• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Frontispiece
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 I
 II
 III
 IV
 V
 VI
 VII
 VIII
 IX
 X
 XI
 XII
 XIII
 XIV
 XV
 XVI
 XVII
 XVIII
 XIX
 XX
 XXI
 XXII
 XXIII
 XXIV
 XXV
 XXVI
 XXVII
 XXVIII
 XXIX
 XXX
 XXXIII
 XXXIV
 XXXV
 XXXVI
 XXXVII
 XXXVIII
 XXXIX
 XL
 XLI
 XLII
 XLIII
 XLIV
 XLV






Title: Uncle Tom's cabin, or, Negro life in the slave states of America
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003600/00001
 Material Information
Title: Uncle Tom's cabin, or, Negro life in the slave states of America
Alternate Title: Negro life in the slaves states of America
Physical Description: xii, 380 p. <40> leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 1811-1896
C. H. Clarke and Co ( Publisher )
Salisbury and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: C.H. Clarke & Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Salisbury and Co.
Publication Date: 1852
 Subjects
Subject: Christian life -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Plantation life -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Slavery -- Fiction -- United States   ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Fugitive slaves -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Family -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Cruelty -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children -- Death -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By Harriet Beecher Stowe.
General Note: "With forty illustrations."
General Note: Baldwin Library copy lacks plates 168 and 309.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003600
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002238054
oclc - 3572601
notis - ALH8549

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Front page 1
    Half Title
        Front page 2
        Front page 3
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 3b
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    II
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    III
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 13B
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15A
        Page 15B
        Page 15
    IV
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    V
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 31B
        Page 31
        Page 32
    VI
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 39B
        Page 39
        Page 40
    VII
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51A
        Page 51B
        Page 51
    VIII
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 53B
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55A
        Page 55B
        Page 55
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        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    IX
        Page 65
        Page 66
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        Page 68
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        Page 71
        Page 71B
        Page 71
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        Page 73
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        Page 76
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        Page 78
    X
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 83B
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    XI
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 91B
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 93b
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95a
        Page 95b
        Page 95
        Page 96
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    XII
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101a
        Page 101b
        Page 101
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        Page 103
        Page 103b
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        Page 111a
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    XIII
        Page 112
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        Page 118
        Page 119
    XIV
        Page 120
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        Page 125b
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    XV
        Page 128
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    XVI
        Page 142
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    XVII
        Page 157
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        Page 161b
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    XVIII
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    XIX
        Page 185
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        Page 187b
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        Page 199b
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    XX
        Page 201
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        Page 209b
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        Page 210
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    XXI
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    XXII
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    XXIII
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
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        Page 229
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    XXIV
        Page 231
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    XXV
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 239b
        Page 239
    XXVI
        Page 240
        Page 241
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        Page 243
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        Page 245
        Page 245b
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        Page 251a
        Page 251b
    XXVII
        Page 251
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    XXVIII
        Page 257
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    XXIX
        Page 270
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        Page 271b
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    XXX
        Page 276
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    XXXIII
        Page 297
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    XXXIV
        Page 303
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        Page 309b
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    XXXV
        Page 312
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    XXXVI
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    XXXVII
        Page 323
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    XXXVIII
        Page 328
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        Page 331b
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    XXXIX
        Page 337
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        Page 341b
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    XL
        Page 345
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    XLI
        Page 351
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    XLII
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    XLIII
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    XLIV
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    XLV
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Full Text



INTRODUCES HIMSELF TO LITTLE EVA.
T= INTRODUCES HIMSELF TO LITTLE EVA.
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UNCLE TOM'S CABIN;


OR,



NEGRO LIFE

IN


THE SLAVE STATES OF AMERICA.




BY

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.


Wit Antt 311stratitons.





LONDON:
C. H. CLARKE AND CO., 148, FLEET STREET.
MDCCCLII.










































































LONDo :
Salisbury a'd Co., Printers, Bouverie-street and Primrose-hill, Fleet-street.












1997 0- 2/1 / ^ ,4 -2< /1










GOOD books, like good actions, b/t explain themselves; they
most effectually storm both heart and head, their virtues drape
them with greatest dignity, the less they are cumbered by eulo-
gistic comment. But while, therefore, we may be content .with
merely introducing this good book to British readers, leaving
them to discover what beauties and excellences, what tenderness,
and humour, and delicate pencillings have rendered the story so
popular in the free states of America-the purpose of the book
we ourselves have some property in, and in reprinting it must
assert the claim. And not "we" alone, as expressive merely of
an editorial fraction, but the English nation and the British
peoples, more than all nations and all peoples, dead or living,
may assert the claim; for the purpose is to disabuse large com-
munities of mankind of the belief that the Lord our God, when
He gave dominion to man over the fish of the sea, and over the
fowl of the air, and over the cattle," bestowed this dominion only
on prospective races of a certain colour, and included under the
designation cattle" other prospective races of another colour.
Were this, however, only a belief, pitiful and blasphemous as
it is, the full luxury of its enjoyment might be allowed to those
who hold it; leaving them to defend the creed in the face of Our
Father, one day, while the avenging angel, with his flaming
sword, shall turn the leaves of Holy Writ. But since this belief


_~ _








is acted upon-since the dominion of mankind over man is esta-
blished through violence and theft, and maintained by knotted
thongs, hissing branding-irons, rifles, dogs, and the laws of glori-
ous republics, it is another thing. This is our business also, as
well as of Him who drowned the might of Egypt at the feet of
its slaves. It is incumbent upon every honest man-it is incum-
bent even upon every fettered thief, so he have respect for a
single virtue or detestation of a solitary vice-to aid in shaming
down the man-trade; for it is scarcely possible to name a crime
from murder downward that it does not prolifically gender.
To have been foremost in acknowledging the evils inflicted in
the traffic, the first to atone for its guilt and to force some mea-
sure of redress from other nations, England may justly claim
credit for; the fact that to stand once within the boundaries of
British rule is to place the artillery of an empire betwixt any
man and slavery, advances that empire, all burdened and heavy
laden as it is, to a degree of national excellence unattained else-
where, either in old times or in new. But when Wilberforce
preached and Brougham thundered, it was not only that the dis-
grace of such oppression should be removed from us, but that the
pains of such oppression should be removed from all mankind.
It was not to whitewash the national dignity, but to reclaim a
degraded race from degradation, that so mighty efforts were
made by a generation now almost past. If, then, this spirit be
still in us, we shall cease to regard our efforts in this direction as
accomplished; and though we have not power further to enforce
obedience to those laws of humanity by which all nations are
brought equally under the government of God, and of which
every man is an officer, and though appeals to the sense and
feeling of American slave-owners and slave-breeders have hitherto
fallen short of the mark, and got drowned in their breeches-
pockets, the moral influence of all free nations is still a debt due
to their victims.
Mainly through such considerations has the present edition of


iv


PREFACE.






PREFACE. V

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" become published. We believe-it is
already evident, in fact-that the dissemination of this work
throughout America will effect what "La Picciola" elsewhere
effected against tyranny less complete and vile. It will sap the
foundations of an institution which has prospered amid tempests
of indignant eloquence; and we prophesy that what has been
denied to Justice, contrary to the lowest instincts of brute com-
passion, will now be resigned, bit by bit, at the shrine of Respec-
tability. Wherever the book is read-and thousands of copies
are already quietly at work in thousands of homes--contempt for
the upholders of slavery must follow. Now contempt, unlike
indignation, is a weapon impossible to parry; it loses little of its
force by being struck from a distance; and, in a good cause,
spreads like contagion. Therefore the sooner the story is circu-
lated in every colony and village where English can be read, the
sooner must the dread realities it chronicles become mere tradi-
tions to wonder over.
Until, however, this consummation be effected in so far as she
is criminal, it is vain to assert for the republic of the United
States greatness, or any share in the progress of the world. Com-
mercial greatness we are willing to allow her; but prosperous
infamy is not palliated infamy, and cruelty imbibes no virtue
from purple and fine linen. It may or may not be great to be
powerful and rich, according as the question is approached from
earth or heaven; but when increase grows from tears and blood,
when power is subserved by crushing into the hearts of thousands
all those feelings and impulses by which men are known to be
the children of an Almighty Father-to prove that greatness we
must view it neither from earth nor heaven. Nor is the world
progressed by destroying in certain races both the power and the
motive for advancergent-by depriving them even of their right
to their children, and their wives and daughters of the right of
being virtuous-by heaping upon them such indignities that they
themselves resign all pretensions to manhood and immortal








life, and are content to live and die like homed beast in the stall.
Let the slave-breeder and slave-holder reflect upon this last con-
sideration. There is surely something frightfully responsible in
thus standing between God and the souls of men-in rendering
these souls lies to their possessors; surely there is some danger
in treading out that image of Himself which God has impressed
upon the heart of every woman and man. In view of such enor-
mity, even to barter the bodies of living men is a venial offence;
but as this fearful sin against Heaven grows out of the smaller
sin against humanity, it becomes obligatory upon us a thousand-
fold to use whatever means are at hand to destroy altogether the
curse of slavery. Regarding it, however, simply as a sin against
humanity, it is sufficiently terrible to excuse destruction, spite of
vested interest. Tell me not of rights," said Lord Brougham,
talk not of the property of the planter in his slaves. I deny
the right, I acknowledge not the property. The principles, the
feelings of our common nature rise in rebellion against it. Be
the appeal made to the understanding or the heart, the sentence
is the same that rejects it. In vain you tell me of laws which
sanction such a claim. There is a law above all the enactments
of human codes, the same throughout the world, the same in all
times, such as it was before the daring genius of Columbus pierced
the night of ages, and opened to one world the sources of power,
wealth, and knowledge-to another all unutterable woes, such as
it is at this day. It is the law written by the finger of God upon
the heart of man; and by that law, unchangeable and eternal,
while men despise fraud, and loathe rapine, and abhor blood, they
will reject with indignation the wild and guilty phantasy that man
can hold property in man."
It is unnecessary to add another word. We commit this volume
into the hands of the public, trusting that by such gentle means
as it embodies an iniquity so gigantic and terrible will speedily
be done away, and the statute-books of America purged of those
leaves which render her laws contradiction and absurdity. If,


vi


PREFACE.






PREFACE. Vii

however, the slave-states continue to resist the wholesome influ-
ences thus mercifully arrayed against their staple traffic, and still
persist in wickedness, we need only turn to history and Holy Writ
to understand the results. Not always shall Loving-kindness
plead with Cain. Not always shall the blood of lashed and mur-
dered men reek at the gates of Heaven-the cries of bereaved
mothers, of bereaved children, ring around the Throne; nor will
He always await the return of the oppressor to justice. For in
Eastern deserts the ruins of past nations, whitening like skele-
tons in the sun, declare that, surrounded as we are by mercy,
there yet stands upon the verge of heaven an avenging angel
armed to destroy that city whose gates are barred against justice
and humanity.
G.































PAGE.

THE READER 18 INTRODUCED TO A MAN OB HUMANITY 1
THE MOTHER *
THE HUSBAND AND FATHER ........ 19

AN EVENING IN UNCLE TOM'S CABIN 16
THE FEELINGS Op LIVING PROPERTY ON CHANGING OWNERS 2

DISCOVERY 83
THE MOTHER'S STRUGGLE 41
ELIZA'S ESCAPE 62
A SENATOR IS BUT A MAN .65
THE PROPERTY IS CARRIED OFF 79
PROPERTY GETS INTO AN IMPROPER STATE OP MIND 87
SELECT INCIDENT OP LAWFUL TRADE 98

THE QUAKER SETTLEMENT ....... 11
EVANGELINE .. 120
OP TOM'S NEW MASTER, AND VARIOUS OTHER MATTERS 128
TOM's MISTRESS AND HER OPINIONS 142

THi FREEMAN'S DEFENC 157
MISS OPHELIA'S EXPERIENCES AND OPINIONS 17
MISS OPHELIA'S EXPERIENCES AND OPINIONS, CONTINUED 185
ToPsY .... 201
KENTUCK 214
b


M1,11yoututoo










PAGE.
"THE GRASS WITHERETH-THE FLOWER FADETH" 218

HE IQUE 224

FORESHADOWINGS .. 231

THE LITTLE EVANGELIST ... 236

DEATH .. 240

"THIS IS THE LAST OP EARTH" 251

REUNION 257

THE UNPROTECTED .. 270

THE SIVE WARnoEHOUSE 276

THE MIDDLE PASSAGE ........284

DARK PLACES 289

CASSY 297

THE QUADROON'S STORY 303

THE TOKENS .. .12

EMMELINE AND CASSY 317

LIBE TY . 323

THE VICTORY .. ... 328

THE STRATAGEM ... ... 337

THE iMA TYRb 345

THE YoUNG MASTER 351

AN AUTHENTIC GHOST STORY ... 366

REULTS 362

TH LIBERATOR 368

OoNCLUDING REMAaKS .. ... 372


9


_ __ ___C__ ___ --C-----C~II~II~-~-


X


CONTENTS.




















Eist of SItotratims.






PAGE.
FRONTISPIECE .. 1
THE BUYER AND SELLER OF THE HUMAN ARTICLE .

" WHO MADE THIS MAN MY MASTER P THAT'S WHAT I WANT TO
KNOW." 12

DEATH OF CARLO .. 14
"POOR BOY, THEY HAVB SOLD YOU, BUT YOUR MOTHER WILL SAV
YOU YET." 81

"Now FOR IT! COTCH HIM! COTCH HIM !" 8

LIZY'S BRIDGE 50
ToM LOKER, MARKS AND HALEY .
THE SOUL-DRIVER EXPERIENCES A MERCANTILE DRAWBACK 6

THE FUGITIVE MOTHER CLAIMS THE SYMPATHY 07 UNlIVRSAL
MOTHERHOOD 71

HALEY PACKS P UNCLE TOM FOB THE "DOWN SOUTH" MARKT 88

STRANGERS AND STRANGE OPINIONS 90
WILL "DOWN SOUTH" JOIN ISSUE IN THE FUGITIVE'S APPEAL 98

SCENES DAILY AND HOURLY ACTING UNDER THE SHADOW 01
AMERICAN LAW 95

SLAVE SALE 100
POOR JOHN! THE WISH WAS RATHER NATURAL 10
THE ARTICLE ESCAPES INTO A STATE WHICH NEVER GIVES UP A
FUGITIVE 111









xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE.
TOM INTRODUCES HIMSELF TO LITTLE EA .. 124

TOM SAVES THE LIFE OP EVA 126

YOUR LITTLE CHILD IS YOUR ONLY TRUE DEMOCRAT 150

COULD FLESH AND BLOOD DO OTHERWISE P 160

THE SPIRIT MOVES 168

DEATH OP AUNT PRUE---A ABOMINABLE BUSINESS! PERFECTLY

HORRIBLE! 186

FIELD SPORTS DOWN SOUTH-COMING IN AT THE DEATH 198

THE BLACK CHATTEL 'SHOWS HIS LOVE POR HIS WHITE PRESERVER 199

POOn TOPSY! WHY NEED YOU STEAL 209

LITTLE EVA CONVERTING TOPS 239

LAST TOKEN PROM THE LITTLE EVANGELINE 24

THE LAST OP EARTH 251

THE DEATH OP ST. CLARE .- 269

ONLY FIFTEEN LASHES, AND TO BE PUT ON LIGHTLY .. 271

THE HUMAN COMMODITIES UNDER INSPECTION BEFORE THE SALE 283

UNCLE TOM AND THE GENTLE EMMELINE INTRODUCED TO THE

FEROCIOUS MEMBERS OF LEGREE'S ESTABLISHMENT. 292

TBE ARTICLE SUGGESTS ANOTHER PROPRIETOR O SOULS 302

CABSY'S CHILD ADOUT TO BE LOGGED AT THE HUMAN SHAMBLES 809

GBORBG, ELIZA AND CHILD IN THE LAND OP LIBERTY 327

THE VISION OI UNCLE TO 30

THE GODLESS MA TREMBLES 340

"t PAY AWAY TILL HE GIVES UP, GIVE IT HI IVE IT HIM!" 350

DIATH Or UNCLE Tox . 353















UNCLE TOM'S CABIN;
on,

NEGRO LIFE IN THE SLAVE STATES OF AMERICA.



CHAPTER I.

IN WHICH THE READER I INTRODUCED TO A MAN OF HUMANITY.
LATE in the afternoon of a chilly day in February, two gentle-
men were sitting alone over their wine, in a well-furnished dining,
parlour, in the town of P- in Kentucky. There were uo
servants present, and the gentlemen, with chairs closely apprn"
ing, seemed to be discussing some subject with great earnest
For convenience sake, we have said, hitherto, two gentime '
One of the parties, however, when critically examined, did bi
seem, strictly speaking, to come under the species. He waM s
short, thick-set man, with coarse, commonplace features, and that
swaggering air of pretension which marks a low man who is trying
to elbow his way upward in the world. He was much over.
dressed, in a gaudy vest of many colours, a blue neckerchi4i
bedropped gaily with yellow spots, and arranged with a flaunting
tie, quite in keeping with the general air of the man. His hands,
large and coarse, were plentifully bedecked with rings; and he
wore a heavy gold watch-chain, with a bundle of seals of portentous
size, and a great variety of colours, attached to it, which, in the
ardour of conversation, he was in the habit of flourishing and
jingling with evident satisfaction. His conversation was in free
and easy defiance of Murray's Grammar, and was garnished at
convenient intervals with various profane expressions, which not
even the desire to be graphic in our account shall induce us to
transcribe.
His companion, Mr. Shelby, had the appearance of a gentle-
man; and the arrangements of the house, and the general air of
the housekeeping, indicated easy and even opulent circumstances.
As we before stated, the two were in the midst of an earnest
conversation.
1. B


/







2 UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,

"That is the way I should arrange the matter," said Mr.
Shelby.
I can't make trade that way-I positively can't, Mr. Shelby,"
said the other, holding up a glass of wine between his eye and
the light.
Why, the fact is, Haley, Tom is an uncommon fellow; he is
certainly worth that sum anywhere-steady, honest, capable,
manages my whole farm like a clock."
You mean honest, as niggers go," said Haley, helping himself
to a glass of brandy.
"No, I mean really, Tom is a good, steady, sensible, pious fellow.
He got religion at a camp-meeting, four years ago; and I believe
he really did get it. I've trusted him, since then, with everything
I have-money, house, horses-and let him come and go round the
country; and I always found him true and square in everything."
Some folks don't believe there is pious niggers, Shelby," said
Haley, with a candid flourish of his hand; but I do. I had a
fellow, now, in this yer last lot I took to Orleans-'twas as good
as a meeting' now, really, to hear that critter pray; and he was
quite gentle and quiet like. He fetched me a, good sum, too; for
1 bought him cheap of a man that was obligedd to sell out; so I
realized six hundred on him. Yes, I consider religion a valeyable
thing in a nigger, when it's the genuine article, and no mistake."
Well, Tom's got the real article, if ever a fellow had," rejoined
the other. Why, last fall, I let him go to Cincinnati alone, to do
business for me, and bring home five hundred dollars. 'Tom,'
says I to him, I trust you because I think you're a Christian-I
know you wouldn't cheat.' Tom comes back sure enough-I
knew he would. Some low fellows, they say, said to him: Tom,
why don't you make tracks for Canada?' 'Ah, master trusted
me, and I couldn't!' They told me about it. I am sorry to part
with Tom, I must say. You ought to let him cover the whole
balance of the debt; and you would, Haley, if you had any con-
science."
Well, I've got just as much conscience as any man in business
can afford to keep-just a little, you know, to swear by, as
'twere," said the trader jocularly; "and then I'm ready to do any-
thing in reason, to 'blige friends ; but this yer, you see, is a leetle
too hard on a fellow-a leetle too hard."
The trader sighed contemplatively, and poured out some more
brandy.
Well, then, Haley, how will you trade ?" said Mr. Shelby, after
an uneasy interval of silence.
Well, haven't you a boy or a gal that you could throw in with
Tom?"
"Hum !-none that I can well spare; to tell the truth, it's
only hard necessity that makes me willing to sell at all. I don't
like parting with any of my hands, that's a fact."





















































A-*




*L













J1
*/;














r*








7-


THE BUTER AND SELLER OF TIlE IUMAN ARTICLE.


Dan Haley.-" Hurrah Bravo! what a young un! Fling in that chap and I'll settle the
,business-I will."


