• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Advertising
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Mary's childhood
 Her education in France
 The great wedding
 Misfortunes
 Return to Scotland
 Mary and Lord Darnley
 Rizzio
 Bothwell
 The fall of Bothwell
 Loch Leven castle
 The long captivity
 The end
 Advertising






Title: History of Mary Queen of Scots
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003555/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Mary Queen of Scots
Alternate Title: Life of Mary Queen of Scots
Physical Description: 218, <2> p., <1> leaf of plates : port. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879
Allman, Thomas, 1792-1870 ( Publisher )
Sears, William John ( Printer )
Publisher: Thomas Allman
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Sears
Publication Date: 1853
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- Scotland   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1853   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1853   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1853
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Jacob Abbott.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text, also on the endpapers and flyleaves of both front and back covers.
General Note: Steel engraved frontispiece: port. of Mary Queen of Scots.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003555
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002446000
oclc - 46322439
notis - AMF1243
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Mary's childhood
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Her education in France
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The great wedding
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Misfortunes
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Return to Scotland
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Mary and Lord Darnley
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Rizzio
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Bothwell
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    The fall of Bothwell
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Loch Leven castle
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    The long captivity
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    The end
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Advertising
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
Full Text


ABBOTT'S


PUBLISHED BY
THOMAS ALLMAN, 42, HOLBORN HILL.
*.0 Bach Volume of this Series is handsomely printed
in royal 82mo, bound uniform in Crimson Cloth, Gilt
Hdaes, and adorned with a fine Steel Engraving. Price
One Shilling.

ALFRED THE GREAT.
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
QUEEN ELIZABETH.
CHARLES THE FIRST.
CHARLES THE SECOND.
MARIE ANTOINETTE.
CYRUS THE .GREAT.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT.
HANNIBAL THE CARTHAGINIAN.
JULIUS COJESAR.
CLEOPATRA.
JOSEPHINE.
DARIUS, KING OF PERSIA.
XERXES THE GREAT.
MAtDAME ROLAND.
,** These very amusing and instructive Works are
peculiarly adapted either .as presents for young persons,
or as School Reading Books. They abound in useful
and entertaining knowledge.
(Full Allowance to School*.)


S'ma of
Plaridi


-- ----







A CATALOGUE OF CHEAP BOOKS, i


PUBLISHED BY


T. ALLMAN,


Abbott's Works, viz. :--
Corner Stone
Way of Salvation
Hoary Head and the
Valleys below
Young Christian
Way to do Good
Teacher
Fireside Piety
China and the English
Mother at Home
Child at Home
Little Philosopher
Path of Peace
Every-Day Piety
Caleb in Town
Caleb in the Country
MeDonner, or T"' h
through Fiction
School B,y, or a GiArj.
to Youth
Way for a Child to be
Saved
Early Piety
Annals of the Poor, by
Legh Richmond
Anecdotes of the Chinese
JEsop's Fables, 100 plates
A String of Pearls, ry' 82mo
Awful Disclosures ot Maria
Monk
Berquin's Childres s ~dend
Boston Boys


42, HOLBORN HILL.


Blair's Grave, Gray's Elegy,
Porteus on Death, and
Dodd's Prison Thoughts
Bloomfield's Farmer's Boy,
Rural Tales and Wild
Flowers
Book of Family Worship
Bourienne's Life of Napo-
leon Buonaparte, with
Essay by Dr. Channing
Boy's Own Story Book
Bremer's (Miss) Domestic
Life, or the L-- Family
The President's
Daughter
- Strife and Peace,
and the Bondmaid
British Minstrel, a Choice
Collection of Songs
Brown's Concordance
Brougham (Lord), Life of
Buchan's Domestic Med.
Buck's Religious Experi-
ence
Buffon's Natural History
Burn's Youthful Piety
Burke on the French Re-
volution
Byron's Choice Works-
consisting of Corsair,
Bride of Abydos, Lara,
Gia>ur, and Childe Ha-
rold, &c.













I











jI
I I


I





I I





HI


S


TORY


OF


MARY


QUEEN


OF


SCOTS.


BY JACOB


ABBOTTT


AUTHIC)L 0F TIh9
6*1U0UN CUlB'ISTirY4xN," "P KING UHIt,4RL:E;S TIhS
ETO.S TO.


LONDON
THOMAS ALLMAN 42 HOLBORN HILL.
1853.


FE RlF,"













s.Alg e1r'rL. IVY ? ANqFI ST, P'%VL 9.






CONTENTS.


Cl; A TTER
1. Mary's Childhood .
II. Her Education in France
III. The Great Wedding .
IV. Misfortunes .
V. Return to Scotland
VI. Mary and Lord Darnley
VII. Rizzio . .
VIII. Bothwell . .
IX. The Fall of Bothwell .
X. Loch Leven Castle
XI. The Long Captivity
XII. The End .


PAGM
. 1
20
*. 38
* 55
. 75
93
. 112
. 131
. 12
. 165
. I82
. 197






MAI Y QUEEN OF SCOTS.


CHAPTER I.
MARY'S CHILDHOOD.
TRAVELLERS who go into Scotland, take a
great interest in visiting, among other palaces,
a certain room inl the ruins of an old palace
where Queen Mary was born. Queen Mary was
very beautiful, but she was very unfortunate
and unhappy. Everybody takes a strong in-
terest in her story, and this interest attaches,
in some degree, to the room where her sad
and sorrowful life was begun.
The palace is near a little village called
JLitlithgow. The village has but one long
street, which consists of ancient stone houses.
North of it is a little lake, or rather pond:
they call it, in Scotland, a loch. The palace
is between the village and the loch ; it is upon
a beautiful swell of land wlich projects out
into the water. There is a very small island
in the middle of the loch, and the shores are
bordered with fertile fields. The palace, wheu
B





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


entire, was square, with an open space or court
in the centre. There was a beautiful stone
fountain in the centre of this court, and an
arched gateway through which horsemen alnd
carriages could ride in. The doors of entrance
into the palace were on the inside of the court.
The palace is now in ruins. A troop of
soldiers came to it one day in time of war, after
Mary and her mother had left it, and spent
the night there : they spread straw over the
floors to sleep upon. In the morning, when
they went away, they wantonly set the straw
on fire, and left it burning, and thus the palace
was destroyed. Some of the lower floors were
of stone ; b't all the upper floors aid the
roof were burned, and all the wood-work of
the rooms, and the doors and window-fraimies.
Sihce then, the palace has never been repaired,
but remains a melancholy pile of ruins.
The room where Mary was born had a stone
floor. The rubbish which has fallen from above
nas covered it with a sort of soil, and grass
and weeds grow up all over it. It is a very
melancholy sight to see. The visitors who
go into the room walk mournfully about, trying
io imagine how Queen Mary looked as an in-
fant in her mother's arms, and reflecting on
the wickedness of the soldiers in wantonly des-
troying so beautiful a palace. Then they go
to the window, or, rather to the crumbling





MARY'S CHILDHOOD.


opening in the wall where the window once
was, and look out upon the loch, now so de-
serted and lonely ; over their heads it is all
open to the sky.
Mary's father was King of Scotland. At
the time that Mary was born, he was away
from home engaged in war. The King of
England had invaded Scotland, and the battle
went against Mary's father, and he thought
that the generals and nobles who commanded
his army allowed the English to coanuer them
on purpose to betray him. This thought
overwhelmed him with vexation and anguish.
He pined away under the acuteness of his
sufferings, and just after the news came to
him that his daughter Mary was born, he died.
Thus Mary became an orphan, and her troubles
commenced at the very beginning of her days.
She never saw her father, and her lather never
saw her. Her mother was a French lady;
her name was Mary of Guise. Her own name
was Mary Stuart, but she is commonly called
Mary Queen of Scots.
As Mary was her father's only child, of
course, when he died, she became Queen of
Scotland, although she was only a few days
old. It is customary, in such a case to appoint
some distinguished person to govern the king-
dom, in the name of the young queen, until
she grows up : such a person is called a regent.





MARY'S CHILDHOOD.


excited against each other, and often persecuted
each other with extreme cruelty. Sometimes
the Protestants would break into the Catholic
churches, and tear down and destroy the paint-
ings and the images, and the other symbols
of worship, all which the Catholics regarded
with extreme veneration; this exasperated the
Catholics, and when they became powerful in
their turn, they would seize the Protestants
and imprison them, and sometimes burn them
to death, by tying them to a stake and piling
faggots of wood about them, and then setting
the heap on fire.
Queen Mary's mother was a Catholic, and1
for that reason the people of Scotland were
not willing to have her for regent. There
were one or two other persons who wished to
be regent also : one was a certain nobleman
called the Earl of Arran. He was a Protes-
tant. The Earl of Arran was the next heir
to the crown, so that if Mary had died in her
infancy, he would have been king. He thought
that this was a reason why he should be re-
gent, and govern the kingdom until Mary be-
came old enough to govern it herself. Many
other persons, however, considered this rather
a reason why he should not be regent ; for
they thought he would be naturally interested
in wishing that Mary should not live, since if
heb ied, he would himself become king, and





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


that therefore he would not be a safe protector
for her. However, as the Earl of Arran was
a Protestant, and as Mary's mother was a
Catholic, and as the Protestant interest was
the strongest, it was at length decided that
Arran should be the regent, and govern the
country until Mary should be of age.
It is a curious circumstance that Mary's
birth put an end to the war between England
and Scotland, and that in a very singular way.
The King of England had been fighting against
Mary's father, James, for a long time, in order
to conquer the country and annex it to Eng-
land; and now that James was dead, and
Mary had become queen, with Arran for the
regent, it devolved on Arran to carry on the
war. But the King of England and his go-
vernment, now that the young queen was born,
conceived of a new plan. The king had a
little son named Edward, about four years old,
who, of course, would become King of Eng-
land in his place when he should himself die.
Now he thought it would be best for him to
conclude a peace with Scotland, and agree with
the Scottish government that, as soon as Mary
was old enough, she should become Edward's
wife, and the two kingdoms be united in that
way.
The name of this King of England was
Henry the Eighth. He was a very headstrong





MA RY'S CHrLDIHOOD.


and determined man. This, his plan, might
have been a very good one; it was certainly
much better than an attempt to get possession
of Scotland by fighting for it; but he was
very far from being as moderate and just as
he should have been in the execution of his
design. The first thing was to ascertain
whether Mary wds a strong and healthy child;
for if he should make a treaty of peace, and
give up all his plans of conquest, and then if
Mary, after living feebly a few years, should
die, all his plans would fail. To satisfy him
on this point, they actually had some of the
infant s clothes removed in the presence of
his ambassador, in order that the ambassador
might see that her form was perfect and her
limbs vigorous and strong. The nurse did
this with great pride and pleasure, Mary's
mother standing by. The nurse's name was
Janet Sinclair. The ambassador wrote back
to Henry, the King of England, that little
Mary was as goodly a child as he ever saw."
So King Henry the Eighth was confirmed in
his design of having her for the wife of his
son.
King Henry the Eighth accordingly changed
all his plans. He made a peace with the Earl
of Arran. He dismissed the prisoners that
he had taken, and sent them home kindly.
If he had been contented with kind and gentle





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


measures like these, he might have succeeded
in them, although there was, of course, a strong
party in Scotland opposed to them. Mary's
mother was opposed to them, for she was a
Catholic and a French lady, and she wanted
to have her daughter become a Catholic as she
grew up, and marry a French prince. All
the Catholics in cotland took her side. Still
Henry's plans might have been accomplished,
perhaps, if lie had beeii moderate and conci-
liating in the efforts which he made to carry
them into effect.
But Henry the Eighth was headstrong and
obstinate. He demanded that Mary, since
she was to be his son's wife, sliould be given
up to him to be taken into England, and edu-
cated there under the care of persons whom
he should appoint. He also demanded that
the Parliament of Scotland should let him
have a large share in the government of Scot-
land, because he was going to be the father-
in-law of the yoing queen. The Parliament
would not agree to either of these plans; they
were entirely unwilling to allow their little
queen to be carried off to another country,
and put under the charge of so rough and
rude a.man. Then they were unwilling, too,
to give him any share of the government during
3Mary's minority. Both these measures were
entirely inadmissable; they would, if adopted,





MARY'S CHILDHOOD.


have put both the infant Queen of Scotland
and the kingdom itself completely in the power
of one who had always been their greatest
enemy.
Henry, finding that he could not induce the
Scotch government to accede to these plans,
gave them up at last, and made a treaty of
marriage between his son and Mary, with the
agreement that she might remain in Scotland
until she was ten years old, and that then she
should come to England and be under his
care.
All this time, while these grand negotia-
tions were pending between two mighty nations
about her marriage, little Mary was uncon-
scious of it all, sometimes reposing quietly in
Janet Sinclair's arnm-s-sonetimes looking out
of the windows of the Castle of jinlithgow to
see the swans swim upon the lake, and some-
times, perhaps, creeping about upon the
palace floor, where the earls and barons who
came to visit her mother, clad in armour of
steel, looked upon her with pride and pleasure.
The palace where she lived was beautifully
situated, as has been before remarked, on the
borders of a lake; it was arranged somewhat in
the following manner :-





10 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


Syardar of te Le

0 re\ t I/dzl\ it
^ r Ct ourt AU




f .Church
-ChuareI -ar'd

PLAN OF THE PALACE OF LINLITHGOW.
a. Room where Mary was born. e. Entrance
through great gates. w. Bow window projecting
toward the water. d. Den where they kept a lion.
. t. t. Trees.

