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Group Title: Parley's book of quadrupeds
Title: Parley's book of quadrupeds : for youth
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 Material Information
Title: Parley's book of quadrupeds : for youth
Series Title: Parley's book of quadrupeds : for youth
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G.
Publisher: R. T. Young
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Burroughs, Strand Presses
Publication Date: 1853
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Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction
        Page 9
        Page 10
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    Main
        Page 13
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Full Text






















































XANQUROOS OF NEW HOLLAND.


c, 4- 4-


AZTEPOPES.


..

,,







PARLEY' S


BOOK OF QUADRUPEDS:


FOR YOUTH.


EMBRACING DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MOST INTERESTING ASH
REMARKABLE QUADRUPEDS IN ALL COUNTRIES, WITH
PARTICULAR NOTICES OF THOSE OF AURRICA.


ILLUSTRATED BY 200 ENGRAVINGS.
INEW YORK:


R. T.


YOUNG, PUBLIC HBR,
140 FULTON STREET.
1853.































Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by
SAMUEL G. GOODRICH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.














CONTENTS.


Agouti................... 272
Alouato..... ............. 262
Ant-Eater................ 314
Antelope, Blue ........... 143
Common........ 146
Gambian ....... 150
Harnessed ...... 149
Prong-horned.... 151
Scythian........ 143
Argali ................... 133
Armadillo ................ 313
Arnee ................... 131
Ass ..................... 189


Babiroussa ...... ........ 302M
Baboon .............. .. 253
Dog-faced........ 255
-- Pig-faced......... 259
Badger ........... ..... 294
Bat ..................... 317
-- Vampyre............. 318
Bear, American Black .... 209
-- Barren Ground ..... 217
---Bornean ........... 208
--- Brown ............. 196
--- Grizzly. ........ ... 213
---- Large-lipped........ 207
1*


Bear, Thibet............ 206
White, or Polar..... 20
Beaver ................. 318
Bison, American.......... 124
Bloodhound ............. 61
Boar, Wild.. .... ...... 299
Buffalo .........* .......* 122
Bulldog..*.... .....o .... 00 70


Camel, Arabian........... 237
SBactrian .o......... 23
Camelopard .............. 316
Cat, African Tiger........ 23
Domestic ............ 13
Mexican Tiger....... 27
--- Wild ............... 20
Chamois .. .... ..... ... 39
Chimpanse .............. 249
Chinchilla............... 290
Civet.................... 106
Clamyphoas .......... ..U S
Coaita..*....... .....o oo 263
Coati ........... ......... 297
Couando ...... .. ...... 311
Cougar, or Puma ......... 40
Cow.................. .. 120








CONT.NTS.


Deer, American .......... 171
Fallow.... 174.
- Axis............... 168
Black-tail, or Mule.. 180
--- Fallow............. 166
Malayan........... 169
Moose............. 170
S Napu Musk ........ 156
Dogs ................... 55---72
-- Anecdotes of........ 72
Iormouse................. 292
Dziggtai ................. 196I


Elephant.................
Elk .....................
- A mericap ............
Ermine ..................


Ferret ...................
Fisher ..................
Fossan ..................
Fox .......... ...........
-- American ...........
--- Black, or Silver......


Genet ...................
Gibbon ..................
Glugpn ..................
ien .....................
Goat ....................
- Rocky Mountain.....
Gopher ..................
Guinea Pig...............


217
162
173
103


105
115
110
89
93
94


110

298
144
1.37
141
288
271


llamster Rat .............
IIare .....................
- Alpine.... *..........
----- American...........
Little Chief.........
Hart-lecst..............
Hedgehog ...............
iippopotamus............
Hlog, Domestic ...........
Horse ...................
HIyarna, Spotted ..........
SStriped ..........


Ibex...... *...............
Ichneumon, Egyptian......
---- CGray .........


Jarkal ..................
Jaguar...................
Jerloa, Common............


Kanguroo................ 273


Iemrning ................. 289
Lemur, .................. 265
Itlack-fronted...... 266
Red ...5.......... 265
---- Slow ............. 26'
White-headed ..... 267
Leopard .............. 35
Iion..................... 42
Ilama ................... 242
Iynx................. ... 22


292

26!)
T#9


270
1.4)
:312


jt:i
I::r,
.1 1






107
I-,j




27
289









CONTENTS.


Macaque.. ..............
Magot, or Barbary Ape....
Mandrill .................

Marmet ..................
Maryland.........
SParry's...........
Prairie ............
MParten ..................
Pine..............
Mink, or Vison XVeasel....
Mole ....................
--- Shrew ..............
Mona, or Coommon Monkey.
Monkey,Pinch, or Red-tailed
Striated ..........
Monkeys, American.......
Moose Deer..............
Mouse...................
American Field.....
Har-vest...........
Jumping ...........
Labrador Jamping .
Long-failed Field..
Mule ........... ..........
Musk....................
---- Pigmny........... ..
----- Rat...............
- Thibet.............


260
251
257
24
282
283
283
282
112
114,
110
293
293
260
264
263
262
170
286
287
287
287
2S8
287
193
155
157
291
155


Ounce ................... 26
Ox ..................... 116
--- Indian ............... 132



--causk ................ 130
Paca .................... 272
Panther .................. 37
Peccary ..... ........... 301
Polecat.................. 104,
Porcupine .............. 310
Prairie Dog .............. 282
Puma, or Cougar......... 40


Quagga...... ............ 194


Rabbit.................. 270
Racoon ................. 295
Rat ..................... 284
Ratel.................... 296
Reindeer ................ 158
Rhinoceros................ 30
Roe-buck ................ 167


Sable.................... 11I


Nyl-ghau.................. 152


Ocelot.*.. *... **........
Opossum...................
SMexican. ........
Orang Outang ............


24
274
277
246


Serval...................
Sheep ...................
African ............
-- Four-horned........
Rocky Mountain....
- Vtallachian.........


21
132
136
136
135
134








CONTENTS.


Siamang.... .........* ...
Skunk.......... ........
Sloth ....................
Springer ..................
Squirrel......... .........
Black ...........
Common Flying .
Common Red ....
Ground, or Striped
Stag...... .............


Tanree ................
Tapir. o..................
Tiger.... .... ..... ......


253
105
315
147
277
279
281
280
280
163


312
308
29


Wars oe0***o *oeoo ooooo
Weasel .................
of America........
Wolf ....................
---- American ..........
--- Black..............

- Clouded Black......
--- Dusky ............
--- Gray ..............
----- Pied................
----- Prairie. ....... .....
----- White .... .........
Wolverene.. .... .... **.


Zebra ... .. *......*...*.
Zebu......... o.. o........


Vicuan *.,............. 246L


262
100
103
79
84
88
86
88
88
88
87
89
298


193
131














IN TROD U CTI ON.


IN the following pages no scientific arrangement
has been pursued. It has been our object to collect
a large number of interesting anecdotes and sketches
of animals, rather than to embarrass the young reader
by scientific distinctions and details. For the con-
tents of the volume, we have been indebted to a va-
riety of works on natural history, and have made
free use of the several very entertaining publications
of Captain Thomas Brown of Edinburgh.
Animals have been defined to be organized bodies,
which have life and sensation, ana are capable of
voluntary motion. They are divided by naturalists
into orders, which have reference to certain essential
distinctions. The class Mammalia includes those
animals which produce their young alive and feed
them with milk from their own breasts or dugs; viz.
men, quadrupeds, and the cetacea, or animals of the
whale- kind. This class is divided into ten orders,
eight of which are devoted to quadrupeds. The
A*






INTRODUCTION.


characters of this class are taken from the structure
of their teeth and feet. On the last depend the power
and dexterity of the animal ; from the first we learn
the nature of its food and the consequent structure of
its digestive organs. The teeth are of three kindE
-the incisory or cutting teeth, the canine or sharp'
pointed teeth, and the molars, or grinding teeth.
The class of Mammnalia is divided into the following
orders :
I. BIMANA ; animals with two hands, of which man
is the only species. lie possesses the three kinds of
teeth.
II. QUADRUIMANA, with four hands at the four ex-
tremities, and three kinds of teeth. This order
includes the apes, monkeys and lemurs.
III. (CuI-:.moP'r.EA. T he general form of these
animals is adapted (fr flight. They have the three
kinds of teeth, are abroad only in the night, and feed
chiefly on fruits and insects. They pass the greater
part of the year in a state of lethargy, fastened by
their hinder feet to the roofs of caverns. This order
includes a large number of species of the bat.
IV. FERJE. The teeth of this order are of the
three kinds, and the four extremities are formed for
walking. They all live chiefly on animal matter.
In this order are included the various species of the
bear, cat, morse and seal, with many others.
V. MARSUPIALIA. The teeth of this order vary in
the different genera. Its general character is the
abdomiinal po ch, xvhich enclosed the teats, and in








INTRODLucTIOX


which the young are brought to perfection. This
order includes the varieties of the kanguroo and
opossum.
VI. GLIRES, or gnawers. These have two large
cutting teeth in each jaw, separated from the grind-
ers by a vacant space; no canine teeth; and grind-
ers with flat crowns or blunt. The hinder limbs are
longer than the fore ones, and furnished with nailed
toes. This order includes the various species of the
rat, marmot, squirrel, hare, porcupine, lemming, and
some others.
VII. EDENTATA, or animals without teeth. This
order includes animals which have no cutting teeth;
some of them even want the canine teeth; and others
have none at all. Their toes are contracted and
buried in large and often crooked nails. To this
order belong the sloth, armadillo, ant-eater, and
others.
VIII. PACHYDE.RMATA, or thick-skinned animals
This order includes all the quadrupeds with hoofs,
except the ruminating animals. They have either
three or two kinds of teeth. To this order belong
the elephant, hog, hippopotamus, tapir, peccary,
rhinoceros, &c.
IX. RUMINANT TA, ruminating animals. The
genera of this order have no cutting teeth in the up-
per jaw, and are usually furnished with eight in the
lower one; there is a vacant space between the cut-
ting teeth and the grinders. Some genera have one
or two canine teeth; the grinders are twelve in each







12 INTRODUCTION.

jaw; they have two toes, protected by hoofs; they
have four stomachs; the males have always horns,
as also the females in some species. To this order
belong the various species of the camel, musk, stag,
deer, antelope, goat, sheep, bull, &c.
X. CETACEA, whales. The bodies of the animals
composing this order are shaped like those of fishes ;
the head is joined to the body by a very short, thick
neck ; they have two teats, which are either pectoral
or abdominal.













BOOK

OF

QUADRUPEDS.




ANIMALS OF THE CAT KIND.

ALL the classes of the cat kind, which includes a large
i.amber of animals from the domestic cat to the lion, are
in general fierce, subtle and rapacious. They are distin-
guished by having six front teeth, the intermediate ones
of which are equal; the tongue is furnished with rough
prickles pointing backwards; and the claws are sheathed
and retractile, except in the lion, which has them retrac-
tile, but not sheathed. The whole of this tribe seek their
food alone; and, except at certain seasons, are even ene-
mies to each other. The dog, the wolf and the bear are
sometimes known to live upon vegetables, or farinaceous
food; but all of the cat kind, such as the lion, the tiger,
the leopard and the ounce, devour nothing but flesh, and
starve upon any other provision.

THE DOMESTIC CAT.
WE shall commence our sketches with anecdotes of the
cat, because all our readers are acquainted with this








TII 1JE ONM?'STIC CAT.


active, cleanly and delicate little animal, which is so val-
uable an inmate of our houses. Of all animals, when
young, there is none more playful than the kitten, though it
seems to lose this disposition as it grows old, and to become
more timid and distrustful. The cat is always artful and
insinuating. It loves ease, and seeks the softest cushions
to lie on. It is particularly fearfil of water, of cold, and
of ill smells. It loves to keep in the sun, to get near the
fire, and to rub itself against those who carry perfumes.
Although an inhabitant of our houses, yet the cat can
hardly be called a dependent. In general, it is but half
tamed, and has its attachments to the place in which it
resides, rather than to the person who feeds and provides
for it. If the family quits the house, the cat still remains;
and if carried elsewhere, seems for a while bewildered with
its new situation. It requires time to become acquainted
with the holes and retreats in which its prey resides, and
with all the little labyrinths through which they often
make good an escape.
This animal eats slowly and with difficulty, as its teeth
are rather made for tearing than chewing its aliments.
For this reason it loves the most tender food, particularly
fish, which it eats as well broiled as raw. Its sleeping is
very light; and it often seems to sleep, the better to de-
ceive its prey. When the cat walks, it treads very softly,
and without the least noise. Its fur is usually sleek and
glossy, and is always kept clean and dry ; when rubbed
in the dark, very distinct electric sparks will he seen to
escape from it. Many anecdotes are related of this animal,
and as some of them are quite singular and interesting,
we have selected a considerable number.
A lady had a tame bird, which she was in the habit of
daily letting out of its cage. One morning, as it was








THE DOMESTIC CAT-


picking crumbs of bread off the carpet, her cat, who
always before showed great kindness for the bird, sud-
denly seized it, and jumped with it in her mouth upon a
table. The lady was much alarmed for the safety of her
favorite, but, on turning about, instantly discovered the
cause of this singular conduct. The door had been left
open, and a strange cat had just come into the room.
After turning it out, her own cat came down from her
place of safety, and dropped the bird, without doing it
the smallest injury.
A cat, belonging to an elderly lady in Bath, in England,
was so attached to her mistress, that she would pass the
night in her bed-chamber, which was four stories high.
On the ledge, outside of the window, the lady often strewed
crumbs for the sparrows, who came to partake of them:
as the lady always slept with her window open, the cat
would pounce upon the birds and kill them. One morn-
ing, she saw that her mistress had forgotten to strew the
crumbs, and she was at loss to know in what manner to
tempt her victims. She at length discovered a small
bunch of wheat, which she sprung at, carried to the
favorite resort of the sparrows, actually threshed the
corn out by beating it on the wall, and then concealed
herself till the birds came, to suffer from her cunning and
cruelty.
Two lads in the north of England, being out on a squir-
rel hunt, found a nest in which were two young ones.
Though quite helpless, and there was little hope they
would survive their dam, yet they took the poor little
animals home. One of them was an object of great care
to its youthful possessor, from his ignorance of the man-
ner in which it should be fed and reared. Ie was at
length released from his anxiety, by the extraordinary








TiHE DOMESTIC CAT.