-___ i







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA. 8

Here the door opened, and a small quadroon boy, between four
and five years of age, entered the room. There was something
in his appearance remarkably beautiful and engaging. His l4ack
hair, fine as floss silk, hung in glossy curls about his round, dim-
pled face, while a pair of large dark eyes, full of fire and softness,
looked out from beneath the rich long lashes, as he peered curiously
into the apartment. A gay robe of scarlet and yellow plaid, carefully
made and neatly fitted, set off to advantage the dark and rich style
of his beauty; and a certain comic air of assurance, blended with
bashfulness, showed that he had been not unused to being petted
and noticed by his master.
Hulloa, Jim Crow !" said Mr. Shelby, whistling, and snapping
a bunch of raisins towards him, pick that up, now !"
The child scampered, with all his little strength, after the prize,
while his master laughed.
"Come here, Jim Crow," said he.
The child came up, and the master patted the curly head, and
chucked him under the chin.
Now, Jim, show this gentleman how you can dance and sing."
The boy commenced one of those wild, grotesque songs common
among the negroes, in a rich, clear voice, accompanying his singing
with many comic evolution of the hands, feet, and whole body,
all in perfect time to the music.
"Bravo I" said Haley, throwing him a quarter of an orange.
"Now, Jim, walk like old Uncle Cudjoe when he has the
rheumatism," said his master.
Instantly the flexible limbs of the child assumed the appear-
ance of deformity and distortion, as, with his back humped up,
and his master's stick in his hand, he hobbled about the room,
his childish face drawn into a doleful pucker, and spitting from
right to left, in imitation of an old man.
Both gentlemen laughed uproariously.
"(Now, Jim," said his master, show us how old Elder Bob-
bins leads the psalm."
The boy drew his chubby face down to a formidable length, and
commence toning a psalm-tune through his nose with imper-
turbable gravity.
"Hurrah! bravo! what a young un !" said Haley. "That
chap 'sea case, 1ll promise. Tell you what," said he, suddenly
clapping his hand on Mr. Shelby's shoulder, "fling in that chap,
and I'll settle the business-- will. Come, now, if that ain t
doing the thing up about the rightest !"
At this moment, the door was pushed gently open, and a
young quadroon woman, apparently about twenty-five, entered the
room.
There needed only a glance from the child to her, to identify
her as its mother. There was the same rich, full, dark eye,
with its long lashes; the same ripples of silky black hair. The
s-







4 UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,
brown of her complexion gave way on the cheek to a perceptible
flush, which deepened as she saw the gaze of the strange man
fixed upon her in bold and undisguised admiration. Her dress
was of neatest possible fit, and set off to advantage her finely.
moulded shape. A delicately-formed hand, and a trim foot lmd
ankle, were items of appearance that did not escape the quick eye
of the trader, well used to run up at a glance the points of a fine
female article.
"Well, Eliza ?" said her master, as she stopped and looked
hesitatingly at him.
I was looking for Harry, please, sir;" and the boy bounded
toward her, showing his spoils, which he had gathered in the skirt
of his robe.
Well, take him away, then," said Mr. Shelby; and hastily she
withdrew, carrying the child on her arm.
By Jupiter!" said the trader, turning to him in admiration,
"there's an article, now! You might make your fortune on that
ar gal in Orleans, any day. I've seen over a thousand, in my day,
paid down for gals not a bit handsomer."
I don't want to make my fortune on her," said Mr. Shelby
drily; and, seeking to turn the conversation, he uncorked a bottle
of fresh wine, and asked his companion's opinion of it.
"Capital, sir first chop !" said the trader; then turning, and
slapping his hand familiarly on Shelby's shoulder, he added:
"Come, how will you trade about the gal ? what shall I say for
her? what'll you take ?"
Mr. Haley, she is not to be sold," said Shelby; "my wife
would not part with her for her weight in gold."
Ay, ay, women always say such things, 'cause they ha'nt no
sort of calculation. Just show 'em how many watches, feathers,
and trinkets one's weight in gold would buy, and that alters the
case, I reckon."
"I tell you, Haley, this must not be spoken of. I say no, and
I mean no," said Shelby, decidedly.
Well, you'll let me have the boy, though?" said the trader;
" you must own I've come down pretty handsomely foahim."
SWhat on earth can you want with the child ?" said Shelby.
"Why, I've got a friend that's going into this yer branch of the
business-wants to buy up handsome boys to raise for the market.
Fancy articles entirely--sell for waiters, and so on, to rich uns.
that can pay for handsome uns. It sets off one of yer great
places-a real handsome boy to open door, wait, and tend. They
fetch a good sum; and this little devil is such a comical, musical
concern, he's just the article."
I would rather not sell him," said Mr. Shelby, thoughtfully;
"the fact is, sir, I'm a humane man, and 1 hate to take the boy
from his mother, sir."
Oh, you do ?-La! yes-something of that ar natur. I un-








NaoGO LFE 1I AMEBIOA.


derstand, perfectly. It is mighty unpleasant getting on with women
sometimes. 1 always hates these yer screechin', scream, times
They are mighty onpleasant; but, as manages business, I getenrl
avoids 'em, sir. Now, what if you get the girl off for a day, or a
week, or so; then the thing's done quietly-all over before ,he
comes home. Your wife might get her some ear-ring, or ac new
gown, or some such truck, to make up with her."
SI'm afraid not."
"Lord bless ye, yes These critters an't like white folks, you
know; they gets over things, only manage right. Now, they sany"
said Haley, assuming a candid and confidential air, "that.this
kind o' trade is hardening to the feelings; but I never found it so.
Fact is, I never could do things up the way some fellers manage
the business. I've seen 'em as would pull a woman's child out of
her arms, and set him up to sell, and she screechin' like mad all
the time; very bad policy-damages the article-makes 'em quite
unfit for service, sometimes. Iknew a real handsome gal once,in
Orleans, as was entirely ruined by this sort o' handling. The
fellow that was trading for her didn't want her baby; and she wrs
one of your real high sort, when her blood was up, I tell you; she
squeezed up her child in her arms, and talked, and went on real
awful. It kinder makes my blood run cold to think on'ti and
when they carried off the child, and locked her up, she just wet
ravin' mad, and died in a week. Clear waste, sir, of a tjbouid
dollars, just for the want of management -there's where 'tis. It's
always best to do the humane thing, sir; that's been my experios l"
And the trader leaned back in his chair and folded his aues with
an air of virtuous decision, apparently considering himself a seoe
Wilberforce.
The subject appeared to interest the gentleman deely;f.er
while Mr. Shelby was thoughtfully peeling an orange HIaE hdto
out afresh, with becoming diffidence, but as if actually drwiaJyv
the force of truth to say a few words more. .-
SIt don't look well, now, for a feller to be praisin' himself.; I*t
I say it jest because it's the truth. I believe I'm reckonedito
bring in about the finest droves of niggers that is brought in....
least I've been told so, if I have once, I reckon I have a huUdred
times-all in good case, fat and likely, and I lose as few a. any
man in the business. And I lays it all to my management ir;
and humanity, sir, I may say, is the great pillar of my management."
Mr. Shelby did not know what to say, and so he said, "1In4ee1 "
"Now, I've been laughed at for my notions, sir, and I've been
talked to. They an't poplar, and they an't common; but I stwk
to 'em, sir; I've stuck to 'em, and realized well on 'em;, yes, sir,
they have paid their passage, I may say ;~nd the trader langa
at his joke.
There was something so piquant and original in these elocid
tions of humanity, that Mr. Shelby could not help laughing ip


ow-







6 UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,
company. Perhaps you laugh. too, dear reader; but you know
humanity comes out in a variety of strange forms now-a-days, and
there is no end to the odd things that humane people will say
and do.
Mr. Shelby's laugh encouraged the trader to proceed.
"It's strange. now, but I never could beat this into people's
heads. Now, there was Tom Loker, my old partner, down in
Natchez. He was a clever fellow, Tom was, only the very devil
with niggers'-oh principle 'twas, you see, for a better-hearted
feller never broke bread-'twas his system, sir. I used to talk to
Tom. Why, Tom,' I used to say, 'when your gals takes on and
cry, what's the use o' crackin' on 'em over the head, and knockin'
on 'em round ? It's ridiculous,' says I, 'and don't do no sort o'
good. Why, I don't see no harm in their cryin',' says I; it
is natur,' says I; 'and if natur can't blow off one way it will
another. Besides Tom,' says I, 'it jest spires your gals; they
get sickly and down in the mouth, and sometimes they gets ugly
-particular yellow gals do-and it's the devil and all getting' on 'em
broke in. Now,' says I, 'why can't you kinder coax 'em up, and
speak 'em fair? Depend on it, Tom, a little humanity thrown in
along goes a heap further than all your jawin' and crackin'; and
it pays better,' says I, depend on't.' But Tom couldn't get the
hang don't, and he spiled so many for me that I had to break off
with him, though he was a good-hearted fellow, and as fair a
business-hand as is goin'."
"And do you find your ways of managing do the business better
than Tom's ?" said Mr. Shelby.
Why yes, sir, I may say so. You see, when I anyways can, I
takes a leette care about the onpleasan' parts, like selling young
uns and that-get the gals out of the way-out of sight out of
mind, you know; and when it's clean done, and can't be helped,
they naturally gets used to it. 'Taut, you know, as if it was white
folks, that's brought up in the way of 'spectin' to keep their
children and wives, and all that. Niggers, you know, that's
fetched up properly, ha'n't no kind of 'spectations of no kind; so
all these things comes easier."
I'm afraid mine are not properly brought up, then," said Mr.
Shelby.
"S'pose not. You Kentucky folks spile your niggers. You
mean well by 'em, but 'taint no real kindness, arter all. Now, a
nigger, you see, what's got to be hacked and tumbled round the
world, and sold to Tom, and Dick, and the Lord knows who,
'tan't no kindness to be givin' on him notions and expectations,
and bringing' on him up too well, for the rough and tumble comes
all the harder on him arter. Now, I venture to say, your niggers
would be quite chop-fallen in a pace where some of your planta-
tion niggers would be singing and whooping like all possessed.
Every man, you know, Mr. Shelby, naturally thinks well of his








NEGRO I FE IN AMEBIOA*


own ways; and I think I treat niggers just about as well a it's
ever worth while to treat 'em."
"It's a happy thing to be satisfied," said Mr. Shelby, with a
slight shrug and some perceptible feelings of a disagreeable nature.
"Well," said Haley, after they had both silently picked their
nuts for a season, "what do you say?"
"I'11 think the matter over, and talk with my wife," said Mr.
Shelby. "Meantime, Haley, if you want the matter carried on in
the quiet way you speak of, you'd best not let your business in
this neighbourhood be known. It will get out among my boys,
and it will not be a particularly quiet business getting away any
of my fellows, if they know it, I promise you."
"Oh! certainly, by all means, mum of course. But 11' tell
you, I'm in a devil of a hurry, and shall want to know, as soon as
possible, what I may depend on," said he, rising and putting on
his overcoat.
"Well, call up this evening, between six and seven, and you
shall have my answer," said Mr. Shelby, and the trader bq.ed
himself out of the apartment.
I'd like to have been able to kick the fellow down the steps,"
said he to himself, as he saw the door fairly closed, "with his
impudent assurance; but he knows how much he has me at
advantage. If anybody had ever said to me that I should sell
Tom down south to one of those rascally traders, I should have
said, 'Is thy servant a dog, that he should do this thing?' Ail
now it must come, for aught I see. And Eliza's child, tool I:
know that I shall have some fuss with wife about that; and, fat
that matter, about Tom, too. So much for being in debt-heigho f
The fellow sees his advantage, and means to push it."
Perhaps the mildest form of the system of slavery is to be seen
in the State of Kentucky. The general prevalence of agricultural
pursuits, of a quiet and gradual nature, not requiring those periodic
seasons of hurry and pressure that are called for in the business of
more southern districts, makes the task of the negro a more
healthful and reasonable one; while the master, content with a
more gradual style of acquisition, has not those temptations to
hardheartedness which always overcome frail human nature when
the prospect of sudden and rapid gain is weighed in the balance
with no heavier counterpoise than the interests of the helpless and
unprotected.
Whoever visits some estates there, and witnesses the good-
humoured indulgence of some masters and mistresses, and the
affectionate loyalty of some slaves, might be tempted to dream the
oft-fabled poetic legend of a patriarchal institution, and all that;
but over and above the scene there broods a portentous shadow-
the shadow of law. So long as the law considers all these human
beings, with beating hearts and living affections, only as so many
things belonging to a master-so long as the failure, or misfortune,


____ ____1_ ~ __


-MN







8 UNCLE TOM'S CAIN, OB,
or imprudence, or death of the kindest owner may cause them any
day to exchange a life of kind protection and indulgence for one of
hopeless misery and toil-so long it is impossible to make any-
thing beautiful or desirable in the best-regulated administration
of slavery.
Mr. Shelby was a fair average kind of man, good-natured and
kindly, and disposed to easy indulgence of those around him, and
there had never been a lack of anything which might contribute
to the physical comfort of the negroes on his estate. He had,
however, speculated largely and quite loosely-had involved
himself deeply, and his notes to a large amount had come into
the hands of Haley; and this small piece of information is the key
to the preceding conversation.
Now, it had so happened that, in approaching the door, Eliza
had caught enough of the conversation to know that a trader was
making offers to her master for somebody.
She would have gladly stopped at the door to listen, as she
came out; but her mistress just then calling, she was obliged
to hasten away.
Still she thought she heard the trader make an offer for her
boy; could she be mistaken? Her heart swelled and throbbed,
and she involuntarily strained him so tight that the little fellow
looked up into her face in astonishment.
Eliza, girl, what ails you to-day ?" said her mistress, when
Eliza had upset the wash-pitcher, knocked down the work-stand,
and finally was abstractedly offering her mistress a long night-
gown in the place of the silk dress she had ordered her to bring
from the wardrobe.
Eliza started. 0 missis!" she said, raising her eyes; then,
bursting into tears, she sat down in a chair and began sobbing.
Why, Eliza, child I what ails you ?" said her mistress.
0 missis, missis," said Eliza, there's been a trader talking
with master in the parlour! I heard him."
"Well, silly child, suppose he has?"
"0 missis, do you suppose mas'r would sell my Harry ?
And the poor creature threw herself into a chair and sobbed
Sconvulsively.
"Sell him! No, you foolish girl! You know your master
never deals with those southern traders, and never means to
sell any of his servants, as long as they behave well. Why, you'
silly child, who do you think would want to buy your Harry ? Do
you think all the world are set on him as you are, you goosie ?
Come, cheer up, and hook my dress. There now, put my back
hair up in that pretty braid you learnt the other day, and don't
go listening at doors any more."
"Well, but, missis, you never would give your consent-to-to-"
"Nonsense, child! to be sure, I shouldn't! What do you talk so
for? I would as soon have one of my own children sold. But







NEGRO LIFE IN AAMEgCA.


really, Eliza, you are getting altogether too proud of that little
fellow. A man can't put his nose into the door, but you think
he must be coming to buy him."
Re-assured by her mistress's confident tone, Eliza proceeded
nimbly and adroitly with her toilet, laughing at her own fears.
Mrs. Shelby was a woman of a high class, both intellectually
and morally. To that natural magnanimity and generosity of mind
which one often marks as characteristic of the women of Ken-
tucky, she added high moral and religious sensibility and principle,
carried out with great energy and ability into practical results.
Her husband, who made no professions to any particular religious
character, nevertheless reverenced and respected the consistency
of hers, and stood, perhaps, a little in awe of her opinion. Certain
it was, that he gave her unlimited scope in all her benevolent
efforts for the comfort, instruction, and improvement of her ser-
vants, though he never took any decided part in them himself.
In fact, if not exactly a believer in the doctrine of the efficiency
of the extra good works of saints, he really seemed somehow or
other to fancy that his wife had piety and benevolence enough for
two-to indulge a shadowy expectation of getting into heaven
through her superabundance of qualities to which he made no par-
ticular pretension.
The heaviest load on his mind, after his conversation with the
trader, lay in the foreseen necessity of breaking to his wife the
arrangement contemplated-meeting the importunities and opposi-
tion which he knew he should have reason to encounter.
Mrs. Shelby, being entirely ignorant of her husband's ember-
rassments, and knowing only the general kindliness of his temper,
had been quite sincere in the entire incredulity with which she
had met Eliza's suspicions. In fact, she dismissed the matter
from her mind without a second thought; and, occupied in prepa-
rations for an evening visit, it passed out of her thoughts entirely.



CHAPTER II.
THE MOTHER
ELIZA had been brought up by her mistress, from girlhood,
as a petted and indulged favourite.
The traveller in the south must often have remarked the peculiar
air of refinement, that softness of voice and manner, which seems
in many cases to be a particular gift to the quadroon and mulatto
women. These natural graces in the quadroon are often united
with beauty of the most dazzling kind, and in almost every case
with a personal appearance prepossessing and agreeable. Eliza,
such as we have described her, is not a fancy sketch, but taken


~ ----~ -----


9








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OB,


from remembrance, as we saw her years ago in Kentucky. Safe
under the protecting care of her mistress, Eliza had reached
maturity without those temptations which make beauty so fatal an
inheritance to a slave. She had been married to a bright and
talented young mulatto man, who was a slave on a neighboring
estate, and bore the name of George Harris.
This young man had been hired out by his master to work in a
bagging-factory, where his adroitness and ingenuity caused him
to be considered the first hand in the place. He had invented a
machine for the cleaning of the hemp, which, considering the
education and circumstances of the inventor, displayed quite as
much mechanical genius as Whitney's cotton-gin.*
He was possessed of a handsome person and pleasing manners,
and was a general favourite in the factory. Nevertheless, as
this young man was in the eye of the law not a man, but a thing,
all these superior qualifications were subject to the control of a
vulgar, narrow-minded, tyrannical master. This same gentleman,
having heard of the fame of George's invention, took a ride over
to the factory, to see what this intelligent chattel had been about.
He was received with great enthusiasm by the employer, who con-
gratulated him on possessing so valuable a slave.
He was waited upon over the factory, shown the machinery
by George, who, in high spirits, talked so fluently, held himself so
erect, looked so handsome and manly, that his master began
to feel an uneasy consciousness of inferiority. What business
had his slave to be marching round the country, inventing ma-
chines, and holding up his head among gentlemen? He'd soon
put a stop to jt. He'd take him back, and put him to hoeing and
digging, and "see if he'd step about so smart." Accordingly, the
manufacturer and all hands concerned were astounded when he
suddenly demanded George's wages, and announced his intention
of taking him home.
But, Mr. Harris," remonstrated the manufacturer, isn't this
rather sudden?"
What if it is-isn't the man mine ?"
We would be willing, sir, to increase the rate of compensation."
No object at all, sir. I don't need to hire any of my hands
out, unless I've a mind to."
"But, sir, be seems peculiarly adapted to this business."
Dare say he may be; never was much adapted to anything
that I set him about, I'll be bound."
But only think of his inventing this machine !" interposed one
of the workmen, rather unluckily.
Oh, yes !-a machine for saving work, is it? He'd invent
that, Ill be bound; let a nigger alone for that, any time. They
are all labour-saving machines themselves, every one of 'em. No,
he shall tramp !"
A machine of this description was really the invention of a young coloured man
in Kentucky.


_ ____


10







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


George had stood like one transfixed, at hearing his doom thus
suddenly pronounced by a power that he knew was irresistible.
He folded his arms, tightly pressed in his lips, but a whole vol-
cano of bitter feelings burned in his bosom, and sent streams of
fire through his veins. He breathed short, and his large dark
eyes flashed like live coals; and he might have broken out into
some dangerous ebullition, had not the kindly manufacturer touched
him on the arm, and said, in a low tone-
Give way, George; go with him for the present. Well try to
help you, yet."
The tyrant observed the whisper, and conjectured its import,
though he could not hear what was said; and he inwardly
strengthened himself in his determination to keep the power he
possessed over his victim.
George was taken home, and put to the meanest drudgery of the
farm. He had been able to repress every disrespectful word; but
the flashing eye, the gloomy and troubled brow, were part of
a natural language that could not be repressed-indubitable signs,
which showed too plainly that the man could not become a thing.
It was during the happy period of his employment in the factory
that George had seen and married his wife. During that period
-being much trusted and favoured by his employer-he had free
liberty to come and go at discretion. The marriage was highly
approved of by Mrs. Shelby, who, with a little womanly compla-
cency in match-making, felt pleased to unite her handsome favourite.
with one of her own class, who seemed in every way suited to her;
and so they were married in her mistress's great parlour, and her
mistress herself adorned the bride's beautiful hair with orange-
blossoms, and threw over it the bridal veil, which certainly could
scarce have rested on a fairer head; and there was no lack of white
gloves, and cake and wine-of admiring guests to praise the bride's
beauty, and her mistress's indulgence and liberality. For a year
or two Eliza saw her husband frequently, and there was nothing
to interrupt their happiness, except the loss of two infant children,
to whom she was passionately attached, and whom she mourned
with a grief so intense as to call for gentle remonstrance from her
mistress, who sought, with maternal anxiety, to direct her naturally
passionate feelings within the bounds of reason and religion.
After the birth of little Harry, however, she had gradually
become tranquillised and settled; and every bleeding tie and
throbbing nerve, once more entwined with that little life, seemed
to become sound and healthful, and Eliza was a happy woman up
to the time that her husband was rudely torn from his kind em-
ployer, and brought under the iron sway of his legal owner.
The manufacturer, true to his word, visited Mr. Harris a week
or two after George had been taken away, when, as he hoped, the
heat of the occasion had passed away, and tried every possible in-
ducement to lead him to restore him to his former employment.


__ __ __


11








UNCLE )TOM'S CABIN; B0,


You needn't trouble yourself to talk.any longer," said he,
doggedly; I know my own business, sir."
I did not presume to interfere with it, sir. I only thought
that you might think it for your interest to let your man to us on
the terms proposed."
Oh, I understand the matter well enough. I saw you wink-
ing and whispering, the day I took him out of the factory; but
you don't come it over me that way. It's a free country, sir; the
man's mine, and I do what I please with him-that's it !"
And so fell George's last hope; nothing before him but a life of
toil and drudgery, rendered more bitter by every little smarting
vexation and indignity which tyrannical ingenuity could devise.
A very humane jurist once said, "The worst use you can put a
man to is to hang him." No; there is another use that a man can
be put to that is WORSE I



CHAPTER III.
THE HUSBAND AND FATHER.
MRs. SHELBY had gone on her visit, and Eliza stood in the
verandah, rather dejectedly looking after the retreating carriage,
when a hand was laid on her shoulder. She turned, and a bright
smile lighted up her fine eyes.
"George, is it you? How you frightened me! Well; I'm so
glad you's come I Missis is gone to spend the afternoon; so come
into my little room, and well have the time all to ourselves."
Saying this, she drew him into a neat little apartment opening
on the verandah, where she generally sat at her sewing, within
call of her mistress.
How glad I am!-Why don't you smile? and look at Harry
-how he grows !" The boy shyly regarded his father through his
curls, holding close to the skirts of his mother's dress. Isn't he
beautiful?" said Eliza, lifting his long curls, and kissing him.
"I wish he'd never been born" said George bitterly. "I
wish I'd never been born myself!"
Surprised and frightened, Eliza sat down, leaned her head on
her husband's shoulder, and burst into tears.
There now, Eliza, it's too bad for me to make you feel so,
poor girl said he fondly; "it's too bad. Oh, how I wish you
never had seen me-you might have been happy !"
George George! how can you talk so? What dreadful thing
has happened, or is going to happen? I'm sure we've been very
happy, till lately."
"So we have, dear," said George. Then drawing his child on
his knee, he gazed intently on his glorious dark eyes, and passed
his hands through his long curls.


_____


12J













THE ARTICLE PROPOUNDS A STARTLING QUESTION.