There was a beautiful fountain in the centre
of the court-yard, where water spouted out from
the mouths of carved images, and fell into mar-
ble basins below. The ruins of this fountain
and of the images remain there still. The den
at d. was a round pit, like a well, which you
-ould look down into from above : it was about
ten feet deep. They used to keep lions in
such dens near the palaces and castles in those
days. A lion in a den was a sort of play-
thini in former times, as a parrot or a pet





MARY'S CHILDHOOD. 11
lamb is now: this was in keeping with the
fierce and warlike spirit of the age. If they
had a lion there in Mary's time, Janet often,
doubtless, took her little charge out to see it,
and let her throw down food to it from above.
The den is there now. You approach it upon
the top of a broad embankment, which is as
high as the depth of the den, so that the bottom
of the den is level with the surface of the
ground, which makes it always dry. There
is a hole, too, at the bottom, through the wall,
where they used to put the lion in.
The foregoing plan of the buildings and
grounds of Linlithgow, is drawn as maps and
plans usually are, the upper part toward the
north. Of course the room a, where Mary
was born, is on the western side. The ad-
joining engraving represents a view of the
palace on this western side. The church is
seen at the right, and the lawn, where Jane.
used to take Mary out to breathe the air, ir 1n
the fore-ground. The shore of the lake is very
near, and winds beautifully around the mar-
gin of the promontory on which the palace
stands. Of course the lion's den, and the an-
cient avenue of approach to the palace, are
round upon the other side, and out of sight in
this view. The approach to the palace at the
present day, is on the southern side, between





12 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
the church and the trees on the right of the
picture.
Mary remained here at Linlithgow, for a
year or two; but when she was about nine
months old, they concluded to have the great
ceremony of the coronation performed, as she
was by that time old enough to bear the
journey to Stirling Castle, where the Scottish
kings and queens were generally crowned.
The coronation of a queen is an event which
always excites a very deep and universal in-
terest among all persons in the realm ; and
there is a peculiar interest felt when, as was
the case in this instance, the queen to be
crowned is an infant, just old enough to bear
the journey. There was a very great interest
felt in Mary's coronation. The different courts
and monarchs of Europe sent ambassadors to
be present at the ceremony, and to pay their
respects to the infant queen ; and Stirling be-
came, for the time being, the centre of universal
attraction.
Stirling is in the very heart of Scotland. It
is a castle, built upon a rock, or, rather, upon a
rocky hill, which rises like an island out of the
midst of a vast region of beautiful and fertile
country, rich and verdant beyond description.
Beyond the confines of this region of beauty,
dark mountains rise on all sides ; and where-
ever you are, whether riding along the road





MARY 8 CHILDHOOD. 13
in the plain, or climbing the declivities of the
mountains, you see Stirling Castle, from every
point, capping its rocky hill, the centre and
ornament of the broad expanse of beauty which
surrounds it.
Stirling Castle is north of Linlithgow, and
is distant about fifteen or twenty miles from
it. The road to it lies not far from the shores
of the Firth of Forth, a broad and beautiful
sheet of water. The castle, as has been Lefore
remarked, was on the summit of a rocky hill.
There are precipitous crags on three sides of
the hill, and a gradual approach by a long as-
cent on the fourth side. At the top of this
ascent you enter the great gates of the castle,
crossing a broad and deep ditch by means of
a draw-bridge. You enter then a series of
paved courts, with towers and walls around
them, and finally come to the more interior
edifices, where the private apartments are
situated, and where the little queen was
crowned.
It was an occasion of great pomp and cere-
mony, though Mary, of course, was unconscious
of the meaning of it all. She was surrounded
by barons and earls, by ambassadors and
princes from foreign courts, and by the prin-
cipal lords and ladies of the Scottish nobility,
all dressed in magnificent costumes. They
held little Mary up and a cardinal, that is,





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


great dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church,
placed the crown upon her head. Half pleased
with the glittering show, and half frightened
at the strange faces which she saw everywhere
around her, she gazed unconsciously upon the
scene, while her mother, who could better
understand its import, was filled with pride
and joy.
Linlithgow and Stirling are in the open and
cultivated part of Scotland. All the northern
and western part of the country consists of vast
masses of mountains, with dark and sombre
glens among them, which are occupied solely
by shepherds and herdsmen with their flocks
and herds. This mountainous region was
called the Highlands, and the inhabitants of it
were the Highlanders. They were a wild and
warlike class of men, and their country was
seldom visited by either friend or foe. At the
present time there are beautiful roads all
through the Highlands, and stage-coaches and
private carriages roll over them every summer,
to take tourists to see and admire the pic-
turesque and beautiful scenery ; but in the
days of Mary the whole region was gloomy and
desolate, and almost inaccessible.
Mary remained in Linlithgow and Stirling
for about two years, and then, as the country
was becoming more and more disturbed by the
struggles of the great contending parties-


14





MARY'S CHILDHOOD.


those who were in favour of the Catholic re-
ligion and alliance with France on the one
hand, and of those in favour of the Protestant
religion and alliance with England on the
other hand-they concluded to send her into
the Highlands for safety.
It was not far into the country of the High-
lands that they concluded to send her, -but
only into the borders of it. There was a small
lake on the southern margin of the wild and
mountainous country, called the Lake of Men-
teith. In this lake was an island named Inch-
mahome, the word inch being the name for
island in the language spoken by the High-
landers. This island, which was situated in a
very secluded and solitary region, was selected
as Mary's place of residence.
She was about four years old when they
sent her to this place. Several persons went
with her to take care of her, and to teach her.
In fact everything was provided for her which
could secure her improvement and happiness.
Her mother did not forget that he would need
playmates, and so she selected four little girls
of about the same age with the little queen
herself, and invited them to accompany her.
They were the daughters of the jnoblemen and
high officers about the court. it is very cu-
xious that these girls were all named Mary.
Their names in l'll were as follows :-


15





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


Mary Beaton, Mary Livingstone,
Mary Fleming, Mary Seaton.
These, with Mary Stuart, which was Queen
Mary's name, made five girls of four or five
years of age, all named Mary.
Mary lived two years in this solitary island.
She had, however, all the comforts and con-
veniences of life, and enjoyed herself with her
four Maries very much. Of course she knew
nothing, and thought nothing, of the schemes
and plans of the great governments for hav-
ing her married, when she grew up, to the
young English prince, who was then a little
boy of about her own age, nor of the angry
disputes in Scotland to which this subject
gave rise. It did give rise to very serious
disputes. Mary's mother did not like the
plan at all. As she was herself a French lady
and a Catholic, she did not wish to have her
daughter marry a prince who was of the
English royal family, and a Protestant. All
the Catholics in Scotland took her side. At
length the Earl of Arran, who was the re-
gent, changed to that side; and finally the
government, being thus brought over, gave
notice. to King Henry VIII. that the plan
must be given up, as they had concluded, on
the whole, that Mary should not marry his
son.
King Henry was very much incensed. He





MARY'S CHILDHOOD.


declared that Mary should marry his son, and
he raised an army and sent it into Scotland to
make war upon the Scotch again, and compel
them to consent to the execution of the plan.
He was at this time beginning to be sick, but
his sickness, instead of softening his temper,
only made him the more ferocious and cruel.
He turned against his best friends. He grew
worse, and was evidently about to die ; but
he was so irritable and angry, that for a long
time no one dared to tell him of his approach-
ing dissolution, and he lay restless, and
wretched, and agitated with political animosi-
ties, upon his dying bed. At length some one
ventured to tell him that his end was near.
When he found that he must die, he resigned
himself to his fate. He sent for an arch-
bishop to come and see him, but he was
speechless when the prelate came, and soon
afterward expired.
The English government, however, after
his death, adhered to his plan of compelling
the Scotch to make Mary the wife of his son.
They sent an army into Scotland. A great
battle was fought, and the Scotch were de-
feated. The battle was fought at a place not
far from Edinburgh, and near the sea. It was
so near the sea, that the English fired upon
the Scotch army from their ships, and thus
assisted their troops upon the shore. The


17





18 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
armies had remained several days near each
other before coming to battle, and during all
this time the city of Edinburgh was in a state
of great anxiety and suspense, as they ex-
pected that their city would be attacked by
the English if they should conquer in the
battle. The English army did, in fact, ad-
vance towards Edinburgh after the battle was
over, and would have got possession of it, had
it not been for the castle. There is a very
strong castle in the very heart of Edinburgh,
upon the summit of a rocky hill.
These attempts of the English to force the
Scotch government to consent to Mary's mar-
riage only made them the more determined to
prevent it. A great many who were not op-
posed to it before, became opposed to it now,
when they saw foreign armies in the country
destroying the towns and murdering the
people. They said they had no great objec-
tion to the match, but that they did not like
the mode of wooing. They sent to France, to
ask the French king to send over an army to
aid them, and promised him that if he would
do so they would agree that Mary should
marry his son. His son's name was Francis.
The French king was very much pleased
with this plan. He sent them an army of six
thousand men into Scotland, to assist the
Scotch a-inst their English enemies. It was





MARY'S CHIILDHOOD,


arranged, also, as little Mary was now hardly
safe among all these commotions, even in her
retreat to the island of Inchmahome, to send
her to France, to be educated there, and to
live there until she was old enough to be
married. The same ships which brought the
army from France to Scotland, were to carry
M ary and her retinue from Scotland to France.
The four Maries went with her.
They bade their lonely island farewell, and
travelled south till they came to a strong
castle on a high rocky hill, on the banks of
the river Clyde. The name of this fortress is
Dumbarton Castle. Almost all the castles of
those times were built upon precipitous hills,
to increase the difficulties of the enemies in
approaching them. The Rock of Dumbarton
is a very remarkable one. It stands close to
the bank of the river. There are a great
many ships and steam-boats continually pass-
ing up and down the Clyde, to and from the
great city of Glasgow, and all the passengers
on board gaze with great interest, as they sail
by, on the Rock of Dumbarton, with the
castle walls on the sides, and the towers and
battlements crowning the summit. In Mary's
time there was comparatively very little ship-
ping on the river; but the French fleet was
there, waiting opposite the castle to receive


19





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


Mary and the numerous persons who were to
go in her train.
Mary was escorted from the island where
she had been living, across the country to
Dumbarton Castle, with a strong retinue. She
was now between five and six years of age.
She was, of course, too young to know any-
thing about the contentions and wars which
had distracted her country on her account, or
to feel much interest in the subject of her ap-
proaching departure from her native land. She
enjoyed the novelty of the scenes through
which she passed on her journey. She was
pleased with the dresses and the arms of the
soldiers who accompanied her, and with the
ships which were floating in the river, beneath
the walls of the Castle of Dumbarton, when
she arrived there. She was pleased, too, to
think that, wherever she was to go, her four
Maries were to go with her. She bade her
mother farewell, embarked on board the ship
which was to receive her, and sailed away
from her native land, not to return to it again
for many years.

CHAPTER II.
HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.
THE departure of Mary from Scotland,
little as she was, was a great event both for


20





HER EDUCATION IN PRANCE.


Scotland and for France. In those days kings
and queens were even of greater relative im-
portance than they are now, and all Scotland
was interested in the young queen's going
away from them, and all France in expecting
her arrival. She sailed down the Clyde, and
then passed along the seas and channels which
lie between England and Ireland. These seas,
though they look small upon the map, are
really spacious and wide, and are often greatly
agitated by winds and storms. This was the
case at the time Mary made her voyage. The
days and nights were tempestuous and wild,
and the ships had difficulty in keeping in each
other's company. There was danger of being
blown upon the coasts, or upon the rocks or
islands which lie in the way. Mary was too
young to give much heed to these dangers,
but the lords and commissioners, and the great
ladies who went to attend her, were heartily
glad when the voyage was over. It ended
safely at last, after several days of tossing
upon the stormy billows, by their arrival upon
the northern coast of France. They landed
at a town called Brest.
The King of France had made great pre-
parations for receiving the young queen im-
mediately upon her landing. Carriages and
horses had been provided to convey herself
and the company of her attendants, by easy


21





MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.


journeys, to Paris. They received her with
great pomp and ceremony at every town
which she passed through. One mark of re-
spect which they showed her was very singu-
lar. The king ordered that every prison
which she passed in her route should be
thrown open, and the prisoners set free. This
fact is a striking illustration of the different
ideas which prevailed in those days, compared
with those which are entertained now, in re-
spect to crime and punishment. Crime is now
considered as an offence against the commu-
nity, and it would be considered no favour to
the community, but the reverse, to let impri-
soned criminals go free. In those days, on
the other hand, crimes were considered rather
as injuries committed by the community, and
against the king; so that, if the monarch
wished to show the community a favour, he
would do it by releasing such of them as had
'been imprisoned by his officers for their
crimes. It was just so in the time of our
Saviour, when the Jews had a custom of hav-
ing some criminal released to them once a
year, at the Passover, by the Roman govern-
ment, as an act of favour. That is, the go-
vernment was accustomed to furnish, by way
of contributing its share toward the general
festivities of the occasion, the setting of a
robber and a murderer at liberty !