attachment of the family cat to the little stranger. She
carried the young squirrel in her mouth, placed it near
her own kitten, and cherished it with the same tenderness.
In a few days its eyelids opened, and it throve well for
the space of eight months. It became remarkably sport-
ive, and performed many curious tricks. This pet, how-
ever, then died, to the great chagrin of its foster-mother
puss, and its youthful possessor.
A French writer relates the following almost incredible
instance of sagacity in a cat, who, even under the receiver
of an air-pump, discovered the means of escaping a death
which appeared to all present inevitable:-
'I once saw,' he says, a lecturer upon experimental
philosophy place a cat under the glass receiver of an air-
pump, for the purpose of demonstrating that very certain
fact, that life cannot be supported without air and respira-
tion. The lecturer had already made several strokes with
the piston, in order to exhaust the receiver of itq air, when
the animal, who began to feel herself very uncomfortable
in the rarified atmIosphere, was fortunate enough to dis-
cover the source from whence her uneasiness proceeded.
She placed her paw upon the hole through which the air
escaped, and thus prevented any more from passing out of
the receiver. All the exertions of the philosopher were
now unavailing; in vain he drew the piston; the cat's paw
effectually prevented its operation. Hoping to effect his
purpose, he let air again into the receiver, which, as soon
as the cat perceived, she withdrew her paw from the
aperture; but whenever he attempted to exhaust the
receiver, she applied her paw as before. All the specta-
tors clapped their hands in admiration of the wonderful
sagacity of the animal, and the lecturer found himself un-
der the necessity of liberating her, and substituting in her








THE DOMS7STIC CAT.


place another, that possessed less penetration, and enabled
him to exhibit the cruel experiment.'
A country gentleman of our acquaintance,' says the
editor of the Edinburgh Evening Courant, who is
neither a friend to thieves nor poachers, has at this moment
in his household a favorite cat, whose honesty, he is sorry
to say, there is but too much reason to call in question.
The animal, however, is far from being selfish in her
principles; for her acceptable gleanings she regularly
shares among the children of the family in which her lot
is cast. It is the habit of this grimalkin to leave the
kitchen or parlor, as often as hunger and an opportunity
may occur, and wend her way to a certain pastrycook's
shop, where, the better to conceal her purpose, she en-
deavors slily to ingratiate herself into favor with the
mistress of the house.
As soon as the shopkeeper's attention becomes en-
grossed in business, or otherwise, puss contrives to pilfer
a small pie or tart from the shelves on which they are
placed, speedily afterwards making the best of her way
home with her booty. She then carefully delivers her
prize to some of the little ones in the nursery. A divis-
ion of the stolen property quickly takes place; and hero
it is singularly amunsiing to observe the sleekit animal,
not the least conspicuous among the numerous group,
thankfully mumping her share of the illegal traffic. We
may add, that the pastrycook is by no means disposed to
institute a legal process against poor Mrs. Gib, as the
children of the gentleman to whom we allude are honest
enough to acknowledge their fourfooted playmate's fail-
ings to papa, who willingly compensates any damage the
shopkeeper may sustain from these depredations.'
The following extraordinary anecdote is said to be well
2*








TRT DOMfERTIC CAT.


authenticated. In the year 1783, two cats, belonging to a
merchant of Mewsina, in Sicily, announced to him the ap-
proach of an earthquake. Before the first shock was felt,
these creatures seemed desirous to work their way through
the door of a room in which they were. Their master,
observing their fruitless efforts, opened the door for them.
At a second and third door they repeated their eftlrts,
and, on being set completely at liberty, they ran straight
through the street and out of the gate of the town. The
merchant, whose curiosity was excited by this strange
conduct of the cats, followed them into the Tields, where
he again saw them scratching and burrowing in the earth.
Soon after, there was a violent shock of an earthquake,
and many houses in the city were thrown down. Of this
number was the dwelling of the merchant, so that he
owed his life to the singular foresight of his cats.
In the month of April, 1831, an exhibition of six cats
was opened in Edinburgh, by a company of Italiuns.
These animals gave astonishing proofs of intelligence.
They were kept in a large spurred box, and individthilly
came forth, at the command of the exhibitor, and seemed
perfectly to understand their duty. These well-tutored
creatures beat a drum, turned a spit, struck upon an anvil,
turned a coffee roaster, and rang bells. Two of them,
who seemed to be more sagacious than the rest, drew a
bucket, suspended by a pulley, in the znmnner water is
raised from a well. In the greater part of their perform-
ances, they stood on their hind legs. We remarked an
instance of grent cunning in one of the aninnal, which
was not at the time employed, but was in its box, and
seemed to know that its companion, who was employed
in drawing the water, would be rewarded the second time
with a small bit of meat, which was put into the bucket.








TRE DOMESTIC CAT.


It came slily out, and, when the bucket was on a level
with the place where it was sitting, caught hold of it with
its claws, and purloined the beef. There was also in the
exhibition a tame white rat, which the exhibitor brought
out of a box, and desired one of the cats to kiss it, when
it immediately licked the cat all over. He afterwards
put it on the cat's head, and it walked over her body,
without seeming to give her any unpleasant sensation.
One of the cats would turn a wheel only when a piece of
meat, stuck on a spit, was put before it; but the instant
it was removed, she stopped, and, however loudly the
exhibitor called to it, and even threatened to whip it,
no attention was paid to his orders, till the meat was re-
placed.'
Cats sometimes form attachments for other animals,
which are reciprocated. The celebrated stallion, lhe
Godolphin Arabian, and a black cat were for many years
the warmest friends. When the horse died, in 1753, the
cat sat upon its carcass till it was put under ground;
then, crawling slowly and reluctantly away, was never
again seen, till her dead body was found in a hay-loft.
There was a hunter in the king's stables at Windsor, to
which a cat was so attached, that, whenever he was in
the stable, the creature would never leave her usual seat
upon his back; and the horse was so well pleased with
the attention, that, to accommodate his friend, he slept,
as horses will sometimes do, standing. This, however,
was found to injure his health, and the cat was at length
removed to a distant part of the country.
The attachment of the domestic cats to human individ-
uals is by no means common. To a certain extent, the
cat knows the voice and person of its master; and it
sometimes forms strong antipathies to particular people.








THl WlII.D CAr.


The effects of discipline upon the cat are very inferior to
the effects of chastisement or caresses upon a dog. The
dog, when beaten or reproved for a particular fault,
seldom repeats it; but the cat will never consent to bo
cured of a troublesome trick. You cannot prevent her
from importuning for food, jumping upon you, sitting in
your chair, clambering upon a table, tearing furniture,
scratching up plants, however constantly you may beat
her for these irmpcrtinences.
This animal is common in its wild state to both conti-
nents. When Columbus first landed in the new world, a
hunter brought him a cat which he had discovered in the
woods; it was of the ordinary size, with a very long and
thick tail. It is also well known in many parts of Africa
and Asia.


THE WILD CAT.












TnH wild cat stands high upon its egs, and has a short
tail, curved upwards at its extremity. In other respects,
it much resembles the domestic cat. It is about two feet
in length, with a tail of little more than three inches. It
lives principally in wooded districts, and lives upon birds,


20








THE SERVAL.


squirrels and other small animals. In Europe, but one
species of the wild cat is known, and it appears, from the
accounts of travellers, that this species is found in almost
every climate.

THE SERVAL.














THE serval is somewhat larger than the ordinary wild
cat. Its color on the back and sides is a pale yellow,
covered with small round spots of black; the breast ad4
belly are pure white; its eyes are very brilliant --
piercing ; its whiskers are long, stiff, and nearly straight
its tail is short and spotted.
This species inhabits the mountainous parts of India,
residing altogether on trees, and seldom appearing on the
ground. It is extremely agile, leaping with great rapidity
from one branch to another. It lives principally on birds,
squirrels and small animals. The serval never attaCks
man, but rather endeavors to avoid him.








THE LYNX.


TIE LYNX.










-~- -*- *-' ~


THI usual length of the lynx is about two feet smx
inches, its tail six, and its height sixteen inches. The
ears are erect, and have a long pencil of black hairs at
their tip. The fir is long, thick and soft, of a grayish ashl
color on tho upper parts, with a reddish tinge, marked
with dusky spots; the under parts are white. The legs
and feet are thick, short and strong, covered with long
fur; and the extremity of the tail is black. The eyes
are of a pale yellow, and in ancient times the creature
was proverbial for its piercing sight.
The lynx inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia
and America, differing from most of the cat tribe in its
preference for cold or temperate climates. Lynxes con-
coal themselves in thick forests, prey upon stags, roebucks,
hares, and other animals, and climb trees with rapidity in
pursuit of birds and squirrels. The fur of the lynx is a
valuable and extensive article of commerce.


22








TIEl AjI(" :ICAN TI1UkI CAT.


THE AFRICAN TIGER CAT


THIS animal is extremely beautiful, with long legs, a
slender body, and a skin of bright yellow with black spotIs.
It is taller and longer, but not much heavier than the domes-
tic cat. Many of these animals are killed in the southern
parts of Africa, and their skins are sent to England as an
article of traffic. They live upon birds and small quad-
rupeds, and ar3 exceedingly agile and vigorous.








TlE OCELOT.


THE MARGAY.












Tu is creature is found in Brazil and Guiana, and greatly
resembles the European wild cat in its form, size and
habits. Its skin is of a fawn color, with deep brown
spots and stripes. It lives upon birds and other small
game. It is tamed with great difficulty.


THE OCELOT.
Tml. ocelot is one of the most beautiful of its tribe. It
is about three feet in"ia~gt., and in height about eighteen
inches. Its color is gray, slightly tinged with pale fawn,
and covered with longitudinal stripes, broken into
patches, black at the margins, and pale inside, with an
open space in the centre of the ordinary ground color
of the fuir. The colors of the female are less vivid than
those of the male.
This animal is a native of South America, where it
frequents the depths of the forest, living upon deer and
bi-ds. It seldom attacks man, though instances have
occurred of its so doing. When hunted and overtaken,


24










THE OCELOT


it defends itself w ith great obstinacy. It is fierce and
savage, and less susceptible of domestication than other
members of the cat tribe.


In confinement it is in a state of perpetual motion, and
will not submit to the caresses of its keeper. A male and
female ocelot were many years ago brought to France,
which had been taken when very young. At the age of
three months, they had sufficient strength and fierce-
ness to kill a bitch by which they had been nursed.
When a live cat was thrown to them, they immediately
pounced upon it, sucked its blood, but left the flesh un-
touched. The male never allowed his partner to touch a
bit of food till he had first served himself.


3 n








TIH OL'UNC.E.


THE OUNCE.


THE ounce is about three feet and a half in length,
long-backed, and short-legged. Its hair is long, and of a
light gray color tinged with yellow. The back and
sides are beautifully spotted ; the tail is full of hair,
irregularly marked with large spots of black. This animal
is a native of many parts of Africa, and is found in Asia
as far as China. It is frequently trained to the chase like
the hunting leopard.


26









27


TME JAGUAR.


THE MEXICAN TIGER CAT.


THIS animal is rather larger than the domestic cat, and is
of a dull fawn color, spotted with black. It is found in Mex-
ico, Guatemala, and the northern parts of South America.

THE JAGUAR.

T'HERE is one variety of jauar, which has been denom-
inated by naturalists the black tiger. This animal is of
a uniform dark blackish brown on the head, and along
the back, sides and outer surface of the legs; the throat,
breast, belly and inside of the legs are of a dark ash color;
its ears are rather long and sharp-pointed, and its pawa
white. In some specimens, the black jaguar is covered
with indistinct spots.
The color of the ordinary variety of the jaguar in a
brownish yellow, variegated on the upper parts with open
black circle, with central spots ; the under pars are of a
pale yellow approaching to white. He is about the size








28THE JAUUAR.


of a large wolf, is much more robust than the leopard,
and his limbs are very powerfully made.


















The jaguars are solitary animals, and are met with only
in pairs; inhabiting the thickly-wooded forests in the
neighborhood of the great rivers of South America.
They are the most formidable animals of that country.
They will attack cattle of all kinds, though horses seem
to be their favorite prey. When pressed by hunger,
they will attack man.
The power of climbing possessed by this animal is very
remarkable. Some of the stumps of the mighty trees in
the South American forests are free from branches totho
height of fifty feet, and with bark perfectly smooth. A
traveller in that country snys, that he observed marks of
the claws of the jaguar at the top of some of the highest
trees; and although, from the deep ruts in the bark, it
was evident that the animal had slipped more than once


28








THE TIGER.


in his attempt to gain the branches, yet, he had no doubt,
he ultimately gained his object.
The jaguar is hunted with a number of dogs, which
have no chance of destroying the animal themselves, but
drive it into a tree or bole. In the first case, the hunters
kill it with fire-arms or lances; and in the second, some
of the natives are occasionally found hardy enough to
approach it with the left arm covered with a sheep-skin,
and to spear it with the other; a rashness which is
frequently followed by fatal consequences to the hunter.
Many parts of South America, which were once griev-
ously infested with jaguars, are now almost freed from
them, or are only occasionally troubled by their destructive
incursions.

THE TIGER.


















THE tiger is one of the most beautiful of animals. The
glossy smoothness of his hair, the extreme blackness of
3 #


29







30


TioE *ikiukER.


the spots with which he is marked, and the bright yellow
of the ground on which they lie, must strike every be-
holder. His body usually measures six feet, from the tip
of the nose to thie root of the tail; the head is smooth;
the ears are small and rounded ; the legs are nearly white
in the inside, and are partially striped with black.
The< strength of the tiger is very great. He can carry
a man in his teeth, while he runs at considerable speed;
and he is more nimble in his movement- than the lion.
He is the most rapacious and destructive of all carnivo-
rous animals. Iike the rest of the cat kind, the tiger
attacks his prey by lying in anihbsh and springing upon
it. His bound is tremendous, performed with astonishing
quickness, and at a very great distance.
The tiger is a native of all the countries of southern
Asia, which lie between the north of China, Chinese
Tartary, and the Indies. lie abounds in Ben:al, 'lonqtuin
and1 Stumatra, and is to be found on rmost of the. l:arger
islands in thft mide of India. lie is the scourge of many
districts which are thickly covered with jungles and foreetL.
Lir-utcenant Collet, of the Bombay army, having heard
that a very large tiger had destroyed seven inhabitants
of an adjacent village, reSiolved, with another officer, to
attempt the destruction of the monster. Having ordered
wsev:: elephants, they went in quest of the animal, which
they tCund sleeping beneath a bush. Roused by the
noise of the elephants, he made a furious charge upon
them, and Lieutenant (ollot's elephant received him on
h-'r .~loulder, the other six having turned about, and run
ofl, notwithstanding the exertions of their riders. The
elephant shook off the tiger, and, ILieItenantCollet having
fired two hllls at him, he fell ; but, again recovering him-
self, lhe made a tprimn at the lieiit'mantt.