George.-" Who made this man my master !-that's what I want to know."
















































































S







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


"Just like you, Eliza; and you are the handsomest woman I
ever saw, and the best one I ever wish to see; but, oh, I wish I'd
never seen you, nor you me l"
"Oh, George, how can you?"
"Yes, Eliza, it's all misery, misery, misery I My life is bitter
as wormwood; the very life is burning out of me. I'm a poor,
miserable, forlorn drudge; I shall only drag you down with me,
that's all. What's the use of our trying to do anything, trying
to know anything, trying to be anything ? What's the use of
living? I wish I was dead !"
Oh, now, dear George, that is really wicked! I know how
you feel about losing your place in the factory, and you have a
hard master; but pray be patient, and perhaps something-"
(Patient!" said he, interrupting her; haven't I been patient?
Did I say a word when he came and took me away, for no earthly
reason, from the place where everybody was kind to me ? I paid
him truly every cent of my earnings; and they all say I worked
well."
"Well, it is dreadful," said Eliza; "but, after all, he is your
master, you know."
"My master! and who made him my master? That's what I
think of-what right has he to me? I'm a man as much as he
is; I'm a better man than he is; I know more about business
than he does; I'm a better manager than he is; I can read
better than he can; I can write a better hand; and I have
learned it all myself, and no thanks to him-I've learned it in
spite of him; and now what right has he to make a dray-horse
of me ?--to take me from things I can do, and do better than he
can, and put me to work that any horse can do? He tries to do
it; he says hell bring me down and humble me, and he puts me
to just the hardest, meanest, and dirtiest work, on purpose."
0 George-George-you frighten me I Why, I never heard
you talk so; I'm afraid youll do something dreadful. I don't
wonder at your feelings at all; but oh, do be careful-do, do-for
my sake-for Harry's!"
Have been careful, and I have been patient; but it's growing
worse and worse-flesh and blood can't bear it any longer. Every
chance he can get to insult and torment me, he takes. I thought
I could do my work well, and keep on quiet, and have some time
to read and learn out of work-hours; but the more he sees I can
do, the more he loads on. He says that though I don't say any-
thing, he sees I've got the devil in me, and he means to bring it
out; and one of these days it will come out in a way that he won't
like, or I'm mistaken."
Oh, dear, what shall we do ?" said Eliza mournfully.
It was only yesterday," said George, as I was busy loading
stones into a cart, that young Mas'r Tom stood there, slashing his
whip so near the horse that the creature was frightened. I asked


_


_ _eLI___


18








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


him to stop, as pleasant as I could: he just kept right on. I
begged him again, and then he turned on md, and began striking
me. I held his hand, and then he screamed, and kicked, and ran
to his father, and told him that I was fighting him. He came in
a rage, and said he'd teach me who was my master; and he tied
me to a tree, and cut switches for young master, and told him
that he might whip me till he was tired; and he did do it. It I
don't make him remember it some time 1"
And the brow of the young man grew dark, and his eyes burned
with an expression that made his young wife tremble. "Who
made this man my master?-that's what I want to know," he said.
Well," said Eliza mournfully, "I always thought that I must
obey my master and mistress, or I couldn't be a Christian."
There is some sense in it in your case: they have brought
you up like a child-fed you, clothed you, indulged you, and
taught you, so that you have a good education; that is some
reason why they should claim you. But I have been kicked,
and cuffed, and sworn at, and at the best only let alone; and what
do I owe ? I've paid for all my keeping a hundred times over.
I won't bear it-no I won't!" he said, clenching his hand, with a
fierce frown.
Eliza trembled, and was silent. She had never seen her
husband in this mood before; and her gentle system of ethics
seemed to bend like a reed in the surges of such passions.
You know poor little Carlo that you gave me ?" added George;
"the creature has been about all the comfort that I've had. He
has slept with me nights, and followed me around days, and kind
o' looked at me as if he understood how I felt. Well, the other
day I was just feeding him with a few old scraps I picked up by
the kitchen-door, and mas'r came along, and said I was feeding
him up at his expense, and that he couldn't afford to have every
nigger keeping his dog, and ordered me to tie a stone to his neck,
and throw him in the pond."
0 George, you didn't do it ?"
"Do it? not I; but he did. Mas'r and Tom pelted the poor
drowning creature with stones, Poor thing! he looked at me so
mournful, as if he wondered why I didn't save him. I had to take
a flogging because I wouldn't do it myself. I don't care; mas r
will find out that I'm one that whipping won't tame. My day will
come yet, if he don't look out."
"What are you going to do? 0 George, don't do anything
wicked; if you only trust in God, and try to do right, hell deliver
you."
"I an't a Christian like you, Eliza; my heart's full of bitter-
ness; I can't trust in God. Why does he let things be so?"
George, we must have faith I Mistress says that when all
things go wrong to us, we must believe that God is doing the very
best."


_ I~ __


14





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I


NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA. 15

"That's easy to say, for people that are sitting on their sofas,
and riding in their carriages; but let 'em be where I am, I guem
it would come some harder. I wish I could be good; but my
heart burns, and can't be reconciled anyhow. You couldn't, in
my place; you can't now, if I tell you all I've got to say. You
don't know the whole yet."
"What can be coming now ?"
"Well, lately mas'r ha& een saying, that he was a fool to let
me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe,
because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and
that I've got proud notions from you; and he says he won't let me
come here any more, and that I shall take a wife and settle down
on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things;
but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and
settle4own in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river."
Why, but you were married to me, by the minister, as much
as if you'd been a white man," said Eliza simply.
Don't you know a slave can't be married? There is no law
in this country for that: I can't hold you for my wife, if he chooses
to part us. That's why I wish I'd never seen you-why I wish
I'd never been born; it would have been better for us both-it
would have been better for this poor child if he had never been
born. All this may happen to him yet!"
"Oh, but master is so kind !"
"Yes, but who knows ? he may die; and then he may be sold
to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome,
and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce
through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is
or has-it will make him worth too much for you to keep."
The words smote heavily on Eliza's heart; the vision of the
trader came before her eyes, and, as if some one had struck her a
deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked
nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave
conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly
up and down on Mr. Shelby's walking-stick. She would have
spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.
"No, no, he has enough to bear, poor fellow I" she thought.
"No, I won't tell him; besides, it an't true; missis never de-
ceives us."
So, Eliza, my girl," said the husband mournfully, bear up,
now, and good bye; for I'm going."
"Going, George ?-going where ?"
"To Canada," said he, straightening himself up; "and when
I'm there, I'11 buy you-that's all the hope that's left us. You
have a kind master, that won't refuse to sell you. I'll buy you
and the boy-God helping me, I will !"
," Oh, dreadful-if you should be taken !"
I won't be taken, Eliza--I'll die first. Ill be free, or I'll die 1"







UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OB,


"You won't kill yourself !"
"No need of that; they will kill me fast enough; they never
will get me down the river alive."
"0 George, for my sake, do be carefulI Don't do anything
wicked; don't lay hands on yourself, or anybody else. You are
tempted too much-too much; bub doirt--go you must-but go
carefully, prudently; pray God to im u."
"Well, then, Eliza, bear my plan. Was'r took into his head to
send me right by here, with a note to Mr. Symmes, that lives a
mile past. I believe he expected I should come here to tell you
what I have. It would please him, if h& thbugt it would aggra-
vate Shelby's folks,' as he calls 'ems I'm going ho6e quite re-
signed, you understand, as if all was over., I've got sog prepaY.
rations made, and there are those that iw help mew: l, the
course of a week or so, I shall'be ;moitgle missing, s day.
Pray for me, Eliza; perhaps the goo&'LitM will hear you.B
Oh, pray yourself, George, andgo trusting in him; thel you
won't do anything wicked."
"Well, now, good bye," said George, holding Eli d and
gazing into her eyes, without moving. They stoovisiltit; then
there were last words, and sobs, and bitter weeping-such parting
as those may make whose hope to meet again is as the spider's
web; and the husband and wife were parted.


S.... .- .
CHAPTER IV. .
AN EVENING IN UNCLE TOM'# CABIN.
Tar cabin of Uncle Tom was a small log building, close adjoin-
ing to "the house," as the negro par excellence designates his
master's dwelling. In front it had a neat garden-patch, where,
every summer strawberries, raspberries, and a variety of fruits and
vegetables, fl tished under careful tending. The whole front of
it was covered by a large scarlet bignonia and a native multiflora
rse, which, entwisting and interlacing, left scarce a vestige of the
rough logs to be seen. Here, also, in summer, various brilliant
annuals, such as marigolds, petunias, four-o'clocks, found an indul-
gent corner in which to unfold their splendours, and were the
delight and pride of Aunt Chloe's heart.
Let us enter the dwelling. The evening meal at the house is
over, and Aunt Chloe, who presided over its preparation as head
cook, has left to inferior officers in the kitchen the business of
clearing away and washing dishes, and come out into her own
snug territories, to get her ole man's supper;" therefore, doubt
not that it is her you see by the fire, presiding with anxious in-
terest over certain frizzling items in a stewpan, and anon with


-4


-- -~ -- .


16







---~---- .1
NEORO LIaF IN AMERICA. 17

grave consideration lifting the cover of a bake-kettle, from whence ,
steamrforth indubitable imitations of "something good." A round,
black, shining face is hers, so glossy as to suggest the idea that
she might have been washed over with white of eggs, like one of
her own tea-rusks. Her whole plump countenance beams with
satisfaction and contentment from under her well-starched checked
turban, bearing on it, however, if we must confess it, a little of
that tinge of self-consciousness which becomes the first cook of
the neighbourhood, as Aunt Chloe was universally held and
acknowledged to be.
A cook she certainly was, in the very bone and centre of her
soul. Not a chicken, or turkey, or duck in the barn-yard, but
looked grave when they saw her approaching, and seemed evi-
dently to be reflecting on their latter end; and certain it was
that she was always meditating oni trussing, stuffing, and roasting,
to a degree that was calculated to inspire terror in any reflecting
fowl living. Her corn-cake, in all its varieties of hoe-cake, dodgers,
muffins, and other species too numerous to mention, was a sublime
mystery to all less practised compounders; and she would shake
her fat sides with honest pride and merriment as she would nar-
rate the fruitless efforts that one and another of her compeers had
made to attain to her elevation.
The arrival of company at the house, the arranging of dinners
and suppers "in style," awoke all the energies of her soul; and
no sight was more welcome to her than a pile of travelling-trinks
launched on the verandah; for then she foresaw fresh efforts and
fresh triumphs.
Just at present, however, Aunt Chloe is looking into the bake;
pan; in which congenial operation we shall leave her till we
finish our picture of the cottage.
In one corer stood a bed, covered neatly with a snowy spread,
and by the side of it was a piece of carpeting, of some considerable
size. On this piece of carpeting Aunt Chloe took her stand, as
being decidedly in the upper walks of life; and it and the bed "
which it lay, and the whole corer, in fact, weream. ted wit
distinguished consideration, and made, so far as pole, saed
from the marauding roads and desecrations of little folks. In
fact, that corner was the drawing-room of the establishment. In
the other corner was a bed of much humbler pretensions, and
evidently designed for use. The wall over the fire-place was
adorned with some very brilliant scriptural prints, and a portrait
of General Washington, drawn and coloured in a manner which
would certainly have astonished that hero, if ever he had happened
to meet with its like
On a rough bench in the corner, a couple of woolly-headed boys,
with glistening black eyes, and fat shining cheeks, were busy in
superintending the first walking-operations of the baby, which,
as is usually the case, consisted in getting up on its feet, balancing
2 .__c







UNCL TOM'S OCAIN; OR,


a moment, and tnen tumbling down-each successive failure being
violently cheered, as something decidedly clever.
A table, somewhat rheumatic in its limbs was drawn out in
front of the fire, and covered with a cloth, displaying cups and
saucers of a decidedly brilliant pattern, with other symptoms of
an approaching meal. At this table was seated Uncle Tom, Mr.
Shelby's best hand, who, as he is to be the hero of our story, we
must daguerreotype for our readers. He was a large, broad-
chested, powerfully made man, of a full glossy black, and a
face whose truly African features were characterized by an express.
sion of grave and steady good sense, united with much kindliness
and benevolence. There was something about his whole air
self-respecting and dignified, yet united with a confiding and
humble simplicity.
He was very busily intent at this moment on a slate lying before
him, on which he was carefully and slowly endeavouring to ac-
complish a copy of some letters, in which operation he was over-
looked by young Mas'r George, a smart, bright boy of thirteen,
who appeared fully to realise the dignity of his position as
instructor.
"Not that way, Uncle Tom-not that way," said he briskly,
as Uncle Tom laboriously brought up the tail of his g the
wrong side out; "that makes a q, you see."
La sakes, now, does it?" said Uncle Tom, looking with a
respectful, admiring air, as his young teacher flourishingly
scrawled q's and g's innumerable for his edification; and then,
taking the pencil in his big, heavy fingers, he patiently re-com-
menced.
"How easy white fblks al'us does things!" said Aunt Chloe,
pausing while she was greasing a griddle with a scrap of bacon on
her fork, and regarding young Master George with pride. The
way he can write, now! and read too! and then to come out here
evenings and read his lessons to us, it's mighty interesting' !"
But, Aunt Chloe, I'm getting mighty hungry," said George.
"Isn't that cake in the skillet almost done ?"
"Mose done, Mas'r George," said Aunt Chloe, lifting the lid,
and peeping in; browning beautiful-a real lovely brown. Ah,
let me alone for dat! Missis let Sally try to make some cake
t'other day, jest to lam her, she said. 'Oh, go away, missis!'
says I; it really hurts my feeling's, now, to see good vittles spiled
Sdat ar way!' Cake ris all to one side-no shape at all, no more
than my shoe-go 'way!"
And with this final expression of contempt for Sally's greenness,
Aunt Chloe whipped the cover off the bake-kettle, and disclosed
to view a neatly-baked pound-cake, of which no city confectioner
need to have been ashamed. This being evidently the central
point of the entertainment, Aunt Chloe began now to bustle about
earnestly in the supper department.

_______________________. ,.. .


_ __


18








NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


Here, you Mose and Pete, get out de way, you niggers I Get
away, Polly, honey, mammy'll give her baby somefin by-and-by.
Now, Mas'r George, you jest take off dem books, and set down
now with my old man, and I'll take up de sausages, and have de
first griddle-full of cakes on your plates in less dan no time."
"They wanted me to come to supper in the house," said
George, "but I knew what was what too well for that, Aunt
Chloe."
So you did-so you did, honey," said Aunt Chloe, heaping
the smoking batter-cakes on his plate; "you know'd your old
aunty'd keep the best for you. Oh, let you alone for dat- go way !"
And with that Aunty gave George a nudge with her finger
designed to be immensely facetious, and turned again to her
griddle with great briskness.
"Now for the cake," said Mas'r George, when the activity of
the griddle department had somewhat subsided; and with that
the youngster flourished a large knife over the article in question.
La bless you, Mas'r George !" said Aunt Chloe, with earnest-
ness, catching his arm, you wouldn't be for cutting' it wid dat
ar great heavy knife! Smash all down-spile all de pretty rise
of it I Here, I've got a thin old knife I keeps sharp a purpose.
Dar now, see-comes apart light as a feather! Now eat away-
you won't get anything to beat dat ar!"
"Tom Lincoln says," said George speaking with his mouth
full, "that their Jenny is a better cook than you."
Dem Lincons an't much 'count, no way I" said Aunt Chloe
contemptuously; "I mean set alongside our folks. They's
'spectable folks enough in a kinder plain way; but as to getting'
up anything in style, they don't begin to have a notion on't. Set
Mas'r Lincoln, now, alongside Mas'r Shelby! Good Lor! and
Missis Lincoln-can she kinder sweep it into a room like my
missis-so kinder splendid, yer know ? Oh, go way! don't tell me
nothiu' of dem Lincons 1" and Aunt Chloe tossed her head as
one who hoped she did know something of the world.
Well, though, I've heard you say," said George, '' that Jinny
was a pretty fair cook."
So I did," said Aunt Chloe; I may say dat. Good plain,
common cooking Jinny'll do; make a good pone o' bread-bile her
tatersfar-her corn-cakes isn't extra, not extra now, Jinny's corn-
cakes isn't, but then they's far-but, Lor, come to de higher
branches and what can she do ? Why she makes pies-sartain she
does; but kinder crust ? Can she make your real flecky paste, as
melts in your mouth and lies all up like a puff? Now, I went
over thar when Miss Mary was gwine to be married, and Jinny she
jest showed me de wedding' pies. Jinny and. I is good friends,
yer know. I never said nothing ; but go 'long, Mas'r George!
Why, I shouldn't sleep a wink for a week, if I had a batch of pies
like dem ar. Why, they wan't no 'count 'tall."
c2


__


19







UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


I suppose Jinny thought they were ever so nice ?" said George.
"Thought so !-didn't she? Thar she was, showing 'em, as
innocent! Ye see, it's jest here, Jinny don't know. Lor, the
family an't nothing! she can't be 'spected to know! 'Tant no
fault o' hem. Ah, Mas'r George, you doesn't know half your
privileges in yer family and bringing' up!" Here Aunt Chloe
sighed, and rolled up her eyes with emotion.
I'm sure, Aunt Chloe, I understand all my pie and pudding
privileges," said George. Ask Tom Lincoln if I don't crow over
him, every time I meet him."
Aunt Chloe sat back in her chair, and indulged in a hearty
guffaw of laughter at this witticism of young Mas'r's, laughing till
the tears rolled down her black shining cheeks, and varying the
exercise with playfully slapping and poking Mas'r Georgey, and
telling him to go way, and that he was a case-that he was fit
to kill her, and that he sartin would kill her, one of these days;
and, between each of these sanguinary predictions going off into
a laugh, each longer and stronger than the other, till George
really began to think that he was a very dangerously witty fellow,
and that it became him to be careful how he talked as funny as
he could."
And so ye tell'd Tom, did ye ? 0 Lor, what young uns will
be up ter! Ye crowed over Tom ? 0 Lor! Mas'r George, if ye
wouldn't make a horubug laugh !"
Yes," said George. "I says to him, 'Tom, you ought to see
some of Aunt Chloe's pies; they're the right sort,' says I."
Pity, now, Tom couldn't," said Aunt Chloe, on whose bene-
volent heart the ideaof Tom's benighted condition seemed to make
a strong impression. Ye oughter just ask him here to dinner
some o' these times, Mas'r George," she added; "it would .look
quite pretty of ye. Ye know, Mas'r George, ye oughtenter feel
'bove nobody, on 'count yer privileges, 'cause all our privileges
is gi'n to us; we ought always to 'member that," said Aunt Chloe,
looking quite serious.
"Well, I mean to ask Tom here some day next week," said
George; and you do your prettiest, Aunt Chloe, and we'll make
him stare. Won't we make him eat so he won't get over it for a
fortnight ?"
"Yes, yes---sartin," said Aunt Chloe, delighted, "you'll see.
Lor! to think of some of our dinners! Yer mind dat ar great
chicken pie I made when we guv de dinner to General Knox? I
and missis, we come pretty near quarrelling about dat ar crust.
What does get into ladies sometimes, I don't know; but some-
times, when a body has de heaviest kind o' 'sponsibility on 'em,
as ye may say, and is all kinder eri' and taken up, dey takes
dat ar time to be hangin' round and kinder interferin! Now,
missis, she wanted me to do dis way, and she wanted me to do
datway; and, finally, I got kinder saucy, and says I, 'Now,


__ __ _~_ __


20








NEGRO LIFE IN AMEIUCA.


missis, do jest look at dem beautiful white hands o' your, with
long fingers, and all a sparkling with rings, like my white lilies
when de dew's on 'em; and look at my great black stumpin'
hands. Now, don't ye think dat de Lord must have meant me
to make de pie-crust, and you to stay in de parlour?' Dar! I
was jest so saucy, Mas'r George."
And what did mother say ?" said George.
Say ?-why, she kinder larfed in her eyes-dem great hand-
some eyes o' hem; and says she, 'Well, Aunt Chloe, I think
you are about in the right on't,' says she; and she went off in de
parlour. She oughter cracked me over de head for bein' so sarcy;
but dar's whar 'tis-I can't do nothing with ladies in de kitchen 1"
"Well, you made out well with that dinner-I remember
everybody said so," said George.
"Didn't I ? And wasn't I behind de dinin'-room door dat bery
day? and didn't I see de General pass his plate three times for
some more dat bery pie? and, says he, 'You must have an un-
common cook, Mrs. Shelby.' Lor! I was fit to split myself.
And de Gineral, he knows what cooking' is," said Aunt Chloe,
drawing herself up with an air. "Bery nice man, de Gineral!
He comes of one of de bery fastest families in Old Virginny !
He knows what's what, now, as well as I do-de Gineral. Ye
see, there's pints in all pies, Mas'r George; but tan't everybody
knows what they is, or orter be. But the Gineral, he knows; I
knew by his 'marks he made. Yes, he knows what de pints is!!'
By this time, Master George had arrived at that pass to which
even a boy can come (under uncommon circumstances), when he
really could not eat another morsel; and therefore he was at
leisure to notice the pile of woolly heads and glistening eyes which
were regarding their operations hungrily from the opposite corner.
Here, you Mose, Pete," he said, breaking off liberal bits, and
throwing it at them; "you want some, don't you? Come, Aunt
Chloe, bake them some cakes."
And George and Tom moved to a comfortable seat in the
chimney-corner, while Aunt Chloe, after baking a goodly pile of
cakes, took her baby on her lap, and began alternately filling its
mouth and her own, and distributing to Mose and Pete, who
seemed rather to prefer eating theirs as they rolled about on the
floor under the table, tickling each other, and occasionally pulling
the baby's toes.
"' Oh, go long, will ye ?" said the mother, giving now and then
a kick, in a kind of general way, under the table, when the
movement became too obstreperous. "Can't ye be decent when
white folks come to see ye ? Stop dat ar, now, will ye? Better
mind yerselves, or Ill take ye down a button-hole lower, when
Mas'r George is gone!"
What meaning was couched under this terrible threat,it is
difficult to say; but certain it is that its awful in tinctness
_________________________^_


__


21








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN, OR,


seemed to produce very little impression on the young sinners
addressed.
La, now!" said Uncle Tom, they are so full of tickle all
the while, they can't behave theirselves."
Here the boys emerged from under the table, and, with hands
and faces well plastered with molasses, began a vigorous kissing
of the baby.
"Get along wid ye !" said the mother, pushing away their
woolly heads. "Yell all stick together, and never get clar, if
ye do that fashion. Go long to de spring and wash yerselves !"
she said, seconding her exhortations by a slap, which resounded
very formidably, but which seemed only to knock out so much
more laugh from the young bnes, as they tumbled precipitately over
each other out of doors, where they fairly screamed with merriment.
"Did ye ever see such aggravating young uns ?" said Aunt
Chloe rather complacently, as, producing an old towel, kept for
such emergencies, she poured a little water out of the cracked
tea-pot on it, and began rubbing off the molasses from the baby's
face and hands; and having polished her till she shone, she set
her down in Tom's lap, while she busied herself in clearing away
supper. The baby employed the intervals in pulling Tom's nose,
scratching his face, and burying her fat hands in his woolly hair,
which last operation seemed to afford her special content.
Aint she a peart young un ?" said Tom, holding her from him
to take a full-length view; then, getting up, he set her on his
broad shoulder, and began capering and dancing with her, while
Mas'r George snapped at her with his pocket-handkerchief, and
Mose and Pete, now returned again, roared after her like bears,
till Aunt Chloe declared that they fairly took her head off" with
their noise. As, according to her own statement, this surgical
operation was a matter of daily occurrence in the cabin, the decla-
ration no whit abated the merriment, till every one had roared,
and tumbled, and danced themselves down to a state of composure.
Well, now, I hopes you are done," said Aunt Chloe, who had
been busy in pulling out a rude box of a trundle-bed; and now,
you Mose and you Pete, get into thar; for we's going to have the
meeting. "
"0 mother, we don't water We wants to sit up to meeting'
-meetin's is so curis. We likes 'em."
"La, Aunt Chloe, shove it under, and let 'em sit up," said
Mas'r George decisively, giving a push to the rude machine.
Aunt Chloe, having thus saved appearances, seemed highly de-
lighted to push the thing under, saying, as she did so, Well,
mebbe 'twill do 'em some good."
The house now resolved itself into a committee of the whole,
to consider the accommodations and arrangements for the
meeting.
"What we's to do for cheers, now, I declar' I don't know,"
I-