22





HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.


The King of France has several palaces in
the neighbourhood of Paris. Mary was taken
to one of them, named St. Germain. This
palace, which still stands, is about twelve
miles from Paris, towards the north-west. It
is a very magnificent residence, and has been
for many centuries a favourite resort of the
French kings. Many of them were born in
it. There are extensive parks and gardens
connected with it, and a great artificial forest,
in which the trees were all planted and culti-.
vated like the trees of an orchard. Mary was
received at this palace with great pomp and
parade; and many spectacles and festivities
were arranged to amuse her and the four
Maries who accompanied her, and to impress
her strongly with an idea of the wealth, and
power, and splendour, of the great country to
which she h d come.
She remained here but a short time, and
then it was arranged for her to go to a con-
vent to be educated. Convents were in those
days, as in fact they are now, quite famous as
places of education. They were situated
sometimes in large towns, and sometimes in
secluded places in the country ; but, whether
in town or country, the inmates of them were
shut up very strictly from all intercourse witt
the world. They were under the care of nuns,
who had devoted themselves for life to the


23





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


service. These nuns were some of them un-
happy persons, who were weary of the sorrows
and sufferings of the world, and who were
glad to retire from it to such a retreat as they
fancied the convent would be. Others became
nuns from conscientious principles of duty,
thinking that they should commend themselves
to the favour of God by devoting their lives
to works of benevolence, and to the exercises
of religion. Of course there were all varie-
ties of character among the nuns; some of
them were selfish and disagreeable, others
were benevolent and kind.
At the convent where Mary was sent there
were some nuns of very excellent and amiable
character, and they took a great interest in
Mary, both because she was a queen, and be-
cause she was beautiful, and of a kind and
affectionate disposition. Mary became very
strongly attached to these nuns, and began to
entertain the idea of becoming a nun herself,
and spending her life with them in the con-
vent. It seemed pleasant to her to live there
in such a peaceful seclusion, in company with
those who loved her, and whom she herself
loved ; but the King of France, and the Scot-
tcsh nobles who had come with her from Scot-
land, would, of course, be opposed to any
such plan. They wanted her to be married
to the young prince, and to become one of the


24





HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.


great ladies of the court, and to lead a life of
magnificence and splendour. They became
alarmed., therefore, when they found that she
was imbibing a taste for the life of seclusion
and solitude which is led by a nun. They de-
cided to take her away immediately.
Mary bade farewell to the convent and its
inmates with much regret and. many tears;
but, notwithstanding her reluctance, she was
obliged to submit. If she had not been a
queen, she might, perhaps, have had her own
way. As it was, however, she was obliged to
leave the convent and the nuns whom she
loved, and to go back to the palaces of the
king, in which she afterward continued to
live, sometimes in one and sometimes in an-
other, for many years. Wherever she went,
she was surrounded with scenes of great gaiety
and splendour. They wanted to obliterate
from her mind all recollections of the convent,
and all love of solitude and seclusion. They
did not neglect her studies, but they filled up
the intervals of study with all possible schemes
of enjoyment and pleasure, to amuse and oc-
cupy her mind, and the minds of her com-
panions. Her companions were her own four
Maries, and the two daughters of the French
king.
When Mary was about seven years of age;
that is, after she had been two years in France,


25





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


her mother formed a plan to come from Scot-
land to see her. Her mother had remained
behind when Mary left Scotland, as she had
an important part to perform in public affairs,
and in the administration of the government
of Scotland while Mary was away. She
wanted, however, to come and see her. France,
too, was her own native land, and all her re-
lations and friends resided there. She wished
to see them as well as Mary, and to revisit
once more the palaces and cities where her
own early life had bee spent. In speaking
of Mary's mother, we shall call her some-
times the queen dowager. The expression,
queen dowager, is the one usually applied to
the widow of a king, as queen consort is used
to denote the wife of a king.
This visit of the queen dowager of Scotland
to her little daughter in France was an event
of great consequence, and all the arrangements
for carrying it into effect were conducted with
great pomp and ceremony. A large company
attended her, with many of the Scottish lords
and ladies among them. The King of France,
too, went from Paris toward the French coast,
to meet the party of visitors, taking little Mary
and a large company of attendants with him.
They went to Rouen, a large city not far from
the coast, where they awaited the arrival of
Mary's mother, and where they received her


26





HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.


with great ceremonies of parade and rejoicing.
The queen dowager was very much delighted
to see her little daughter again. She had
grown two years older, and had improved
greatly in every respect, and tears of joy came
into her mother's eyes as she clasped her in
her arms. The two parties journeyed in com-
pany to Paris, and entered the city with great
rejoicings. The two queens, mother and
daughter, were the objects of universal interest
and attention. Feasts and celebrations with-
out end were arranged for them, and every
possible means of amusement and rejoicing
were contrived in the palaces of Paris, of St.
Germain's, and of Fontainebleau. Mary's
mother remained in France about a year. She
then bade Mary farewell, leaving her at Fon-
tainebleau. This proved to be a final fareweH,
for she never saw her again.
After taking leave of her daughter, the
queen dowager went, before leaving France,
to see her own mother, who was a widow,
and who was living at a considerable distance
from Paris in seclusion, and in a state of
austere and melancholy grief, on account of
the loss of her husband. Instead of for-
getting her sorrows, as she ought to have
done, and returning calmly and peacefully to
the duties and enjoyments of life, she had
given herself up to inconsolable grief, and


27





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


was doing all that was in her power to
perpetuate its mournful influence upon her
mind. She lived in an ancient and gloomy
mansion, of vast size, and she had hung all
the apartments in black, to make it still more
desolate and gloomy, and to continue the in-
fluence of grief upon her mind. Here the
queen dowager found her, spending her time
in prayers and austerities of every kind, mak-
ing herself and all her family perfectly miser-
able. Many persons at the present day, act,
under such circumstances, on the same prin-
ciple, and with the same spirit, though they
do not manifest it in precisely the same way.
One would suppose that Mary's mother
would have preferred to remain in France with
her daughter and her mother, and all her
family friends, instead of going back to Scot-
land, where she was, as it were, a foreigner and
a stranger. The reason why she wanted to go
back was, that she wished to be made queen
regent, and thus have the government of Scot-
land in her own hands. She would rather be
queen regent in Scotland than a simple queen
mother in France. While she was in France,
she urged the king to use all his influence to
have Arran resign the regency into her hands,
and finally obtained writings from him and
from Queen Mary to this effect. She then
left France and went to Scotland, going through


28





HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.


England on the way. The young King of
England, to whom Mary had been engaged
by the government when she was an infant in
Janet Sinclair's arms, renewed his proposals
to the queen dowager to let her daughter be-
come his wife ; but she told him it was all
settled, that she was to be married to the
French prince, and it was now too late to
change the plan.
There was a young gentleman, about nine-
teen or twenty years of age, who came from
Scotland also not far from this time, to wait
upon Mary as her page of honour. A page
is an attendant above the rank of an ordinary
servant, whose business it is to wait upon his
mistress, to read to her, sometimes to convey
her letters and notes, and to carry her com-
mands to the other attendants who are beneath
him in rank, and whose business it is actually
to perform the services which the lady requires.
A page of honour is a young gentleman who
sustains this office in a nominal and temporary
manner for a princess or a queen.
The name of Mary's page of honour, who
came to her now from Scotland, was Sir James
Melville. The only reason for mentioning
him thus particularly, rather than the many
other officers and attendants by whom Mary
was surrounded, was, that the service which
he thus commenced. was continued in various


29





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


ways through the whole period of Mary's life.
We shall often hear of him in the subsequent
parts of this narrative. He followed Mary
to Scotland when she returned to that country,
and became afterward her secretary, and also
her ambassador on many occasions. He was
now quite young, and when he landed at Brest
he travelled slowly to Paris in the care of two
Scotchmen, to whose charge he had been in-
trusted. He was a young man of uncommon
talents and of great accomplishments, and it
was a mark of high distinction for him to be
appointed page of honour to the queen, although
he was about nineteen years of age, and she
was but seven.
After the queen dowager's return to Scot-
land, Mary went on improving in every respect
more and more. She was diligent, industrious,
and tractable. She took a great interest in
her studies. She was not only beautiful in
person, and amiable and affectionate in heart,
but she possessed a very intelligent and active
mind, and she entered with a sort of quiet but
earnest enthusiasm into all the studies to
which her attention was called. She paid a
great deal of attention to music, to poetry,
and to drawing. She used to invent little
devices for seals, with French and Latin mot-
toes, and, after drawing them again and again
with great care, until she was satisfied with


80





HER EDUCATION IN PRANCE. 31
the design, she would give them to the gem-
engravers to be cut upon stone steals, so that
she could seal her letters with them. These
mottoes and devices cannot well be represented
in English, as the force and beauty of them
depended generally upon a double meaning in
some word of French or Latin, which cannot
be preserved in the translation. We shall,
however, give one of these seals, which she
made just before she left France to return to
Scotland, when we come to that period of her
history.
The King of France, and the lords and
ladies who came with Mary from Scotland,
contrived a great many festivals and celebra-
tions in the parks, and forests, and palaces to
amuse the queen and the four Maries who
were with her. The daughters of the French
king joined also in these pleasures. They
would have little balls, and parties, and pic-
nics, sometimes in the open air, sometimes in
the little summer-houses built upon the grounds
attached to the palaces. The scenes of these
festivities were in many cases made unusually
oyous and gay by bon-fires and illuminations.
They had water parties on the little lakes, and
hunting parties through the parks and forests.
Mfary was a very graceful and beautiful rider,
and full of courage. Sometimes she met with
accidents which were attended with some





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


danger. Once, while hunting the stag, and
riding at a full speed with a great company of
ladies and gentlemen behind her and before
her, her dress got caught by the bough of a
tree, and she was pulled to the ground. The
horse went on. Several other riders drove by
her without seeing her, as she had too much
composure and fortitude to attract their at-
tention by outcries and lamentations. They
brought back her horse, and, smoothing down
her hair, which had fallen into confusion, she
n;ounted again and rode on after the stag as
be fore.
notwithstandingg all these means of enjoy-
ment and diversion, Mary was subjected to a
great deal of restraint. The rules of etiquette
are very precise and very strictly enforced in
royal households, and they were still more
strict in those days than they are now. The
king was very ceremonious in all his arrange-
ments, and was surrounded by a multitude of
officers who performed everything by rule.
As Mary grew older, she was subject to
greater and greater restraint. She used to
spend a considerable portion of every day in
the apartments of Queen Catharine, the wife
of the King of France, and the mother of the
little Francis, to whom she was to be married.
Mary and Queen Catharine did not, however,
like each other very well. Catharine was a


32





HER EDUCATION IN PRANCE.


woman of strong mind, and of an imperious
disposition; and it is supposed by some that
she was jealous of Mary because she was
more beautiful and accomplished, and more
generally beloved than her own daughters,
the princesses of France. At any rate, she
treated Mary in rather a stern and haughty
manner, and it was thought that she would
finally oppose her marriage to Francis, her son.
And yet Mary was at first very much
pleased with Queen Catharine, and was accus-
tomed to look up to her with great admira-
tion, and to feel for her a very sincere regard.
She often went into the queen's apartments,
where they sat together and talked, or worked
upon their embroidery, which was a famous
amusement for ladies of exalted rank in those
days. Mary herself at one time worked a
large piece, which she sent as a present to tih
nuns in the convent where she had resided;
and afterward in Scotland she worked a great
many things, some of which still remain, and
may be seen in her ancient rooms in the
palace of Holyrood House. She learned this
art by working with Queen Catharine in her
apartments. When she first became ac-
quainted with Catharine on these occasions,
she used to love her society. She admired
her talents and her conversational powers, and
she liked very much to be in her room. She
I#