THE TIGER.


Having missed his object, he seized the elephant by
the hind leg, and, having received a kick from her, and
another ball, he let go his hold, and fell a second time.
Supposing that he was now disabled, Collet very rashly
dismounted, with the resolution of killing him with his
pistols; but the tiger, who had only been crouching to
take another spring, flew upon the lieutenant, and caught
him in his mouth. The strength and intrepidity of the
lieutenant, however, did not forsake him; he immediately
fired his pistol into the tiger's body, and, finding that this
had no-effect, disengaged his arms with all his force, and,
directing the other pistol to his heart, he at last destroyed
him, after receiving twenty-five severe wounds.
There appears to be no greater difficulty in rendering
the tiger tame, than the lion; for there have been numer-
ous instances of their docility in a state of confinement.
In India, the priests who roam about as mendicants are
generally accompanied by tame tigers. In the summer of
1830, when the menagerie of Mr. Wombwell was at
Edinburgh, a young tiger got out of his cage. In place
of offering any injury to those present, however, he
squatted down like a frightened cat, close below his
cage; when the keepers came, he quietly allowed himself
to be lifted into his apartment.
A young tiger, which was brought from China, in the
Pitt East Indiaman, at the age of ten months, was so
tame as to admit every kind of familiarity from the people
on board. It was as harmless and playful as a kitten.
It frequently slept in the sailors' hammocks, and, when
stretched on the deck, would allow two or three of them
to repose, with their heads resting on it for a pillow.
Like the cat, it was given to thieving, and frequently
stole the sailors' meat. It would frequently run out on








Til TIUI U.


the bowsprit, climb about the ship like a cut, and perform
a number of tricks with surprising agility. There was
a dog on board, with which it would often play in the most
diverting manner. This animal was placed in the Tower
of London, where it remained many years, and never
evinced any ferocity. It was called Harry, and answered
to this name like a dog.
The keeper of this animal one day thought of trying the
experiment of putting a dog into its den, after having been
fed. The dog selected was a small, rough, black female
terrier puppy. The tiger looked quietly towards it,
allowed it to remain undisturbed, and became ultimately
much attached to it. When the keepers took the dog
away to feed it, the tiger seemed exceedingly unhappy ;
and invariably, on its being returned, licked it all over,
purring all the while, and exhibiting every mark of pleas-
ure. In one or two instances, when the dog was allowed
to remain in the cell during feeding time, it ventured to
eat along with him ; but on such occasions the tiger
seemed dissatisfied with the liberty. After some months,
the* terrier was replaced by a Dutch pug. This creature
was also treated with kindness, and when he died the
tiger suffered much from grief at his loss.
M. Dellohi, of the French fiLctory at Tilsceri, kept a
tiger for several months, which was secured by a strong
chain. Tlhii animal was cunning enough to scatter a
portion of the rice that was set before him, as far round
the front of his den as possible. This enticed the poultry
to come and pick it up. The tiger pretended to be
asleep, iin order to induce them to approach nearer, when
he suddenly sprang upon them, and seldom failed to
make several of them his prey.
A buffalo, belonging to a peasant in the East Indies,








TIIE TIGER.


having fallen into a quagmire, the man was himself unable
to extricate it, and went to call the assistance of his
neighbors. Meanwhile, a large tiger, coming to the
spot, seized upon the buffalo, and dragged him out. When
the men- came to the place, they saw the -tiger, with the
buffalo thrown over his shoulder, in the act of retiring
with him towards the jungle. No sooner, however, -did
he -observe the men, than he let fall the dead animal,'and
precipitately escaped. On coming up, they found the
buffalo quite dead, and all his blood sucked out.
Some notion may be conceived of the immense power
of the tiger, when it is mentioned, that the ordinary
weight of a buffalo is above a thousand pounds, and con
sequently more than double its own weight.
An accidental conflict took place, in December, 1830
between a tiger and tigress, and a lion, in the menagerie
of the Tower of London.
While one of the under keepers was in the act of
cleaning the dens in the menagerie, he unguardedly raised
a. door in the upper tier of cages, by which the lion and
tigers were separated. No sooner did the animals see
each other, than their eyes glared furiously. The lion
erected his mane, and, uttering a tremendous roar, bounded
on the male tiger, who seemed as eager for the conflict as
his adversary; and he was seconded in the attack by the
female. The conflict soon became terrible, and the
roaring of the combatants resounded through every part
of the Tower. The other animals of the menagerie be-
came variously excited by the horrid sounds. The beasts
of prey joined their voices in fearful yelling, making every
effort to get out of their confinement; while the more
timid creatures shrieked with terror, and vainly endeavored
to conceal themselves in some remote corners of their cells
B"


33








34


The lion, although overmatched, by having two animals
nearly as bulky as himself to combat, nevertheless fought
with undaunted vigor. The issue long remained doubt-
ful, when the tiger got hold of the lion's throat, and threw
him on his bacd, and they rolled over each other several
times.- until the tigress got hold of him, and, by this con-
juition of strength, the poor lion was fairly pinned
against the bars, and his action greatly diminished. Still,
however, this did not damp his courage ; for he redoubled
his roar of fury, while, at the same time, he uttered yells
of distress. The keepers now appeared with rods of iron
heated red at the ends, and applied them to the mouths
and nostrils of the firious. tigers, which forced them to
quit their hold of the prostrate king of the forest. But ns
soon as they were separated, the lion and tiger aga'n
united in conflict, and, nsizing each other, the one by the
upper, and the other Iy the under jaw, they tore one
another with a more deadly and terrible fury than before.
The red hot bare were again applied to their nostrils, but
so keen were they in the contest, that it was with much
difficulty they were again separated. The lion was then
forced to his den by following him with the hot iron, when
the doors were immediately shut upon him. The lion had
the worst of it; but this is not to be wondered at, as he
had two animals to contend with, which had been little
more than twelve months from their native forests. This
terrible battle lasted upwards of half an hour.
The skin of these animals is mech esteemed all over
the East, particularly in China: the mandarins cover
their eats of justice in the public places with it, and con-
vert it into coverings for cushions in winter. In Europe,
these skins, though seldom to be met with, are of no
great value.


TIME TIGER.









THE lEOPARD.


THE LEOPARD.

















THE leopard is usually about four feet in length, to the
root of his tail. Its color is a rich yellowish fawn, paler
on the sides, and lost in the pure white of the belly. It
is covered with round black spots; there are some black
lines on the lips, and bands of the same color on the
inside of the legs.
IHe possesses a degree of velocity and agility surpassed
by no other creature. lie climbs trees with astonishing
rapidity, so that few animals are safe from his ravages.
Man alone seems to be feared by him, but if pressed
hard by the hunter, he will turn upon him, and it requires
both skill and courage to guard against the fury of his
attacks. Many instances have occurred of man falling a
victim to him, although he must in general be pressed
to the onset. A few solitary instances have been known
where the leopard has attacked the wood-cutters, or the


35










unwary traveller, and destroyed them, wlhci impelled by
hunger.
In a captive state, the leopard is n.- doinesticeitedl a- any
of the cat tribe. lThere are at present, in the 'Tower of
London, a pair of these animals from Asia confined in the
same den. The female is very tame and gentle in her
temper, and will allow herself to be patted and caressed
by the keepers, while she licks their hands and purse. She
has, however, a particular fondness for the destruction of
parasols, umbrellas, muffT, and haL~, which bhe frequently
crntrives to lay hold of, before the spectator can prevent
it, and tears them to pieces in an instant. In the course
of five year, sbo scir. ed and destroyed several hundred
of these articles, as wc-ll as other parts of ladies' dre.*
\hen this creature is in a playftul mood, she bounds
about her cell with the most %onderfiul celerity ; ski,-
ming along the ceiling of hlEr npnrtment, with a quick-
ness that evinces great pliability of fonn and musculnr
power. The male is larger than the female, the color of
his akin brighter, and the potting more intensely black.
It is said that the leopard has been caught by a trap
so contrived, with a mirror, that the animal, on seeing his
reflection, would imagine he had met with an enemy, and
attack it, when the springing trap would secure him.


Till,. I-P-01'ARD.








THE PA&NTHlER.


THE PANTHER.










THE panther is about six feet in length, exclusive of
die tail, which is nearly three feet. The color of the
upper part of the body is bright tawny yellow, paler on
the sides, and nearly white on the belly; beautifully
marked on the sides, back and flanks, with black spots dis-
posed in circles of four or five each. On the face, breast
and legs, the spots are single. The ears are short, and
more pointed than those of the tiger. The habits of the
panther are very similar to those of the tiger. He is a
native of Africa, and is found from Barbary to the re-
motest parts of Guinea.
The following description of an encounter with one of
these animals, is from the pen of an eye-witness :-
I was at Jaffna, at the northern extremity of the island
of Ceylon, in the beginning of the year 1819; when, one
morning, my servant called me an hour or two before my
usual time, with Master, master! people sent for mas-
ter's dogs-tiger in the town !" Now, my dogs chanced
to be some very degenerate specimens of a fine species
called the Poligar dog, which I should designate as &
sort of wiry-haired greyhound, without scent. I kept
them to hunt jackals; but tigers are very different things








TIIF PANTII&rr.


By the way, thtre are no real tigers in Ceylon ; but
leopards and pantheitr are always called so, and by our-
selves as well a_4 the nativrc.. This turned out to be a
panther. My gun chanced not to be put together; and,
while my servant wn.s doing it, the collector and two
medical men, who had recently arrived, in consequence
of the cholera morbus having just then reached Ceylon
from the Continent, came to my door, the former armed
with afowlhrig-piece, and the two latter with remarkably
blunt hog-spears.
They insisted upon Setting off, without waiting rfr my
gun,.-- proceedinlg itot much to my taste. T'le tiger ([
nimut continue to call him so) had taken refuge in a hut,
tie roof of which, like those of C'ylon hitl in general.
Spread to the ground lik' an imblrella; the only aperture
intLo it was a mall door, about four f-et high. The col-
lector wanted to get the tiger out at once. I begg(?ed to
wait for my gun; but no- the fowlini-pie.ce landedd
with ball of cotrse) and the two hog-speara were quite
enough. I got a hedge-stake, and awaited my fate, from
very shame. At this moment, to my great delight, there
arrived from the fort an En;.g!ils ot'icer, two artillery-
men, and a Malay captain ; and a pretty fiLure we Nahould
have c'it without then, an the event will show. I was
now quite ready to attack, and my gun caie a minute
afterwards.
'The whole scene which follows took place within an
enclosure, about twenty feet square, formed, on three
sides, by a strong fence of palmyra leaves, and on the
fourth by the hut. At the door of this, the two artillery-
men planted themselves ; and tle Malay captain got at
the top, to frighten the tiger ot., by worrying it-an easy
operation, as the huts there are covered with cocoa-nut








THE PANTHER.


leaves. One of the artillerymen wanted to go in to the
tiger, but we would not suffer it. At last the beast sprang.
This man received him on his bayonet, which he thrust
apparently down his throat, firing his piece at the same
moment. The bayonet broke off short, leaving less than
three inches on the musket; the rest remained in the
animal, but was invisible to us. The shot probably went
through his cheek, for it certainly did not seriously injure
him, as he instantly rose upon his legs, with a loud roar,
and placed his paws upon the soldier's breast. At this
moment, the animal appeared to me to about reach the
centre of the man's face; but I had scarcely time to
observe this, when the tiger, stooping his head, seized the
soldier's arm in his mouth, turned him half round stagger-
ing, threw him over on his back, and fell upon him.
'Our dread now was, that, if we fired upon the tiger,
we might kill the man. For a moment, there was a pause,
when his comrade attacked the beast exactly in the same
manner as the gallant fellow himself had done. He struck
his bayonet into his head; the tiger rose at him-he fired ;
and this time the ball took effect, and in the head. The
animal staggered backwards, and we all poured in our
fire. lie still kicked and writhed; when the gentlemen
with the hog-spears advanced, and fixed him, while he
was finished by some natives beating him on the head
with hedge-stakes. The brave artilleryman was, after
all, but slightly hurt. He claimed the skin, which was
very cheerfully given to him. There was, however, a cry
among the natives, that the head should be cut off: it was;
and in so doing, the knife came directly across the bayonet.
The animal measured little less than four feet, from the
root of the tail to the muzzle. There was no tradition of
a tiger having been in Jaffna before. Indeed, this one








THE VPlYMA, Ot CtOCOA.


must have cither conie a distance of almost twenty nl-.c,
or have swam across an arm of the sea nearly twvo ts
breadth; for Jaffha stands on a peninsula, on w)ii t thli-r,.
is no jingle of any magnitude.'


THE PUMA, OR COUGAR.