_ _I __


22







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA. 23

said Aunt Chloe. As the meeting had been held at Uncle Tom's,
weekly, for an indefinite length of time, without any more cheers,"
there seemed some encouragement to hope that a way would be
discovered at present.
Old Uncle Peter sung both de legs out of dat oldest cheer,
last week," suggested Mose.
"You go long! I'll boun you pulled 'em out, some o' your
shines," said Aunt Chloe.
Well, it'll stand, if it only keeps jam up agin de wall!" said
Mose.
"Den Uncle Peter mus'n't sit in it, cause he always hitches
when he gets a singing. He hitched pretty nigh across de room,
t'other night," said Pete.
Good Lor! get him in it, then," said Mose, "and den he'd
begin, 'Come saints and sinners hear me tell,' and den down
he'd go," and Mose imitated precisely the nasal tones of the old
man, tumbling on the floor to illustrate the supposed catastrophe.
Come, now, be decent, can't ye ?" said Aunt Chloe; can'tt
yer shamed ?"
Mas'r George, however, joined the offender in the laugh, and
declared decidedly that Mose was a "buster." So the maternal
admonition seemed rather to fail of effect.
Well, ole man," said Aunt Chlbe, you'lll have to tote in
them ar barls."
Mother's bar'ls is like dat ar widder's Mas'r George was read-
ing 'bout in de good book-dey never fails," said Moe, aside to
Pete.
I'm sure one on 'em caved in last week," said Pete, "and let
'em all down in de middle of de singin'; dat ar was failing wasn't
it ?"
During this aside between Mose and Pete, two empty casks had
been rolled into the cabin, and being secured from rolling by
stones on each side, boards were laid across them, which arrange-
ment, together with the turning down of certain tubs and pails,
and the disposing of the rickety chairs, at last completed the pre-
paration.
Mas'r George is such a beautiful reader, now, I know holl
stay to read for us," said Aunt Chloe; "'pears like't will be so
much more interesting. "
George very readily consented, for your boy is always ready for
any thing that makes him of importance.
The room was soon filled with a motley assemblage, from the
old grey-headed patriarch of eighty to the young girl and lad of
fifteen. A little harmless gossip ensued on various themes, such
as where old Aunt Sally got her new red headkorchief, and how
missis was a going to give Lizzy that spotted muslin gown, when
she'd got her new berage made up;" and how Mas'r Shelby was
thinking of buying a new sorrel colt, that was going to prove an








24 UNCLE TOM8 CABIN; OR,

addition to the glories of the place. A few of the worshippers
belonged to families hard by, who had got permission to attend,
and who brought in various choice scraps of information, about the
sayings and doings at the house and on the place, which circulated
as freely as the same sort of small change does in higher circles.
After awhile the singing commenced, to the evident delight of
all present. Not even all the disadvantage of nasal intonation
could prevent the effect of the naturally fine voices, in airs at once
wild and spirited. The words were sometimes the well-known
and common hymns sung in the churches about, and sometimes of
a wilder, more indefinite character, picked up at camp-meetings.
The chorus of one of them, which ran as follows, was sung with
great energy and unction:-
Die on the field of battle,
Die on the field of battle,
Glory in my souL"
Another special favourite had oft repeated the words-
Oh, rm going to glory-won't you come along with me P
Don't you see the angels beck'mng, and a calling me away P
Don't you see the golden city and the everlasting day P"
There were others, which made incessant mention of "Jordan's
banks," and Canaan's fields," and the New Jerusalem;" for
the negro mind, impassioned and imaginative, always attaches
itself to hymns and expressions of a vivid and pictorial nature;
and, as they sang, some laughed, and some cried, and some clapped
hands, or shook hands rejoicingly with each other, as if they had
fairly gained the other side of the river.
Various exhortations, or relations of experience, followed, and
intermingled with the singing. One old grey-headed woman, long
past work, but much revered as a sort of chronicle of the past,
rose, and leaning on her staff, said:
Well, chil'en! Well, I'm mighty glad to hear ye all and
see ye all once more, 'cause I don't know when II1 be gone
to glory; but I've done got ready, chil'en; 'pears like I'd got my
little bundle all tied up, and my bonnet on, jest a waiting' for the
stage to come along and take me home. Sometimes, in the night,
I think I hear the wheels a rattling and I'm looking' out all the
time. Now, you jest be ready too; for I tell ye all, chil'en," she
said, striking her staff hard on the floor, dat ar glory is a mighty
thing! It's a mighty thing, chil'en-you don'no nothing about
it-it's wonderful." And the old creature sat down, with stream-
ing tears, as wholly overcome, while the whole circle struck up-
Oh, Canaan, bright Canaan,
"r bound for the land of Canaan."
Mas'r George, by request, read the last chapters of the Revela-
tion, often interrupted by such exclamations as The sakes now !"








iGRzO LEM IN AMERIOA.


" Only hear that!" "Jest think on't !" "Is all that a coming' sure
enough 7'
George, who was a bright boy, and well trained in religious
things by his mother, finding himself an object of general admi-
ration, threw in expositions of his own, from time to time, with a
commendable seriousness and gravity, for which he was admired
by the young and blessed by the old; and it was agreed, on all
hands, that a "minister couldn't lay it off better than he did;"
that 't was reely 'mazin' !"
Uncle Tom was a sort of patriarch in religious matters in the
neighbourhood. Having, naturally, an organisation in which the
morale was strongly predominant, together with a greater breadth
and cultivation of mind than obtained among his companions, he
was looked up to with great respect, as a sort of minister among
them; and the simple, hearty, sincere style of his exhortations
might have edified even better educated persons. But it was in
prayer that he especially excelled. Nothing could exceed the
touching simplicity, the child-like earnestness of his prayer, en-
riched with the language of Scripture, which seemed so entirely
to have wrought itself into his being as to have become a part of
himself, and to drop from his lips unconsciously; in the language
of a pious old negro, he "prayed right up." And so much did his
prayer always work on the devotional feelings of his audiences, that
there seemed often a danger that it would be lost altogether in the
abundance of the responses which broke out everywhere around
him.

While this scene was passing in the cabin of the man, one quite
otherwise passed in the halls of the master.
The trader and Mr. Shelby were seated together in the dining.
room afore-named, at a table covered with papers and writing-
utensils.
Mr. Shelby was busy in counting some bundles of bills, which,
as they were counted, he pushed over to the trader, who counted
them likewise.
"All fair," said the trader, "and now for signing these yer."
Mr. Shelby hastily drew the bills of sale towards him, and
signed them, like a man that hurries over some disagreeable busi-
ness, and then pushed them over with the money. Haley pro-
duced, from a well-worn valise, a parchment, which, after looking
over it a moment, he handed to Mr. Shelby, who took it with a
gesture of suppressed eagerness.
Wal, now the thing's done said the trader, getting up.
It's done!" echoed Mr. Shelby, in a musing tone; and,
fetching a long breath, he repeated, "It's done I"
'( Yer don't seem to feel much pleased with it, pears to me,"
said the trader.


_ _


26








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


Haley," said Mr. Shelby, I hope you'll remember that you
promised, on your honour, you wouldn't sell Tom, without know-
ing what sort of hands he's going into."
"Why, you've just done it, sir," said the trader.
Circumstances, you well know, obliged me," said Shelby
haughtily.
Wal, you know they may 'blige me, too," said the trader
" Howsomever, I'll do the very best I can in getting' Tom a
good berth; as to my treating on him bad, you needn't be a
grain afeard. If there's anything that I thank the Lord fer, it is
that I'm never noways cruel."
After the expositions which the trader had previously given of
his humane principles, Mr. Shelby did not feel particularly re-
assured by these declarations: but as they were the best comfort
the case admitted of, he allowed the trader to depart in silence,
and betook himself to a solitary cigar.



CHAPTER V.
SHOWING THE FEELINGS OF LIVING PROPERTY ON CHANGING
OWNERS.
MB. and MRS. SHELBY had retired to their apartment for the
night. He was lounging in a large easy chair looking over some
letters that had come in the afternoon mail, and she was standing
before her mirror, brushing out the complicated braids and curls
in which Eliza had arranged her hair; for, noticing her pale
cheeks and haggard eyes, sh3 had excused her attendance that
night, and ordered her to bed. The employment, naturally
enough, suggested her conversation with the girl in the morning;
and, turning to her husband, she said, carelessly-
By the by, Arthur, who was that lowbred fellow that you
lugged in to our dinner-table to-day ?"
Haley is his name," said Shelby, turning himself rather
uneasily in his chair, and continuing with his eyes fixed on a
letter.
Haley Who is he, and what may be his business here,
pray ?"
( Well, he's a man that I transacted some business with, last
time I was at Natchez," said Mr. Shelby.
And he presumed on it to make himself quite at home, and
call and dine here, eh?"
Why, I invited him; I had some accounts with him," said
Shelby.
"Is he a negro-trader ?" said Mrs. Shelby, noticing a certain
embarrassment in her husband's manner.


26








NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


Why, my dear, what put that into your head?" said Shelby,
looking up.
Nothing-only Eliza came in here, after dinner, in a great
worry, crying and taking on, and said you were talking with a
trader, and that she heard him make an offer for her boy-the
ridiculous little goose !"
She did, eh ?' said Mr. Shelby, returning to his paper, which
he seemed for a few moments quite intent upon, not perceiving
that he was holding it bottom upwards.
It will have to come out," said he, mentally; "as well now,
as ever "
I told Eliza," said Mrs. Shelby, as she continued brushing
her hair, that she was a little fool for her pains, and that you
never had anything to do with that sort of persons; Of course, I
knew you never meant to sell any of our people-least of all, to
such a fellow."
Well, Emily," said her husband; "so I have always felt
and said; but the fact is, that my business lies so that I cannot
get on without. I shall have to sell some of my hands."
To that creature? Impossible 1 Mr. Shelby, you cannot be
serious ?"
I'm sorry to say that I am," said Mr. Shelby. I've agreed
to sell Tom."
What! our Tom ?-that good faithful creature I-been your
faithful servant from a boy! 0 Mr. Shelby!-and you have
promised him his freedom, too-you and I have spoken to him
a hundred times of it. Well, I can believe anything now; I
can believe now that you could sell little Harry, poor Eliza's only
child !" said Mrs. Shelby, in a tone between grief and indignation.
Well, since you must know all, it is so. I have agreed to sell
Tom and Harry both; and I don't know why I am to be rated,
as if I were a monster, for doing what everyone does every day."
But why, of all others, choose these ?" said Mrs. Shelby.
Why sell them, of all on the place, if you must sell at all ?"
Because they will bring the highest sum of any--that's why.
I could choose another, if you say so. The fellow made me a high
bid on Eliza, if that would suit you any better," said Mr. Shelby.
The wretch !" said Mrs. Shelby vehemently.
Well, I didn't listen to it a moment-out of regard to your
feelings, I wouldn't; so give me some credit."
My dear," said Mrs. Shelby, recollecting herself, "forgive
me. I have been hasty. I was surprised, and entirely unpre-
pared for this; but surely you will allow me to intercede for these
poor creatures. Tom is a noble-hearted, faithful fellow, if he is
black. I do believe, Mr. Shelby, that, if he were put to it, he
would lay down his life for you."
I know it-I dare say; but what's the use of all this? I
can't help myself."








UNOLU TOl'S CABIN: OR,


Why not make a pecuniary sacrifice? I'm willing tt bear
my part of the inconvenience. 0 Mr. Shelby, I have tried-
tried most faithfully, as a Christian woman should, to do my duty
to these poor, simple, dependant creatures. I have cared for
them, instructed them, watched over them, and known all their
little cares and joys for years, and how can I ever hold up my
head again among them, if, for the sake of a little paltry gain,
we sell such a faithful, excellent, confiding creature as poor Tom,
and tear from him in a moment all we have taught him to love
and value? I have taught them the duties of the family, of
parent and child, and husband and wife; and how can I bear to
have this open acknowledgment that we care for no tie, no duty,
no relation, however sacred, compared with money ? I have
talked to Eliza about her boy-her duty to him as a Christian
mother to watch over him, pray for him, and bring him
up in a Christian way; and now what can I say, if you tear him
away, and sell him, soul and body, to a profane, unprincipled
man, just to save a little money? I have told her that one
soul is worth more than all the money in the world; and how
will she believe me when she sees us turn round and sell her
child ?---sell him, perhaps, to certain ruin of body and soul!"
I'm sorry you feel so about it, Emily-indeed I am," said
Mr. Shelby; and I respect your feelings, too, though 1 don't
pretend to share them to their full extent; but I tell you now,
solemnly, it's of no use-I can't help myself. I didn't mean to
tell you this, Emily; but, in plain words, there is no choice
between selling these two and selling everything. Either they
must go, or all must. Haley has come into possession of a
mortgage, which, if I don't clear off with him directly, will take
everything before it. I've raked, and scraped, and borrowed, and
all but begged-and the price of these two was needed to make
up the balance, and I had to give them up. Haley fancied the
child, he agreed to settle the matter that way, add no other.
I was in his power, and had to do it. If you feel so to have
them sold, would it be any better to have all sold ?"
Mrs Shelby stood like one stricken. Finally turning to her
toilet, she rested her face in her hands and gfve a sort of groan
"This is God's curse on slavery a bitter, a bitter, most accursed
thing! a curse to the master and a curse to the slave I I was a
fool to think I could make anything good out of such a deadly
evil. It is a sin to hold a slave under laws like ours; I always
felt it was-I always thought so when I was a girl-I thought
so still more after I joined the church; but I thought I could
gild it over--I thought, by kindness, and care, and instruction,
I could make the condition of mine better than freedom-fool
that I was l"
Why, wife, you are getting to be an abolitionist, quite."
"Abolitionist! If they knew all I know about slavery, they


28








NZRO LIFE SIN AMERICA.2


might talk! We don't need them to tell us; you know I never
thought that slavery was right-never felt willing to own slaves."
Well, therein you differ from many wise and pious men,"
said Mr Shelby. "You remember Mr. B.'s sermon, the other
Sunday ?"
I don't want to hear such sermons; I never wish to hear
Mr. B. in our church again. Ministers can't help the evil, per-
haps-can't cure it, any more than we can; but defend it! it
always went against my common-sense. And I think you didn't
think much of that sermon, either."
Well," said Shelby, I must say these ministers sometimes
carry matters further than we poor sinners would exactly do. We
men of the world must wink pretty hard at various things, and
get used to a deal that isn't the exact thing. But we don't quite
fancy when women and ministers come out broad and square, and
go beyond us in matters of either modesty or morals, that's a fact.
But now, my dear, I trust you see the necessity of the thing, and
you see that I have done the very best that circumstances would
allow."
Oh, yes, yes !" said Mrs. Shelby, hurriedly and abstractedly
fingering her gold watch. "I haven't any jewellery of any
amount," she added thoughtfully, "but would not this watch
do something ?-it was an expensive one when it was bought.
If I could only, at least, save Eliza's child, I would sacrifice any-
thing that I have."
"I'm sorry, very sorry, Emily," said Mr. Shelby, "I'm sorry
this takes hold of you so; but it will do no good. The fact
is, Emily, the thing's done; the bill of sale is already signed,
and in Haley's hands; and you must be thankful it is no worse.
That man has had it in his power to ruin us all, and now he is
fairly off. If you knew the man as I do, you'd think that we had
had a narrow escape."
"Is he so hard, then?"
"Why, not a cruel man exactly, but a man of leather-a man
alive to nothing but trade and profit-cool, and unhesitating,
and unrelenting as death and the grave. He'd sell his own
mother at a good per centage-not wishing the old woman any
harm either."
And this wretch owns that good, faithful Tom, and Eliza's
child !"
Well, my dear, the fact is, that this goes rather hard with
me-it's a thing I hate to think of. Haley wants to drive matters,
and take possession to-morrow. I'm going to get out my horse
bright and early, and be off. I can't see Tom, that's a fact; and
you had better arrange a drive somewhere, and carry Eliza off.
Let the thing be done when she is out of sight."
"1 No, no," said Mrs. Shelby; "11l be in no sense accomplice
or heln in this cruel business. Ill go and see poor old Tom,


__


29








UNoLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


God help him! in his distress. They shall see, at any rate, that
their mistress can feel for and with them. As to Eliza, I dare not
think about it. The Lord forgive us! What have we done that
this cruel necessity should come on us 2"
Th re was one listener to this conversation whom Mr. and
Mrs. Shelby little suspected.
Communicating with their apartment was a large closet, opening
by a door into the outer passage. When Mrs. Shelby had dis-
missed Eliza for the night, her feverish and excited mind had
suggested the idea of this closet; and she had hidden herself
there, and, with her ear pressed close against the crack of the
door, had lost not a word of the conversation.
When the voices died into silence, she rose and crept stealthily
away. Pale, shivering, with rigid features and compressed lips,
she looked an entirely altered being from the soft and timid
creature she had been hitherto. She moved cautiously along the
entry, paused one moment at her mistress's door, and raised her
hands in mute appeal to Heaven, and then turned and glided into
her own room. It was a quiet, neat apartment, on the same floor
with her mistress. There was the pleasant sunny window, where
she had often sat singing at her sewing; there a little case of
books, and various little fancy articles ranged by them, the gifts
of Christmas holidays; there was her simple wardrobe in the
closet and in the drawers-here was, in short, her home, and, on
the whole, a happy one it had been to her. But there, on the
bed, lay her slumbering boy, his long curls falling negligently
around his unconscious face, his rosy mouth half open, his little
fat hands thrown out over the bed-clothes, and a smile spread
like a sunbeam over his whole face.
"Poor boy! poor fellow !" said Eliza; "they have sold you!
but your mother will save you yet !"
No tear dropped over that pillow. In such straits as these the
heart has no tears to give; it drops only blood, bleeding itself
away in silence. She took a piece of paper and a pencil, and
wrote hastily-
("0 missis! dear missis! don't think me ungrateful-don't
think hard of me, any way. I heard all you and master said
to-night. I am going to try to save my boy-you will not blame
me! God bless and reward you for all your kindness !"
Hastily folding and directing this, she went to a drawer and
made up a little package of clothing for her boy, which she tied
with a handkerchief firmly round her waist; and so fond is a
mother's remembrance that, even in the terrors of that hour,
she did not forget to put in the little package one or two of his
favourite toys, reserving a gaily-painted parrot to amuse him
when she should be called on to awaken him. It was some
trouble to arouse the little sleeper; but, after some effort, he
sat up, and was playing with his bird while his mother was
putting on her bonnet and shawl.


__


80













































V. 0




































































































a,









"POOR BOY! TI




iip





















t


/




lin
SIn


IEY HAVE SOLD YOU! BUT YOUR
WILL SAVE YOU YET!"


liza.-" A wicked man was coming to take little Harry away from his mother, ai
carry him 'ay off in the dark; but mother won't lIt him-she's going to put on her little
boy's cap and coat, and run off with him, so the ugly man can't catch him."


a


MOTHER


'''

i-?-
~lr~ir'

B


,
,.I








NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


Where are you going, mother ?" said he, as she drew near
the bed with his little coat and cap.
His mother drew near, and looked so earnestly into his eyes
that he at once divined that something unusual was the matter.
Hush, Harry," she said; "mustn't speak loud, or they will
hear us. A wicked man was coming to take little Harry away
from his mother, and carry him 'way off in the dark; but mother
won't let him--she's going to put on her little boy's cap and
coat, and run off with him, so the ugly man can't catch him."
Saying these words, she had tied and buttoned on the cl. wild's
simple outfit, and, taking him in her arms, she whispered to I im
to be very still; and, opening a door in her room which led in o
the outer verandah, she glided noiselessly out.
It was a sparkling, frosty, starlight night, and the mother
wrapped the shawl close round her child, as, perfectly quiet with
vague terror, he clung round her neck.
Old Bruno, a great Newfoundland, who slept at the end of the
porch, rose, with a low growl, as she came near. She gently
spoke his name, and the animal, an old pet and playmate of hers,
instantly wagging his tail, prepared to follow her, though appa-
rently revolving much, in his simple dog's head, what such an
indiscreet midnight promenade might mean. Some dim ideas
of imprudence or impropriety in the measure seemed to embar-
rass him considerably; for he often stopped, as Eliza glided for-
ward, and looked wistfully, first at her and then at the house, and
then, as if reassured by reflection, he pattered along after her
again. A few minutes brought them to the window of Uncle
Tom's cottage, and Eliza, stopping, tapped lightly on the window-
pane.
The prayer-meeting at Uncle Tom's had, in the order of hymn-
singing, been protracted to a very late hour; and as Uncle Tom
had indulged himself in a few lengthy solos afterwards, the con-
sequence was, that, although it was now between twelve and one
o'clock, he and his worthy helpmeet were not yet asleep.
Good Lord! what's that?" said Aunt Chloe, starting up, and
hastily drawing the curtain. My sakes alive, if it an't Lizy !
Get on your clothes, old man, quick! There's old Bruno, too, a
pawin' round-what on airth! I'm gwine to open the door."
And, suiting the action to the word, the door flew open, and
the light of the tallow candle which Tom had hastily lighted fell
on the haggard face, and dark, wild eyes of the fugitive.
"Lord bless you! I'm skeered to look at ye, Lizy! Are ye
tuck sick, or what's come over ye?"
I'm running away, Uncle Tom and Aunt Chloe-carrying off
my child. Master sold him!"
"Sold him ?" echoed both, lifting up their hands in dismay.
Yes, sold him!" said Eliza firmly. I crept into the closet
by mistress's door to-night, and I heard master tell missis that


_ __ __


81








UNCL TOM'S CABIN; on,


he had sold my Harry and you, Uncle Tom, both to a trader; and
that he was going off this morning on his horse, and that the man
was to take possession to-day."
Tom had stood during this speech with his hands raised, and
his eyes dilated, like a man in a dream. Slowly and gradually,
Sas its meaning came over him, he collapsed, rather than seated
himself, on his old chair, and sunk his head down upon his
knees.
The good Lord have pity on us !" said Aunt Chloe. "Oh,
it don't seem as if it was true! What has he done that mas'r
should sell him ?"
"He hasn't done anything-it isn't for that. Master don't
want to sell, and missis-she's always good. I heard her plead
and .beg for us; but he told her 'twas no use-that he was in this
man's debt, and that this man had got the power over him; and
that if he didn't pay him off clear it would end in his having to
sell the place and all the people, and move off. Yes, I heard
him say there was no choice between selling these two and selling
all, the man was driving him so hard. Master said he was sorry;
but oh, missis!-you ought to have heard her talk! If she an't
a Christian and an angel, there never was one. I'm a wicked girl
to leave her so; but then I can't help it. She said herself one
soul was worth more than the world; and this boy has a soul,
and if I let him be carried off, who knows what'll become of it?
It must be right; but if it an't right, the Lord forgive me, for I
can't help doing it!"
"Well, old manr" said Aunt Chloe, "why don't you go, too ?
Will you wait to be toted down river, where they kill niggers
with hard work and starving ? I'd a heap rather die than go
there, any day! There's time for ye; be off with Lizy-you've
got a pass to come and go any time. Come, bustle up, and 111
get your things together."
Tom slowly raised his head, and looked sorrowfully but quietly
around, and said-
No, no; I an't going. Let Eliza go-it's her right. I
wouldn't be the one to say, no. Tan't in nature for her to stay;
but you heard what she said! If I must be sold, or all the
people on the place, and everything go to rack, why, let me be
sold. I s'pose T can b'ar it as well as any on 'em," he added,
while something like a sob and a sigh shook his broad, rough
chest convulsively. "Mas'r always found me on the spot-he
always will. I never have broke trust, nor used my pass no
ways contrary to my word, and I never will. It's better for me
alone to go than to break up the place and sell. Mas'r an't to
blame, Chloe; and he'll take care of you and the poor-"
Here he turned to the rough trundle-bed full of little woolly
heads, and broke fairly down. He leaned over the back of the
chair, and covered his face with his large hands. Sobs, heavy,


_ __ _


32








NEGRO LIFE IN AMBRICA.


hoarse, and loud, shook the chair, and great tears fell through his
fingers on the floor-just such tears, sir, as you dropped into the
coffin where lay your first-born son; such tears, woman, as you
shed when you heard the cries of your dying babe-for, sir, he
was a man, and you are but another man. And, woman, though
dressed in silk and jewels, you are but a woman, and, in life's
great straits and mighty griefs, ye feel but one sorrow!
And now," said Eliza, as she stood in the door, "I saw my
husband only this afternoon, and I little knew then what was to
come. They have pushed him to the very last standing-place,
and he told me to-day that he was going to run away. Do try, if
you can, to get word to him. Tell him how I went, and why I
went; and tell him I'm going to try and find Canada. You must
give my love to him, and tell him, if I never see him again-"
she turned away, and stood with her back to them for a moment,
and then added, in a husky voice, tell him to be as good as he
can, and try and meet me in the kingdom of heaven.
Call Bruno in there," she added. Shut the door on him,
poor beast! He mustn't go with me."
A few last words and tears, a few simple adieus and blessings,
and clasping her wondering and affrighted child in her arms, she
glided noiselessly away.