33





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


listened to all she said, watched her move-
ments, and endeavoured in all things to fol-
low- her example.
Catharine, however, thought that this was
all a pretence, and that Mary did not really
like her, but only wished to make her believe
that she did so in order to get favour, or to
accomplish some other selfish end. One'day
she asked her why she seemed to. prefer her
society to that of her youthful and more suita-
ble companions. Mary replied in substance,
" The reason was, that though with them she
might enjoy much, she could learn nothing;
while she always learned from Queen Catha-
rine's conversation something which would be
of use to her as a guide in future life." One
wouid have thought that this answer would
have pleased the queen, but it did not. She
did not believe that it was sincere.
On one occasion Mary seriously offenrded
the queen by a remark which she made, and
which was, at least, incautious. Kings and
queens, and, in fact, all great people, pride
themselves very much upon the antiquity of
the line from which they have descended.
Now, the family of Queen Catharine had risen
to rank and distinction within a moderate
period; and though she was, as Queen of
France, on the very pinnacle of human great-
ness. she would naturally be vexed 4t -nv


34





35


HER EDUCATION IN FRANCE.


remark which would remind her of the recent-
ness of her elevation. Now Mary, at one time
said, in conversation in the presence of Queen
Catharine, that she herself was the descend-
ant of a hundred kings. This was, perhaps,
true, but it brought her into direct comparison
with Catharine on a point in which the latter
was greatly her inferior, and it mortified her
exceedingly to have such a thing said to her
by such a child.
Mary associated thus, during all this time,
not only with the queen and the princesses,
but also with the little prince whom she was
destined to marry. His name was Francis,
but he was commonly called the dauphin,
which was the name by which the oldest son
of the King of Fr.ance was then, and has been
since, designated. The origin of this custom
was this. About a hundred years before the
time of which we are speaking, a certain
nobleman of high rank, who possessed estates
in an ancient province of France called
3)auphiny, lost his son and heir. He was
overwhelmed with affliction at the loss, and
finally bequeathed all his estates to the king
and his successors, on condition that the
oldest son should bear the title of dauphin.
The grant was accepted, and the oldest soi waS
accordingly so styled from that time forward.
The dauphin, Francis, was a weak and





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


feeble child, but he was amiable and gentle in
his manners, and Mary liked him. She met
him often in their walks and rides, and she
danced with him at the balls and parties given
for her amusement. She knew that he was
to be her husband as soon as she was old
enough to be married, and he knew that she
was to be his wife. It was all decided, and
nothing which either of them could say or do
would have any influence on the result. Ne,
other of them, however, seem to have had any
desire to change the result. Mary pitied
Francis on account of his feeble health, and
liked his amiable and gentle disposition; and
Francis could not help loving Mary both on
account of the traits of her character and her
personal charms.
As Mary advanced in years, she grew very
beautiful. In some of the great processions
and ceremonies, the ladies were accustomed
to walk, magnificently dressed, and carrying
torches in their hands. In one of these pro
cessions Mary was moving along with the
rest, through a crowd of spectators, and the
light from her torch fell upon her features
and upon her hair in such a manner as to
make her appear more beautiful than usual.
A woman standing there pressed up nearer to
her to view her more closely, and, seeing how
beautiful she was, asked her if she was not


36





THE GREAT WEDDING. 37
an angel. In those days, however, people
believed in what is miraculous and superna-
tural more easily than now, so that it was not
very surprising that one should think, in such
a case, that an angel from Heaven had come
down to join in the procession.
Mary grew up a Catholic, of course: all
were Catholics around her. The king and all
the royal family were devoted to Catholic
observances. The convent, the ceremonies,
the daily religious obscrvauces enjoined upon
her, the splendid churches which she fre-
quented, all tended in their influence to lead
her mind away from the Protestant religion
which prevailed in her native land, arid to
make her a Catholic : she remained so
throughout her life. There is no doubt that
she was conscientious in her attachment to
the forms and to the spirit of the Roman
Church. At any rate, she was faithful to the ties
which her early education imposed upon her,
and this fidelity became afterward the source
of some of her heaviest calamities and woes.

CHAPTER III.
THE GREAT WEDDING
WHEN Mary was about fifteen years of age,
the King of France began to think that it was





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


time for her to be married. It is true that
she was still very young, but there were
strong reasons for having the marriage take
place at the earliest possible period, for fear
something might occur to prevent its consum-
mation at all. In fact, there were very strong
parties opposed to it altogether. The whole
Protestant interest in Scotland were opposed
to it, and were continually contriving plans to
defeat it. They thought that if Mary married
a French prince, who was, of course, a Catho-
lic, she would become wedded to the Catholic
interest hopelessly and for ever. This made
them feel a most bitter and determined oppo-
sition to the plan.
In fact, so bitter and relentless were the
animosities that grew out of this question,
that an attempt was actually made to poison
Mary. The man who committed this crime
was an archer in the king's guard he was a
Scotchman, and his name was Stewart. His
attempt was discovered in time to prevent the
accomplishment of his purpose. He was tried
and condemned. They made every effort to
induce him to explain the reason which led
him to such an act, or, if he was employed
by others to reveal their names; but he would
reveal nothing. He was executed for his crime,
leaving mankind to conjecture that his motive,
or that of the persons who instigated him to


38





THE GR.-AT WEDDING.


the deed, was a desperate determination to
save Scotland, at all hazards, from falling
under the influence of papal power.
Mary's mother, the queen dowager of Scot-
land, was of a celebrated French family, called
the family of Guise. She is often, herself,
called in history, Mary of Guise. There
were other great families in France who
were very jealous of the Guises, and envious
of their influence and their power. They
opposed Queen Mary's marriage to the dau-
phin, and were ready to do all in their power
to thwart and defeat it. Queen Catharine, too,
who seemed to feel a greater and greater de-
gree of envy and jealousy against Mary, as
she saw her increasing in grace, beauty and
influence with her advancing years, was sup-
posed to be averse to the marriage. Mary
was, in some sense, her rival, and she could
not bear to have her become the wife of her
son.
King Henry, finding all these opposing
influences at work, thought that the safest
plan would hIe to have the marriage carried
into effect at the earliest possible period.
When, therefore, Mary was about fifteer
years of age, which was in 1557, he set.
to Scotland, asking the government there to
appoint some commissioners to come *,
Fratice to assent to the marriage contracts.





40 MAR1Y QUEEN OF SCOTS.
and to witness the ceremonies of the betroth-
inent and the wedding. The marriage con-
tracts, in the case of the union of the queen
of one country with a prince of another, are
documents of very high importance. It is
considered necessary not only to make very
formal provision for the personal welfare and
comfort of the wife during her married life,
and during her widowhood in case of the
death of her husband, but also to settle be-
forehand the questions of succession which
might arise out of the marriage, and to define
precisely the rigllts and powers both of the
husband and the wife. in the two countries to
which they respectively belong.
The Parliament of Scotland appointed a
number of commissioners, of the highest rank
and station, to proceed to France, and to act
there as the representatives of Scotland in
everything which pertained to the marriage.
They charged them to guard well the rights
and powers of Mary, to see that these rights
and all the interests of Scotland were well
protected in the marriage contracts, and to
secure proper provision for the personal com-
fort and happiness of the queen. The num-
ber of these commissioners was eight. Their
departure from Scotland was an event of great
public importance. They were accompanied
by a large number of attendants and followers.





THE GREAT WEDDING.


who were eager to be present in Paris at the
narrisage festivities. The whole company ar-
rived safely at Paris, and were received with
every possible mark of distinction and honour.
The marriage contracts were drawn up, and
executed with great formality. King Henry
made no objection to any of the stipulations
and provisions which the commissioners re-
quired,Jfor he had a secret plan for evading
them all. Very ample provision was made
for Mary herself. She was to have a very
large income. In case the dauphin died while
he was dauphin, leaving Mary a widow, she
was still to have a large income paid to her
by the French government as long as she
lived, whether she remained in France or
went back to Scotland. If her husband out-
lived his father, so as to become King of
France, and then died, leaving Mary his
widow, her income for the rest of her life
was to be double what it would have been if
he had died while iauphin. Francis was, in
the mear tine, to share with her the govern-
ment of Scotland. If they had a son, he
was to be, after their deaths, King of France
and of Scotland too. Thus the two crowns
would have been united. If, on the othei
hand, they had only daughters, the eldest one
was to be Queen of Scotland only, as the laws
of France did not allow a female to inherit


41





MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.


the throne. In case they had no children,
t).e crown of Scotland was not to come into
the French family at all, but to descend regu-
larly to the next Scotch heir.
Henry was not satisfied with this entirely,
for he wanted to secure the union of the
Scotch and French crowns at all events,
whether Mary had children or not: and lie
persuaded Mary to sign some papers with him
privately, which he thought would secure bis
purposes, charging her not to let the commis-
sioners know that she had signed them. He
tlihoght it possible that lie should never have
occasion to produce them. One of these pa-
pers conveyed the crown of Scotland to the
King of France absolutely and for ever, in
case Mary should die without children. An-
other provided that the Scotoh government
should repay him for the enormous sums he
had expended upon Mary during her residence
in France, for her education, her attendants,
the celebrations and galas which he had pro-
vided for her, and all the splendid journeys,
processions, and parades. His motive in all
this expense had been to unite the crown of
Scotland to that of France, and he wanted to
provide that, if anything should occur to pre-
vent the execution of his plan, he could have
all this money reimbursed to him again. He
estirr.ated the amount at a million of pieces of


42





THE GREAT WEDDIToG. 43
gold. This was an enormous sum; it show\v
in how magnificent a scale Mary's reception
and entertainment in France were managed.
These preliminary proceedings being settled,
all Paris, and, in fact, all France, began to
prepare for the marriage celebrations. There
were to be two great ceremonies connected
"with the occasion. The first was the betroth-
rnent, the second was the marriage. At the
betrothment Francis and Mary were to meet
in a great public hall, and there, in the pre-
sence of a small and select assemblage of the
lords and ladies of the court, and persons of
distinction connected with the royal family,
they were formally and solemnly to engage
themselves to each other. Then, in about a
week afterward, they were to be married, in
the most public manner, in the great cathe-
dral church of Notre Dame.
The ceremony of the betrothal was celebra-
ted in the palace. The palace then occupied
by the royal family was the Louvre. It still
stands, but is no longer a royal dwelling.
Another palace, more modern in its structure,
and called the Tuileries, has since been built,
a little farther from the heart of the city, and
in a more pleasant situation. The Louvre is
square, with an open court in the centre.
This open court or area is very large, and is
paved like the streets. In fact, two great





44 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
carriage ways pnss through it, crossing each
other at right angles in the centre, and pass-
ing out under great archways in the four sides
of the building. There is a great hall within
the palace, and in this hall the ceremony of
the betrothal took place. Francis and Mary
pledged their faith to each other with appro-
priate ceremonies. Only a select circle of
relations and intimate friends were present on
his occasion. The ceremony was concluded
in the evening with a ball.
In the mean time, all Paris was busy with
prep arations for the marriage. The Louvre is
upon one side of the River Seine, its princi-
pal front being toward the liver, with a broad
street between. There are no buildings, but
only a p arapet wall on the river side of the
street, so that there is a fine view of the river
and of the bridges which cross it, from the
palace win dow. Nearly opposite the Louvre
is an island, covered with edifices, and con-
nected, by means of bridges, with either
shore. The great church of Notre Dame,
where the marriage ceremony was to be per-
formed, is opon this island. It has two enor-
mous square towers in front, which may be
seen rising above all the roofs of the city, at
a great distance in every direction. Before
the church is a large open area, where vast
crowds amemrble on any great occasion. Tho





THE GREAT WEDDING.


interior of the church impresses the mind with
the sublimest emotions. Two rows of enor-
mous columns rise to a great height on either
hand, supporting the lofty arches of the roof.
The floor is paved with great flat stones, and
resounds continually with the footsteps of
visitors, who walk to and fro, up and down
the aisles, looking at the chapels, the monu-
ments, the. sculptures, the paintings, and the
antique and grotesque Images and carvings.
Coloured light streams through the stained
glass of the enormous windows, and the tones
of the organ, and the voices of the priests,
chanting the services of the mass, are almost
always resounding and echoing from the
vaulted roof above.
The words Notre Dame mean Our Lady, an
expression by which the Roman Catholics de-
note Mary, the mother of Jesus. The church
of Notre Dame has been for many centuries
the great cathedral church of Paris, where all
great ceremonies of state were performed. On
this occasion they erected a great amphithea..
tre in the area before the church, which would
accommodate many thousands of the specta-
tors who were to assemble, and enable them
to see the procession. The bride and bride-
groom, and their friends, were to assemble in
the bishop's palace, which was near the cathe-
dral, told a covered gallery was erected, lead-


