon
which is sweet, that of the other related melons is very bitter. Other less common
oily seeds are those of Cucumeropsis edulis (cv. Itoo) and Lagenaria spp. (gourds
and calabashes). Cucumeropsis edulis is a simple tendril climber producing white
oblong fruits and large flattened white seeds. The seeds are also used for cooking.
All the melons are propagated through seeds.

Malvaceae. Okra (okro), Abelmoschus esculentus is one of the most important and
widely consumed fruit vegetables in the country. The cultivated forms are annual,
erect, rather woody pubescent plants bearing alternately arranged 3-5 lobed cordate
leaves. The edible parts are usually the immature greenish fruits, although the
leaves are also eaten in some places. There are several varieties distinctive for
their fruit sizes, shape, time and duration of fruiting. They also vary in degree of










sliminess, the more mucilaginous ones being more favored. The method of cooking
is known to affect this mucilaginous property of the fruits. Okra is usually
consumed fresh or dried, but the former is preferred. Drying of okra is a means
of preservation and storage. Propagation is only by seeds. Okra soup is noted to
go very well with particular local staple foods as pounded yam flour (amala) or
pounded cassava flour (eba).

Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual, much branched fibrous plant, glabrous to
indistinctly pubescent, with leaves alternately arranged and variably lobed. The
plants are either green or reddish due to anthocyanin. It is cultivated for its
edible fleshy and enlarged calyces of the fruit. The calyces are known to contain
oxalic acid, but this is removed by the boiling, ash treatment process. Roselle
soup prepared with melon is particularly famous with pounded yam.

Portulacaceae. Water leaf, Talinum triangulare is a perennial herb with thick,
light green leaves that are almost sessile. It produces abundant pink flowers in
a terminal inflorescence. There is another related species, T. paniculatum which
differs from the first in that its stem is colored red with anthocyanin, while the
leaves are also somewhat darker green. The unpigmented form is preferred,
having in addition fairly bigger leaves and fruits. T. triangular grows as a weed
and is widespread, but T. paniculatum has limited distribution, more commonly seen
around dwelling places. The very succulent leaves and stems are used for making
soup. When fresh it is extremely tender and after boiling, it turns brownish and
becomes rather mucilaginous. When dried, it is very tough and requires longer
period of cooking. The vegetable though very popular, has limitations, for it is
known to contain appreciable amounts of oxalic acid and hydrocyanic acid (9). It
can be established both from seeds and cuttings of fairly mature stems.

Solanaceae. This family includes the largest number of leafy and fruit vegetables
consumed in Nigeria. These include tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), peppers
(Capsicum spp.), many leafy greens and eggplants (Solanum spp.). The genus
Solanum includes at least five species that are grown for leaves and or fruits.
The relationship of some of these Solanum species has been studied (12, 13).
Solanum macrocarpon is one of the most popular leafy vegetables in Western
Nigeria. It is a glabrous, much branched shrub growing up to 110 cm, sometimes
with purplish patches on stem and mid-ribs. The leaves are large sessile to sub-
sessile, moderately to deeply dentate. Fruits are large, 30-60 g, being white,
green or mottled white. Fruits of the wild forms are smaller, spiny and hairy.
Flowers are conspicuous, pinkish with anthers bearing distinctly reddish terminal
pores. Varieties with white flowers have been obtained by the author. Fruits are
generally inedible, but the large fruited types can be eaten when boiled or cooked.
Leaves and young stems are eaten, being very tough, it requires a fairly long
boiling period to soften it. This species is isolated from the other species by a
fairly strong genetic barrier.











Solanum aethiopicum is a glabrous upright shrub, much branched, reaching up to
120 cm. The leaves are petiolate, moderately dentate and slightly asymmetrical,
being unequal at the base. Flowers are white, smallish and clustered. Fruits
are roundish borne in clusters of 3-11, each about 1-2 g. Fruits are whitish-green
or greenish and ripen to deep red. Both the leaves and fruits can be eaten, but
this species is grown more for its leaves, which are extremely bitter. Much of
the bitterness is, however, removed after several washings. S. aethiopicum is
cross-fertile with most of the other local Solanum species.

The local eggplant (. gilo), is grown extensively for its fruits, eaten, boiled or
cooked with other vegetables, in soups. Local eggplants are more popular than
the exotics, S. melongena. Local eggplant is a tall hairy shrub of about 8-120 cm
high. Leaves are also covered with stellate hairs. The leaves are petiolated,
asymmetrical, being moderately to deeply dentate. Flowers are white borne
singly or in clusters. Fruits are borne singly or in groups of 2-3, are white,
mottled green or mottled white. They are also variable in sizes, each 20-80 g
by weight. Fruits are also variable in seediness and taste, some being bitter
while others are sweet. The sweet, less-seedy and mottled white fruited varieties
are preferred. The African eggplants, S. gilo, are not as high yielding as the
exotics (2, 6), the fruits being considerably smaller. All the immature fruit
colors changed to deep red at maturity. The local eggplant is fully cross-fertile
with S. aethiopicum, but partially so with the exotic, So melongena. The local
eggplant has also been shown to be of hybrid origin (14).

Two varieties of S. nigrum are usually cultivated for their edible leaves, S. nigrum
(var. Ogumo), which is bitter, is a stout, much branched herb with rather angular
stem growing up to a height of 125 cm. The leaves are broader than those of
the other variety and are inconspicuously pubescent. Flowers are white and
clustered. Immature fruits are green, borne in upright clusters of 5-8, each at
least 1.5 g. The variety Odu is as tall, with less robust stem and tends to be
semi-prostrate. Flowers are small and clustered. Fruits are smallish, each about
0.4 g and borne in pendulous clusters which tend to drop prematurely. It is non-
bitter, and of more acceptable taste. The hybrid of both varieties has been
produced by the author. The plant combines the more acceptable taste of the
variety Odu with the fruit persistence of variety Ogumo. The fruits when fully ripe
are purplish-dark.

Another Solanum species that is grown though not widely is S. anomalum, for its
very bitter, small clustered fruits. There are other wild species that are used
extensively for their therapeutic values (21). These wild Solanum species have
potentials for the genetic improvement of the cultivated forms, particularly with
the transfer of major disease resistant genes.

Peppers (Capsicum spp.), which are represented by several varieties are grown for
their fruits. The plant is a woody short-lived perennial, reaching up to 150 cm.










Flowers are small, single as in C. annum, or clustered as in C. frutescens.
There are many varieties of both species, the commonest local varieties are
Rodo, Tatase Sombo, Afunjalo. The exotic varieties commonly grown are Tobasco,
Fafayette Cayenne and California Wonder, a variety of Sweet pepper. The
varieties are easily distinguished by their fruit characteristics which are of various
sizes and shapes. They also vary in their degree of pungency, the less pungent
and fleshy ones as Rodo and Tatase are more popular than the less fleshy and
pungent types as Afunjalo. The manner the fruits are borne is also distinctive,
some varieties are upright while in others they are pendulous, especially the large
fruited types. All the varieties commonly grown in Nigeria are green or white with
or without purplish patches, and all ripen red. Peppers are used as spices and
added in varying quantities to soups, fresh or dry. Generally, the elites use very
small quantities, while most of the other local people use fairly large quantities
as they strongly believe in a common adage that the life that does not take pepper
is a worthless one.

Tiliaceae. Corchorus olitorius is a very popular leafy vegetable. It is a vigorous
moderately branched rather woody annual, glabrous to indistinctly pubescent.
Leaves are petiolate, shiny green, narrow with serrated edges. Flowers are
smallish, borne in axillary clusters. There are many varieties differing in growth
habits, fruit shape and size, degree of leaf serration. They also vary in their
ability to draw. The common varieties in cultivation are Oniyaya, with deeply
serrated leaves, Amgbadu with finely serrated leaves and Igbalode which is very
vegetative. Fruits, are capsules, splitting by means of longitudinal slits. Fruit
production is usually more abundant in the late season than in the early. The
edible parts are the young shoots and leaves which become variably mucilaginous
after cooking. There are wild species which are equally used for making soups.
These are believed to be the putative ancestors of the cultivated forms. The wild
forms are less vegetative than the cultivars.

Mushrooms. Mushrooms are still an undeveloped vegetable resource in the
country. They are highly delicious, but unfortunately they are almost becoming
a thing of the past. They are not cultivated and their appearance is seasonal.
There are several edible forms just as there are a few poisonous ones. They are
extremely variable in size, from tiny ones to gigantic and massively fleshed ones.
Some are highly gregarious in that they occur in large populations or in groups each
comprising of few stands to very many. Their occurrence is spontaneous, some
appearing on farm lands or other disturbed areas, or in the forests. The growth
of some is associated with fermenting products such as oil palm debris. Local
mushrooms are so sweet and nutritious that the edible ones should be identified
and methods of cultivating them deserve immediate attention. The fear of poisoning
from eating mushroom is so widespread in the country that almost all mushrooms
are thought to be poisonous. This is due to the fact that many people have died by
eating mushrooms, not because they are poisonous per se, but that they have been
contaminated by deadly chemicals sprayed on crops to control insects and diseases.
There is no doubt, however, that poisonous ones occur.










Local mushrooms cooked alone are too sweet, but when combined with other
vegetables, they make highly delightful dishes. A survey recently carried out by
the author shows that most people are prepared to pay any amount for them if
they are safely available.

Prospects. With the use of some local vegetable protein supplements in the
relieve of nutritional disease of kwarshiokor in children (10), there is no doubt
that vegetables have great potential in ameliorating nutrient imbalance in the diets
of most people in Nigeria. This entails that vegetables of high nutritive contents
are to be consumed with other food items in correct proportion for balanced
nutrition.

At present, research on these vegetables is still in its infancy. Such research,
however, has to be geared towards the specific and diversified need of the people.
Many of the vegetables in Nigeria are similar to those of other countries in Africa
(1, 5), and Latin America (4), there is, therefore, a need for an assemblage of
these different types so that their agronomic and culinary values can be assessed
under uniform conditions. Thus, the best vegetable types could be made available
to the consumers. Such. studies are being carried out with okra where worldwide
collections have been made and are now being assessed (Chheda, personal communi-
cation).

It is needless to say that the domestication of the wild vegetables is equally
essential in at least serving as gene reservoir for improvement of the cultivated
forms.

For such programme of vegetable conservation and improvement to be effective,
all disciplines as agronomists, breeders, biochemists and nutritionists, pathologists,
entomologists, taxonomists, home scientists, food technologists, should be involved.
Such an integrated team approach should provide the much-needed information for
increased productivity within the limited, available financial resources.

REFERENCES

1. Imbamba, S. K. 1973. Leaf protein content of some Kenya vegetables.
E. Afr. Agric. & For. Jour. 38(3):246-251.

2. Kogbe, J. O. S. 1976. Studies of the spacing requirement of the eggplant.
Ann. Report, I.A.R. & T., Ibadan (in press).

3. Leung, Woot-Tsuen, Win et al. 1972. Food composition table for use in
East Asia. FAO and U.S. Dept. of Health Education & Welfare.

4. Martin, F. W., and R. M. Ruberte. 1975. Edible leaves of the tropics.
Antillian College Press, Mayaguez, Fuerto Rico.











5. Norman, J. C. 1972. Tropical leafy vegetables in Ghana. World Crops
24(4):217-219.

6. Nsowah, G. F. 1969. Genetic variation in local and exotic varietic: of Garden
Eggs. Ghana J. Sci. 9(1):61-78.

7. Okafor, J. C. 1975. The place of wild (uncultivated) fruits and vegetables
in Nigerian diet. Proceedings: First National Seminar on Fruits and
Vegetables, Ibadan, Nigeria 153-168.

8. Oke, 0. L. 1965. Chemical studies of some Nigeria vegetables. Exptl.
Agric. 1:125-129.

9. 1966. Chemical studies on the commonly used leafy vegetables
in Nigeria. J. West. Af. Sci. Ass. 11:42-48.

10. 1972. Leaf protein supplement in the management of protein-
calorie malnutrition. Nig. med. J. 2:195-199.

11. Okigbo, B. N. 1966. Photoperiodism and yield in the bitter leaf (Vernonia
amygdalina). Nig. Agric. J. 3(1):1-5.

12. Omidiji, M. O. 1975a. Interspecific hybridization in the cultivated, non-
tuberous Solanum species. Euphytica 24:341-353.

13. _. 1975b. Crossability of three local Solanum species with the
exotic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In Proceedings: 3rd Ann. Conf.
Genetics Society of Nigeria 88-95.

14. 1976. Evidence concerning hybrid origin of the local garden
egg. Nigerian J. Sci. 10: (in press).

15. Omueti, O. (Mrs.). 1976. Effect of frequency of cutting on nutrient content
of three varieties of Amaranthus species. Annual Report, I.A.R. & T.,
Ibadan (in press).

16. Oyenuga, V. A. 1968. Nigeria's Foods and Feeding Staffs. Ibadan Univer-
sity Press.

17. and B. L. Fetuga. 1975a. Dietary importance of fruits and
vegetables: Proceedings: First National Seminar on Fruits and Vegetables:
122-131.

18. 1975b. Some aspects of the biochemistry and nutritive
value of the watermelon seed (Citrullus vulgaris, Scharad). J. Sci. Fd.
Agric. 26:843-854.











19. Taylor, O. A., and 0. Omueti. 1973. Effect of age and vegetable parts of
nutrient composition of Amaranthus species. Paper presented at I.A,R.
& T., In-house Review.

20. Tindall, H. D. 1968. Commercial Vegetable Growing, Oxford University
Press.

21. Watt, J. M. and M. G. Breyer Brandwijk. 1962. The medicinal and
poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd Edition E & S.
Livingstone Ltd., Edinburgh/London.

22. Wilson, G. 1976. Diversified Cropping. Paper presented at the IITA
In-house Review.


RESEARCH REPORTS


CROP SPECIFIC DESCRIPTORS FOR CAPSICUM SPECIES

By: J. M. M. Engels
International Germplasm Center CATIE/GTZ
Turrialba, Costa Rica


INTRODUCTION. Systematic description of a germplasm collection provides the
basis for
1. characterization of cultivars or breeding lines;
2. differentiation between accessions with similar or identical names;
3. identification of accessions having desired characters;
4. classification of commercial varieties;
5. development of interrelationships between or among characters and
between geographic ground of cultivars;
6. the estimation of the extent of variation within the collection.

The crop specific descriptors and their respective states listed below have a value
in taxonomy, agriculture or academic investigations. They are divided in two
groups. The first group, primary descriptors, consists of characters which
generally have a high heritability, i.e. qualitative characters. They are frequently
used in taxonomic keys and sometimes are of important value to plant breeders
(e.g. disease resistance). The second group, secondary descriptors, represents
characters of lower heritability, sometimes useful in taxonomy, but generally
providing useful agronomic information about the material.

The descriptor states function as terms for modification, completion or precision
of descriptors. Standardization of codes with continuously expressed characters











allows to use figures "1" to "9" and 0 (0 = Oscar) (for absence or non-expression
of a character). Figure '1' represents the lowest, weakest expression and '9' the
highest, strongest degree of expression. If the phenotypic expression is ungraded
'+' is used, and a non-uniform expression is coded as 'x'. In the case of qualita-
tive characters the use of the figures "1" to "9" does not indicate that the charac-
ters have a continuous expression.

Tables 1, 2 and 3 are Eiven to facilitate the use of descriptors for the identification
of wild and cultivated species and their spontaneous forms. The descriptor list
presented here is open-ended, ec that new descriptors can be added and others
discarded as necessary.

The author would appreciate receiving comments and suggestions for the improve-
ment of this descriptor list, leading to a possible standardization of descriptors
and descriptor states for the Capsicum species.

DESCRIPTOR LIST OF CAPSICUM SPP.

PRIMARY DESCRIPTORS and descriptor states Synonyms

1 Anther color /

2 Calyx base constriction
0 = absent
+ = present

3 Compatibility
3 = self-compatible
7 = self-incompatible

4 Filament color 1

5 Flower number/axil Pedicel number/axil

6 Fruit base shape
3 = non-bulged
5 = intermediate
7 = bulged

7 Fruit color, ripe1
8 Fruit color, unripe
8 Fruit color, unripe -


Fruit width/length ratio


9 Fruit index











10 Fruit persistence
3 = non-persistent
7 = persistent

11 Fruit position
3 = erect
5 = intermediate (erect or pendant)
7 = pendant

12 Male sterility
0 = absent
+ = present

13 Node color /

14 Pedicel position
3 = erect
5 = intermediate (erect or pendant)
7 = pendant

15 Petal color 1

16 Petal spot
0 = absent
+ = present

17 Seed color 1

18 Style color

19 Susceptibility to "Bacterial Spot"
1 = very susceptible
5 = intermediate
9 = very resistant

20 Susceptibility to Cercospora
1 5 9
159
21 Susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic virus (CMV)
159
22 Susceptibility to Curly-top virus
159
23 Susceptibility to Nematodes
159
24 Susceptibility to Phytophthora blight
159
25 Susceptibility to Potato virus Y (PVY)
159


Corolla lobe color

Corolla throat spot










26 Susceptibility to Tobacco Etch virus (TEV)
159
27 Susceptibility to Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV)
159
28 Susceptibility to Vein-banding virus
159
29 Susceptibility to Verticillium wilt

SECONDARY DESCRIPTORS

30 Anther base bifurcation
1 = very weak
5 = intermediate
9 = very strong

31 Anther length (mm)

32 Anther shape

33 Ascorbic acid content, ppm. dry matter

34 Branch angle with stem
3 = 45.
5 = d4 90~
7= 900

35 Calyx shape
3 = saucer shaped
7 = cup to funnel shaped

36 Calyx tooth length (mm)

37 Calyx margin shape
3 = smooth
5 = intermediate
7 = dentate

38 Calyx type
3 = non-enclosing
7 = enclosing

39 Commercial type
1 = bell
2 = pimiento
3 = paprika
4 = tabasco











5 = chili
6 = cayenne
7 = ornamental
8 = mixed
9 = other

40 Corolla shape
3 = rotate
7 = campanulate

41 Corolla size (mm) Corolla diameter (mm)

42 Filament length (mm)

43 Flowering date Time to bloom in days

44 Fructification
1 = very low
5 = intermediate
9 = very high

45 Fruit apex shape
1 = very pointed
5 = intermediate
9 = very blunt

46 Fruit diameter (mm) Fruit width (mm)

47 Fruit length (mm)

48 Fruits/node

49 Fruit number/plant Pod set
1 = very low
5 = intermediate
9 = very high

50 Fruit shape
1 = bell
2 = conical
3 = elongate
4 = oblate
5 = round
6 = other


51 Fruit size (cc)


Fruit volume (cc)











52 Fruit skin rugosity
1 = very little rugose
5 = intermediate
9 = very rugose
53 Fruit wall thickness (mm)

54 Fruit weight (g)

55 Growth habit
3 = creeping
5 = semi-erect
7 = erect

2/
56 Leaf apex shape -

57 Leaf base shape

58 Leaf blade color

59 Leaf index

60 Leaf length (mm)

61 Leaf pubescence
1 = very scarce
5 = intermediate
9 = very abundant

2/
62 Leaf shape

63 Leaf width (mm)

64 Maturity
1 = very early
5 = intermediate
9 = very late

65 Number of days to change

66 Pedicel length (mm)

67 Pedicel shape
3 = erect
7 = curved

68 Pedicel width (mm)


Leaf width/length ratio


unripe fruit color into ripe


Pedicel base width (mm)











69 Petal length in mm

70 Petal number/flower

71 Petal shape 2/

72 Petiole color /

73 Petiole length (mm)

74 Petiole pubescence
1 = very scarce
5 = intermediate
9 = very abundant

75 Pistil length in relation to anther column
1 = very intruded
5 = same level
9 = very extruded

76 Plant habit
2 = small, compact
4 = small, open
6 = tall, erect
8 = tall, open

77 Plant height (cm)

78 Pungency
1 = sweet
5 = pungent
9 = very pungent

79 Seed diameter (mm)

80 Seed hilum shape
3 = without ridge around hilum
5 = with ridge around hilum
7 = with conspicious ridge around hilum

81 Seed margin shape
1 = smooth
5 = intermediate
9 = very wrinkled


82 Seed number/fruit










83 Seed coat rugosity
1 = almost smooth
5 = intermediate
9 = very rugose
2/
84 Sepal shape

85 Shape of transversal stem section
3 = rounded
5 = 4-angled
7 = 5-angled

86 Stem color

87 Stem pubescence
1 = very scarce
5 = intermediate
9 = very abundant

88 Style length (mm)

89 Style width (mm)


1/ These descriptors are scored by direct reading, using a color chart and
scoring the actual color and its intensity.

2/ The descriptor states of these characters will be coded after the full range
of phenotypes is available.


NB. An ample reference list of the literature used in this study is available from
the author on request.







Table 1.--Qualitative and quantitative characters to differentiate cultivated Capsicum species and their spontaneous forms


qualitative
characters cultivated Capsicum species Spontaneous forms
quantitative C. annuum C. baccatum C. chinense C. frutescens C. pubescens C. annuum C. baccatum
characters var. annuum var. pendulum var. minimuau var. baccatum
C. annuum 1, 2 2 15?, 80?** 1?,2,15,17, 1, 10, 16
var. annuum 61,87

C. baccatum 36 1, 16 1, 2, 15, 16 1,15,16,17, 1, 2, 16 10, 11, 14
var. pendulum 61,87

C. chinense 63, 81? 5 36, 1? 2, 14, 15? 1?,15,17, 2 1, 10, 16
61,87

C. frutescens 5,37,64,81, 5, 36, 37 37, 66, 1?, 2,15,17, 1, 10, 16
83 61,87

C. pubescens 73?, 81 81 5 5, 37, 1?, 17 1,10,16,17


C. annuum 46 5 5, 37 1
var. minimum

C. baccatum 9,14,31,46, 5 5, 37
var. baccatum 47,66,82
S __' s____


* = not exactly known if character qualitative or quantitative.

** ? = overlapping is possible; in that case the characters are not distinctive.








Table 2.--Qualitative and quantitative characters to identify wild Capsicum Epecies


qualitative
characters wild Capsicum species
quantitative C. C. C C. C. gemini C. mimiti C. preater C. schott C. scolnik
characters cardenasii chacoense cornutum eximium galapogense folium florum missum ianum ianum

C. cardenasii 1, 3 1 1, 3 1, 3, 11 1, 17


C. chacoense "' 3 3 3


C. cornutum


, eximium 40 5* 3 3 17


C. galapogense 37 37 37, 5 3 3


C. geminifolium


C. mimitiflorum


C. praetermissum 40 5 37 '' 3, 17 3

C. schottianum 37, 5 37, 5 37, 5 5 37, 5 17

C. scolnikianum 40 37 40 37


* = not exactly known if character qualitative or quantitative.






Table 3.--Phenotypic expressions of useful qualitative and quantitative characters of Capsicum species

Descriptors + cultivated Capsicum species spontaneous forms
descriptor C. baccatum C. annuum C. baccatum
states -
No. var. var. var.
qualitative C. annuum pendulum C. chinense C. frutescens C. pubescens minimum baccatum
1 Anther color blue (to yellow blue (to blue (to purple blue (to yellow
purple) purple) purple) purple)
2 Calyx base
constriction 0* + + 0 +
0 = absent
+ = present
3 Compatibility
3 = selfcomp. 1 1 1 1 1**
7 = selfincomp.
10 Fruit persistence
3 = non-pers. 2 2 2 2 2 1
7 = persistent
11 Fruit position
14 Pedicel posit. 3 and 7 3 and 7 7 3 3 and 7 3
3 = erect (usually) (usually)
7 = pendant
15 Petal color white*** white greenish purple
purple
16 Petal spot
0 = absent 0 + 0 0 0 0 +
+ = present
17 Seed color light light light light black light light
61 Leaf pubescence
0 = glabrous 0- 7 0 3 0 3
3 = scarce
7 = abundant








quantitative

5 Flower number
1 1 3-5 2-3 1 1 1-2
per axil
9 Fruit index 0, 23 0, 63
31 Anther length 2,3 +
(mm) 0, 3 1, 5 0,09
37 Calyx margin
shape
3 = smooth 5 7 3 5 3 3 5 5 7
5 = intermed.
7 = dentated
40 Corolla shape
3 = rotate 8 3 3 3 3 3 3
7 = campanulate
41 Corolla size 9,6 + 1,2 5,3+0,7
(mm)
46 Fruit diameter 15 12 -26 6 30 10 3 7
(mm)
47 Fruit length 8 250 48 172 10 120 10 80 4 13
(mm)
63 Leaf width (mm) 90 -105 50 90
64 Maturity early late
med. late
66 Pedicel length 20+4,1 20+4,1 rel. short longer as fruit 11 + 1,6
(mm)
68 Pedicel width slender- rel. thick slender
(mm) thick
73 Petiole length rel. long 58 +16,4 rel. short rel. long rel. short 34 + 6,6
(mm)
81 Seed margin smooth smooth smooth smooth wrinkled smooth smooth
shape
83 Seed-coat reticulated smooth
rugosity
if present, due to enlargement of fruit ** also s.i. accessions observed
*** very rarely purplish **** tan to brown







Table 3. --Continued


Descriptors + wild Capsicum species
descriptor C. C. C. C. c. C. C. C. C. C.
states
No. carde- chaco- cor- exi- galapo- gemini- multi- praeter- schott scolni-
qualitative nasi ense nutum mium- gense folium florum missum lanum kianum
1 Anther color pale yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow
blue
2 Calyx base
constriction
0 = absent
+ = present
3 Compatibility
3 = selfcomp. 2 1 2 1 1 2 2
7 = selfincomp.
10 Fruit persistence
3 = non-pers. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
7 = persistent
11 Fruit position
14 Pedicel posit. 7 3
3 = erect
7 = pendant
15 Petal color purple purple
16 Petal spot
0 = absent + 0 + 0 + +
+ = present
17 Seed color **** tan tan black tan
tan
61 Leaf pubescence
0 = glabrous 0 -.3 3 7
3 = scarce
7 = abundant








quantitative

5 Flower number 1-2 1 2-3 1 1 5-7
per axil
9 Fruit index
81 Anther length
(mm) ---_
37 Calyx margin
shape
3 = smooth 7 7 7 ? 7 3 7
5 = intermed.
7 = dentated
44 Corolla shape
3 = rotate 7 3 3 7
7 = campanulate
41 Corolla size
(mm)
46 Fruit diameter
(mm)
47 Fruit length
(mm)
63 Leaf width (mm)
64 Maturity
66 Pedicel length 10
(mm)
68 Pedicel
(mm)
73 Petiole length
(mm)
81 Seed margin
shape
83 Seed-coat
rugosity ___ ________---------
* if present, due to enlargement of fruit ** also s.i. accessions observed
*** very rarely purplish **** tan to brown











REFERENCES

A large list of references that complements this presentation is not included here
but is available from the author.
*****

MULTIPLICACION GEOMETRICA EN BATATA (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

Por: Fausto Folquer y Roberto F. Fernandez
Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina

Uno de los problems tradicionales de la production de batatas en las reglones sub-
tropicales con primavera seca, ha sido la peri6dica escasez de gufas o bejucos
para la realizacio'n de las plantaciones en epoca oportuia.

En las condiciones ecologicas mencionadas, la escasez de humedad a fines de invierno
y durante la primavera, es el factor limitante de la brotacion y crecimiento de las
guias y plantines. En dichas regions, las guf'as deben adquirir una longitud superior
a un metro para llegar a la condicion de "maduras", es decir, resistentes a las
altas temperatures que suelen estrangular las gufas tiernas a nivel del suelo.

Las gufas "maduras" suelen obtenerse de plantaciones de secano que se dejan sin cose-
char, o en el rastrojo de lotes ya cosechados en los cuales quedan restos de batatas y
batatines enterrados. En ambos caSos, la brotacion y crecimiento de las gufas depend
de las lluvias.

La escasez de humedad suele dificultar tambien la preparation de los suelos para los
nuevos cultivos, retrasando la ejecucion de las plantaciones hasta noviembre, diciembre,
o principios de enero, perdlendose los meses de septiembre y octubre que son los mas
favorables por su temperature suave y por el hecho de que proporcionan la cosecha de
primicia (enero, febrero y principios de marzo) que consigue los maximos precious en
los mercados de consume.

Buscando estabilizar la provision de gulas y plantines con destiny a las plantaciones
comerciales, se ha realizado una adaptacion para la preparation de los viveros de multi-
plicacion, del "Nuevo Sistema de Plantacion de Batatas en Platabandas con Filas Aparea-
das", que fuera descripto en el primer numero de "Vegetables for the Hot, Humid
Tropics" 1976, 23-27.

Con la mfnima cantidad de agua necesaria para el mencionado sistema (44,000 litros por
hectarea en cada riego) se puede mdntener en un nivel optimo la humedad del vivero, aun
contando con muy escasa disponibilidad de riego. Es possible incluso, sin que result
oneroso, el transport del agua eh tanques, ya que los viveros son siempre de pequenas
dimensions.

PREPARACION DEL VIVERO. Teniendo en cuenta que con el nuevo sistema de plantacion
en platabandas, las plantaciones comerciales pueden realizarse gradualmente, en cual-










quier memento, a partir de los primeros dfas de septiembre, los plantines
pueden ser utilizados en cuanto adquieren el tamafio apropiado, sin llegar a la
maduracion o endurecimiento. Dado que la plantacion se hace en el barro de
la reguera, el prendimiento es perfect aun tratandose de material tierno.

Para la formacion del vivero se seleccionan batatines de 80 a 150 gramos, los
cuales se desinfectan sumergiendolos en una solution de Semesan Bell, Nomersan
u otro product analogo. Este material, antes de ponerlo en el vivero, se
somete al process de "pre-brotacion", para lo cual puede distribu(rse en dos o
tres capas dentro de un tunnel de plastic transparent, hasta que se produzca
la brotacion. En cuanto los brotes llegan a 3 o 4 cm de largo, los batatines
son Ilevados al vivero.

El process para formacion del vivero comprende de los siguientes pasos: 1) Se
arman bordos (caballones) de unos 20 cm de alto, distanciados 1.30 a 1.50 m.
2) Por medio de una rastra de dientes y luego un tablon, se achatan los bordos,
formando una platabanda de unos 10 cm de alto sobre el nivel normal del suelo.
3) Se hace una marca en el eje longitudinal de la platabanda y se distribuyen
los batatines, uno a continuacion del otro, con los brotes hacia arriba, formando
dos filas distanciadas 15 a 20 cm a cada lado de la marca central, es decir,
30 a 40 cm entire las dos filas. Se calcula que en cada metro de fila entra 1 kg
de batatines, o sea 2 kg por metro de reguera. 3) Se excava una reguera en
el eje central de la platabanda dandole una profundidad de 10 a 15 cm y unos
20 cm de ancho en la parte superior. La tierra extrafda queda sobre los
batatines formando una capa de 5 a 8 cm, Esta cobertura puede completarse
aporcando con la tierra del borde exterior de la platabanda. 5) Se echa el
agua por la reguera de modo que la humedad penetre hasta los batatines.

La arrancada de los plantines se iniciara" en cuanto estos Ileguen a los 10 a 15 cm
de longitud (incluyendo la parte subterra'nea con las racess, realizandose seguida-
mente la plantacidn "en barro" en los costados de la reguera, a razon de 4
plantines por metro de fila, o sea 8 plantines por metro de reguera. Con
regueras distanciadas 1.40 m, en la hectarea entire 56,800 plantines.

En los ensayos preliminares realizados con la variedad "Tucumana Lisa" se ban
obtenido unos 30 brotes por metro de reguera. Las arrancadas se efectuan cada
15 o 20 dfas, segun la evolucion de las temperatures.

Despues de cada arrancada debera apocarse levemente para mantener la cobertura
de unos 5 a 8 cm de tierra sobre los batatines, necesarios para una buena
production de plantines vigorosos.

Un vivero del cv. Tucumana Lisa suele rendir, en promedio, 15 plantines de 10
a 15 cm, por kg de batatines, cada 20 dfas.

EXTRACCION DE GUIAS DE LAS PLANTACIONES TEMPRANAS. El sistema de
plantacidn en platabandas con filas apareadas permit un rapido ftfil
plants, al bacer possible un buen nivel de humedad en la zona radicular.










Si bien las temperatures poco elevadas durante el primer perfodo de las
plantaciones tempranas, pueden retrasar el crecimiento de las plants, en base a
los ensayos realizados, puede calcularse que las gufas de las plants alcanzan
los 25 cm de largo al cumplir los 40 dias de la plantacion.

En dicho moment, se pueden extraer hasta 2 cortes de unos 15 cm de cada
plant, sin que los rendimientos sean afectados. Incluso ha ocurrido que las
plants no podadas (testigo) han rendido menos que las podadas (extrayendo una,
dos o tres gufas) debido a una excesiva frondosidad que ha causado el "vicio",
como consecuencia de un verano muy lluvioso.

Como ejemplo de la eficiencia del "Sistema de Platabandai" pueden citarse los
resultados de una plantacion con la variedad "Tuc. Lisa", realizada el 27/9/76,
en base a plantines de 10 cm, de cuyas plantab se extrajo una gufa de 20 cm,
a los 49 dias de plantadas. La cosecha, a los 5 meses rindio un equivalent
de 34,100 kg de gufas, 39,200 kg de batatas comerciales y 913 kg de batatines.
La poblacion de plants constituyo' un equivalent de 55.263 plants por hectarea,
lo que representoun "stand"' del 97.3% sobre las 56,800 plants originarias,
lo que indica la notable eficiencia de las "plantacio'n en barro". El rendimiento
por plant fue de 710 gramos de batatas comerciales.

La experiencia reunida nos permit proponer el siguiente process de
"Multiplicacion Geometrica", que implica el empleo de una minima cantidad de
batata-semilla para la plantation de una hectarea.

Considerando que la primera plantacion puede realizarse el Iro de septiembre y
la itima el 20 de enero (con 'Tucumana Lisa"), y que el vivero proporcionard
20 plantines cada 20 dfas, par cada kilogramo de batatines; y que las sucesivas
plantaciones proporcionarain 2 gufas de 15 cm, cada 40 dfas (una vez cada planta-
cio'n), el process de la plantation, a partir de un kilogramo de batatines sera
como sigue, en forma simplificada:

Material disponible No. plantines No, guias

la. plantation, 1/sept. 20
2. plantacio'n, 20/sept. 20
3a. plantacion, 10/oct. 20 40 (del 1/sept.)
4a. plantacidn, 30/oct. 20 40 (del 20/sept.)
5a. plantaciodn, 20/nov. 20 120 (del 10/oct.)
6a. plantacio'n, 10/dic. 20 120 (del 30 oct.)
7a. plantacio'n, 30/dic. 20 280 (del 20/nov.)
8a. plantacion, 20/enero 20 280 (del 10/dic.)
Total 160 880











Tendremos que la cantidad en kilograms de batatines necesarios para plantar una
hectarea sera:
X = 56800: (160 + 880) = 53.8 kg

Esta cantidad puede considerarse insignificant en relacion con las necesarias en
los sistemas comunes.

Se transcribe una grafica sobre "Etapas en la formacion del vivero".

SUMMARY. A simple system has been developed to produce rooted cuttings of sweet
potato for the spring planting when earliness is an important factor. Small whole
roots of 80 to 150 g are planted in small furrows on a wide bed (see diagram).
The center of the bed is then excavated to a depth of 10-15 cm, and this is formed
into ridges above the furrows of roots. The center furrow is used for watering.
Up to 30 rooted plantlets have been obtained per meter using this system.








Etapas en la formation del vivero


0,20 m





1,40 m


0,10 m






0,20 m


\


~i, ----;I,










TOMATO IMPROVEMENT IN SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA

By: J. H. Simons
Institute of Agricultural Research and Training
University of Ife
Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria


INTRODUCTION. Tomato is a very important food item for the people of South-
Western Nigeria, for it is a primary ingredient of many of their everyday main
meat dishes. Tomato is produced in the area, but not enough to meet demand, and
so there is a large market for tomato from outside. This has long been met
mainly by tinned tomato paste from overseas, while in recent years much fresh
fruit, and some paste, has come from northern Nigeria.

Accordingly, soon after Nigeria's Independence in 1960, with an increasing number
of Nigerian agriculturists, and much foreign technical aid, especially from the USA,
the Ministry of Agriculture of the then Western Region, started work towards much
greater production of tomato in S.W. Nigeria, including plans for a paste factory.
The first step was to import seed of most of the then top USA commercial tomato
cultivars believing these would give higher yields of higher quality fruit than local
cultivars which then were (and still are) the main ones grown in the area. Certainly
there was a need for higher quality tomatoes; the fruit of local cvs is of very low
quality, irregular shaped, deeply grooved, very seedy, and prone to much cracking
and rapid softening. The exotics, however, proved lower yielding than locals,
mainly because they were much more badly affected by a 'yellows' disease. Never-
theless, the quest for better tomatoes for S.W. Nigeria continued, and intensified
with the establishment of more institutions concerned with agricultural research,
and is still going on.

Institutions concerned. The Research Division of the then Western Region Ministry
of Agriculture (now Research Division of the Institute of Agricultural Research and
Training, University of Ife)was the first institution to get involved. It started with
study of the serious yellows disease, and several other tomato diseases that soon
showed themselves to be important, then screened for disease resistance, especially
resistance to the yellows disease. About 200 cvs. were screened, mostly exotic,
and mostly kindly supplied by the Institute of Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria, Nigeria. In recent years, most work has been on evaluating and
selecting lines from natural crosses between local and exotic cultivars. In 1976 the
Institute started to assist IITA in screening for resistance to bacterial wilt.

For Faculty of Agriculture of the same University of Ife has been breeding tomatoes
since the mid 1960s, basing its work on exotics, and aiming firstly for high yield
potential, then disease resistance, particularly resistance to root knot nematodes.











In 1971, tomato improvement work started at the new Institute of Tropical Agricul-
ture (IITA) in Ibadan. An early start was made on crossing local tomatoes with
exotics that showed resistance to foliage diseases, followed by breeding for resist-
ance to bacterial wilt. In 1975, IITA imported the entire USDA tomato collection
and in 1976 grew it in Ibadan to find additional useful genetic material.

Fourthly, the Nigerian Institute for Horticultural Research, which was set up in
1974, with its headquarters in Ibadan, is to do tomato breeding, but has only
recently been able to start. Its work, however, will be on a national scale, and
should coordinate all the work on tomato improvement in Nigeria.

Thus importation of exotics has continued, in the hope of getting ready-made better
tomatoes, and to broaden the base of breeding work, Local tomatoes, however,
were for the most part represented by only that grown around Ibadan (Ibadan Local)
because there is little variation in local material in S.W. Nigeria.

Ibadan Local is indeterminate in growth with distinctive branching (shoots emerge
mid-way between successive leaves, instead of in the axil); flowers are multipartite,
the very first flower being gross, with fasciation; fruits are medium to large, pink,
flat-oblate, grooved, 8 12 locular, seedy, thin-walled, and very prone to cracking.

Most of the work has been under rain-fed conditions, with an early season from
March to July, and a late season from August to October. For the most part
plants were staked and densely planted at about 1 m x 0.3 0. 5 m.

MAJOR TOMATO DISEASES. Simons (1972), in an account of the diseases of
tomato in S.W. Nigeria, rated seven as major diseases. These are listed below,
and they have been the ones most worked upon in the various improvement
programmes.

Tomato Yellow Patch Virus Disease. This was the name coined by Simons for what
he rated as by far the most serious disease, and the limiting factor for tomato in
S.W. Nigeria, after climatic limitations. The disease (hereafter called Yellow
Patch) causes yellowing of leaves, mostly as patches of inter-secondary veinal
yellowing, rolling of mature leaves, and reductions in leaf and plant size, in and
fruit-setting. It is very common, everywhere, all the time except during the late
rains when the vector is rare.

Yellow Patch seems to be caused by tobacco leaf curl virus/mycoplasma, in that
the author has transmitted it to tomato from tobacco showing typical leaf curl
(including nationss, using Bemisia tabaci Gen. (whitefly). Tomato, however, does
not show nations. The disease is not sap-transmissible.

Mosaic- streak. A mosaic-cum-streak disease, caused by pepper veinal mottle virus
(Brunt, 1971) can be very common, any time of year, especially in staked and
tied plantings, because the disease is sap-transmissible. Aphids probably are










vectors, but this has not been demonstrated. The disease is generally less
damaging than Yellow Patch, but in very susceptible cvs. it causes extensive
necrosis leading to die-back of shoots.

Major foliage diseases. Out of a total of eight fungal foliage diseases, three are
widespread, common and damaging: Grey leaf spot (Stemphylium solani),
Cladosporium leaf mould (Cladosporium fulvum), and early blight (Alternaria solani)
which also attacks stems and fruits. (Most years in recent times, late blight
(Phytophthora infestans) has occurred, but usually only in the very middle of the wet
season when average temperatures are lowest.)

Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) can be devastating on low, wet land, and
even on uplands where tomato has frequently been grown. Root knot (Meloidogyne
spp.) is usually severe in situations where bacterial wilt is common, and in
unsterilized nurseries is the main problem, causing seedling stunting and death.

Fruit cracking is very common, especially in the wet season, leading to much
rotting of fruit in the field before harvest, as well as after.

GENERAL RESULTS. Because of slightly different cultural methods at the various
institutions, the all important yield per hectare figures for a given tomato material
at different places are not strictly comparable, but some general trends have been
recognized.

(i) Highest per plant yields at IITA and IAR&T were about 1.75 kg which
is equivalent to about 60 t/ha for plants spaced 1 m x 0.3 m.

(ii) Best yields usually were obtained in the late wet season, when yellow
patch was rare. At that time many cultivars often yielded at the
highest level. In the early wet, and dry seasons, however, when yellow
patch was common, only cultivars showing mild symptoms of the disease
yielded well. Highly susceptible cvs often yielded only 10 20 t/ha,
while the best of resistant ones yielded 30 40 t/ha.

(iii) By and large, indeterminate cvs. yielded higher than determinate ones.

The general performances of the different types of tomato (Locals, Unimproved
Exotics, Improved Exotics and Local x Exotic Crosses) were as follows:

Local tomato. As mentioned above, local tomato was represented by Ibadan Local.
In a majority of trials, Ibadan Local was the highest yielding cv. or was among the
highest. It showed high resistance to both yellow patch and mosaic-streak and was
only moderately damaged by grey leaf spot. However, when bacterial spot
(Xanthomonas vesicatoria) occaslonaly occurred, Ibadan Local was the most badly
affected cv., as it was with fruit cracking. The cv. seemed to have larger roots
than other cvs. and this may well be the reason it tended to live longer after rain
ceased.











Unimproved exotics. The vast majority of unimproved exotics (straight importations)
proved moderately to highly susceptible to yellow patch. In screening the over
3,000 strong USDA tomato collection at IITA, only 17 showed mild symptoms of
yellow patch (Wilson, 1977). Not surprisingly then, few exotics yielded well when
yellow patch was common. Marked exceptions were Suttons Early Market, Summer-
time and Pusa Early Dwarf, but they did not yield as well as Ibadan Local, and all
suffered considerable fruit cracking. Marzanino was exceptimal too, but for another
reason. It showed moderate to severe yellow patch but yielded above average
because it produced abundant flowers and set most, but fruit size was very small
(10 15 g).

Most exotics were only moderately affected by mosaic-streak, but among the badly
affected was VC-11, valued for bacterial wilt resistance.

On the other hand several exotics showed good resistance to one or two other
diseases or disorders. Manalucie and Manapal proved field-immune to grey leaf
spot and leaf mould; Floralou, Immolcalee and Enterpriser were field immune to
grey leaf spot. High resistance to leaf mould was seen in Veto-mold and Antimold.
Rossol was highly resistant to root-knot, and Ronita, Nama Red, Enterpriser and
Nematex were moderately resistant.

Highest fruit quality of all cvs was seen in some Heinz cvs, Enterpriser and
Ronita, the last being virtually crack free.

Improved exotics. Two cultivars were released by the Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Ife, as a result of its exotic crossing work.

Ife No. 1. Derived from a cross between Glamour and Fireball, in the early
1960s, Ife No. 1 has been recommended and offered by the local Ministry of
Agriculture ever since, for production of good quality tomatoes for fresh eating.
Ife No. 1 is determinate, producing medium-sized, orange, deep-oblate, firm,
fleshy fruits, with only moderate cracking. It is moderately to highly susceptible
to yellow patch, but yields fairly well, and when yellow patch is rare Ife No. 1
yields almost as much as Ibadan Local. It has good resistance to mosaic-streak,
but none to any other disease.

Ife Plum. Derived from a cross involving San Marzano a few years ago. Ife Plum
is a determinate plant producing small plum shaped fruits that are very firm and
solid, with little cracking. Like Ife No. 1, Ife Plum is moderately to highly
susceptible to yellow patch, but has better than average fruit-setting ability and
always yields fairly well. It is moderately resistant to mosaic-streak, and to grey
leaf spot.

Local x Exotic Crosses _xEs. IITA's first release for trial, TLeX-9, from a
cross between Ibadan Local and Manalucie, proved the best tomato in South-Western
Nigeria at present. It is indeterminate, with orange, medium-sized oblate fruits.










It proved highly resistant to yellow patch and mosaic-streak, and field immune to
grey leaf spot and Cladosporium leaf mould. It was rather late maturing but yielded
almost as high as Ibadan Local, with fruit quality much higher, except for consider-
able cracking.

Some other IITA LxEs, including some determinate, plum-fruited ones also proved
better than most other materials, but the determinate ones were not as resistant to
yellow patch as the indeterminate lines.

Several Lx Es by IAR&T, notably L x E 2/7, also proved very promising. They
showed good resistance to the virus diseases, and yielded well with low fruit
cracking, but they showed no resistance to any foliage disease.

Bacterial wilt resistance. Preliminary screening trials of possible bacterial wilt
resistant materials supplied from IAR, Zaria, and IITA, have indicated that only
VC-11, from the Philippines has appreciable resistance in 8. W. Nigeria, but as
recorded above VC-11 is very susceptible to mosaic-streak, and is moderately-
highly susceptible to yellow patch.

CONCLUSIONS. The results of tomato improvement work in South-Western Nigeria
to date, especially the work at IITA, constitute considerable progress and show the
necessity of exotic and local materials for sure and quick advances.

The next step should be to get and add resistance to early blight to the current
best materials. Then resistance to late blight, root-knot and bacterial wilt.

The huge USDA tomato collection held at IITA should be made fullest use of, by
allowing tomato breeders in other Institutions in South-Western Nigeria to help with
the great amount of work that the collection should generate.

Although apparently not very variable, local tomato cultivars should be more
thoroughly studied, so that nothing valuable in them is missed before they are
replaced by local x exotic crosses.


REFERENCES

1. Brunt, A. A., and Kenten, R. H. 1971. Pepper veinal mottle virus a new
member of the potato Y group from peppers in Ghana. Ann. Appl. Biol.
69:235-243.

2. Simons, J. H. 1972. The Diseases of Tomato in Western Nigeria. Paper
presented at the Second Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Plant
Protection, Ibadan, 12-14 February, 1972.

3. Wilson, G. F. 1977. Supplementary Vegetable Studies. In IITA 1976 Annual
Report.











PERFORMANCE OF TOMATO AND CABBAGE SEEDLINGS ON FOUR
SEEDBED SOIL MIXTURES

By: H. C. Liao
Agricultural Technical Mission from the Republic of China
National Center of Agricultural Research, Extension and Training
San Cristobal, Dominican Republic


Under the natural condition, many soils in the tropics are generally unfavorable for
vegetable seedling growth. Seedlings require adequate moisture and air if they are
to grow successfully. However, soils in the tropics tend to pack firmly after
wet causing a solid cap which not only damages the young plant but also reduces the
amount of soil air and root development is restricted. For this reason, it is
necessary to create a seedbed in which soils are suitable for vegetable seedling
growth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiment was conducted outdoors -on the
experimental farm at National Center of Agricultural Research, Extension and
Training, San Cristobal, Dominican Republic.

The split plot design with 4 replications was adapted. Two major vegetable crops
of different seed sizes, tomato and cabbage were arranged in the main plots, and
four local materials used as soil mixtures including compost, sawdust, wood-ash
and river sands, collected respectively from mushroom houses, carpentry, bakery,
and nearby river, in the sub-plots. Each material was thoroughly mixed with soils
at the rate of 1.5 kg per 1 m2 of soil surface. The sub-plot was 1 m2 in size,
consisted of 10 rows 1 m long.

Sowing was made on Aug. 4. Seeds were sown in rows and covered with soil.
Plots were covered with fine screen to protect seedlings from beating sunlight
and washing rains. Soils were watered twice a day with sprinkling can throughout
the experiment. Thinning was done twice to keep a spacing of 10 cm between
rows and 5 cm apart in the row with one good seedling. None of chemical
fertilizers were applied. Seedlings were well protected from diseases and insects.

On Sept. 3, 30 days after sowing, the height and width of seedlings were measured,
and the number of leaves was counted on the field. Seedlings were then dug up and
investigated in the laboratory.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Germination and emergence rate were not affected
by soil mixtures. Both crop of tomato and cabbage in all treatments began
emergence on the 4th day after sowing.

Significant differences were shown in seedling size as well as growth rate among
various treatments (tables 1 and 2).











Table 1.--Growth rate of vegetable seedlings on seedbed soil mixtures


Kind Seedbed Seedbed Height Number
of Soil Soil of of
Crop Mixture Seedling Seedling Leaf
cm % cm % %

Tomato Compost 21.7 147 20.0 127 5.9 113
Sawdust 17.1 116 17.2 110 5.3 110
Wood-Ash 17.6 119 17.5 111 5.3 110
River Sand 14.8 100 15.7 100 5.2 100

Cabbage Compost 14.4 115 18.1 116 7.1 111
Sawdust 12.8 102 14.5 93 6.4 100
Wood-Ash 14.0 112 17.8 114 6.7 105
River Sand 12.9 100 15.6 100 6.4 1000



Table 2.--Size of vegetable seedlings from seedbed soil mixtures


Kind Seedbed Length Length Diameter
of Soil of of of Wt. of Seedling
Crop Mixture Seedling Root Stem Fresh Dry
cm cm mm g g


Tomato





Cabbage


Compost
Sawdust
Wood-Ash
River Sand

Compost
Sawdust
Wood-Ash
River Sand


43.7
37.5
39.6
35.6

28.7
27.9
30.2
27.1


13.2
13.6
13.7
12.7

11.9
12.2
12.5
10.6


4.14
4.03
4.24
3.72

4.50
4.42
4.60
4.37


7.500
5.550
6.550
4.963

10. 822
10.495
9.938
9.625


0.767
0.660
0,698
0.539

1.132
1.088
1.182
0.938


Tomato seedlings grown on the soil mixed with river sand made slowest growth and
with compost the most rapid, while with sawdust and wood-ash performed fairly
good results. The disadvantage of more rapid seedling growth is the elongation
phenomena. It is found that tomatoes grown on the compost mixture tend to have
excessively longer but finer stem, showed rather weak. However, the thicker stem
and longer roots were found with those seedlings from mixtures of both sawdust and
wood-ash.











With cabbage seedlings, the same tendency was shown. Cabbage on compost mixture
made the most rapid growth, but the best result in increasing both root length and
stem diameter were obtained from wood-ash mixture. Seedlings grown on this kind
of seedbed appeared very stout.

Based on the result from this experiment, it is considered that wood-ash is the
suitable material to be recommended in use as a soil mixture for raising vegetable
seedlings. The main advantages of using wood-ash soil mixture are: (1) it provides
the stronger seedlings, (2) it makes possible to minimize the root wound in trans-
planting, and (3) it is easy to obtain the material in any farm house.
*****

STUDIES ON INTERCROPPING TOMATOES AND CABBAGE

By: H. C. Liao and Franklin Montas
Agricultural Technical Mission from the Republic of China
National Center of Agricultural Research, Extension and Training
San Cristobal, Dominican Republic


The practice of intercropping is one of the rapid ways to increase vegetable pro-
duction within a limited land. In order to ascertain the practicability of inter-
cropping short-season cabbage between long-season tomatoes and to develop the
adaptable cropping method, a series of experiments were initiated in 1975 at National
Center of Agricultural Research, Extension and Training, San Cristobal, Dominican
Republic.