CHAPTER VI.
DISCOVERY.
MR. and MRS. SHELBY, after their protracted discussion of
the night before, did not readily sink to repose, and, in conse-
quence, slept somewhat later than usual the ensuing morning.
I wonder what keeps Eliza," said Mrs. Shelby, after giving
her bell repeated pulls, to no purpose.
Mr. Shelby was standing before his dressing-glass, sharpening
his razor; and just then the door opened, and a coloured boy
entered with his shaving-water.
Andy," said his mistress, "step to Eliza's door, and tell her
I have rung for her three times. Poor thing!" she added to
herself, with a sigh.
Andy soon returned, with eyes very wide in astonishment
Lor, missis! Lizy's drawers is all open, and her things all
lying every which way; and I believe she's just done cleared out !"
The truth flashed upon Mr. Shelby and his wife at the same
moment. He exclaimed-
Then she suspected it, and she's off!"
The Lord be thanked !" said Mrs. Shelby. I trust she is !"
"Wife, you talk like a fool! Really, it will be something
3 D
1A.


83








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


pretty awkward for me, if she is. Haley saw that I hesitated
about selling this child, and hell think I connived at it to' get
him out of the way. It touches my honour!" And Mr. Shelby
left the room hastily.
There was great running and ejaculating, and opening and
shutting of doors, and appearances of faces in all shades of colour
in different places, for about a quarter of an hour. One person
only, who might have shed some light on the the matter, was
entirely silent, and that was the head cook, Aunt Chloe. Silently,
and with a heavy cloud settled down over her once joyous face, she
proceeded making out her breakfast biscuits, as if she heard and
saw nothing of the excitement around her.
Very soon, about a dozen young imps were roosting, like so
many crows, on the verandah railings, each one determined to
be the first one to apprise the strange mas'r of his ill luck.
"He'll be rail mad, I'll be bound," said Andy.
"Won't he swar !" said little black Jake.
"Yes, for he does swar," said woolly-headed Mandy. "I hearn
him yesterday, at dinner. I hearn all about it then, 'cause I gbt
into the closet where missis keeps the great jugs, and I hearn
every word." And Mandy, who had never in her life thought of
the meaning of a word she had heard, more than a black cat, now
took airs of superior wisdom, and strutted about, forgetting to
state that, though actually coiled up among the jugs at the time
specified, she had been fast asleep all the time.
When, at last, Haley appeared, booted and spurred, he was
saluted with the bad tidings on every hand. The young imps on
the verandah were not disappointed in their hope of hearing him
swar," which he did with a fluency and fervency which delighted
them all amazingly, as they ducked and dodged hither and
thither, to be out of the reach of his riding-whip; and, all whoop-
ing, off together they tumbled, in a pile of immeasurable giggle,
on the withered turf under the verandah, where they kicked up
their heels and shouted to their full satisfaction.
"If I had the little devils!" muttered Haley between his
teeth.
But you han't got 'em, though!" said Andy, with a triumphant
flourish, and making a string of indescribable mouths at the un-
fortunate trader's back, when he was fairly beyond hearing.
"I say now, Shelby, this year's a most extro'rnary business !"
said Haley, as he abruptly entered the parlour. "It seems that
gal's off, with her young un."
"Mr. Haley, Mrs. Shelby is present," said Mr. Shelby.
"I beg pardon, ma'am," said Haley, bowing slightly, with a still
lowering brow; "but still I say, as I said before, this yer's a
singlar report. Is it true, sir?"
"Sir," said Mr. Shelby, "if you wish to communicate with
me, you must observe something of the decorum of a gentleman.
A~


____ I __ __


34








NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


Andy, take Mr. Haley's hat and riding-whip. Take a seat. Yes,
sir; I regret to say that the young woman, excited by overhearing,
or having reported to her, something of this business, has taken
her child in the night, and made off."
"I did expect fair dealing in this matter, I confess," said
Haley.
"Well, sir," said Mr. Shelby, turning sharply round upon
him, "what am I to understand by that remark? If any man
calls my honour in question, I have but one answer for him."
The trader cowered at this, and in a somewhat lower tone said
that it was plaguy hard on a fellow, that had made a fair bargain,
to be gulled that way."
"Mr. Haley," said Mr. Shelby, if I did not think you had
some cause for disappointment, I should not have borne from you
the rude and unceremonious style of your entrance into my
parlour this morning. I say thus much, however, since appear-
ances call for it, that I shall allow of no insinuations cast upon
me, as if I were at all partner to any unfairness in this matter.
Moreover, I shall feel bound to give you every assistance, in the
use of horses, servants, &c., in the recovery of your property.
So, in short, Haley," said he, suddenly dropping from the tone of
dignified coolness to his ordinary one of easy frankness, the best
way for you is to keep good-natured and eat some breakfast, and
we will then see what is to be done."
Mrs. Shelby now rose, and said her engagements would pre-
vent her being at the breakfast-table that morning; and deputing
a very respectable mulatto woman to attend to the gentlemen's
coffee at the side-board, she left the room.
Old lady don't like your humble servant, over and above," said
Haley, with an uneasy effort to be very familiar.
I am not accustomed to hear my wife spoken of with such
freedom," said Mr. Shelby drily.
Beg pardon; of course, only a joke, you know," said Haley,
forcing a laugh.
"Some jokes are less agreeable than others," rejoined Shelby.
"Devilish free, now I've signed those papers, cuss him!" mut-
tered Haley to himself; quite grand, since yesterday!"
Never did fall of any prime minister at court occasion wider
surges of sensation than the report of Tom's fate among his com-
peers on the place. It was the topic in every mouth, everywhere;
and nothing was done in the house or in the field but to discuss
its probable results. Eliza's flight-an unprecedented event on
the place-was also a great accessory in stimulating the general
excitement.
Black Sam, as he was commonly called, from his being about
three shades blacker than any other son of ebony on the place, was
revolving the matter profoundly in all its phases and bearings,
with a comprehensiveness of vision and a strict look-out to his own


__


35








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


personal well-being, that would have done credit to any white
patriot in Washington.
"It's an ill wind dat blows nowhar-dat ar a fact," said Sam
sententiously, giving an additional hoist to his pantaloons, and
adroitly substituting a long nail in place of a missing suspender-
button, with which effort of mechanical genius he seemed highly
'delighted.
"Yes, it's an ill wind blows nowhar," he repeated. "Now,
dar, Tom's down-wal, course der's room for some niggur to be
up-and why not dis niggur?-dat's de ideel Tom, a ridin'
round de country-boots blacked-pass in his pocket-all grand
as Cuffee-who but he? Now, why shouldn't Sam ?-dat's what
I want to know."
Halloo, Sam-0 Sam! Mas'r wants you to cotch Bill and
Jerry," said Andy, cutting short Sam's soliloquy.
"High! what's afoot now, young un ?"
"Why, you don't know, I s'pose, that Lizy's cut stick, and
clar'd out with her young un ?'
You teach your granny 1" said Sam, with infinite contempt;
Snowed it a heap sight sooner than you did; this nigger an't so
green, now !"
Well, anyhow, mas'r wants Bill and Jerry geared right up;
and you and I's to go with Mas'r Haley to look arter her."
Good, now! dat's de time o' day I" said Sam. "It's Sam dat's
called for in dese yer times. He's de nigger. See if I don't
cotch her now; mas'r'll see what Sam can do!"
"AhI but Sam," said Andy, you'd better think twice; for
missis don't want her cotcBed, and she'll be in yer wool."
"High I" said Sam, opening his eyes. How you know dat ?"
"Heard her say so, my own self, dis blessed morning when I
bring in mas'r's shaving-water. She sent me to see why Lizy didn't
come to dress her; and when I telled her she was off, she jest ris
up, and ses she, 'The Lord be praised;' and mas'r he seemed
real mad, and ses he, Wife, you talk like a fool.' But Lor!
she'll bring him to! I knows well enough how that'll be-it's
allers best to stand missis's side the fence, now I tell yer."
Black Sam, upon this, scratched his woolly pate, which, if it
did not contain very profound wisdom, still contained a great deal
of a particular species much in demand among politicians of all
complexions and countries, and vulgarly denominated "knowing
which side the bread is buttered;" so, stopping with grave consi-
deration, he again gave a hitch to his pantaloons, which was his
regularly organised method of assisting his mental perplexities.
Der an't no sayin'-never-'bout no kind o' thing in dis yer
world," he said at last.
Sam spoke like a philosopher, emphasizing thi-as if he had
hada large experience in different sorts of worlds, and therefore
had come to his conclusions advisedly.


__ __ __ ____


36








12GhO LIFE IN AMERICA. 37

"' Now, martin I'd a said that missis would a scoured the varsal
world after Lizy," added Sam thoughtfully.
So she would," said Andy ; but can't ye see through a lad-
der, ye black nigger? Missis don't want dis yer Mas'r Haley to
get Lizy's boy; dat's de go I"
"High I" said Sam, with an indescribable intonation, known
only to those who have heard it among the negroes.
"And I'll tell yer more'n all," said Andy; "I specs you'd
better be making tracks for dem horses-mighty sudden, too;
for I hearn missis 'quirin arter yer-so you've stood foolin' long
enough."
Sam, upon this, began to bestir himself in real earnest, and
after a while appeared, bearing down gloriously towards the house
with Bill and Jerry in a full canter; and adroitly throwing himself
off before they had any idea of stopping, he brought them up
alongside of the horse-post like a tornado. Haley's horse, which
was a skittish young colt, winced, and bounced, and pulled hard
at his halter.
Ho, ho !" said Sam, skeery, ar ye ?" and his black visage
lighted up with a curious, mischievous gleam. I'll fix ye now !"
said he.
There was a large beech-tree overshadowing the place, and the
small, sharp, triangular beech-nuts lay scattered thickly on the
ground. With one of these in his fingers, Sam approached the
colt, stroked and patted, and seemed apparently busy in soothing
his agitation. On pretence of adjusting the saddle, he adroitly
slipped under it the sharp little nut, in such a manner that the
least weight brought upon the saddle would annoy the nervous
sensibilities of the animal, without leaving any perceptible graze
or wound.
Dar !" he said, rolling his eye with an approving grin; me
fix 'em!"
At this moment Mrs. Shelby appeared on the balcony, beckoning
to him. Sam approached with as good a determination to pay
court as did ever suitor after a vacant place at St. James's or
Washington.
"Why have you been loitering so, Sam? I sent Andy to tell
you to hurry." *
"Lord bless you, Missis !" said Sam, horses won't be cotched
all in a minnit; they'd done clar'd out way down to the south pas-
ture, and the Lord knows whar."
Sam, how often must I tell you not to say Lord bless you,' and
'the Lord knows,' and such things? It's wicked."
0 Lord bless my soul! I done forgot, Missis. I won't say
nothing vf de sort no "
"Why, Sam, you e said it again."
"Did I ? 0 Lord I mean-I did not go for to say it."
"You must be careful, Sam."


--








UNCLE TOM8' CABIN; OR,


"Just let me get my breath, missis, and I'll start fair. I'll be
berry careful."
Well, Sam, you are to go with Mr. Haley, to show him the
rad, and help him. Be careful of the horses, Sam; you know
Jerry was a little lame last week; don't ride them too fast."
Mrs. Shelby spoke the last words with a low voice, and strong
emphasis.
Let dis child alone for dat," said Sam, rolling up his eye with
a volume of meaning. "Lord knows! High! Didn't say dat !"
said he, suddenly catching his breath, with a ludicrous flourish of
apprehension, which made his mistress laugh, spite of herself.
"Yes, Missis, I'll look out for de horses."
"Now, Andy," said Sam, returning to his stand under the
beech-trees, "you see I wouldn't be 'tall surprised if dat ar gen'l-
man's crittur should gib a fling, by and by, when he comes to be
a getting' up. You know, Andy, critters will do such things,"
and therewith Sam poked Andy in the side, in a highly sug-
gestive manner.
"High !" said Andy, with an air of instant appreciation.
"Yes, you see, Andy, Missis wants to make time-dat ar's clar
to der most or'nery 'server. I jis make a little for her. Now,
you see, get all dese here losses loose, caperin' permiscus round
dis yer lot and down to de wood dar, and I spec mas'r won't be off
in a hurry."
Andy grinned.
Yer see," said Sam, yer see, Andy, if any such thing should
happen as that Mas'r Haley's horse should begin to act contrary,
and cut up, you and I ist let's go off our'n to help him, and we'll
help him-oh, yes !" And Sam and Andy laid their heads back
on their shoulders, and broke into a low, immoderate laugh, snap-
ping their fingers and flourishing their heels with exquisite de-
light.
At this instant Haley appeared on the verandah. Somewhat
mollified by certain cups of very good coffee, he came out -smiling
and talking, in tolerably restored humour. Sam and Andy, claw-
ing for certain fragmentary palm-leaves, which they were in the
habit of considering as hats, flew to the horse-posts, to be ready to
"help mas'r."
Sam's palm-leaf had been ingeniously disentangled from all pre-
tensions to braid, as respects its brim; and the slivers starting
apart, and standing upright, gave it a blazing air of freedom and
defiance, quite equal to that of any Fejee chief; while the whole
brim of Andy's being departed bodily, he rapped the crown on his
head with a dexterous thump, and looked about well pleased, as if
to say, "Who says I haben't got a hat ?"
Well, boys," said Haley, look alive now; we must lose no
time."
"Not a bit of him, mas'r!" said Sam, putting Haley's rein in


U __


39




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NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA. 89

his hand, and holding his stirrup, while Andy was untying the
other two horses.
The instant Haley touched the saddle, the mettlesome ereatt"e
bounded from the earth with a sudden spring, that threw his
master sprawling, some feet off, on the soft, dry turf. Sam, with
frantic ejaculations, made a dive at the reins, but only succeeded
in brushing the blazing palm-leaf aforenamed into the horses'
eyes, which by no means tended to allay the confusion of his
nerves. So with great vehemence, he overturned Sam, and,
giving two or three contemptuous snorts, flourished his heels vigo-
rously in the air, and was soon prancing away towards the lower
end of the lawn, followed by Bill and Jerry, whom Andy had not
failed to let loose, according to contract, speeding them off with
various direful ejaculations. And now ensued a miscellaneous
scene of confusion. Sam and Andy ran and shouted--dogs barked
here and there-and Mike, Mose, Mandy, Fanny, and all the
smaller specimens on the place, both male and female, raced,
clapped hands, whooped and shouted, with outrageous officiousness
and untiring zeal.
Haley's horse, which was a white one, and very fleet and spirited,
appeared to enter into the spirit of the scene with great gusto; and
having for his coursing ground alawn of nearly half a mile in extent,
gently sloping down on every side into indefinite woodland, he aps
feared to take infinite delight in seeing how near he could allow
his pursuers to approach him, and then, when within a hand's
breadth, whisk off with a start and a snort, like, a mischievous
beast as he was, and career far down into some alley of the wood&
lot. Nothing was further from Sam's mind than to have any one
of the troop taken until such. season as should seem to him most
befitting, and the exertions that he made were certainly most
heroic. Like the sword of Coeur de Lion, which always blazed in
the front and thickest of the battle, Sam's palmleaf was to be seen
everywhere when there was the least danger that a horse could be
caught;--there he would bear down full tilt, shouting, "Now for
it! cotch him! cotch him !" in a way that would set everything to
indiscriminate rout in a moment.
Haley ran up and down, and cursed and swore and stamped
miscellaneously. Mr. Shelby in vain tried to shout directions
from the balcony, and Mrs. Shelby, from her chamber window,
alternately laughed and wondered-not without some inkling of
what lay at the bottom of all this confusion.
At last, about twelve o'clock, Sam appeared triumphant,
mounted on Jerry, with Haley's horse by his side, reeking with
sweat, but with ihing eyes and dilated nostrils, showing that
the spirit of freedom. ad not yet entirely subsided.
"He's cotchedI" he exclaimed triumphantly. "If't hadn't
been for me, they might a bust theirselves, all on 'em; but I
cotched him !"








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; Ol,


"You !" growled Haley, in no amiable mood. "ft it hadn't
been for you, this never would have happened."
Lord bless us, mas'r," said Sam, in a tone of the deepest
concern, and me that has been racin' and chasing' till the swet
jest pours off me!"
"Well, well !" said Haley, you've lost me near three hours,
with your cursed nonsense. Now let's be off, and have no more
fooling."
Why, mas'r," said Sam in a deprecating tone, "I believe you
mean to kill us all clar, horses and all. Here we are all just ready
to drop down, and the critters all in a reek of sweat. Why, mas'r
won't think of starting' on now till arter dinner. Mas'r's hoss
wants rubben down; see how he splashed hisself; and Jerry
limps too; don't think missis would be willing' to have us start
dis yer way, no how. Lord bless you, mas'r, we can ketch up,
if we do stop. Lizy never was no great of a walker."
Mrs. Shelby, who, greatly to her amusement, had overheard
this conversation from the verandah, now resolved to do her part.
She came forward, and, courteously expressing her concern for
Haley's accident, pressed him to stay to dinner, saying that the
cook should bring it on the table immediately.
Thus, all things considered, Haley, with rather an equivocal
grace, proceeded to the parlour, while Sam, rolling his eyes after
him with unutterable meaning, proceeded gravely with the horses
to the stable-yard.
"Did yer see him, Andy ? did yer see him ?" said Sam, when
he had got fairly beyond the shelter of the barn, and fastened
the horse to a post. "0 iOr, if it wasn't as good as a meeting ,
now, to see him a dancin' and kicking' and swarin' at us. Didn't
I hear him? Swar away, ole fellow, says I to myself; will yer
have yer hoss now, or wait till you cotch him? says I. Lor,
Andy, I think I can see him now." And Sam and Andy leaned
up against the barn, and laughed to their hearts' content.
"Yer oughter seen how mad he looked, when I brought the
hoes up. Lord, he'd a killed me, if he durs' to; and there I was
a standing' as innercent and as humble."
"Lor, I seed you," said Andy ; "an't you an old hoss, Sam ?"
"Rather specks I am," said Sam; did yer see missis up stars
at the winder ? I seed her laughing. "
." I'm sure, I was racin' so, I didn't see nothing," said Andy.
Well, yer see," said Sam, proceeding gravely to wash down
Haley's pony, I'se 'quired what yer may call a habit o' bobser-
wation, Andy. It's a very 'portant habit, Andy; and I 'commend
yer to be cultivatin' it, now yer young. Hist up that hind foot,
Andy. Yer see, Andy, it's observation nakes all de difference
in niggers. Didn't I see which way the wind blew dis yer
morning ? Didn't I see what missis wanted, though she never let
on? Dat ar's observation, Indy. I aspectss it's what you may


*


40







EEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


call a faculty. Faculties is different in different peoples, but
cultivation of 'em goes a great way."
I guess if I hadn't helped your observation dis morning yer
wouldn't have seen your way so smart," said Andy.
,Andy," said Sam, you's a promising' child, der an't no man-
ner o' doubt. I thinks lots of yer, Andy; and I don't feel no
ways ashamed to take ideas from you. We oughtenter overlook
nobody, Andy, cause the smartest on us gets tripped up sometimes.
And so, Andy, let's go up to the house now. I'll be boun' missis '11
give us an uncommon good bite dis yer time."