4 _





4WARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


ing from this place to the church, through
which the bridal party were to enter. They
lined this gallery throughout with purple vel-
vet, and ornamented it in other ways, so as to
make the approach to the church through it
inconceivably splendid.
Crowds began to collect in the great am-
phitheatre early in the morning. The streets
leading to Notre Dame were thronged. Every
window in all the lofty buildings around, and
every balcony, was full. From ten to twelve
the military bands began to arrive, and the
long procession was formed, the different par-
ties being dressed in various picturesque cos-
tumes. The ambassadors of various foreign
potentates were present, each bearing their
appropriate insirnia. The legate of the pope,
magnificent ly dressed, had an attendant bear-
ing before him a cross of massive gold. The
bridegroom, Francis the dauphin, followed
this legate, and soon afterward came Mary,
accompanied by the king. She was dressed
"n white. Here robe was embroidered with
the figure of the lily, and it glittered with
diamonds and ornaments of silver. As was
the custom in those days, her dress formed a
long train, which was borne by two young
girls who walked behind her. She wore a
diamond necklace, with a ring of immense
value suspended from it, and upon her head


4(





THE GREAT WEDDING.


was a golden coronet, enriched with diamonds
and gems of inestimable value.
But the dress and the diamonds which
Mary wore were not the chief points of attrac-
tion to the spectators. All who were present
on the occasion agree in saying that she
looked inexpressibly beautiful, and that there
was an indescribable grace and charm in all
her movements and manner, which filled all
who saw her with an intoxication of delight.
She was artless and unaffected in her man-
ners, and her countenance, the expression of
which was generally placid and calm, was
lighted up with the animation and interest of
the occasion, so as to make everybody envy
the dauphin the possession of so beautiful a
bride. Qu.en Catharine, and a long train of
the ladies of the court, followed in the pro-
cession after Mary. Everybody thought that
she felt envious and ill at ease.
The essential thing in the marriage cere-
mony was to be the putting of the wedding-
ring upon Mary's finger, and the pronouncing of
the nuptial benediction which was immediately
to follow it. This ceremony was to be per-
formed by the archbishop of Rouen, who was
at that time the greatest ecclesiastical dignitary
in France. In order that as many persons as
possible might witness this, it was arranged
tlat it should be performed at the great door


47





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


of the church, so as to be in view of th3 im-
mense throng which had assembled in the
amphitheatre erected in the area, and of the
multitudes which had taken their positions at
the windows and balconies, and on the house-
tops around. The profession, accordingly,
having entered the church through the covered
gallery, moved along the aisles and came to
the great door Here a royal pavilion had
been erected, were the bridal party could
stand in view of the whole assembled multi-
tude. King Henry had the ring. He gave
it to the archbishop. The archbishop placed
it upon Mary's finger, and pronounced the be-
nediction in a loud voice. The usual con-
gratulations followed, and Mary greeted her
husband under the name of his majesty the
King of Scotland. Then the whole mighty
crowd rent the ail with shouts and acclama-
tions.
It was the custom in those days, on such
great public occasions as this, to scatter money
among the crowd, that they might scramble
for it. This was called the king's largess, and
the largess was pompously proclaimed by he-
ralds before the money was thrown. The
throwing of the money among this immense
throng produced a scene of indescribable con-
fusion. The people precipitated themselves
upon each other in their eagerness to seize


48





THE GREAT WEDDING.


the silver and the gold. *.omin were trampled
under foot. Some were stripped of their hats
and cloaks, or had their clothes torn front
them. Some fainted, and were borne out of
the scene with infinite difficulty and danger.
At last the people clamorously begged the
officers to desist from throwing any more
money, for fear that the most serious and fatal
consequences might ensue.
In the mean time, the bridal procession re-
turned into the church, and, advancing up the
centre between the lofty columns, they came
to a place called the choir, which is in the
heart of the church, and is enclosed by screens
of carved and sculptured work. It is in the
choir that congregations assemble to be pre-
sent at mass and ether religious ceremonies.
Moveable seats are placed here on ordinary
occasions, but at the time of this wedding the
place was fitted up with great splendour. H-ere
mass was performed in the presence of the
bridal party. Mass is a solemn ceremony
conducted by the priests, in which they renew
or think they renew, the sacrifice of Christ,
accompanied with offerings of incense, and
other acts of adoration, and the chanting of
solemn hymns of praise.
At the close of these services the process
sion moved again down the church, and, issa
ing torth at the great entrance, it passed
X


49





50 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
around upon a spacious platform, where it
could be seen to advantage by all the specta-
tors. Mary was the centre to which all eyes
were turned. She moved along, the very pic-
ture of grace and beauty, the two young girls
who followed her bearing her train. The pro-
cession, after completing its circuit, returned
to the church, and thence, through the covered
gallery, it moved back to the bishop's palace.
Here the company partook of a grand colla-
tion. After the collation there was a ball, but
the ladies were too much embarrassed with
their magnificent dresses to be able to dance,
and at five o'clock the royal family returned
to their home, Mary and Queen Catharine
went together in a sort of palanquin, borne by
men, high officers of state walking on each
side. The king and the dauphin followed on
horseback, with a large company in their
train; but the streets were everywhere so
crowded with eager spectators, that it was with
extreme difficulty that they were able to make
their way.
The palace to which the party went to spend
the evening was fitted up and illuminated in
the most splendid manner, and a variety of
most curious entertainments had been con-
trived for the amusement of the company.
There were twelve artificial horses, made to
mava by internal mzachanism, and splendidly





THE GREAT WEDDING. 51
caparisoned. The children of the company,
the little princes and dukes, mounted these
horses, and rode around the arena. Then
came in a company of men dressed like pil-
grims, each of whom recited a poem written
in honour of the occasion. After this was an
exhibition of galleys, or boats, upon a little
sea. These boats were large enough to carry
two persons. There were two seats in each,
one of which was occupied by a young gentle-
man. As the boats advanced, one by one,
each gentleman leaped to the shore, or to
what represented the shore, and, going among
the company, selected a lady, and bore her off
to his boat; and then, seating her in the va-
cant chair, took his place by her side, and
continued his voyage. Francis was in one of
the boats, and he, on coming to the shore,
took MAary for his companion.
The celebrations and festivities of this fa-
mous wedding continued for fifteen days.
They closed with a grand tournament. A
tournament was a very magnificent spectacle
in those days. A field was enclosed, in which
kings, and princes, and knights, fully armed,
and mounted on war-horses, tilted against
each other with lances and blunted swords.
Ladies of high rank were present as specta-
tors and judges, and one was appointed at
each tournament to preside, and to distribute





52 MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.
the honours and rewards to those who were
most successful in the contests. The greatest
possible degree of deference and honour was
paid to the ladies by all the knights on these
occasions. Once, at a tournament in London,
arranged by a king of England, the knights
and noblemen rode in a long procession to the
field, each led by a lady by means of a silver
chain. It was a great honour to be admitted
to a share in these contests, as none but per-
sons of the highest rank were allowed to take
a part in them. Whenever one was to be
held, invitations were sent to all the courts of
Europe ; and kings, queens, and sovereign
princes, came to witness the spectacle.
The horsemen who contended on these oc-
casions carried long lances, blunt, indeed, at
the end, so that they could not penetrate the
armour of the antagonist at which they were
aimed, but yet of such weight that the mo-
mentum of the blow was sometimes sufficient
to unhorse him. The great object of every
combatant was, accordingly, to protect himself
from this danger. He must turn his horse
suddenly, and avoid the lance of his antago-
aist; or he must strike it with his own, and
"hus parry the blow ; or if he must encounter
it, he was to brace himself firmly in his saddle,
and resist its impulse with all the strength he
could command. It required, therefore, great





THE GREAT WEDDING.


strength and great dexterity to excel in the
tournament. In fact, the rapidity of the evo-
lutions required gave origin to the name, the
word tournament being formed from the
French word turner, which signifies to turn.
The princes and noblemen who were pre-
sent at the wedding all joined in the tourna-
ment except the poor bridegroom, who was too
weak and feeble in body, and too timid in
mind, for any such rough and warlike exer-
cises. Francis was very plain and unprepos-
sessing in countenance, and shy and awkward
in his manners. His health had always been
very infirm, and though his rank was very
high, as he was the heir apparent to what was
then the greatest throne in KEurope, everybody
thought that in all other respects he was unfit
to be the husband of such a beautiful and
accomplished princess as Mary. He was
timid, shy, and anxious and unhappy in dis-
position. He knew that the gay and warlike
spirits around him could not look upon him
with respect, and he felt a painful sense ol
his inferiority.
Mary, however, loved him. It was a love,
perhaps, mingled with pity. She did not
assume an air of superiority over him, but
endeavoured to encourage him, to lead him
forward, to inspire him with confidence and
hope, and to make him feel his own strength


53





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


and value. She was herself of a sedate and
thoughtful character, and with all her intel--
lectual superiority, she was characterized by
that feminine gentleness of spirit, that dis-
position to follow and to yield rather than to
govern, that desire to be led and to be loved
rather than to lead and be admired, which con-
stitute the highest charm of woman.
Francis was glad when the celebrations,
tournament and all, were well over. He set
off from Paris with his young bride to one of
his country residences, where he could live,
for a while, in peace and quietness. Mary
was released, in some degree, from the re-
straints, and formalities, and rules of etiquette
of King Henry's court, and was, to some ex-
tent, her own mistress, though still surrounded
with many attendants, and much parade and
splendour. The young couple thus com-
menced the short period of their married life.
They were certainly a very young couple, both
of them being under sixteen.
The rejoicings on account of the marriage
were not confined to Paris. All Scotland
celebrated the ev:.. t with much parade. The
Catholic party there were pleased with the
final consummation ot the event, and all the
people, in fact, joined, more or less, in com-
memorating the marriage of their queen.
There is in the castle of Edinburgh, on a


54





MISFORTUNES. 55
lofty platform which overlooks a broad valley,
a monstrous gun, several centuries old, which
was formed of bars of iron secured by great
iron hoops. The balls which this gun carried
are more than a foot in diameter. The name
of this enormous piece of ordnance is .Mons
Meg. It is now disabled, having been burst,
many years ago, and injured beyond the pos-
sibility of repair. There were great rejoicings
in Edinburgh at the time of Mary's marriage,
and from some old accounts which still remain
at the castle, it appears that ten shillings were
paid to some men for moving Mons Meg up
to the embrasure of the battery, and for find-
ing and bringing back her shot after she was
discharged; by which it appears that firing
Mons Meg was a part of the celebration by
which the people of Edinburgh honoured the
marriage of their queen.



CHAPTER IV.
M1SF ORTUNZq.
IT was said in the lart chapter that Mary
loved her husband, infirm and feeble as he
was, both in body and in mind. This love
was probably the effect, quite as much as it
was the cause, of the kindness which she





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


showed him. As we are very apt to hate
those whom we have injured, so we almost
instinctively love those who have in any way
become the objects of our kindness and care.
If any wife, therefore, wishes for the pleasure
of loving her husband, or which is, perhaps, a
better supposition, if any husband desires the
happiness of loving his wife, conscious that it
is a pleasure which he does not now enoy,
let him commence by making her the object
of his kind attentions and care, and love will
spring up in the heart as a consequence of the
kind of action of which it is more commonly
the cause.
About a year passed away, when at length
another great celebration took place in Paris,
to honour the marriages of some other mem-
bers of King Henry's family. One of them
was Francis's oldest sister. A grand tourna-
ment was arranged on this occasion too. The
place for this tournament was where the great
street of St. Antoine now lies, and which may
be found on any map of Paris. A very large
concourse of kings and nobles from all the
courts of Europe were present. King Heuiry,
magnificently dressed, and mounted on a su-
porb war-horse, was a very prominent figure
in all the parades of the occasion, though the
actual contests and trials of skill which took
place were between younger princes ana





MISFORTUNES.


knights, King Henry and the ladies being
generally only spectators and judges. He,
however, took a part himself on one or two
occasions, and received great applause.
At last, at the end of the third day, just as
the tournament was to be closed, King Henry
was riding around the field, greatly excited
with the pride and pleasure which so magnifi-
cent a spectacle was calculated to awaken,
when he saw two lances still remaining which
had not been broken. The idea immediately
seized him of making one more exhibition of
his own power and dexterity in such contests.
IHe took one of the lances, and. directing a
high officer who was riding near him to take
the other, he challenged him to a trial of skill.
The name of this officer was Montgomery.
Montgomery at first declined, being unwilling
to contend with his king. The king insisted.
Queen Catharine begged that he would not
contend again. Accidents sometimes happen-
ed, she knew, in these rough encounters; and,
at any rate, it terrified her to see her husband
exposed to such dangers. The other lords
and ladies, and Francis and Queen Mary par-
ticularly, joined in these expostulations. But
Henry was inflexible. There was no danger;
and, smiling at their fears, he commanded
Montgomery to arm himself with his lance,
and take his position.


