PHILOSOPHY IN SPORT
SCIENCE IN EARNEST:
BIGNO AN ATTEMPT TO IMPLANT IN THE YOUNG MND TEE PIST
PRINCIPLEtS O NATURAL PHIKOSOPHY BY THE AID O
TIE POPULAR TO8 AND SPORTS OF YOVITN
nv-fawp OmOUsnaHLs fLAfieS, wvar a*fll,.
CLARK, AUSTIN & SMITH,
8 PANK ROW AND 8 ANWrTUElK
PHILOSOPHY IN SPORT
SC ENCE IN EARNEST.
'Th not enough that Greek and Roman page
At stated hours the sprightly boy engage;
E'n In hl pastimes he reqniros frien,
To warn, and teAh, him ,enfly to nbend;
And levying thus, and with an esy away,
A tax of profit from ha vay play,
To impress a vale, not to be erased,
On inomenti squandered olia, and running all to waste.
TO THE READER.
Tsu. me, gentle Rader, whether thou emt ot heard of t-e
box of Pandor, which was o o Cer opened by the iasppy
Epanetheam, than it gave fghb to a troop of maleolent spirit
which have ever since tormented the human rame.-B mo t-I
here present you with a magie basket eonts~iing a OnmS alon
capable of conuterotin their direi spell. Perchamnc tkeq
m~ayet any that its aspect but ill accords with th richness of its
promiLed treasure; so appeared the copper veamel found by-ta
fiaherman, 4 related in the Ara an tale; but remember. that no
somoer ha he broken its mystic seal, than the imprisoned gniu
spread itself over the ocean and raised its giant limbs abre the
deoada But this was an evil and treacherous spirit; miAne I-
benevolent an he is mighty, and seeks comnunoio with o raue
for o other object than to render mortals virtues and happy.
To be plain, my youMg friends, if you have ot already riddled
my allegory, his name is PaisRooar.
In your progr ths rough life, he not vain as to beldev u that
you will e e esape te evils with which its path is beset
yourselve therefore, with the taliman that ca, at once, deprlv
adrerity of it stng, ad prospeity of its dangers; for auc, bis
h've me, is the rare privnileg of philosophy.
E must now take leave of you for a ahot time, in oder that I
may address a few words to your parent, and precept s; but,
,a I have no plot to abridge yoau libertie, or lengthi yor
hours of study, you my ntn to my address without am
to my plan without a suspicion Imagmie not, however, tnt I oal
recommended the dismiaAl f the c or the whip; eik the
trary. I dihal insit upon then as esfy and indipen a e mi
plamat. for the accomplishment of ay design *but the imetd
6 TO MBn fEADfl-
of applying them will be changed with the one I ahall ntriart
the bow of the white, with the other I hall spin the top
The object of the present work i to inenleste that early love
of sLence while canh never bh derived from the sterner produ-
tlona Youth i naturally addicted to amusement, a. in this
item his expenditure too often exceeds hi allotted incme. I
have, therefore, takon the liberty to draw a draft upon Pbiloeo-
phy. withAthe full anstanc that it will e gratefully repaid, with
compound interest, ten years after date. But to be serious those
who superintend the education of youth should be apprised of
the great importance of the firet impression Roausseau has said,
that the seeds of future ices or virtues are more frequently
sown by the mother than by the tutor; thereby aitimatig that
the characters of men are often determined by the earliest n-
presions; and, of so much moment did Quintilira regard thie
truth, that he recomme nd to us the example of Phibp, who did
not surfer any other than Ariatotle to teach exander to read.
In like manner those who do not commnce their atdly of nature
st an early eason, will afterward larve many nnmocessary obsta-
des to encounter. The difficult of comprehending the prini-
plea of Natural Philosophy frequently arie from their being at
variance with thosr fatee ideas which early ssochtioMn have imn
preised upon the mind; the firke year of study, are therefore,
expanded in us hearing, and in clearing away the weeds, wlich
would never have taken root in a properly culivated soiL "To
clter into the kingdomr of knowledge" sai d Lord Baon, we must
put the spirit of little children.
- Writer on practical edeuation have repeatedly advcated the
advntagerof the plan I am so aniionm to enforce ; but, strange
to say, it is only withinn a few years tnt May works hve appeared
at al ealeulated to afford the necesary assistance. In shrt. pre-
vias -t the labors of Ma. Mlacet nnd Mis Eldgeworth, the pro-
duionl published foe the purpose of Juvanile instruction may b
Jutly charged with the grosaest enors and muet have proved a
destrne ive to the mid.of te yo- g reder, a t book jk-
ed by the phbyicia Donbao is said to hae been to the Grecd
king, who, tie Arabian tale relate. imbibed sh polo a he
turned over each lea until be fell lAeloge m the prea re of hb
courtier; or. to ive another ilatratior miievou a the
magie volume of Michael mSott which, as Dempeter minor u,
could not be opened without the danger of ivoking some
*ont flend by the operation
Henceforth let all young men take heed
How in a conjurer' book they re.l-*
How iDnitely superior in execution and puipose are the jve-
ndle works of the present entry !-to borrow a metaphor fA
Coleridge, they ray be trly msad to resemble a coection of mis-
row set in the same frame, each having its own focie of inowl-
edge, yet all vpable of convergtn to one point
Allow me, friencdy Reader, before I conclude my address, to
eay a few words upon the plan and execution of the wor before
you. It t i not tended to supersede or clsh ith my of the
elementary treatiece to which I have tlluded ; indeed, its plan i
so peculiar, that I apprehend such a charge cannot be brought
against it The author originally cmposed it fr the exclaive
use of bhe children, and would certainly never bve consigned it
to t re t the r, but at the earnest oictaon of those fiends up
whose judgment he placed the utmost reliance. Let this be re-
ceived as an answer t those who, belieing that they a recg
nise the writer, may be induced to exclaim with Menedemus in
Terence,-" Tantanns eat ab re ed tli t bi tlievn nt 4 eane
I qga ad te attinent'l Its French transIrte regrets that
onthey's Minor eom.
t W Hrae yon seh lWanme flem your own tiatns
To thnla of thse that don't concem you I"
t LaSuota. .s5.l M pQare ls. one: Smit6 do rkAnJgl, per T. Aehad,
Prosaeour ae Mftetmtiques )'r-4 d I JMArwvrf oAaspfcqi fAeC dc
- -a 2Ur&u a s eu
8 TO l sansua.
hA s;m.1a I t tagivtIhe ommLB of t"f Tgh1ih author; Whil,. by
not witahomldg h own he affods me the. tatiyroppority
of ident ifsig MI ar4as the" paon-d wrboml sam-obliged
for the ability with wi he -hf enIeontt a .dicult .adertak
ing. Addoa, I beliee, ha i e&d that ra. an be -o more
traM Ate than it can bo engraved I ca-therefo re adily p-
do the Pfesor for having lopped off at leat three-forh of
my kite'a ai, to say nothing of anU4 other mutilaion s; it i
trne, indeed, that he hs offered compesti on by the intro o
of may r lever ceemburgs and mart jeuso-dit-m LtyAimeri-
n m tor hd inot that diiculty to encounter, and I only regret
thIt be did not enliven some of it paissagos with the buoonr eo
characterfetic of ia country
In tampeing a scientifi work for eleumentry ii~ret',
nothing is more difficult than to conceive a standad of infom-
tion s nicely adjusted a eall explain without being too pro-
found, and struct without being too enperfihiaL Upon eab
omaon its author is pretty much n the predicament ofa an mher
when taking hil younger pnpiw on a bathing excurion; who ha
to avoid the brook as too shallow for recreton, and the pool an
too deep for safety
It is cacely nec asary to offer ay apology for the cover
tionl plan of instruction; the uucceas of Mrs. !arcet' dialogue
had placed its value beyond dispute. It my, however, be ob-
oedv t that this species of compoiti may be executed in two
different way-either as direct conversation, where none but
the speaker appear, which ia the method used by lato; or as
the rental of a converation, where the author himself atppe
and gi*es an account of what paed in dicourse, which is the
plan generally adopted by Gicero The reader is aware that
rs. Maret, in her Conersations on Philoo "hy,* hs adopted
thi frner, whie Miln Edgeworth, in her Harry and Luecy
ha preferred the latter method. In compoi the reentw
I have followed the plan of the last-mentioned authorea. .l
advantae over the more direct eonrertionl style c ste he
allowing occasional renirkh. 'ib omeimo n Apely eafrN the
Iathor than om any of the chaastor engaged indeed i ft
nmalities of the dialogue ara neceularily 6ppoed to bande. viAos
frm an appointed couse, ty thereby exclude nnch ueti
inform tbat tha might other wi be incidentally introdl
It sciatific dialogues are l popular in our tim they
were in ancient days it must be attributed to the igi&d ao in
ipid manner in whieoh they ve too frequently been executed:
if we exept the mr erter l formal of converntioo, and that
one aarater in made to speak and the other to answer, they are
altogether the same an if the author himself spoke throughout
the whole, intead of Smuaing with a varied style of contve
tio, and with a display of consistent and well-supported ha
tera The introduction of a pero of buftor, to enlitve the- dia-
ourn is sanctioned by the highest authority. Csaar is thna in-
trIdued by Cicero, and Oynthio by Addion In the introductice
of Mr. Taddweto and Major Snapwell, I m well awmr of the
criticisms to which I ar eoed I rhae exercised my ftey
with a freedom and latitude for which, probably, there i not smy
precedent in a scientific work. I have even ventured mo Ir to
deviate f&rom the beaten track as to akirtish upon the ftuitier of
the Novelist, an to bring off cptive some of th artillery of i
mance ; but if, by so doing, I hae enhanced the interest of my
wor, and furthered the accomplisbent of it object let me en-
treat that mere noovlty may not be nrged to its disparagement
The antiquarian Vicar, however, will, I trust meet with cordial
reception from the classical student.a As to Ned Hfopliu
It iE, at lesAtJnr1tagto ,know iJwt Hles Edrvo thn me.t .,tholttv
hnu oproeemd her pproltUon ofthif cmarncter. To a toteredair.sd. to t he
"l uo, ab he Y 'A, *you may wish to know what ple ed me pr.rtauT ly, I
wil m.Ponm the baoir. of the anttqusifla vEior, Man Toon Plnk, bhl of
Wb su the maNo of li trodtucd much amusing qnd neltl Intouado
a popriate mnnerM.
llhooAh h may lo v ber comparison with William SBanermn
the ool of Henry V1.-or with Rhard Tarlesn. who .
dumpiated Queen Elizabeth at his pletaur -or with Archibcld
Armstrong (vnulg A.re i jeuter to Charle, yet I will martin.
in spito of the Vicar's eare, at he is a right miery iellr,
and to the Mejor, and couneqnently to our history, a nmot import
toot wcesory. Should any of my reader be old enough to re-
member A Jemmy Gordon," of Ca ridge notoriety, they will not
eooeider the character otvrdra v. will o ny add that, in cr-
rying on a consatent story, by the aid of ficttious characters. er-
tain detailed nd lovities o r oerwe ope to the charge of beint
unmeaning intrusion are ecessary means for giving to it suc
an air of ftrthf life, as shall sustain the reader during it pro
gress in a rational belief of it realities
If it be urged hat several of my comic representationm are cal-
culatod, like O ning. to stimulate the paate of the novel-reader,
rather than to nourish the minds of the younger cldae for whom
the work won written, I might. were I so dispoeed, plead com-
won neag ; for de n d nt t director of a juvenile fte courte-
outy introduce a few piquant dishes for the entertainment of
thome older pe n eoage who may attend in the character of chape-
ro.e 9 You Burely could not deny me the benefit of ouch a pre-
cedeut; and so, gentle Recier. in full codfidece of your favor,
I bed theP-Farwerll
Tom Baymour's arrival from sohool.-Dtecripion of Owrton Lodge.
-Tn Honmoes or reoas.--- geologiel temple.-A sketch of
the perBon and ohsracter of the Revered Peter Twaddleto.-
Hlis antiathy to puns.-Mr. teymour engages to fnush bhi Bon
with any toy, the philouopby of which he si able to oplain.--Mr
Tweddleton's arrval and reception.--Hi remonetrance agant
the Adifflon of ecence among the Village meobaniae.-A dislosgu
between Mr. Boymonr and the Viar, which some will dislike,
moro approve of, sad l laugh at--The plan of teaing philo-
ophy by the aid of toys developed and disonsed.-Plfy nd
work.-Toys and T ak.-Mr. Twaddeton's objections answered.
-He relents, and ongag tofunmieh an a~iquar in history of he
various tys and sports .............................. Pge T
Ont gravitation,--Weiht.-The veloity of filing bodio.-At what
dalitude a body would Ifoe it gravity.-The Tower of Babel.-
The krown velocity of sound affords the mean of Jsolnatin
distance--Th sound of theo woodman's axe-An eOUrFionu to
Overton well.-An experiment to ascertain its depth.-A via to
the VleragTe.-Tbe M e Gallery-Return to the Lodge..- 41
Motion, absolute and relatve.-Uniform, acleratod, and retarded
velocity.-Tho times of scent and desenst ar, equal.-Via iner-
tie --friction.--Action and retlon are equal and in opposite d-
rotions.-Momentum doflned and explained,-Te Mree ireat
a1tw of motion .,........................... .... .
A nad accident turned to a good enoount-Oe example worth I
hundred precepts.-Vis inertiMs.-The lBAioUSo-An e ri-
ment.-The enter of magnitude and gvity,-The point of e-
peelon.-The line of direction.- e stabillty of bod, and
upon what it depends--Method of filing the center of giavty
of a body.-The ar of the alanet r expained and ilntrated-
Walking on stfls.--Varioua bala nnto y.......... .......
The Cena TmfL illnsttting the joint ect of change in the
center of granvty of a body, and of momentum-Mr. Twaddle-
ton's arrival after a eerer of adventurnes-The fla u.js-
-The Psa-sneOrn.-A aeran aBA ai on ON, rourqiae.-The
FVLr Wncc.-Etlaticitry..priang..-Tho game of Riooohet',
or duck and dke,--The BaaomDamo BA-Anriml that tlop
by mafns of a el ao apparatus.-The industribus feas.-A new
apeies of pung, by which the Vicar is made to change contr-
Mn e.,................ ...... ... .. .. ,.................... In
The rival of AMjor SBapwell, and the buatle It ooaioned.-The
nilden ladies of Overton perplexed, hot not subdned-The Vi-
ea's interview with the stranger -Tha object of the lettr in
vilting Overton.o-A oriousdiacBssion--Aword or two addreemed
to fox-bhuntor.-Verbal corrption.-Some geome tricl de.l-
tione.-An instrctive eniem~ ...- ..................... 113
Compound force.-The composition and resolution of moion.-
otlaory motion.-The RXVOLVO WAeH-oLAss -The SIua.-
The centrifugal and centripetal forees-Theory of pojeotdee.-
The trundlig of a mop.-The centrifugal ramlwny-A geolgioal
- onveration een between Mr. Symur and the View, in which the
later diplay hiA powers of ridioule............. ......... 12
The 8tbjeot of rotatory motion otnued.-A ball, by having a pe-
oilarspinning motion imparted to It, may be mae to atop short,
I to retrograde, though it meet not with ny apparent obstacle.
-. -Te rntilinear path of a sphorical body inflened by its rota-
:tory motion --BoSonrr, or CU Arn BALL-The joint forces
which enable the b alanor th row up sad cstp his b ls on the
full gallop.-The oor-The center of perusalon--The Wm
AI PTo Top.--itorical n ces.--The power by which the top
is enabled to sustain its vertical position during the a of spin-
ning.-The sleeping of the top explalned-The force which
enable It to rleafrom n oblique into a rotial poltion-.t y
ration .... ,.,.......... ........ .... ......... ........141
Trm* AnI BAIL,-Gfta flomn the Vlor-An antiq lqua history of
the baUll..--Tenm.- of, or bandy-bafll-Foot-b f.-Th game
of ptal-mrll.-Thf SBm-aw,-The meeanical power-The
SwBa.--The BAiDn --Thoe doctrine oef cltstn.-aileos'
disovery.-The pendflTuo.-An Intorting letter.-Mr. Seymour
and the Vicar visit Major Snupwell. ....................... Ig
MAnr1s-Antiquityof the game.-Method ofmmnunotnrln them.
-Rtng-taw.-Mr. eymounr, the Vicar, and Tom, enter the Uto.-
The defeat of the two former oombatanw; the triumph of the lat-
ter.-A phitoaophleol explanation of the several movmcints.-A
gosaiping miterlud-The radimentsof the stean-engine e ap-
poared as a toy.-The nOnive children of the Onnoco perform .n
electrial esperimont.-The subjectof reflected motion iultrated
-The Vicara apology, of whih many grave peronage w ill a
prove.................... ....... ....... ........ .... I
.Mr Seymour an d hi f tly vilst the major at Oaterley Park.-A
oontrovaray between the Vicar and the Major.-The Bou -Co-
hbolvo attriotion.-Pretaare of the atmephere.-Moaning of the
term anWtion.-Certain animals ah themelv ea to roeks by
contrivane analogonu to the Blter,-The limpat,-The alr-s.
-locomotive organs of the houne-ly.-A terrible aeident.-A
cane in the village, in whoih DI. Doeeall urea w a prinoiael
perbforer.-The Var'os sensible rmonstanee.-The demiy of
the atoaphere at diflbrent altitudea.-The Bom -m.-The
Por-Gu.-Theo Am-v.-An adiqunarian dison aian, in whibh
the Vicar and Major Snapwell greatly diatingnih themselves 1"O
A ahort chapter brought to ,iolont and untitmelyend.-The doiegT
of Dr. Doonll, unlike his toam, admit of oonestemn.-The
Vir's conaternation-An oxploaoun.-A moral ............. 11
OI APTER XILl
TheIB SomP-heBp -The Sqna--The Bsna ws; an explantion of
their several parta-By whom the Instrument was inentme.-
The sucking ao puor m -An experiment illm-
trative of atmosaphbe o pneBre.-The MAa Bor. and its won
deM ......... ..................... : ................. 14
Tbe Kvfl.-It oonstnotion.-The taLl-An authr's meldtationa
among the ataoombs of Patornacter-row.-Works in their wind-
ing-heoe.-How Mr. Seymour strong pun a he strunf the
it,'s la-ThaL- e Vcar's dismay.-Kite constructed in various
shaps-Or-iin ofthe name.-The kite of Chinese orig .-Kite-
fying a national pastime.-Tho figure usuesly adopted to be pre-
forr d ........ .......... .. .....................-. .... 2
The weather, with the hopes and fear which it aternatly inspired
-The oraou ar owes.-Preprations fortheaightofthe kite.-A
dic unrse on the theory of ftying.-A tomiet error of the artist
In depleting the wings of angoe&--The structure ad notion of the
winog of the bd.--A philOophicl diaqolieion upon the fboroe
by bhich the ascent of the kite is aonplished.-The tai of ths
bid compared with the rnu dr of aship.-The tail of the ite.-
The altitude to which a kit cn defend has a defined limit-A
series of kitel o0 oneu string.-A Kn-OAsnnns.-The Mtawaws.
-The prauedo uses to which le kite III been appied.-The
causes, direction, and velocity of wind espaine&d-The L.TWO-
..--------... -....- ....... ...--------..---------.... --.24
A shorta dicohrse.-The Bnurrzoxc.-ITa oonstruotion -T h sol-
ton of two proboms connected with its AlghL.-Tho winduiL.-
The smokejaok.-A toy onsItr uted on the same principle.-Th
Bow Aw Aaow.-Archery.-The arrive of IabeUla Viller. l 1
A Maiou and diucuielvo dive ol between the Vicr and Miss Vi-
-ra-A pnsiOnate appea int fvor of lower.-A eoupigfn-The
riddlao of iSapon and Cleobolue.-Tho myth of Castor and
PollPz.n Snd.--low propagted by se"ial vibration--Theory
of musiot asounds---...,----------....-..... --...- ...-- -27a
Aleaned dnon, tuohling the superior Powers of anie o-
p red with modern initi.-Mr. 8ymour cotbats the prejudice
ofthBV d porhe e, and pr the elis of mode musico-The an-
portanue of tional ai an ballads.-lDibd in's ongs and Monk
Lowias ballads.-Poetry the sister of Muse.-The ireo of H-
mer.-Th e meglo of mnian a game here described for the t
titmn-The Viar'm perfoancef-Adventurea by nmoonliht
-pirli, of the valley Md a speoter at the waterdl ood-
night ......... ... ........ .. ... .................... 0e
Origin oferthe resnt e theTnrkiBh eign.--Appar tions dispelled,
Rad nmystries soltvd, by phifloopy-Ftiry-rag.-Miaoal In-
struments clased under three divsions.-Mlxed Instraumnts.-
Theory of wind instrnments.-The Jaws-BAR.-The statue of
Memnon.-An Interestung 6eperl eit.-The flute-The Wan-
o1, &o.--choes.-The myth of aas .................. 805
The whisepring galeri in the dome of St. Pauls.-The speakig-
trumpet.-The linhsafble gil, and the waumement she oc iouned.