CHAPTER VII.
THE MOTHER'S STRUGGLE.
IT is impossible to conceive of a human creature more wholly
desolate and forlorn than Eliza, when she turned her footsteps
from Uncle Tom's cabin.
Her husband's suffering and dangers, and the danger of her
child, all blended in her mind with a confused and stunning
sense of the risk she was running, in leaving the only home she
had ever known, and cutting loose from the protection of a friend
whom she loved and revered. Then there was the parting from
every familiar object-the place where she had grown up, the trees
under which she had played, the groves where she had walked
many an evening in happier days, by the side of her young hus-
band-everything, as it lay in the clear, frosty starlight, seemed
to speak reproachfully to her, and ask her whither she could go
from a home like that ?
But stronger than all was maternal love, wrought into a pa-
roxysm of frenzy by the near approach of a fearful danger. Her
boy was old enough to have walked by her side, and, in an indif-
ferent case, she would only have led him by the hand; but now
the bare thought of putting hini out of her arms made her shudder,
and she strained him to her bosom with a convulsive grasp, as she
went rapidly forward.
The frosty ground creaked beneath her feet, and she trembled
at the sound; every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the
blood backward to her heart, and quickened her footsteps. She
wondered within herself at the strength that seemed to be come
upon her; for she felt the weight of her boy as if it had been a
feather, and every flutter of fear seemed to increase the super-
natural power that bore her on, while from her pale lips burst
forth, in frequent ejaculations, the prayer to a Friend above-
SLord help! Lord save me I"


41







UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; O0,


If it were your Harry, mother, or your Willie, that were going
to be torn from you by a brutal trader, to-morrow morning-if
you had seen the man, and heard that the papers were signed and
delivered, and you had only from twelve o'clock till morning to
make good your escape-how fast could you walk ? How many
miles could you make in those few brief hours, with the darling
.at your bosom, the little sleepy head on your shoulder, the small,
soft arms trustingly holding on to your neck ?
For the child slept. At first, the novelty and alarm kept him
waking, but his mother so hurriedly repressed every breath or
sound, and so assured him that if he were only still she would
certainly save him, that he clung quietly round her neck, only
asking as he found himself sinking to slee--
"Mother, I don't need to keep awake, do I?"
"No, my darling; sleep if you want to."
"But mother, if I do get asleep, you won't let him get me?"
"NoI so may God help me !" said his mother, with a paler
cheek, and a brighter light in her large dark eyes.
"You're sure, an't you, mother ?"
"Yes, sure!" said the mother, in a voice that startled herself;
for it seemed to her to come from a spirit within, that was no part
of her; and the boy dropped his little weary head on her shoulder,
and was soon asleep. How the touch of those warm arms, the
gentle breathing that came in her neck, seemed to add fire and
spirit to her movements! It seemed to her as if strength poured
into her in electric streams, from every gentle touch and move-
ment of the sleeping, confiding child. Sublime is the dominion
of the mind over the body, that, for a time, can make flesh and
nerve impregnable, and sting the sinews like steel, so that the
weak become so mighty.
The boundaries of the farm, the grove, the wood-lot, passed by
her dizzily as she walked on; and still she went, leaving one fa-
miliar object after another, slacking not, pausing not, till redden-
ing daylight found her many a long mile from all traces of any
familiar objects upon the open highway.
She had often been, with her mistress, to visit some connexions
in the little village of T-, not far from the Ohio river, and
knew the road well. To go thither, to escape across the Ohio
river, were the first hurried outlines of her plan of escape; beyond
that, she could only hope in God.
'When horses and vehicles began to move along the highway,
with that alert perception peculiar to a state of excitement, and
which seems to be a sort of inspiration, she became aware that her
headlong pace and distracted air might bring on her remark and
suspicion. She therefore put the boy on the ground, and, adjust-
ing her dress and bonnet, she walked on at as rapid a pace as she
thought consistent with the preservation of appearances. In her
little bundle she had provided~ store of cakes and apples, which
-J


_ ___


42







NEGRO LIFR IN AMERICA.


she used as expedients for quickening the speed of the child, roll-
ing the apple some yards before them, when the boy would run
with all his might after it; and this ruse, often repeated, carried
them over many a half-mile.
After a while, they came to a thick patch of woodland, through
which murmured a clear brook. As the child complained of
hunger and thirst, she climbed over the fence with him; and, sit-
ting down behind a large rock which concealed them from the
road, she gave him a breakfast out of her little package. The boy
wondered and grieved that she could not eat; and when, putting
his arms round her neck, he tried to wedge some of his cake into
her mouth, it seemed to her that the rising in her throat would
choke her.
"No, no, Harry darling! mother can't eat till you are safe!
We must go on-on-till we come to the river !" And she hurried
again into the road, and again constrained herself to walk regu-
larly and composedly forward.
She was many miles past any neighbourhood where she was
personally known. If she should chance to meet any who knew
her, she reflected that the well-known kindness of the family
would be of itself a blind to suspicion, as making it an unlikely
supposition that she could be a fugitive. As she was also so white
as not to be known as of coloured lineage without a critical survey,
and her child was white also, it was much easier for her to pass on
unsuspected.
On this presumption, she stopped at noon at a neat farm-house,
to rest herself, and buy some dinner for her child and self; for, as
the danger decreased with the distance, the supernatural tension
of the nervous system lessened, and she found herself both weary
and hungry.
The good woman, kindly and gossipping, seemed rather pleased
than otherwise with having somebody come in to talk with; and
accepted without examination Eliza's statement, that she "was
going on a little piece, to spend a week with her friends"-all
which she hoped in her heart might prove strictly true.
An hour before sunset, she entered the village of T- by
the Ohio river, weary and foot-sore, but still strong in heart. Her
first glance was at the river, which lay, like Jordan, between her
and the Canaan of liberty on the other side.
It was now early spring, and the river was swollen and turbu-
lent: great cakes of floating ice were swinging heavily to and fro
in the turbid waters. Owing to the peculiar form of the shore on
the Kentucky side, the land bending far out into the water, the
ice had been lodged and detained in great quantities, and the
narrow channel which swept round the bend was full of ice, piled
one cake over another, thus forming a temporary barrier to the
descending ice, which lodged, and formed a great undulating raft,
filling up the river, and extending almost to the Kentucky shore.


_ __ __


43








UNCLE TOM'8 CABIN, OR,


Eliza stood for a moment, contemplating this unfavourable
aspect of things, which she saw at once must prevent the usual
ferry-boat from running, and then turned into a small public house
on the bank, to make a few inquiries.
The hostess, who was busy in various fizzing and stewing ope-
rations over the fire, preparatory to the evening meal, stopped,
with a fork in her hand, as Eliza's sweet and plaintive voice ar-
rested her.
"What is it?" she said.
"Isn't there a ferry or boat, that takes people over to B---y,
now?" she said.
"No, indeed!" said the woman, "the boats has stopped run-
ning."
Eliza's look of dismay and disappointment struck the woman,
and she said inquiringly-
"Maybe you're wanting to get over?-anybody sick? Ye
seem mighty anxious ?"
I've got a child that's very dangerous," said Eliza. "I never
heard of it till last night, and I've walked quite a piece to-day, in
hopes to get to the ferry."
"Well, now, that's onlucky," said the woman, whose motherly
sympathies were much aroused; "I'm really consarned for ye.
Solomon !" she called, from the window, towards a small back
building. A man in leather apron and very dirty hands ap-
peared at the door.
I say, Sol," said the woman, "is that ar man going to tote
them barls over to-night ?"
He said he should try, if 't was any way prudent," said the
man.
There's a man a piece down here, that's going over with some
truck this evening, if he durs' to; hell be in here to supper to-
night, so you'd better sit down and wait. That's a sweet little
fellow," added the woman, offering him a cake.
But the child, wholly exhausted, cried with weariness.
Poor fellow I he isn't used to walking, and I've hurried him
on so," said Eliza.
Well, take him into this room," said the woman, opening into
a small bed-room, where stood a comfortable bed. Eliza laid the
weary boy upon it, and held his hands in hers till he was fast
asleep. For her there was no rest. As a fire in her bones, the
thought of the pursuer urged her on; and she gazed with longing
eyes on the sullen, surging waters that lay between her and
liberty.
Here we must take our leave of her for the present, to follow
the course of her pursuers.

Though Mrs. Shelby had promised that the dinner should be
Hurried on table, yet it was soon seen, as the thing had often been


S


__


44







NEGRO LIFI IN AMERICA.


seen before, that it required more than one to make a bargain.
So, although the order was fairly given out in Haley's hearing,
and carried to Aunt Chloe by at least half a dozen juvenile mes-
sengers, that dignitary only gave certain very gruff snorts, and
tosses of her head, and went on with every operation in an un-
usually leisurely and circumstantial manner.
For some singular reason, an impression seemed to reign among
the servants generally that missis would not be particularly dis-
obliged by delay; and it was wonderful what a number of counter
accidents occurred constantly, to retard the course of things. One
luckless wight contrived to upset the gravy; and then gravy had
to be got up de novo, with due care and formality, Aunt Chloe
watching and stirring with dogged precision, answering shortly, to
all suggestions of haste, that she wasn't a going to have raw
gravy on the table, to help nobody's cotchings." One tumbled
down with the water, and had to go to the spring for more; and
another precipitated the butter into the path of events: and there
was, from time to time, giggling news brought into the kitchen
that Mas'r Haley was mighty oneasy, and that he couldn't sit in a
his cheer no ways, but was a walking' and stalking' to the winders
and through the porch."
Sarves him right !" said Aunt Chloe indignantly. "Hell
get wus nor oneasy one of these days, if he don't mend his ways.
His masterll be sending for him, and then see how hell look!"
Hell go to torment, and no mistake," said little Jake.
"He deserves it !" said Aunt Chloe grimly; "he's broke a
many, many, many hearts. I tellye all!" she said, stopping, with
a fork uplifted in her hands, "it's like what Mas'r George reads
in Ravelations--souls a calling' under the altar! and a calling' on
the Lord for vengeance on sich! And by and by the Lord hell
hear 'em---so he will !"
Aunt Chloe, who was much revered in the kitchen, was listened
to with open mouth; and, the dinner being now fairly sent in, the
whole kitchen was at leisure to gossip with her, and to listen to
her remarks.
Sich '11 be burnt up for ever, and no mistake; won't their "
said Andy.
"I'd be glad to see it, Ill be boun'," said little Jake.
hil'en I" said a voice, that made them all start. It was Uncle
Tom, who had come in, and stood listening to the conversation at
the door.
"C hil'en !" he said, "I'm afeard you don't know what ye're
sayin'. Forever is a dreful word, chil'en; it's awful to think on't.
You oughtenter wish that ar to any human critter."
"We wouldn't to anybody'but the soul-drivers," said Andy;
"nobody can help wishing it to them, they's so awful wicked."
"Don't nature herself kinder cry out on 'em ?" said Aunt Chloe.
"Don't dey tear der suckin' baby right off his mother's breast, and








UNCLE TOM'8 CABIN; OR,


sell him? And der little children as is crying and holding on by
her clothes, don't dey pull 'em off and sells em? Don't dey
tear wife and husband apart ?" said Aunt Chloe, beginning to cry,
" when it's jest takin' the very life on 'em?-and all the while
does they feel one bit-don't dey drink and smoke, and take it
oncommon easy ? Lor, if the Devil don't get them, what's he good
for ?" And Aunt Chloe covered her face with her checked apron,
and began to sob in good earnest.
"Pray for them that 'spitefully use you, the good book says,"
says Tom.
Pray for 'em !" said Aunt Chloe; "Lor, it's too tough! I can't
pray for 'em."
"It's natur, Chloe, and natur's strong," said Tom, but the
Lord's grace is stronger; besides, you oughter think what an
awful state a poor crittur's soul's in that'll do them ar things-
you oughter thank God that you an't like him, Chloe. I'm sure
I'd rather be sold, ten thousand times over, than to have all that
ar poor crittur's got to answer for."
So'd I, a heap," said Jake. Lor, shouldn't we cotch it,
Andy ?"
Andy shrugged his shoulders, and gave an acquiescent whistle.
I'm glad mas'r didn't go off this morning, as he looked to,"
said Tom; that ar hurt me more than selling it did. Mebbe it
might have been natural for him, but 't would have come desp't
hard on me, as has known him from a baby; but I've seen mas'r,
and I begin ter feel sort o' reconciled to the Lord's will now.
Mas'r couldn't help himself; he did right, but I'm feared things
will be kinder going' to rack when I'm gone. Mas'r can't be
spected to be a pryin' round everywhar, as I've done, a keeping' up
all the ends. The boys all means well, but they's powerful car'-
less That ar troubles me."
The bell here rang, and Tom was summoned to the parlour.
Tom," said his master kindly, "I want you to notice that I
give this gentleman bonds to forfeit a thousand dollars if you are
not on the spot when he wants you; he's going to-day to look after
his other business, and you can have the day to yourself. Go
anywhere you like, boy."
Thank you, mas'r," said Tom.
"And mind yerself," said the trader, "and don't come it
over your master, with any e' yer nigger tricks; for I'll take
Severe cent out of him, if you an't thar. If he'd hear to me, he
wouldn't trust any on ye-slippery, as eels!"
Mas'r," said Tom-and he stood very straight-" I was jist
eight years old when xle missis put you into my arms, and you
wasn't a year old. 'Thar,' says she, Tom, that's to be your
young mas'r; take good care on him,' says she. An now I jist
ask you, mas'r, have I ever broke word to you, or gone con-
ttary to you, 'specially since I was a Christian ?'


*p


__


46







NEGRO LIFE IN AMEBICA. 47

Mr. Shelby was fairly overcome, and the tears rose to his eyes.
My good boy," said he, "the Lord knows you say but the
truth; and if I was able to help it, all the world shouldn't buy you."
And sure as I am a Christian woman," said Mrs. Shelby,
"you shall be redeemed as soon as I can any way bring together
means. Sir," she said to Haley, "take good account of who you
sell him to, and let me know."
Lor, yes, for that matter," said the trader, I may bring him
up in a year, not much the wuss for wear, and trade him back."
I'll trade with you, then, and make it for your advantage," said
Mrs. Shelby.
Of course," said the trader, "all's equal with me; lives
trade 'em up as down, so I does a good business. All I want is a
livin', you know, ma'am; that's all any on us want's, I s'pose."
Mr. and Mrs. Shelby both felt annoyed and degraded by the
familiar impudence of the trader, and yet both saw the absolute
necessity of putting a constraint on their feelings. The more
hopelessly sordid and insensible he appeared, the greater became
Mrs. Shelby's dread of his succeeding in recapturing Eliza and
her child, and of course the greater her motive for detaining him
by every female artifice. She, therefore, graciously smiled, as-
sented, chatted familiarly, and did all she could to make time pass
imperceptibly.
At two o'clock Sam and Andy brought the horses up to the
posts, apparently greatly refreshed and invigorated by the scamper
of the morning.
Sam was there new oiled from dinner, with an abundance of
zealous and ready officiousness. As Haley approached, he was
boasting, in flourishing style, to Andy, of the evident and eminent
success of the operation, now that he had "fa'rly come to it."
Your master, I s'pose, don't keep no dogs," said Haley
thoughtfully, as he prepared to mount.
Heaps on 'em 1" said Sam triumphantly. "Thar's Bruno-
he's a roarer! and besides that, 'bout every nigger of us keeps a
pup of some natur or uther."
Poh!" said Haley-and he said something else, too, with
regard to the said dogs, at which Sam muttered-
"I don't see no use cussin' on 'em no way."
"But your master don't keep no dogs (I pretty much know he
don't) for tracking out niggers."
Sam knew exactly what he meant, but he kept on a look of
earnest and desperate simplicity.
Our dogs all smells round considerable sharp. I spect they's
the kind, though they han't never had so practice. They's far
dogs, though, at most anything, if you'd get 'em started. Here,
Bruno," he called, whistling to the lumbering Newfoundland,
who came pitching tumultuously toward them.
"You go hang!" said Haley. "Come, tumble up now."
N








UNOLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


Sam tumbled up accordingly, dexterously contriving to tickle
Andy as he did so, which occasioned Andy to split Out into a
laugh, greatly to Haley's indignation, who made a cut at him
with his riding-whip.
"I's astonished at yer, Andy,' said Sam, with awful gravity.
"This yer's a series bisness, Andy. Yer mustn't be a making'
game. This yer can't no way to help mas'r."
"I shall take the straight road to the river," said Haley
decidedly, after they had come to the boundaries of the estate.
" I know the way of all of 'em-they make tracks for the under-
ground."
"Sartin," said Sam, "dat's de idee. Mas'r Haley hits de
thing right in de middle Now, der's two roads to de river-de
dirt road and der pike-which mas'r mean to take ?"
Andy looked up innocently at Sam, surprised at hearing this
new geographical fact, but instantly confirmed what he said, by a
vehement reiteration.
"Cause," said Sam, '" I'd rather be 'clined to imaginee that
Lizy'd take de dirt road, bein' it's the least travelled."
Haley, notwithstanding that he was a very old bird, and natu-
rally inclined to be suspicious of chaff, was rather brought up by
this view of the case.
It yer wasn't both on yer such cussed liars, now !" he said
contemplatively, as he pondered a moment.
The pensive, reflective tone in which this was spoken appeared
to amuse Andy prodigiously, and he drew a little behind, and
shook so as apparently to run a great risk of falling off his
horse, while Sam's face was immovably composed into the most
doleful gravity.
"Course," said Sam, 'mas'r can do as he'd rather; go de
straight road, if mas'r thinks best-it's all one to us. Now, when
I study 'pon it, I think de straight road de best deridedly."
She would naturally go a lonesome way," said Haley, think-
ing aloud, and not minding Sam's remark.
Dar an't no sayin'," said Sam; gals is pecular. They
never does nothing' ye thinks they will; mose gen'lly the contrary.
Gals is nat'lly made contrary; and so, if you thinks they've gone
one road, it is sartin you'd better go t'other, and then you'll be
sure to find 'em. Now, my private 'pinion is, Lizy took der dirt
road; so I think we'd better take de straight one."
This profound generic view of the female sex did not seem to
dispose Haley particularly to the straight road; and he announced
decidedly that kM TnId go the other, and asked Sam when they
should come to
"A little piece -head," said Sam, giving a wink to Andy with
the eye which was on Andys side of the head; and he added,
gravely, "but I've stuad4d on de matter, and I am quite clar we
ought not to go dat ar way. I nebber been over it no way. It's


_


48







NEGRO LIFE IN AMBRTCA.


despite lonesome, and we might lose our way-whar we'd come to
de Lord only knows."
"Nevertheless," said Haley, "I shall go that way."
"Now I think on't, I think I hear 'em tell that dat ar road
was all fenced up and down by der creek, and thar, an't it, Andy ?"
Andy wasn't certain, he'd only earnn tell" about that road,
but never been over it. In short, he was strictly non-committal.
Haley, accustomed to strike the balance of probabilities between
lies of greater or less magnitude, thought that it lay in favour of
the dirt road aforesaid. The mention of the thing he thought
he perceived was involuntary on Sam's part at first; and his con-
fused attempts to dissuade him he set down to a desperate lying,
on second thoughts, as being unwilling to implicate Eliza.
When, therefore, Sam indicated the road, Haley plunged briskly
into it, followed by Sam and Andy.
Now, the road, in fact, was an old one, that had formerly been
a thoroughfare to the river, but abandoned for many years after
the laying of the new pike. It was open for about an hour's ride,
and after that it was cut across by various farms and fences. Sam
knew this fact perfectly well; indeed, the road had been so long
closed up, that Andy had never heard of it. He therefore rode
along with an air of dutiful submission, only groaning and voci-
ferating occasionally that 'twas "desp't rough, and bad for
Jerry's foot?"
"' Now, I jest give yer warning," said Haley, I know yek;
yer won't get me to turn off this yer road, with all yer fussin'--so
you shet up !"
"Mas'r will go his own way !" said Sam, with rueful sub-
mission, at the same time winking most portentously to Andy,
whose delight was now very near the explosive point.
Sam was in wonderful spirits; professed to keep a very brisk
look-out-at one time exclaiming that he saw "a gal's bonnet" on
the top of some distant eminence, or calling to Andy if that
thar wasn't Lizy, down in the hollow"-always making these
exclamations in some rough or craggy part of the road, where the
sudden quickening of speed was a special inconvenience to all
parties concerned, and thus keeping Haley in a state of constant
commotion.
After riding about an hour in this way, the whole party
precipitate and tumultuous descent into a barn-yard b
a large farming establishment. Not a soul was in i
hands being employed in the fields; but, toe -
spicuously and plainly square across the rodent that
their journey in that direction had reached a Jded finale.
Wan't dat ar what I tolled mas'r ?" said Sam, with an air of
injured innocence. "How does strange gentlemen aspect to know
more about de country dan de natives born and raised ?"
"You rascal said Haley, you knew all about this."
4 E


49







50 UoLnB TOx'S CABIN; oR,
Didn't I tell yer I knowed, and yer wouldn't believe me? I
telled mas'r 't was all shet up, and fenced uji, and I didn't
spect we could get through-Andy heard me."
It was all too true to be disputed, and the unlucky man had to
pocket his wrath with the best grace he was able, and all three
faced to the right about, and took up their line of march for the
highway.
In consequence of all the various delays, it was about three-
quarters of an hour after Eliza had laid her child to sleep in the
village tavern that the party came riding into the same place. Eliza
was standing by the window, looking out in another direction,
when Sam's quick eye caught a glimpse of her. Haley and Andy
were two yards behind. At this crisis Sam contrived to have his
hat blown off, and uttered a loud and characteristic ejaculation,
which startled her at once; she drew suddenly back; the whole
train swept by the window, round to the front door.
A thousand lives seemed to be concentrated in that one moment
to Eliza. Her room opened by a side door to the river. She
caught her child, and sprang down the steps towards it. The
trader caught a full glimpse of her, just as she was disappearing
down the bank; and throwing himself from his horse, and calling
loudly on Sam and Andy, he was after her like a hound after a
deer. In that dizzy moment her feet to her seemed scarce to
to touch the ground, and a moment brought her to the water's
edge. Right on behind they came; and, nerved with strength
such as God gives only to the desperate, with one wild cry and
flying leap she vaulted sheer over the turbid current by the
shore, on to the raft of ice beyond. It was a desperate leap-im-
possible to anything but madness and despair; and Haley, Sam,
and Andy instinctively cried out, and lifted up their hands, as
she did it.
The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched
and creaked as her weight came on it, but she stayed there not a
moment. With wild cries and desperate energy she leaped to
another and still another cake-stumbling-leaping-skipping-
springing upwards again! Her shoes are gone-her stockings
cut from her feet-while blood marked every step; but she saw
nothing, felt nothing, till dimly, as in a dream, she saw the Ohio
aide, and a man helping her up the bank.
Yer a brave gal, now, whoever ye ar !" said the man, with an
oath.
Eliza recognized the voice and face of a man who owned a farm
not far from her old home.
0 Mr. Symmes!-save me-do save me-do hide me!" said
Eliza.
Why, what's this ?" said the man. "Why, if 'tan't Shelby's
gal ?"
"My child !-this boy-he'd sold him! There is his mas'r,"








LIZZY'S BRIDGE.-THE ARTICLE EXHIBITS THE DOMINION OF.
MATERNAL LOVE.


Right on behind they came; and, nerved with strength such as God -' e
desperate, with one wild cry and flying leap, she vaulted heer over the id
the shore on to the raft of ice beyond. It was a desperate leap-impowiblto
but madness and despair."

















































































































*








NEGO LIFE IN AMERICA. 51

said she, pointing to the Kentucky shore. "0 Mr. Symmes,
you've got a little boy."
So I have," said the man, as he roughly but kindly drew
her up the steep bank. Besides, you're a right brave gal. I
like grit wherever I see it."
When they had gained the top of the bank, the man paused.
"I'd be glad to do something for ye," said he, "but then
there's nowhar I could take ye. The best I can do is to tell ye
to go thar," said he, pointing to a large white house which stood
by itself, off the main street of the village. Go thar; they're
kind folks. Thar's no kind o' danger but they'll help you-
they're up to all that sort o' thing."
"The Lord bless you !" said Eliza earnestly.
"No 'casion, no 'casion in the world," said the man. "What
I've done's of no 'count."
"And, oh, surely, sir, you won't tell any one '
Go to thunder, gal! What do you take a feller for? In
course not," said the man. Come, now, go along like a likely,
sensible gal, as you are. You've arnt your liberty, and you shall
have it, for all me."
The woman folded her child to her bosom, and walked firmly
and swiftly away. The man stood and looked after her.
Shelby, now, mebbe won't think this yer the most neigh-
bourly thing in the world ; but what's a feller to do; if he catches
one of my gals in the same fix, he's welcome to pay back. Some-
how, I never could see no kind o' critter a strivin' and pantin',
and trying to clar theirselves, with the dogs arter 'em, and go
agin 'em. Besides, I don't see no kind of 'casion for me to be
hunter and catcher for other folks, neither."
So spoke this poor, heathenish Kentuckian, who had not been
instructed in his constitutional relations, and consequently was
betrayed into acting in a sort of Christianised manner, which, if
he had been better situated and more enlightened, he would not
have been left to do.
Haley had stood a perfectly amazed spectator of the scene, till
Eliza had disappeared up the bank, when he turned a blank, in-
quiring look on Sam and Andy.
"That ar was a tol'able fair stroke of business," said Sam.
"The gal's got seven devils in her, I believe," said Haley.
"How like a wildcat she jumped !"
Wal, now," said Sam, scratching his head, I hope mas'r 1'
'scuse us trying' dat ar road. Don't think I feel spry enough for
dat ar, no way !" and Sam gave a hoarse chuckle.
"You laugh!" said the trader, with a growl.
"Lord bless you, mas'r, I couldn't help it now," said Sam,
giving way to the long pent-up delight of his soul. She looked
so curis a leapin' and springin'-ice a crackin'-and only to hear
her-plump! Iker chunk! ker splashI Spring I Lord I how she
------__ ___----------- -- j








UNOLE TOM'S OABTN; OR,


goes it I" and Sam and Andy laughed till the tears, rolled down
their cheeks.
I'll make yer laugh t'other side yer mouths I" said the trader,
laying about their heads with his riding-whip.
Both ducked, and ran shouting up the bank, and were on their
horses before he was up.
Good evening, mas'r I" said Sam, with much gravity. I
berry much spect missis be anxious 'bout Jerry. Mas'r Haley
won't want us no longer. Missis wouldn't hear of our ridin'
the critters over Lizy's bridge to-night;" and, with a facetious poke
into Andy's ribs, he started off, followed by the latter, at full
speed-their shouts of laughter coming faintly on the wind.




CHAPTER VIII.
ELIZA'S ESCAPE.
ELIZA made her desperate retreat across the river just in the
dusk of twilight. The grey mist of evening, rising slowly from
the river, enveloped her as she disappeared up the bank, and the
swollen current and floundering masses of ice presented a hope-
less barrier between her and her pursuer. Haley therefore slowly
and discontentedly returned to the little tavern, to ponder further
what was to be done. The woman opened to him the door of a
little parlour, covered with a rag carpet, where stood a table with
a very shining black oil-cloth, sundry lank, high-backed wood
chairs, with some plaster images in resplendent colours on the
mantel shelf, above a very dimly-smoking grate; a long hard-wood
settle extended its uneasy length by the chimney, and here Haley
sat him down to meditate on the instability of human hopes and
happiness in general.
What did I want with the little cuss, now," he said to him-
self that I should have got myself treed like a coon, as I am,
this yer way ?" and Haley relieved himself by repeating over a
not very select litany of imprecations on himself, which, though
there was the best possible reason to consider them as true, we
shall, as a matter of taste, omit.
He was startled by the loud and dissonant voice of a man
who was apparently dismounting at the door. He hurried to the
window.
By the Lord if this yer an't the nearest, now, to what I've
heard folks call Providence," said Haley. "I do believe that ar's
Tom Loker."
Haley hastened out. Standing by the bar, in the corner of the
room, was a brawny, muscular man, full six feet in height, and


52








TOM LOCKER, MARKS


AND HALEY, HUNTSMEN TO THI
SLAVE-OWNER.



^^ -^P^


E GREAT


Aunt Chloe.--" Don't dey tear der suckin' baby right off his mother's breat, and sell
him ? Don't dey tear wife and husband apart ? And all the while does dey feel one bit-
don't dey drink and smoke, and take it oncommon easy ? If the devil don't get 'em, what's
he good for ."













































































)


































i,







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


broad in proportion. He was dressed in a coat of buffalo-skin,
made with the hair outward, which gave him a shaggy and fierce
appearance, perfectly in keeping with the whole air of his physi-
ognomy. In the head and face every organ and lineament ex-
pressive of brutal and unhesitating violence was in a state of the
highest possible development. Indeed, could our readers fancy a
bull-dog come unto man's estate, and walking about in a hat and
coat, they would have no unapt idea of the general style and effect
of his physique. He was accompanied by a travelling companion,
in many respects an exact contrast to himself. He was short and
slender, lithe and cat-like in his motions, and had a peering,
mousing expression about his keen black eyes, with which every
feature of his face seemed sharpened into sympathy; his thin,
long nose, ran out as if it was eager to bore into the nature of
things in general; his thin, sleek, black hair, was stuck eagerly
forward, and all his motions and evolutions expressed a dry,
cautious acuteness. The great big man poured out a big tumbler
half full of raw spirits, and gulped it down without a word. The
little man stood tip-toe, and putting his head first to one side and
then to the other, and snuffing considerately in the direction of
the various bottles, ordered at last a mint julep, in a thin and
quivering voice, and with an air of great circumspection. When
poured out, he took it and looked at it with a sharp, complaisant
air, like a man who thinks he has done about the right thing, and
hit the nail on the head, and proceeded to dispose of it in short
and well-advised sips.
"Wal, now, who'd a thought this yer luck 'ad come to me?
Why Loker, how are ye ?" said Haley, coming forward and ex-
tending his hand to the big man.
The devil 1" was the civil reply. "What brought you here,
Haley ?"
The mousing man, who bore the name of Marks, instantly
stopped his sipping, and, poking his head forward, looked shrewdly
on our new acquaintance, as a cat sometimes looks at a moving dry
leaf, or some other possible object of pursuit.
I say, Tom, this yer's the luckiest thing in the world. I'm in
a devil of a hobble, and you must help me out."
Ugh aw I like enough t" grunted his complacent acquaint-
ance. A body may be pretty sure of that, when you're glad to
see 'em; something to be made off of 'em. What's the blow now '
You've got a friend here ?" said Haley, looking doubtfully at
Marks, "partner, perhaps ?"
Yes, I have. Here, Marks! here's that ar feller that I was
in with in Natchez."
Shall be pleased with his acquaintance," said Marks, thrusting
out a long thin hand, like a raven's claw. Mr. Haley, I believe ?"
The same, sir," said Haley. "And now, gentlemen, seeing'
as we've npt so happily, I think I'll stand up to a small matter


__


53








UNCLE TOMl'8 CABIN; OR,


of a treat in this here parlour. So, now, old coon," said he to
the man at the bar, get us hot water, and sugar, and cigars, and
plenty of the real stuff, and we'll have a blow-out."
Behold, then, the candles lighted, the fire stimulated to the
burning-point in the grate, and our three worthies seated round a
table, well spread with all the accessories to good fellowship
enumerated before.
Haley began a pathetic recital of his peculiar troubles. Loker
shut up his mouth, and listened to him with gruff and surly
attention. Marks, who was anxiously and with much fidgetting
compounding a tumbler of punch to his own peculiar taste, occa-
sionally looked up from his employment, and, poking his sharp
nose and chin almost into Haley's face, gave the most earnest
heed to the whole narrative. The conclusion of it appeared to
amuse him extremely, for he shook his shoulders and sides in
silence, and perked up his thin lips with an air of great internal
enjoyment.
So, then, ye'r fairly sewed up, aren't ye ?" he said, "he I he I
he It's neatly done, too."
"This yer young-un business makes lots of trouble in the
trade," said Haley dolefully.
If we could get a breed of gals that didn't care, now, for
their young 'uns," said Marks, "tell ye, I think 't would be
'bout the greatest modern improvement I knows on"-and Marks
patronised his joke by a quiet introductory sniggle.
Jes so," said Haley; "' I never couldn't see into it. Young
uns is heaps of trouble to 'em-one would think, now, they'd be
glad to get clar on 'em; but they aren't. And the more trouble
a young un is, and the more good for nothing, as a genr'l thing,
the tighter they sticks to 'em."
"Wal, Mr. Haley," said Marks, "jest pass the hot water. Yes,
sir; you say jest what I feel and all'us have. Now, bought a
gal once, when I was in the trade-a tight, likely wench she was,
too, and quite considerable smart-and she had a young un that
was mis'able sickly; it had a crooked back or something or other,
and I jest gi't away to a man that thought he'd take his chance
raisin on't, being it didn't cost nothin'-never thought, yer know,
of the gal's takin' on about it-but, Lord, yer oughter see how
she went on! Why, really, she did seem to me to valley the
child more 'cause 'twas sickly and cross, and plagued her; and
she wam't making believe, neither-cried about it, she did, and
lopped round, as if she'd lost every friend she had. It really was
droll to think on't. Lord, there an't no end to women's notions."
Wal, jest so with me," said Haley. Last summer, down
on Red River, I got a gal traded off on me, with a likely-lookin'
child enough, and his eyes looked as bright as your; but, come
to look, I found him stone blind. Fact he was stone blind.
Wal, ye see, I thought there war't no harm in my jest passing


54














































































































































































t6

*4
*











THE SOUL-DRIVER EXPERIENCES A MERCANTILE DRAWBACK,


Marks.--" If we could get a breed of gals that did'ut care, now, for their young uns, I tell
ye, I think t'would be 'bout the greatest m6d'rn improvement I knows on."


1







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


him along, and not sayin' nothing ; and I'd got him nicely
swapped off for a keg of whiskey; but come to get him away from
the gal, she was jest like a tiger. So 'twas before we started,
and I hadn't got my gang chained up, so what should she do but
ups on a cotton-bale, like a cat, ketches a knife from one of the
deck hands, and, I tell ye, she made all fly for a minit, till she
saw 'twa'nt no use; and she jest turns round and pitches head
first, young un and all, into the river-went down plump, and
never ris."
Bah," said Tom Loker, who had listened to these stories with
ill-repressed disgust. Shifless, both on ye! My gals don't cut
up no such shines, I tell ye !"
Indeed I how do you help it?" said Marks briskly.
Help it? why, I buys a gal, and if she's got a young un to
be sold, I jest walks up and puts my fist to her face, and says,
Look here, now; if you give me one word out of your head, I'll
smash your face in. I won't hear one word-not the beginning
of a word.' I says to 'em, 'This yer young un's mine, and not
your, and youv'e no kind 'o business with it. I'm going to sell
it, first chance; mind you don't cut up none 'o yer shines about
it, or Ill make ye wish ye'd never been born.' I tell ye, they sees
it an't no play, when I gets hold. I makes 'em as whist as
fishes; and if one of 'em begins and gives a yelp, why-" and
Mr. Loker brought down his fist with a thump that fully explained
the hiatus.
That ar's what ye may call emphasis," said Marks, poking
Haley in the side, and going into another small giggle. An't
Tom peculiar? he I he I he I say, Tom, I s'pect you make 'ea
understand, for all niggers' heads is woolly. They don't never
have no doubt o' your meaning, Tom. If you an't the devil,
Tom, you's his twin brother, I'll say that for ye."
Tom received the compliment with becoming modesty, and
began to look as affable as was consistent, as John Bunyan aaJ,
with his doggish nature."
Haley, who had been imbibing very freely of the staple of the
evening, began to feel a sensible elevation and enlargement of his
moral faculties-a phenomenon not unusual with gentlemen of a
serious and reflective turn, under similar circumstances.
Wal, now, Tom," he said, ye reily is too bad, as I always
have told you. Ye know, Tom, you and I used to talk over these
yer matters down in Natchez, and I used to prove to ye that we
made full as much, and was as well off for this yer world, by
treating' on 'em well, besides keeping' a better chance for comin' in
the kingdom at last, when wust comes to wust, and tha can't
nothing else left to get, ye know."
Boh!" said Tom, don't I know?-don't make me too sick
with any yer stuff-my stomach is a leetle riled now;" and Tom
drank half a glass of raw brandy.


55







UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


I say," said Haley, leaning back in his chair and gesturing
impressively, "I'll say this, now; I always meant- to drive my
trade so as to make money on't, fust and foremost, as much as
any man; but, then, trade an't everything, and money an't every-
thing, 'cause we's all got souls. I don' care, now, who hears me
say it-and I think a cussed sight on it, so I may as well come
out with it. I believe in religion, and one of these days, when I've
got matters tight and snug, I calculate to 'tend to my soul and
them ar matters: and so what's the use of doin' any more wicked-
ness than's reily necessary ?-it don't seem to me it's 't all
prudent."
Tend to yer soul!" repeated Tom contemptuously; take a
bright look-out to find a soul in you-save yourself any care on
that score. If the Devil sifts you through a hair sieve, he won't
find one."
Why, Tom, you're cross," said Haley; why can't ye take it
pleasant, now, when a feller's talking for your good ?"
Stop that ar jaw o' your there," said Tom gruffly. "I can
stand most any talk o' your but your pious talk-that kills me
right up. After all, what's the odds between me and you?
'Tant that you care one bit more, or have a bit more feelin'-it's
clean, sheer, dog meanness, wanting to cheat the Devil and save
your own skin; don't I see through it? And your gettingn reli-
gion,' as you call it, arter all, is too p'isin mean for any critter ;
run up a bill with the Devil all your life, and then sneak out when
pay-time comes! Boh!"
"Come, come, gentlemen, I say! this isn't business," said
Marks. "There's different ways, you know, of looking at all sub-
jects. Mr. Haley is a very nice man, no doubt, and has his own
conscience; and, Tom, you have your ways, and very good ones,
too, Tom; but quarrelling, you know, won't answer no kind of
purpose. Let's go to business. Now, Mr. Haley, what is it?
you want us to undertake to catch this yer gal ?"
"The gal's no matter of mine-she's Shelby's; it's only the
boy. I was a fool for buying the monkey !"
"You're generally a fool !" said Tom gruffly.
"Come, now, Loker, none of your huffs," said Marks, licking his
lips; you see Mr. Haley's a putting' us in a way of a good job, I
reckon; just hold still-these yer arrangements is my forte. This
yer gal, Mr. Haley, how is she ? what is she ?"
"Wal! white and handsome-well brought up. I'd a gin
Shelby eight hundred or a thousand, and then made well on her."
"White and handsome-well brought up !" said Marks, his
sharp eyes, nose and mouth, all alive with enterprise. Look here,
now, Loker, a beautiful opening. We'll do a business here on our
own account; we does the catching ; the boy, of course, goes to Mr.
Haley-we takes the gal to Orleans to speculate on. An't it
beautiful ?"


_ _____


_~


66







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERIOA.


Tom, whose great heavy mouth had stood ajar during this com-
munication, now suddenly snapped it together, as a big dog closes
on a piece of meat, and seemed to be digesting the idea at his
leisure.
Ye see," said Marks to Haley, stirring his punch as he did so,
"ye see, we has justices convenient at all points along shore, that
does up any little jobs in our line quite reasonable. Tom, he does
the knocking' down and that ar; and I come in all dressed up-
shining boots-everything first chop, when the swearing's to be
done. You oughter see, now," said Marks, in a glow of professional
pride, "how I can tone it off. One day, I'm Mr. Twickem, from
New Orleans; anotherr day, I'm just come from my plantation on
Pearl river, where I works seven hundred niggers; then, again, I
come out a distant relation of Henry Clay, or some old cock in
Kentuck. Talents is different, you know. Now, Tom's a roarer
when there's any thumping or fighting to be done; but at lying he
an't good, Tom an't-ye see it don't come natural to him; but
Lord, if thar's a feller in the country that can swear to anything
and everything, and put in all the circumstances and flourishes
with a longer face, and carryt through better'n I can, why, I'd
like to see him, that's all! I believe, my heart, I could get along
and snake through, even if justices were more particular than they
is. Sometimes I rather wish they was more particular; wouldd
be a heap more relishin' if they was-more fun, yer know.'
Tom Loker, who, as we have made it appear, was a man of
slow thoughts and movements, here interrupted Marks by bring-
ing his heavy fist down on the table, so as to make all ring again.
"It'/ do!" he said.
Lord bless ye, Tom, ye needn't break all the glasses !" said
Marks; "save your fist for time o' need."
But, gentlemen, can't I to come in for a share of the profits ?'
said Haley.
An't it enough we catch the boy for ye ?' said Loker. What
do ye want?"
Wal," said Haley, if I gives you the job, it's worth some-
thing-say ten per cent. on the profits, expenses paid."
Now," said Loker, with a tremendous oath, and striking the
table with his heavy fist, don't I know you, Dan Haley? Don't
you think to come it over me! Suppose Marks and I have taken
up the catching' trade, jest to 'commodate gentlemen like you, and
get nothing' for ourselves? Not by a long chalk! we'll have the
gal out and out, and you keep quiet, or, ye see, we'll have both-
what's to hinder ? Han't you show'd us the game ? It's as free
to us as you, I hope. If you or Shelby wants to chase us, look
where the partridges was last year; if you find them or us, you're
quite welcome."
Oh, wal, certainly, jest let it go at that," said Haley alarmed;
you catch the boy for the job; you allers did trade far with me,
Tom, and was up to yer word."


67







UNGLU TOM'S CABIN; OR,


Ye know that," said Tom; I don't pretend none of your sni.
veiling ways, but I won't lie in my 'counts with the'Devil himself.
What I ses I'll do, I will do; you know that, Dan Haley."
"Jes so, jes so, I said so, Tom," said Haley; "and if you'd
only promise to have the boy for me in a week, at any point you'll
name, that's all I want."
But it an't all I want, by a long jump," said Tom. "Ye don't
think I did business with you, down in Natchez, for nothing,
Haley; I've learned to hold an eel when I catch him. You've
got to fork over fifty dollars, flat down, or this child don't start a
peg. I know yer."
"Why, when you have a job in hand that may bring a clean
profit of somewhere about a thousand or sixteen hundred ? Why,
Tom, you're onreasonable," said Haley.
Yes, and hasn't we business booked for five weeks to come-
all we can do ? And suppose we leaves all, and goes to bush.
whacking round carter yer young un, and finally doesn't catch the
gal--and gals allers is the devil to catch-what's then? would
you pay us a cent-would you ? I think I see you a doing' it-ugh !
No, no; flap down your fifty. If we get the job, and it pays, Ill
hand it back; if we don't, it's for our trouble-that'sfar, an't it,
Marks?"
certainly, certainly," said Marks, with a conciliatory tone.
"It's only a retaining fee, you see-he! he! he !-we lawyers,
you know. Wal, we must all keep good-natured-keep easy, yer
know. Tom'll have the boy for yer anywhere ye'll name; won't
ye, Tom?"
If I find the young un, I'll bring him on to Cincinnati, and
leave him at Granny Belcher's, on the landing," said Loker.
Marks had got from his pocket a greasy pocket-book, and taking
a long paper from thence, he sat down, and fixing his keen black
eyes on it, began mumbling over its contents: Barnes, Shelby
County-boy Jim, three hundred dollars for him, dead or alive.
Edwards-Dick and Lucy-man and wife, six hundred dollars;
wench Pollyand two children-sixhundred for her or her head.-
I'm jist a running' over our business, to see if we can take up this
yer handily. Loker," he said, after a pause, we must set Adams
and Springer on the track of these yer; they've been booked
some time."
"They'll charge too much," said Tom.
ll manage that ar; they's young in the business, and must
aspect to work cheap." said Marks, as he continued to read.
"Ther's three on 'em easy cases, 'cause all you've got to do is to
shoot 'em, or swear they is shot; they couldn't, of course, charge
much for that. Them other cases," he said, folding the paper,
"will bear putting' off a spell. So tow let's come to the parti-
culars. Now, Mr. Haley, you saw this yer gal when she landed ?"
"To be sure-plain as I see you."







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


And a man helping' on her up the bank said Loker.
"To be sure I did."
"Most likely," said Marks, "she's took in somewhere; but
where's a question. Tom, what do you say?"
"We must cross the river to-night, no mistake," said Tom.
"But their's no boat about," said Marks. "The ice is running
awfully, Tom; an't it dangerous ?"
Don'no nothing 'bout that, only it's got to be done," said Tom
decidedly.
Dear me," said Marks, fidgeting, "it'll be-I say," he said,
walking to the window, it's dark as a wolfs mouth, and, Tom-"
"The long and short is, you're scared, Marks; but I can't help
that, you've got to go. Suppose you want to lie by a day or two,
till the gal's been carried on the underground line up to Sandusky
or so, before you-"
"Oh, no; I an't a grain afraid," said Marks, "only-"
"Only what T" said Tom.
SWell, about the boat. Yer see other an't any boat."
"I heard the woman say there was one coming along this
evening, and that a man was going to cross over in it. Neck or
nothing, we must go with him," said Tom.
"I s'pose you've got good dogs," said&Haley.
"First rate," said Marks. "But what's the use? you hadn't got
nothing o' hers to smell on."
Yes, I have," said Haley triumphantly. "Here's her shawl
she left on the bed in her hurry; she left her bonnet, too."
"That ar's lucky," said Loker, "fork over."
"Though the dogs might damage the gal, if they come on her
unawares," said Haley.
That ar's a consideration," said Marks. Our dogs tore a
feller half to pieces, once, down in Mobile, 'fore we could get 'em
off."
Well, ye see, for this sort that's to be sold for their looks, that
ar won't answer, ye see," said Haley.
I do see," said Marks. Besides, if she's got took in, 'tan't
no go, neither. Dogs is no 'count in these yer up states where
these critters gets carried; of course, ye can't get on their track.
They only does down in plantations, where niggers, when they
runs, has to do their own running, and don't get no help."
Well," said Loker, who had just stepped out to the bar to
make some inquiries, they say the man's come with the boat;
so, Marks-"
That worthy cast a rueful look at the comfortable quarters he
was leaving, but slowly rose to obey. After exchanging a few
words of further arrangement, Haley, with visible reluctance,
handed over the fifty dollars to Tom, and the worthy trio sepa-
rated for the night.
If any of our refined and Christian readers object to the society


~-1111







UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


into which this scene introduces them, let us beg them to begin
and conquer their prejudices in time. The catching business, we
beg to remind them, is rising to the dignity of a lawful and patri-
otic profession. If all the broad land between the Mississippi and
the Paciffc becomes one great market for bodies and souls, and
human property retains the locomotive tendencies of this nine-
teenth century, the trader and catcher may yet be among our
aristocracy.

While this scene was going on at the tavern, Sam and Andy, in
a state of high felicitation, pursued their way home.
Sam was in the highest possible feather, and expressed his
exultation by all sorts of supernatural howls and ejaculations, by
divers odd motions and contortions of his whole system. Some-
times he would sit backward, with his face to the horse's tail and
sides, and then, with a whoop and a somerset, come right-side up
in his place again, and, drawing on a grave face, begin to lecture
Andy in high-sounding tones for laughing and playing the fool.
Anon, slapping his sides with his arms, he would burst forth in peals
of laughter, that made the old woods ring as they passed. With
all these evolutions, he contrived to keep the horses up to the top
of their speed, until, between ten and eleven, their heels resounded
on the gravel at the end of the balcony. Mrs. Shelby flew to
the railings.
Is that you, Sam ? Where are they ?"
Mas'r Haley's a-restin' at the tavern; he's drefful fatigued,
missis."
"And Eliza, Sam?"
"Wal, she's clar 'cross Jordan-as a body may say, in the
land o' Canaan."
Why, Sam, what do you mean !" said Mrs. Shelby, breathless,
and almost faint, as the possible meaning of these words came
over her.
"Wal, missis, de Lord he preserves his own. Lizy's done
gone over the river into 'Hio, as 'markably as if de Lord took her
over in a charrit of fire and two losses."
Sam's vein of piety was always uncommonly fervent in his
mistress's presence, and he made great capital of scriptural figures
and images.
Come up here, Sam," said Mr. Shelby, who had followed on
to the verandah, and tell your mistress what she wants. Come,
come, Emily," said he, passing his arm round her, you are cold,
and all in a shiver; you allow yourself to feel too much."
Feel too much! Am I not a woman-a mother? Are we
not both responsible to God for this poor girl? My God lay not
this sin to our charge!"
What sin, Emily ? You see yourself that we have only done
what we were obliged to."


__ _


60







NEGRO LIFE IN AMBRICA.


There's an awful feeling of guilt about it, though," said Mrs.
Shelby. "I can't reason it away."
Here, Andy, you nigger, be alive!" called Sam, under the
verandah; "take these yer losses to der barn; don't ye hear
mas'r a calling' ?" and Sam soon appeared, palm-leaf in head, at
the parlour door.
"Now, Sam, tell us distinctly how the matter was," said Mr.
Shelby. "Where is Eliza, if you know?"
Wal, mas'r, I saw her, with my own eyes, a crossing' on the
floatin' ice. She crossed most 'markably; it wasn't no less nor a
miracle; and I saw a man help her up the 'Hio side, and then she
was lost in the dusk."
Sam, I think this rather apocryphal-this miracle. Crossing
on floating ice isn't so easily done," said Mr. Shelby.
"Easy! couldn't nobody a done it, widout de Lord. Why,
now," said Sam, "'twas jist dis yer way. Mas'r Haley, and me,
and Andy, we comes up to the little tavern by the river, and I
rides a leetle ahead (l's so zealous to be cotchin' Lizy, that I
couldn't hold in, no way); and when I comes to the tavern
winder, sure enough there she was, right in plain sight, and dey
diggin' on behind. Wal, I loses off my hat, and sings out'nuff to
raise the dead. Course Lizy she hars, and she dodges back,
when Mas'r Haley he goes past the door; and then, I tell ye,
she dared out de side door; she went down de river bank; Mas'r
Haley he seed her, and yelled out, and him, and me, and Andy,
we took arter. Down she come to the river, and thar was the
current running ten feet wide by the shore, and over t'other side
ice a sawing and a jiggling up and down, kinder as 'twere a great
island. We come right behind her, and I thought my soul he'd
got her sure enough-when she gin sich a screech as I never
hearn, and thar she was, clar over t'other side the current, on the
ice, and then on she went, a screeching and a jumping-the ice
went crack! c'wallop! cracking! chunk! and she a boundin' like
a buck! Lord, the spring that ar' gal's got in her an't common,
I'm o' 'pinion."
Mrs. Shelby sat perfectly silent, pale with excitement, while
Sam told his story.
God be praised, she is'nt dead But where is the poor child,
now ?"
"De Lord will perwide," said Sam, rolling up his eyes
piously. As I've been a sayin', dis yer's a providence and no
mistake, as missis has allers been a instruction' on us. Thar's
allers instruments ris' up to do de Lord's will. Now, if 't hadn't
been for me to-day, she'd a been took a dozen times. Warn't it
I started off de losses, dis yer morning and kept 'em chasing' till
nigh dinner time? And didn't I car' Mas'r Haley nigh five
miles out de road, dis evening? or else he'd a come up with Lizy
as easy as a dog arter a coon. These year's all providences"


__


61








UNOLE TOM'8 CABIN; OR,


They are a kind of providence that you'll have to be pretty
sparing of, Master Sam. I allow no such practices with gentle-
men on my place," said Mr. Shelby, with as much sternness as
he could command, under the circumstances.
Now, there is no more use in making believe to be angry with
a negro than with a child; both instinctively see the true state of
the case, through all attempts to affect the contrary; and Sam
was in no wise disheartened by this rebuke, though he assumed an
air of doleful gravity, and stood with the covers of his mouth
lowered in most penitential style.
"Mas'r's quite right-quite; it was ugly on me-there's no
disputing that ar'; and, of course, mas'r and missis wouldn't en-
courage no such works. I'm sensible of dat ar'; but a poor
nigger like me's 'mazin' tempted to act ugly sometimes, when
fellers will cut up such shines as dat' ar' Mas'r Haley; he an't no
gen'l'man no way; anybody's been raised as I've been can't help a
seeing' dat ar'."
Well, Sam," said Mrs. Shelby, as you appear to have a
proper sense of your errors, you may go now and tell Aunt Chloe
she may get you some of that cold ham that was left of dinner
to day. You and Andy must be hungry."
"Missis is a heap too good for us," said Sam, making his bow
with alacrity, and departing.
It will be perceived, as has been before intimated, that Master
Sam had a native talent that might, undoubtedly, have raised
him to eminence in political life-a talent of making capital out
of everything that turned up, to be invested for his own especial
praise and glory; and having done up his piety and humility, as
he trusted, to the satisfaction of the parlour, he clapped his palm-
leaf on his head, with a sort of rakish, free-and-easy air, and pro-
ceeded to the dominions of Aunt Chloe, with the intention of
flourishing largely in the kitchen.
I'll speechify these yer niggers," said Sam to himself, now
I've got a chance. Lord, I'll reel it off to make 'em stare !"
It must be observed that one of Sam's especial delights had
been to ride in attendance on his master to all kinds of political
gatherings, where, roosted on some rail fence, or perched aloft
in some tree, he would sit watching the orators, with the greatest
apparent gusto, and then, descending among the various brethren
of his own colour, assembled on the same errand, he would edify
and delight them with the most ludicrous burlesques and imita-
tions, all delivered with the most imperturbable earnestness and
solemnity; and though the auditors immediately about him were
generally of his own colour, it not unfrequently happened that they
were fringed pretty deeply with those of a fairer complexion, who
listened, laughing and winking, to Sam's great self-congratulation.
In fact, Sam considered oratory as his vocation, and never let slip
an opportunity of magnifying his office.


62







NEGRO LIFE IN AMuBIOA.


Now, between Sam and Aunt Chloe there had existed, from
ancient times, a sort of chronic feud, or rather a decided coolness;
but, as Sam was meditating something in the provision depart-
ment, as the necessary and obvious foundation of his operations,
he determined, on the present occasion, to be eminently concilia-
tory; for he well knew that although missis' orders" would un-
doubtedly be followed to the letter, yet he should gain a consider-
able deal by enlisting the spirit also. He therefore appeared
before Aunt Chloe with a touchingly subdued, resigned expres-
sion, like one who has suffered immeasurable hardships in behalf
of a persecuted fellow-creature-enlarged upon the fact that
missis had directed him to come to Aunt Chloe for whatever
might be wanting to make up the balance in his solids and fluids
-and thus unequivocally acknowledged her right and supremacy
in the cooking-department, and all thereto pertaining.
The thing took accordingly. No poor, simple, virtuous body
was ever cajoled by the attentions of an electioneering politician
with more ease than Aunt Chloe was won over by Master Sam's
suavities; and if he had been the prodigal son himself, he could
not have been overwhelmed with more maternal bountifulness;
and he soon found himself seated, happy and glorious, over a
large tin pan, containing a sort of olla podrida of all that had
appeared on the table for two or three days past. Savoury morsels
of ham, golden blocks of corn-cake, fragments of pie of every
conceivable mathematical figure, chickens' wings, gizzards and
drumsticks, all appeared in picturesque confusion; and Sam, as
monarch of all he surveyed, sat with his palm-leaf cocked re-
joicingly to one side, and patronising Andy at his right hand.
The kitchen was full of his compeers, who had hurried and
crowded in, from the various cabins, to hear the termination of
the day's exploits. Now was Sam's hour of glory. The story of
the day was rehearsed, with all kinds of ornament and varnishing
which might be necessary to heighten its effect; for Sam, like
some of our fashionable dilettanti, never allowed a story to lose
any of its gilding by passing through his hands. Roars of
laughter attended the narration, and were taken up and prolonged
by all the small fry, who were lying, in any quantity, about on the
floor, or perched in every corer. In the height of the uproar and
laughter, Sam, however, preserved an immovable gravity, only,
from time to time, rolling up his eyes, and giving his auditors
divers inexpressibly droll glances, without departing from the sen-
tentious elevation of his oratory.
"Yer see, fellow-countrymen," said Sam, elevating a turkey's
leg with energy, "yer see, now, what dis yer chile's up ter, for
fendin' yer all-yes, all on yer. For him as tries to get one o'
our people is as good as trying to get all; yer see the principle's
de same-dat ar's clar. And any one o' these yer drivers that
comes smelling round arter any o' our people, why, he's got me


_ _


63





64 UNOLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,

in his way; Im the feller he's got to set in with-I'm the feller
for ye all to come to, bredren-l'll stand up for ydr rights-I'll
'fend 'em to the last breath!"
Why, but Sam, yer telled me, only this morning that you'd
help this yer mas'r to cotch Lizy; seems to me yer talk don't
hang together," said Andy.
"I tell you now, Andy," said Sam, with awful superiority,
" don't yer be a talking' 'bout what yer don't know nothing' on;
boys like you, Andy, means well, but they can't be spected to col-
lusitate the great principles of action."
Andy looked rebuked, particularly by the hard word collusitate,
which most of the youngerly members of the company seemed to
consider as a settler in the case, while Sam proceeded.
Dat ar' was conscience, Andy; when I thought of gwine arter
Lizy, I raily spected mas'r was sot dat way. When I found
missis was sot the contra', dat ar' was conscience more yet-'cause
fellers allers gets more by stickin' to missis' side ; so you see I's
persistent either way, and sticks up to conscience, and holds on
to principles. Yes, principles," said Sam, giving an enthusiastic
toss to a chicken's neck-" what's principles good for, if we isn't
persistent, I water know? Thar, Andy, you may have dat ar'
bone, 'tant picked quite clean."
Sam's audience hanging on his words with open mouth, ha
could not but proceed.
Dis yer matter 'bout 'persistence, feller niggers," said Sam,
with the air of one entering into an abstruse subject, dis yer
'sisteucy's a thing what an't seed into very clar, by most anybody.
Now, yer see, when a feller stands up for a thing one day and
night, de contrary' de next, folks ses (and naturally enough dey ses),
why, he an't persistent-hand me dat ar' bit o' corn-cake, Andy.
But let's look inter it. I hope the gen'lemen and der fair sex
will scuse my usin' an' or'nary sort o' prisono. Here! I'm a
trying' to get top o' der hay. Wal, I puts up my larder dis yer
side; 'tan't no go; den, course I don't try dere no more, but'puts
my larder right de contrary' side, an't I persistent? I'm persis-
tent in wanting to get up which ary side my larder is; don't yer
see, all on yer ?"
It's the only thing ye ever was persistent in, Lord knows!"
muttered Aunt Chloe, who was getting rather restive; the merri-
ment of the evening being to her somewhat after the Scripture
comparison-like vinegar upon nitre."
"Yes, indeed!" said Sam, rising, full of supper and glory, for
a closing effort. Yes, my feller-citizens and ladies of de other
sex in general, I has principles-I'm proud to 'oon 'em-they's
perquisite to dese yer times, and ter all times. I has principles,
and I sticks to 'em like forty-jest anything that I thinks is prin-
ciple, I goes in to't; I wouldn't mind if dey burn me alive, I'd
walk right up to de stake, I would, and say, Here I comes to bl:ed







NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA. 65

my last blood fur my principles, fur my country, fur genl interests
of society."
Well," said Aunt Chloe, "one o' yer principles will have to
be to get to bed some time to-night, and not to be a keeping every-
body up till morning ; now, every one of you young uns that don't
want to be cracked, had better be scase, mighty sudden."
Niggers! all on yer," said Sam, waving his palm-leaf with
benignity, "I give yer my blessing ; go to bed now, and be good
boys !"
And with this pathetic benediction, the assembly dispersed.




CHAPTER IX.
IN WHICH TT APPEARS THAT A 8 NATOR 18 BUT A MAN.
THz light of the cheerful fire shone on the rug and carpet of a
cosy parlour, and glittered on the sides of the tea-cps and well-
brightened tea-pot, as Senator Bird was drawing off his boots,
preparatory to inserting his feet in a pair of new handsome dip
pers, which his wife had been working for him while away on hi
senatorial tour. Mrs. Bird, looking the very picture of delight,
was superintending the arrangements of the table, ever and rano
mingling admonitory remarks to a number of frolicsome juveniles,
who were effervescing in all those modes of untold gambol and
mischief that have astonished mothers ever since the Flood.
"Tom, let the door-knob alone-there's a man Mary! MaryI
don't pull the cat's tail-poor pussy Jim, you man't elimb on
that table-no, no !-You don't knte, my dear, what a surprise it
is to us all, to see you here to-nigr said she, at last, wheau im
found a space to say something to her husband.
"Yes, yes, I thought I'd just make a run down, spend the
night, and have a little comfort at home. I'm tired to death, and
my head aches!"
Mrs. Bird cast a glance at a camphor-bottle, which stood in the
half-open closet, and appeared to meditate an approach to it, but
her husband interposed.
No, no, Mary, no doctoring! a cup of your good hot tea, and
some of our good home living, is what I want. It's a tiresome
business, this legislating !"
And the senator smiled, as if he rather liked the idea of consi-
dering himself a sacrifice to his country.
Well," said his wife, after the business of the tea-table was
getting rather slack, "and what have they been doing in the
*Senate ?"
Now, it was a very unusual thing for gentle little Mrs. Bird
k5. I








UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,


I


ever to trouble her head with what was going on in the house of
the State, very wisely considering that she had enough to do to
mind her own. Mr. Bird therefore opened his eyes in surprise,
and said-
"Not very much of importance."
"Well; but is it true that they have been passing a law for-
bidding people to give meat and drink to those poor coloured folks
that come along? I heard they were talking of some such law,
but I didn't think any Christian legislature would pass it!"
"Why, Mary you are getting to be a politician, all at once."
"No, nonsense! I wouldn't give a fip for all your politics,
generally, but I think this is something downright cruel and un-
Christian. I hope, my dear, no such law has been passed."
There has been a law passed forbidding people to help off the
slaves that come over from Kentucky, my dear; so much of that
thinghas been doneby these reckless Abolitionists, that our brethren
in Kentucky are very strongly excited, and it seems necessary,
and no more than Christian and kind, that something should be
done by our State to quiet the excitement."
And what is the law ? It don't forbid us to shelter these
poor creatures a night, does it? and to give 'em something com-
fortable to eat, and a few old clothes, and send them quietly about
their business ?"
"Why, yes, my dear; that would be aiding and abetting, you
know."
Mrs. Bird was a timid, blushing little woman, of about four
feet in height, and with- mild blue eyes, and a peach-blow com-
plexion, and the gentlest, sweetest voice in the world-as for
courage, a modente-sized cock-turkey had been known to put her
to rout at the very first gobble, and a stout house-dog of moderate
capacity would bring her into subjection merely by a show of his
teeth. Her husband and children were her entire world, and in
these she ruled more by intreaty and persuasion than by command
or argument. There was only one thing that was capable of
arousmg her, and that provocation came in on the side of her
unusually gentle and sympathetic nature; anything in the shape
of cruelty would throw her into a passion, which was the more
alaming and inexplicable in proportion to the general softness of
her nature. Generally the most indulgent and easy to be in-
treated of all mothers, still her boys had a very reverent remem-
brance of a most vehement chastisement she once. bestowed on
them, because she found them league with several graceless boys
of the neighbourhood, stoning a defenceless kitten.
I'1 tell you what," Master Bill used to say, "I was scared
that time. Mother came at me so that I thought she was crazy,
and I was whipped and tumbled off to bed, without any supper,
before I could get over wondering what had come about; and,
after that, I heard mother crying outside the door, which made


66








NEGRO LIFE IN AMERICA.


me feel worse than all the rest. I'll tell you what," he'd saw
"we boys never stoned another kitten !"
On the present occasion, Mrs. Bird rose quickly, with very red
cheeks, which quite improved her general appearance, and walked
up to her husband, with quite a resolute air, and said, in a deter-
mined tone-
Now, John, I want to know if you think such a law as that is
right and Christian ?"
"You won't shoot me, now, Mary, if I say I do"'
"I never could have thought it of you, John! You didn't vote
for it ?'
Even so, my fair politician."
You ought to be ashamed, John! Poor, harmless, houseless
creatures! It's a shameful, wicked, abominable law, and I'll
break it, for one, the first time I get a chance; and I hope I shall
have a chance, I do! Things have got to a pretty pass, if a
woman can't give a warm supper and a bed to poor, starving
creatures, just because they are slaves, and have been abused and
oppressed all their lives, poor things !"
But, Mary, just listen to me. Your feelings are all quite
right, dear, and interesting, and I love you for them; but then6
dear, we musn't suffer our feelings to run away with our judgment.
You must consider it's not a matter of private feeling; there are
great public interests involved; there is such a state of public
agitation rising, that we must put aside.our private feelings."
"Now, John, I don't know anything about politics, but I can
read my Bible; and there I see that I must feed the hungry,
clothe the naked, and comfort the desolate; and that Bible I
mean to follow."
But in cases where your doing so would involve a great pub-
lic evil--"
"Obeying God never brings on public evils. I know it can't,
It's always safest, all round, to do as He bids us."
Now, listen to me, Mary, and I can state to you a very clear
argument, to show--"
"Oh, nonsense, John! you can talk all night, but you wouldn't
do it. I put it to you, John, would you, now, turn away a poor,
shivering, hungry creature from your door, because he was a run-
away ? Would you, now ?"
Now, if the truth must be told, our senator had the misfortune
to be a man who had a particularly humane and accessible nature,
and turning away anybody that was in trouble never had been his
forte; and what was worse for him in this particular pinch of the
argument was, that his wife knew it, and, of course, was making
an assault on rather an indefensible point. So he had recourse to
the usual means of gaining time for such cases made and provided;
he said ahem," and coughed several times, took out his-pocket-
handkerchief, and began to wipe his glasses. Mrs. Bird, seeing


67









68 UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; OR,

the defenceless condition of the enemy's territory, had no more
conscience than to push her advantage.
I should like to see you doing that, John-I really should!
Turning a woman out of doors in a snow-storm, for instance, or,
maybe you'd take her up and put her into jail, wouldn't you?
You would make a great hand at that!"
Of course, it would be a very painful duty," began Mr. Bird,
in a moderate tone.
"Duty, John! don't use that word! You know it isn't a duty
-it can't be a duty! If folks want to keep their slaves from
running away, let 'em treat 'em well-that's my doctrine. If I
had slaves (as I hope I never shall have), I'd risk their wanting
to run away from me, or you either, John. I tell you, folks don't
run away when they are happy; and when they do run, poor
creatures! they suffer enough with cold and hunger, and fear,
without everybody's turning against them; and, law or no law, I
never will, so help me God!"
"Mary! Mary, my dear, let me reason with you."
"I hate reasoning, John-especially reasoning on such subjects.
There's a way you political folks have of coming round and round
a plain right thing; and you don't believe in it yourselves, when
it comes to practice. I know you well enough, John. You don't
believe it's right any more than I do; and you wouldn't do it any
sooner than I."
At this critical juncture, old Cudjoe, the black man-of-all-work,
put his head in at the door, and wished Missis would come into
the kitchen," and our senator, tolerably relieved, looked after his
little wife with a whimsical mixture of amusement and vexation,
and seating himself in the arm chair, began to read the papers.
After a moment his wife's voice was heard at the door, in a
quick, earnest tone--" John dohn I do wish you'd come here a
moment."
He laid down his paper and went into the kitchen, and started,
quite amazed, at the sight that presented itself :-A young and
slender woman, with garments torn and frozen, with one shoe
gone, and the stocking torn away from the cut and bleeding foot,
was laid back in a deadly swoon upon two chairs. There was the
impress of the despised race on her face, yet none could help
feeling its mournful and pathetic beauty, while its stony sharp-
ness, its cold, fixed, deadly aspect, struck a solemn chill over him.
He drew his breath short, and stood in silence. His wife, and
their only coloured domestic, old Aunt Dinah, were busily engaged
in restorative measures; while old Cudjoe had got the boy on his
knee, and was busy pulling off his shoes and stockings, and chafing
his little cold feet.
Sure, now, if she ain't a sight to behold !" said old Dinah,
compassionately; "'pears like 'twas the heat that made her faint.
She was tol'able peart when she cum in, and asked if she couldn't


__ __r _~ ___ ___ __~_ ___I~___~____ ____I__ ______








MEZiO LIVE IN AMERICA,.


warm herself here a spell; and I was just a asking' her where she
cum from, and she fainted right down. Never done much hard
work, guess, by the looks of her hands."
"Poor creature," said Mrs. Bird compassionately, as the woman
slowly unclosed her large dark eyes, and looked vacantly at her.
Suddenly an expression of agony crossed her face, and she sprang
up, saying, Oh, my Harry! Have they got him?"
The boy, at this, jumped from Cudjoe's knee, and running to
her side, put up his arms. "Oh, he's here! he's here!" she ex-
claimed.
0 ma'am!" said she wildly to Mrs. Bird, "do protect us!
don't let them get him!"
Nobody shall hurt you here, poor woman," said Mrs. Bird
encouragingly. "You are safe; don't be afraid."
God bless you !" said the woman, covering her face and sob-
bing; while the little boy, seeing her crying, tried to get into her
lap.
With many gentle and womanly offices, which note knew better
how to render than Mrs. Bird, the poor woman was in time ren-
dered more calm. A temporary bed was provided for her on the
settle, near the fire; and, after a short time, she fell into a heavy
slumber with the child, who seemed no less weary, soundly sleep-
ing on her arm; for the mother resisted, with nervous anxiety,
the kindest attempts to take him from her; and even in sleep her
arm encircled him with an unrelaxing clasp, as if she could not
even then be beguiled of her vigilant hold.
Mr. and Mrs. Bird had gone back to the parlour, where, strange
as it may appear, no reference was made on either side to the pre-
ceding conversation ; but Mrs. Bird busied herself with her knit-
ting-work, and Mr. Bird pretended to be reading the paper.
I wonder who and what she is I" said Mr. Bird at last, as he
laid it down.
When she wakes up and feels a little rested, we will see," said
Mrs. Bird.
S I say, wife !" said Mr. Bird, after musing in silence over his
newspaper.
"Well, dear!"
She couldn't wear one of your gowns, could she, by any letting
down, or such matter ? She seems to be rather larger than you
are."
A quite perceptible smile glimmered on Mrs. Bird's face as she
answered, "Well see."
Another pause, and Mr. Bird again broke out-
"I say, wife !"
"Well! What now ?"
"Why, there's that old bombazin cloak that you keep on pur-
pose to put over me when I take my afternoon's nap; you might
as well give her that-she needs clothes."


69




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