57





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


The spectators looked on in breathless si-
lence. The two horsemen rode toward each
other, each pressing his horse forward to his
utmost speed, and as they passed, each aimed
his lance at the head and breast of the other.
It was customary on such occasions to wear a
helmet, with. a part called a vizor in front,
which could be raised on ordinary occasions,
or let down in moments of danger like this, to
cover and protect the eyes. Qf course this part
of the armour was weaker than the rest, and it
happened that Montgomery's lance struck here
-was shivered-and a splinter of it pene-
trated the vizor and inflicted a wound ipon
Henry, on the head, just over the eye. Hen-
ry's horse went on. The spectators observed
tlat the rider reeled and trembled in his seat
The whole assembly were in consternation. The
excitement of pride and pleasure was every
where turned into extreme anxiety and alarm.
They flocked about Henry's horse, and
helped the king to dismount. He said it was
nothing. They took off his helmet, and found
iarge drops of blood issuing from the wound.
They bore him to his palace. He had the
magnanimity to say that Montgomery must
not be blamed for this result, as he was him-
self responsible for it entirely. He lingered
eleven days, and then died. This was in
July, 1559.


58





MISFORTUNES. 59
One of the marriages which this unfortunate
tournament had been intended to celebrate,
that of Elizabeth, the king's daughter, had
already taken place, having been performed a
day or two before the king was wounded; and
it was decided, after Henry was wounded, that
the other must proceed, as there were great
reasons of state against any .postponement of
it. This second marriage was that of Marga-
ret, his sister. The ceremony in her case was
performed in a silent and private manner, at
night, by torch-light, in the chapel of the
palace, while her brother was dying. The
services were interrupted by her sobs and
tears.
Notwithstanding the mental and bodily fee-
bleness which seemed to characterise the dau-
phin, Mary's husband, who now, by the death
of his father, became King of France, the
event of his accession to the throne seemed to
awaken his energies, and arouse him to ani-
mation and effort. He was sick himself, and
in his bed, in a palace called the Tournelles,
when some officers of state were ushered into
his apartment, and, kneeling before him, sa-
luted him as king. This was the first an-
nouncemnet of his father's death. He sprang
from his bed, exclaiming at once that he was
well. It is one of the sad consequences of
hereditary greatness and power, that a son





60 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
must sometimes rejoice at the death of his
father.
It was Francis's duty to repair at once to
the royal palace of the Louvre, with Mary, who
was now Queen of France as well as of Scot-
land, to receive the homage of the various
estates of the realm. Catharine was, of course,
now queen dowager. Mary, the child whom
she had so long looked upon with feelings of
jealousy and envy, was from this time to take
her place as queen. It was very humiliating
to Catharine to assume the position of a second
and an inferior in the presence of one whom
she had so long been accustomed to direct and
to command. She yielded, however, with a
good grace, though she seemed dejected and
sad. As they were leaving the Tournelles,
she stopped to let Mary go before her, saying,
"Pass on, madam; it is your turn to take
precedence tiow." Mary went before her, but
she stopped in her turn, with a sweetness of
disposition so characteristic of her, to let
Queen Catharine enter first into the carriage
which awaited them at the door.
Francis, though only sixteen, was entitled
to assume the government himself. He went
to Rheims, a town north-east of Paris, where
is an abbey, which is the ancient place of
coronation for the kings of France. Here he
was crowned. He appointed his ministers,





MISFORTUNES.


and evinced, in his management and in his
measures, more energy and decision than it
was supposed he possessed. He himself and
Mary were now, together, on the summit of
earthly grandeur. They had many political
troubles and cares which cannot be related
here, but Mary's life was comparatively peace-
ful and happy, the pleasures which she enjoyed
being greatly enhanced by the mutual affection
which existed between herself and her husband.
'Though he was small in stature, and very
unprepossessing in appearance and manners,
Francis still evinced in his government a con-
siderable degree of good judgment and of
energy. H is health, however, gradually de-
clined. liC spent much of his time in travel-
ling, and was often dejected and depressed.
One circumstance made him feel very unhappy.
The people of many of the villages through
which he passed, being in those days very ig-
norant and superstitious, got a rumour into
circulation that the king's malady was such
that he could only be cured by being bathed
in the blood of young children.. They ima-
gined that he was travelling to obtain such a
bath ; and, wherever he came, the people fled:
mothers eagerly carrying off their children
from this impending danger. The king did
not understand the cause of his being thus
shunned. They concealed it from him, know-


61





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


ing that it would give him pain. He knew
only the fact, and it made him very sad to find
himself the object of this mysterious and un-
accountable aversion.
In the meantime, while these occurrences
had been taking place in France, Mary's mo-
ther, the queen dowager of Scotland, had been
made queen regent of that country after her
return from France; but she experienced infi-
nite trouble and difficulty in managing the
affairs of the country. The Protestant party
became very strong, and took up arms against
her government. The English sent them aid.
She, on the other hand, with the Catlolic in-
terest to support her, defended her power as
well as she could, and called for help from
France to sustain her. And thus the country
which she was so ambitious to govern, was in-
volved by her management in the calamities
and sorrows of civil war.
In the midst of this contest she died. During
her last sickness she sent for some of the
leaders of the Protestant party, and did all
that she could to soothe and conciliate their
minds. She mourned the calamities and suf-
ferings which the civil war hadl brought upon
the country, and urged the Protestants to do
all in their power, after her death, to heal these
dissensions and restore peace. She also ex-
horted them to remember their obligations of





MISFORTUNES. 63
loyalty and obedience to their absent queen,
and to sustain and strengthen her government
by every means in their power. She died,
and after her death the war was brought to a
close by a treaty of peace, in which the French
and English governments joined with the gov-
ernment of Scotland to settle the points in
dispute, and immediately after the troops of
both these nations were withdrawn. The death
of the queen regent was supposed to have beeL
caused by the pressure of anxiety which the
cares of her government imposed. Her body
was carried home to France, and interred in
the royal abbey at Rheims.
The death of Mary's mother took place in
the summer of 1560. The next December
Mary was destined to meet with a much heavier
affliction. Her husband, King Francis, in
addition to other complaints, had been suffer-
ing for some time from pain and disease in
the ear. One day, when he was preparing to
go out hunting, he was suddenly seized with a
fainting fit, and was soon found to be in great
danger. He continued some days very ill.
He was convinced himself that he could not
recover, and began to make arrangements for
his approaching end. As he drew near to the
close of his life, he was more and more deeply
impressed with a sense of Mary's kindness
and love. He mourned very much his ap.





64 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
preaching separation from her. He sent for
his mother, Queen Catharipe, to come to his
bedside, and begged that she would treat Mary
kindly, for his sake, after he was gone.
Mary was overwhelmed with grief at the ap-
proaching death of her husband. She knew
at once what a great change it would make in
her condition. She would lose immediately
her rank and station. Queen Catharine would
again come into power, as queen regent, dur-
ing the minority of the next heir. All her
friends of the family of Guise would be re-
moved from office, and she herself would be-
come a mere guest and stranger in the land of
which she had been the queen. But nothing
could arrest the progress of the disease under
which her husband was sinking. He died,
leaving Mary a disconsolate widow of seven-
teen.
The historians of those days say that Queen
Catharine was much pleased at the deatl of
Francis her son. It restored her to rank and
power. Mary was again beneath her, and in
some degree subject to her will. All Mary's
friends were removed from their high stations,
and others, hostile to her family, were put
nto their places. Mary soon found herself
Anhappy at court, and she accordingly removed
to a castle at a considerable distance from
Paris, to the west, near the city of Orleans.





MISFORTUNES.


The people of Scotland wanted her to return
ai her native land. Both the great parties
sent ambassadors to her to ask her to return,
each of them urging her to adopt such mea-
sures, on her arrival in Scotland, as should
favour their cause. Queen Catharine, toe, who
was still jealous of Mary's influence, and of
the admiration and love which her beauty and
the loveliness of her character inspired, inti-
mated to her that perhaps it would be better
for her now to leave France, and return to her
own land.
Mary was very unwilling to go. She loved
France. She knew very little of Scotland.
Sle was very young when she left it, and the
few recollections which she had of the country
were confined to the lonely island of Inchma-
home and the castle of Stirling. Scotland was
in a cold and inhospitable climate, accessible
only through stormy and dangerous seas, and
it seemed to her that going there was going
into exile. Besides, she dreaded to undertake
personally to administer a government whose
cares and anxieties had been so great as to
carry her mother to the grave.
Mary, however, found that it was in vain
for her to resist the influences which pressed
upon her the necessity of returning to her na.-
tive land. She wandered about during the
v


65





66 MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.
spring and summer after her husband's death,
spending her time in various palaces and ab-
beys, and at length she began to prepare for
her return to Scotland. The same gentleness
and loveliness of character which she had ex-
hibited in her prosperous fortunes, shone still
more conspicuously now in her hours of sor-
row. Sometimes she appeared in public, in
certain ceremonies of state. She was then
dressed in mourning-in white-according to
the custom of royal families in those days,
her dark hair covered by a delicate crape veil.
Her beauty, softened and chastened by her
sorrows, made a strong impression upon all
who saw her.
& She appeared so frequently, and attracted
so much attention in her white mourning, tlat
she began to be known among the people as
the White Queen. Everybody wanted to see
ner. They admired her beauty ; they were
impressed with the romantic interest of her
history; they pitied lier sorrows. She mourlned
husband's death with deep and unaflbctcd
grief. She invented a device aid motto for a
seal, appropriate to the occasion. It was a
figure qf the liquorice-plant, every part of
which is useless except the root, which, of
course, lies beneath the surface of the earth.
Underneath was the inscription, in Latin,
"The earti, hides all that's dear to me." The





MISFORTUNES. 67
expression is much more beautiful in the Latin
than can be expressed in any English words *
Mary did not, however, give herself up to
sullen and idle grief, but employed herself in
various studies and pursuits, in order to soothe
and solace her grief by useful occupation.
She read Latin authors; she studied poetry;
she composed. She paid much attention to
music, and charmed those who were in her
company by the sweet tones of her voice, and
her skilful performance upon an instrument.
The historians even record an expression of
the fascinating effect produced by the graceful
movements of her beautiful hand. Whatever
she did or said seemed to carry with it an in-
expressible charm.
Before she set out on her return to Scot-
land, she went to pay. a visit to her grand-
mother, the same lady whom her mother had
gone to see in her castle, ten years before, on
her return to Scotland after her visit to Mary.
During this ten years the unhappy mourner
had made no change in respect to her symbols
of grief. The apartments of her palace were
still hung with black. Her countenance wore
the same expression of austerity and woe.
Her attendants were trained to pay to her all
the marks of the most profound deference in


* Dulce mcun terra tegit.





68 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
all their approaches to her. No sounds of
gaiety or pleasure were to be heard, but a pro-
found stillness and solemnity reigned continu-
ally throughout the gloomy mansion.
Not long before the arrangements were
completed for Mary's return to Scotland, she
revisited Paris, where she was received with
great marks of attention and honour. She was
now eighteen or nineteen years of age, in the
bloom of her beauty, and the monarch of a
powerful kingdom, to which she was about to
return, and many of the young princes of
Europe began to aspire to the hlonour of her
hand. Through these and othlr influences,
she was the object of much attention; while,
on the other hand, Queen ('atharine, and the
party in power at the French court, were en-
vious and jealous of her popularity, and did a
great deal tb mortify and vex her.
The enemy, however, whom Mary had most
to fear, was her cousin, Queen Elizabeth of
England.
Queen Elizabeth was a maiden lady, now
nearly thirty years of age. She was in all
respects extremely different from Mary. She
was a zealous Protestant, and very suspicious
and watchful in respect to Mary, on account
of her Catholic connections and faith. She
was very plain in person, and unprepossessing
in banners. She was, however, intelligent





MISFORTUNES.


and shrewd, and was governed by calculations
and policy in all that she did. The people by
whom she was surrounded admired her talents
and feared her power, but nobody loved her.
She had many good qualities as a monarch,
but none considered as a woman.
Elizabeth was somewhat envious of her
cousin Mary's beauty, and of her being such
an object of interest and affection to all who
knew her. But she had far more serious and
permanent cause of alienation from her than
personal envy. It was this :-Elizabeth's fa-
ther, King Henry the Eighth, had, in succes-
sion, several wives, and there had been a
question raised about the legality of his mar-
riage with Elizabeth's mother. Parliament
decided at one time that this marriage was not
valid ; at another time, subsequently, they
decided that it was. This difference in the
two decisions was not owing so much to change
of sentiment in the persons who voted, as to
the change in the ascendancy of the parties by
which the decision was controlled. If the
marriage were valid, then Elizabeth was en-
titled to the English crown. If it were not
valid, then she was not entitled to it : it be-
longed to the next heir. Now it happened
that Mary Queen of Scots was the next heir.
Her grandmother on the father's side was an
English princess, and through her Mary had