1. Preliminary Test of Intercropping Tomatoes and Cabbage

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Floradel (tomato) and US Hit (cabbage) varieties were
employed for this experiment. Both crops were sown on November 29, 1976 and
transplanted on January 7, 1977 in randomized complete blocks replicated 3 times.
Each plot was 43.2 m2 in size with row length of 6 m in north-and-south direction.

In the monoplanting plot, as the check, tomatoes were planted in rows 120 cm apart
and spaced 30 cm in the row, and cabbage in 90 cm rows and 60 cm apart in the
row. In the intercropping plot, tomatoes and cabbage were planted on the same
ridge of 80 cm wide with 40 cm path between ridges. The spacing of tomato plants
was same as in monocropping. Cabbages were interplanted 50 cm west of the
tomato rows with plant spacing of 60 cm in the row. Tomato plants were pruned
similarly to 2 stems and tied to stakes.

Complete fertilizers containing 15-15-15 were applied at the rate of 1,250 kg/ha for
intercropping plot; and additional 250 kg/ha were side-dressed for tomatoes after
the cabbage crop was harvested. While for the monocropping plot, tomatoes were











fertilized at the rate of 1,500 kg/ha and cabbages, 1,250 kg/ha. Insects and
diseases were controlled by spraying with Lannate, Tamaron and Dithane M-45.

The cabbage was harvested from March 3 to 14, and tomatoes from March 14 to
April 18.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The experimental results summarized in table 1
indicated that intercropping resulted in lower yields with each individual crop. How-
ever, if the total value of production is taken into account, the higher gross cash
value of RD$34,831.15 was obtained from the intercropping plot. Compared with the
monocropping plot, it was 65% or RD$13,735.15 more than the tomato crop, and
15% over cabbage as well. Accordingly, it appeared that although there is a
tendency of some reduction in yield of both crops of tomatoes and cabbage, the
practice of intercropping is still profitable in vegetable production.


Table 1.--Production value of tomatoes and cabbage by cropping systems


Plant
Cropping Population Yield Gross Cash Value per Ha *
System Crop per Ha Kg/ha Index RD$/Crop RD$/Total Index


Inter-
cropping

Mono-
cropping


Tomato
Cabbage

Tomato
Cabbage


27,777
13,888

27,777
18,518


32,531
18,853

37,937
34,115


86 -- 18,072.75
-- 55 16,758.40

100 -- 21,096.00
--100 30,324.40


34,831.15


21,096.00
30,324.40


165 115


100 --
-- 100


* Averaged from local market prices in Santo Domingo during Mar.-Apr. ,'77:
tomatoes, RD$0.25/lb and Cabbage, RD$0.40/lb.


The possible reasons caused production reduction of the intercropped cabbage are
that less number of plants, as compared with monocropping, are interplanted, and
the occurrence of competitions between two crops in growth.


--











Table 2.--Size of tomatoes and cabbage by cropping systems


Days
Cropping for Size of Plant Size of Fruit and Head
System Crop Harvest Height Width Weight Height Diameter
cm cm g cm cm

Inter- Tomato 66-101 109 -- 129 -- -
cropping Cabbage 55- 66 33 78 1,605 12 20

Mono- Tomato 66-101 111 -- 135 -- --
cropping Cabbage 55- 66 40 82 2,019 12 21


The data in table 2 show that the size of plants as
cropping are smaller than in monocropping.


well as fruits and heads in inter-


The cabbage used in this experiment is a small-growing and early-maturing variety
which required smaller spaces to grow, and is ready to harvest before the tomato
reaches into the maturing stage; thus making little interference to the latter. On
the other hand, small-growing cabbage plants grown between the rows of tall-growing
tomatoes tend to be shaded from the sun and the growth is, therefore, limited.

Further tests are needed to search the proper measures for reducing competitions
in growth.

2. Comparison of Cropping Combinations in Intercropping Tomatoes and Cabbage.

MATERIALS AND METHOD. The same varieties as in the previous test were used
in this experiment. Sowing was made on March 9, 1977, and transplanting on April
15 and 16, respectively with tomatoes and cabbage.

Three distinct combinations of intercropping were designed in compare with two
monocroppings:

(1) Tomatoes planted constantly on the east side of the ridge and cabbage on
the other side in the same ridge,

(2) Alternately planted each one row of tomatoes or cabbage on every other
ridge,


(3) Planted two rows of the same crop on every other ridge,










(4) Monocropping tomatoes, and

(5) Monocropping cabbage.

The randomized complete block design was adopted. Each treatment was replicated
3 times. Plot size was 9.6 m wide and 6.0 m long. For intercropping treatment:,
the plot was divided into 8 flat ridges 120 cm apart with ridge width of 80 cm for
planting 2 rows 40 cm apart. The spacing of the tomato plants was maintained to
120 cm between rows and 30 cm in the row in all the treatment. Cabbages were
set 60 cm apart in the intercropping row, but 50 cm apart in rows, 90 cm apart
in monocropping. Fertilization and disease and insect control measures used in
previous test were practiced.

Both cabbage and tomatoes were harvested beginning June 13 and lasted 24 and 63
days, respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The results obtained from this experiment are
presented in table 3 and 4.


Table 3.--Effect of intercropping combination on tomato and cabbage crop


Tomato Crop


Cabbage Crop


Combination Population Yield Index Population Yield Index
/ha Kg/ha % /ha Kg/ha %

(1) 27,777 53,315 96.3 13,888 11,044 41.8
(2) 27,777 48,443 87.5 13,888 11,017 41.7
(3) 27,777 49,752 89.9 13,888 12,186 46.1
(4) 27,777 55,367 100.0 -- --
(5) -- -- -- 22,222 26,449 100.0


Table 4.--Effect of intercropping combination on size of tomatoes and cabbage

Tomato
Cabbage Plant Cabbage Head Plant Fruit
Combination Height Width Weight Height Diameter Height Weight
cm cm g cm cm cm g

(1) 28.5 61.3 936.5 10.3 16.3 126.8 135.3
(2) 30.1 62.8 899.8 10.0 16.3 123.9 134.7
(3) 30.3 63.3 1,021.5 10.1 16.5 127.0 132.9
(4) -- -- -- 122.8 133.1
(5) 30.3 65.3 1,325.0 10.3 17.7 -- --


Cropping











As shown in table 3, although there was no difference in plant population, some
variation in yield were found among distinct intercropping combinations. The best
result in intercropping tomatoes was obtained from the first (1) cropping combination,
made only 3.7% less fruit yield than the monocropping. Due to the unavoidable
less plant population in intercropping, and perhaps also resulted from shading,
cabbage plants produced only 41.7 46.1% as compared with the monocropping. In
fact, among the three intercropping combinations tested, the third (3) combination
produced more cabbage than the others probably because of two rows of cabbage
were planted on the same ridge so that made less competition with tomato plants.

*****

CUMULATE RESISTANCES TO PSEUDOMONAS SOLANACEARUM AND TO
MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA WITH DETERMINATE GROWTH IN TOMATO

By: C. M. Messiaen
Station de Pathologie Vegetale, I. N.R.A. E.N.S.A.
Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier

H. Laterrot
Station d'Amelioration des Plantes Maratcheres, I.N.R.A.
Domaine Saint Maurice, 84140 Montfavet-Avignon

F. Kaan
Station d'Amelioration des Plantes, I.N.R.A. E.N.S.A.
Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier


The small and bitter fruited tomato breeding line CRA 66 was found highly resistant
to Pseudomonas solanacearum in Guadeloupe by DIGAT and DERIEUX (1968). It
was considered by these authors to be a local West Indian variety. To us it appears
as originating directly from OTB2, obtained in Japan (SUZUKI and al, 1964) from the
NC 1963-64N population bred at the North Carolina University.

Under tropical conditions the fertility of CRA 66 seems to be less susceptible to
temperature than the fertility of classical varieties. Its yield may be 1 kg/plant at
18 28 C and 240 310 C as well, on the contrary the yield of "Floradel" lowers
from 3 kg to 0.5 kg from the first conditions to the second.

CRA 66 was used first in Guadeloupe as a root stock (1968-1972), then introduced
in our breeding program to obtain large fruited tomato varieties resistant to P.
solanacearum (one of the first results of this program is the cultivar CARETTE).

We have also tried to introduce in CRA 66 the genes for resistance to root knot
nematodes (Mi) and for determinate growth (sp).










INTRODUCTION OF THE RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES INTO CRA 66,
With the hope to obtain a root stock resistant to both P. solanacearum and root knot
nematodes, we have introduced the MI gene into CRA 66 by the backcross method.

After three backcrosses of the F1 hybrid CRA 66 x ANAHU by CRA 66, with
selection of the heterozygotes Mi/+ at each generation, we have grown in Guadeloupe
in a plot strongly contaminated by P. solanacearum 12 inbred lines homozygous for
Mi. One of them was chosen as the most resistant, and was multiplied under the
number 2.5.7., then called CANITA. This line produces fruits larger and a little
less bitter than CRA 66, its resistance to P. solanacearum is slightly inferior, but
much higher than the resistance of the F1 CRA 66 x ANAHU. Like CRA 66 it is
resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 by the I gene. Like most
of the tomato varieties resistant to Pseudomonas solanacearum it is highly tolerant
to F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici race 2,

Like CRA 66 it is partially resistant to the pathotype 0 of Cladosporium fulvum.
It is resistant to Stemphylium solani. We have not verified if the resistance of
CRA 66 to the mite Vasates lycopersici was preserved.

With the introduction in 1972 of the first F1 hybrid tomatoes resistant to P.
solanacearum, FLORADEL X, (a large fruited breeding line obtained from FLORADEL
x CRA 66) we did not go on grafting tomatoes in Guadeloupe. Therefore, CRANITA
was not used as a root stock.

OBTENTION OF A DETERMINATE BREEDING LINE. The need for processing
varieties of tomatoes adapted to tropical conditions was seen after a seminar
organized at IBADAN (Nigeria) by the FORD Foundation and the I.I.T.A. in 1971.
We thought that the obtention of a breeding line joining together resistance to P.
solanacearum and nematodes, fertility at high temperatures and determinate type
of growth would be a first step to this purpose.

After self pollination of the backcross (CRANITA x RONITA*) x CRANITA we have
grown 25 plants in Guadeloupe during the hot season in an insect proof greenhouse
where temperature was fluctuating from 26 to 380 C. Only five plants produced
fruits. In the progeny of one of them, grown in a plot highly contaminated by P.
solanacearum we found a determinate plant which survived. The progeny of this
plant was homogenous for resistance to bacterial wilt.

This breeding line, named I.N.R.A. 5.1.8. is homozygous for sp, I, Mi. Its
resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum is somewhat inferior to CRANITA level, it
is also tolerant to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2, resistant to Stemphyliurn
solani. It has lost the partial resistance of CRA 66 to Cladosporium fulvum, and
was not tested against Vasates lycopersici.


* RONITA is a ROMA type cultivar, resistant to root know nematodes and F.
oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1, with elongated fruits and determinate type of
growth (PECAUT, LATERRROT and BROSSIER, 1964).











5.1.8. produces fruits during hot and wet seasons. Its fruits are pink, like those of
CRA 66 and CRANITA and small, their shape is still variable. The high suscepti-
bility of the Roma-type varieties to blossom-end-rot in West Indian conditions was
eliminated, the stems are thick, straight and short.

SUMMARY: Three tomato lines bred in Guadeloupe and at Avignon are described:

CRA 66 is a small fruited primitive type highly resistant to Pseudomonas
solanacearum used as grafting stock.

CRANITA is a nematode resistant (Mi gene) version of CRA 66.

I.N.R.A. 5.1.8. is a determinate growth (sp gene) line, resistant to nematodes
and Pseudomonas bacterial wilt and could be used to breed a tropical disease
resistant paste tomato.

RESUME. Trois lignees de tomatoes selectionnees en Guadeloupe et a Avignon sont
decrites:

CRA 66 est une lignee primitive a petits fruits amers, hautement resistante aux
Pseudomonas solanacearum et utilisable comme porte-greffe.

CRANITA est une version de CRA 66, resistance aux nematodes (gene Mi).

I.N.R.A. 5.1.8. est une lignee a croissance determine (gene sp) resistance
aux nematodes et au Pseudomonas, elle pourrait &tre utiliseoe pour la selection
d'une variety de tomato pour l'industrie qui resiste aux maladies tropicales.

RESUMEN. Describimos tres lines de tomate seleccionadas en isla Guadalupe y en
Avignon (Francia):

CRA 66 tiene una fruta amarga de tamano pequeno, de alta resistencia al
Pseudomonas solanacearum, utilizada para injerto.

CRANITA es un tipo CRA 66 con resistencia a los nematodos (gene Mi).

I.N.R.A. 5.1.8. tiene un crecimiento determinado (gene sp), resisted a los
nematodos (gene Mi) y al Pseudomonas solanacearum, se podria utilizar para
seleccionar una variedad de tomate de industrial con resistencia a las enferme-
dades tropicales.










REFERENCES

1. Digat, B., Derieux, M. 1968. A study of the varietal resistance of tomato
to bacterial wilt. L. The practical value of F1 hybrids and their contri-
bution to the genetic basis of resistance. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food
Crops Society. 6th. Annual Meeting, St. Augustine, Trinidad. p. 95-101.

2. Kaan, F., and Laterrot, H. 1977. Mise en evidence de la relation entire
des resistances de la tomato a deux maladies vasculaires: Le fletris-
sements bacterien (Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Sm.) et la Fusariose
pathotype 2 (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc) Snyd et Hans).
Ann. Amelior. Plantes 27(1):25-34.

3. Pecaut, P., Laterrot, H., and Brossier, J. 1964. Description de nouvelles
varieties de tomate selectionnees a la Station d'Amelioration des Plantes
Maraiche'res. Ann. Amelior. Plantes 14(1):87-95.

4. Suzuki, I., Sugahara, Y., Kotani, A., Todaka, S., and Shimada, H. 1964.
Studies on breeding eggplant and tomato for resistance to Pseudomonas
solanacearum. L Engeishikenjo Hokoku. Ser. A., 77-106. (in Plant
Breed. Abstr., 37, 3 no. 5225).

*****

HOME GARDENS AND HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE WET TROPICS

By: G. J. H. Grubben
Department of Agricultural Research
Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam


Home gardening, the Cinderella of tropical horticulture. Home gardens produce a
great part, maybe one third of the vegetables and fruits consumed in the humid
tropics. Leaf vegetables, with their high content of carotene and other essential
nutrients and high yield per unit area, are mainly produced in home gardens.
However, because home gardens have little economic importance, hardly any research
on traditional home gardening systems and their improvement have been undertaken
up to now. Most extension papers and handbooks on home gardening are based on
experiences in commercial gardening and are, therefore, rather inpractical for home
gardening proper. However, nutritionists more and more become aware of their
importance.

What is a home garden. The characteristics of home gardens such as may be found
in densely populated areas in the humid tropics, most of all in Asia, can be
summarized as follows:











1. Of paramount importance is preserving a very high soil fertility by
recycling home refuse and by using all available organic matter, as fresh
or slightly decomposed manure.

2. No expenses are needed, no pesticides nor artificial fertilizers have to
be applied, no nice looking, rectangular beds to be made and only a mini-
mum of work is to be done. From time to time, some square meters
are manured, worked with a hoe and planted. No other equipment beside
a hoe, a cutlass, and some jar for watering is needed.

3. A great assortment of vegetables and fruits must be planted in a mixed
vegetation, using all the available light, water and plant nutrients in the
most efficient way. Such a mixed plantation is ecologically well balanced
and consequently will give no serious disorders, pests or diseases. A
surface of some 100 m2 may produce enough vegetables and fruits to
balance the diet of a 5 person family.

4. A fence against animals made from local material such as palm leaves,
strengthened with stakes of the drumstick tree or another living support,
is often necessary. Vegetable species such as Sauropus, pigeon pea or
leaf-cassava can also be used as a hedge.

5. Irrigation in the dry season should only be supplied if water is readily
available. Roselle, Talinum and other more or less drought resistant
annual vegetables should be planted in the dry season. However, perennial
shrubs and trees show the best drought resistance; species which within
this category are suitable for compounds on account of their edible leaves,
are Sauropus androgynus, bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), drumstick tree
(Moringa oleifera), Gnetum gnemon, chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa), and
many others.

6. A heavy shade is unfavorable for the growth of annual vegetables. A light
shade from old coconut trees, Sesbania grandiflora, drumstick tree or
pigeon pea may be tolerated and during the dry season, can be favorable
for the annual vegetables.

7. Leaf vegetables are particularly suitable for the compounds:

annuals: amaranth, tropical leaf cabbage, jute, kangkong, nightshade,
African eggplant, Talinum, taro and many other species.

perennials: leaf cassava, bitter leaf, Gnetum, Sauropus, fluted gourd
chaya, taro.

A productive annual leaf vegetable like amaranth or kangkong may produce
3 kg/m2 in two months; a hedge of a perennial 10 kg per meter per year.










8. Climbing species are excellent for an optimal use of fences, walls, shower
places, shade trees. Winged bean, hyacinth bean, yardlong bean, bitter
gourd, chayote, wax gourd, loofah and Basella are highly recommended.

9. Eggplant and hot pepper are very suitable for home gardens, but tomato,
okra, pumpkin, soya, mung bean and other species are less recommended
for small home gardens, and even less in tropical lowland, since the
production of nutrients per unit of land is too low.

10. Papaw (papaya) is the most productive fruit species and is highly
recommended. Other fruit trees including bananas, often occupy too
much space in relation to vegetables, which are more productive than
fruits and have a better nutritional composition.

Research needed. The above mentioned ten points need much clarification by
scientifically based observations and research. Exact data, on the growing charac-
teristics of most of the above mentioned and of many other local tropical vegetable
and fruit species are lacking. Apart from checking the ten enumerated horticultural
points, research has to be done in related disciplines: social factors, nutritional
requirements of the family and the relation of the home garden to small livestock
breeding and fish ponds.

Another problem is the popularization of the new knowledge for possible improvement
on home production of vegetables and fruits. Since a special extension service for
this non-economic home activity would be too expensive, it has to be incorporated in
existing horticultural or agricultural services, in close cooperation with activities
such as school gardening and health education. The setting up of local stations for
the distribution of locally selected and produced vegetable seeds and fruit trees is
an essential part of such a program. But let us recapitulate the directly needed
horticultural research items: 1) maintenance of soil fertility, use of compost and/
or non-decomposed organic matter, human and livestock manure, 2) inputs and labor,
3) plant associations in relation to the ecological system: pests, diseases and com-
petition for minerals, light and water, 4) fences, 5) drought resistance, 6) influence
of shade, 7) annual and perennial leaf vegetables, shrubs, trees, hedges, 8) suit-
able climbing species, 9) suitable leguminous vegetables and types with fleshy fruits,
10) suitable fruit species.










PLANS FOR A SMALL, INTENSIVE VEGETABLE GARDEN FOR
YEAR ROUND PRODUCTION

By: Franklin W. Martin and Ruth Ruberte
Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico


Concept. Even a small, well-managed garden can supply a large proportion of the
nutrients needed by a family. Gardens also furnish much needed exercise,
experience in independence, and satisfaction to many individuals. All gardens have
certain features in common. However, the crops suitable for a garden vary from
region to region, as do the pests and diseases. For any specific area it should be
possible to design a small, high output garden. if seed materials are made available
with plans and instructions, it should be possible for many individuals, including
beginners, to make use of this unique, help-yourself tool. The garden described
here is an experimental garden designed for western Puerto Rico where the first
half of the year is relatively dry and the second half is relatively wet. It is
subject to modification as experience increases.

Features of the garden. The garden is 6 meters in diameter and circular so that
a single rotary sprinkler can be used to water it. It is divided into 8 pie-shaped
beds, and an optional small circular bed in the center. These beds have different
planting schedules, and are rotated. See attached plot plan (Table 1).

Details of the gardening scheme.

1. Site: The original site should be level to slightly inclined, free of large stones
and roots. The original vegetation should be removed and the ground should be
loosened or turned to a depth of 30-60 cm. Large quantities (8-10 cm) of well-
rotted manure or cachaza should be added. If the soil is very acid, powdered
limestone (2.5 cm) should also be added. A very heavy clay may benefit from
the addition of sand. All materials should be thoroughly mixed into the soil.
The area around the garden should be protected from weed growth, perhaps by
a permanent pathway. We have found it to be very useful to construct a small
wall around the garden site, and to fill with the best available soil mixture.

2. Weed control: Initially, weeds are eliminated by hand. It is useful to maintain
the plot humid and to turn over the soil several times to germinate and
eliminate weed seeds. This garden is built around the concept of a weed-free
state, easy to achieve and maintain in small plots. Weeds should never be
allowed to remain in the garden.

3. Species and varieties: The vegetables chosen are given in tables 1 and 2,
together with other necessary information. We are constantly testing varieties
suitable for western Puerto Rico to include in improved versions of this plan.








Table 1.--Individual plots and the quarters of the year that these crops will occupy them


Plot Quarters to occupy plot
number Crop Suggest planting dates 1 2 3 4 Note


I Winged bean
Sweet potato


Tomato
Okra


Soybean
Eggplant and Pepper

Celosia
Kaichoy
Catjang cowpea

Soybean
Eggplant and Pepper

Celosia
Kaichoy
Catjang cowpea


March-April
March-April


December, March
May


December, March
May

Any time, each 3 months
Any time, each 3 months
May

June, September
December

Any time, each 3 months
Any time, each 3 months
December


Yams


VIII Pigeon pea
Ceylong spinach


March, April

March, April
March, April


X X X X


Intercrop
Intercrop


X X X X Intercrop


Intercrop
Intercrop


X X


X X


X X


X X


X X


X X

X X


Separate

Separate
Separate



Separate
--




Separate
Separate


X X


IX Herbs, leaf-type onions


Any time











Table 2.--List of crops and varieties


Spacing
Common name Species Variety (inches) Notes*


Legumes

Winged bean

Catjang cowpea

Soybean

Pigeon pea

Green leaves

Celosia

Ceylon spinach

Kaichoy

Bunching onions

Root crops

Sweet potato


Potato yam

Fruit crops


Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

Vlipna unguiculata

Glycine max

Cajanus cajan


Celosia argentea

Basella alba

Brassica juncea

Allium fistulosum


Ipomoea batatas


Dioscorea esculenta


Tinge, Toanio

MITA 58

Jupiter, Kahala

African


Sierra Leone

Green

Waianae strain


Gem, Tai 57,
Cobre


Beti


IF, S,L,R

IF,S,L

IF, S

IF, S, L


6 L

15 L

4 L

4 L


24 R, L


30 R


Lycopersicon esculentum


Capsicum annuum


Solanum melongena

Hibiscus esculentus


Betterboy,
Tropimate

Yolo Wonder,
Blanco del Pais

Rayada

Clemson
Spineless


30 F, IF


24 IF,F,L


IF

IF, F, L


* Key to notes


on edible parts. L=leaf, R=root or tuber, IF=immature fruit,


F=mature fruit, S=dried seed. Listed in order of importance of usage.


Tomato


Pepper


Eggplant

Okra











4. Planting dates, distances, and depths: The garden can be begun at any time of
the year. As crops are removed they are replaced with others. Suggested
planting dates are given in table 1, but should not be rigidly followed.
Distances between plants are recommended in table 2. Planting depths are 3
times the diameter of the seed. Some recommended species are planted from
cuttings or tuber pieces. While it is possible to plant seeds directly into the
soil, we find it useful to plant all seeds in small containers of sterilized soil
(soil can be sterilized by "cooking" it over a fire). Temporary pots of paper
or cardboard can be constructed as simple cylinders, and plants with containers
can be transplanted to the soil when they are 4 inches in height. We like to
start plants in a screened chamber where insects, snails, and other pests are
avoided. However, such plants are delicate, and need to be acclimatized by
harsher conditions before transplanting to the garden.

5. Fertilization: Each time a plot is terminated the old plant materials should be
completely removed for composting and new, weed-free compost, cachaza, or
*manure should be added. Small amounts of balanced mineral fertilizer, if
possible, with minor elements not to exceed 100 g per square meter per year,
can be used but are not necessary. All fertilizer is mixed into the soil before
replanting.

6. Irrigation: At the first signs of wilting, the garden should be irrigated with
rotary sprinkler until the soil is deeply wetted. This may require several
hours. Further watering may not be necessary for several weeks.

7. Disease control: Diseased plants or plant parts should be removed. Crops
should be rotated. Very susceptible species and varieties should be eliminated.

8. Mulching: Because of the many kinds of mulch, the possibility exists that
mulch may give shelter to insects, harbor disease, or may reduce nitrogen
availability. Mulching is not necessary for the small garden, and if practical,
results should be monitored carefully.

9. Rotation: Rotation should be managed, in as far as possible, to avoid planting
the crops in areas where the same class of crops (legumes, fruit vegetables,
root vegetables, edible leaves) have been planted before.

10. Insect control: In these small gardens in Puerto Rico insect control is not
practiced. However, the authors have prepared a set of recommendations for
control of insects using non-chemical methods.

11. Planting materials: The species and varieties of plants recommended may be
difficult to obtain. The Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture will attempt
to supply these species during tho porlod of experimentation (several years).











12. Yields: The garden plan has been found to furnish all of the vegetables that a
family of 4 can eat. Nutritional analysis showed that the garden provides all
of the vitamin A, C, and B3 for the family, but only a small proportion of
the protein, calories, minerals, and other vitamins required.

*****

PERFORMANCE OF VEGETABLES AT MAYAGUEZ, PUERTO RICO
DURING THE RAINY SEASON 1977

By: F. Jimenez
Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico


INTRODUCTION. The summer vegetable garden was planted on the same location as
last year, named Las Ochenta. The plot was left fallow until the present garden
was planted. As stated in previous reports the plot has a gentle slope providing
external drainage, thus avoiding the possibility of heavy rainfalls flooding the area.

Land preparation. The plot was plowed and disked. Then, lime at the. rate of 1 ton
per acre and cachaza or filter press cake, a by-product of the sugarcane mills, was
incorporated into the soil by means of a rotavator which at the same time provided
the soil a fine texture for planting. No ridges were made because of differences in
spacing between plant rows. The absence of ridges left the plants more exposed to
runoff in case of torrential rainfalls especially when they are too small.

The planting was done one month later than previous years in order to subject the
plants to a more tough test, since at this time the rainfalls were heavier. Seeds
were planted in the site when possible or in seed beds for later transplanting to the
field. During the time of planting, the high humidity present in the soil plus the
heavy rainfalls following the planting, both the seeds and the transplanted seedling
suffered a severe blow with rotting and washing away. More transplanting were
made, but most of the efforts for developing good plants and good stand were
unsuccessful. Diazinon at the rate of 10 milliliters per gallon and Sevin at the
rate of 2 tablespoons per gallon were used as insecticides. Dithane M-45 at the
rate of 2 tablespoons per gallon was used as fungicide. Pentachlorophenol, a
contact herbicide, was used to control weeds, as well as hoe weeding was done as
necessary. Mechanical devices were impossible to use due to the excessive humid
conditions of the soil.

The vegetable varieties and their performance in Mayaguez are given in table 1.
Varieties that we recommend for the hot, humid tropics are given in table 2.








Table 1.--Vegetable performance


Useful yield
Vegetable and variety Source to us (kgs/hectare) Principal problems Recommendations


1. Cabbage

X-K Cross

YR Cross 20

YR Summer 50

Rapid Ball (Red)


2. Mustard

Kaichoy

3. Chinese Cabbage

Hybrid Saladeer

Hybrid No. 39

Spoon Pai-Tsai

Tai Pai-chi


4. Collard

392 Vates


Co.,

Co.,

Co.,

Co.,


Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan


Takil &

Takii &

Takii &

Takii &


Hawaii


Takii & Co., Japan

Takii & Co., Japan

Taiwan

Taiwan





Joseph Harris Co., USA


25074

12203

13280

1775


31225


15433

15792

10767

6819





6101


Late, small size head

Late, small size head

Late, small size head

Low production


Increase amount
of fertilizer
Increase amount
cf fertilizer
Increase amount
of fertilizer
Plant on moderate
rains


None


Poor head formation

Susceptible to
Cercospora leaf spot
Poor head formation

Poor head formation





Fair stand


Plant during dry
season
Plant during dry
season
Plant during dry
season
Plant during dry
season




Increase amount
of fertilizer







Table 1. --continued


Vegetable and variety

5215-9 Georgia

Georgia Southern


Source to us

Burpee Seed Co., USA

Kilgore Seed Co., USA


Useful yield


Useful yield
(kgs/hectare)

5384

5922


Principal problems

Slow grow

Slow grow


Recommendations

Increase amount
of fertilizer
Increase amount
of fertilizer


5. Brocolli

Green Comet
Hybrid
Waltham 29

6. Kohlrabi

Hybrid Winner

Early Purple
Vienna

7. Radish

Early Scarlet
Globe
Red Prince

8. Turnip

Tokyo Cross


Burpee Seed Co., USA

Kilgore Seed Co., USA



Takii & Co., Japan

W. Atlee Burpee Seed Co.,
USA


Kilgore Seed Co., USA

Kilgore Seed Co., USA



Takii & Co., Japan


359

10408



3589

3230


None

None



None


Poor yield

None



Poor stand, rotting
of leaves, stems
Poor stand, rotting
of leaves, stems


Very poor stand

Very poor stand



Very poor stand


Not suited






Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months


Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months


Plant in drier
months








Table 1. --continued


Recommendations

Plant in drier
months


Vegetable and variety

Just Right


9. Pepper

Blanco del Pais

Hybrid Ace

Puerto Rico
Wonder
Yolo Wonder

Burpee' s
Bellringer
Oratani

A-52-1 P-74

Chilli No. 54

Chilli No. 55

Hybrid Pepper
No. 284

0. Tomato

Plat'.lo


Source to us

Takii & Co., Japan





P. R. Agric. Adm.
Services
Takii & Co.', Japan

U.P.R.

U.P.R.

Burpee's Seed Co., USA

Rutgers University

Rutgers University

Seychelles

Seychelles

Takii & Co., Japan





Public Market


1


Useful yield
(kgs/hectare)

None





12920

6101

4665

No production

1436

No production

5025

3948

No production

8614





6281


Principal problems

Very poor stand




Poor growth

Poor stand

Poor growth

Very poor stand

Small, poor stand

Very poor stand

Poor stand, poor growth

Poor growth

Very poor stand

Poor growth





Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts


Plant in dry season


Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months
Transplant
months


drier

drier

drier

drier

drier

drier

drier

drier

drier

drier







Table 1.--continued


Useful yield
Vegetable and variety Source to us (kgs/hectare) Frincipal problems Recommendations


Cherry

Pope

Apple Shaped

Early Sub Artic
Delight
Owusu Bioh

Woeowoso

Campbell No. 3!

VC 48-1

VC 11-1

E-24-274

Ramapo


MITA

Seychelles

Seychelles

Seychelles

Ghana

Ghana

Campbell Institute,
New Jersey
Takii & Co., Japan

Takii & Co., Japan

Rutgers University

Rutgers University


8075

9152

6640

1794

9152

8434

6101

10049

12203

6101

3948


Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts
Susceptible to blights
and bacterial wilts


Plant in dry season


Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant


dry

4ry

dry


season

season

season


dry season

dry season

dry season

dry season

dry season

dry season

dry season


11. Eggplant

OMP
Kurume Long
Muktakeshi
African Gross
Anguine


Seychelles
Seychelles
Seychelles
Seychelles


36474
18304
24899
17900.


None
None
None
None







Table 1.--continued


Vegetable and variety

No. 2
No. 3


Source to us

Seychelles
Seychelles


Useful yield
(kgs/hectare)

28533
8075


Principal problems

None
Poor stand, fruits
to small


Recommendations


Add more fertili-
zer


12. Soybean

Khanrich

Kahala

Kaiku

Early Green


13. Cowpea

Big Boy

Sadandy

White Acre
Running

14. Asparagus bean

No. 503

Extra Long Red
Seeded


MITA

MITA

MITA

MITA


Kilgore Seed Co., USA

Kilgore Seed Co., USA

Kilgore Seed Co., USA





MITA

Takii & Co., Japan


1436

1794

1794

718


10947

7537

8434





359

1196


Low production

Low production

Low production

Very low production


Susceptible to
Cercospora leaf spot
Susceptible to
Cercospora leaf spot
Susceptible to
Cercospora leaf spot



Poor stand and low
production
Poor stand


Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months


Good control of the
Cercospora leaf spot
Good control of the
Cercospora leaf spot
Good control of the
Cercospora leaf spot



Plant in drier months

Plant in drier months


--








Table 1. --continued


Vegetable and variety

Extra Long Black
Seeded

15. Pole bean

Garden of Eden

Hawaiian Wonder


16. Podded pea

Manoa Sugar


Source to us

Takii & Co., Japan





Univ. of Hawaii

Univ. of Hawaii





Univ. of Hawaii


Useful yield
(kgs/hectare)

1196





No production

No production





No production


Recommendations

Plant in drier
months



Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months



Plant in drier
months


17. Roselle

A 59-57

18. Caigua


19. Bitter gourd

No. 512


MITA

MITA


MITA


No record

No record


No record


No

Very poor growth




Very poor growth


None

Increase amount
of fertilizer



Plant in drier
months


Principal problems

Poor stand





Very poor stand

Very poor stand





Very poor stand








Table 1. --continued


Vegetable and variety

20. Cucumber

Tex Long

No. 59

432 Poinsett

Lehua No. 1

Wisconsin SMR 18

Hybrid Cucumber
No. 713

21. Sqaash

Burpee Hybrid
Zucchini
Golden Swan
Hybrid
Seneca Prolific

Seneca Butterbar
Hybrid


Useful yield
Source (kgs/hectare) Principal problems Recommendations


Kilgore Seed Co., USA

MITA

Joseph Harris Seed
Co., USA
Univ. of Hawaii

Burpee's Seed Co., USA

Takil & Co., Japan





W. Atlee Burpee Seed
Co., USA
George W. Park Seed
Co., USA
Northrup Seed Co., USA

Joseph Harris Seed
Co., USA


No production

No production

No production

No production

No production

No production





No production

No production

No production

No production


germination

germination

germination

germination

germination

germination





germination

germination

germination

germination


Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
izonths
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months


Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months
Plant in drier
months







Table 2. Varieties recommended for the hot, humid tropics


Variety

1. Cabbage


2. Mustard


4. Collard


Brocolli

Kohlrabi

Pepper

Eggplant


Cowpea

Roselle


Recommended
variety

K-K Cross
Hybrid YR Summer 50

Kaichoy
Hybrid Saladeer

329 Vates


Waltham 29

Hybrid Winner

Blanco del Pais

OMP
No. 3

Big Boy

A 59-57


-- ~- --


Special characteristics

High yielder, no head rotting
High yielder, no head rotting

Good growth
High yielder

High yielder, long period of
production

Good growth

Good bulb stem formation

Prolific, good production

High yielder, good growth
High yielder, good growth

Good growth, high yielder

Good growth, disease free


Defects

Late
Late

None
Poor head formation

Susceptible to diamond back
caterpillar

None

Rotting of leaves and stems

Small plants and fruits

None
None

Susceptible to leaf beetles

None


- --










CHEMICAL CONTROL TRIAL FOR THE INSECT PESTS OF PEPPER,
CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. VAR. TATASE

By: T. A. Akinlosotu
Institute of Agricultural Research and Training
University of Ife
P.M.B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria


INTRODUCTION. Pepper, Capsicum spp., is an important ingredient in the diets of
Nigerians. It is used mainly as spice for seasoning soup, stew and other items of
food. It is grown mainly as a backyard garden crop or intercropped with the major
staple food crops like cassava, yam and maize. Because of this 'minor crop' status
of pepper in Nigeria, the crop has received very little entomological attention in the
last 50 years. However, in the last 10 years, there has been tremendous interest
in the insect pests of pepper, particularly in the Southwestern part of the country.
Ayoade (1976) and Akinlosotu (1976, 1977) have featured lists of the insect pests of
pepper in Southwestern Nigeria in their works. Comes (1964) also listed the insects
occasionally found on stored Capsicum spp. in Nigeria. Nwankiti (1977) described
Atherigona (Acritochaeta) orientalis and M egaselia sp. as dipterous pests of pepper
and tomato in the Eastern States of Nigeria. Maduewesi (1967) listed aphids and
whiteflies as possible vectors of the pepper mosaic virus in Nigeria. The present
paper reports a recent chemical control trial for the insect pests of pepper on Moor
Plantation, Ibadan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two chemical insecticides, carbaryl (Vetox 85) and
malathion, were tested for their suitability for controlling the insect pests of pepper,
Capsicum annuum variety Tatase, in a complete randomized block experiment with
three treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of the two chemicals
and a control (no chemical). The choice of the two chemicals was based on their
ready availability on the local markets, while that of the pepper variety was based
on its popularity among the housewives.

The seeds were sown in the nursery early in March and transferred to the field
six weeks later at a spacing of 0.9m along and between rows. Each experimental
plot consisted of four rows of ten plants each, and was surrounded by a 2-meter
margin. Five ounces of 15:15:15 N.P.K. compound fertilizer was applied to each
plant as side dressing a week after transplanting. The insecticides were applied at
weekly intervals for 12 weeks, beginning from flowering. A knapsac spraying pump
with 9-liter capacity was used for applying the chemicals. Dosage rates were 2.4
kg/hectare in 393 liters of water for carbaryl and 1.12 kg in 393 liters of water for
malathion. Difolatan 5 was added to the insecticide solutions at the rate of three
capsules to 9 liters solution to prevent incidence of fungus diseases. In the case of
the control treatment, the fungicide was added to ordinary water. Postspray insect
count was conducted to assess the efficiency of the chemicals against foliage pests,










while the proportion (%) of fruits damaged by insects in each treatment plot was taken as
a measure of the efficiency of the chemicals against the fruit pests.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Results from the post spray insect counts showed that
both carbaryl and malathion were effective against the following important foliage
pests-:

Spodoptera littoralis F. Lepidoptera, Noctuidae
Acrea terpsichore L. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae
Zonocerus variegatus L. Orthoptera, Acrididae
Ootheca mutabilis Sahl. Coleoptera, Galerucidae
Lagria villosa F. Coleoptera, Lagriidae
Epilachna spp. Coleoptera, Coccinellidae
Acanthocoris obscuricornis Dall. Hemiptera, Coreidae
Graptosterhus servus F. Hemiptera, Lygaeidae
Lygaeus sp. Hemiptera, Lygaeidae
Acrosternum sp. Hemiptera, Pentatomidae
Aspavia armigera F. Hemiptera, Pentatomidae
Empoasca sp. Jassidae

However, population buildup of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulz., was
noticed in the experimental field after the tenth application of the insecticides.
The results of the aphid count from 50 leaves harvested from randomly selected
plants in each plot are shown in table 1.* The results indicate that the buildup of
the aphids mainly occurred in the carbaryl treated plots. Similar buildup of the
green peach aphid have been reported on crops treated with carbaryl by many
workers (Thurston, 1965; Burbutis, et al, 1972; Akinlosotu, 1976). These workers
attributed the cause to the frequent application of the chemical. Nearly 80% of the
mummies collected from sampled leaves from the carbaryl treated plots produced
adult parasites. This seemed to suggest that carbaryl has no inhibitory effect on
the mummies (immature parasites). The low aphid population on the malathion plots
also indicates that the chemical is effective against the aphids.

Assessments of the fruits lost to insects are summarized in table 2. The results
tend to show that both carbaryl and malathion were ineffective against the fruit pests
of pepper, mainly the Achaea spp., as the proportions of fruits damaged by insects
in the chemically treated plots was high (21.9 and 24.1 for carbaryl and malathion,
respectively) and not significantly different from that of the control treatment.
However, the loss in the latter was slightly lower than those from the former.
Similarly, yields of marketable fruits from the chemically treated plots were
slightly superior to that of the control.

The trial will continue in the next two years before a firm recommendation can be
made on the chemical control of pepper. Nevertheless, the present work has con-
firmed the previous recommendation that frequent use of carbaryl often leads to a


* Tables 1 and 2 are .available from the author on request.










buildup of the green peach aphid population (Akinlosotu, 1976). The low aphid
number on the malathion treated plots also recommends the chemical as a suitable
alternative to carbaryl for the control of insects on Capsicum and Solanum groups of
vegetables which are favored hosts of M. persicae in Southwestern Nigeria.


REFERENCES

1. Akinlosotu, T. A. 1976. Aphids Associated with Local Vegetables in South
Western Nigeria. I.A.R.& T. Res. Bull. No. 7, 10 pp.

2. 1977. A Check List of Insects Associated with Local
Vegetables in South Western Nigeria. I.A.R. & T. Res. Bull. No. 8,
18 p.


3. Ayoade, Kayode A.
State, Nigeria).
Resources, Moor


1976. Harmful Insects of Horticultural Crops (Western
Information Section, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural
Plantation, Ibadan. 40 p.


4. Burbutis, P. P., C. P. Davis, L. P. Kelsey and C. E. Martin.
Control of Green Peach Aphid on Sweet Peppers in Delaware.
Entomol. 65(5):1436-1438.


5. Comes, M. A. 1964.
Products in Nigeria.


A revised Listing of the Insects Associated with Stored
Rep. Nigerian Stored Prod. Res. Inst. 1964: 97-119.


6. Maduewesi, J. N. C. 1967. Studies on the Mosaic Disease of Pepper in
Nigeria I Transmission, Symptomology and Physical Properties. Nig.
Agric. J. 4:28-32.

7. Nwankiti, O. C. 1977. Incidence of Dipterous Flies on Pepper Capsicum
sp; Solanum sp. and Tomato (Lycopersicum sp.) in the Eastern States
of Nigeria. Abstract of Paper Presented at the 7th Annual Conference of
the Nigerian Society for Plant Protection. N.S.P.P. Occasional Publication
No. 2 p. 57.

8. Thurston, Richard. 1965. Effect of Insecticides on the Green Peach Aphid,
Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Infesting Burley Tobacco. J. Econ. Entomol.
58(6):1127-1130.


1972.
J. Econ.











THE PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENTS OF YAMS ON AN OXISOL IN HAWAII

By: Peter Vander Zaag
University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture
Department of Agronomy. and Soil Science, Honolulu, Hawaii


INTRODUCTION. The phosphorus requirement of yams has not been given much
attention. The research findings in the West Indies (Brown, 1931) and Ghana (Koli,
1973) found no response to P where as in Nigeria (Irving, 1956) there were varied
responses to P. The lack of response to P appears to be linked to Mycorrhizal
association which allows for more efficient use of relatively small amounts of P
present in the soil.

This study was done to see how yams respond to P on an Oxisol in Hawaii.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. A continuous function P experiment (Fox, 1973) was
established with 16 levels of P on a Clayey Kaolinitic isothermic Tropeptic
Eutrustox.

The initial P level using Bray 1 was 6.5 ppm. P in solution levels, using the P
sorption curve technique, were adjusted to 16 levels ranging from .005 to 1.0 ppm
in solution. The amount of P added as TSP ranged from 0 to 1300 kg P/ha. to
attain those levels in soil solution.

Planting material was obtained from Dr. F. Martin in Puerto Rico. Three varieties
of D. esculenta Sea 32, 97 and 273 (tubers) and 5 varieties of D. alata (root cuttings)
were planted at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m.

Nitrogen was added as ammonium sulphate and urea in a split application totalling
100 kg N/ha. Netting was provided for the plants to grow on and irrigation was
done as necessary.

RESULTS. The growth of the 3 D. esculenta varieties was very vigorous. Only one
variety of D. alata from cuttings showed'great vigor and the other 4 varieties grew
very slowly. At 4 months of age leaf samples (1st fully mature leaf blade and
petiole) were taken for analysis (Fig. 1 and Table 1). At 8 months of age the yams
were harvested. Three varieties showed a positive yield response and 2 showed a
negative response but none of the responses were significant (Fig. 2). Sea 241 from
cuttings gave very high yields of 45-50 T/ha in 8 months where as the other D.
alata varieties gave yields of less than 10 T/ha (Fig. 2 gives yield response for Sea
25). The 3 D. esculenta varieties gave intermediate yields.

The % infection of the root cortex with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM)
was determined at harvest time following the procedure of Philipps and Hayman











(1970). Sea 241 had about 60% infection with VAM at the low P level and it
decreases to 20% at the high levels of P. Sea 32 had 80% infection with VAM at
the low P where as Sea 97 and 273 only have 40-50% infection which may give
some indication of why Sea 97 and 273 responded to the applied P while Sea 32 did
not respond to P. At the high P levels all varieties had VAM infection of around
20%.



Table 1.--Yams--Hawaii

Nutrient levels in the leaves petioless and blades of the first fully mature leaf) for
3 varieties of D. esculenta and 1 variety of D. alata for the .012 ppm P in solution
treatment at 4 months of age.


Percent
N K Ca Mg


2.3
2.7
2.8


2.3
2.6
3.1


1.3
1.1
1.1


.23
.23
.27


S Na


.13
.15
.14


.10
.10
.10


ppm
Cl Mn Fe Cu Zn


.22
.22
.19


185
.188
188


D. alata


Sea 241


2.9 3.1 1.8 .33


.17 .10


.55 1243 152 16 42


These results indicate that yams do not respond significantly to P if the
levels are above 6.5 ppm and the P in soil solution is above 0.005 ppm
presence of VAM.


Bray 1
in the


REFERENCES

1. Brown, D. H. 1931. The cultivation of yams. Trop. Agric., Vol. VII,
No. 8, p. 201-6.

2. Fox, R. L. 1973. Agronomic investigations using continuous function experi-
mental designs--Nitrogen fcrtilizntion of sweet corn. Agron. J. 65:454-6.

3. Irving, H. 1956. Fertilizer experiments with yams in eastern Nigeria.
19.17-51. Trop. Agric., Trin. Vol. 33, No. 1, p. 67-78.


Variety

D. esculenta

Sea 32
Sea 97
Sea 273







72


4. Koli, S. E. 1973. The response of yam (D. rotundata) to fertilizer application
in Northern Ghana. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 80:245-9.

5. Phillips, J. M. and D. S. Hayman. 1970. Improved Procedures for clearing
roots and staining parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for
Rapid Assessment of Infection. Trans. Br, Mycol, Soc. 55(1):158-61.







Fig. #1


.005


YAMS
273


----97


25
241 .-.-


.01 .02 .04 .08


.16 .32


P in solution (ppm)


Phosphorus levels in the first fully matured leaves of 5 varieties of Yams at 4
months of age versus 16 established levels of P in the soil solution.


----~











Fig. #2


YAMS


r .28

sea 241


sea 25 r = -.65**




.005 .01 .02 .04 .08 .16 .32 .64


P in solution (ppm)


Yield of 5 varieties of
soil solution.


Yams as a function of 16 levels of P established in the


ea32 r = .63**

sea 97
Ee a 2 73 r .53*


I










SHORT NOTES


MULCH IN-SITU: A PROMISING NEW METHOD OF PROVIDING MULCH FOR
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

By: G. F. Wilson
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Ibadan, Nigeria


INTRODUCTION. Vegetable production in the tropics could benefit both qualitatively
and quantitatively from the increased use of mulch, which enhances vegetable produc-
tion by improving soil moisture conservation, making soil temperature more favor-
able, reducing leaching, and weed growth, ensuring cleaner produce, and hastening
maturity and increasing yield (3,4). In addition mulch protects the soil from the
erosive forces of tropical rain storms and thus prevents soil erosion, which is
usually the cause of rapid decline in productivity of tropical soils (1).

Farmers are generally aware of the benefits of mulch, but do not use it because of
high cost or unavailability of suitable materials (3). In the developed countries the
use of plastic and paper mulches in vegetable production is increasing, but in the
developing countries the quantity used is negligible. The high cost of these materials
appears to be the major deterrent, Quinn (2) observed that both plastic and grass
mulch increased tomato yield significantly during the rainy season in Northern
Nigeria, but plastic mulch was found to be uneconomic.

While plant matter such as grass and leaves are relatively cheap, there are many
areas in the tropics where the amount of material required for mulching is not
readily available. In addition, most of the small vegetable gardeners of the tropics
possess neither the equipment nor the manpower necessary to gather, transport and
spread the large quantity of material required. There is, therefore, an urgent need
to develop a cheap and convenient method of providing mulch, if it is to become
important in vegetable production in the tropics.

MULCH IN-SITU. The result of recent experiments have indicated that the problem
of finding cheap mulch for the tropics may have a solution in the recently developed
concept of mulch in-situ. In this concept the mulch is provided by the residue of a
plant species which after a certain period of growth is killed by a herbicide. This
concept was derived from recent development in minimum and zero tillage techniques
which have shown that for many soils and crops, conventional tillage was not
necessary if good weed control could be achieved.

From experiments carried out so far, the cover crop legumes have been found to be
the most promising group of plants for providing in-situ mulch. Grasses have also
been tried, but with the herbicides used the grass was not completely killed and










grass regrowths became weeds in the field. There is still hope, however, that
many grasses will provide suitable in-situ mulch once suitable herbicides are
identified.

The trailing type of cover crop legumes such as Pueraria phaseoloides,
Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosema pubesenes and Psophocarpus palustris; leave
a tightly knit mat of leaves and stems when killed. Stylosanthes gracilis also
produces a good mulch, but mowing is required for this semi-upright legume. Crops
are established through this mat by punching holes at the plant position. Fertilizer
may be applied through the plant holes or broadcasted over the mulch.

In test with tomato the best results were obtained with Pueraria phaseoloides. Under
Ibadan conditions, Pueraria produced a usable mulch in 18 months, but a thicker
mulch was produced in 30 months. In both cases the mulch carried the tomato crop
without weeding being necessary and there was still enough mulch to protect the
fruits from ground rot. The shortest time required for the development of a good
mulch has not been determined for any of the legumes tested but this, undoubtedly,
will depend on soil and prevailing climatic conditions.

Generally, the mulch providing legumes are already recommended fallow crops;
thus, there should be very few problems in incorporating them into the rotation of
a vegetable production system, where their nitrogen fixing ability may also contribute
to the increase productivity of the system.

It is to be noted that the mulch derived from the cover crop legumes provides all
the benefits of a good mulch, but its greatest attribute is that by eliminating the
costs of cutting, gathering, transporting and spreading it has made organic mulch
available at a low cost. Keeping the land in fallow for the period of the cover crop
growth, appears to be the most important disadvantage of in-situ mulch but this will
not be a problem in area where a fallow is still a part of the rotation.

In addition to its contribution to vegetable production mulch in-situ in association
with minimum tillage could help in the preservation of large areas of the tropics
that are threatened by erosion.


REFERENCES

1. Lal, R. 1975. Role of mulching techniques in tropical soil and water manage-
ment. Tech. Bul. No. 1. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2. Quinn, J. G. 1973, An evaluation of methods of mulching and staking tomatoes
grown during the rains at Samaru, Nigeria. Hort. Res. 13:97-104.










3. Thompson, H. C. and W. C. Kelly. 1957. Vegetable Crops. McGraw Hill,
New York.

4. Ware, G. W. and J. P. McCollum. 1968. Vegetable Crops. Interstate
Printers & Publishers, Lanville, Illinois.

*****

SEED TYPE: CLASSIFICATION OF EGUSI MELON IN NIGERIA

By: M. O. Adeniran* and G. F. Wilson
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Ibadan, Nigeria


INTRODUCTION. Egusi melon (Citrulus lanatue Thumb., Syn, Colocynthis citrulus
Kuntze) (2,7) provides one of the most popular condiments used in Nigeria. Native
to West Africa the crop is widely grown for the seed which is the edible portion.
After removal of the testa the seed is ground to a thick paste which is added to
soups or stews. The seeds are rich in oil and protein with oil content ranging to
50% and protein as high as 38% (Table 1), The. oil which is semi drying is used
for cooking (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9). Residue left from the extraction of oil is
high in protein and is fried to make melon seed balls (robo) or steamed to produce
monu. Both robo and monu are commonly eaten with eko which is made from maize
(6, 8).

COLLECTING & GROWING OUT. After several collecting expeditions to various parts
of Nigeria 58 accessions were selected for observation and classification. For
comparison two water-melon cultivars, 'Sugar Baby' and 'Charleston Gray' were
included in the observations. They were planted during the second rains of 1974.
Each accession was represented by five hills. NPK 15:15:15 was applied at the
rate of 400 kg/ha. Vetox 85 was used to protect the young plants from insect
damage, After flowering Dypterex plus Stanley's protein bait was used to control
the fruit fly (Daucus spp.) which can cause severe fruit damage. The flowers were
protected against insect pollination, and selfing was done.

OBSERVATIONS. Observations were made on various aspects of the plants but
emphasis was on seed type. Measurements were made on seed coat color, seed
coat texture, seed weight, seed length and width, oil content, protein content and
sugar content (Table 1). Seed coat color and seed size were the major criterion
used for classifying the material into four groups namely 'Bara', 'Serewe', 'E',
and 'N'. 'Bara' has large brown seeds with black edges, 'Serewe' seeds are smooth
brown with no distinctive edging, 'E' has large seeds with white edging, while 'N'
has small seeds that are uniformly brown.


* Present address: Nihort, Ibadan, Nigeria.









Table 1. Seed characteristics of 'Egusi' melon


0



ri,


S~ed Tvnp


39
48
49
50
51
52
53
64
56
57
58
60
63
64
65
66
68
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
16
18
38
55
79


Bara
St






'V
Vi
it
Vt
Vt

Vt
Vt
it
I
Vt
it

Vt
it
it
Vt
"t
tt





"t
V
Vt

Vt
it

tt


Serewe
t

Vt
"t
Serwe


"
"


o4 I- ^ S
CO U2 t4 I%
0 (0m


12.0
14. 5
13.0
13.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
17.0
15.0
15.5
12.0
14.0
17.5
15.5
16.0
14.0
17.0
14.0
15.0
14.5
14.5
14.0
12.0
13.0
16.0
14.5
14. 5
17.5
14.0
12.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
14.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
10.5


1.6
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.7

1.6

1,6
1.6

1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.5
1. 5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4


0.9
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.0
0. 9
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9


39.8
44.8
40.0
43.5
43.5
46.0
43.5
43. 5
44.2
44.4
43.9
42.8
40.8
41.8
45.6
42.7
43,1
43.3
46.6
43.8
46.1
41.7
45.4
41.5
42.3
38.5
42. 8
45.9
45.0
47.2
44.3
45.2
43.1
43.0
39.5
44.5
50.3
46.0


24.4
27.6
29.9
30.8
30.0
27.0
26.7
26.7
26.1
30.1
28.1
27.1
31.2
28.3
28.1
29. 5
28.1
29.1
27.8
30.9
30.1
29.5
30.5
31.9
30.7

29.5
29.5

26.4
28.4
30.5
30. 5

28.8
25.5
25.8
28.1


A .fn. n_.


1.6
1.7
2.9
2.2
2.2
2.5
1.9
2.0
1.5
3.1
1.6
2.5
1.6
1.4
-
1.2
3.6

1.3
1.3
1.9
1.5
1.6
1.1
1.8
1.6
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.8
1.8
2.4
2.5
2.0
1.6
1.5


r ,


A t'n Wf% RP.M Tvnp


M
CCI v
a,
a,
m
8









Table 1.--continued


80 Ser
81
82
83.
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
101
102
59 Mel
62 "
70 "
71 "
30 Mel
33 "
Sugar Baby Wat
Charleston "
Gray Coef-
ficient of
Variation
(a) Seed Color:


ewe















on



on

er


15.0
13.0
S12.5
12, 5
13.5
15.0
10.0
11.0
10.0
13.0
13.5.
14.0
10.5
12.5
(E) 16.5
17.0
15.0
14.0
(N) 5.0.
5.0
Melon 5,0
S 14.0


2 2
2 2:
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
4 2
4 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
5 1
5 1


1.6
1.4
1. 5


1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.2


1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5


29.3% 48.3% 48.4% 9.4% 18.4%


1 = Light 1
edge/tip.
edge/tip.
with white


42.0
42.9
43.6
43.6
44.0
40.9
42.6
38.5
37.8
40.4
43. 7
42.3
41.8
41.5
44.3
41.8
43.9
41.2
46.3
47.4
37.8


16.1%


brown with black edge/tip. 2 = Light brown
3 = Brown with black edge/tip. 4 = Brown
5 = Dark brown with black edge/tip. 6 = D
edge/tip.


29.8
38.8
31.2
28.4

23.2
29.1
30.4
27.0
30.5
31.9
33.1
28.3
27.9
29.1
29.3
29.1
29.1
30.1
30.1


1.2
1.5
11.4
1.6

1.7'
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.5
3.2
3.2
3.6


5.7% 21.3%
with white
with white
ark brown


(b) Seed Texture: 1 = hard. 2 = thin.


Each seed type was found to have specific localities where they are preferred. 'Bara'
type is common in Northern and Western Nigeria while 'Serewe' dominates the Eastern
section of the country. 'E' is grown in Niger State and 'N' was found in Bendel State.
The bAsis of these local preferences is not yet known. The'mode of inheritance of the
different seed type is being investigated along with research aimed at developing higher
yielding cultivars.

REFERENCES

1. Cobley, L. S. 1965. An introductionn to the botany of tropical crops. Longmans,
Green and Co. Ltd. London. pp. 294.


' -t










2. Hara, H. 1969. The correct author's name of Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae)
Taxon. 18:346-7.

3. Hutchinson, J., J. M. Dalziel and R. W. J. Keay. 1954. Flora of West
Tropical Africa. The White friars press London and Tonbridge. pp. 213-14.

4. IITA Annual Report. 1974. IITA. Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 9-10.

5. IITA Root, Tuber and Vegetable Improvement Program. 1972, Report. ITA.
Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 41.

6. Ohe, O. L. 1965. Nutritive value of Nigerian watermelon. Nature 207 (4993):
192.


7. Onwueme, I. C., and A. O. Lawanson. 1973.
sequent chlorophyll accumulation in seedlings
(Berl.) 110, 81-84.


Effect of heat stress on
of Colocynthis citrullus.


8. Oyenuga, V. A. 1959. Nigeria's feeding stuffs. Their composition and
nutritive value. 2nd Edition. Ibadan University Press.

9. Sai, F. A. 1965. In Fruits and Vegetables in West Africa (Tindall) FAO Rome.
pp. 10.



PERFORMANCE OF UPLAND VEGETABLES PLANTED IN LOWLAND AND
COASTAL AREAS IN YOGYAKARTA TERRITORY MID-JAVA, INDONESIA

By: Haryono M. Sri Kuntjiyati
Department of Agronomy, University of Gadjah Mada
Yogyakarta, Indonesia


The trials were conducted in the Yogyakarta Territory covering:


2 Coastal
1.
2.


regions (elevation in parenthesis)
Samas (+ 5 m)
Temon (+ 20 m)


6 Lowland regions
1. Wijilan (+ 85 m)
2. Tirtomartani Kalasan (j 360 m)
3. Bulaksumur (+ 117 m)
4. Wonocatur ( 101 m)
5. Gading Wonosari (+ 174 m)
6. Jetis Tegalredjo ( 124 m)


sub-
Planta










Varieties of the following four kinds of vegetables were tested:

1. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
2. Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)
3. Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum)
4. Asparagus (Aspargus officials)


Varieties
Jakarta.
the rainy
planting.


used were distributed by the Horticultural Research Institdte, Pasarminggu,
They were planted during the final part of the rainy season and during
season (August-March). Seeds were planted in seed beds for later trans-
Hand weeding was' done.


Fertilizing was done by using N:P:K = 1:2:1, at the rate of 5 g per plant.
shade was used for the tomatoes during the heavy rainy season.


Plastic


Upland varieties grow well in low and coastal land. They can yield well by planting
Them in the beginning of dry season or final part of the rainy season.

1. KK-cross cabbage variety has a good prospect in the lowland region, because
of: (1) its resistance to the Plutella caterpillar, (2) average width of the head
is + 41 cm, (3) average-yield is 40 qwt/ha, and (4). no flower formation.


2. Vc II-1 variety of tomato is much better than Vc
average'weight and average number of fruits per


48-1 and others tested in
plant, as .follows:


Number of
fruits/plant


Weight of
fruit/plant
(kg)


Fruit dia- -
meter (cm)


Vc II-1
Vc 48-1
Masscross
827 TG-1
827 TG-2


3. Chinese cabbage


Diameter of plant
Length of plant
Weight of plant
Head
Number of leaves


+ 65 cm
+ 47 cm
+ 0.9 kg
No head formation
+ 26


+ 63 cm
+ 50 cm
+ 0.9 kg
No head formation
+ 24


Variety


46
35
15
8
9 ."


5.25&
2.30
3.85
0.10
0.65


4
4
4
4
4










4. Asparagus

The seeds germinate very slowly in lowland areas, and did not germinate
in the coastal areas.

Lowland areas:

weight of spears = 300 kg/ha
length of spears = + 25 30 cm
diameter of spears = + 1 cm2
color of spears = white

*****

THE PROBLEM OF POST HARVEST FOOD LOSSES IN THE HOT,
HUMID TROPICS

By: Malcolm C. Bourne
Professor of Food Science & Technology
New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456 U.S. A.


There has been an increasing interest in recent years in reducing post harvest
losses of foods, including vegetables. This interest reached a climax on September
19, 1975 when the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution as follows:
"The further reduction of post harvest food losses in developing countries should be
undertaken as a matter of priority, with a view to reaching at least a 50% reduction
by 1985. All countries and competent international organizations should cooperate
financially and technically in the effort to achieve this objective".

This United Nations resolution has drawn the attention of the highest levels of
governments around the world to the problem of post harvest food losses. The
World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.), several United
Nations Organizations including Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), U.N.
Development Program (UNDP), United Nations University (UNU), and U.N. Environ-
ment Program (UNEP), and a number of other organizations are presently planning
programs that will substantially reduce post harvest food losses in developing
countries.

The U.S. Agency for International Development has recently contracted with the U.S.
National Academy of Sciences to undertake a compilation of the world's literature
concerning post harvest food losses. A committee of experts will evaluate this data
for reliability and to help plan pilot intervention programs that will reduce post
harvest food losses. Information of the extent of losses and other matters concerning
post harvest food losses is needed. Any readers of this Newsletter who have










information in this area are urged to contact the author, or Dr. M. G. C.
McDonald Dow, Deputy Director, Overseas Programs, National Academy of Sciences,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D. C. 20418,

Briefly, "Post harvest" means after separation from the medium and site of the
immediate growth or production of the food; and "loss" means any change in the
availability, edibility, wholesomeness or quality of the food that prevents it from
being consumed by people. The post harvest food chain is considered to begin at
the farm gate and end at the mouth. Losses can occur during transportation,
storage, processing, marketing or cooking. The tragedy of post harvest food
losses is that they represent both a nutrient loss to people who are undernourished,
and an economic loss to a population that can ill afford to stand that loss.

The problem of post harvest losses in vegetables is particularly acute under the hot
and humid conditions found in the tropics. Research workers in the area of vege-
tables should take into account in planning future programs the heightened interest
in reduction of post harvest losses and try to incorporate into their experimental
design, wherever possible, care and attention of the vegetables after harvest with
a view to improving their keeping quality and reducing losses. For example, the
keeping quality of roots, tubers, and vegetables is partly dependent upon inheritance.
Breeding programs for vegetables should include storability after harvests as one
of the criteria that is used in selecting new varieties and cultivars for use in
tropical countries.

Sometimes there are simple ways available to preserve and extend storage life of
vegetables and maintain quality for a longer period of time, This is an area that
needs attention in addition to production aspects. The vegetable research workers
of the hot, humid tropics now have a challenge before them to extend their
boundaries of interest to include care of their increased vegetable production after
harvest all the way through to the moment of consumption thus contributing their
part towards the goal of reducing post harvest losses by 50% by 1985.

*****

STUDIES ON SNAKE GOURD (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.) IN GHANA

By: Suppiah Sinnadurai
Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana
Legon, Ghana


The snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.), a monoecious climbing herb, is
considered to be a native of Malaysia and China (MacMillan, 1952). It is widely
grown in other parts of South and Southeast Asia. Pursglove (1968) stated that it
is occasionally grown in the West Indies. Since it is a fairly popular vegetable in
Asia, it probably was taken to the West Indies by the Asian immigrants. The snake










gourd is also occasionally found growing in southern Ghana and it is of opinion that
it might have been introduced by the Indian traders in the country. An isolated
plant was found growing wild in a small town in northern Ghana and the local
residents stated that an Indian family once lived in that compound and since then
the plant has been growing there and the people around the area have learned to eat
the fruits.

Though snake gourd is eaten as a green vegetable (immature tender fruits are
desirable) in Tropical Asia, the red-ripe fruits are desired in Ghana. The orange
pulp of the red-ripe fruit is used as a substitute for tomato in stews and as a
result is locally known as 'Long Tomato'.

A plant may produce from 5 to 18 fruits depending on the fertility of the soil and
available soil moisture. Cool night temperatures appear to have an effect on the
number of female flowers produced as the number of female flowers have been found
to be greater in the cool wet season than the warm dry season even when the crop
is irrigated in the dry season. The first few fruits that develop are long (over 1.5
m in length) while the latter ones are small (less than 50 cm in some cases).
Since young fruits tend to coil and get deformed in shape, it is desirable to hang a
weight (small stone weighing about 100 gm) at the end of the developing fruit so that
the fruit will be straight. Fruits when weighted increase from 10 to 18 cm per day
during the initial stages of growth and thereafter the growth rate decreases until
there is no further increase indicating that the fruit has attained its maximum length.

There are two major varieties of snake gourd found in Ghana; those producing long
green fruits with white streaks and reach lengths of nearly 1.8 m and those
producing greenish-white fruits and are slightly smaller in length. Fruits of the two
varieties were tested for their nutritive values (proximate composition) and the
results are shown in table 1.

The author is grateful to Mr. J. D. Watson, Department of Nutrition and Food
Science, University of Ghana, for analyzing the fruits for their nutritive value.


REFERENCES

1. Macmillan, H. F. 1952. Tropical planting and gardening with special
reference to Ceylon. Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London.

2. Pursglove, J. W. 1966. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons I. Longmans, Green
and Co. Ltd., London.









Table 1.--Nutritive


Variety

Green immature
fruit

Green mature
fruit-red ripe

White immature
fruit

White mature
red ripe


values (proximate composition) of two varieties of snake


Crude
Moisture Energy protein Fat CHO
percent Kcals/100 g g % g % g %

94.0 24.0 0.7 0.74 3.7


92.0 29.0 0.6 0.90 4.7


95.0 19.0 0.5 0.20 3.5


94.0 21.0 0.4 0.30 4.1


gourd


Crude
Fiber
g %

0.7


1.3


0.6


0.9


Ash
g %

0.15


0.50


0.13


0.30


Ca
mg %

26.4


76.8


27.1


52.8


Fe
mg %

1.1


1,9


0,8


0.7 oo
4^


I











CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS ON VEGETABLES IN FIJI

By* Satish Chandra
Research Division, Department of Agriculture
Koronivia Research Station, P. O. Box 77
Nausori, Fiji


The following is a complete list of current research projects on vegetables in Fiji.
The trials are located at three research stations: Sigatoka and Legalega Research
Stations in the dry zone of Viti Levu and Koronivia Research Station in the wet
zone of Viti Levu.

Dry Zone: Sigatoka Research Station


1. Screening of twenty-one English cabbage varieties for optimum time of
planting.
2. Screening of twenty-two varieties of eggplants.
3. Screening of eight varieties of capsicums.
4. Screening of seventeen varieties of cucumber for optimum time of plan
5. Spacing and fertilizer trial on okra.
6. Fertilizer trial on long beans.
7. Screening of thirty-two varieties of tomatoes for optimum time of plant
8. Screening of five varieties of French beans.
9. Seed selection from a promising local cultivar of eggplant.
10. Spacing and fertilizer trial on bele (Hibiscus manihot).


ting.


;ing.


Dry Zone* Legalega Research Station

1. Peanut variety x time of planting trial with varieties selected from 1977
trial.
2. Pigeon pea green pod variety x time of planting trial with seven promising
varieties.
3. Pigeon pea dry seed variety x time of planting trial with four promising
local varieties and fifteen introductions from Nigeria and India.
4. Screening of seventeen varieties of cucumber for optimum time of planting.
5. Spacing and fertilizer trial on okra.
6. Fertilizer trial on long beans.
7. Screening of thirty-two varieties of tomatoes for optimum time of planting.
8. Screening of five varieties of French beans.
9. Seed selection from a promising local cultivar of eggplant.
10. Spacing and fertilizer trial on bele (Hibiscu, manihot).










Dry Zone: Legalega Research Station

1. Peanut variety x time of planting trial with varieties selected from 1977
trial.
2. Pigeon pea green pod variety x time of planting trial with seven promising
varieties.
3. Pigeon pea dry seed variety x time of planting trial with four promising
local varieties and fifteen introductions from Nigeria and India.
4. Urd variety x time of planting trial with five promising local varieties.
5. Mung variety trial on introductions from Taiwan,
6. Cowpea vegetable type variety x time of planting trial with eleven varieties.
7. Cowpea dry seed type variety x time of planting trial with twenty varieties.
8. Winged bean variety trial.
9. Guar variety trial with seven introduced varieties from Australia and one
local variety.
10. Sem variety trial with two introductions from Australia and one local
variety.

Wet Zone: Koronivia Research Station

1. The effect of variety, spacing and fertilizer on the yield of English cabbage.
2. The effect of time of planting and varieties on the yield of eggplant.
3. Screening of chilli varieties suitable for production throughout the year.
4. The effect of different rates of fertilizer on the yield of okra.
5. Screening of ten promising varieties of lettuce.
6. Screening of twenty-six varieties of tomatoes for their resistance to bacterial
wilt,
7. The effect of pruning, staking and trellising on the yield of tomatoes.
8. Screening of eight new varieties of French beans for optimum time of
planting.
9. The effect of spacing on the yield of French beans.
10. The effect of trellising on different varieties of gourds.
11. Fertilizer trial on a local sweet corn cultivar.
12. The effect of fertilizer and bird repeller on long beans.
13, Screening of eleven new varieties of cucumber.
14. Varietal observations on watermelons and rockmelons.










HOW TO GROW TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS IN SAWDUST

By: E. F. Maas
CIDA-Colombo plan soil scientist at the Sarawak Soil Survey Division
Department of Agriculture, Kuching, on secondment from
Research Station, Agassiz, B.C. Canada


Properly fertilized sawdust is a good medium for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and
other garden vegetables and flowers. Its many advantages include good drainage,
aeration, balanced nutrients and freedom from diseases and nematodes that abound
in many tropical soils. Since soluble chemical fertilizers for nutrient solution
feeding are expensive and not readily obtainable in Kuching the following method is
suggested for growing plants in which locally obtainable farm fertilizers are thor-
oughly mixed into sawdust or a sand-sawdust mixture. The disease free expectancy
of a soilless medium is about one year and every precaution should be taken against
contaminating it with disease carrying soil. Mixing should be done on a clean floor
to avoid any contamination from soil and the beds should never be walked on.

Seed Germination. Thoroughly mix two ounces of finely ground dolomitic lime and
one ounce of 12-12-17-2 or similar fertilizer containing trace elements into one
cubic foot of a 1:1:1 mixture by volume of fine and coarse sawdusts and clean river-
sand or fine sawdust, rice hulls and sand. Do not use any soil. Moisten and allow
to stand overnight. Transfer to 3"-diameter flower pots or plastic drinking cups
with a small hole at the bottom for drainage. Moisten again with a light sprinkling
of water and plant up to three seeds in each pot. Cover the seeds with the same
mixture to a depth equal to three times the diameter of the seeds. Tamp lightly
but do not water. Place the pots on a tray in a shaded place until the seedlings
begin to emerge and then move them to a cool, well-lighted area. Water as
required and after a few days remove all but the strongest plant from each pot.
Grow the plants on for three or four weeks before transplanting, increasing their
spacing as they grow larger so their leaves do not overlap. Gradually increase
their exposure to full sunshine and sprinkle a few granules of fertilizer into each
pot once a week.

Transplanting. Carefully transfer the plants to an eight-inch depth of growth
medium in wooden-sided beds placed on polyethylene sheets to separate the growth
medium from the soil. The beds should be about 20 inches wide for paired length-
wise rows or five feet wide for crosswise rows. Tomatoes and cucumbers may be
transplanted into two-gallon pots or into 9-inch diameter white plastic shopping bags.
These should have holes placed two Inches from the bottom to provide both drainage
and a reservoir for water. White colored containers are preferred in a tropical
climate as they do not absorb heat as readily ac black or transparent ones.

Growth Medium. A suitable growth medium consists of a 1:2 mixture of fine and
coarse sawdust containing four ounces of finely ground dolomitic lime and two ounces











of 12-12-17-2+TE, or similar fertilizer containing trace elements (T.E.), per cubic
foot of medium. Fine planer shavings from untreated lumber may be used in place
of coarse sawdust. Water the plants once or twice daily depending on the weather
and the size of the plants. If soil-borne diseases or nematodes are not a problem,
the growth medium in the beds may be placed directly on the soil. This will allow
the plants to root into the soil and reduce the frequency of watering required but not the
the total amount. When rainfall is excessive the plants may be shielded from above
by a sheet of a clear polyethylene. Splitting of tomato fruits may result from too
much watering.

Apply fertilizer to the surface of the growth medium starting one week after trans-
planting. For each 100 feet of paired-row bed or for each 200 two-gallon containers
apply 10 ounces of 12-12-17-2+T. E. or similar fertilizer once a week and 10 ounces
of dolomitic lime once a month. For cucumbers apply additionally 2 ounces of
calcium nitrate (15.5-0-0) once a week. Surface watering or rainfall will dissolve
the fertilizer and carry it down to the plant roots. If the plants show that they
require more fertilizer, apply it more frequently than the once a week schedule
rather than increasing the amount applied at one time. Follow the standard foliar
spray programs for the control of plant diseases and insect pests.

*****

ANNOUNCEMENTS, NEWS, AND COMMENTARY


The Indian Society for Root Crops, through its president, Dr. N. Hrishi, invites
contributions for the Journal of Root Crops, and encourages libraries to subscribe
to this journal. Interested persons can write to Dr. Hrishi at Central Tuber Crops
Research Institute, Sreekariyam, Trivandrum 695017, India.

*****

The editors have wrestled with the problem of using vegetables in systems (see
paper, this issue) because they are convinced that vegetables of the hot, humid tropics
must fit into farming systems to be useful. Correspondence on model farm systems,
especially with respect to the place of vegetables on the farm, and appropriate
commentary for this newsletter is invited.

*****

In this respect we wish to mention the efforts of William Prentice, Centro de
Capacitacion Agropecuaria Integral, Casilla 757, Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, who is
working with poor farmers in the lowland tropics. He is especially concerned with
development of ecologically sound systems where rainfall averages 4400 mm a year.
His highly imaginative plans are being tested at several different sites. His
attitude about agricultural education is that people learn from successful demonstra-










tions, not from theoretical models. We congratulate Mr. Prentice on his
pioneering efforts and grass roots approach, and believe he should not neglect
vegetables in such schemes, especially as sources of vitamin A.



The International Society for Tropical Root Crops will hold its triennial symposium
September 17-21 at Cebu, Philippines. This meeting will be followed by a meeting
sponsored by the International Society for Horticultural Science, "Current Problems
in Vegetables and Fruit Research." For information please contact: Dr. E.R. B.
Pantastico, Director, ASEAN-PHTRC, Postharvest Horticulture Training and
Research Center, Department of Horticulture, University of the Philippines at Los
Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

+*#**

The American Society for Horticultural Science, Tropical Region, will hold its
annual meeting at the University of Chile, Santiago, July 31-August 5. Write
to Dr. Antonio Lizana for details.



The Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center announces the holding of
the First International Symposium on Tropical Tomato at AVRDC in Taiwan on
Oct. 23-28, 1978. The symposium will provide a unique opportunity for
scientists to corn together for the exchange and dissemination of information on
the tropical tomato.

Scientists from eight countries have been conducting the most massive tomato
breeding program ever attempted in the tropics over the past five years at
AVRDC. Their objective has been to develop high yielding tomato varieties that
will set fruit under the high night temperatures, and withstand the wet conditions
and diseases of the lowland tropics. A total of 4703 lines and varieties from
all over the world have been gathered and screened to date.

This will be a rare opportunity to review progress in developing the nutritious
tomato as food for the hungry, undernourished millions who live in tropical
regions of the world.

For further information, write AVRDC, P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741,
Taiwan.

*****

After 3 years of work in the Leiden Herbarium (Netherlands) and 20 years of
field work, the materials for a comprehensive monographic treatment of the
genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) is almost ready for the press.











The forthcoming book will deal with the ca 400 species described of the Pacific,
Australian, Malaysian, Japanese, Taiwan, the Asiatic mainland (India, China, Burma,
Thailand, Indochina) and Ceylon areas. All the species will be illustrated, complete
reference lists, descriptions, discussions on taxonomy and nomenclature, history,
economics, cultivation and lists of studied material will be included. A wood
anatomist (Dr. P. Baas, Leiden) will treat wood anatomy, a palynologist (Dr. J.
Muller, Leiden) will add information on pollen and a palaeontologist (Dr. Friedrichs,
Aarhus, Denmark) has been approached for the fossil species treatment.

Ca 150 species are recognized. The American species will be treated in another
volume.

Information and data are solicited from persons or Institutes, which may contact
Dr. A. J. Kostermans (up to Feb. 1, 1979), at: Dept. of Botany, University of
Sri Lanka, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, Ceylon (after Feb. 1979: Dept. of Botany,
National University (Universiti Kebangsaan), Kuala, Lumpur, Malaysia).

*****

PUBLICATIONS FOR MENTION OR FOR REVIEW
(Sent to the Editors)


Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition. 1977. By H. A. P. C. Oomen and
G. J. H. Grubben. Communication 69, Department of Agricultural Research, Royal
Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Holland, 136 pp. As one point to stress in
educating people on the uses of leafy foods, on page 112 of this book are found the
words, "Green is beautiful". Surely this booklet is the most beautiful piece of
greenery that has appeared in recent years, for it is illustrated with hand drawings
and photographs in color as well as in black and white. These frequently include
local scenes from various parts of the tropics, as well as women and children
involved with leaves. Written in a lively style and with a sense of humor, the chief
species of tropical leaves are amply described. Nutritional values are given for
many species, and it is surprising how variable leaves are. Leaf vegetables are
used in more ways than imagined. Recipes or techniques are presented from a
number of areas of the tropics. Even historical and ecological aspects are
covered. Finally, the subject of education is touched upon. Surely this is a
convincing treatment of the value and use of leaves, the most common and
nutritious of vegetables.
*****

Famine Foods, Little-Known Food-Plant Resources. 1972. By Robert L. Freedman,
80 pp. There are, of course, several good compilations of edible plant foods of
the tropics. This mimeographed publication is not exhaustive, but an interesting
and useful treatment that includes useful notes in many cases of techniques used in
preparation of the plant material as food, and often notes on nutritional value.
Coverage in worldwide. A great number of tropical vegetables are mentioned.










Native North American Food Preparation Techniques. 1973. By Robert L.
Freedman. 97 pp. Although covering the temperate zone of North America, this
mimeographed publication is an extremely practical guide to food preparation
techniques used in North America before Columbus. Information from widespread
sources is brought together here for the first time. The techniques should be useful
with tropical vegetables even though the plant materials will seldom be found here.

*****

Comment Cultiver Les Legumes au Dahomey. 1973. By G. Grubben, Centre de
Formation Horticole et Nutritionnelle de Ouando. B.P. 13 Porto-Novo, Dahomey.
62 pp. The simple illustrations in this interesting publication help identify local
vegetables and make the text easier to interpret.

Publications on amaranth

Amaranth Round-up. 1977. Rodale Press, Inc. 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus,
Pennsylvania.

Proceedings of the First Amaranth Seminar. 1977. Rodale Press, Inc., address
above. 132 pp.

Amaranth is being scrutinized more carefully for its contribution to the tropical
diet. Many species throughout the tropics, cultivated and wild, are useful sources
of green leaves. Their very rapid growth and high yields make them very desirable
not only as homegrown foods but in some areas as cash crops. The grain
amaranths, known and used in some parts of the tropics, are probably under-
utilized, and need widespread trial. The above two publications are useful
compendiums of information that give a good background for further studies of
these species.
*****

Aspectos socio-economicos de la production y utilizacion de la papa en el Peru,
a bibliography. Socio-economic aspects of the production and utilization of potatoes
in Peru. 1977. By Robert W. Werge, International Potato Center, Apartado 5969,
Lima, Peru. 72 pp. A detailed, cross indexed, exhaustive bibliography.

*****

Post harvest food losses--the neglected dimension in increasing the world food
supply. 1977. By Malcolm C. Bourne, Department of Food Science and Technology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 49 pp. In this paper a convincing case is
made for the need to improve post harvest treatments as an effective strategy in
the battle to feed the world.











Winged bean publications

Guidelines in growing wing-beans (seguidillas).

General observations on on-going studies on winged bean at PNAC, Palawan,
Philippines.

Both available from Philippine Business for Social Progress, 4th floor, Yutivo
Bldg., 270 Dasmaririas, Manila, Philippines.

*****

Vegetables for the hot, humid tropics I. Winged bean. Available from the authors
of this newsletter.

*****

Franklin W. Martin and Ruth M. Ruberte' announce the publication of their second
book, "Survival and Subsistence in the Tropics", expected before the end of 1978.
In this book the authors have attempted to describe the elements of survival and
subsistence systems with particular orientation to human nutritional needs and the
ways to satisfy them. Following are the chapters of this book:

I An Uncertain Future and a Way to Face it
II Human Nutritional Needs
III Getting Enough Protein
IV Sources of Carbohydrates and Fats
V Sources of Vitamins and Minerals
VI Wild Plants and Animals
VII Small Scale Agriculture
VIII Preservation and Storage of Foods
IX Small Animals as Food Sources
X Shelter During the Emergency
XI Water Supply
XII Health and Medical Care

The demand for this book is building rapidly, Concerned persons may obtain a free
copy by writing to the authors at the address on the front of this Newsletter. The
authors have printed this at their own expense, believing that the book will be useful
throughout the tropics. 'Donations towards the publication of the Spanish version,
already translated, are earnestly sought.


*****








MATERIALS REQUESTED OR OFFERED

Plant materials requested


I Seed of unusual tropical species of the Cucurbitaceae would be greatly
appreciated for chemotaxonomic investigation. All species and genera of
cucurbits would be of interest, particularly those for which seed is not
commercially available, especially the following list:

Species


Cucurbita californica
C. fraterna
C. galleattii
C. mammeata
C. mooreii
C. pedatifolia
C. radicans
C. scabridifolia
Cucumis cogniauxianus
C. globosum


Cucumis gossweileri
C. halabarda
C. homblei
C. hystrix
C. kalahariensis
C. laevigatus
C. lyratus
C. mascatensis
C. microspermus
C. muriculatus
C. purpureus


Cucumis quintanilhae
C. rigidus
C. sacleuxii
C. sereti
C. seretoides
C. setosus
C. sonderis
C. subsericeus
C. umbrosus
C. welwitschii
C. wildemanianus


Genera


Abobra
Acenthosicyos
Actinostemma
Adenopus
Ahzolia
Alsomitra
Anguria
Apodanthera
Bambekea
Biswarea
Blastania
Bryonopis
Calycophysum
Cayaponia
Cephalandra
Cerasiocarpum
Ceratosanthes
Cionosicyos
Cogniauxia
Ctenolepis
Cucumella
Cucurbitella
Cyclantheropsis
Dactyliandra


Dendrosicyos
Dicadiospermum
Dicaelospermum
Dieudonnaea
Dimorphochlamys
Diplocyclos
Doyerea
Edgaria
Edmondia
Elaterium
Eureiandra
Fevillea
Frantzia
Gerrardanthus
Gomphygyne
Guraniopsis
Gymnopetalum
Gymnostemma
Gyrrardanthus
Halasicyos
Helmontia
Herpetospermum
Hodgsonia
Hymemosicyos


Ibervillea
Indofevillea
Kedostris
Marah
Melancium
Melothrianthus
Microsochium
Myrmecosicyos
Neoalsomitra
Neoluffa
Oreosyce
Penelopeia
Peponia
Peponopsis
Physedra
Pittera
Polychathra
Praecutrullus
Pteropepon
Raphanocarpus
Raphidiocystis
Rhynchocarpa
Rosanthus
Ruthalicia











Schizocarpon
Schizopepon
Sechiopsis
Selysia
Seyrigia
Sicana


Sicydium
Siolmatra
Tecunumania
Telfairia
Toxanthera
Trochomeria


Trochomeriopsis
Tumamoca
Warea
Wilbrandia
Zanonia
Zygosicyos


Dr. R. W. Robinson
Seed & Vegetable Sciences
New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
Hedrick Hall, Geneva, New York 14456


***** Two years ago we requested:
II Two years ago we requested:


A Momordica of very low bitterness
A tomato that resists the monsoon climate
A cucumber or melon of high nutritional value
A squash grown chiefly for its seeds
A sweet potato grown chiefly for its leaves
A hyacinth bean that blooms freely in the summer
A luffa with compact growth habit
An okra that is really perennial
An amaranth resistant to insects
A horseradish tree for wet climates
A really tropical onion


Still waiting
Still waiting
Still waiting
We have it
We have it
Still waiting
Still waiting
We have it
Still waiting
We have it
We have it


The Editors

*****

III We are now looking for seeds of oil plants that can be processed to cooking
oil by home scale techniques.

Franklin W. Martin
Ruth Ruberte


Plant materials offered


I Seeds of Cucurbita okeechobeensis. Seeds of xerophytic Cucurbitaceous
species.
Dr. R. W. Robinson
Address above
*****










II Seeds for the circular vegetable garden will be sent to any investigator who
decides to plant a vegetable garden.

Franklin W. Martin
Ruth Ruberte'



EL CULTIVAR 'PINTADO' DE MANI

For: Oscar Chacon S.
Escuela de Ingenierfa Agronomica, Universidad de Oriente
Jusepfn, Estado Monagas, Venezuela


En la Escuela de Ingenierfa Agronomica de la Universidad de Oriente, en Jusepfn,
Monagas, Venezuela, se obtuvo por selection masal el cultivar 'Pintado' de manf.

Las plants de la variedad 'Pintado' son de porte ascendente, ramificacion alterna
y el ciclo de cultivo dura de 120 a 130 dfas. Las hojas y ramas forman el 70%
del peso fresco total de las plants y podrfan utilizarse como forraje.

Los frutos son de tamaio median y contienen dos semillas con la test variegada
de color rojo oscuro y blanco. Los contenidos de aceite y de prote'na en las
semillas son de 51,6 y de 26,6%, respectivamente.

Ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, realizados en suelos de la sabana de
Jusepfn, indican que se pueden obtener 2,94 ton/ha de frutos y 2,10 ton/ha de
almendras de manf 'Pintado'.

Durante los aios 1970 a 1976 el cultivar 'Pintado' fue menos atacado, que otros
cultivares de manf, por los hongos que produce la cercosporiosis y la roya.

Actualmente se esta tratando de mejorar las caracterfsticas del manf 'Pintado'
mediante la selection de progenies de mayor production, y por cruzamientos con
otras variedades.

La Escuela de Ingenierfa Agrona mica de la Universidad de Oriente mantiene
pequeias cantidades de semilla gengtica del cultivar 'Pintado' de man'.




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