-Charades.-Other aeon uo amusement.- Mystrious ioOs.
Crewing oe ................. ........................ 8h
An interesting omunioation from whih the reader may lear that
the mnom important evontare not those which absorb me greatest
portion of time In their nital.--Major Bnapwell comrmnites to
Mr. Geymour and the Vicar hi daterninaion to celebrate the
marrige of his nephew by a ftte at Osterley Park.-E rac and
the YnFTocovr.-An antiquarlan dmiauesion of grave importano..-
Origin of the bride-lke--An interview with Nod Hopkn, dur-
lng wbhlh he disply. munch unni ng and humorand m I engaged
by the Major a the director of hi proposed comle enaterta-
m on ..................... ...... ..... ................ ......
CHb PTER XX.
The fower-garden.-R ona for placing It near your dwellg.-
Erly paeslon for flower endur through ieo,-Advmatae arle-
igy rom their o imvation.-It pleoure enhanced by the appi-
cation of soienee.- ntrat a soure of pleasure.-Illustraton._
-TheI pbhdoeophy of olor.-Complemontry, or acodental color.
-trpeAimo nt with colored wafer.-Optical JUces.-Reeo-
tions in the Blave of the Major's garden.-Prtactial maetio
and conolulesi.o....... ....... .... ...... ...... .. -.-_a R
A new optiofl toivt y inve d y the author and termae the TAmaA-
enora.-Thh Vicar's ludicrous alarm at ita nnouneent.-Et-
planniion of its prInoiple.-Betentive power ofthe retins-S peo-
tral,or a ientaleaoot.-The oe of Constantine.-S ugestons
for iaprovin t tauatrope.--Otber toys upon tle B"me opti-
cal principle.-PuAArnwscor -PananmsOe.--Important
condemn onof the chptor ....... ...... ..............s...
Prparation, for the approaching t.-The arrival of tho gnets.-
The procession of the bridal party to Osterley Park.-The Major
and hi visitors asperintend the arraementa in the meaow.-
The nclouti aIeaonson, which toon pineo on that owsion.- The
ongin of the awhng.-Merry-androws.--T etour, &c-The
dinner at the hali-Thi learned cntroversy which was main-
taied. with res. to tohe ame of lohs .................... as
The arrival of the populaea at Osteary pnrk-'The cmmenDoement
of the testivitiee.-Danolng on the tight and clalck rope.-Bran-
aing.--An oe poied on its broad and narrw end.-onj during.
-The Mybsterus Lady.-The ESai of the Salamandent.-Th
fllr ordeal-Water froen in red-hot oruoblo.-le set on fre.-
Optical illauio n.-Phantaamngoria.--neoeptAIoe sounds.-lni il-
bei giirL-Ven*iloqolunm-Various games.-The Penthalun,.-
Quoit.-The banqnot-The game of Quintain.-Grand display
of kreworlu.-olored fires.-A tdAmu in the ifenal regions
-Concndal on.................... ........................41
PHILOSOPHY IN SPORT.
Tom asmnnVoun AbVAL mz mO s6OOL--DefAPTowN OF OvUms1
LOi -fam ORBOJQZ OF rLORA-A lEOIoXOA TK -
A BDEtCOl o tOn P-lBSON AND CHAfAortf ON flu xByNrD
FER TWAfDDZXToMw---Ml AfrrPAtTilt fo Pw .-M,. *JYUOCR.
ANGIAGUs TO FCNB f HIS SON WITH ANV TOT, TIE Pfln
OF WHICH fl IS ABLE TO te PLAI.--M. TWApDLNn O t Ahte VA
AfND "lcfriO--HtA RUMOSBflA2O AOAIINM TSK DBUDIN
"O 5anoI AICO"NSt TnK *YlJ.AOU flroASIO.-A mTAOfum
lWSIWN MsB EY MOoU AND THIE fCOAA, WIOO H= *WH,
Daily monr APPrOTE Or, ADe ALL. XADsn A T.--l %Ax
oad pTAce rIG mnaorenr o ma ADn offr TOS nTraE A
Dtime. ao .-rt. e An Wta o e-Tors AnD fApo -h TWAD m-
row'S OvJZOTlola Amnwacfln-m mnzias. AN, SOpAuO To
NFti AN An qfA*AsA WSEaTOSYa or O fra VAIOUs Torsf An
TIn enmmer recess of Mr. Pearson's school was not more
anxiously anticipated by the scholars tban by the numerous
family of Seymour, who, at the oommencenent of the ye&r,
had parted from a beloved son and brother for the frst
time. AN the season of relaxation approached, so did the
inmate of OOerton Loadg (for such was the ame of IMr
Seymours seat) betray incresig impatiesn for its arrivaL
There t elder sisters, Lonsa, Fannyrand Roas, lhd btea
engaged for several dys in arranging the lttle atly
18 PnmIoeorPY m 8oPrr
which thr th broher Tom had usually occupied. Bis book
were carefully replaced on their shelves, and hnnches of
rcsea and jaemmes, which the affetionate girls had ulled
from the finest trees in the garden, were tastefily dim-
peraed through the apartnmet; the festmons of blue rilabds,
with which they were entwined, at once announced the m-
selves as the work of graceful hand impelled by light
Ieartas;and every fower might be said to reflect from its
glowing petals the suiles with which it had been collected
and arranged. At alofth the happy day arrived; a carriage
drew up to the gate, and Tom was once again folded in
the arms of his affection and delighted parents. The
little group surrounded their beloved brother, and welcomed
his return with all the warmth and artlessness of juvenile
ancerity. "W" sWel" said Mr. Symour, a the improvement
of your aind corresponda with that of your looks, I shall
indeed havy reason to congratulate myalf upon the choice of
your school. But ave you brought me any letter bomn Mr.
Pearsoe" "I hatve" rephe Tom, who printed his father
ith a note from his master, n which he dweWlin-high terms
of coa mendation not only upon the general conduct of hi
pupil, but upon the rapid progress he had made in his classi-
My deareat boy," exclaimed the delighted fther, I a
more than repaid for the unmy anxious moments which I
have passed on your account. I and that your condout has
given the highest atisftction to your master; and that your
good-natur gene, nety, and, above all, your strict adherence
to truth, have iheared the love and esteem of your ahool-
fellowta" Ths gratifying report brought tears of Joy into
the eyes of Mrs. eyionrm Tom' ceeke glowed with the
eeHng of conscious merit; and the elsters interobhnged looks
of mutual satfaction. Oan there be an incentive to indus-
try and virtuous conduct more powerful than the exblar-
atin siee of approbation which the schoolboy receives
from an ae eatioate parent Tomr would not have ex-
ohanad his feeling for all the world, and he internally
MADfE SOIESOB IN EAfttBT. 19
vowedd thathnever deate from a course that had
been productive of so much happinee.
"But come," claimed e Mr. Seymour, "let us aU retire
into the library. I am awe that onr aear fellow wi be
glad of some refrehment ater his journey."
We ~all here leave the family circle to the undistrbed
enjoyment of their domestic banquet and invite the reader
to accompany ne in a stroll about the grounds of this beau-
tiful and seolded retreat.
We are among those who believe that the habits ad
character of a family way be as eaily discovered from thl
rural taste displayed in the grounds which surround their hati-
tation, sa by any exaiaLtion of the prominenm e on their
heads, or of the lineamnets in their fwces. How vividly is
the decline of an ancient race depicted by the chilling de
lation which reigns around the mansion, and by the rank
need which insolently trinnpb over its todng splendor;
and how equally expressive of the peace tl and contend
industry of the thriving cottager, is the well-otitvted patch
whioh adjoins the humble dwelling, around whose rstc porch
the luxuriant lilao luster, or the aspiring woodbine twines
its green tendrils and sweetly scented blo eost In lke
m oser did the elegtly disposed grounds of Overton Lodge
at once announce the clsse taste and fostering presence of
a refined anu highly cultivated family.
The house, which wa in the Ionic style of architectre,
was situatod on the declivity of a ill, so that the verdan
lawn which w spread before its southern ont, after re
taking its level for a short distance, genttly sloped to the val
beneath, and wa terminated by a luxuriant shrubbery, over
which the eye commanded a rage of fair inclosuree, teasut
fed by an irregularly undulating enrfae and Interspesed
with rich mase of wood. The uniformity of the lawn
was broken by occaional clamps of flowering hrub, so Art-
fully selected and arranged, as to aford all the varied charms
of opotraw~ while, here and there, a lofty elt fll g its
gig tio arms over the award beneath, wich enabled th
20 pIaOorPHy m ePoBT
inhabitants of the Lod, lke te philoopera of old, to
onve in the hade en drig the de heat of a meridian
ann. The shrubbery, whleh o opied a considerable portion
of the valley, trehed for ome distance up the western
part of the bill; and cold Shenatone have wandered through
its winding paths and deep receases, his own Leaeowee might
have suffered ftom a comparison. Hero wre mingled shrnb
of every varied dye; the elegant foliage of white and scarlet
acacias was blended with the dark-green-leaved chestnut;
and the stately branches of the oak were relieved by the
gracefully pendulous boughs of the hirh. At irregular
Intervals, the Inpan expanded into verdant glades, in each
of which the baut of some favorite poet or philos opher q-
nunced the genius to which they wre severally con rated
From a deaoription of one or two of these sequestered spot,
the reader will readily conceive the taste displayed in all
After winding, for some distance, through a path so loosely
interwoven with asrabs and trees that earcely a sunbeam
conmd stroea through the foAlg, a gleam of light suddenly
bmat through the gloom, and displayed a beautifd marbl
figure, which bad been executed by a Roman artit, repre-
senting Flora in the aot of being attired by Spring It wna
placed in the center of the expanse donned by the retiring
tree, and at its bae were flowering, at measured interval a
variety of those plants to which LiAnnuen hma given the name
of .EwuiN a etw o %w eince they open and oloeo at certain
and exact hours of the day, and thus by proper arrangement
constitute the HonozeON or FLORA, or Tatnre'a time-
piece. It had been constructed, under tie direction of her
neither, by Louisa bSymolur. The hoar of the day at which
each plant opened w represented by an appropriate figure
of niely triamed box; and thee, being arranged in a curclo,
not only fulalled the duty, but exhibited the appearance of a
From this retreat several winding paths traded their
many way through the deep recesses of the wood; and the
wanderer, quitting for f while the blaze of day, was reifrehed
by the sbdued light which everywhere pervaded the av nu,
exept -where the hand of taste had, here and there, turned
aside the boughs, and opened a vista to bring the village
pire into view, or to gladden the sight by a rich prospect of
the distant landsuape. After having descended for some
way, the path, losing its ineuined direction, proceeded on a
level, and thus anrnomned to the stranger his arritbn t the
bottom of the valley What a rich display of irooland
scenery was suddenly prebeted to his view I A rooky glen,
in which large mases of sandstone were grouped with pio-
toreaque boldness, trminated the path, and forAed o area
wherein he night gaze on the mighty sylvan amphitheater
which gradnely rose to a towering height above him, and
seemed to interpose an Insuperable barber between the so l-
tude of this eequestered epot and the buny baunte of nen;
not a sound assailed the er, save the ourmozr of the summer
breeze, as it swept the trembling folige, or the brawling of
a small mountain stream, which guied from the rook, and,
lik aaangry chit, fetted and ftamed as it enontered the
obstacles that had been raised by its own impetueity. This
was the favorite retreat of Mr. beymour, and he had deli-
cated it to the geniu of geology; here had he ereted a ten-
pie to the omory of Werner, and every pillar and ornament
bore testimony to the refined taste of its architect It Or-
sisted of a dome, constructed of innumerable sheUI and
corallnes, and surmounted by a marble figure of Atas, bear-
ing the globe on his shoulders, upon whih the name of Wnm-
Nan was Loberibed. This dome was supported by twelve
pillars of so singular and beautiful a construction as to mearl
a particular description; the Corinthian capital of each was
of Pentelican marble; the column consistea of a sepral o
about six inches in breadth, which wound round a central
shaft of not more than two inhes in diameter; upon this
spiral were placed specimens of various roks, of snoh memae
a to fill up the outline, and to present to the eye the appear-
ance of a substantial and well-proporioned plar. These
specimen were arranged in m n order corresponding with
their acknowledged geological relations; thus, the DikUia
productions occupied the higher compartmentsi the .rmi-
tie' strata, the lower ones; and the Secondary and Tr&i-
ton series found aitermediate places. The teOslated oor
presented the dierent varieties of marble, so artfully inter-
epersed as to afford a most harmonious combination; the
DUniolared, variegated, .Madrpori, the usmachella, Cp-
lino, and Breeia marbles, were each represents by a char-
aeterte and well-defined specimen. The alcoved ceiling
eparledd t with Rok Crystal, interspersed with ealcareou
Stal tiie, and beautiful Ckhaedonies. A group of figures
in oas relievo adorned the wall which inclosed about a
third part of the interior of the temple, and its subject gave
evidence of the Wernerian devotion of Mr. Seymour; for it
represented a contest between Plnto and Neptune, in which
the watery god wae seen in the at of wresting the burning
torch from the hadi of is adversary, in order to quench it
in the ocean. Mr Seymour had studied in the school of
Freyburg, under the anspiec of its celebrated profeisor; and,
like all the pupils of Werner, he pertinaiouly -maintained
the aqueous origi of our strata. But lot us return to
the happy party at the Ldge, whom the reader ill rmemoa-
ber we left at their repast. This having bon concluded, and
a those various subjects discussed, and questions answered,
which the schoolboy, who has ever felt thie atisaction of
returning home for the holidays will more easily conceive
than we can deoribe, Tom inquired of his father, whether
his old friend, Mr. Twaddleton, the vcar of Overton, was
well, and at the Parsonage. He is quit well," said Mr.
Beymour, and so an ioos to see you, that he has paid sev-
eral visits during the morning, to inquire whether you had
arrived Depend qtpn it, that many hours will not elapse
before yon see bhi"
In that wieh did Tom and the whole juvenile party heart-
ily cocur; for the vicar, otwihstanding his oddities, was
the eost affectionate creature in existence and never ws he
MZOP irly happy than when contributing to the innocent
MItAID s e TOEa l EiABRs aT. 3
amusement of his little "p/flamte," as he used to c Tomi
and his sisters.
It may be here neceary to present the reader with a
abort sketch of the harater of person, who will hb ere-
after found to perform a prominent part in the little draa
of Overton Lodge
The Rev. Peter Twaddleton, Master of Arta, and fellow
of the Society of Antiqarie, for we mset introduce him in
due form, was about fifty-six years of age twenty of which
he had spent at Cambridge, as a resident Fellow of Joante o
lege. He had not posesedL the vicarage of Overton above
eight or nine years; and although its value never exceeded a
hundred and eighty pounds a year, so limited were his ware,
and so frugal his habits that he generally contrived p save a
considerable sum out of his Income, in order that he uibt
devote it to purposes of charity and benevolencea his ber-
ity. however, was not merely of the hand, bt of the heart;
distress was unknown in ds village; he fed the hnmury,
istraeted the ignorant, nursed the sick, and cheered the
unfortunate; his long collegiate residence had imparted to
his mind several peculiar trait and a certain stilaa of ad-
dress and quaintnes of manner which at onoe distinguaeh the
redlse from the man of the o world; in sort, as Shakepoa
expresses it, Ae ta.s net Aeakney'd in. the wvasa Vof mwaa
His face was certainly the very reverse to every bing that
could be considered "good looking," and yet, when b
smiled, there was a animation that redeene the otherade
harsh expression of is angular feature. ; sO benevelen
this smile, it was impoaible not to feel that sentmaent of
respect and admiration which the presence of a superior per
son is wont to inspire; but his superiority wa rather-tha
of the heart than of the head ; not that we would inmate
any inferiority in intellect, bot that his mriti- bxcelre
wore so en ecendent as to throw nto the ihade aodiQtd
mental qalities which he posse aed in common writl lw.
He entertained a singular aversion to the matheiAtieo, pro
Judie which we are inclined to refer to his udiapponataent
la the senathouse; for, though he was known at Camn
bridge as one of those "pale beings in spectaoles and oteton
stookinge," commonly called leadingg yet, after all is
exertions, he only snoceeded In obtaiing the "' wooden egp ,"
an honor which devolves npon the last of the "Jennor gp-
tile" Whether his failure rose fre an exuberant or a
defcient genius, or, to speak p renologiacay, from an exceed
in his .ummnor of 6ero1p, or a deft in his bump of m ers
we are really unable to etate, never having had an opporto-
nity of verifying our anspicion by a manual examination of
his craniun; he was, however, well read in the classics and
so devoted to the works of Virgil, tht he rarely lost an op-
portunity of quoting his favorite poit; and, although these
quotations, vented in mangled forns, too generally pervaded
his converation, they were sometnmea apposite and- now and
then even witty- But, notwitihsanding the delight which
he experienced i n a s in a leared language, of
snh contradictory materials was he composed, that hs antip-
athy to an English pun was so extravagant as to be ridlen-
lon. This peculiarity has been attributed, but we spenk
rely from common report, to a disgust whih ie contracted
for that species of spurios wit, during his frequent inter-
course with the Johnlans, a race of Astdents who have, from
thme imnneaorial, been Identified with the most profligate
olae of pnnstera be this however, as it may, we are inclne
to believe that a person who reside much amongst those
who are addicted to this cis, unle s he quickly takes the in-
fetion, acquires a sort of constitutional iesceptibility, like
nnraen who pass their livs in infected apartments with per-
It I not es" y to ima ne the origin of bis tra iteo, nor afer conslderbl
rarb em dico ver the ali8hteot oew to plala tb m.brItqgn of Hae.
In twilo the umaibe of th* mie fraternity have o lIonsg iojeld. If tJe
Jtolaunp however, f M g hlu of the sin of esrlnnmnthe, haIve w rta n
beuta the Sm o that -en to otersn; tf IOsetan the bridge. Brted overthe
CAM. -o conueftal m w d aod om hartsa been teruedl tnhe fAtenme
anr"-end o the ~utr poaIg over this bidge with Mr o le n e, flh
latter ok red toha wre aJo' nis e to hjon himself upn it, the It mg ht
WBl bs in.l verdict. 's- per1W
fet safety and impunity. His favorite, and we might add
his only pursuit, beyond the circle of his profeeon, was the
study of antiquite;a he was, as we have already tated1 a
Fellow of the Bociety of Antiquaries; lad ooleoted a very
tolerable seri e of ancient coins, and posesseed suffiaiet rit-
cal acumen to distinguish between Attio arwao and the su-
rious wrdw of the modern counterfeit. In short, he was a
keen archeological mouser of the genuine breed, rejoing in
dusty nooks .nd damp mysterious eeUa. Often had he under-
taken an expedition of a hundred miles to inspect the mterior
of an ancient harrow, or to examine the ioldering fag-
ments of some newly discovered moment; indeed, like the
oonnoi'eer in cheese, blue-mold and decay were the favor-
ite objects of his taste, and the sure paport to his favo;
for he deeiped all Uiiing testimony, but that of worms and
maggota. A coin with the head of a sing sovereign passed
through his hands with as little resistance as water through
a sieve, but he grasped the head of an Antonine or Otho
with insatiable d r and relentless r. waddeton'
figure exceeded the middle statkrs, and was so extremely
lender as to give ]hu the air and appearance of a tall man
He was usually dressed in an old-fshioned suit of black
cloth, consisting of a aingle-bresated coat, with a standing
collar, and deep comprehensive onft, and a lapped waist-
cost; but So awkwardly did these vetments conforh with
the contour of his person, that we might have supposed them
the production of those Laputa tailors who wrought by
mathem tical principles, and held ai sovereign contempt the
illterate fashioners who deemed it neoessry to meaure-the
forms of their eutomter ; although it was whispered by cer-
tain censorious spinters in the village th the aforesaid
mathematical artate were better acquainted with the angles
of the Seven Dials than with the shares of the west end.
They further surmised that the vicr's annual jorney to Lon-
don, which in truth was undertalken with no other objets than
those of attending the anniversary of t Society of Antiqua-
ries, on St. George's day, and of Ipectiug the cabinets of
the British Mu~nuo, and that of his old erony, the celebrated
medaeiat of Tavistock-stroet, wa for the laudable purpose of
recruiting his wardrobe. If the aforeid coat, with its
straggling and disproportioned suburban, possessed an ampli-
tude of dimensions which tel-acorded with the slender want
of his person tia misapplied liberality Was more than com-
pensated by the rigd economy exhibited in the naher part
of his costume (the inwmriabile of Southey), which evi-
dently had not been designed by a contemporary art ian; no
so his hoes, which, for the accommodation of those unwel-
come parasites, vulgarly called come, were coantructed in th
form of a batledore, and displayed such an unbecoming
quantity of leather, that, as Ned opldns, a subaltern wit of
the village alehouse d ho observed however economic their
parson might appear, he was undoubtedly supported in -
trafganzce." Nor did the natural association between tithes
and I eo-rn-b eesape his observation, but was repeated
with various other allusions of eqvl piquancy, to the no
small annoyane of the reverend gentleman, and, as he de-
lared, to the disperagem nt of his cloth.
After the social repast had been concluded, Tom proposed
a ramble through ththe shrubbery. ie was aunious to revisit
the osene of his former sports; and LJouia readily met his
wishes, tr she was also desirous of showing him the botanical
doc~ which had been planned and completed during his ab-
senoe. Mr. and Mra Seymour accompanied their children,
and, as they walked a rors the lawn, Tom asked his father
whether lie remembered the promise e had made him on
quitting home for iohool, that of furnishing him some new
amusement during the holidays.
"I perfectly remember," sad his father, i the promise to
which you allude, and I hope that you equally well re-
ollet the conditions with which it was coupled. When
your mamma gave you a copy of IMrs. Market's instructive
Dialogues on Naturl Philoeophy, I told you that, after you
had studied the principles which that work so admirably ex-
plains, you would have but little difficulty in understandi
MADE ScOENClb Us BANBT. 27
the philosophy of toys, or the manner in which each produ-
ced its ainmosg ffeots; and that, when the midsummer holl-
days oommoenced, I would successively supply you with a
new amusement, whenever yon could satikfntority explain
the principles of those you already possessed. Was not that
"It was," exclaimed Tom, with great eagernees; "and I
am sure I shall win the prize, whenever you will try me, and
I hope my mamma and sisters will be present."
S(ertainly," replied Mr. Seymour, and I trust that lon-
ia and Fanny, who are of an age to understand the subject,
will not prove uninterente spectators."
Mrs. Seymour here remarked that Madame DIaciar had ao-
knowledged herself much indebted for her sncoessfAl career in
literature to her having attended the lessons given to her
brother in early lif,
Exabtly so," said Mr. Seymour, she alluded to the les-
sons given by her father, M. Lo Fevre; and I hope that John
will, in like manner, profit by our scheme; and since I shall
necessarily require, for illustration, certain toys which can
scarcely afford any amusement to a boy of Tom's age and so-
quirements, it is but fair that they should be transferred Into
younger hands; our little philosopher, Matthew, will also, I
am sure, enter into the spirit of our pasntioe with equal satid-
faction and advantage."
hank you thank yon dear papa," was smultane-
ously ahonted by several voice, and the happy obildren look-
ed forward to the morrow with that mixed seneation of im-
patience and delight which always attoendavenile antiolpa-
On the following morning, the vicar was seen approaching,
and Tom and his sisters immediately ran forward to greet
"My dear boy," exclaimed the vicar, tI am truly rejoiext
to see you -when did you arrive from school t-How goes
on Virgil -Hey, my boy ?-You must be delighted with the
great Mantan bard ;-now onfess, you little Troja, can you
28 PI sornPf M SMPOUr
eat n oheesecake without being reminded of the Harpy's pro-
phecy, and its flfilment, as discovered by young Aso ua s:
Laes I otiam tnwsa eonauenumnu I inquit dIlus
But, bleas me, how anmaigly you have grown l and how
healthy you look" Tom took advantage ot this panae in the
vicar's address, which had hitherto flowed in s interrupted
and rapid a stream as to preclude the possibility of any reply
to his questions, to inform him that his father was on the
lawn, and desirous of seeing him.
"Mr. Twaddleton," etelameld Mr. Seymour, you are just
in time to witness the commcncement of a series of amuse
ments, which I have proposed for Tom's instruction during
SAimnement and instruction," replied the vicar, are not
synonymous in my vocabulary; unless, indeed, they be ap-
plied to the glorious works of Virgil; but let me hear your
"I have long thought," said Mr- Seymour, t that all the
first principles o natural philosophy might le easily taught,
and beautifu ly iustrated, by the common toys wh l have
been invented for the amusement of youth."
A fig for your philosophy 1" was the unceremonious and
ohflling reply of the vicar. What have boys," continued
he, to do with philosophy I et them learn their grammar,
scan their hexameters, and construe Virgil; it is time enough
to inflict upon them the torments of science after their names
have been entered on the University boardq"
I differ from bu entirely, my worthy friend; the princi-
plea of natural philosophy cannot b too early inculcated, nor
can they be too widely diffused. It i surely a great object
to engage the prepossessions on the side of truth, and to
direct the natural curiosity of youth to useful obects."
aoity toity I" exclaimed the reverend gentleman; sch
principles accord not with my creed; heresy, downright
'-S.. W, I vI I t U, pose hi W W. frL t "I Ilk
heresy; that a man of your excellent sense and intelligence
can be so far deeived I But the world has mr ninA; and
nmuol do I rieve to find, that the seclusion of Overton Lodge
has not secured its iniateo from the infection. I came here,
Mr. Seymor, t rour, to r e yor sympathy and to profit by
your counsel; but, ala alas I I have fallen into the camp of
the enemy- 'Mediia dela/pss in eates,' as Virgil has it"'
You astomish me-wht can have happened t" asked Mr.
There Is Tom IPlk, the carpenter," said the viar, so-
lioting subscriptions for the establishment of a philosophical
society-a Mechanica' Institute, I believe they call it. I
understand that this nania--for by what other, or more
charitable term can I express such conduct -ha seized
this deluded man since his return from London, where he
lie been informed that all the hewer of wood and drawers
of water' are about to associate thmfaselve into societies for
the promotion of soence. Prepoastnos a ideal as if a block of
wood could not be split without a knowledge of the doctrine
of percussion; a pail of water drawn from the well without
an acquaintance with hydrostatice; nor a load securely car-
Sild without solving a problem to determine ite center of grav-
ity; but, as I am a Christian priest, I solemnly declre that
I grieve only for my flock, and rase my feeble voice for no
other purpose than that of scaring the wolf fom the fold: to
be angry, as Pope says would be to revenge the adults of
others upon ourselves; but I a not angry, Mr, Seymour; I
am only vexed, sorely vexed."
STalke it not thus to heart, my dear v r," replied his con-
soling friend; "' -sos oetwe' as your poet has it. Science,
I admit, is both the Pallas and PAndora of mankind; h
abuse may ery erinly prove iachievon, 'ot its sober and
well-timed application cannot fi to increase the happiness
of every class of maldind, as well as to advance and improve
every branch of the mechanical arts: so thoroughly am I
satfited upon this point, that I l bribe to the pro-
posed society with infinite satisfactiun.
"Mr. Aeymomor r our you know not what yon do.
Would you scatter the eeds of Ixeubordination t manure the
weeds of ildellty? fabricate a batteringram to demolish
our holy chuchh Such, indeed, mnse be the efot of your
Utopian scheme; for truly may I eolaixm with the immortal
.. ..in noastros ftbrinoatA et aolina muos.*
oome, come, my good friend, all this is declamation with-
ant argument" said Mr. Seymour-
"Without argnmentT Many are the ad instances which
I could adduce in proof of the evil effects which ave already
corned from this mistaken system. I am not in the habit,
sir, of dealing in empty assertion; already has the aforeesid
Tom Plank ventured to question the olassicl knowledge of
hia spiritual pastor, and, as I understand, ha openly avowed
bimsea at the sixpeany club, as my rival in antiquaria
"And why should he not?" said the misondevos Mr. Bey-
nmor, "I warrant you he already poemssaes many an o*
saw; ay, and of a very gat aeg too, if we may Judge frm
the e of its teeth,"
During this remonstrance, Mr. Twaddleton had been ocu-
pied in whirling round hi steel watoh-chain with convulsive
rapidity, an, after a short pauso, he burst out into the fol-
SWorthy sir t if you persist in oaserting that a nmn whose
occupation is to plane e-boarda, is prepared to dive into
the sacred mysterious of antiquity, I shall next expect to hear
"That your frend the earnter mows a good cea ," cried
Mr. Seymour, interrupting the vicar; tat he ii a gramma-
rian, for he mends salev; a wit, since he is a clever hand at
railing; and as to his antiquarian pretensions, compare them
with your own; you rescue sae fna Ae dwt, while h
obtains dutstfrome hiwe nw"
"What mdadn e has seized my unfornnate friend
Inflix quP tanta animum dementia eepi 1
as Virgil hta it. But let it i, let it paa, Mre. Semour;
my professon ha taught me to bear with humility and
patience the contempt and reviings of my brethren; I for-
give Tom Plak for hia prenmption, as, In that ease, I alone
am the sufferer; but I say to you, that envy, trouble, di
content strife, and poverty, will be the firite of the seeds you
would matter. I very believe, that tless this 'march of
intellect,' a it has been termed, is speedily chewed, Overton,
in les than twelve months, will become a deserted village;
for there is earcely a tradean who is not already distracted
by some visionary scheme of scientifl improvement, that
leads to the neglet of their ouoopations, and the dissipation
of the honet earnings which their more prudent others had
accumulated; '.3ediore.pi dootere parentss' as the poet has
it. What think yon of Sam Corkdgton, who proposes to
erect an apparatus in the rather of Mount Veauvius, in order
to supply every city on the continent with heat and light;
or of illy Spooner, who is about to establish a dairy at
Spitsbergen, that be may frnish all Europe with ie-crem
from the milk of whales; or of Tom Pipen who b actually
prepared- a prospectus for conveying mnsle into our hob e
by resonant tubes Issing from a central orchestra, Just a
water and gas re laid on to our dwellingst 1 iee
"I readily admit" said Mr. Seymour, "that five-ad-
twenty year ax g I might at once have deono aed such
sBhemea as the phantoms of a disordered brain; but in thee
daya, when siene ha realized the fairy wonder of romance
and the productions of the mehwanist and electrician hreo
actually surpea sd the wild maginings of the poet, when we
have engaged the lighting to carry our messages, and the
sun to paint our portrait, we must panse, my dear vioar,
before we reoeet any proposlton, however startling, as being
absurd and impractleable."
The vicar, however, was not to be o appeased, and ,wa
preparing to proceed with an Aeid oqf woes, when the epi
thread was suddenly enappd asunder by the explosion of a
most audacious pun, which, although it turned the direction,
did not diminish the violence, of the viar's indignation.
"Mr. Seymour," exclaimed the incensed gentleman, "I
perceive you are determined to reet my remonstrances with
ridicule; when I had hoped to bring an argument incapable
of retitation, I ThI ar illZtu t peatee,' as Virgil has it,"
"Pray, allow me to ask," said Mrt Seymour, "whether
my puns or your quotations better merit that title?"
"That you should compare the vile practice of prnning
with the elegant and refined habit of conveying our idee by
classio symbol, does indeed surprise and disturb me. Pope
hal said that words are the counters by which men repre-
sent their thoughts; the plebeian," continued the vicar,
"select base metal for their construction, while the esholar
forms them of gold and game, dug from the richest minee of
antiquity. But to what vile purpose does the punster pro-
titute such counters Not for the interoange of ideas,
but like the jggler, to deceive and astonies by sets of
"How fortunate is it that youhad not lived in the reign
of Xing James remarked Mr. Seymour; "for that singular
monarch, as you may perhaps remember, made very few
bishops who had not thnu'signalizd thenselve."
"To poison our oars by qnibbles and quirks did'well bo-
come him wVo sought to deceive our senses and blind our
reason-the patron of puns and the believer in withcraft
were suitably united," replied the vicar.
"Well, as its is a subject upon which it is not likely we
should agree, I will pPoe to another, where I hope to be moro
suceAed; I t I tret I shall induce you to view wih more
complaency my project of teaching philosophy by the a.d
of toys and sports."
Mr. Seymour, the proposal of instraoting bildrem in the
principle of natural philosophy is really too visionary to
require calm disaonmon; and can be eqnuled only in sabnr-
dity by ethe mehod you propose for carrying it into fent.
Verily than art a s lmar schoolma in ep's clothing
oome, come, my dear vicar, pray chain up your prau-
dices, and let your Mnd spirit loose for half an hoar: le me
beg that you will so far indulg me as to listen patiently to
the plan by whioh it is my intention to turn sport into sae-
ence, or, in other words, toy into instruments of philo-
And is it then possible" aid the vicar in a tone of appli-
eation, that you can aserously entertain anch a wid, and, I
might add, kill-joy scheme? Would you pursue the Inoclees
ur hin from the schoolroom into the very playground, with
your unrelenting tyranny ? a snctuary which the most rigd
pedagogue has hhierto held inviolable, Is the buoyant
spirit-so forcibly, though perhaps necessarily, repressed dur-
ing the hours of discipline-to have no interval for Its free
and uncontrolled expansion? Your solence, methinks, Mr.
Seymour, might have taught you a wiser lesson; for you
mest well know that the meet elastic body will lose that
property by being constantly kept in a state of tension."
A fine specimen ff sophistry, upon my word, which
would doubtless raise every nursery-governeea and doting
grandmother in open rebellion against me; but let me add,
that it in becomes a man of liberal and enlarged idea, to
suffer hil opinions to be the sport of mere words; for, tha
our piolent difference Is an ri1far of words, and of word
only, I will undertake to prove to the satisfatton of any
unprejudiced person. Play Band or-amusemnent an in-
stretion-n-toys and taskt, are invariably, but most nquJti-
ably, employed as words of contrast and oppoeldon-n
error whicb haS arisen from the indistinct and very hidenite
ideas which we attach to-sUoh wor&d. I the degree of men-
tlee xrtion be said to constitute the diferene between pay
and mwIor I am quite area that the defnition would be vi
lated in the first illustration; for, let e ak, when do boys
exert so much thought as in carrying into esfot their holiday
schemes The distinotion might more properly be made to
turn upon the irksome feelings which ny be opposed to
attend the drudgery of study, when its promised objects
have no direct sympathies in the imagination of the student.
But thin can never happen except rom a viions system of
education that excludes the operations of thought; a school
that looks in the body, while it louks out the mind. Depend
upon it, Mr. Twaddleton, that the human mind, whether in
youth or manhood i ever gratified by the acquisition of
information; every ocupaton soon cloys, Uvaes it be sea-
soned by this stinmulnat. I not the child idle and miserable
in a onrsery fll of playthingt and to what expedient does
he instinctively fly to relieve his ennui? Why, be breaks hia
toys to pieces, as iss Edgewortlh ustly obaervc, not fom
the love of onisbief but fom the hatred of idlenss, or rather
from an innate thirst after knowledge; and he becomes, as it
were, an enterprising adventurer, and opens for himself a
new sourc f pe pleasure and amusement, in exploring the
mechanism of their several parts Think you then, Mr-
Twaddleton, that any asistance which might be offered the
boy, under such circumstance, would be revived byhim as
a task Certainly not. The acquisition of knowledge, then
instead of detracting from, meet heighten the amusepenxt of
toys; and if I have seeded in convincing you of this
truth, my object is aceomplished. Iqw greatly," continued
he, "do parents and preceptors err in i4staking for mis-
chief, or wanton idlenes, all the little maneuver of young
persons, whiis are frequently practical inquiriee to confirm
or refute doubts which are peasing in their minds! When
the aunt of James Watt reproved the boy for his idlenes and
desired him to take a book or exploy hhmself iu.efhly, and
not be t4ing off the lid of the Iettle and putting It on agln,
a. holding now acnp and now a silver spoon over the tefam,
how little was h aware he w nveetigtin a problem
whIch wna to lea to the reatest of human inventions l"
Thas did Mr. Saeyranr, like an able general, uase ha t-
versary on his own ground; be drove him, ms it were, lot
corner, and by seizing the only pas through which he setcld
norke his escape, fIored him to surrender at disoretlon.
"Why, truly," replied the viour, after a ortm p e, "I am
ready to admit that there is much good sease in yout obser-
vations; and if the saientifti instruction upon tlhem oe ~sios
be not carried so fatr to puial the boy, I am netlned to
withdraw my opposition."
"Therein lies the whole secret; I do not oftl yn the
black and bitter root of the Mol,' but its white, sweet, and
agreeable flower,* When an occupation agreeably int&est
the understanding, or passions of children, it i
what lI commonly understood by the term lvyi or port;"
whereas that which is not ccompanled with sucl oasoci-
ations, and yet nm~y be necessary for their fture welfire, i,
properly enough, designated as a ee,
-"I like your distinction," observed the vicar.
"Then may I hope that you will indulge me so fr as to
listen to the scheme by which it is my intention to turn
Sport into Sience,' or, in other words, 7tys into instru-
anent of .Pilo&phAical Instruction)"
The vicar smiled and nodded segent.
Mr. Seymour proceeded-" In the first place, I wold give
the boy some general notona with regard to the properties
of matter, such as its gfavitation, vi fa ertim, elasticity, A.
Those. whir he poket tbe snoverei plat he drau
Where on tbh' l-aberiD erth unmarked iSt gro
And *shd i, nature and itas ndb'oe power;
BiMok we the root but milky white the flower
JInua tbe "nm, by aoft tele hr to n,.
Bot all to easy to i a enb l nima;
TRla HRmerbs ge--- D .
Hern'4. her allegriclyt reprnenta Xnstrnctio, .1il .M t. plant of
Xnowlee--f. &A and btler root a irTl lnle the rksone retofm.ae-
Tnt ort stdy, or In th woda f triett, ** t beginning l f or
Is slw. Mep epanw ed wt relsomtaun and pain."
It is eimnlar eeemr to pefla the yeouna boutanit tla tht. uI Vai,
lo b*e fJontlan ln poec hnvupd.
What apparatu can be required for sdch a pnrpose, beyond
some of the more simple toyst Indeed I will undertake to
demonstrate the three grand laws of motAon by a game at
ball; while e composition and resolution of forces my be
beaotiflly exemplifed during a game of marbles, especially
that of 'ring-taw;' but in order that you may more clearly
comprehend the capability of my Dpla, allow me to Ienuer-
ate the varons philosophical prpinclple which are involved in
the operation of the several more popular toys and sports.
We will commence with the ball which will illMstrate the
nature and phenomena of elastity, as it leaps from the
ground ;-of rotoe ry, 'wocio, whilo it runs along its surface;
-of rejected motion, and of the angles of incident and
rqletion, as it bounds from the wall; and of projesiles, a
it is whirled through the air; at the same time the cricket-
bat may serve to explain the center of percussion. A game
at marbles may be made subservient to the asae purpoees,
and wi further assist us in conveying clear ideas upon the
subject of the eoliion of elastic and n-eastie bodies, and
of their velocities and directionm fter impact. The compost-
tioa and resolution f rets may be explained at the uame
time. The nature of elaeti springs will require no other
apparatus for its elucidation than Jack-in-the-box and the
numerous leapingh-frogs and cats witI which the play-room
abounds. The he aher sucker will exemplify the nature of
cohesion, and the effect of water in filing up those inequali-
ties by which contiguous surface are deprived of their attrac-
tive power; it will, at the ame time, demonstrate the nature
of a vacuum and the influence of atmospheric prenure. The
squirt will alford a further illustrataon of the same views, and
will P rnish a practical proof of the weight of the atmo-
sphere in raising a column of watr. The theory of the
pump will neoesarily follow. The greater elastbioty of air
compared with that of water, I shall be able to show by the
amufag exhibition of the '. Bte JIpe.'"
Bottle Imp ?-Aereronta momeb P muttered the vicar.
Mr. 5Bemour continued--, The various ba lncing toys wai
MADifl SCINOa IN KHANIT. U7
eluondate the e ofhe ne ofo er of pri~t, point o"p-
don, and line of director; the see-saw, rocking-hore, and
the operation of walking on stilts, will here come in aid of
our explanations. The combined efetts of momentum and
a change in the center of gravity of a body may be beaut-
ftly exemplified by the action of the Chinese Tnuabler
The sling will demonstrate the existepoe and efect of an-
trfiuga foXre and humble and mnit as the allanoe may
seem, it will satisfactorily explam the motions of those celes-
tial orba that revolve to all eternity around a central Snn,
The top* and tee-totum will prove the power of whirlng
motion to support the axs of a body in an unaltered poAi-
tion. The trundling of the hoop will accomplish the same
and other objects; as will also the whirling of the rutit
with the additional advantage of not having its motion im-
peded by contact with tlhe ground. The game of bilbo t,
or cup and ball, will show the inuence of rotatory motion
in steadying the reetiinear path of a pherical body, whence
the theory of the rifle-gun may be dduce For conveying
some elementary ideas of the doctrine of ecillation there is
tbo swing. The ight of the arrow will not only elucidate the
principles of projectiles, but will explain the force of the ir
in producing rotatory motion by its impact on oblique sr-
acoa the revolution of the shuttlecook may be ahown to
depend upon the name revolution of fores- Then comes the
kite, one of the most instructive and amusing of all the pas
times of youth,-the favorite toy of Newton in his boyaeh
days:+-its ascent at once develops th6etbeory of the oo.-
"* Tlo motH n of th top l mtter of the gre.b.t inmpor t tis apl-
mcb!,eto the .luiddtion or o.ie ofteheBgreate phenaojmen.l n tnucr-Ater.
+ Sir ~ahs Newtom aIs a to hIav been Mah attelhd to blto flNveop
port when a boy he wa the an to |qtrodno a ppr- kite at Ors ntha t,
where he wlu at sdeaoL Sk took plns to aad out their proper pNpOpeMti
.nd atore and the proupr ple* for faing the string to then. He .ie lha-
ltern of paper rtmptd, whih ihe tnie to go to ohool by In winter mo ning
with a mull end A oe td hem to thale t of bi la ite1 ibt d,-k nit, whbth
t flrst fighlted time onutry pool$ scledingly, hw0 took ia he eat -w
omitS.--tompsrfOn v/fSt qt R. a
88 PRIOSOPHY fI SPORT
position and resolution of force, and explain varlon sb-
ordinate principles whih I shall endeavor to describe when
we anTiv at the sunbjet. Ti(e ee-sav will unfold the general
principle upon which the Mechanical Power are founded;
and the boy may thus be easily led to the theory of the leer,
by being shown how readily he ean balance the heavier
weight of a man by riding on the longer arm of a plank.
The theory of colors may be pointed out to hhi as he blows
his soap-bhbbles;* an amusement which will, at the same
time, convince him that the air m t exert a pressure equally
in all direction, For explaining the theory of sound, there
are the whistle, the humming-top, the whiz-gig, the pop-gun,
the bull-roarer, and sundry other amusements well known in
the playground; but it is not my intention, at present to
enumerate al the toys which may be rendered capable of
affording philosophical instruction; I merely wish to con-
vinee yea that my plan is not quite so chimerloal as you were
at first inclined to believe. I do not profess to place the
head of Laertea on the shoulders of Telemashun, nor, like
Friar Baoon, to teaoh the science of te age in half a year;
but I do enfge to teach the young student those rudiments
by whilh, witl diligence and a willing ind, he may ulti-
mately sa uiro it."
Upon my word," said the vicar, "no sqnirrel ever hopped
from branch to branch with more ability; you are the very
counterpart of Cornelius Sriblerms; but I muet confees that
your scheme is plausible, very plausible, and I shall no longer
refuse to attend you in the progress of its execution.
Cedo equidem, nbc, bnte, tibi comes hie .csao,t
as Viril has it"
s ecalez wiblsh gUttw an n .oa?-babbl are tihdes imfl0a caseqruac.
-af pslaiple tlh mint arlp rt *0,onthe .redty cf pba.Snmu itt a.htalB,
a m tie mot beattul om its InmpHty and mainjeamens rfaeso n lthe
r who Ite at o eptln-awoaf .eUrnar f Ue n a aue
Part ar Lanwork tb will ,be a tU t the sapuattb ahed sreay to
carY 4 S m luatporctxteprse or zp rmnnfl
t "I retoa my son, j ne S ese4 o no rl.ou to beren your hciHJonne.
MADsaximaromE M IN &T.
Mr. Seymour, however, saw very plainly that, although
the vicar ths withdrew his opposition, he w neverthe
very far fom embarking in the cause with enthusiasm, and
that, upon the principle already discussed, he would perform
his part rather a a t k than a patnme. Nor was the ugt
which Mr. Tweddleton had q edqued from the neid ealon-
lated to efface such an impression. It was true that, le
Anchisea, he no longer raaed to accompany him in hi
expedition; but, if the comparison were to rn parallel, it
was evident that, lire Aloaas, he would have to carry him as
a dead weight on his shoulders. This diffionly, however,
was speedily surmounted by an expedient, with which the
reader will become acquainted by the recital of what followed.
"I rejoioe greatly," sid Mr. Seymour, "that we have at
length succeeded in enlhtiog you into our service; without
your able assistance I fear that my istruction would be
extremely imperfect; for you must know, my dear sir, that
I ammbitious of rmainig Tom an antiquary as well as a phi-
losopher, a-d I loon to you for a history of th several toys
which I shall have occasion to introduce, aawel as for the
alusions manad to them in the l leseia."
This propitiatory saetentia h. its deaired edhart.
"Muet cheerfully salth I coriply with your wihe," ei-
claimed the delighted vicar; and I can ature you, air, that
with regard to several of the more popular toys and pastimes,
there is much very curious and interesting lore."
Mr. Seymour had upon this occasion succeeded in opening
the heart of the vicar, just as a sillful mechanic would pick
a patent lock, who, instead of forcing it by direct violence,
seeks to discover the secret spring to which all its varioa
movements are subservient.
To-morrow, then," cried the vicar, in a voice of great
oxol otion, we will commence our career, from which I
anticipate e th highest atistaio and advantage; In th
mean time" continued he, "I will refresh my memory upon
certain point touching the antiquities of these said pasimes,
or, as we used to say at college, get t, the subject, I will
40 PU eOSOPflr w SPorT
also pre into onr service my friend and neighbor Jeremy
PrFbabel, whio etmological knowledge will greatly asist
as in tracing the origin of many of tIo words used In ou
sports, which is frequently not very obvlouls.
Mr. eymour tast an intoelgible glance at his wife, who
was no less surpriae at the sudden change in the vicar's son-
timents, than she was pleased with the akiU and address by
which it had been acomplishod.
ON aVnATAYr1Ofl.-WalOu.-Tn VnLocryT OW .ATna.e Sowmr-
AT WHAT ALTrrlD A ooTY woeULD Lowa I T eAT .-fa
STOWn oM Ar En rf.-Tn norn vtooT Or *oflm AWOM or
TER MEANS of CALoULAT3flf DufTAOB.-WanU aDlO OF TER
woO DMAN'S AX.-AN EMlo I TO OVERtTOQ WL N -A ZwR-
rIIT TO ASaBTAf rTl nTaH.-A TIsROT TO tU T VECAEAO.--
TE MAi1e OrLy .-zrKUnn to Bn Lo F E
IT was about two o'clock, when Mr. Twaddlton, in tm-
pany with Mr. aond ymur, joined the children on t
"Tom," said the "father, "are you prepared to cowmmne.
the proposed examination "
Quite reey, papap
Then you mus first inform me," said Mr. Seymour, tkiug
the ball o out f Roa's hand, "why this ball fals to the
ground as soon a I withdraw from it the support of my
"Because every hmavy body that is not sappoited must of
And every ight one also, my dear; bt that i no answer
to my queetion: you merely assert the ftot, without explai-
ing the reaon-.
"Oht now I ondestand you; it is owing to the fore of
gravity; the earth attracts the ball, and the conequene is
that they both some in contact; is not that rights"
S'Ge taily; but if the earth attrsot the bal it is equally
tru, that the ball m kst attract the earth; for rya have, doubt-
lBas earned that baodIe mutually attract each other; tell me,
therefore why the earth should not rise to meet the ball "
"BWtleaue tHe earth is so much larger and heavier then the
"It is, doubtles, much larger; and since the for&e of
attraction is in proportion to the mass, or quantity oT matter,
you cannot be surpriedt at not perceiving the earth rse to
meet the ball, the attraction of the latter being so infinitely
"mall, in comparison with that of the former, as to render its
effect wholly nugatory; but, with regard to the earth being
heavier than te bal what wil you any when I tell you that,
in the ordinary acceptation of the term, it canot be said
to have any weight?"
"No weight at allt"
Tom begged that his father would explain to him how it
could possibly be that the earth should not possess any weight.
Weight, my dear boy, you will readily understand, can
be nothing more than an effect arising out of the resisted
attraction of a body for the earth: you have jut stated that
all bodies have a tendency to fall, a 'consequene of the at-
tration of--graitation; but If they be supported, and pre-
vented from approaching the earth, either by the hand or any
other appropriate means, this tendency wiR be felt, and is
Tom inderntood tls explanlon, snd observed, that since
attraction was always in proportion to th quantity of at-
ter, so, of core, a larger body rmut be more poweroftly
attracted, dr bo 7t4er, than a smaller one."
SMagnaitude, or sze, my dear, haa nothing whatever to do
with quantity of matter: will not a small piece of lead weigh
more thah a large piece of sponge? In the one oaee, the par-
tiees of matter may be supposed to be packed in a smaller
compass; in the other, there must exst a greater number of
pores or interetioe"
"runderad all you have said," observed Lui, "and
yet I am unable to comprehend why the earth u.unot be said
to have any weight"
cannot you discover," anvawred ir Seymour, "that
Msnoe the earth has nothing to attract it, it cannot have any
attraction to resist, and coLsequently, ascording to the oril-
nary aeoeptation of the term, it cannot be correctly ad to
poas weight? although I confess that, when viewed in
ration to the solar system, a question will arie upon this
subject since it is attrIated by the sun."
The children declared them elves ratified with thia expla-
natAon, and Mr. Seymour proceeded to put another question:
"Since," continued he, "you now understand the nature of
that force by which bodies fall to the eart can you teal me
the degree of velocity with which they fall
Tom asserted that te weight of the body, or Iti quantity
of matter, and its distance fo e the surfae of the earth, must,
is every case, determine that ronmstance; but Mr. By-
mour excited his surprise by esayig that it oud not be
influenced by either of those conditions; he informne thm,
for instance, that a cannon-bat and a marble would fSi
through the esam u mber of fet in a given time, ana that,
whether the experiment were tried fr~ the top of a house
or from the summit of St. Pul'T, the eame result would be
"I am quite ure," exclaimed Tom, that In the Con..,
tons on rmatm rat PA a, it is positively stated, that
atractiona is atnys in rroprtion to the guwntity of mat-
Yes," observed Louisa, t and it is moreover asserted that
the attraction diiaha. as the distances increased"
Mr. Seymour said, that he perceived the error under which
his children labred, and that he would endeavor to remove
it- t Yon cannt, my dears," continued le, -- divest your
minds of that erroneous but natural feeling, that a body
necessarily falls to the ground without the exertion of any
force: whereas, the greater the quantity of matter, the gather
must be the force exerted to bring it to the earth: for in-
stance, a substance which weighs a hundred pounds wil
thus require just ten times more force than one -which only
weigh ten pounds; and hence it rmat follow, that both will
come to the ground at the same moment; for although, in
the one case, there is two times more matter, there i, at the
same time, ten times mom attraction to overcome its resist-
ance, for you have already admitted that the force of attac-
tion is always in proportion to the quantity of matter. tow
let us only for an instant, for the anie merely of argument,
auppose that attraction had been a force acting without any
regard to quantity of matter, is it not evident that, in sneh a
ase, the body containing the largest quantity would be the
slowest in Aling to the earth l
"I understand you, papa," cried Tom: "if an empty
wagon traveled four miles an hour, and were afterward so
loaded as to have its weight doubled, it could only travel at
the rate of two miles in the sane period, provided that in
both cases the horses exerted the same strength."
"Eractly," said Mr. Seymour; "and to follow up yqur
Ilnstration, which is not a bad one, it is only necessary to
state, that Nature, like a considerate master, always appor-
tions the number of horses to the burden that is to be
moved, so that her loads, whatever may be their weight,
always travel at the iame rate; or, to express the faot in
philosophical instead of figrative language, gravitatiom or
the force of the death hs attraction, always increases a the
AE siar cmifm m EB xr. I 45
quantity of matter, and, oonsequently, that heavy and lght
bodies, when dropped together from the une altitie, must
come to the round at the smne instant of time."
Louis ha d listened with great attention to js explain
tion; and although she turoughly undertood the argmet,
yet it appeared to her at variane with so many fetA wit
which she was aeIuinted, that she could not give Imp lctt
erede~ to it
SI thnk, papa," said the ar bly smiling girl, "I cold ove-
turn this fine argument by a very simple eperinent?'
"Indeed, Mis Sterptic: then pray proceed; and I tllnk
we shall find that the more strenuounly yOU oppose it the
more powerfll it will become; but l us hear your objo-
I shall only," replied she drop a shilling and a pleoe of
paper from my bed-room window upon the lawn, Snd request
that you will observe which of theln reache the ground fitu
if I am not much nmistaken-yon will find that the con will
strike death ee eath ber the paper has performed half its jour-
Tom appeared perplexed, and cast an ioqulning look at his
CoOe," said Mr. Seymour, I will perfbo this experi-
mont myself and endeavor to satisfy the doubts four yomm
skeptic; but t I st i take the opportunity to observe that
I am never better pleaded than when you attempt to rais
diffionlties i my way, and I hope you will always oepre
then without reserve."
1 ere, then, is a pinny-plece; and here," said Tomr, "
a piece of paper."
"Which," continued Mr. Seymour, "we will out into a
corresponding shape and sie." This ib aing been acom-
plished, he held the coin in one hand and the paper disk fa
the other, and dropped them at the skm instant.
"Therel there" oried Loueis, with s air of triumph;
t" h coin rnee hed th, ground long before the paer
Mr. Seymour allowed that there was a district Intweal in
46 PHrm.oory i s3PORT -
favor of tle penny-pee; and e proceeded to explain the
caeue of it. He stated that the reet we not contrary to
the law of gravitation, s ee it arose from th interference of
a foreign body, the ir, to the resistance of which it wa to
be attributed : and he desired them to consider the particle
of a falling body as being under the inflence of two opposing
forces,-gravity and the air's resistance. Losa argued
that the air could only act on the surfee of a body, nd as
this was equal in both ces (the size of the paper being exnt-
ly the same a that of the penny-piece), she 6uld not see why
the reeiautane of the air should jnot also be equalin both oass:
I admit," said Mr. Synonr, that the -ir can only act
upon the surfahe of a filing body, and tl is the very reason
of the paper meeting with more resistance tha the coin;
for the latter, fronm its greater density, must contain may
more particles than the paper, and upon which the air cannot
poseibly exert any action; whereas almost every particle of
tie paper my be said to be exposed to its resistance, the fa
of the latter must therefore be more retarded than that of
the former body."
At his explanation Louiea' oubte began to olear off, and
they were ultimately dispelled on Mr. Seymor performing a
modification of the above experiment in the flbowIng man-
nor. He placed the disk of paper in lose l ontact with the
upper part of the coinm and, in this position, dropped the
from hi hand. They both reached e ground at the same
"Are you now eatisfied, my dear loTisa" asked bet fh -
ther: you perceive that, by playing the paper in contact
with the coin, I screened it from the action of the air, nd
the result itb irely conclusive."
Many thanks to you dear papa; I am perfotly satisfied
1pl Sall l feel less confident for the Ifture." To'wa d
lighted; for, as he id, he could now understand why John'o
paomula descended so deliberately to the ground; heonid
also explat why feahes, aad other light bodies, floted -
the air. "Well then," saIs M. Seymour, having aeled
this knotty point let t proceed o th otier question, .
'that a body will fllli wit the ame velocity, during a g
number of tet, from the baIl of St. Pauls as on the top of
a ho ".' You malntain, I believe, that, aince the atoa
of the earth for a body l ainrcaes its diatsne from it a-
orewaesi a bstaae at great height ought to fll m
slowly than one which i. dropped from a lees altitude"
ee r Tom ner Ton Louis could think otherwe. Mr. ey-
mour told them that, in theory, they were perlfetly correct,
but that, mice attraction acted fr the center, and not
from the sarfaQe of the earth,'the dififerenem o is force could
not be discovered at the usall elevations to whioh they could
have access: "for what," said he, an a few hIndred feet
bein comparison with tour thousand milee, whlnh o the diC
tance from the center tthe nhe erface of our globe You
must therefore perceive that, in al olrdiary ealcnlation re-
specting the velocity of falling bodies, we may safely exclude
such a consideration '
Bt uppoae," aid Tom, It were possible to make the
experiment a thousand miles above the earth, would not the
diminished effct of gravity be discovered in that ease "
Undoubtedly; indeed it would be sensible at a much less
distance for iitaunce, if a lmp of lead, weighing a thioeand
pounds, were carried up only four miles it would be found to
have lost two pouns of its weight."
This disoio eon," observed Mr. Twaddleton, reins me
of a problem that w once proposed at Cambridge, to find
the elevation to which the Tower of Babel could have been
raised, before the atones would havenentiely lost their gravity.'
Its solution," said Mr. Seymour, would require a con-
Grlit7, or tba toendancy of a l
t&orfsn u ra. JMaaees; tb. B4r ft tbdy l annetba ta.esslb at.
cert ln dlta*u ta crettt.i4n te l ~i .ba twrwdrcAr,, #rol
odlawe, Iet wI tno ns ot d i twh be Iune, 4uw, St 44/n
d"nnaba lt was btor" Itnd 1% It "ho Ien, to "tef timn ow e isrut4n.
Iwltb-abSneedin4ete oai4& namushbutomsJ na ta te, -bUY f
Sur bets Hl nqur qe or t'.c and Bt'e tuo square ot thr; i jr oka-
aideration which Tom could not possibly undertnd at pres-
ent, viz., the influence of the amnt$~t force
"I m fIlly aware of it," replied the viear, -and in order
to appreelate that inlence, it t would, of course, be neeeaery
to take into aceoout the latitude of the place; but, if my
memory serves me, I think that under the latitude of 800,
which, I believe is nearly that of the plain of Mesopotamia,
the height would be somewhere about twenty-four thousand
Mr. Beymour now desired Tom to form him, since all
bodies fall wi e it a veloty, what that velocity might be
"Sixteen fet in a second, papa. I have-just remeber
that I had dispute with a sehoolfelow npon that suhjeet4
and in which, thanks to Mrs. Market, I came oft' vitoriogis
and won twelve marbles."
Then let me tll yon, y fine fellow, that, unlOes your
answer exeluively related to the rs second of timo, you did
not win the marbles fairly; for, since the force of gravity iW
continually acting, so is the velocity of a falling body con-
tinnlly increasing, or it has what is termed an accelrating
weicift;' it has accordingly been acertained by acoate ex-
periments that a body descending from a considerable height
falls teen feet, as you say, in the flr second of timse; but
tAre time stase inm the nest; five times a teen in the tird ;
and am. times aixten n the fonbxti; and so on, continually
increasing secording to the odd numbers, 1, 8, 5, 7, 9, 11, ao-
so that you perceive," continued Mr. Seymour, by obserhin
the number of seconds which a stone require to descend om
any height, we can dscover the altitude or depth of the place
in question "
Louisa and Fanny, who ad been attentively listening to
their father's explanation, Interchanged a smile of satisfction,
and, pulling Tom toward them, whispered something which
was inadible t re o tee of the party.
"(omn, now," excla.imedMr. Seymour, "I perceive by yonr
loblk that you lveo omething to ask of me: IS Louia a kp-
MAlDE SCIEON IM tAiNErT.
Oh iear no," replied Tom; Louia merely loerved that
we might now be able to ind out the depth of the village
w6l, about which we have all been very eurions; for the gar
dener has told o that it is the deepest in the kingdom, and
was dug more than a hundred years ago"2
Mr. Seymour did not believe that it was the deepest in the
kingdom, although he knew that ita depth was considerable;
and he said that if Mr. Twddleton had no objection, they
should walk to it, and make the proposed experiment.
SObjection I my dear Mr. Symour, when do I ever object
to afford pleasure to my little playates, provided its in-
dulgge be e iarmlese much lees when it is asoolated with
instruction. The old adage tells us that 'Trnth lies at the
bottom of a well' so let as proceed at once to invade her re
treat, and extort her secrets; and on our retamr I hope you
will favor me with a visit at the vicarag.e I have none an-
tiquitie which I'am anxious to exhibit to yourself and Mrs.
Seymour." Tom and Rosa each took the viear's hand, and
Mr. and Mrs. Beymour followed with Louiea and Fanny. The
village well was about half a mile distant; the road to it led
through a delightful shady lane, at the top of which stood th6
vioarage-hons. Mr. and Mrs. Seymour and her daugiters
had lingered in their way to collect botanical spelomen; and
when they had come up to Tom and the vicar, tty found them
seated on the trunk of a newly yelled oak in deep diconre
"What interests you, Tonit" ad Mr. Seymour, who per-
ceived, by the inquiring and animated countenane of he boy,
that his attention had been exited by some oceurene.
I have been watching the woodman, and have been sur-
prised that the found of his hatchet was not heard until some
time after he had struck the tree."
"And has not Mr. Twaddleton explained to you the renon
He ha~," replied To, and ihe tells me that it is owing
to sound traveling so much more slowly than light."
You are quite right; and, as we are upon sa expeditio
for the purpose of measuring depth, it may not be anu. 1to
inform you that this fact fuaishee another method of calon-
The party seated theelves upon the oak, and r. Seymur
proceeded:- The stroke of the axe is seeo at the moment
the woodman makes it, on account of the immense Velocity
with which light travels; (I*) but the noise of the blow will
not reeh the ear until some time has elapsed, the period vary-
Ing, of course, in prn ooon to the distance, because sound
moves only at the rate of 114 feet in a second, or about 18
miles in a minute; so that you perceive, by observing the
time that elapees between the tl of the hatchet and the
oundd produced by it, we on ascertane the distame of the
Mr. Beymor fixed his eye attentively on the woodman,
and, water a short pause, declared that he was about ha a
quarter of a mRie distant.
SWhy, how could you discover that" cried Louisa; "you
had not any watch in your hand."
t Butt you might have perceived that I placed my linger on
my wrist, and, as my pulso beats about 75 strokes in a miutet
I was able to form a tolerable estimate of the interval, although
I confai that it is a very rough experiment, but suioientl
aoeurate for the purpose of illustration. In th ame manner,
ne an readily ascertain the distance of a thander-oloud, or
that of a vcsel at se firing a cannont I we do not hear the
thunder til balf a minute after we see the lightning, we re
to conclude the eload to be at the distance of six miles and a
half. But let us proceed to the welL" -
After a wSlk of a few minutes, the party reached the place
of destination. On their arrival, Mr. Seymour inquired who
would count the time.
Be that omffl mine, said Mr. Twaddleton, a he extracted
a large dlver time-piece from the dark abyas of hs watch-
pooket; "and let Tom," conti ed he, find a pebble."
ha* Th flaen~r to thf additional 4 ote t th. o "d p wortt .
SThe pose w the -Me or tie uwad ba r hae on be brtd x-
t Here is one," ried Louisa.
Very well: now, then, how will you proceed Y" P*ed Me.
"I shall drop the stone," replied Tom, into the wel, am
observe how many seconds it ill be before it touhea the
water, and I shall then set down the number of feet it will a
in each second, and add up the numbers"
"That," said Mr. Seymour, "would certainly accomplish
your object; but I etn give you a neater, as well as a aborter
rule for performing the sam; you sh, however, irat work it
in your own way;-but you have not yet informed me how
you propose to ascertain the moment at which the en eo
reaches te water."
By the sound, to be sure, and you will find that ery
loud one will be produced."
If the depth of the well be considerable, sch a plan will
not answer the purpose, sinte, in that case, there met tnefe-
arily be a perceptible Interval between the fll of the Stoie
and the sound produced by it, ao you have just seen et-
phfied by the woodman, which, unless taken into aoonnt,
will vitiate the result."
Tom observed that he had not thought of that ditculty,
and did not know how he could get over it. HI father told
him, that he must look at the surface of the water, and mar
the moment it was disturbed by the stone
"Now, Mr- Twddleto," said Mr. Seymour, "are yon
ready to count the seconds "
"Then drop the stone."
There," sTad Ton, it tonaled the water."
"And there there," cried several voies, what a moile ft
"Fa'eoi deaensus Aveti" etclabmed the vicar; "the
stone defended in four seconds."
"Now, my boy, niae your calonlaton."
r. Seymour farnished pencit and paper, and Tam pr
aeeded;-" Siteen feet for the rst second,-I put that
Well," said his father, and tAree times sioreem for the
"Frty-eight," oried Tom.
"Pat it down."
APr times esteem for the third "
Down with i."
"And seven times siteenf for the fourth?"
Oe Aundrad and twelve."
SNow, cast up these mbers," said Mr. Seymour.
"Sao hundred and lifty-i ftee," cried Tom, "is the
depth of the well."
A shout of delight, from the whole juvenile party an-
nouneed the satisfaction which they felt at the su oes of
their firat experiment if N.TRn. Pnmaoornv.
Louisa observed'd t se o d not istingish any inter-
val between the actual contact of the stone with the water
and the son which it produced
At so snal a distance as two hundred and fty-six
feet," said her fathr, the interval could not have exooeded
in duration the fourth part of a second, and was, oose-
quntly, imperceptible: we might therefore, in the present
instance have accepted the sound Wa a signal of the stone'
arrival at the water, without prejudice to the result of the
Mr. Seymour told his son, that the nrethod whioh be had
puraned was unobjectionable when the experiment did not
extend beyond a few seconds; but that if a case occurred in
which a greater space of time wore connsumed, be would find
his plan teds: Now I will gve you a general rul that
win enable you to obtain the answer in a shorter time with-
out the details of addition. The spaee desribed by f/ l -
ing ody increase as the squares of ite tims inreamsm.' I
oonolade that you already know that the quare of a number
s the sum obtained by multiplying the number into itaelt"
U Certainly," answered Tot ; the square of 4 IL 16; that
of 8, 9, and so on."
This, then, being the case, you hav only to square the
number of seconds, and then multiply that proadot by 16,
being the space described by the fllig body in the flrst sm
nnd, and you will ave the required answer: apply thi rule
to the present case; the stone fell to the bottom in four sec-
onds; square this unrber, 4 x 4 = 16; multiply this by ld,
and w obtain 256."
"That," said Tomn, "I certainly much more simple than
And it has the advantage," continued Mr. Seymour, "of
being more portable for the memory."
"Should any of the viagaers obsere u" said Mrs. Sey-
mour, they wir take us for a party of fortnne-teere."
Of fortune-te1ers repeated Louisa, with surprise
"Yes, my dear, there is a foolish sperstition attached to
this, and I believe to many other wells in the neighborhood
of remote villages, that by dropping pebbles into it and ob-
serving whether they produce a loud or only a eslght sound,
and by noticing the number of times they rebound from t
acdes before they reach the bottom, and other absurd ditin-
lions, a person can predict whether good or evil awaits them.
Mrs. Seymour now proposed the party's return to the
Lodge; but Mr. Twaddleton expressed a hope tha they
would first favor him with a visit at the vicarage; to whb
proposition they readily asented.
His antiquated residence, mantled in ivy, and shaded by
cypress, stood on the confines of the churchyard, fom whio
his grounds were merely separated by a dwarf hedg of
sweet-brier and roses; so that the vicar miht b said to
reside amidt the gves of hi departed parishioners, and the
tnrf-clad heap evinced the infalunce of hi foaterig oea by a
grateful return of primross and violet.
Around the house the reverend antiquary had arranged
several precious relics, which were too cumbrous for arm
sion withi its walls; among these was n anedent eaicr
rnoed upon a platform on foneamt whioh fom the worn
appearance of the stones had evidently been imnpresed with
the foot of mauy a wondering pilgrU These moldering
monuments of ancient daya cost a shade of solemnity arowd
the dwelling, and announced its ioate as a person of no
Annette, the viors trusty servant, had watched the ap-
proach o the require and his family, and, anticipating the
honor of a psaing visit, was busily engaged in removing the
backed covers from the co(ubrono oaken chairs, and the
artone other bibs and tuckers with which his ouriositieA
were iaveeted, when the party entered the study, Lucky
was it for the vicas's repose, that the notice had been so
short, or the tidy housewife would, without doubt have
soured sone of the antique coiunoditls, and destroyed a
crop of sacred verdure, which ages could not have replen-
ished. As matter stood, nothing ws left for poor Annette,
bab to defend her character at the expense of her master,
who she declared treated her as though she was an old
witohb whenever she wa seen with a oom.
"W1 y, ppa," exclaimed Tolm, as he cast his eyes around
the atudy, a these curiosities have been put up since I went
"The boy il right" said the vicar, "I have only just com-
pleted their arrangement; and I believe," continued he,
ddraing himself to Mr. Seymour, that there are several
rich morsels of antiquity which you have not yet see~: but
I must, in the first place, introduce my young friends to the
wonder of ony nagic gallery; wherein they may converse
with the spirit of departed zmperors, heroes, patriots, sas,
and beties;-contemplate, at their leisure the counte-
nances of e Alexanders, Omare, Fompeys, and Trjac-
behold a legion of aegorical an airy beings, who have here,
for the fira time, asumed appropriate Sid substantial forms ;
-examine the models of ancient temples and triurphat
aroe, which, alonl eoeval with the edfies they repre-
wg 4- p-rfect W a t e firet ni >,nmnt of their construa -
ton, while the originals hue long since crumbled into dust.
They shall also see volmes of history, contend into a pace
of a few inches, and read the sbstance of a hundred page
at a single glance"
"How extraordinary sd Tom: "why, we never rea
any thing more wonderful in our Fairy Tales."
"And what renders it more wonderftl," observed the
vicar, "i i its being ll true."
So Baying, the antiqnsry took a key of pignmy dimeson
from the pocket of his waistcoat, and preceded to a cam-
brons ebony cabinet which stood in a deep reeae, and dis.
played an ntque structure, and curiously carved allegorical
devices, lt stict unison with that air of mystery with whih
the vicar had t t p toht pp to invest its contnts. It w
supported by gigantic eagles' olaws; its key-hole won r-
rounded by hissing snses; while the head of Oarbernu
which costituted the handle, appeared as i placed t guard
the entrance. The children were upon the tiptoe of expecta-
tion and impatiencethe vicar applied the key with the
wonder-tirring exclamation of "Ogn sEUA !" the lock
yielded, and the doors flew open. Dippouintment and
chagrin were visibly depicted on the countenanc, of the
brothers and siatero
And so," exclaimed TomI, this flne Iaio gallery turn
out to be nothing more thnn a box fl ofa rusty b1Wmnoelt"
I am sure' said Loui, "it was quite unteeary to
have engaged Cer bem a a soetinel over such rubblh I"
"H Ish" cried the vicar; yon talk like one ot iitiatted
in the mysteries of enehantnent: have you not read that
under its speil thie meaneet objects have assumed nms of
splendor and m2gnlicenoae
*In .a leg5nds or SiwtwtMh srntain thoe mle power of Im iu ponA
aeL eyelgbt wa termed Oleau* .
'lt mob elf tr nbt
"It balatb oer
Could S** a I4dysl com S k light;
Tea obwebl ea danno Wil
B a try t- lntr hal;
"Tlite te fabled tough of the Phrygian monarch" said
Mr. Seymour, "-which we are told transmuted the' anewt
material into gold."
"Or the bnatnated brain of Don Quixote, which converted
the barber's basin into Mambrino's golden hoet," added
SIn like manner, then, nsy trea res of the greatest vle
appear to ordinary eyes as men and wortIlees."
"This cabinet continued Mr. Twaddleton, "is under the
influence of a potent mnagic n by the touch of her wand, it
would become irradiated as with magical light, and thee
rusty coins would be transfored into all those various
objots of interest and delight which I bad promised to show
Tom and Louisa looked at the oinso, then at the vicar, and
afterward at Mr. Seymour, to whom they coat an inquiring
SThen, pray," exclaimed Tom, "wve this mighty wand
of your enchanltree, and fulf your promise."
"The enchantress," replied the veoar, "s not disposed to
grant her favors to those by whom she bha not been propi-
"And what ceremony does she require ?' inquired Louisa.
"The perusal of mundry Mnystic volumes, and the con-
snmption of a midnight lamp st her altar," replied the vicar.
"Do you not comprehend the allegory said Mr. Sey.
mour. The enchanted gallery is no other than a collection
of antique medals;-the potent enchantress, Eznoomor, or
that eldassial learning, without which they appear of leha
value than so many rusty halfpence,"
"You are right," riied Mr. Twaddleton; the poetoal in-
port of a device can be alon felt and appreciated by those
A n~ bsetI eem a Udd barge
A "1elIng inSam S pje0 Iarg
And yenth eem ag, -e semt yth:-
Alt as 4Cnele, nauht-trnM trfth,"
Lrurjjits.e JUA8*tn&-tOaat It.
wh4 are acquainted with the classical asubjeot to which It
alludes; for, as Addison forcibly observe, thee is often a
much thought on the reverse of a medal as in a canto of
Spenser; besides, how frequently do you meet with hinta
and suggestions in an ancient poet, that give a complete oill
tration to the actions, ornament, and antiquities which ar
found on coins I In short, the person vwho esames a col-
lection of medals, without f competent knowledge of the
clooaios, is like hin who would explore a subtranean cavern
without the aid of a torch."
"I have already learned one flat," said Luisa, "with
whioh I was certainly nna~ualnted; that the anoiaent poe-
seessd a much greater variety of money than mosder n-
"Of that, my dear," replied the vicar, "there is some
doubt;-the learned are divided upon the question: some
antbors maintain that every medal, and even ndallson- had
its fixed and regular price in payment, while others, on the
contrary, assert that we are not in the possoueion of any ral
money of the ancient, and that the medals never hd any
currency as coins. The trout probably is between these two
"If these medals were not ased as money," observed
Loui a, "for what purpose could they have been coined "
To perpetuate the memory of great actions; and, fitito
to its charge of fame, the medal ha transmited events, th
history of which must, otherwise, have long since perished.
Nay, more," enalaimed the vicar, his voioe riing na ho be-
came warmed by hd subject, the lamp of history aa een
often extinguished, and the medalist has collected sparks from
the ashes of antiquity which have reindled its fme. TYou
perceive, therefore," continued the reverend antqary, that
nuch colleions are of the highest importance and if your
papa wil allow you to paS a morning i their examination,
I hah easily bring you to admit, that I have not eaggeated
the wonder of my magio gallery. I will convince you tJat
it contains a series of original miniature portrait ao the great
eatheroes of antiquity; a oompoodiou hart of history, chro-
noogy, and heathen mythology; a system of clasio archite-
ture; and an amoorate commentary upon the more celebrated
poems of Greece and Rome. Ay, and I will show you a
faithful resemblance of the very ship that carried Eneas to
Italy, and of the lofty poop from which the uInclees Patinnam
fI into the ocean"m
Mr. Twaddleton then favored Mr. and Mra. Seymour with
agt ni of of ome of those rarer medals whilh be considered as
constituting the igems of h collection.
"You do not mean to Say," exclaimed Tom, as he seized ,
small con, that this Ia piee Is of more value than the
large coin of gold that lies net to it ?"
"Mercy upon nus" oried the vicar, in a tone of agony,
"how the boy handles it I-retore it to its plaee-gently
gently-that 'little brae piece,' as you call it, i gold, and
although it might not have been worth one gIinea fifteen
hundred years ago, is now valued at a hundred. It is a coin
of Ptolemy VIII. of Egypt On the obverse is the portrait
of the ing beautifully raised; on the reverse a cornucopia.
I do not believe that the coin was nown to Pikerton when
he wrote his Essay."
There is, certainly," said Mr. Seymour, something very
inexplicable in the tastes and enthusiastic feelings of you pa&
trons of antiquity"'
The antiquary," observed the vicar, does not regard
cabinet of medals as a treasure of money, but of knowledge ;
nor doea he tncy any ehanr in gold, but in the figres that
adorn it; it is not the metal but the erudition, that stamps
it with vale."
Mr. Twaddleto now passed on to a different compartment
of hid cabinet, observing, that he mlst exhibit a few of hi
Roman tresurean "Behold," said he, "two gaem of anap-
proclable value; never do I look upon them but with feeling.
of the purest delight. Le my young fiends come nearer
and inspect them minately. This li a large brae coin of
Tiberid and w ae nwr m when Ohrist was upo the earth;
next to it le a ilver Dear~n of the amea Emperor; ite
vaine was bout equal to seven-pence ofor money, and was
the coin that tempted Judas to betray ti master.'
1 I think," said Mrs Seymour, I have heard you speak o
some English coln of rarity ana interest."
True, mtdam, very true, but they are in another cabinet
before I close the present one, I will with your pertinlon,
give you a glimpse at my Sulphurs, Padnas, and BeOkees-"
"Padoans and Beckem '" exclaimeC Mr. Seymour, "and
pray what may they be? l Dever before heard the termr.'
'My poverty but not my wW com ente. The antiquary
who i poor in purse," observed the vicar, "must needs be
cotenntd with being rih in counterfeits, or, I ought rather
to have said, In poesing hopies inst of originals. Beker
was n artist of Frankfort, who exeeed in Mitating ancient
coins, but he neverusd his skill for the pnrposeof deception,
but honesty sold hs production as avowed copies, whih
are admitted into the cabinets of the OUrious under the nsn
of Becker., The PaoansU," the vicar added, derived their
names from two brothers at Padua, celebrated for the aou-
racy with which they imitated large Roman coins"
I sppose we ahae boon have Eleetrotyp. collection',"
said Mr. Seymour-
t" Undoubte'dy; and as snuh impreions must of neoeaety
bo minutely fithfl, they ill possess a value of their own,
which can never attach to odeld copies," observed the
The antiquary now ireted the attention of Mrs Seymour
to his English coined, Thi," sad he, t is a shelling if Henry
VI., ourious as being the firs shtiling Over struck; it waM
presented to me by a college friend some yea ago, ad
I have been lately informed that it is so rare as to fetch
twenty-five pounds; but let me beg you to examine attn-
tively this curious little treasure," sad the vicar, hi ey
thinking with pleasure as he pl ed th dainty morsel la th
hand of Mr Seymour; it Is," continued he, "a liver grea
of Perkin Warbeek; on one ide are the Royal arms, Int
without a name; they are surmounted, you perceive, wit
an arched orown, and placed between a fleAr-d-lis and a
What is the inscription V asked Mr. Seymour.
Say legend, Madam f yon please; the words are Io
mine, salotnjfa rege,' the date 1494. The coin is supposed
to have been struck by the order of the Iuchees of Burgundy
for Perlin Warbeck, when he set out to invade England."
Pray," said Tom, have you got a Queen Anne's iar-
"It is really ouriour," observed the vicar, that well-in-
formed persons should Atil continue to be deceived with re-
gard to the value of this oin. The absurd notion of its being
worth 100 arose flrto an advertisement of an old lady, who
had lost one, stating it to be one of the only three known in
the worldor ad worth at least 100 The truth is, I under-
aband from my mnch-valued frind of Tavistook-stret, that
these firthings generally fetch from five to twenty shilling
each; there are several different types of them, but the only
one intended for currency is that bearing the date of 1714;
all the others were struck as pattern. This is certainly
scarce, in consequence of the death of the Queen talking
place before othe coinage was nfinshed. The frtldg and six-
pence of Oliver Oromwell are much more scarce and valea-
ble; the one generally brigs 10, the other as much as 25.
It appears that, after Oliver ad stamped his head upon
them, he was afraid to issne those as current coins, which
accounts for the few which have been handed down to us."
Yo remind me," said Mr. Seymour, "of a story I lately
heard of a crown-piece of Oliver lately seeing at a public ao-
tionfor as amulihs two hundred gaine, z it bepossible t"
"You labIor under a mistake," answered the vicar; "the
coin yo allude to is known among collector by the name
of the Petition crown of Oharles the Second, nd it Wi un-
doubtedly a most Inimitable piece of workmanahip. The
tory is this: Simon, the artist had been employed by Oliver
omwell, and at the etoration, In order to obtain the p-
MADE SOIlNCE IN EAfNEST. 61
tronageof Oharles, executed the crown-plece in question. It
resembles in its general appearance the common milled five-
silling piece, but on the edging there are two lini of letters
beautifully executed. The words are, Tomas Simon mst
htsmbny prays your Mafeoty to compare this M s tryal piece
with the huthA, and if more truly drman and embossed, more
gracefully ordered, and nmr. accuratEy enravea, to relief
"And what sail Charles to it? inquired Mr. Seymour.
Charles," said the vioar, took no notice of him, on ac-
count of hia having worked for Cromwell, and the poor artist
shortly afterwards died of a broken heart."
"Well," exclaimed Mr-. eymour, "hi wanes maut be
surely appeased, if his crown now sell for two hundred
The party, soon after this exhibition, quitted e vicarage,
highly gratiaed, and returned to the Ldge, where, after the
usual ceremonies at the toilet they sat down to dinner, in the
enjoyment of which we will now leave them, and put an end
to the present chapter.
mormT-Amx n AND ELAr1Ve-VNI1Tmo, ACCELEnLAERD, AND
TurAnlnan nLEor Y.--TfE ol E r Os OET AND DaOB6BT A
ObUAL.-VlS Ifam l.--inronoN.-AcTox AMND REACTIOS ABS
WOnAL AMR Ir OPOITs an ilCTIOnal.--OMOXSmrlI DBPFItlE Amie
IrPLA I A-TE TRmaE GREAT LAWA OF ARMOHlo
"THn table-cloth is removed,1 cried Tom, as he cast a Sly
glane throu th the open window of the dining-room.
"It is, my boy," replied Mr. Twaddleton; H re niee,
sA the poet has it."
"& rsedunet jam r ns eap isa," added Mr. Seymour,
archly, as he pointed to the verdan luxuries spread over the
"'st deeresentia flmin prterer t" continued the vicar,
with a smile, as h passed the nearly exhausted& bottle; 'but,
psha enough of wine and quotation. Come, let s join the
Mr. Twaddleton, accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. eymour
and Louisa, rose from the table, and proeeed to the lawn
"The ravitation of Tom's ball" said Mr. Seymour, "far-
nlbhed an ample sul eot for our morning's divermion; let n
try whether iAt othAer motions will not suggest frter objects
of inquiry "
"Iwell remember," observed Louisa, "that Mrs. Market
extol that apple, the fall of which attracted the notice o Sir
Isaa Newton, above all the apples that have ever been anng
by the poets: and she declares that the apple presented to
Venus by Pari ; the golden apples, through which Atalanta
lost the ra.; ay, even the apple which Wiliahm Tell shot
from the head of his own son, cannot be brought into co
prison with it"
"Well eaid I Mrs Marcet," exclaimed Mr. Seymour; u apo
my word, had the mother of marnid used but half such elo-
quence in praise of an apple, we cannot wonder at Ita in-
"What honors, then," continued Louisl, "shall we degree
to Tom's ball, if it instructs us i the first principles of phi-
We are trifing," observed Mr. Seymour, and so eaing,
he took the ball from Tom's hand, ad rolling it along the
ground, excamed, "There it goes, performing, as you may
peroeiv~ two different ind of motion at the same time: it
turns round, or revolves on its aois; and goes straight -
ward, or, to speak more philosophically, performs a retlinar
Tom said he did not exactly comprehend what was meant
by the auri. His their therefore, informed him that the
axs of a revolving body was an imaginary line, which was it-
sef at rest, but about which all eit other pari turned p ro
tated. "But," continued he, 'an you tell me Whether yon
understand what is meant by the word inoti "'
"If he can," exclimed the vicar, "he is a cleverer Weow
than the wisest philoaspher of mantiuity, who, upon beg
asked the very same question, is said to have wald sarms
the room, and to hiave rephed, I on see it, but what it i] I
cannot tell yen'1
Your ancient ntances," observed Mr. Seymour, t ean
tertned some very strange notions touching this s subject
of motion. If I remember right iodoris denied its very ex-
Itenoe; bat we -re told that he did not himself r.maia w,
mwond, when he dislocated his shoulder, and the ergeon kept
him in torter, while he endeavored to oonvinoe .,m, by l1.
own mode of reasoning, that the bone could not have moved
out of its plae. We have, however, at prftea nt Ming to
do with the ancients t he philosophy of out own tmr.a e
In deffiing motion to be ha th act ofa aoy canging its situ-
ation mith regard to any other,' and you will therefore readily
perceive that this may aotnally happen to a body while it re-
mains absolutely at rest."
"Well, that beats all the parades I ever heard," cried
Tom; "a body then may be in motion, while it is at rest"
"Certainly," replied Mr. Seymour, "it may be relatiel in
motion, while it is a~sol neti at rest."
SHow can a body change its place," said Louisa, except
"Very readily," answered her father; "it may have its rel-
ative situation changed with respect to surrounding objeota.
There is your ball, and here is a stone; has not each of them
a particular situation with respect to the other; and by
moving one, do I not change the relative situation of both "
"I perceive your meaning," said Tom.
"To prevent confusion, therefore, in our idea, it became
necessary to distinguish these two kinds of motion from each
other by appropriate tenrm; and, accordingly, where there
has been an actual change of place, in the common meaning
of the term, the motion which produced it is termed Anson
motion; whereas, on the contrary, when the situation ha
been only relatively haged, by an alteration in the position
af surrounding bodies, the motion is said to be maraTi."
"Surely, papa, said Louia, "no person can ever mistake
relative for ooaolte motion; what then is the use of such
frivolous distlictiont When a body really moves, we can
observe i it in the t of chmaging its place, and no difficulty
can arise about the matter."
"~ othing, oy dear, is more falacious than our lion; the
earth appears motionless, and the sun and stars seem as if they
revolved round it; but it e soaroely reoesary for me to Inform
you, that oar globe is constantly moving with considerable ve-
locity, while the sun remains at reot. Mr. Sadler, the famoam
aeronanut," otinued Mr Seymour, "informed mo that he
wa never asenible of the motion of his balloon in any of his
aem reasons, but that, e amended into the air, the earth al
ways appeared as if ,ning beneath him, and as he deoned,
as f rising to nmeet hlm"
Mr. Twaddleton here observed hat he ad heard a very
carious anecdote, when he was last In London, which ftdly
con firmed t ute truh of r. Sadler's statement. An ae-
nant," said he, whoe name I cannot at this momentt reool-
lot, had recently published a map of his voyage, oad instead
of proceeding i any one line one lie o direction, track absolutely
appeared in the frma of roles, connected with each other
like the line of a chain: this occasoned considerable aeton-
ishment, and of eoaure some speculation, until it was at- length
discovered that his apparent journey was to be attributed to
the rotatory motion of the balloon, which t voyager, not
feeling, had never suspected."
"And what," asked Tow, could have been the reaon of
his not having felt the motion "
Hi, father explained to him, that we are only conslous of
being in moti n tion n te conveyace n which we placed
sufrsa some impediment in its progress "'If," sad heo you
were to close your eyes, when sailion on calm water, with a
steady breeze, you would not perceive that yon were moving:
for you could not feet ihe motion, and you could only se it
by observing the change of place in the different objects on
the shore; and then it would be almost impossible, without
the aid of reason and experience, to believe that the shoe
itself was not in motion, and that you were at ree. I all,
however, be able to explain thl subject more clearly by an
optical toy which I have in prepabtion."
* Mrs. Seymour hbre repeated the towing pawage from
that interevtin novel Anastasnas," which she observed was
beantiftaly descriptive o the illusve appearane to wohh
their paps had just referred
"The gradually increasng breeze carried us rapidly out of
the Straits of Ohio. The different object on the a -
mountaJae, vaneys vlages, and steepl-ee d in swift
sucesson, first advancing to meet u, tben halting an it t
alongside orr vesol, as if to greet s o on our paiag and,
laty, again gliding off with equal speed; till, launched into
the open main, we saw the whole line of coat gradually dis-
solve in distant darkness."
"Tht is indeed a beuatiful and very apposte illustration "
said Mr. Seymour; "and I think Louis wll now admit
that it is not quite so easy a she at first imagined to distin-
guiah between Absoluct and v.Rlati motion."
As the children now understood what was meant by the
term Motio, their father ashed them whether they could
tell him what produced it.
"I can make a body move by various veans,'" answered
"lBnt they may ll be reduced to one," said Mr. Seymour;
"via, some exertion which it oaled Fore; thusthe force
of my hand put your balu in motion; while gravitation was
the force which made it fl to the earth; and I must, more-
over, infeor you that a body always moves in the direation
of the force which impels it, and with a velocity, or rate of
motion, which is proportional to its degree or strength; and,
were there no other forces in action but that which originally
produced the motion, the body would proceed onward in a
right line, and with a tifform velooity forever."
"Foreverl" exaoimed Louisa.
".Ay, my dear foreer: but we will discuss that question
presently; you must irst tell me whether you understand
what Is meant by inform velocity."
"I suppose that unitorm velocity is that which is regular,
and of an equal rate throughout."
"Philosopers" replied her lather, oal the motion of
body enifor, when it passes over equal spaces in equal
timeh. Kow, Tom, it is your turn to answer a question.
Oa. yon describe the meaning of the terms Aeelerated and
b.etarbd motion t"
"I conclude that motion is said to be accelerateo when it
mores every mment quicker and quicker, and to be retard
who. it moves lower and slower."
You are perfectly right; and graity may either aot in
oceaaioitng the one or th1 other; our experiment at the wel,
this morning, afforded you an example of gravity proadcng
a regular accelerated motion. I did not fully explain the
fiat at the time, because I was desros of avoiding too many
new ideas at money; we mutt win our way lowly nd cou-
tiosly th through the mazes of phosophy: I will, however,
now endeavor to give you as clear an explanation as the sub-
jeot will alow. It i, I tink, evident, tat if at the moment
you dropped the stone from your hand the force of gravity
could have been sinionded, it would have descended to the
bottom of the well with a uniform velocity; because there
could have been nothing either to accelerate or retard its
motion. But this was not the case, for the power of gravity
was in constant operation; and, if you keep this fat in
mind, you will readily understand how the velocity become
accelerated: for, suppoe e te impulse given by gravity to the
stone, during the first instant of its decent, be equal to one,
the next iostnt we shall find that an additional impauls gives
the stone an additional velocity equal to one, so that the
acumu-lated velocity is now equal to two; the following
instant agam inoreoase the velocity to hree, and so on, tin
the stone roaches the bottom."
Mr. Twaddleton observed, the fact might be shortly ex-
pressed by saying, tiha "the effects of preceding Impulses
must be added to subosquent velooities."
Mr. Seymour then remarked that the same explanation
would apply to retarded velocity. "If," said he, "you
throw a stone perpendiculrly upward, the velocity will be
as mecl, reardd, as it ws in the other case acce rated, by
gravity; the consequenceof which is, that it wil be exactly
the e m length of time ascending that it was descending.
"1 should have thought the very reverse," cried Louia,
"and that it would have allen quicker than it rose.-
"'You have forsgtten to take into aconmnt the force wih
-wich the atone is thrown upward, and which Is destroyed
by gravity before it begins to descend."
"Certainly," answered Louisa; "but the force given to a
bone in throwing It upward cannot always be equal to the
fbre of gravity in bringing it down again for the force of
gravityis always the ame, while the force given to the stone
is entirely optional I may throw it up gently or otherwise,
as I please"
"If you throw it gently," said her ather, "ib will not rise
high, and gravity will soon bring it down again; if you throw
it wih violence it will rise much higher, and gravity will be
longer in bringing it baok to the ground. Suppose, for
instance, that you throw it with a force that win make it
rise only sixtene feet; in tant case, you know, it will ft in
one second of time, Now it is proved by experiment, that
an impuse requisite to project a body sixteen feet upward
will make it aaoend that height in one second of tim; here,
then, the time of ascent and decent are equal. lu, sup-
poeing it be required to throw a stone twice that height, the
foree mset be proportionally grater. You see, then, that the
nmpulse of projection, in throwing a body upward, is always
equaP to t aion he ctione tof gravity during its decent;
and that it is the greater or lba distance to which the body
ries that make these two forces batiwe each other"
"Thank yon, dear papi, for the pains you have taen in
explaining this subject to us."
"Nay," replied MrlSeymour, "bestow your thanks npon
those to whorAthv i yre more justly due, Mrs. Maret is enti-
tied to the meit of this explanation; for I obtaued it from
her Conversations Before I quit this enlject, I would just
observe that, when we com t the consideration of the bow
and arrow, you will, by the applation of the fiw I have
eneavored to expoiund be enabled to ascertami the height to
which your arrow may acend, withthe slnoe Ailiy as you
Adimsovred the depth of the wel; for, since the ties of
ascent and decent are equal, you have only to determine the
number of aseonds which intervene between the instant at
whicn the arrow quite the bow to that at which it falls to
the ground, and, haung the, to mae the u sal aaunlation.
But let w proceed to another sauieo. IAll the ball hither,
Tom; roll the ball bther, I say you stad A if yo thoa
it would advance to vs pf its own accord."
"I know a little better than that, too," oried Ton; "no
body can move without the applicato of some foe)'.
"Nor stop, either," added Mr. Seymour, when it is one
in motion; for matter is equally indiffrent to both rest and
"And yet, papa," cried Louia, "nnfortunately fcr your
assertion, the ball stopped just now, and I am sure that no
force was used to make it do so."
'And pray, misa Pert, why are you so sure that no force
was opposed to its progre I begin to.fear that my eeson
has been tn trwn away upon you, or you would not, sgy,
have concluded so faleely,"
The vicar here intOeposed, observing that, simple a the
question might appear to those who bad studied it, the hat
was o contrary to every thing that passed before us that Mr.
Seymour ought not to feel any surprise at the skeptiolam af
his daughter; ho begged to remind him that the truth, ap-
parent as it doubtless now wae, lay hid for age before the
sagacity of Gallho brought it to light.
Mr. eymour admitted the justice of this reaark, and pro-
ceeded in his explanation.
"I think," said e, "you will readily allow that matter
cannot, in itaee Z poeas any power of changng Its condition:
it can, therefore, no ciure dearoy than it cam orinate t
own motion when it is at ret, it must ever remain so, an-
less po'no force be applied thaf can i part to it nativity; ald
when unc in motion, it nmut continue to move until soae
counteractuas fbree stops it. To believe otherwise, yo a w
suppose that matter po~eeas in itself a power to alter its OQD-
dition, which is perfectly abstain "
And yet, said Tom, when I eee my ball or marble aop
of its own accord, how can you blame me for belief it
SYour diflolty arises from your ignorance of the it-
enme of certain forces which ac upon the rolling ball orm r
be. Its progrcn, as it rolls along, is Impede and ultihtely
stopped by the rubbing, or friction, occasoned by its passage
onr the ground; and this wil be greater or les, according
to the degree of roughness of the surface; if it be small, the
ball will continue fr a longer time in motion; you must
have observed that your marble has always roled much tfr-
ther on a mso oth pavement the on a rough gravel wal."
Certainly," said Tom; and I well remember, that when
we played at rinrtawe last winter, on the ice, we were
obliged, for this very reason, to extend the usual boundaries."
Esaotly so; and your marble, under such oreonmstancs,
would run along like the enchanted bowl of the Dervise, in
the Arabian Nights. Is it not evident, then, that the mo-
tion of a body is stopped by some opposing force; and that,
if this could be entirely removed, the body would continue
to move forever "
What a provoking thing this friction is!" said Tom; it
always iuterfeerig with our experiment."
"Provoking, is it? I fany," said Mr. Seymour, "that you
would be much more provoked by the loss of it; without it
you could not walk, nor even hold an object in your hands;
and yet every thing around you would be in perpetual mo-
tion, performing one universal and intermnable dance." -
I can readily understand, from what you have said, tat
if friction were removed, motion might continue; but pray
how is it that we should be unable to walk, or to hold any
thing in our hands?" inquired Louis..
It is the friction of the ground which, at every step we
take, prevents the foot fom sliding back, and thus enables
us to push the body forward. Everybody must hav felt
how difficult i is to walk on ices where the friction is only
diminished, not entirely removed," answered her father;
"ano as to holding any object," continued he, "it is the f-
tion of the body to which we apply our hands that enable
as to hold it firmly."
"To be aure," exelauied the vicar; "why, my boy, you
mast urely remember, that in anelent combats it wa ths
euntom to rub the body with ol, that th adversary might
not be able to eep his grasp."
"Well" sl il Tom, "our hone, I euppo, would r-
main firm, and we might si1 quietly in our oihas, at all
"Not so," replied Mr. Seymour; "for oven grantng that
you had house and hairr, which, without the existence of
friction would never exit, the stability of the structures would
never be secured; thet slightest breath would be gsffilent to
make the stones or bricks slide off from each other, and to
reduce your dwellings into danoing rmi."
Tom and Louis, after some further discussion, both admit-
ted thejustness of the argument; bu4, at the amen tue, w-ould
have been better satisfied if the fout oould have been proved
by actual experiment Mr. Seymour told them that the p
petal revolution of the erth and heavenly bodies, where no
friction whatever existed, afforded a proof which ought to
Satisfy them; and, especially, since it agreed with those views
which were proved to be true by an examination of what
took place on the surfto of our own globe.
We will, therefore, with the permiion of our readers, con-
aider thi point as settled, and proceed with the young phloo-
phers to the investigation of some other topics conaeoted with
the doctrine of motion.
Since a body at rest," sad Mr. Seymour, ca only be
set in motion, or, when in motion, be brought to rest by the
Impression of some force, it must follow that it can only
move in the direction in which eloh a force may act; and,
moreover, that the degree of motion, or the velocty, must
other things being equal, be in proportion to the degree
of force used."
"Why, truly," cried the vicar, my young friends must
of necessi aity amit that ft; for the body, not having any
wil of its own, as you say, must need, if it move at all, go
the road it is driven."
"Yes," added Mr. Seymour, "and it must go with a
velocity in proportion to the foroe with which it s driven -
"Dobtl oubtls doubtless tried the viar, "you admit that
also; do yon not, yoyoung friends and playmatS"
It is hardly necsary to state that the children instantly
asasented o to thee propositions. The vicar had placed them
in so clear and popular a point of view, as to be intlligble to
the lowest capacities.
With these admiseaon, then, my dear children, said their
father, "I shall have but httle diffiulty in convincing you
of the truth of the other laws by which the direction of
movig bodies is governed. At present, however, it is not my
intention to enter upon this subject: you have some prelimi-
nary knowledge to aegire before you can understand what
Is termed the Compoitio and Reso Wton of Frces."
"I shall not easily forget," said Louisa, "that matter is
perfectly passive, and that it osa neither put itself in motion
when at ret, nor stop itaelf when in motion."
T his indifference to rest or motion," replied Mr. Seymour,
" has been teoed the Vis Inerti of matter "
"A very objeeionable ter-a very puzzling expression,"
exclaimed the vicar, "to denote a mere state of pasive in-
diferenoe by the word Vi, or power, does appear to me, who
have been in the habit of connecting words with ideas, as ox-
I allow," said Mr. Seymour, that the simple word Iner-
tia would have been preferable; but we are bound to receive
an expression whioh lns been long curren., I suppose, how-
ever, you know that the addition of Vi originated with
Kepler, who, like my boy Tom, could not holp thinking that
the dispoition of a body either to maintain or resist mo-
tion indicated something very like power; but we will not
waste our time upon verbal diquisitions, although I cannot
part with you, my dear vicar, without reining you that
there is ample closalOv authority for this appaent contradio-
tion of teoms. The connecting two idea, which at first
sight appear opposed to each other, constituted a igur of
speech much used both by the Greeks and loanss"
1Unaqestioably," sld the vicar: "Eripides delighted in
it, and that was a ancient reaon for ArAtophkoeA-to aatiz
it. Horace, too, has given us several xumpleS of it, M 'I -
anuinm Sapienata,' -'trwz Inertis,1 and in our own times
we hear of lawyers talking of 'Lang .lR f P "
"It is cear," continued Mr. Seymomur, that matter, at-rest,
roeaste being put in motion; the degse of that reeitane is
always in proportion to the degree of orae applied to put it
in motion; or, to speak more philosophically, that cti and
ReaEtion are req4 and in oposste directions."
You surely do not mean to say," esolimed Tom, "-that
if I strike my marbl, the marble strike my hand with the
same force in return "
"Preeiely; that is my meaning."
1 What I" cried Louis, "i f a mas strikes another on the
the face with is hIand, do you seriously maintain that both
parties suffer the eanme pain?"
Oh, no, no," said Toms, "patp can never intend to ay
that; I amn quite are, If it were the ase, Mr. Pearson would
not be so fond of boxing oUr ears."
Mr. Seymour answered this question, by obaerving tIhat
if tie hand possessed the same degree of feeling as the face,
they would both se~fer equally under the confiot "4"
continued h, you strike a glass bottle with an iron hammer,
the blow will be received by the hammer and the glassi and
it u is qEt immaterial whether the hunaamer be moved ai@et
the bottle at rent, or the bottle be moved against the hanIer
at rest, yet te bottle will be broken, though the hanmme be
not injured; because the same blow -which is su~flct to
hiver the glass is not sufficient to break or injue the lump
of iron In like manner, the blow that is suofflent to pau
your senstive and make your eaa tingle, will notoodeaa
the least annoyance t the obtuse hand of your preceptor.
The operation of this low," continued rd. Seymour, "will be
exemplified in every atep of our progress- When the marbl
as it rolls along, strikes ay obstacles, it receives, in ret ia,
corresponding blow, which will be found to in~eneoe ite sub
eeqwent direction. The peg of the top, as it rube on the
ground, is as much influence by the fMotion, as if a force
were actually applied to It when in a state of rest; and when
we consider the forces by which the kite is made to send
into the air, you will leara, from the same law, the nature of
that advantage whio&hou derive from running with it."
The vicar observed tiat the subject of Momentumn might be
introduced, and advantageously explained, upon this occaaiion
"Momentum," said Tom; "and pray what ie that"
S It is a power," replied his father, intimately connected
with motion; and, thereoro, as your friend, the viear, justly
remears, may be very properly Introduced before we quit
that subject. It is the force with which a body in motion
strikes against another body."
That," observed Tow, must of course depend upon the
velocity of the body's motion."
Undoubtedly, my dear; the quicker a body moves, the
greater mnst be the force with which it would strike against
another body; but we also know that the heavier a body is,
the greater aso will be ita force; so that mnementEm, you
perceive, mst have a relation to both these circumatanes,
wis, velocity and weight; or, to speak more correctly, e
,omeatssum of a body is comosed qf its quantity of atmer*
multiplied by i4 ruwantity of motion: for example, if the
weight of a body be represented by the number 8, and its
velocity also by 8, its momentum will be represented by
SX 8 9; so tha in producing momentum, increased velocity
will always compensate for deficiency of matter, and a lght
body may thus be made a more effective force than a heavy
one, provided that its veloity be proportionally increased;
thus, a small ball, weighing only too pounds and moving at
the rat e of fe hndred fet in a second, will produce as
much effbot as a cannon-ball of ton pounds in weight, pro-
vided it moved only at the rate of one hundred fet in the
"Let me see," cried rTo, "whether I understand your
statement We must multiply, as you aay, the weight by the
velocity; the weight f the small ball you state at two
pounds, and it travels at the rate of five hundred fe in a
second; then its momentum must be a thosed. The
weight of the gr bll is ten pounds, t velocity only a
hundred feet, then its momentum mout also be a thousand;
because, in both cases, the eums multiplied into each other
will give the same product."
Exactly and thus you perceive that the small ball be-
comes an exact balance to the larger one; the firat mnido
out in motion what it wanted in matter, while the latter
makes out in matter what it wanted in motion. I wih you
to keep this law of omnntnum in your remembrance, upon
it depends the action of all the m.ewinica power, as they
are termed; and which I shall hereafter more fully explin."
"I have heard," said Louisa, "that a feather eight be
made to produce as much havoc as a cannon-ahot, if you
could give it ufficent velocity."
Urnqestionably: but there is a practical difficulty in the
attempt, from the restancof the air, which increases, a
you have already en in the experiment of the paper and
penny-piece (p. g), as the weight of a body decreases: and
which explains the adage, that '.oreZces canno tArous
ffeatherAr thor than a child Were it not for this reasttance
of the air, a hailstone failing from the clouds would acquire
such a momentum, from its accelerated velocity, as to descend
like a bullet from a gun, and destroy every thing before it;
even those genial shower which refresh us in the spring and
summer months, would, without such a provision, destroy
tehe erbage they are so well calculated to cherish. Had the
elephant possessed the nobility of the beetle, it wound have
overturned mountains. From this view of the subject of
Mometm cntm," coinued Mr. Seymour, "you will easily un-
derstand why the immense battering-ram, used by the an-
ients in the art of war, should have given place to cannon-
balls of but a few pounds in weight. Suppose, fr example,
that the batterng-ram of Vespasuan weighed 100,000 pounds
and was moved, we will admit, with such a velocity, by
strength of hands as to pass through 20 feet in one second
of time, and that this was found suffeent to demolish the
walls of Jerusalem, cm you tell me with what velocity a 82-
pounder must move to do the ?ame ee etion ?"
SI will try," said Tom, as he took out his pencir and pocket-
boo, to make the oailolation.
Stop, I think you will hardly suceed without my guid-
aLe," said his father; "let us therefore work it iou together:
now you will readily perceive that we must in the first place
determine t th of the batterig-a by multiply-
lug ha weight by its velocity, or in other words by the space
which it pasees over in a sccod of time."
t That I understand.
"Very well," continued Mr. Seymour, 1 its weight wa
100,000 poud nd, and its veloity se] as to carry it through
20 feet n a second of time; now make the required calculs-
"I have done It-it is 200,000."
Yo are quite right; now if this momentum, which lmst
also be that of the cannon-ball be divided by bhe weight of
thatba l viz., 82 pounds, we hall obtain the velocity required,
which is 6,500 feet."
Mr. Twaddleton here observed, that he thought his young
friends and playmates" must have received, for that day, as
mawo philosophy as they could conveniently carry away
without fatigue. Mr. Seymour concurred n this observa-
tion; and the moro readily, as the path they had" to travel
was rugcd, and beset witl dinculties. "I will, thereforee,'
said he, not impose any further burden upon tem; but
I wil asist them in tying, into separate bundles, the mate-
rials which they have collected in their progress, in order
that they convey them away with greater ease and security.
Know then, my dear children" said the affectioate parent,
t that you have this day been intructed in the three great
Law of Motion, viz.:
L Ylat eey body wilt con ntue a state of ree tnfal
put inat motion by sfw external Ares a pplie to it,
ant if thatf rwce Ua oibwe the wtieon a produced
MHADE 00Irt OE M lAfltr. 'l
Mi ll be retMlea, e., in the direction of a straiAtU
U. Change of notion is alZsays prjertionn to tAhe novina
forest impresse, and is always made in Ae direction
of the right lin in which the fre ctes.
IIIr. Action and Reectio* anr equal in e Iwel msantitie.
of matter, and act in contrary direction to ach
A BAD AOCtOWN? TaMED TO A GOOD ADOfOlT -OME EXAMPLE WORTH
A rOnIDBED PKC0PT2l-VIS IOr TWA-**-TES ANDLORZ-AM tx-
FrON OXF Md SNOnsf Sor oLr AOFraiwt Anno Ar.- Jry
ronrr or BDBFBHIo--n s Iann or or row,-a etaILITr
Or enPrn, AND UPOr WHAT IT nErgInDA.-MrnTOn OF NDolNl
TraU OUNFB. OF GRAVITY OP A BODY-TUq ART OFp Tf BAL-
AMNOER PlFAlflD As Hi LJ.UATBATED.-WALKIlGl ON MfILtF.-
vAruv EaUflOtS toar
Jer as Mr. Seymomur was, on the following norming, step-
ping upo, the lawn, with the intention of Joining his chil-
dren, Ross and Fanny both made their apperane completely
drenched with water, and dripping like mermaid
"Heydayl" exclaimed their mother, "how ban this miafor-
tune happened ?"
"Do not be anry, papa," said Tom; indeedd, indeed, It
was an ascident. Fanny, ob.eing the water-cart in the
garden, had just begun to wheelit forward, when the water
rushed over her like a ware of the se, and, upon stepping
the art, it flew over with equal force on te opposite side,
and deluged poor Roes, who was walking in fron of it."
Well, well, loe no time in changing your clothes, ad
meet me again in half an hour."
At the appointed time the children reaoembeWd on the
--And so, then," tlid their father, "I pereve tlt my
philosophml l lesson of yesterday has been entrely lost upon
The obildren were unable to comprehend the meaning of
this rebuke; ut Mr. Seymour proceeded:
MADE BOIENO WT EA T-79
I trust, however, that the aldent of this mornuin wil
serve to Impress it moe forcibly upon your memory; one
example is better than a hundred prmcepts."
Tom was more puzzled than ever,
"You have met with an asedent; I wil endeavor to con-
vert it into a source of Inteotion, by showing you how the
prinoples of natural philosophy may be brought to beer upon
the moat trivial concern of life. You learned yesterday that
a body at rest offe~ a reistance to any force that would put
it in motion, and that, when in motion, it equaly opposes a
state of rest. Now e a apply this law for the explanation
of the accident b nt that J s bellOn you The butt was "fll
ofwa e water; you attempted to wheel it forward, the water
rested the motion thus communicated to the vesel, and
from its is inertbS or effort to remain at rest, rose up in a
direction contrary to that in which the vessel moved, and
conseqnently poured over; by this tiue, however, the mas
of fnid had aquired the motion of the car, when yoa sud-
denly stopped it, and the water, in ndeavoring o continue
Its state of motion, from the same ceuse that it had Just be-
fore rested it, rose up on the opposite aide, and thus deloged
Lonisa was quite delighted with thM simple and martin O-
tory application of philosophy, ad observed that obe aboadi
not, herself mind a thorough soalong if it were afterward
rewarded by a scientific discovery
SI will give you, then, another illustration other ame law
of motio," anid r. Seymour, "which, Ifstead of explaining
an aeoident, may perhaps have the effect of preventing one
If while you are sitting quietly on your hore, the animal
starts forward, you will be in danger of filing off 3a r;
ut if, while you are galloping along, t should stop suddenly,
you will ineitably be thrown forwa d over the head of th
SI clearly perceive," 'aid tLouiesa, that nsuh would be my
ate nuder the lroumtan o yon state-"
"1ow, then, my dear ohcldren, since our klend the uter
manot -atend u as present, nappooe we retire to the lrary,
where I have an lntersting experiment to perorm, and a
new toy ready for yousr ipeaton."
compliance with their father's wished the children cheer-
ally returned to the library, when Mr. Seymour presented
ltnysa with a BaOon. I Most of onu readers are, dubtlesg,
acquainted with thi elegant toy. It consists of two dis~s of
wood, united to each other by small axis, upon which a
piece of strig is affied. When this string is wound round
the axis, and the bandior is sufnired to ran down tom the
hand, the end of the string being held by a loop on the tfre-
finger, its momentum winds up the string again, and thus it
will continue for any length of time to descend from, and
ascend to, the hand. It aftbrds a good example of the opera-
tion of vi iwnrtri or vwhat may with equal propriety be
termed te momentum tf rtotaory motion. Its action may
be compared to that of a wheel, which, running down a hill,
ac~uiree sui cient moenntum to carry it up another. There
re several toys which owe their operation to the same prin-
oiple, of hi wh we may particularize the windmill, whose
flies are pulled round, by a string affixed to the axis of the
sail. In playing wlth tho landilor, a certain address is
required to prevent t s the sudden w h the toy would
otherwise receive when it arrived at the end of the string,
and which would necessarily so destroy its momentum as to
prevent its winding itself up again. Mr. Seymour now
Infnrmt his young pupils that he ad an experiment to
exhibit, which woutl further illustrate in a very pleasig
manner the truth of the doctrine of is n rta. He accord-
ingly inverted a wine-glass, and placed a shilling on its fot;
and, having pushed it suddenly along the table, the coln flew
off toward the operator, or in a directon opposite to that in
wich the glass was moving. He then replaced the shifing
and miortse to the glass a les eadden motion; and when
it had acquired sffilent velocity, he checked it, and the
ooiu darted forward, leaving the glas beain it.
TLonit, pon wiaesingt this eperiment, observed that she
MADE SCIEHOS IN tAO KTr. 81
fe satisted o the oorreotnes of her father's statement whn
he told her, that if the horse suddely started forward wh
she was at rest, he would be thrown off behind, and that
if it should suddenly stop on the gallop, she would be pre-
clpitsted over its head. The children arranged themelves
around the table in order to consider several oureous toy
which Mr. Seymour had collected for the purpose of explain-
ing the nature of the Center of Grity.
B ut in the first place," said Mr. Seymont, "oan you
tell me Tom, what is meant by TAa Canter of Goray r'
Its central poht," answered the boy.
"Oertainly not; the central point is termed its center of
magnitude, not that of gravity; and it i only when a body
is of uniform density and regular flgre, that these centers of
magnitude and gravity coinlde, or fall in the ame apot."
"I now remember that the oonter of gravity is that pohnt
about which all the parts of a body exactly balanoe each
"Now you are right; it i, in otter words, that point In
which the whole weight or gravtating influence of a body
i, as it were; condemned or concentrated, and upon which,
if the body be freely depended, it wilt rest with security;
and onsequntly, as long as this center is supported, the
body cs never fll; while in every other position it will
endeavor to descend to tie lowest place at whioh it ean
"Have all bodies, whatever may be their shape, a center
of gravity r" asked Louitsa
"And you ay that every body will fll if this point la mot
"Infallibly. And now, Tom," said Mr. BSymour, "ean
you tell me what iby he l of direction '
The young philosopher was unable to answer this question,
and his father therefore informed him, that If a perponaidar
line were drawn from the center of gravity f a body to the
center of the earth, nseh a line would be termed the JNIM f
diresiom; along which every body, not supported, endear-
om to fall; and Ih wa also lforied that, if this id Itne
ft within the base of body, sch-rody was anre to stand;
bat never otherwise
Louisa observed that she was not quite sur ehe under-
stood her papa's meaning, and thLeeore begged for further
"I will exemplify it then," replied Mr. Seymour, "by a
drawing Fg 10 represents oad of stones in cart moving
upon the slopmg road on m : this lad being low down in the
cart, a will repraent it.
center of gravity, and ri1 it re o .
a iite lin of direction,
which, yon perceive, fall
i4nor lowerwhee: and
there cannot, thoretoro
be any danger of such a
art being overturned;
bt in fig. 11 the center
f gravity is raised from
its bfone poeItion to a, and a I is now the lne of direction;
which, ftaag without the base, or wheel x, the oad will not
be supported, and must oonequently f. These figurea"
dded Mr. Seymour, "will also explain a fact which you
meet ave frequently observed, that a body ir stable or firm
in proportion to the breadth of its base; hence the difculty
of sustaining a tol body, Mike a walking-stick, upon it nar-
rowbaseO or that of balancing a boop upon its edge, or a
top upon its point; while, on the contrary, it is almost im-
po ble to upset the cone or the prynid, sinoe in the latter
care, the i of director falls within the middle of the bae,
the center of ga of a ity of the bodyein ncesarily low."
"I auppose," observed Louis, "L thattis ts he reon why
ocaiige, when too much loaded, are so apt to upet."
Say, when too mrah loaded on their tope, and you wil
rigt. As you now, I tst, understand this part of the
sunbeot, let ne prooaoe a stop furtber: if y
bodyr with a view to stapnad it, i. it not heviat tos it
it be nspenda by dat point ij which the center of gravit
is situated, it must mna at remain at eet n n position indifr-
"1 thought," aid Tom, "we bhd already settled that queo-
True, my dear boy; but there is another q tion of great
importance raising out of it, and whioh you have not yet
considered: tell rme should the body be suspended on any
other poitint, n what position it can rest"
I do not exactly underonrtn the question."
"There are," replied hi father, "only two positions in
which it could rest, either where the center of gravity %t
exactly abye, or meactly bw, the point of suspefnion; as
that, ma short, this point shall be in the lime f inotoan.
Where the point of auspension is bZaew the center of gravity,
It is extremely diffieul to balance or npport a tal body by
such a method, because the center of gravity Is Alway en-
deavoring to get under the point of support. Look a tie
diagram, and ot will readily comprehoenld y mo naia
Sis the center of gravity of the diamond-shaped figure, wh. 3
may be supported, or balanced, on a pin passing through te
r, as long as the center of gravity x is immnsI-
atly over the point of suspension M; but I thai
oenteq Is removed in the lightest degree, either
to the right or lefI of its pl e x, the body will no
longer retain it eret position r a, but t will
revolve upon v, and place itself in te situadon
indfeated by the dotted line beneath the point
a, anh its center of gravity will now be removed
to w, directly wonder W, anxd hi the ine K x,
which, as you wo I know, is the lie of direction.
Have I rendered myself intelligible f"
"I understa n it perfectly," answered Tom.
"And do you also, my doer Lonuia t I
LoaHisas answer was eqaualy natsaetory, and
84 PuIsto rV r IN SPORT
Mr. Seymour went on to state that the information they had
now acquired would enable thera to certain the Aitution
of the center ogravitof any plane surface which was prt-
able notwithsandin it might poiese the utmost irregularity
You abal, for example,, continued he, find the center
of gravity in your kite."
I cannot say," observed Tom, "how I should set
Weal, fetch your kite and I will explain the method.
Tom soon produced it, and the ta having been removed,
Mr. Seymour proceeded a follows:
SI now," maid he, suspend the kite by the I. la
loop at Its bow, and since it is at rest, we
know that the center of gravity must be
exactly below the point of suspenion; if,
theorefo, we draw a nperpenditr lne from
that point, which may be easily done by a
plumb-lne, whith a weight attached to it, ench
a ine will represent the line of direoti (as
indicated by A B in fig. 1S>."
It s clear enough,"' nd Tom, that the
eumter of gravity must be in the line a but
how are we to find in what part of it I"
"By spending ite in the e in her direction," answered
Mr- Seymnour, who then hung it up n the position rr e-
aMnted at &ig 14, "and then by
drawing another perpendioar Te
from the new point of suspension."
"The center of gravity," Said
Louis, will in that cae behin the
line a 4 as it wa before in that of
"In both the lines exclaimed
Tom, with some surprise ""It ce- 'I.
ot be in two places
"And thwrre," added Mr.
IMAfl Ba0sO E EAfllmt 85
Seymour, "itmut be in that point in whieh the lne mwas
and Eros each other;" so saying, he marked the spot
with his pencil, and then told hi Httle eahoDlar that h
would m con convince them of the scouraoy of the prilple
He scoordingly placed the head of his stick upon 0e penlc
mark, sad the kite was found to balance it.ef with great
True, papa said Tom," that point must be the oenat
of gravity, for all the prs of the ite exactly bnee eolh
other about it.
It is really," observed Louba, -" a very simple method of
finding the center of gravity."
"It ie," said Mr. Seymour; "but you meet remember that
it will only apply to a certain description of bodies: when
they are not portable, and will not admit of this kuind o
exanln tion, their centers of gravity can only be nsoertani d
by experiment or calcnlation, in which the weight, denaty,
and tuition of the respective material must be taken nto
the mocount Having proceeded thus fr, you have next to
learn that the center of gravity i sometimes so situated a
not to be witin the body, but actually at some distance
"Why, papal"exlaimed Tom "how can that possibly
You shall hear. The center of gravity, as you hav just
said, is that point about which all the part of a body bal-
snce enah otier; but it may so happen that there Is a vaec
space at this point. Where, for example, is the cetor of
gravity of thi ring? Must it not be in the spate whoh btht
ring encircle t"
I think it muet," said Tom; "and yet how can it be
ever supported without tonohing the ring "
SThat point p cannot be supported," answered his ltlr,
" nlees the ring be so held that the line o dlvrectiae shalm
tfal within the base of the support, which will e the s
whether you poise the ring on the tip of your Spr, or
sulped it by a strlnig as represented in the tgre *which I
have copied fom the Conver ations on
Natural Phloophy.' I need arce
ad, that it will be more stably sup-
ported in te latter position, because
the center of gravity is below the
point of suspension; wheream in the
former the be i extremely narrow,
and it w, consaequently, require all tlo address of the balan-
cer to prevent the center of gravity from aling beyond it.
As you anow in pos~eion of ll the leading principles upon
which the operations of the center of gravity depend, I hall
put a few prvotioal questions to you, in order that I may be
satised you understand them. Tel me, therefore, why a
person who s fearful of falling, as, for instance, when he
lsm forward, esould invariably put forward one of hia feet,
ae you did the other dAy, when yon looked into Overton
"To increase hi base," answered Tan; whenever I lena
greatly forward, I should throw the line of direction beyond
it did I not at the sme instant put out one of my feet, so a
to extend my bse, and thus to cause the line to continue
Rightly anwered; a, for the same reason, a porter
with a load on hi baCk lans forward to prevent his burden
fam throwing the line of direction out of the base lbhind.
ao the hose, in drawing a heavy weight, instinctively loan
forward, in order to hrow the whole of his weight a a coun
terbalaee; and yet," observed Mr. Symour, "we are in
the habit of ignorantly restraining him by a beari-rein, in
onaequence of whbeh he has to call in the aid of his musca
by which a very unnecesy exhaustion of strength is pro-
duced. Thni it ihat taGern and Frenoc horses mraw heavy
wihts with apparently greater ease two thenlve, because
Vbe erO m tie ,A ore's nose Aownaoar4, while the Fxnceb,
pre winw;, leave them .tnpewfet i.brWt q at to jo.oe
li'uivTer oberve the n'aner in wuieh woaan arjsp
"To He sure," said Tom; "sha always abreteobe ouost
of her arms."
"The weight of the pio" ontined Mr. ymoyaur, "*thwo
the center of graity on one side, aon the womtns teodre,
stretches out the opposite arm, in order to bring it back qgi
into its original situation; id ah not do thi, she must, l
the Engeih draught-horse, exert her male aa cowar-
actig free, which would greatly einreas the me of the
operation: but a pail bangig on each ar is warrid wi
difo~ sty, beOaue they balan each other, and theant of
avity remain supported by the feet."
"I see," alid Louia that all you have aid about be
woman and her pai mut be true; but how could sheie
learned the proiniple which ths enabled her to keep to ae-
ter of gravity in its proper plaoe "
"B y experience. It is very unlikely that she should aver
have heard of suoh a principle, any more than thoe people
who paok cart, and wagons, and yet wake np their leiad
withh such aoonracya always to keep the ne of director i,
or near the middle of the base. But to proceed to anher
exemple:-have I not frequently onutinnedyou algainatjonp-
ing up suddenly in a boat? Cn you tell me upon what
principle such an operation must .attended with da a per
I suppose said Tom, for very ame, regsoa that a
wagon s more likely to ble overtured when it. top in-too
heavily laden; it would elate cente of a ravity, smd
thereby render the line of direcion lble to be throw -
yond the bae, and so upset the boat"
Mr Seymour observed, that after this lesson he thought te
bealanbig which Tom and Louisa had witneaed at Aa e!s
Theater last year, would, ceame to appear so mlreo
Lonla deelard that she had now Adisovere the whole s-
"You have doubtless perceived,"ltid b father, "t-
Art entire y consist detonIy altehrn the at of
tgaityo poner veyne position ofi the blyso -a iOn
to prsaaer the line of o whin the bian of to thie b"a, gije
daoner e tfet this by ma of a long pole te end of which
re loaded by weights, and which they hold across the rope.
If you had paid ffiln iet attention to their movements, yo
mut have perceived how steadily they fixe their eyes on ome
object near the rope, o as to discover the sligtet deviation
f their center of gravity to one or the otr of it sides, which
tey no sooner detet, than they instantly rectiy it by a con-
tervaling motion of their pole, and are thus enabled to pre
servethe line of direction within the narrow base. This very
ameexpedient istIrequentlypracticed byourselves; if wealip
or table with one foot, weturally extend the opposite arm,
making the same s of it a the rope-dancer does of his polo.
Many birds, also, by m ns of their flexible neks vary the
position of their center of gravity in the sae manner When
they sleep, they turn it toward the back, and plce it under
the winf, in order to lay the greatest weight on the point
above the feet.,
What an interesting subject this is," oried Louisa, and
how many serious t wings it is capable of explaining I"
SIndeed is it; ad I ball take an opportunity of pointing
out several pecimens of art which are indebted for their st-
bility tthe scientific application of the principle we have
been ooialdering ;- t I have now a pradox for you, Tom."
"Lt t hear it, papa.
"Ht How a sote ilt that a ii loaded th a eight at the
upper extrmity, ean be kept in eqnilibri, on the point of the
finger, with h nh greater ease than when the weight is near
the lower extremity; or, for instance, that a sword an be
balanced on the finger muh better when the hilt is upper-
"That is indeed tranue. I should hare thought," replied
olsa, "that th t ihe hg the weight waa placed above the
point of support, the more readily wodd the line of direction
have been throw beyond tle base."
In that mpeat yo are perlotly right but t baloer
wfll be able to retore it more anly in one ease ta in th
Oter; dince, for reasons whtoi yo0 will presently discover,
the grter thie cirle which body demorime in 1n, tm e
leos wilt be it tendency to fJ Look at the sketch which I
have prepared for the explanationof thi the, ad Ithin you
wUil readily comprehend the reason of it.
When the weight i a a onoiderable ditace from the
point of support its canter of grsavty, in deviating either n
one side or the other from a perpondioulr direction, deribe
a larger circle, as at a, than when the weight i very near d
center of roor the point of support a tb. But, ins
large circle, a re of any determinate extent, eoh s aninch,
for example deeoribes a curve which deviates much le from
the perpendicular than if the circle were lees; -a may be me
by comparing the positions of the word at d d e and the
sword at d will not hate so rest a tendny to deviate r-
ther from the perpenicular, s that at e; for its tendency
to deviate altogetheher rm the perpendiular i greater, ac-
cording s the tangent t t to t point of the arc, where it ap-
pens to be, approaches more to the vertical position. You se
then that it ia lea df~nit to bal3noe a tal, than a shorter
pole; and it is for the sameo reason that a person can wa
with greater security on high than on low alutae.
That is very clear," ad Louis, althoughg, beore your
explanation, I always associated the idea of dflt ulty
SI Ynppose," added Tom, that the whole art of waing
on stitas may be explained by the principle you have taught
SUndoubtedly it may; f~r t equfilblrioI p reserved by
varying tu of the poy, sition ofke th body, nd ke enter
of gravity wzthn tebase."
It must be a great eeortion," observed Louisa.
"Before custom t i renderedt fltmiliar; after whioh, tare
in no more atfigne in walkng on stilts than in walking on our
feet. There is a district n the south of Franc near Bomr-
deua, called the Desert of Landes, which rum atoag the
soa-oeat between the mouths of the Adour an Gironde,
where all the shepherds are mounted on stilts; on which they
move with perfect freedom and astonishw n rapidity; and so
easily does habi enable them to preserve their balance, that
they run, jump, stoop, and even dance, with eass and eecn-
How very odd sad I Tor; what can be their motive
for sech a strange habitt"
Its object, replied his father, are important: to keep
the feet out of the water, which, during the winter, is deep
on the sands; and to defend them from the heated smad dur-
ing the summer; in addition to which the sphere of vision
over so perfect a fat Is materilly increased by the election,
and the shepherds are thus enabled to see their flctk at a
much greater distano.t They cannot, however, stand per-
feotly still upon their stilts without the aid of a long staff
which they always camry in their hands; this guards them
aga tt any accidental trip, snd when they wish to be at
rest, forms a third leg that keeps them steady."
"I suppose," ad Louisa, "that the habit of using these
stilts J ac qued while they are very young."
It is my dr: and it appears the smaller the boy is the
8tts abl o .ye4 tor caturM -very sonalderabie celebrity In tba it of
Hunr. Tbe frtaq..t ian ttnd.os 0f the MUoe. *Ad Antbrea wb10h ftArrly
uMed to b ood it, ld, doAisbmlema n tbe Art inlance to ti, r employment; but
tIlu whihi w llly a nectesity, bcmn.e In the coo.xa or te a m-
melut, ard "e thlat developed 'ihntl* fbeat.re Af r back 5 ths. iap eith
ceBarr nay be tnnce tle .ixtEn.. r pnme. on etWe, y)i40 fldsiary a-
uam.a cburac*r ad th plyaen flai rnrovird themiOI4*es lato
editlt boile, ready t all Ues to do hjal. agahlt eah oth.r, een to the
perll ILf i Ud limb.t-OnTro'. T2br tArowaT a. ran,.?y tfA, Msaw
;tbhawit blt h am. to peda rmH.
higher are bis-atilts a tt which affords a practical preofrf
the truth of what I have just stated."
The stork i said, in my work on Natural liatry, to be
always walking on stilts," asid Louan; "and yet it does not
appear to itigue him."
"That is very tre" replied the father; "bat you mnt
remember, that nature has ftmished the bird with A provi-
aon, by which the lege ane kept extended without any exer-
tion of the muscles, in the manner of certain strings; a stne-
tune which enables it to p.s whole days and nighta6 onme
foot, without the slightest fatigu. If you will visit the cook
the next time she troesa fowl, you wil at once peroeyte the
nature and utility of this structure; upon bending the leg
and things p toward the body, you will observe that the
olawn lose of their o c own ord now ts is te poitu of
the limbs in which the bird rests upon its perch, and in this
position it sleeps in safety; for the claws do their ofee in
keeping bold of the support, not by any voluntary xerton,
but by the weight of the body drawing the string tight"
"T Bt, papa," said TomN, I have yet some more question
to ask you on the subject of balancing I am not at alI eat-
iased about many of the tricks that we saw ast year ; in-
deed, I cannot believe that many of those astonishing feat
can be explained by the rules you have just given us."
I very well know to what you alde," replied Mr. Sey-
mour. ny singular deceptions are ertaly practiced by
removing the center of gravity rom its natural into an ai-
fciael sitotion, or by disguising its place; thus, a cylinder
placed upon an inclined surface my be nmae to run up, in-
atead of down bil. I can even appear to balance a puiltl of
water on the slender stem of a tobacc-pipe; but I shall be
enabled to explain the nature of these deceptions by some
toys which I have provided for your amuseaent, and which
I roaut sa you are fully entitle to poes, a a rewad
the atsad aataeotory manner i whiah yoa hoae *a1.dr
a~sw hed my questions. But Oeet here n omes .-
t -'M wobtel4 Biy setowel res& aZ lltAot Wins'f*
brings him to the Lodge whenever I am preparing ome
amouement for yo."O
The vioar sn d a rented hthe room, but, unwilling to
interrupt the leson, he pled his fore-finger on hl lip, and,
with a significant nod, silently too a seat at the table. The
children laugbed aloud at tins caution demeanor; and Tom
explained, Why, Mr. Twaddleton, our lesson is over, and
we are gong to receive some new toys as a reward."
I have ere," said Mr. Seymour, as he opened a large
wooden box, a colletion of figure, which will always raise
themselves uprght, ad preserve the erect position; ot regain
it, whenever It may have been dietrbed."
He then arranged these figures in battalion on the table,
and striking them Bat by drawing a rod over them, they im-
mediately started up gain, as Boon as it was removed.
" These figures continued he, were bought at Parli some
years ago, under the title of Prwians."
I declare," exclaimed the vicar, they remind me of the
rebellious spirits whom ilton represents as saying that as-
cent is their natural, and descent their nn atnral, motion.'
I lave seen osreon similarly constrooeted," said Mrs.
BSemour, which always rose up of thenselvee, upon the
removal of the the rce that had preed them do
I wil explain their principle," said Mr. Seynmour.
Snppose w tthfirste onstruction of the figure
observed the vicar. Bloe m I why it like the poet Phi-
lotus of Cos who was so thn and light, that lead was faten.
ed to his shoes to prevent his being blown away."t
Th our e anuad to t. l .e .pch ot Moibh (PareS. LTt, b. It L to):
Ttiat a our pro er imoton we ascend
p to our namre Wt deaeent iid w
Ton lsi adverse "
+ ThUs .ty I. slated by Mlan, weho it tNh um time dlsflt it, t,
yn hla b ow culd hae yrr sbot B aallat 1nw ght to pmit his birga
low.r ift hew.Mre wk- nost to be able lto healthh Mabin nr*
ThiS cur-ir'et wrtr o. ..rdnilaia i hmomrona t h. sanw sa
NlSm ad na mds the anthe o.r omewhst esilmt alt a t m p an Aunio
-I stany whae ha h-- relate. A vadr, *ftwr a loS JtCOurti ASlUr
MAf N MolNh M EA RAigNT. 93
"The fbgre," alid Mr. Seymour, "is made of the pith
of the elder-tee, which is extremely light, and is afixed
to the al f of a kleaen bullet; on seount,
therefore, of tbe disproportion between the
weight of heethe e and that of it base, we
may exlode the consideration of the for-
mer, and confine our attention to the latter.
The center of gravity of the hemisphericl
base Is, of course, in its seis and there-
fore tends to approach the horizontal plane
as much as poseble, and this ca- never be
accomphlhed, until the axia becomes per-
pendiclar to the horizon. Whenever the
curved surlfe is in any other position, the center of gravity
Is not in the lowest place to which it can descend, as may he
seen by the diagram whieh I have
Just sketched. If the axis a b be .
removed to ,-it. is evident that
and tht, ifeh alone, it would im-
mediately descend again into ita original poeition.
SI understand it peretly," said Tom. When the axis
a is perpendicular the center of gravity will be in it low-
eat point, or as near the earth a it can place itself; whe,
looked about r ~me Inn wherehn hiJaded hoe mht iha" aftbt; but R
1n vaIlso sit .dcodnmodaion wn to be uand: hia next atempt w t
A nd gonu apot ut cold .*r4 Some paturag but I- thi ho nled,
In hie 4dienlma hls Inmay tOffAUted a Mouroe whioleb p at th.
houaandth and fAt thns the trth of the old d ge, that N. ,lty b the
nmthr olftnalio n," dnwig nofm his pocket itr eefrageh .pmges.
bo placed them apo te ho.'el c, -e lad hei~mito se pntr d,wheat
the deludne .nTi.l immediately commBnced his meal upon the .Marn'ss of
wood ao d nwduAm Thie ianrdlty o this story anarnly dtdled *a Ca
hans bat with l on* xptol : It was lidt that one of the empesy dhl
-t *mpathis wt hifl -ompanolr, and a.r a tew minns 0 of mnfint *b-
it.imon, he elEmead, wit a ir or mi h s.beminnty, I mU t te ,ar
ptdon, ir; but I eennrtain5dro doubt -a tohe truth of your stry. I
canot undeimad bow the Bpetmesu comd Ibve b-en Axed .n t .im'
nose." Sol -n lthel rYLng, -tbk pro qoflg wr M.ar -r
' sn wac hoe.wa
thereore, the figure is pressed down, the center of gravity is
raised, and, consequently, on the removal of that prsre, it
will descend to its original position, and thuO raie th
"I ee you understand it. Here, then," continued Mr.
Seymor, is another toy In father illustration of or sub-
jeot. It consists of a small fig
nre, supported on a stand by a ball,
whioh im quite loose; nd yet it is
made to turn and ba)aUee itself in
all direti on, always recovering its
ereot position, when the force ap-
plied to it is removed. The two
weights, In this case, bring the cen-
ter of gravity considerably w lo
the point of suspentou or support,
and therefore miautain thle figure
upright, and make it resue it
perpendicular position, after it has
been inclined to either eide; for the
center of gravity cannot place iteelf a low as possible, with
out making the figure stand eroct.
That is ver evident," cried Louies
SI shall neot exhibit to you," continued Mr. Seymour, t a
toy that frnishes a very good solution of a popular paradox
in mechanics; viz., .A ody doing a tendency to ity by its
r n wigA A.t n to reCnt t bitfrnl n, 5p a eig to it a
might n tAs aremside mn iMak it tends tao fiiL"
"That is indeed a paradox exclaimed Louisa. "The
next time I see the gardener sinking under the load of a
heavy aek, I salul desire him to lighten hia burden by doub-
ling Its weight."
Wil you, indeed, Mis Pert 7 Ido not think so, after you
liare nen tihe operation ofthe toy I am now about to exhibit.
Here, you perceive, i a h the enter of gravity of whiob
would be somewhere abo t the middle of its body; it ia,
therefore, very evident that, if I were to plaae It hinder legs
on the edge of the table, th line
of dirnation would fall conid-
erably beyond the base, and the
horeo must be precipitate to
the ground; you ill, however,
perceive that there eIs tff wire
attsahed to a weiglwhich is
connected with the body of the
horse, and by means of ench an
addition, the horse prices with
perfect eoiurity atthe edge of
the cipic; so that the figure which was inc pable a o~p-
porting itself is actually prvnted from falin, by adding a
weight to its unnupporteo endI"
, The children admitted the truth of this statement, and were
not immediately prepared to explain it.
The weight, need, appears to b added on that side;
but, in reality, it is on the opposite side," said the icr.
"In order to produce the desired efeet" observed Mr.
Seymour, t" tie wire must be bent, so to throw the weight
far back under the table; by which contrivance, since the
center of gravity of the whole compound figure i thrown
into the leaden weight, the ind legs ththe hore thn be-
come the point of suspenion, on which the bel may be made
to vibrate with perfect security."
Now I understand it," tried Tom; instead of the weight
sapportang h horse, the horse supports the weight"
Exactly So. You perceive, therefore, fiom these few
examples, t thathe balancer, by availing hmelfw fsuch
deceptions, and combining with them a considerable degree
of manual dexterity, may perform feats, which, at first eight
wD appear in direct opposition to the lawsof gravity. Their
is also another expedient of which the balaner avails him-
see to inmreas the wonder of his performance, and that is
the InfTen of rotatory motion, whilh, you will presently
se, msy be e e to counteract the force of gravity."
I rnember that the mat surprising of all the tri I
?aSM l flC par
witnesmed was one, in whih a sword was suspended on a
key, which turned round on the ead of a tobacco-pipe; on
the top of the word a pewterplate wa, at the ae tie,
rade to revolve with great velocity "
"Iwe remember the trick to which you allude The
otory .motion prevented the word om failing, jut as
yon w hereaftr id the piolning of the top will preserve
it ian eret position. There is a3o another efeot produced
by rotatory motion, vwth which it il esentki that you
should become acquainted. You no doubt remember that
momentum, or the velocity of a body, wil coapeosate for
its want of matter. A number of bodies, therefore, aethogh
incapable of balancing each other when in a state of rest,
may be nie to do o, by imparting to them different de-
grees of motion. believe that you are now aquainted with
an the principles upon which the art of balancing depends;
and I have little doubt, should we aain witness a perform-
ance of this kind, that you wil be able to explain the tricks
which formerly appeared to you so miracoloe."
-SB cHNESsE 2n1KBLEs, Ini.vraTUATmur tIM JOnt a rfl C O
OANGIOE IN TE COMltS OF OKAfttV OP A BOtr, N OF 43 OM-
TUM---M TWADDLTON'IS ARIAL AFTEB A ARflZl r AwfM-
Tvnra.-san DAnc BA .LL.--n fA-z noo r t -A IvsU Tw A
MiNOCt ON A FCre eTA W.T y FLYTING *Wc vrtfeLAtSrn a.-
lHG.-THE GAMR OP wBOOOT B iU AWo Dw AD.I -
REOWOfIMG BALL.-ANTWALS THAT LA" STV MEAN OF AN LA
Tmo ArPARATU-THuR SNDIJfRTlhOlS 1.4l11.--A rBW aPEOB or
rUTfret, IT wHnC THM VICA. Is HAn TO COANK& comm*.
ERaTy on Monday morning did the yobng gnoap asanbloe
in the library; they had een told by Mrs. Seymour that
their father had received a new toy of a vary interesting and
Instructive natur, and we can easily imaine the esgerne
with which they anticipated the eight of it
"I trust," ald Mr. Seyniour, "that after our late disu-
elo, t tb j the center o gravity is thoro uglynder-
stood by you a. Ihavealso eason to thbik that the nstnur
and effects of what I termed mnoentum have been rendered
Inteniible to you."
I certainly undertnd both those abje," anwered
Tom; andt thought the reet of the party.
L"Wen, then, I wil put your nowledg to the tet," ob-
served Mr. reyiour, "for you shall explat to me tho
mebauima of these Ohinese Tumbls." U an which he
prodtd an oblong box, which, by openly, feme a series
ofmi~a r o ps, sad took fim a drawer at its edtwo gro-
tew i (O n and P aloon), whMoh we pnected
witAa by other by two poll, wholh they apped in the
satt ,artyilg pretty much in the .wy thatth porters
Ti'K olr of a edaa-uohair. The bretnost Agare was
th r on the top seap, when to tbh gret atonhahn
muL af ho whole party, the figure very deliberately
descended tbo several sete, each furring over the other in
"There was a period in our history," observed Mr. Sey-
mour, "when so arveloun an ebxibtion would have sub-
Jected the inventor to the penalties of sorcery"
Tha4t," renmarkd Mir. Seymour, may be esid of Imot of
the other inventions whih I have yet ip store to illutrate
the poers conferred upon ms by a knowledge of natural
philosophy; but, as Ir as mec animal sill is, concerned, I
doubt whether the ancients did not even surpas us, e-
peclay in the art of oonatructing automta; and ao quiil-
ve waP known in the remote ages, I think it not improbable
that itws on of te o e agents employed by them on sch
occasion. If I remember right, Aristotle describes a woode
Venuwhbiobmovedby meanof' ? 4i .jielrf thenagain,
te moving tripod which Apollonius aw n the Indian
templ-the walking staines at Antn, and in the temple
of liampoli, and the wooden pigeon of Arohyts,* ought
UpOQtha ..tb seme, SrI DewvA BnDrwmrewe flct. n r aamien r
ti wiL IM r.ea with Inteat avanatg e. Itl- bewn nyt y
it tl r i A 0. Magins, tnt ama E nnmbes f A"k dea e
nflE t00tEC ts kllraT.
undoubtedly, to be regarded as evide nce of their meohanil
resources. Bt let us reserve these literary questions for the
better judgment of oar worthy fend the viar, and proceed
to ooDaider the meoreeh sm of the toy before us Tom," con-
tinued he, take the figures in your hand nd examine
No sooner had the yoUng philosopher received the Anre
from the hand of be father-th he declared ti the tMe
wore hollow, and that he felt some liquid rnnikg a srd
and forward in them
"You are quite right, my b,"iaid Mr. Se aour, "they
"Now then I understand it," oried Tom;, "the M klver
rian down the tubes and alters the center of gravity of the
figure and so makes them tumble over each other."
"Well, I acknowledge that is no bad guess as a beginning
and will certainly explain the flrt movement but you wi
be pleased to recollect tht the instant a new enter of ra-
ity is thus produced the figures mut remain at rest-how,
then, will you explain their continued motioet"
You said something, I think about momentum; did you
not, papa t"
certainly ; and to its agency the continuanae af te mo-
tiont is to be ascribed but 1 wi explain the operatioS ore
Mr. eymonr then proceeded to print out the medhauin
and movements of the toy in a manner which we shall e-
deavor to convey to our leaders by the aid of the a'in
"Aa soon as tie fgure A is placed upon the "ttp b, Int
position A B, the quicil ejr, by raunnat down t-he bl
tabes, swings the igure B round to 0; and he Wtr of
gravity haP ng been thuWad justed, the whole waod ta
at rest but for the contrivanie to be next deiorlbed. a
their connection with the poles by mans of
gures are connected with e&ah other by m t
keep the flgare B steady in its poeltion, Whfe t trhie
100 m OsoPWy zN. RPOET
the are until it arrive at 0, when their increase tension La
the efo of capsizii it, and of tha producing a momen-
tum, which, by carrying its center of gravy beyond the
line of direction, causes it to descend upon the step when
the qnikalver, by again flowing to te lowest part of the
tnbe, plaice the fignre in the same position, only one step
lower, as they were at the comencement of their action;
and th, by sceeusive repetitions of the same changes, it is
quite evident that the figures must oontle to descend as
log as any steps remain for their reception."
I nmderstand it perfectly observed Lousa, with a s e
L I need seely say," continue Mr. Seyior, that there
are one niceties la the asdustnent of the minuter part of
the apparatun, without wioh the effet could not be acfot -
plbd; the quantity of quticslve, for Intance, must be-