69





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


a just title to the crown, if Queen Elizabeth's
title was annulled.
Now, while Mary was in France, during the
life-time of King Henry, Francis's father, he
and the members of the family of Guise ad-
vanced Mary's claim to the British crown, and
denied that of Elizabeth. They made a coat
of arms, in which the arms of France, and
Scotland, and England, were combined, and
had it engraved on Mary's silver plate. On
one great occasion, they had this symbol dis-
played conspicuously over the gateway of a
town where Mary was making a public entry.
The English ambassador, who was present,
made this, and other acts of the same kind,
known to Elizabeth, and she was greatly in-
censed at them. She considered Mary as
plotting treasonably against her power, and
began to contrive plans to circumvent and
thwart her.
Nor was Elizabeth wholly unreasonable in
this. Mary, though personally a gentle and
peaceful woman, yet in her teens, was very
formidable to Elizabeth as an opposing claim-
ant of the crown. All the Catholics in France
and in Scotland would naturally take Mary's
side. Then, besides this, there was a large
Catholic party in England, who would be
strongly disposed to favour any plan which
should give them a Catholic monarch. Eliza-


70





MISFORTUNES.


beth was, therefore, very justly alarmed at
such a claim on the part of her cousin. It
threatened not only to expose her to the ag-
gressions of foreign foes, but also to internal
commotions and dangers in her own dominions.
The chief responsibility for bringing forward
this claim, must rest undoubtedly, not on
Mary herself, but on King Henry of France,
and the other French princes who first put it
forward. Mary, however, herself was not
entirely passive in the affair. She liked to
consider herself as entitled to the English
crown. She had a device for a seal, a very
favourite one with her, which expressed this
claim. It contained two crowns, with a motto
in Latin below, which meant, /I third awaits
me." Elizabeth knew all these things, and
she held Mary accountable for all the anxiety
and alarm which this dangerous claim occa-
sioned her.
At the peace which was made in Scotland
between the French and English forces and
the Scotch, by a treaty made at Edinburgh,
Which has been already described, it was
agreed thbt Mary should relinquish all claim
to the crown of England. This treaty was
brought to France for Mary to ratify it, but
she declined. Whatever rights she might have
to the English crown, she refused to surrender
them. Things remained in this state until the


71





MARY QUE'E I OF SCOT80


time arrived for her return to her native land,
and then, feeling that perhaps Elizabeth might
do something to intercept her passage, she
applied to her for a safe-conduct; that is, a
writing authorizing her to pass safely and
without hindrance through the English do-
minions, whether land or sea. Queen Eliza-
beth returned word, through her ambassador
in Paris, whose name was 'Throckmorton, that'
she could not give her any such safe-conduct,
because she had refused to ratify the treaty of
Edinburgh.
When this answer was communicated to
Mary, she felt deeply wounded by it. She
sent all the attendants away, that she might
express herself to Throckmorton without re-
serve. She told him that it seemed to her
very hard that her cousin was disposed to pre-
vent her return to her native land. As to her
claim upon the English crown, she said that
advancing it was not her plan, but that of her
husband and his father; and that now she
could not properly renounce it, whatever its
validity might be, till she could have opportu-
nity to return to Scotland and consult with
her government there, since it affected not her
personally alone, but the public interests of
Scotland. And now," she continued, in sub-
stance, I am sorry that I asked such a fa-
vour of her. I have no need to ask it, for I


72





MISFORTUNES. 73
am sure I have a right to return from France
to my own country without asking permission
of any one. You have often told me that the
queen wished to be on friendly terms with me,
and that it was your opinion that to be friends
would be best for us both. But now I see
that she is not of your mind, but is disposed
to treat me in an unkind and unfriendly man-
ner, while she knows that I am her equal in
rank, though I do not pretend to be her equal
in abilities and experience. Well, she may
do as she pleases. If my preparations were
not so far advanced, perhaps I should give up
the voyage. But I am resolved to go. I hope
the winds will prove favourable, and carry me
away from her stores. If they carry me upon
them, and I fall into her hand, she may make
what disposal of me she will. If I lose my
life, I shall esteem it no. great loss, for it i.
now little else than a burden."
flow strongly this speech expresses that
mixture of melancholy and dignity, of womanly
softness and noble decision, which pervaded
her character." There is a sort of gentleness
even in her anger, and a certain indescribable
womanly charm in the workings of her mind,
which cause all who read her story, while they
cannot but think that Elizabeth was right, tc
sympathize wholly with Mary.
Throckmorton, at one of his conversations





4MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


with Mary, took occasion to ask her respecting
her religious views, as Elizabeth wished to
know how far she was fixed and committed in
her attachment to the Catholic faith. Mary
said that she was born and had been brought
up a Catholic, and that she should remain so
as long as she lived. She would not interfere,
she said, with her subjects adopting such form
of religion as they might prefer, but for her-
self she should not change. If she should
change, she said, she should justly lose the
confidence of her people ; for, if they saw
that she was light and fickle on that subject,
they could not rely upon her in respect to any
other. She did not profess to be able to ar-
gue, herself, the questions of difference, but
sle was not wholly uninformed in respect to
them, as she had often heard the points dis-
cussed by learned men, and had found nothing
to lead her to change her ground.
It is impossible for any reader, whether
Protestant or Catholic, not to admire the
frankness and candour, the honest conscien-
tiousness, the courage, and, at the same time,
womanly modesty and propriety which charac-
terize this reply.


74





75


CHAPTER V.
RETURN TO SCOTLAND.
MARY was to sail from the port of Calais.
Calais is on the northern coast of France, oo-
posite to Dover in England, these towns being
on opposite sides of the Straits of Dover,
where the channel between England and
France is very narrow. Still the distance is
so great, that the land on either side is ordi-
narily not visible on the other. There is no
good natural harbour at Calais, nor, in fact, at
any other point on the French side opposite.
The French have had to supply the deficiency
by artificial piers and breakwaters. There
are several very capacious and excellent har-
bours on the English side. This may have
been one cause, among others, of the great
naval superiority which England has attained.
When Queen Elizabeth found that Mary
was going to persevere in her intention of re-
turning to her native land, she feared that she
might, after her arrival in Scotland, and after
getting established in power there, form a
scheme for making war upon her dominions,
and attempt to carry into effect her claim upon
the English crown. She wanted to prevent
this. Would it do for her to intercept Mary





MAR Y QUEEN OF SCOTS.


upon her passage? She reflected on this
subject with the cautious calculation which
formed so striking a part of her character, and
felt in doubt. Her taking Mary a prisoner,
and confining her a captive in her own land,
might incense Queen Catharine, who was now
regent of France, and also awaken a general
resentment in Scotland, so as to bring upon
her the hostility of those two countries, and
thus, perhaps, make more mischief than the
securing of Mary's person would prevent.
She accordingly, as a previous step, sent to
Tlirockmorton, her ambassador in France,
directing him to have an interview with Queen
Catharine, and ascertain how far she would
feel disposed to take Mary's part. Tlirock-
morton did this. Queen Catharine gave no
direct reply. She said that both herself and
the young king wished well to Elizabeth, and
to Mary too ; that it was her desire that the
two queens might be on good terms with each
other ; that she was a friend to them both, and
should not take a part against either of them.
This was all that Queen Elizabeth could ex-
pect, and slhe formed her plans for intercept-
ing Mary on her passage. She sent to
Throckmorton, asking him to find out, if he
could, what port Queen Mary was to sail
from, and to send her word. She then gave
orders to her naval commanders to assemble


76





RETURN TO SCOTLAND.


as many ships as they could, and hold them
in readiness to sail into the seas between
England and France, for the purpose of ex-
terminating the pirates, which she said had
lately become very numerous there.
Throckmorton took occasion, in a conversa-
tion which he had with Mary soon after this,
to inquire from what port she intended to sail;
but she did not give him the information.
She suspected his motive, and merely said, in
reply to Iis question, that she hoped the wind
would prove favourable for carrying her away
as far as possible from the English coast,
whatever might be the point from which she
should take her departure. Throckmorton
then endeavoured to find out the arrangements
of the voyage by other means, but without
much success. He wrote to l'izabeth that
he thought Mary would sail either from Havre
or Calais; that slhe would go eastward, along
the store of the Contineit, by Flanders and
Hiolland, till she had gained a considerable
distance from the English coast, and then
would sail north along the eastern shores of
the German Ocean. He advised that Eliza-
beth should send spies to Calais and to Havre,
and perhaps to other French ports, to watch
there, and to let ler know whenever they ob-
served any appearances of preparations for
Mary's departure.


77





78


MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.


In the mean time, as the hour for Mary's
farewell to Paris, and all its scenes of luxury
and splendour, drew near, those who had
loved her were drawn more closely to her in
heart than ever, and those who had been
envious and jealous began to relent, and to
look upon her with feelings of compassion and
of kind regard. Queen Catharine treated her
with extreme kindness during the last few
days of her stay, and she accompanied her for
some distance on her journey, with every
manifestation of sincere affection and good
will. She stopped, at length, at St. Germain,
and there, with many tears, she bade her
gentle daughter-in-law a long and last fare-
well.
Many princes and nobles, especially of the
family of Guise, Mary's relatives, accom-
panied her through the whole journey. The-
formed quite a long cavalcade, and attracted
great attention in all the towns and districts
through which they passed. They travelled
slowly, but at length aDrived at Calais, where
they waited nearly a week to complete the
arrangements of Mary's embarkation. At
length the day arrived for her to set sail. A
large concourse of spectators assembled to
witness the scene. Four ships had been pro-
vided for the transportation of the party and
their effects. Two of these were galleys.





RETURN TO SCOTLAND. 79
They were provided with banks of oars, and
large crews of rowers, by means of which the
vessels could be propelled when the wind
failed. The two other vessels were merely
vessels of burden, to carry the furniture and
other effects of the passengers.
Many of the queen's friends were to accom-
pany her to Scotland. The four Maries were
among them. She bade those that were to
remain behind farewell, and prepared to em-
bark on board the royal galley. Her heart
was very sad. Just at this time, a vessel
which was coming in struck against the pier,
in consequence of a heavy sea which was roll-
ing in, and of the distraction of the seamen
occasioned by Mary's disembarkation. The
vessel which struck was so injured by the
concussion that it filled immediately and sunk.
Most of the seamen on board were drowned.
This accident produced great excitement and
confusion. Mary looked upon the scene from
the deck of her vessel, which was now slowly
moving from the shore. It alarmed her, and
impressed her mind with a sad and mournful
sense of the dangers of the elements to whose
mercy she was now to be committed for many
days. What an unhappy omen is this "
she exclaimed. She ~ren went to the stern
of the ship, looked back at the shore, then
knelt down, and, covering her face with her





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


hands, sobbed aloud. Farewell, France !"
she exclaimed: I shall never, never see
thee more." Presently, when her emotions
for a moment subsided, she would raise her
eyes, and take another view of the slowly-re-
ceding shore, and then exclaim again, Fare-
well, my beloved France farewell! fare-
well !"
She remained in this position, suffering
this anguish, for five hours, when it began to
grow dark, and she could no longer see the
shore. She then rose, saying that hler be-
loved country was gone from her sight for
ever. The darkness, like a thick veil, hides
thee from my sight, and I shall see thee no
more. So farewell, beloved land! farewell
for ever! She left her place at the stern,
but she would not leave the deck. She made
them bring up a bed, and place it for her
there, near the stern. They tried to induce
her to go into the cabin, or at least to take
some supper ; but she would not. She lay
down upon her bed. She charged the helms-
man to awaken her at the dawn, if the land
was in sight when the dawn should appear.
She then wept herself to sleep.
During the night the a;r was calm, and the
vessels in which Mary and her company had
embarked made such small progress, being
worked only by the oars, that the land came


80





RETURN TO SCOTLAND.


into view again with the gray light of the
morning. The helmsman awoke Mary, and
the sight of the shore renewed her anguish
and tears. She said that she could not go
She wished that Elizabeth's ships would come
in sight, so as to compel her squadron to re-
turn. But no English fleet appeared. On
the contrary, the breeze freshened. The
sailors unfurled the sails, the oars were taken
in, and the great crew of oarsmen rested from
their toil. The ships began to make their
way rapidly through the rippling water. The
land soon became a faint, low cloud, in the
horizon, and in an hour all traces of it entirely
disappeared.
The voyage continued for ten days. They
saw nothing of Elizabeth's cruisers. It was
afterwards ascertained, however, that these
ships were at one time very near to them, and
were only prevented from seeing and taking
them by a dense fog, which at that time hap-
pened to cover the sea. One of the vessels of
burden was seen and taken, and carried to
England. It contained, however, only some
of Mary's furniture and effects. She herself
escaped the danger.
The fog, which was thus Mary's protection
at one time, was a source of great difficulty
and danger at another; for, when they wero





MARY QUEEN 01 SCOTS.


drawing near to the place of their landing in
Scotland, they were enveloped in a fog so
dense that they could scarcely see from one
end of the vessel to the other. They stopped
the progress of their vessels, and kept con-
tinually sounding; and when at length the
fog cleared away, they found themselves en-
veloped in a labyrinth of rocks and shoals of
the most dangerous character. They made
their escape at last, and went on safely toward
the land. Mary said, however, that she felt,
at the time, entirely indifferent as to the re-
sult. She was so disconsolate and wretched
at having parted for ever from all that was
dear to her, that it seemed to her that she was
equally willing to live or to die.
Mary, who, among her other accomplish-
ments, had a great deal of poetic talent, wrote
some lines, called her Farewell to France,
which have been celebrated from that day to
this. This is the song :-
ADIEU.
Adieu, plaisant pays de France I
0 ima patric,
La-plus cherie;
Qui a nourri ma jeunte enfance.
Adieu France! adien, nies beaux jours I
La nef qui dejoint mes amours,
N'a cy de moi que la moiti ;
U!ne part te reste; elle est tienne;
Je la fie A ton amitie,
Plour que de 'autrc il te soluvienne.