F~t 90'r-


Tea puma, cougar, or, as he was onco called, the
American lion, was formerly found in alt not-overy part of
the New World, from Canada in tiei north, to Patagonia
tn the south. From a large portion of this immense
country, however, they have been gradually expelled, as
the forests have bowed to tho axe of the industrious
settlers, and the hcmen of a happy nnd contented race of
hmnan beings have occitpied the solitudes which tio wild
beasts lately inhabited.
The length of the body of the purti iI about four feet,









THE 'PUMA, OR COUGAR.


and Its height somewhat more than two. The tail is
nearly two feet in length, without any tuft at its point.
The head is round, the ears short, and the general color
of the fur brownish red. The belly is white, or pale cream
color. This animal lives in high and mountainous wood-
ed tracts. He is said to be particularly fond of horse
flesh, but also feeds on all domestic and almost all wild
animals, which he is capable of overcoming. Though of
small size, this species is extremely powerful. In attack-
ing his prey, he generally contrives to leap on the back
of the victim, whom he seldom fails to vanquish.
A story is told of two hunters who went in quest of
game in the Catskill mountains, in New York. Each
being armed with a gun, and accompanied by a dog, they
agreed to go in contrary directions round the base of the
hill, which formed one of the points of that chain of
mountains; and it was settled that, if either discharged
his piece, the other should hasten to the spot from whence
the report proceeded as speedily as possible. They had
not been long asunder, when one heard the other fire,
and, agreeably to promise, hastened to join his companion.
He looked for him in every direction, but in vain. At
length, however, he came upon the dog of his friend, dead,
and dreadfully lacerated. Convinced by this that his com-
rade had met with a most formidable animal, he was
much alarmed, and sought for him with great anxiety.
lie had not proceeded many yards from the spot where
he had left the dog, when his attention was arrested by
the ferocious growl of some wild animal. On raising his
eyes to the quarter from whence the sound came, he dis-
covered a large cougar couching on the branch of a tree,
and under him the body of his friend. The animal's eyes
glared at him, and he appeared hesitating whether to
4








THE LION.


descend and attack the survivor, or to leave his prey and
take to.flight. The hunter, aware that there was no tune
for delay, levelled his piece, and mortally wounded the
animal, who fill from the tree with the body of the man
it had just killed. Hia dog then attacked the wounded
puma, but a single blow from its paw laid it prostrate. In
this situation, finding his comrade dead, and knowing it
was dangerous to approach the wounded animal, he went
in search of assistance, and, on returning to the spot, ie
found the puma, his friend, and the two dogs, all lying dead.
In captivity, the puma readily becomes tame, and may
even be rendered docile and obedient. His manners
closely resemble those of the domestic cat. Like that
animal, he is extremely fond of being noticed, raises his
back and stretches his limbs beneath the hand that
caresses him, and expresses his pleasure by the same
quiet and complacent purring. They soon become at-
tached to those with whom they are familiar; and numer-
ous instances might be mentioned in which they have
been suffered to roam almost at large about the house
without any injurious results. Mr. Kean, the tragedian,
possessed an animal of this species, so tame as to follow
him about almost like a dog, and to be frequently intro-
duced into his drawing-room, when filled with company
at perfect liberty.

THE LION.

THE ordinary length of the lion is about six feet, and
his height at the shoulders upwards of three feet, so that
hastands rather low on his legs. The tail is upwards of
three feet in length, terminated by a thick tuft of blackish
hairs. There is a very small dark-colored prickle at the








THE LION.


tip of the tail, concealed by the hairs; it is as hard as a
piece of horn, and surrounded at its base with an annular
fold of the skin. The general color of the fur is tawny,
















usually paler below the belly: the legs are thick and very
strong; the feet large and spreading ; the claws are
retractile, not contained in sheaths, but in the hollows
between the toes, which are beautifully provided by na-
ture for their reception, by the particular articulation of
the last joint The lion is distinguished from all others
of the cat kind by a long and flowing mane, which rises
in the middle of the forehead, and extends backward
over his shoulders. His shape is compact, well propor-
tioned and sizeable ; a perfect model of muscular strength
joined with agility.
The roar of the lion has been described as horrific, by
all who have heard the animal in a wild state ; more par-
ticularly when it is heightened into a sort of scream,
when he makes the fatal bound on his prey. This sound


43








THE LION.


is said by travellers to resemble the noise which is heard
at the moment of an earthquake. Burchell says it is
produced by the animal laying his head upon the ground,
and uttering a half-stifled growl; by which means the
noise is conveyed along the surface of the earth. When
this sound is heard by other animals, they suddenly start
to their feet, and fly off in all direction ; not unfrequent-
ly rushing into the danger they seek to avoid.
In a state of captivity, it has been noticed, that the lion
has a regular and constant time of roaring. It has been
remarked, that the lions in the royal menagerie, in the
Tower of London, during temperate weather, commence
roaring about dawn, one of them taking the lead, and the
others joining in succession. If any one fails to follow,
)t is a sure sign of approaching sickness.
The courage of the lion is proverbial; but this cannot
be attributed to any innate elevation of sentiment, and
must rather be ascribed to the consciousness that there
is no other animal of the forest who, singly, can overcome
him. His pliable agility, and sinewy frame, together
with the resistless and impetuous fury of his attacks,
enable him to overcome even the massive bulk of the
elephant, rhinoceros and buffalo. Roving in the bound-
less desert, the extensive plains, or in the shade of the
vast jungles of his native country, he holds despotic sway,
and well deserves the title of the king of beasts.' But
look at him in the neighborhood of large towns, and pop-
ulous districts, and it will be seen that his fortitude and
conscious superiority are greatly modified; for, in these
situations, he yields to the power of man, skulking only
in the deepest recesses of extensive jungles, or in the
impenetrable depths of mighty forests, seeking to over-
come his unwary prey, by lying in ambush, and seizing








THlE MLON.


them when they little expect his attacks. To the con-
sciousness of a want of capacity to overcome the lords of
creation, must, in a great measure, be attributed his do-
cility under captivity ; and to his native dignity of aspect
he is indebted for the general impression mankind have
formed of his noble character and amiable disposition.
The lion is a long-lived animal, but his average age is
not exactly known. The great lion called Pompey, which
died in 1760, was known to have been in the Tower above
seventy years; and one brought from the river Gambia,
died there at the age of sixty-three.
The character of this beast has been painted in colors
as flattering, as if they had indeed been laid on by the
brush of the lion himself. He has been described as
generous, forbearing and high-minded to the most sin-
gular extent. On examination, it will be found, that he
partakes in a high degree of the guileful, vindictive and
cruel passions that characterize the rest of the tribe to
which he belongs. His personal history and disposition
will be best gathered from the sketches which we subjoin.
Mr. Burchell, an intelligent traveller in Africa, took
advantage of his opportunities in studying the nature of
the lion. He says of him-' At the time when man first
adopted the lion as an emblem of courage, it would seem
that they regarded great size and strength as indicating
it: but they were greatly mistaken in the character they
have given to this indolent, skulking animal, and have
overlooked a much better example of true courage, and
of other virtues also, in the bold and faithful dog.'
The same writer gives the following animated descrip-
tion of an encounter with a pair of lions:-- The day was
exceedingly pleasant, and not a cloud was to be seen. For
a mile or two, we travelled along the banks of the river,








TIHE LION.


which in this part abounded in tall matrushes. The dogs
seemed much to enjoy prowling about, and examining
every bushy place ; and at last met with some object
among the rushes, which caused them to set up a most
vehement and determined barking. We explored the
spot with caution, as we suspected, from the peculiar
tone of their bark, that it was what it proved to be-lions.
Having encouraged the dogs to drive them out, a task
which they performed with great willingness, we had a
full view of an enormous black-maned lion and lioness.
The latter was seen only for a minute, as she made her
escape up the river, under concealment of the rushes ;
but the lion came steadily forward, and stood still to look
at us. At this moment, we felt our situation not free
from danger, for the animal seemed preparing to spring
on us; and we were standing on the bank, at the distance
of only a few yards from him, most of us being on foot,
and unarmed, without any visible possibility of escaping.
I had given up my horse to the hunters, and was on
foot myself; but there wns no time for fear, and it was
useless to attempt avoiding him. I stood well upon my
guard, holding my pistols in my hand, with my finger
upon the trigger; and those who had muskets, kept
themselves prepared in the same manner. But at this
instant, the dogs boldly flew in between us and the lion,
and, surrounding him, kept him at bay, by their violent
and resolute barking. The courage of these faithful an-
imals was most admirable. They advanced up to the
side of the huge beast, and stood making the greatest
clamor in his face, without the least appearance of fear.
The lion, conscious of his strength, remained unmoved
at their noisy attempts, and kept his head turned to
wards us.








THE LION.


'At one moment, the dogs, perceiving his eyes thus
engaged, had advanced close to his feet, and seemed as
if they would actually seize hold of him; but they paid
dearly for their imprudence; for, without discomposing
the majestic and steady attitude in which he stood fixed,
he merely moved his paw, and at the next instant, I be-
held two lying dead. In doing this, he made so little ex-
ertion, that it was scarcely perceptible by what means
they had been killed. Of the time which we had gained
by the interference of the dogs, not a moment was lost.
We fired upon him. One of the balls went through his
side, just between the short ribs, and the blood immedi-
ately began to flow; but the animal still remained stand-
ing in the same position. We had now no doubt, that he
would spring upon us. Every gun was instantly reload-
ed; but happily we were mistaken, and were not sorry to
see him move quietly away ; though I had hoped in a few
minutes to have been enabled to take hold of his paw
without danger.
This was considered by our party to be a lion of the
largest size, and seemed, as I measured him by compari-
son with the dogs, to be, though less bulky, as large as
an ox. lie was certainly as long in body, though lower
in stature; and his copious mane gave him a truly formi-
dable appearance. HIe was of that variety which the
Hottentots and boors distinguish by the name of the black
lion, on account of the blacker color of the mane, and
which is said to be always larger and more dangerous
than the other, which they call the pale lion (vaal leeuw).
Of the courage of a lion, I have no very high opinion;
but of his majestic air and movements, as exhibited by
this animal, while at liberty in his native plains, I can
bear testimony. Notwithstanding the pain of a wound,


47








T I'Jf .1",\.


of which he must soon afterwards have died, lih moved
slowly away, with a stately and imecutured step.'
Night is the usual time for the lion to go in search of
his prey; and he never ventures to approach the habita-
tions of man at any other time. Such is his strength,
that he will carry off a horse which he lha- slaughtered,
with apparent case. In the miserable and remote vil-
lages beyond the precincts of civilization, hungry lions
often commit dreadful havoc even among the inhabitants.
When the lion makes an attack on these wretched people,
it is said, on good authority, that the old and infirm are
put in his way; and, finding his prey so easily obtained,
he will return night after night, and carry off a fresh
victim, until the inhabit:unts are at length forced to aban-
don a situation where they are subject to perpetual
persecution.
The lion has great dulness in his sense of hearing :
he is awaked with difficulty, and when awaked appears
confused, exhibiting a want of presence of mind. It is
usually supposed, also, that he is not possessed of the
sense of smelling in such perfection as other animals.
His eyes are constructed like those of the cat, and enable
him to see in the dark.
Some time ago, there was, in the menagerie at Brus-
sels, a fine lion, called Danco, whose den happened to
require some repairs. The keeper brougtlt a carpenter
to mend it; but, when the workman saw the lion, he
started back with terror. The keeper entered the ani-
mal's cage, and led him to the upper part of it, while the
lower was refitting. le then amused himself for some
time, playing with the lion, and being wearied, he soon
fell- into a sound sleep. The carpenter, having full
reliance on the vigilance of the keeper, pursued his work








TIME LIOX.4


with rapidity; and, when he had finished, he called him
to see that the repair was to his mind. The keeper made
no answer. Having repeatedly called in vain, he began
to feel alarm for his situation, and resolved to go to the
upper part of the cage, where, looking through the rail-
ing, he saw the lion and the keeper sleeping side by side.
From the impulse of the moment, the astonished carpen-
ter uttered a loud cry. The lion, awakened, and sur-
prised by the sudden yell, started on his feet, stared at
the mechanic with an eye of fury, and then, placing his
paw on the breast of his keeper, again lay down to re-
pose. At length the keeper was awakened by some of
the attendants. He did not appear the least apprehen-
sive, on account of the situation in which he found him-
self, but shook the lion by the paw, and then quietly led
him to his former residence.
In the year 1801, there were kept in one den, at Exeter
Change, London, a lion and lioness, which were imported
from Africa together. The animals were each about
eighteen months old, and were attended by a negro, who
accompanied them home, and also had reared them, from
the time they were whelps. With this negro they were
in habits of great intimacy; and he frequently entered
their den, when they would frisk round him with all the
playfulness of kittens. He often had a table, with pipes
and glasses, in their cell, and, sitting down in it, indulged
himself in the luxury of smoking his pipe. If, however,
their gambols became too noisy, he had only to signify
his displeasure, by stamping his foot, or even to give
them an angry look, when they would immediately be-
come quiet, and peaceably lie down by his side. He,
however, would not at all times venture himself with
them; for they were liable to irregularity of temper,
5 c


49








THE LION.


from being thoughtlessly irritated by those who came to
see them. When their temper was thus ruffled, he inva-
riably refrained from trusting himself with them, nor
would he even do so while they were feeding. The
proprietor of Exeter Change parted with this man, which
the female took so much to heart, that she loathed her
food, pined away, and soon afterwards died.
An instance of friendship and memory in a lion is thus
related by Mr. Iope:--'One day I had the honor of
dining with the duchess of Hamilton. After dinner, the
company attended her grace, to see a lion fed, that she
had in the court. While we were admiring his fierceness,
and teasing him with sticks, to make him abandon his
prey, and fly at us, the porter came and informed the
duchess, that a sergeant with some recruits, at the gate,
begged to see the lion. Her grace, with great conde-
scension and& good nature, asked permission of the com-
pany to admit the travellers. They were accordingly
admitted. At the moment, the lion was growling over
his prey. The sergeant, advancing to the cage, called,
" Nero, Nero, poor Nero! Don't you know me?" The
animal instantly turned his head to look at him; then rose
up, left his food, and came wagging his tail to the side
of the cage. The man put his hand upon him, and patted
him, telling us, at the same time, that it was three years
since they had seen each other, and that the care of the
lion, on his passage from Gibraltar, had been committed
to him; and he was happy to see the poor beast show
so much gratitude for his attention. The lion, indeed,
seemed perfectly pleased. lio went to and fro, rubbing
himself against the place where his benefactor stood, and
licked the sergeant's hand, as he held it out to him. The
man wanted to go into the cage to him; but was with-


50








THE LION.


held by the company, who were not altogether convinced
that it would be safe for him to do so.
An elderly Hottentot in the service of a Christian,
near the upper part of Sunday river, perceived a lion fol-
lowing him at a great distance for two hours together.
Thence he naturally concluded, that the lion only waited
for the approach of darkness, in order to make him his
prey; and, in the mean time, expected nothing else than
to serve for this fierce animal's supper. But he was well
acquainted with the nature of the lion, and its manner of
seizing its prey, and, at the same time, had leisure to
ruminate on the ways and means in which it was most
likely that his existence would be put an end to. He at
length hit on a method of saving his life. For this pur-
pose, instead of making the best of his way home, he
looked out for a precipice: sitting himself down on the
edge of it, he found that the lion likewise made a halt,
and kept the same distance as before.
As soon as it grew dark, the Hottentot, sliding a little
forwards, let himself down below the upper edge of the
precipice upon a projecting part, or cleft of the rock,
where he could just keep himself from falling. But, in
order to cheat the lion still more, he set his hat and cloak
on the stick, making with it, at the same time, a gentle
motion, just over his head, and a little way from the edge
of the mountain. This crafty expedient had the desired
success. He did not stay long in that situation, before
the lion came creeping softly towards him like a cat, and,
mistaking the skin cloak for the Hottentot himself, took
his leap with such exactness and precision, as to fall
headlong down the precipice, close to the snare which
had been set up for him.
A fine lion was recently exhibited in a menagerie in








THE IMIONESS.


Boston. oe was a splendid animal, and very well be-
haved. Ilis keeper would thrust a long pole into his ribs,
till he made him roar like a true king of the forest; and
then instantly hid him to lie down quietly and caress
him, putting his hand into his mouth, and exchanging
kisses with him. The animal had also been taught to
jump over a pole when he was told to, and play two or
three other tricks. lie had been caught at an exceed-
ingly early age, and is still quite young. We doubt if
many walk their native wilds in greater majest; than was
possessed by this noble creature. It was shocking to see
him put to such vile uses; and we could not help think-
ing with what different eyes the gaping multitude would
have regarded him, if there had not been half a dozen
miserable wooden slats between them and the object of
their wonder.


-..---; -.


The lioness is considerable, smaller than her royal
mate, and at once distinguished from him by the absence








THE LIONESS.


of the mane : her form is more delicately framed, and her
movements are more strikingly graceful than those of the
lion. She differs from him materially in the manner of
carrying her head ; that of the lion being always elevated,
giving him that hauteur which has been construed into
elevation of sentiment; while the lioness always carries
her head in a level with the line of her back, which
greatly detracts from the natural vivacity of her counte-
nance, and conveys a look of sullenness. The lioness is
tenderly attached to her young, and watches them with
the most jealous solicitude.
The Exeter mail-coach, on its way to London, was at-
tacked on Sunday night, the 20th October, 1816, at Win-
ter's-Law-Hut, seven miles from Salisbury, in a most
extraordinary manner. At the moment when the coach.
man pulled up, to deliver his bags, one of the leading
horses was suddenly seized by a ferocious animal. This
produced a great confusion and alarm. Two passengers
who were inside the mail, got out, and ran into the house.
The horse kicked and plunged violently ; and it was with
difficulty the coachman could prevent the carriage from
being overturned. It was soon observed by the coach-
man and guard, by the light of the lamps, that the animal
which had seized the horse, was a huge lioness. A large
mastiff dog came up and attacked her fiercely, on which
she quitted the horse, and turned upon him. The dog
fled, but was pursued and killed by the lioness, within
about forty yards of the place. It appears that the beast
had escaped from a caravan, which was standing on the
roadside, and belonged to a menagerie, on its way to
Salisbury fair.
An alarm being given, the keepers pursued and hunted
the lioness, carrying the dog in her teeth, into a hovel
5*


53








TIHR LIONE9S.


under a granary, which served for keeping agricultural
implements. About half past eight, they had secured
her effectually, by barricading the place, so as to prevent
her escape.
The horse, when first attacked, fought with great spirit;
and, if he had been at liberty, would probably have beaten
down his antagonist with his fore feet; but in plunging,
he embarrassed himself in the harness. The lioness, it
appears, attacked him in front, and, springing at his throat,
had fastened the talons of her fore feet on each side of
his gullet, close to the head, while the talons of her hind
feet were forced into the chest. In this situation she
hung, while the blood was seen streaming, as if a vein
had been opened by alancet. The furious animal missed
the throat and jugular vein; but tho horse was so dread-
fully torn, that he was not at first expected to survive.
The expressions of agony, in his tears and moans, were
most piteous and affecting.
Whether the lioness wau afraid of her prey being taken
from her, or from some other cause, she continued a con-
siderable time after she had entered the hovel, roaring in
a dreadful manner, so loud, indeed, that she was distinct-
ly heard at the distance of half a mile. She was event-
ually secured, and taken to her den.
This lioness was considered a very domesticated crea-
ture; and, before this, had never manifested marks of
ferocity. But this proves, that it is not safe to trust even
the most docile of these animals.







THE DOG


ANIMALS OF THE DOG KIND.
THE second class of carnivorous quadrupeds may be
denominated those of the dog kind. They are neither
so numerous nor so powerful as the other, and yet neither
so treacherous, rapacious or cowardly. This class may
be principally distinguished by their claws, which have no
sheath, like those of the cat kind, but continue at the
point of each toe without a capability of being stretched
forward or pulled back. The nose and jaw of all the dog
kind are larger than in the cat; the body is in proportion
more strongly made, and covered with hair instead of
fur. There are also many distinctions in their internal
structure.

THE DOG.
THE dog is the acknowledged friend of mankind, and
the most intelligent of all known quadrupeds. Independ-
ently of the beauty of his form, his vivacity, force and
swiftness, the dog is possessed of all those internal qual-
ifications that can conciliate the affections of man. A
natural share of courage, an angry and ferocious disposi-
tion, render the dog, in its savage state, a formidable en-
emy to all other animals. The domestic dog seems only
desirous to please. He lays his force, his courage, and all
his useful talents, at the feet of his master. He pays
implicit obedience to his orders; he consults his looks,
and understands the meaning of his glance; he is ever
faithful, constant, friendly and grateful.
More docile than man, and more obedient than any
other animal, he is soon instructed, and easily adapts
himself to the dispositions and manners of those who
command him. Always assiduous in serving his master,


55








THE DOG.


and only a friend to his friends, he is indifferent to all the
rest. lie knows a beggar by his clothes, his voice or his
gestures; and by his decided conduct towards him, inti-
mates that he considers begging very disreputable.
When at night he has the guard of the house, he seems
proud of the charge. lie continues a watchful sentinel,
goes his rounds, scents strangers at a distance, and gives
them warning of his being upon duty. If they attempt to
break in upon his territories, he becomes more fierce,
flies at them, threatens, fights, and either conq(uers alone,
or alarms those who have most interest in coming to his
assistance.
As the dog is in disposition most complying, so is he
also the most susceptible of change in his form. The
varieties of this animal are exceedingly numerous. Cli-
mate, food, education, all make strong impressions upon
them, and produce alterations in shape, color, hair,
size, and every thing but their nature. Nothing appears to
continue constant with them but their internal conforma-
tion. The same dog, takercfrom one climate and brought
to another, seems to become another animal; and differ-
ent breeds are as much separated, to all outward appear-
ance, as the two most distinct animals in nature.
The very extensive varieties of the dog have led to
great doubt as to the original stock from which those
varieties have sprung. Wild dogs, as they are at present
found, are, in most cases, dogs without masters; living
miserably, and easily won back to the comforts and sub-
jection of society. Some think the dog is a jackal; some
a wolf.
Naturalists have divided dogs into several classes:
1. MASTIrFS, including the dog of New Holland, the
mastif, particularly so called, the Danish dog, and the


56








THE ENGNOLISH MASTIFF.


varieties of greyhound. 2. SPANIELS, including the
spaniel and its varieties, the water-dog, the hound, the
terrier, the shepherd's dog the wolf-dog, the Siberian
dog, the Esquimaux dog, and the alco, or Peruvian dog.
3. BuI.L-nOOs, including the bull-dog and its varieties,
the house-dog, the turnspit, the pug, and many other.

TiHE NEW HIOLLAND DOG.
THE head of the New Holland dog is much elongated;
and has much the appearance of a fox, with short erect
ears. His body is thick with hair, and he has quite a
bushy tail. From the point of the nose to the root of the
tail, he is two feet five inches in length. lie possesses
great agility, is full of courage, and quite voracious.

THE ENGLISH MASTIFF.
















THas dog is peculiar to England. He is strong and
active, possesses great sagacity, and is commonly em-
c*


57








TIMR GREYHOUND.


played as a watch-dog. The mastiff is said seldom to
use violence against intruders, unless resisted, and even
then he will sometimes only throw down the person, and
hold him unharmed for hours, till he is relieved. lie
has a large head, with short hanging ears, and thick lips.
In the reign of James I, a contest was exhibited between
three mastiffs and a lion, in which the king of the forest
was compelled to seek safety in flight.

THE GREYHOUND.















THIS dog is a very graceful and elegant animal, and
held in high estimation. In ancient times, the present of
a greyhound was considered a flattering compliment. In
the time of king Canute, it was enacted by the forest
laws of England, that no person under the degree of a
gentleman, should presume to keep a greyhound. It has
a long body, a neat and elongated head, full eye, long
mouth, sharp and very white teeth, little ears, a straight
neck and full breast; his fore and hind legs are long and








THE SPANIEL.


straight; his ribs round, strong and full of sinews. It is
the swiftest of the dog kind, and easily trained for the
chase when twelve months old.
The Italian greyhound is about half the size of the
common greyhound, and is perfectly similar in form. He
is too small to be employed in the chase, and is merely a
fashionable attendant on men of rank in Italy. The
Turkish greyhound is still much smaller than the Italian,
and is quite naked, with only a few scattered hairs on his
tail. The skin is of a leaden or black color, and has all
the appearance of leather. He is usually kept as a pet,
and is said to possess great attachment to his master.


THE SPANIEL.










TnHs animal is of Spanish extraction, of an elegant
form, with long pendent ears, and soft hair gracefully
curled. Its scent is keen, and it is in a high degree sa-
gacious, docile and affectionate. Dash, a spaniel belong-
ing to an English game-keeper, would not quit his mas-
ter's bed after his death; on being taken away, he would
invariably return; and, in spite of every attention, in the
space of fourteen days he died. The land spaniel may
be taught a variety of tricks, such as fetching, carrying


59







THE WATER SPIANIEIL.


and diving. lie is employed in setting for partridges,
and his steadiness and patience in the performance of
this work are admirable.

THE WATER SPANIEL.

TrIts animal is the most docile, and most attached to
his race, of all the dog kind. He is well calculated for
the hunting of otters and ducks. IIo will fetch and carry














at command, and dive to the bottom of deep water for a
piece of money, which lie will bring out and deposit at
the feet of his master. The poet Cowper owned a favor-
ite spaniel, to which he had given the name of Beau. As
he was walking by the Ouse, he was desirous to obtain
one of the water-lilies which grew in the river, but was
unable to reach it. Beau seemed disposed to assist him,
but the poet called him off and pursued his rambles. On
his return, however, Beau rushed into the stream, cropped
a lily, and laid it at his master'u feet.


GO








THE BLOOD-HOUND.


THE AFRICAN BLOOD-HOUND.


Tars species is remarkable for its elegance and sa-
gacity. Major Denham brought a couple with him from
Africa. While in that country, he frequently employed
them in hunting the gazelle ; in performing which they
displayed infinite skill.


THE BLOOD-HOUND


Is a tall, beautiful animal, usually of a reddish or brown
color. He was formerly held in much esteem in Eng-
(








THE SHEPHERD .' DOG.


land, and was employed in the pursuit of game, and in
hunting thieves and robbers by their footsteps. They
are still sometimes set to track deer-stealers, and on such
occasions display great sagacity and acuteness of scent.

THE TERRIER









Is a small, thick-set hound, of which there are two
varieties. It is very brave, acute of smell, and expert in
forcing foxes and other game out of their coverts. Being
particularly hostile to the fox, it is generally an attendant
on every pack of hounds.

THE SHEPHERD'S DOG.
THIS dog has rather a long body, covered with a thick,
woolly-like hair, short legs and upright ears. He is one
of the most obedient and grateful animals of his race.
Ever alive to his master's wishes, he is prompt and eager
to execute them; and he seems to enjoy the greatest
delight when employed in any kind of useful service.
When properly trained, he becomes perfectly acquainted
with every individual in the flock, and will most promptly
select his own sheep, and drive off intruders. Without
the aid of this animal, it would be almost impossible ts


G2








THE ESQUIMAUX DOG.


collect flocks in those extensive and precipitous tracts of
mountain land, where the sheep delight to graze, and
which, in many places, are quite inaccessible to man.
The shepherd's dog is hardy, and the least voracious
of his species. If the master wishes to leave his flock,
he has only to intimate such an inclination to his dog, and
the sheep will be guarded with the utmost care, and uni-
formly kept within due bounds. The breed of this dog is
preserved with the utmost attention in the north of Eng-
land, and in the Highlands of Scotland. But in these
countries it is still much inferior, in size and strength, to
the breed of the Alps and the Pyrenees, as well as to
the variety that is found in the neighborhood of Caucasus.


THE ESQUIMAUX DOG.


--S
- ---.- ~ -:A;~ c.-..- -V~


THIS animal is a native of America, and is considered
by Godman as descended from the wolf and the fox. He


63








THE ESQUIMAUX DOG.


observes that they retain so much of the external appear-
ance and general carriage of the wild animal, as to leave
no question of their descent from the same stock of the
wolf residing in the vicinity. Moreover, they do not ap-
pear to be distantly removed from that species, however
long they may have been in the service of man.
To the Esquimaux Indians, the services of this dog are
invaluable. He assists them to hunt the bear, the rein-
deer, and the seal: in summer, he attends his master to














the chase; in winter, he is yoked to a sledge, and con-
veys him over the trackless snows. Though scantily fed
and roughly treated, his fidelity remains unshaken. In
appearance he comes nearest to the shepherd's dog and
the wolf-dog. His ears are short and erect, and his bushy
tail curves elegantly over his back. He is in height
about one foot ten inches, and in length about two feet
three inches. His coat is long and furry, sometimes of a
dingy red, sometimes black and white, sometimes wholly
black.
For the following notice of the manner in which the
sledge is drawn by these animals, we have been indebted


64,








THE ESQUIMAU X DOG.


to Captain Parry :-' When drawing a sledge, the dogs
have a simple harness of deer or seal skin, going round
the neck by one bight, and another for each of the fore
legs, with a single thong leading over the back, and at-
tached to the sledge as a trace. Though they appear at
first sight to be huddled together without regard to reg-
ularity, there is, in fact, considerable attention paid to
their arrangement, particularly in the selection of a dog
of peculiar spirit and sagacity, who is allowed, by a longer
trace, to precede the rest as leader, and to whom, in
turning to the right or left, the driver usually addresses
himself. This choice is made without regard to age or
sex, and the rest of the dogs take precedency according
to their training or sagacity, the least effective being put
nearest the sledge. The leader is usually from eighteen
to twenty feet from the fore part of the sledge, and the
hindmost dog about half that distance; so that, when ten
or twelve are running together, several are nearly abreast
of each other.
The driver sits quite low, on the fore part of the sledge,
with his feet overhanging the snow on one side, and hav-
ing in his hand a whip, of which the handle is plaited a
little way down to stiffen it, and give it a spring, on
which much of its use depends; and that which composes
the lash is chewed by the women, to make it flexible in
frosty weather. The men acquire from their youth con-
siderable expertness in the use of this whip, the lash of
which is left to trail along the ground by the side of the
sledge, and with which they can inflict a very severe
blow on any dog at pleasure. Though the dogs are kept
in training entirely by fear of the whip, and, indeed, with-
out it, would soon have their own way, its immediate ef-
fect is always detrimental to the draught of the sledge;
ts *


65








THE ESQUIMAUX DOG.


for not only does the individual that is struck draw back,
and slacken his trace, but generally turns upon his next
neighbor, and this, passing on to the next, occasions a
general divergency, accompanied by the usual yelping
and showing of the teeth.
The dogs then come together again by degrees, and
the draught of the sledge is accelerated; but even at the
best of times, by this rude mode of draught, the traces of
one third of the dogs form an angle of thirty or forty de-
grees on each side of the direction in which the sledge is
advancing. Another great inconvenience attending the
Esquimaux method of putting the dogs to, besides that
of not employing their strength to the best advantage, is
the constant entanglement of the traces, by the dogs re-
peatedly doubling under from side to side to avoid the
whip; so that, after running a few miles, the traces
always require to be taken off and cleared.
In directing the sledge, the whip acts no very essen-
tial part, the driver for this purpose using certain words,
as the carters do with us, to make the dogs turn more to
the right or left. When the driver wishes to stop the
sledge, he calls out, Wo, woa," exactly as our carters do,
but the attention paid to this command depends altogether
on his ability to enforce it. If the weight is small, and
the journey homeward, the dogs are not to be thus de-
layed; the driver is therefore obliged to dig his heels
into the snow to obstruct their progress, and having thus
succeeded in stopping them, he stands up with one leg
before the foremost cross-piece of the sledge, till, by
means of laying the whip gently over each dog's head, he
has made them all lie down. He then takes care not to
quit his position, so that, should the dogs set off, he is
thrown upon the sledge instead ofbeing left behind by them.


66








THE ESQUIMAUX DOG.


*With heavy loads, the dogs draw best with one of
their own people, especially a woman, walking a little
way ahead ; and in this case they are sometimes enticed
to mend their pace by holding a mitten to the mouth, and
then making the motion of cutting it with a knife and
throwing it on the snow, when the dogs, mistaking it for
meat, hasten forward to pick it up. The women also en-
tice them from the huts in a similar manner. The rate at
which they travel depends, of course, on the weight they
have to draw, and the road on which their journey is per-
formed.
When the latter is level, and very hard and smooth,
constituting what, in other parts of North America,
is called "good sleighing," six or seven dogs will
draw from eight to ten hundred weight, at the rate of
seven or eight miles an hour, for several hours together;
and will easily, under these circumstances, perform a
journey of fifty or sixty miles a day. On untrodden snow,
five-and-twenty or thirty miles would be a good day's
journey. The same number of well fed dogs, with a
weight of five or six hundred (that of the sledge included),
are almost unmanageable, and will, on a smooth road, run
any way they please, at the rate of ten miles an hour.
The work performed by a greater number of dogs is,
however, by no means in a proportion to this, owing to
the imperfect mode already described of employing the
strength of these sturdy creatures, and to the more fre-
quent snarling and fighting occasioned by an increase
of numbers.'


67








THE IHAiR-INDIAN DOG.


THE HARE-INDIAN DOG.
















THIS animal is of small size and a slender make. Its
muzzle is narrow, elongated, and pointed; its ears arc
perfectly erect; its legs rather long and delicate; its
tail thick, bushy, and slightly curved. The ground color
of its body is white, marked with large irregular patches of
grayish black, intermingled with various shades of brown.
It seems at present to be peculiar to the Hare-Indians,
and other tribes frequenting the banks of the Mackenzie
river, and Great Bear lake in North America. This dog
is extremely valuable to the Indians, among whom it is
bred, and who subsist almost entirely on the produce of
the chase. Though neither very strong nor courageous,
its broad feet and light figure enable it to pass rapidly
over the snow without sinking, if the slightest crust is
formed on it; and thus easily to overtake and teaze the
moose or reindeer, and keep it at bay until the hunters
come up.


(;8








THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.


THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.











THIS is one of the noblest of the race. He possesses
great size and strength, with a mildness and placidity of
disposition, which give him dignity and indicate much
intelligence. The full-sized Newfoundland dog meas-
ures about four feet and a half; his feet are webbed, so
that he can swim with ease, and he is covered with long
shaggy hair.
He is docile to a very great degree, and nothing can
exceed his affection. Naturally athletic and active, he is
ever eager to be employed, and seems delighted to per-
form any office that is required of him. Taking great
pride in being employed, he will carry a stick, basket or
bundle in his mouth for miles; and the stranger would
fare ill who undertook to deprive him of it.
It is easy to accustom him to daily labor. From three
to five of them are harnessed to a sledge or other vehicle,
containing a load of wood or lumber, which they will
draw steadily for a great distance. When acquainted
with the road, they are despatched without a driver; and
having delivered their burden, they return home to their
master, and receive their accustomed dinner of dried fish.


69








70 THE BULL-DOG.

Of late years this animal has been introduced into Eng-
land, where he is much employed as a watch-dog, and has
sometimes been used in sporting.

THE GREENLAND DOG
Is of a large size, with strong bones, and is covered with
thick-set white hair, standing nearly erect like bristles,
with a shorter kind, much like wool, at the roots. It is of
great service to the natives of these regions, as they not
only feed on dogs, but use them for drawing sledges on
the ice and snow, and also make dresses of their skins.
The Greenland dog rather howls than barks.

THE BULL-DOG













Is smaller than the mastiff, but equally strong, and more
fierce. He has a violent antipathy to the bull, and, with-
out barking, will at once attack the strongest and most
furious of these animals. Running directly at his head,
he will seize and pin the bull to the ground; nor can he
without great difficulty be made to quit his hold. Two







THE SOUTH AMERICAN DOG.


of these dogs, let loose at once, are a match for a bull,
three for a bear, and four for a lion.


THE COACH DOG.










THIS beautiful animal is of a white color, thickly
marked with round black spots. Itis said to have had its
origin in Dalmatia, in European Turkey. Others describe
it as the common harrier of Italy, and an animal which
has been for centuries domesticated in that country. In
Great Britain, this dog is a common attendant on gentle-
men's carriages.


THE SOUTH AMERICAN DOG

(s a half-reclaimed variety of the dog, about the size of
a spaniel. In appearance it is very like a wolf. Its
back is of a brown-gray tinge, with ochre-colored spots
,*n the flanks and legs; the ground color is gray, and
Fighter on the belly. These dogs are very numerous in a
wild state, and live in the earth in the same manner as
foxes. When taken young, they are easily tamed.
"They are said to be very swift in the chase,








'ANECDOTES or DOGS.


THE ENGLISH SETTER


Is a hardy, nimble and handsome
quisite scent and sagacity.


dog, possessing ex-


ANECDOTES OF DOGS.

MANY stories have been related of the vigilance, the
sagacity and the fidelity of dogs. Whole volumes have
been filled with them. We have selected a few of the
best authenticated and most entertaining. The follow-
ing passage is extracted from Jesse's Gleanings :-
The captain of a trading vessel, who now resides at
Brighton, picked up lately a dog at sea, more than twenty
miles from land. This circumstance may throw some
light on the fact of dogs, which have been sent to France
or Ireland from England, finding their way back. The
present earl of L- sent some drafted hounds from hio


72








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


kennel in Cumberland to Ireland, where they were safely
received, and a receipt given for them to the person who
brought them over. Three weeks afterwards, two of
those hounds made their appearance at Lord L.'s kennel,
though in a very exhausted state. A gentleman also in-
formed me, that a pointer dog, which had been left at
Calais, made its way over to England.
The most amusing fact of this kind that I know of, is
one that was related to me by a gentleman on whose
veracity I can place the most implicit reliance ; and,
though it may appear to some of my readers to border
upon the marvellous, I think it too entertaining to with-
hold it. He informed me that a friend of his, an officer
in the forty-fourth regiment, who had occasion, when in
Paris, to pass one of the bridges across the Seine, had his
boots, which had been previously well polished, dirtied
by a poodle-dog rubbing against them. He in conse-
quence went to a man who was stationed on the bridge,
and had them cleaned. The same circumstance having
occurred more than once, his curiosity was excited, and
he watched the dog. He saw him roll himself in the mud
of the river, and then watch for a person with well-polished
boots, against whom he contrived to rub himself. Find-
ing that the shoeblack was owner of the dog, he taxed
him with the artifice; and, after a little hesitation, he
confessed that he had taught the dog the trick, in order
to procure customers for himself. The officer, being
much struck with the dog's sagacity, purchased him at a
high price, and brought him to England. He kept him
tied up in London some time, and then released him.
The dog remained with him a day or two, and then made
his escape. A fortnight afterwards, he was found with
his former master, pursuing his old trade on the bridge.'


73








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


A grocer in Edinburgh had a dog, which for some
time amused and astonished the people in the neighbor-
hood. A man who went through the streets ringing a
bell and selling penny pies, happened one day to treat
this dog with a pie. The next time he heard the pie-
man's bell, the dog ran to him with impetuosity, seized
him by the coat, and would not suffer him to pass. The
pieman, who understood what the animal wanted, showed
him a penny, and pointed to his master, who stood at the
street-door and saw what was going on. The dog im-
mediately supplicated his master by many humble ges-
tures and looks. The master put a penny into the dog's
mouth, which he instantly delivered to the pieman, and
received his pie; and this traffic between the pieman and
the grocer's dog continued to be daily practised for many
months.
At a convent in France, twenty paupers were served
with a dinner at a certain hour every day. A dog be-
longing to the convent did not fail to be present at this
regale, to receive the scraps which were now and then
thrown to him. The guests, however, were poor and
hungry, and of course not very wasteful; so that their
pensioner did little more than scent the feast of which he
would fain have partaken. The portions were served by a
person, at the ring of a bell, and delivered out by means
of what in religious houses is called a tour; a machine
like the section of a cask, that by turning round upon a
pivot, exhibits whatever is placed on the concave side,
without discovering the person who moves it. One day,
this dog, which had only received a few scraps, waited
till the paupers were all gone, took the rope in his mouth,
and rang the bell. His stratagem succeeded. He re-
peated it the next day with the same good fortune. At


74








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


length the cook, finding that twenty-one portions were
given out instead of twenty, was determined to discover
the trick: in doing which he had no great difficulty; for,
lying in wait, and noticing the paupers as they came for
their different portions, and that there was no intruder
except the dog, he began to suspect the truth; which he
was confirmed in when he saw the animal continue with
great deliberation till the visitors were all gone, and then
pull the bell. The matter was related to the community,
the dog was permitted to ring the bell every day for his
dinner, on which a mess of broken victuals was always
afterward served out to him.
Mr. C. Hughes, a country comedian, had a wig which
generally hung on a peg in one of his rooms. He one
day lent the wig to a brother player, and some time af-
terwards called on him. Mr. Hughes had his dog with
him, and the man happened to have the borrowed wig on
his head. Mr. Hughes stayed a little while with his
friend; but, when he left him, the dog remained behind.
For some time he stood, looking full in the man's face;
then, making a sudden spring, he leaped on his shoulders,
seized the wig, and ran off with it as fast as he could;
and, when he reached home, he endeavored, by jumping,
to hang it up in its usual place. The same dog was one
afternoon passing through a field near Dartmouth, where
a washer-woman had hung her linen to dry. He stopped
and surveyed one particular shirt with attention; then,
seizing it, he dragged it away through the dirt to his
master, whose shirt it proved to be.
At the convent of the Great St. Bernard, the sagacity
and courage of the dog are employed for a noble purpose.
The benevolent monks of that convent have a fine breed
of dogs, the Alpine spaniel, which they use to discover


75








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


travellers who, in passing the Alps, have fallen benumbed
on the snow, or into the clefts, which often occur. It is
then that the keen scent and exquisite docility of these
admirable dogs are called into action. Though the per-
ishing man lie ten or even twenty feet beneath the snow,
the delicacy of smell with which thby can trace him af-
fords a chance of escape. They scratch away the
snow with their feet; they set up a continued hoarse and
solemn bark, which brings the monks and laborers of the
convent to their assistance. To provide for the chance
that the dogs, without human help, may succeed in dis-
covering the unfortunate traveller, one of them has a flask
of spirits round his neck, to which the fainting man may
apply for support; and another has a cloak to cover him.
These wonderful exertions are often successful; and even
when they fail of restoring him who has perished, the
dogs discover the body, so that it may be secured for the
recognition of friends; and such is the effect of the tem-
perature, that the dead features generally preserve their
firmness for the space of two years. One of these noble
creatures was decorated with a medal, in commemoration
of his having saved the lives of twenty-two persons, who,
but for his sagacity, must have perished.
A surgeon of Leeds found a little spaniel who had
been lamed. He carried the poor animal home, ban-
daged up his leg, and, after two or three days, turned him
out. The dog returned to the surgeon's house every
morning, till his leg was perfectly well. At the end of
several months, the spaniel again presented himself, in
company with another dog, who had also been lamed;
and he intimated, as well as piteous and intelligent looks
could intimate, that he desired the same kind assistance
to be rendered to his friend, as had been bestowed upon


76








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


himself. A similar circumstance is stated to have occur-
red to Moraut, a celebrated French surgeon.'
A farmer of Cheshire had a dog, remarkable for cour-
age, intelligence and other good qualities; but there was
one fault about him, which was inexcusable-he was de-
ficient in probity. Certain sheep would disappear from
time to time in a mysterious manner from. the farmer's
fold. The wolves could not be accused of the theft, for
there are no wolves in England, we all know. The hon-
est countryman had his suspicions, and it was not long
before the true offender was discovered and punished, ac-
cording to his deserts. But the dog did not reform, and
his next offence subjected him to a far severer chastise-
ment. He was whipped within an inch of his life, and
left for dead on the same spot where he had committed
his depredations. He was so far alive, however, as to be
able to limp towards some neighboring underwood, where,
thanks to the strength of his constitution, the energy of
his character, and perhaps the absence of all medical in-
terference, in a short time, nothing remained of his
wounds save the scars.
But what could his recovery avail him? He believed
himself expelled forever from his master's presence; he
considered himself unworthy of forgiveness, and despaired
of ever correcting his irresistible fondness for mutton.
In fine, he decamped from his native village, and, after
wandering a long while, finished his rambles by enrolling
in a band of highwaymen.
Two or three years after, the farmer chanced to be
journeying in an unfrequented part of the country. Night
and a storm overtook him near an isolated and suspicious
looking inn; he entered it. An old woman and three
men were seated before a fire, whilst a huge dog was
7


77








ANECDOTES OF DOGS.


turning the spit. The farmer recognized his old attend-
ant in the latter, and advanced to fondle it. The animal
growled furiously, showed his teeth, and was about to
spring upon the stranger. The inmates of the tavern in-
terposed, and the dog, repulsed, resumed his culinary
functions. The new comer, having supped, retired to the
apartment allotted him.
He was preparing to undress, when a low barking at
the door induced him to listen: he opened it, and who
should enter but the canine turnspit ? The dog was no
longer surly and furious, but meek and gentle, crouching
at the feet of his old master, licking his hands, and asking
pardon, as distinctly as he could, for his late conduct.
After returning him his caresses, the man of Cheshiie
wished to be rid of his presence. The dog refused to
retire. The traveller finally consented to his remaining,
and rose to shut the door. This the dog opposed, seizing
the flaps of his coat between his teeth, and striving to
drag him out of the room. The farmer did not know
what to make of all this ; he thought it strange that, when
he went towards the bed, the dog should drag him to-
wards the door, and when he appeared on the point of
leaving the chamber, that the creature should exhibit
such lively demonstrations of joy. This made him re-
flect. Where was he ? In an isolated house, situated in
the midst of a solitary moor. The individuals who had
welcomed him on his arrival, were not possessed of
physiognomies calculated to do away his unfavorable sus-
picions. Might he not be even now in a den of thieves ?
This, any how, was his final conclusion. He then armed
himself with a brace of pistols, opened the shutters, took
the clothes from off the bed, tied them from the window,
and placed the lamp in the chimney. Having taken these








THrE WOLF.


precautions, he barricaded the door, and awaited the
result
He did not wait long. At the touch of a spring, a
trap-door opened beneath the bed, and the latter slipped
down out of sight. At this occurrence, our farmer let
himself down by the clothes, which he had tied to the
window, and ran at full speed to the nearest village. The
inhabitants armed themselves and accompanied him to the
inn. It was soon surrounded, and the bandits were ar-
rested. Search was made, under the guidance of the dog,
and connected with the trap-door was found a vault, where
visible proofs were exhibited both of their guilt and
cruelty.
The farmer gratefully took back his preserver, and
never had occasion to beat him afterwards; he having
quite overcome his old propensity of sheep-stealing, and
acquired habits of honesty and integrity, in a school of
thieves.

THE WOLF.










THE specific characteristics of the dog and wolf are
nearly the same. One of the principal distinctions is that
the eyes of the wolf are placed in a more oblique position
than those of the dog,which gives it a look of savage fierce-


79









THE WOLF.


ness. Wolves vary considerably in color and size, accord-
ing to the species and variety. They are possessed of
great strength, and are natives of every quarter of the
globe. Savage and malignant, they are at the same time
mistrustful and cowardly. It is only when frequently
disappointed, and suffering from hunger, that they evince
courage.
The wolf is every where extremely apprehensive for his
own safety. In North America, a bladder hung upon a
pole, and blown about by the wind, will deter him from mo-
lesting the numerous herds of bisons. He is in continual
dread of being entrapped. He will always attack a
reindeer when loose; but if the animal is tied to a stake,
he fears to approach, considering that a pitfall is near,
and that the deer is placed there to entice him to it. The
Esquimaux, however, often take him in a trap made of
ice, which is so much in character with the surrounding
scenery, that the wolf is caught in spite of his habitual
caution.
The wolf has great strength, particularly in his fore
parts, in the muscles of his neck and jaws. He carries
off a sheep in his mouth, without letting it touch the
ground. When wounded by a bullet, he is heard to cry
out; and yet, when surrounded,and attacked by clubs, he
never howls, but defends himself in silence. If he hap-
pen to be caught in a pitfall, he is for some time so
frightened and astonished, that he may be killed without
making any show of resistance.
The wolf was exterminated from England at a very
early period. Nothing is heard of him subsequently to the
reign of Edward I. In Scotland and Ireland it remained
much longer. The last Scotch wolf is said to have been
killed in Lochaber, late in the seventeenth century, by


80








THE WOLF.


Sir Ewen Cameron. In Ireland it was found till the be-
ginning of the eighteenth century.
Though of the most fierce nature, the wolf is capable
of being tamed. Sir Ashton Lever had one whose savage
propensities were entirely subdued. M. Frederick Cuvier
relates a story of a domesticated wolf, which its master,
being obliged to travel, presented to the Paris menagerie.
For some weeks he was inconsolable, but at length be-
came reconciled to his new keepers, and quite attached
to them.
At the end of eighteen months, the owner returned. As
soon as the wolf heard his well known voice, he displayed
the most violent joy, and on being set at liberty over-
whelmed him with caresses. An absence of three years
rext took place, and the wolf was again melancholy and
disconsolate. On his return, the master again visited his
old favorite. It was evening when he reached the
menagerie, and all was shut up. The moment the wolf
heard the voice, he again recognized it, and uttered the
most anxious cries. When his cell door was opened, he
then leaped with his fore paws upon his master's
shoulders, licked his face, and threatened to bite his
keepers when they attempted to separate them. When
the man again left him, he became sad and sick, and
refused all kinds of food for a long period. He again,
however, recovered from his grief, and his keepers ac-
quired their usual ascendency over him.
There was recently in a menagerie at Paris, a black
wolf. He was caught when very young, and presented
to Baron Cuvier's step-daughter, Mademoiselle Devousel,
who, finding him so tame, desired he might have a dog
as a companion, and be fed entirely on broth and cooked
meat. Her orders have been obeyed, and the animal
D*


81








THE WOLF.


retains all his gentleness and docility. He never sees
her but he stretches his paws through the bars to be
shaken; and when she lets him loose, he lies down be-
fore her, licks her feet, and shows every mark of joy and
affection.
In the summer of 1824, a singular equipage was seen
for upwards of six months, in the streets of Munich. It
was a calash drawn by two enormous wolves, which a
merchant of St. Petersburgh had found when very young,
in a wood near Wilna, and had so well tamed that they
possessed all the docility of horses. These animals were
harnessed exactly like carriage horses, and had completely
lost their ferocious aspect.
The following anecdote is related by Mr. Lloyd. A
Russian peasant, when one day in his sledge, was pursued
by eleven of these ferocious animals. At this time he was
only about two miles from home, towards which he urged
his horse at the very top of his speed. At the entrance
to hia residence was a gate, which happened to be closed
at the time ; but the horse dashed this open, and thus him-
self and his master found refuge within the court-yard.
They were followed, however, by nine out of the eleven
wolves; but very fortunately, at the instant these had
entered the enclosure, the gate swung back on its hinges,
and thus they were caught as in a trap. From being the
most voracious of animals, the nature of these beasts-now
that they found escape impossible-became completely
changed: so far, indeed, from offering molestation to any
one, they slunk into holes and corners, and allowed them-
selves to be slaughtered almost without making re-
sistance.
A singular circumstance, exhibiting in a remarkable
degree the reflecting faculties of a wolf, is related as


82








TIH WOLr.


having taken place at Signy-le-Petit, a small town on the
borders of Champagne. A farmer, one day, looking
through the hedge of his garden, observed a wolf walk-
ing round about his mule, but unable to get at him, on
account of the mule's constantly kicking with his hind legs.
As the farmer perceived that his beast was so well
able to defend itself, he cQnsidered it unnecessary to
render him any assistance. After the attack and defence
had lasted fully a quarter of an hour, the wolf ran off to a
neighboring ditch, where he several times plunged into
the water. The farmer imagined he did this to refresh
himself after the fatigue he had sustained, and had no
doubt diat his mule had gained a complete victory; but,
in a few minutes, the wolf returned to the charge, and,
approaching as near as he could to the head of the mule,
shook himself, and spurted a quantity of water into the
mule's eyes, which caused him immediately to shut them
That moment the wolf leaped upon him, and killed the
poor mvlle before the farmer could come to his assistance.
.During the Peninsular war, the Duke of Wellington
had occasion to send despatches by a mounted dragoon
to a general of division at about a day's march distance
from head-quarters. The answer not having arrived at
the time it was expected, the duke despatched three
others to ascertain the cause. They found the mangled
remains of their unfortunate comrade lying beside those
of his horse, and the greater portion of the flesh eaten off
their bodies. His sword was firmly grasped in his
mutilated hand, and the carcasses of seven or eight
wolves which lay about him, exhibited strong marks of
the sabre, and of the desperation with which he fought
before he was overpowered by numbers.








THE AMERICAN WOLF


84


THE AMERICAN WOLF.

THE American wolf is said to have a more robust form
than the European. Its muzzle is thicker and more
obtuse, its head larger and rounder, and there is a sensible
depression at the union of the nose and forehead. Mr.
Richardson notices six varieties of the wolf in North
America, but it is thought that they are all of the same
species; the difference in size, color and habits being
referred to diversities of climate.
Rather an unpleasant meeting with a wolf is thus de-
scribed by Mr. Ross Cox, in his Adventures on the
Columbia River:
About dusk, an immense sized wolf rushed out of a
thick copse a short distance from the pathway, planted
himself directly before me, in a threatening position, and
appeared determined to dispute my passage. He was
not more than twenty feet from me. My situation was
desperate, and as I knew that the least symptom of fear
would be the signal for attack, I presented my stick, and
shouted as loud as my weak voice would permit. He
appeared somewhat startled, and retreated a few steps,
still keeping his piercing eyes firmly fixed on me. I
advanced a little, when he commenced howling in a most
appalling manner; and, supposing his intention was to
collect a few of his comrades to assist in making an
afternoon repast on my half famished carcass, I redoubled
my cries, until I had almost lost the power of utterance,
at the same time calling out various names, thinking I
might make it appear I was not alone. An old and a young
lynx ran close past me, but did not stop. The wolf re-
mained about fifteen minutes in the same position; but
whether my wild and fearful exclamations deterred any








THE AMERICAN WOLF.


85


others from joining him, I cannot say. Finding at length
my determination not to flinch, and that no assistance was
nkely to come, he retreated into the wood, and disappear-
ed in the surrounding gloom.'
1-he same entertaining writer gives the following ac.
count of an attack by wolves on a number of horses:-
WVhen I was at Spokan, I went occasionally to the horse
prairie, which is nearly surrounded by partially wooded
hills, tor the purpose of watching the manoeuvres of the
wolves in their combined attacks. The first announce-
ment t' their approach was a few shrill currish barks at
intervals, like the outpost firing of skirmishing parties.
These were answered by similar barking from an opposite
direction, until the sounds gradually approximated, and
at lengin ceased on the junction of the different parties.
We prepared our guns, and concealed ourselves behind
a thick cover. In the mean time, the horses, sensible of
the approaching danger, began to paw the ground, toes
up their heads, look wildly about them, and exhibit all the
symptoms of fear. One or two stallions took the lead,
and appeared to wait with a degree of comparative com-
posure for the appearance of the enemy.
The allies at length entered the field in a semi-circu-
lar form, with their flanks extended for the evident pur-
pose of surrounding their prey. They were between two
and three hundred strong. The horses, on observing
their movement, knew from experience its object, and,
dreading to encounter so numerous a force, instantly
turned round and galloped off in a contrary direction.
Their flight was a signal for the wolves to advance, and
immediately, uttering a simultaneous yell, they charged
after the fugitive, still preserving their crescent form.
Two or three of the horses, which were not in the








THE CLOUDED BLACK WOLf.


best condition, were quickly overtaken by the advanced
guard of the enemy. The former, finding themselves
unable to keep up with the band, commenced kicking at
their pursuers, several of which received some severe
blows; but these being reinforced by others, they would
have shortly despatched the horses, had we not just in
time emerged from our place of concealment, and dis-
charged a volley at the enemy's centre, by which a few
were brought down. The whole battalion instantly
wheeled about, and fled towards the hills in the utmost
disorder; while the horses, on hearing the fire, changed
their course and galloped up to us. Our appearance
saved several of them from the fangs of their foes; and
by their neighing they seemed to express their joy and
gratitude at our timely interference.'

THE CLOUDED BLACK WOLF.















THIS animal is a native of the extreme northern regions
of America. His hair is rather long and mottled with








TIME PRAIRIE WOLF.


various shades of black, white and gray. He measures
about four feet three inches in length. Protracted con-
finement does not seem to diminish his ferocity.

PRAIRIE WOLF.













T I s animal is found in great numbers in the prairies
of the West. It has the credit of being very cowardly.
An intelligent writer observes that, the prairie wolf is the
only animal with teeth and claws, that will not fight in
defence of its young. They make their nests in the bare
plain. I once robbed one of three cubs, before the eyes
of the dam, and all she dared do for their protection was
to howl. Nevertheless, when compelled, the prairie wolf
fights desperately, and dies without a whimper.'
The prairie wolves are much smaller than those which
inhabit the woods. They generally travel in large num-
bers. Their skins are of no value, and the Indians are
too prudent to throw away their powder and ball for any
thing that will bring them no return. The consequence
is, that the wolves are allowed to multiply ; and some
parts of the country are completely overrun by them


87








THE BLACK WOLF.


The Indians catch many of them in traps, which they
set in the vicinity of those places where their tame horses
are sent to graze. These traps are merely excavations,
covered over with hay and baited with meat. The
wolves fall into them, and, being unable to extricate
themselves, they perish by famine or the knife of the
Indian.

COMMON GRAY WOLF.

THIs animal is much larger than the European wolf,
and very dissimilar in color. Its teeth are remarkably
strong and large ; the ears are sharp and erect, thickly
clothed with dark brown hair, and tipped with gray.

PIED WOLF.

WOLVES having black colors instead of gray, distributed
in large patches on the side, are sometimes seen in the
fur countries, in company with the common gray wolf.

THE DUSKY WOLF

Is found in the Missouri country, in the same districts
with the prairie wolf. It is more robust and formidable
than any other variety.

BLACK WOLF.
THIS animal has been found in the Missouri country,
and the British possessions in North America, but not
frequently. It is thought to be of the same species with
the Eurooean black wolf.


88








THE FOX.


W IIITE WOLF.

WOLVES entirely white are not uncommon in the most
northern parts of America, particularly in districts nearly
destitute of wood. They are occasionally seen on the
plains of the Missouri.

THE FOX.

















THE fox is found in almost every temperate country on
the globe ; and is every where distinguished for his su-
perior cunning. He is so wild and ferocious, that it is im-
possible to tame him perfectly. When partially tamed, he
is playful, and in his gambols bears some resemblance to
the dog; but, like all other savage creatures, he is not to
be depended on, and on the least offence bites those with
whom he is most familiar. In captivity, however, he soon
begins to languish, and at last dies of melancholy.
8








TIE FOX.


There is no animal of prey who displays more craft
than the fox. This quality is exhibited alike in the
selection of a home for his young, and in the means he
uses to catch his prey. He feeds upon lambs, geese,
fowls, hares, rabbits and small birds of every kind. The
French vineyards, too, are said to suffer from his depreda-
tions ; for we have all heard that he is very fond of grapes,
except when they are sour.
He is in the habit of fixing his residence in the neighbor-
hood of some village or farm-house, where he can find a
convenient repast in the sheep-fold or poultry yard.
When he can find nothing better, he will destroy snakes,
lizards, frogs and toads, but he must be very hungry be-
fore he will consent to eat roots and vegetables. Some-
times he has been known to feed on crabs, shrimps or
other shell fish, and he would eat more honey than lie
does at present, if it were not so vigorously defended by
its owners.
The chase of the fox has long been a favorite field sport
in Great Britain; and dogs and horses are bred with par-












ticular care for this pastime. Both of these animals fre
quently fall victims to the ardor of the pursuit. The








THIE -OX.


fox, when pursued, takes a straight-forward course, which
he has been known to continue for a distance of fifty miles
without any intermission. Such is his great strength,
that in many instances he escapes the utmost efforts of
his pursuers, and again returns to his hole in safety. But
when overtaken, he defends himself with infinite obstinacy,
and fights in silence till he is torn to pieces by the dogs.
The young foxes are born blind, like dogs; they are
about two years in coming to perfection, and live about
thirteen or fourteen years. They are nursed with great
affection by the mother, who has been known to run with
them in her mouth several miles, when hunted. The
senses of the fox are as good as those of the wolf; his
scent is more acute, and the organs of his voice are more
perfect. lie bites dangerously and with the most deter-
mined fury.
Of all wild animals, the fox is most subjected to the
influence of climate ; and there are found nearly as many
varieties in this species as in that of any domestic animal.
In Europe the foxes are generally red; some, however, are
of a grayish cast; and of all, the tip of the tail is white
Many stories are told of the sagacity of the fox. In
the autumn of the year 1819, at a fox-chase in Galloway,
a very strong fox was hard run by the hounds. Finding
the danger he ran of being taken, reynard made for a
high wall at a short distance, and, springing over it, crept
close under the other side : the hounds followed him;
but no sooner had they leaped the wall, than he sprang
back again over it, and, by this cunning device, gave them
the s!ip, and got safe away from his pursuers.
An anecdote is related of some hounds which started a
fox at Tamary, in Great Britain. After a short chase,
reynard disappeared having cunningly mounted a turf










THE FOX.


stack, on the top of which he lay down flat. Finding
himself, at last, perceived by one of the hounds, he left hs
retreat, closely pursued by the pack. Being again hard
pressed, he ran up a stone wall, from which he sprang on
the roof of an adjoining cabin, and mounted up to the
chimney top. From that elevated situation he looked all
around him, as if carefully reconnoitring the coming ene-
my. A cunning old hound approached, and, having gain-
ed the summit of the roof, had already seized the fox in
imagination, when, lo! reynard dropped down the chim-
ney, like a fallen star into a draw-welL
The dog looked wistfully down the dark opening, but
dared not pursue the fugitive. Meantime, whilst the
hound was eagerly inspecting the smoky orifice of the
chimney, reynard, half enrobed in soot, had fallen into
the lap of an old woman, who, surrounded by a number
of children, was gravely smoking her pipe, not at all ex-
pecting the entrance of this abrupt visitor. The affright-
ed female shrieked as she threw from her the black and
red quadruped. Reynard grinned, growled and showed
his fangs; and when the sportsmen, who had secured the
door, entered, they found him in possession of the kitchen,
the old woman and the children having retired, in terror
of the invader, to an obscure corner of the room. The
fox was taken alive.
Mr. Hawkins, of Pittsfield, an American gentleman, was
in pursuit of foxes, accompanied by two blood-hounds.
The dogs found a fox, and pursued him for nearly two
hours, when, suddenly, they appeared at fault. Mr. Haw-
kins came up with them near a large log of wood lying on
the ground, and felt much surprise at their making a circuit
of a few roods without an object in view, every trace of
reynard seeming to have been lost, while the dogs still


92











93


kept yelping. On looking about him, he discovered the
fox stretched upon the log, apparently lifeless. Mr.
Hawkins made several unsuccessful efforts to direct the
attention of the dogs towards the place. At length, he
approached so near the artful object of his pursuit, as to
see him distinctly breathe. Even then, reynard exhibited
no alarm, and Mr. Hawkins, seizing the branch of a tree
that lay hard by, aimed a blow at him, which the fox
evaded by a leap from his singular lurking place, having
thus for a time effectually eluded the observation of his
enemies.

THE AMERICAN FOX.















Tnrs is the common fox of America, and is frequently
met with in all pr-ts of the United States. It is of a
bright red color on the head, back and sides, and pale
red on the under parts of the body. It differs from the
common European fox in the breadth and capacity of its
feet for running on the snow, the quantity of long hair


T!1Z A ~~tEROCA S FOX.











THE BLACK OR SILVER FOX,


clothing the back part of the cheeks, and in conjunction
with the shorter ears and nose giving the head a more
compact appearance. It has also a much finer brush,
and is altogether a larger animal. It is found in great
numbers in the wooded districts of the fur countries,
and about 8000 are annually exported to England.
Red foxes prey much on the smaller animals of the
rat kind, but they are fond of fish, and reject no kind
of animal food that comes in their way. They hunt their
food chiefly in the night, though they are frequently
seen in the day time. They are taken in steel traps,
but much nicety is required in setting them, as the
animal is very suspicious.


THE BLACK OR SILVER FOX,


THXI animal is very rare, and has a very valuable fur.
It is sometimes found of a shining black, with a white










,roiT. STRIE'ZD IRYZNA. 9


tip to the tail. It inhabits the same districts with the
red fox.

Besides the varieties mentioned, there are the Arctic
Fox, found in the northern regions of both the old and
new world; the Sooty Fox, the Gray Fox, the American
Cross Fox. the Kit Fox, and many others.

TIlE STRIPED HYENA.


a -


TnF. ordinary length of this animal is about three feet
three inches. Its hair is of an ash color, marked with long
black waving stripes. A bristly inane runs along the back,
from the top of the neck to the tail. The hide is composed
of two sorts of hair ; the fur or wool, in very small quan-
tity, nnd the silky hair, long, stiff and not very thick, ex-
cepting on the limbs, where it is short and close.
The striped( hyana is a native of Asiatic Turkey,


95









THE STRIPED HYMN,%-


Persia, Barbary, Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, and many other
parts of Africa, where it resides in caverns of moun-
tains, clefts of rocks, or holes dug by itself Its disposition
is exceedingly savage, and, though taken young, it can
never be completely tamed. It is courageous, seeks its
prey during the night, and then attacks every living
creature it meets with. Its cry is peculiarly dismal.
Mr. Bruce, when in Africa, confined, in the same apart-
ment, a.lamb, a goat, and a kid, with a hysena, for a whole
day, without giving the latter any food, and he found his
harmless companions quite safe in the evening. He tried
a similar experiment with a young ass, a goat, and a fox,
whom he confined with him during the night; but next
morning, he had destroyed and devoured all but the ass's
bones.
These creatures were,' says he, a general scourge
to Abyssinia, in every situation, both in the city and in the
field, and, I think, surpassed the sheep in number. Gon-
dar w-as full of. them, from evening till the dawn of day,
seeking the different pieces of slaughtered carcasses,
which this cruel and unclean people expose in the
streets, without burial. Many a time in the night, when
the king had kept me late in the palace, and it was not
my duty to sleep there, in going across the square from
the king's house, not many hundred yards distant, I have
been apprehensive lest they should bite me in the leg.
They grunted in great numbers about me, although I
was surrounded by several armed men, who seldom pass-
ed. a night without wounding or slaughtering some of
them.'
The same traveller gives the following account of
rather an unwelcome intruder: 'One night, at Maitsha,
being very intent on an observation, I heard something


96








TUE SPOTTED HTYENA.


pass behind me, towards the bed; but, upon looking
round, could perceive nothing. Having finished what I
was about, I went out of my tent, resolving directly to re-
turn, which I immediately did, when I perceived two large
blue eyes glaring at me in the dark. I called up my ser-
vant with a light; and we found a hymna standing near
the head of the bed, with two or three large bunches of
candles in his mouth.
To have fired at him, would have been at the risk of
breaking my quadrant or other furniture; and be seemed,
by keeping the candles steadily in his mouth, to wish for
no other prey at that time. As his mouth was full, and
lie had no claws to tear with, I was not afraid of him; and,
with a pike, struck him as near .ne ueart as I could. It
was not till then that be showed any sign of fierceness;
but, upon feeling his wound, he let drop the candles, and
endeavored to run up the shaft of the spear, to arrive at
me; so that I was obliged to draw my pistol from my
girdle, and shoot him; and, nearly at the same time, my
servant cleft his skull with a battle-axe. In a word, the
hyeena was the plague of our lives, the terror of our night
walks, and the destruction of our mules and asses, which,
above every thing else, are his favorite food.'

THE SPOTTED IIYAENA.

Tuss animal is a native of southern Africa, and abounds
in the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope. Its
mane is less full than that of the striped hyena, and
reaches only to the loins. Its cars are large, flat and
rounded ; its general color is reddish brown, marked with
round, dark, blackish brown spots and a few transverse
bars on the hind legs.
f C


97









THE SPOTTED 1HY~NA.


The spotted hymna is said to have great muscular
strength in his neck,which is confirmed by an anecdote of

















one which some years ago was kept in the4Tower of Lon-
don. His den requiring some repairs, the carpenter cornm
pleted them by nailing on the floor a thick oak plank, of
seven or eight feet in length, with at least a dozen nails,
each longer than the middle finger of the hand. At one
end of this plank, however, there was a small piece left,
that stood up higher than the rest; and the man, not hav-
ing a proper chisel along with him to cut it off, returned
to his shop for one. During his absence, some persons
came in to see the animals, and the hyena was let down
by the keepers from the other part of the den. He had
scarcely entered the place before he discovered the piece
that was left at the end of the plank, and, seizing it with
his teeth, tore the plank completely up, drawing every
nail with the utmost facility.


98








THE JACKAL


A soldier, about sixteen years ago, visited a menagerie,
and brought along with him a small terrier dog, which
the fellow knew to be possessed of great courage. He
ridiculously ,acld him up to the den of the hyusna. On
seeing the animal, the dog became irritated, and, in his
rage, thrust his head between the bars; when the hymna
became infuriated, sprang at the dog, dragged him through,
and almost immediately devoured him.

THE JACKAL















Is one of the most common wild animals of the East.
In figure and disposition it bears a resemblance to the
fox. The color of his back and sides is a mixture of gray
and black, abruptly and strikingly distinguished from the
deep and uniform tawny of his shoulders, haunches and
legs. His head is nearly of the same mixed shade with
the upper surface of his body ; his neck and throat are
whitish, and the under surface of his body is distinguished
by a paler hue.


99








THE WEASEL-


This animal is more noisy than the dog, and more
voracious than the wolf. Its voice is a kind of howl,
mixed with barking and groaning. It never stirs out
alone, but always in packs of from twenty to forty.
They are very formidable, prey fearlessly on stables and
sheep-folds, and when particularly hungry will devour
boots, shoes, harnesses and any old leather they can find.
The jackal is found in the southern parts of Asia, and in
nearly all parts of Africa. He has been popularly called
the lion's provider; but the common notion on this subject
is erroneous.




ANIMALS OF THE WEASEL KIND.

THIS class of carnivorous animals is more numerous,
though less formidable, than any other. They are all,
however, cruel and voracious, subsisting only by theft,
and finding their chief protection in their minuteness.
All the animals of this class have a strong resemblance
to each other.

THE WEASEL.








TaxI animal is about seven inches long, and two and a
half high. Its usual color is pale reddish brown on the


100








THIE WEASEL..


back, sides and legs; its cars are small and rounded, and
its eyes small, black and sparkling. It has long whiskers
like a cat, and its teeth are very sharp.
It is a lively, active animal, of a bold and fierce dispo-
sition. Though slender, it is more than a match for the
largest rat. It is common in all parts of Great Britain.
From its wild and intractable nature, the weasel is ex-
ceedingly difficult to tame. There are instances, how-
ever, in which it has been completely domesticated. The
following lively description of a favorite weasel, from the
pen of a French lady, is so very entertaining, that we
are induced to preserve it entire :
If I pour some milk into my hand,' says she, it will
drink a good deal; but if I do not pay it this compliment,
it will scarcely take a drop. When it is satisfied, it gen-
crally goes to sleep. My chamber is the place of its res-
idence ; and I have found a method of dispelling its strong
odors, by perfumes. During the day, it sleeps inside a
quilt, entering by a place that is unsewed in its edge,
which it accidentally discovered. At night, I keep it in
a wired cage, which it always enters with much reluc-
tance, but leaves with joy.
If the servant sets it at liberty before I am up in the
morning, after a thousand gambols, it comes into my bed,
and reposes in my hand, or on my bosom. If I am up
before it is let out, it will fly to me in rapture, and spend
half an hour in caressing me, playing with my fingers,'
and nibbling at them with its teeth like a little dog ;
leaping on my head and on my neck, and then running
round my arm with the softness and elegance of a squirrel.
Such is its agility, that it will leap into my hands, although
upwards of a yard distant, if I present them to it. It ex-
hibits much adroitness and cunning to obtain any wished-
9*


101




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