82





RETURN TO SCOTLAND. 83
Many persons have attempted to translate
this sang into English verse; but it is always
extremely difficult to translate poetry from
one language to another. We give here two
of the best of these translations. The reader
can judge, by observing how different they
are from each other, how different they must
both be from their common original.
ADIEU.
Farewell to thee, thou pleasant shore,
The loved, the cherished home to me
Of infant joy, a dream that's o'er,
Farewell, dear France farewell to thee 1
The sail that wafts me bears away
From thee but half my soul alone;
Its fellow half will fondly stay,
And back to thee has faithful flown.
I trust it to thy gentle care;
For all that herc remains with me
Lives but to think of all that's there,
To love and to remember thee.
The other translation is as follows :-
ADIEU.
Adieu, thou pleasant land of France I
The dearest of all lands to mue,
Where life was like a joyful dance,
The joyful dance of infancy.
Farewell my childhood's laughing wilest
Farewell the joys of youth's bright day I
The hark that takes ne from thy siiles,
Bearj but mty tmeianer half away.





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


The best is thine; my changeless heart
Is given, beloved France, to thee ;
And let it sometimes, though we part,
Remind thee, with a sigh, of me.
It was on the 19th of August, 1561, that
the two galleys arrived at Leith. Leith is a
small port, on the shore of the Frith of Forth,
about two miles from Edinburgh, which is
situated somewhat inland. The royal palace,
where Mary was to reside, was called the
Palace of Holyrood. It was, and is still, a
large square building, with an open court in
the centre, into which there is access for car-
i sages through a large arched passage-way
in the centre of the principal front of the
building. In the rear, but connected with
the palace, there was a chapel in Mary's day,
though it is now in ruins. The walls still
remain, but the roof is gone. The people of
Scotland were not expecting Mary so soon.
Information was communicated from country
to country, in those days, slowly and with
great difficulty Perhaps the time of Mary's
departure from France was purposely con-
cealed. even from the Scotch, to avoid all
possibility that the knowledge of it should get
into Elizabeth's possession.
At any rate, the first intelligence which the
inhabitants of Edinburgh and the vicinity had
of the arriv-J of their queen, was the approach


84





RETURN TO SCOTLAND.


of the galleys to the shore, and the firing of a
royal salute from their guns. The Palace cf
Holyrood was not ready for Mary's reception,
and she had to remain a day at Leith, await--
ing the necessary preparations. In the mean-
time, the whole population began to assemble
to welcome her arrival. Military bands were
turned out; banners were provided; civil and
military officers in full costume assembled,
and bonfires and illuminations were provided
for the evening and night. In a word, Mary's
subjects in Scotland did all in their power to
do honour to the occasion; but the prepara-
tions were so far beneath the pomp and pa-
geantry which she had been accustomed to in
France, that she felt the contrast very keenly,
and realized, more forcibly than ever, how
great was the change which the circumstances
of her life were undergoing.
Horses were prepared for Mary and her
large company of attendants, to ride from
Leith to Edinburgh. The long cavalcade
moved toward evening. The various profes-
sions and trades of Edinburgh were drawn up
in lines on each side of the road, and thou-
sands upon thousands of other spectators as-
sembled to witness the scene.. When she
reached the palace of Holyrood House, a band
of music played for a time under her windows,
and then the great throng quietly dispersed,


85





MARY QUEEN OP SCOTS.


leaving Mary to her repose. In Mary's day,
the northern part of the palace only had been
built, and the range extending back to the
royal chapel. Mary took up her abode in this
dwelling, and was glad to rest from the fa-
tigues and privations of her long voyage; but
she found her new home a solitary and gloomy
dwelling, compared with the magnificent pa-
laces of the land she had left.
Mary made an extremely favourable im-
pression upon her subjects in Scotland. To
please them she exchanged the white mourning
of France, from which she had taken the
name of the White Queen, for a black dress,
more accordant with the ideas and customs of
her native land. This gave her a more sedate
and matronly character, and though the ex-
pression of her countenance and figure was
somewhat changed by it, it was only a change
to a new form and fascinating beauty. Her
manners, too, so graceful and easy, and yet so
simple and unaffected, charmed all who saw
her.
Mary had a half-brother in Scotland, whose
title was at this time the Lord James. He was
afterward named the Earl of Murray, and is
commonly known in history under this latter
designation. The mother of Lord James was
not legally married to Mary's father, and con-
quently he could not inherit any of his fa-


86





RETURN TO SCOTLAD.


their's rights to the Scottish crown. The Lord
James was, however, a man of very high rank
and influence, and Mary immediately received
him into her service, and made him one of her
highest ministers of state. He was now
about thirty years of age, prudent, cautious,
and wise, of good person and manners, but
somewhat reserved and austere.
Lord James had the general direction of af-
fairs on Mary's arrival, and things went on
very smoothly for a week ; but then, on the
first Sunday after the landing, a very serious
difficulty threatened to occur. The Catholics
have a certain celebration, called the mass, to
which they attach a very serious and solemn
importance. When our Saviour gave the bread
and the wine to his disciples at the Last Sup-
per, he said of it, This is my body, broken
for you," and This is my blood, shed for
you." The Catholics understand that these
words denote that the bread and wine did at
that time, and that they do now, whenever the
communion service is celebrated by a priest
duly authorized, become, by a sort of miracu-
lous transformation, the true body and b ,od
of Christ; and that the priest, in breaking he
one and pouring out the other, is really and
truly renewing the great sacrifice for sin made
by Jesus Christ at his crucifixion. The mass,
therefore, in which the bread and the wine are


87





88 MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.
so broken and poured out, becomes, in their
view, not a mere service of prayer and praise
to God, but a solemn act of sacrifice. The
spectators, or assistants, as.. they call them,
meaning all who are present on the occasion,
stand by, not merely to hear words of adora-
tion, in which they mentally join, as is the
case in most Protestant forms of worship,
but to witness the enactment of a deed, and
one of great binding force and validity ; a real
and true sacrifice of Christ, made anew, as an
atonement for their sins. The bread, when
consecrated, and, as they suppose, transmuted
to the body of Christ, is held up to view, or
carried in a procession around the church, that
all present may bow before it, and adore it as
really being, though in the form of bread, the
wounded and broken body of the Lord.
Of course the celebration of the mass is in-
vested, in the minds of all conscientious Ca-
tholics, with the utmost solemnity and import-
an.e. They stand silently by, with the deep-
est feelings of reverence and awe, while the
priest offers up for them, anew, the great sa-
crifice for sin. They regard all Protestant
worship, which consists of mere exhortations
to duty, hymns, and prayers, as lifeless and
void. That which is to them the soul, the
essence, and substance of the whole, is want-
ing. On the other hand, the Protestants ab-





RETURN TO SCOTLAND.


hor the sacrifice of the mass as gross super-
stition. They think that the bread remains
simply bread after the benediction as much as
before; that for the priest to pretend that in
breaking it they renew the sacrifice of Christ,
is imposture ; and that to bow before it in
adoration and homage is the worst idolatry.
Now it happened that during Mary's ab-
sence in France, the contest between the Ca-
tholics and the Protestants had been going
fiercely on, and the result had been the almost
complete defeat of the Catholic party, and the
establishment of the Protestant interest
throughout the realm. A great many deeds
of violence accompanied the change. Churches
and abbeys were sometimes sacked and de-
stroyed. The images of saints, which the
Catholics had put up, were pulled down and
broken ; and the people were sometimes
worked up to phrenzy against the principles
of the Catholic faith and Catholic observances.
They abhorred the mass, and were determined
that it should not be introduced into Scotland.
Queen Mary, knowing this state of things,
determined, on her arrival in Scotland, tot to
interfere with her people in the exercise of
their religion ; but she resolved to remain a
Catholic herself, and to continue, for the use
of her own household, in the royal chapel at
TIolyrood, the same Catholic observances to


89





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


which she had been accustomed in France.
She accordingly gave orders that mass should
be celebrated in her chapel on the first Sun-
day after her arrival. She was very willing
to abstain from interfering with the religious
usages of her subjects, but she was not will-
ing to give up her own.
The friends of the Reformation had a meet-
ing, and resolved that mass should not be
celebrated. There was, however, no way of
preventing it but by intimidation or violence.
When Sunday came, crowds began to assemble
about the palace and the chapel, and to fill all
the avenues leading to them. The Catholic
families who were going to attend the service
were treated rudely as they passed. The
priests they threatened with death. One,
who carried a candle which was to be used in
the ceremonies, was extremely terrified at
their threats and imprecations. The excite-
-nent was very great, and would probably have
proceeded to violent extremities, had it not
been for Lord James's energy and courage.
He was a Protestant, but he took his station
at the door of the chapel, and, without saying
or doing anything to irritate the crowd with-
out, he kept them at bay, while the service
proceeded. It went on to the close, though
greatly interrupted by the confusion and up-
roar. Many of the French people who came


90





RETURN TO SCOTLAND. 91
with Mary were so terrified by this scene,
that they declared they would not stay in such
a country, and took the first opportunity of
returning to France.
One of the most powerful and influential of
the leaders of the Protestant party at this time
was the celebrated John Knox. He was a
man of great powers of mind and of com-
manding eloquence : and he had exerted a
vast influence in arousing the people of Scot-
land to a feeling of strong abhorrence of what
they considered the abominations of popery.
When Queen Mary of England was upon the
throne, Knox had written a book against her,
and against queens in general, women having,
according to his views, no right to govern.
Knox was a man of the most stern and uncom-
promising character, who feared nothing, re-
spected nothing, and submitted to no restraints
in the blunt and plain discharge of what he
considered his duty. Mary dreaded his in.
fluence and power.
Knox had an interview with Mary not long
after her arrival, and it is one of the most
striking instances of the strange ascendancy
which Mary's extraordinary beauty and grace,
and the pensive charm of her demeanour, ex-
ercised over all that came within her influence,
that even John Knox, whom nothing else
could soften or subdue, found his rough and





MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.


indomitable energy half forsaking him in the
presence of his gentle queen. She expostu-
lated with him. He half apologized. No-
thing had ever drawn the least semblance of
an apology from him before. He told her
that his book was aimed solely against Queen
Mary of England, and not against her; that
she had no cause to fear its influence; that,
in respect to the freedom with which he had
advanced his opinions and theories on the
subjects of government and religion, she need
not be alarmed, for philosophers had always
done this in every age, and yet had lived good
citizens of the state, whose institutions they
had, nevertheless, in some sense theoretically
condemned. He told her, moreover, that he
had no intention of troubling her reign; that
she might be sure of this, since, if he had
such a desire, he should have commenced his
measures during her absence, and not have
postponed them until her position on the
throne was strengthened by her return. Thus
he tried to soothe her fears, and to justify
himself from the suspicion of having designed
any injury to such a gentle and helpless queen.
The interview was a very extraordinary spec-
tacle. It was that of a lion laying aside his
majestic sternness and strength to dispel the
ears and quiet the apprehensions of a dove.
The interview was, however, after all, painful


92





MARY AND LORD DARNLEY. 93
and distressing to Mary. Some things which
the stern reformer felt it his duty to say to
her, brought tears into her eyes.
Mary soon became settled in her new home,
though many circumstances in her situation
were well calculated to disquiet and disturb her.
She lived in the palace at IIolyrood. The
four Maries continued with her for a time,
and then two of them were married to nobles
of high iank. Queen Elizabeth sent Mary a
kind message, congratulating her on her safe
arrival in Scotland, and assuring her that the
story of her having attempted to intercept her
was false. Mary, who had no means of
proving Elizabeth's insincerity, sent her back
a polite reply.


CHAPTER VI.
MARY AND LORD DARNLEY.
DURI. N the three or four years which
elapsed after Queen Mary's arrival in Scot-
land, she had to pass through many stormy
scenes of anxiety and trouble. The great
nobles of the land were continually quarrelling,
and all parties were earnest and eager in their
efforts to get Mary's influence and power on
their side. She had a great deal of trouble
with the affairs of her brother, the Lord




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs