First lessons in geography

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Material Information

Title:
First lessons in geography for young children ; designed as an introduction to the author's Primary Geography
Physical Description:
67 p. : ill., col. maps ; 20 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mitchell, S. Augustus ( Samuel Augustus ), 1792-1868 ( Author, Primary )
E. H. Butler & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher:
E.H. Butler & Co.
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1859

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Catechisms -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1860   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1860   ( local )
Baldwin -- 1860
Genre:
Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Catechisms   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's advertisements on t.p. verso and back cover.
General Note:
Baldwin Library copy: some illustrations are hand-colored, probably by young owner.
General Note:
Mitchell's series of geographies
Statement of Responsibility:
by S. Augustus Mitchell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA4486
notis - ALH4831
oclc - 07438892
alephbibnum - 002234412
lccn - 05027782
System ID:
UF00003334:00001

Full Text










































































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FIRST LESSONS

IN



GEOGRAPHY:
./


YOUNG


CHILDREN.


tsignot as an intrdbutbint to ct tte,'s $rimarg (oagrqgg.



S. AUGUSTUS MITCHELL,
AUTHOR OF A SERIES OF GEOGRAPHICAL WORKS.


Uunfrab foaitl laps anb Ugnmerous engrabings.

r
PHILADELPHIA:
PUBLISHED BY E. H. BUTLER & CO.
1860.









iitcelpf5 Series Df 6efgtrie.



MITCHELL'S FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY, just issued .Price $ .25
MITCHELL'S PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY, revised edition .42
MITCHELL'S INTERMEDIATE GEOGRAPHY, .84
MITCHELL'S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY AND ATLAS, edition of 1859 1.20
MITCHELL'S ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY AND ATLAS, 1.25
MITCHELL'S GEOGRAPHICAL QUESTION BOOK, .25
This series of Geographical Works, is now used, in whole or in part, in the schools
of nearly every city and important town in the United States. It has likewise been
adopted in the Public Schools of Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Providence, Albany,
Rochester, Buffalo, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Louisville, Chicago, Lancaster, Pittsburgh,
Charleston, New Orleans, Nashville, and in most of the principal towns in the United
States.
In preparation and will be published in the Autumn of 1859,

MITCHELL'S NEW INTERMEDIATE GEOGRAPHY,

Magnificently illustrated with twenty-two clear and beautiful maps, engraved upon
copper expressly for this work, in the very first style of the art, and by numerous
elegant engravings. This will be the most beautiful quarto Geography ever issued in
America.

MITCHELL'S NEW ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY,

An entirely new work, carefully written, and elegantly illustrated, 1 vol. 12mo.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by
S. AUGUSTUS MITCIELL,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern District
of Pennsylvania.














PREFACE.





IN response to very frequent calls from teachers and others engaged in
elementary education, and in order to make their geographical series complete,
the Publishers of Mitchell's Geographies have issued the present work. It is
intended as an introduction to Mitchell's Primary. In the preparation of it,
pains have been taken, not merely to simplify the subject, so as to bring its
general principles down to the comprehension of very young children, but also
to exclude from it that multiplicity of details which is so burdensome and so
discouraging to the young learner. At the same time, the book has been made
attractive by a great variety of beautiful and suggestive engravings, and by a
large number of clear and accurate maps.
The great stumbling-block in teaching very young children, is the attempt to
crowd several ideas at once upon their attention. Quintilian wisely compares a
child to a bottle with a very narrow neck. If you attempt to pour water into it
by a copious stream, your effort will be fruitless. The water is all dashed upon
the ground. But if you introduce it a drop at a time, you will gradually fill
the bottle. So with the child. What is wanted in teaching children is, not so
much the use of mere childish words and phrases, as the presentation of one
idea at a time. This is the essence of simplification. Care has been taken,
accordingly, in the present work, so far as possible, in constructing the defini-
tions and the answers, to use simple, independent sentences. In the construction
(iii)






iv PREFACE.

of the questions, also, the aim has been to make each question such that the
answer should include but a single fact. Thus, instead of asking how a state is
bounded, which requires a long, complex answer, the question is, What bounds it
on the north?-What on the south?-and so on. Instead of asking where a
city is, or how it is situated,-about which a great variety of facts might be
stated,-the question is so put that one, and only one fact can be given in reply,
as, for instance, On what river is the city ?-On which side of the river ?
The work is commended to the candid consideration of teachers, parents,
school directors, and others engaged or interested in primary education.






























LIST OF MAPS.







PAGE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE, ............................. 18

EASTERN HEMISPHERE, ................... ..........20

NORTH AMERICA, ......... ......... .............. .22

UNITED STATES, ................. ........... .. 26

EASTERN STATES, . . . .... .. . . ... 30

MIDDLE STATES, .. .. .. .. . . . .. . 34

SOUTHERN STATES, ................ ....... ....... 38

WESTERN STATES, .... ...... ........... ............. 42

THE TERRITORIES, .. .......... ...... .... ...... ... 46

SOUTH AMERICA, .................... ...... ... .. 0

EUROPE,. .. ............ . . . . . . 54

ASIA, . . . . . . . . ... 58

ATRICA, ............ . ................ 6

OCEANICA, . .. . .... . . . . 66
1*









FIRST LESSONS
IN

GEOGRAPHY.


INTRODUCTION.


What is Geography? What part of the Earth is described in
Geography is a description of the Geography?
The surface or outside.
Earth.
How is the surface of the Earth repre-
What is the shape of the Earth? sented?
The Earth is round like a ball. By Maps and Globes.






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


What is a Map?
A Map is a drawing representing
some part of the Earth's surface.
Where would a spectator have to stand, in
order that the Earth might appear to
him, as it is represented in a map?
High up in the air, akve the sur-
face of the Earth.
In what part of the Earth is the East?
Where the Sun rises.
In what part of the Earth is the West?
Wher ithe Sun sets.
If you stand, with your right hand to the
east, and your left hand to the west,
what part of the Earth is before you?
The North.
What part is behind you ?
The South.
What part of the Map is East?
'The right side
What part is West?
The left side. .
What part of the Map is North?
The top.
What part is South?
The bottom.
Where is North-east?
Between North and East.
Where is North-west?
Between North and West..


Where is South-east ?
Between South and East. f
Where is South-west?
Between South and West.)
What is the Earth called, on account of its
being round like a ball?
A Sphere.


A 8PHERE.


__






INTRODUCTION. 9

What is half a Sphere called? Into what two Hemispheres is the Earth
A Hemisphere. divided?
N. B. Hemimeans half. The Eastern Hemisphere, and the,
Western Hemisphere./



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Into Land and Water. About one-fourth.









Into*'*. Land7 a tAbout three-fourths.
-. What is the largest Natural Division of
Land called?
-- A Continent.

What is a Continent?
A very large tract of land sur-
rounded by water. I
S What Continent is in the Western Hemi-
"E T-onisphere n
WESTERN HEMISPHERE. The Western Continent.







10 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


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---- -- --V;




EASTERN HEMISPHERE.


What Continent is in the Eastern Hemi-
sphere?
The Eastern Continent.


What other very large portion of Land is
sometimes called a Continent?
Australia.

In which Hemisphere is Australia?
In the Eastern Hemisphere.
Into what two portions is the Western
Continent divided?
North iAmerica and South America.
Into what three portions is the Eastern
Continent divided?
Europe, Asia, and Africa.

In what direction is Europe from North
America ?
E-t.
In what direction is Europe from Austra-
lia?
N-h-w-t.


THE WESTERN CONTINENT.


THE EASTERN CONTINENT.







INTRODUCTION.


:-4




%--- -i-- --- --=- ---







THE OCEANS.

What is that great body of water called
which surrounds the Continents on all
sides?
The Ocean.
Has the Ocean different names in different
parts of the world?
It has.
W7tat is that part called, which is between
the Eastern and Western Continents ?
The Atlantic Ocean.
What is that part called, which lies chief
to the west of the Western Continent?
The Pacific Ocean.
Where else does a part of the Pacific Ocean
appear?
East of the Eastern Continent.
What Ocean lies north of the two Conti-
nents?


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THE OCEANS.

The Arctic Ocean.
What lies south of them ?
The Southern Ocean.
What lies between the Southern Ocean and
the Eastern Continent?
The Indian Ocean.
Which is the largest of the fiee Oceans?
The Pacific.
Between what two Continents does the
Atlantic Ocean lie?
E-n and W-n.
In what direction is the Indian Ocean from
the Eastern Continent ?
S -h.
In what direction is Australia from the
Indian Ocean?
S h-e-t.






12


What is an Island ?
An Island is a portion of land
surrounded by water.
N. B An Island differs from a Continent,
only in being much smaller. Australia
is sometimes called a Continent, some-
times an Island.














AN ISLAND.

N. B. In this second picture the island
is represented as it would appear to
one approaching it on board a ship.


What is a Peninsula ?
A Peninsula is a portion of land
almost surrounded with water.
N. B Peninsula is derived from two Latin
words, pene, almost, and insula, an island.


A PENINSULA.


What is an Isthmus ?
An Isthmus is a narrow neck of
land connecting a Peninsula with
the main land.


~---`-------


FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.






14 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


What body of water is next in size to an
Ocean ?


The O-n.
What body of land lies between the Med-


A Sea. iterranean Sea and the Ocean?
What is a Sea ? A P-a.
A Sea is a large body of water In the Mediterranean Sea is a body of
almost surrounded by land. land containing a Volcano;-What is
What is a Gulf or Bay? that body of land called?
A Gulf or Bay, is a body of water An I-d.
extending into the land. Why is it called an Island ?
Because it is surrounded by water.
QUESTIONS ON T HE MAP. How many Islands do you see in the JMedi-
What large Sea is given in the above map ? terranean, west of that which contains
The M-n. the Volcano?
What large body of water lies in the What body of water is in the North-east
Western part of the map? part of the map?







INTRODUCTION. 15


A .ilii.


What is a Strait ?
A Strait is a narrow passage con-
necting different bodies of water.

What is a Channel?
A Channel is a passage of water
wider than a Strait.


What is a Sound?
A Sound is a Strait, or a Channel,
so shallow that its depth may be
easily sounded or measured.

What is a Lake?
A Lake is a body of water nearly,
or quite surrounded by land.


A LAKE.






16 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.

What is a river? Its Mouth.
A river is a large stream of water
A river is a large stream of ter What is the place where a river rises
flowing through the land. called?
What is the place where a river empties Its Source.
called?


What name is given to those divisions of
land and water that have been described ?
They are called Natural divisions.
Why are they called Natural divisions ?
To distinguish them from Political
divisions.
What are the principal Political divi-
sions?
Empires, Kingdoms, Republics,
Cities, and Towns.
What is an Empire?
A country governed by an Empe-
ror.

What is a Kingdom ?
A country governed by a King.


What is a Republic?
A country in which the people
choose their governors, and make
their own laws.

What is a City ?


A large collection
inhabitants.


of houses and


What is a Town?
A collection of houses and inhabi-
tants, not so large as a city.

What is a city called, in which those men
live, who govern the country and make
the laws?
The Capital.


_ ---

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INTRODUCTION.


IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS REPEATED.


Geography is a description of the Earth.
The Earth is round like a ball.
The two main divisions of the Earth's sur-
face are, Land and Water.
The Natural divisions of the land are, Con-
tinents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses,
Capes, and Mountains.
The Natural divisions of the water are,
Oceans, Seas, Bays or Gulfs, Straits,
Channels, Sounds, Lakes, and Rivers.
The principal Political divisions in Geogra-
phy are, Empires, Kingdoms, Republics,
Cities, and Towns.
A Continent is a very large portion of land
surrounded by water.
An Island is a portion of land surrounded
by water.
A Peninsula is a portion of land almost
surrounded by water.
An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land con-
necting a Peninsula with the main land.
A Cape is a portion of land extending into
the water.
A Mountain is a portion of land elevated
to a great height.
A Mountain range is a number of moun-
tains connected together.
A Volcano is a burning mountain.
The Ocean is that great body of water'
which surrounds the Continents on all
sides.
2*


The Ocean is divided into five different
parts, also called Oceans, viz., the Atlan-
tic Ocean, the Pacific, the Northern, or
Arctic, the Southern, and the Indian.
A Sea is a body of water next in size to
the Ocean.
A Bay or Gulf is a body of water extending
into the land.
A Strait is a narrow passage connecting
different bodies of water.
A Channel is a passage of water wider
than a Strait.
A Sound is a Strait or Channel, so shallow
that its depth can be sounded or mea-
sured.
A Lake is a body of water nearly, or quite
surrounded by land.
A River is a large stream of water flowing
through the land.
An Empire is a country governed by an
Emperor.
A Kingdom is a country governed by a
King.
A Republic is a country in which the
people choose their governors, and make
their own laws.

4 City is a large collection of houses and
inhabitantss .
A Town is a collection of houses and
inhabitants not so large as a city.












































THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.






THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.


THE TREASURY BUILDING AT WASHINGTON.


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONS.--Into what two
parts is the Western Continent divided?
North America, and South America.
OCEANs.-What ocean lies east of North
and South America? Ac.-What ocean lies
west of them? Pc.-What' ocean to the
north? Ac.-What ocean to the south? Sn.
ISLANDS.-What large island to the north-
east of North America? Gd.-What island
east of Greenland? Id.-What island to
the east of North America? Nd.-What
group of islands between North and South
America? W. Is.-What in the Pacific
Ocean? Sh., Ms., Sy., Py., N. Zd.


STRAITS, &c.-In what part of'the map
do you see a part of Asia? North-west.-
What strait separates America from Asia ?
Bg's.-What two oceans does this strait
connect? Pc. and Ac.-What isthmus be-
tween North America and South America ?
Pa.-What is that narrow part of the con-
tinent called, which lies near the Isthmus
of Panama? Cl. Aa.-What cape at the
southern extremity of the continent? Hn.
RIVERS, &c.-What three rivers in South
America? An., Oo., R. de la Pa.-What
two rivers in North America? Mi., and
St. Le.-What land lies south of Cape
Horn ? Sh. Sd.-What land lies west of
South Shetland ? Va. Ld.


19


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THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE.







TIE EASTERN HEMISPHERE. 21


THE ROYAL EXC]

QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONS.-Into what three
parts is the Eastern Hemisphere divided ?
Ee., Aa., and Aa.-What is the largest
island of the Eastern Hemisphere'? Aa.
OcEANS.-What ocean lies between Africa
and Australia? In.-What ocean lies in
the southern extremity of this Hemisphere ?
Sn.-What ocean lies in the northern ex-
tremity of this Hemisphere? Ac.-What
ocean lies west of Europe and Africa?
Ac.-What ocean lies east of Asia and
Australia? Pc.
IsLANDs.-What islands on the north-
west coast of Europe? Bh.-What islands
east of Asia? Jn.-What islands nearly


CHANGE, LONDON.


south of Japan? Pe.-What two large
islands between the Philippine and Aus-
tralia? Bo., and N. Ga.-What islands
south-west of Borneo? Sa.-What island
east of Africa? Mr.-What island south
of Asia? Cn.
RIVERS.-What river in the eastern part
of Europe? Va.-What three rivers of
Asia run north into the Arctic Ocean?
Oe., Yi., La.-What river of Asia runs
east into the Pacific? Yang-tse-kiang.-
What river of Africa runs south-westerly
into the Atlantic? Nr.-What river of
Africa runs north? Ne.-Where are En-
derby's Land, and the Antarctic Continent?
In the southern extremity of the Eastern
Hemisphere.








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NORTH AMERICA.


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONS.-What division oc-
cupies all the central part of North Ame-
rica? U. S.-What large division lies
north of the United States ? B. Aa.-What
liviion lie west of British America?
iP .1A .-- l.i division lies south of the
Uiiiled-Sliri~_ ? Mo.-What division lies
-uurth-B-t ,:.-1 Mexico, extending down to
t h. Its ru ,: 'f Panama? C. Aa.
N. B. Tihe capital of a country is marked
tlu I-: Oher cities are marked thus .
CITIEs.-What is the capital of the
United States? Wn.+What is the capital
of British America? Oa.j-On what river
is Quebec? St. Le.-What other city on
the St. Lawrence? Ml.--What is the
( Il.ilrl of Mexico ? Mo.t-What city of the
United States is on the coast of the Pacific
Ocean ? S. Fo.-What three cities on or
near the coast of the Atlantic Ocean?
N. Yk., Pa., Bn.-What city on the Gulf
of Mexico? N. Os.
IsLANDS.-What group of islands south of
the United States? W. Is.-Which is the
largest of these islands? Ca.-Whitch are
the two next in size? Hi., Ja.-W'hal lanrl
between Hudson's Bay and E.ffin's Bay .
P. Ws.-What land north of Pi;ne(- 1%il-
liam's? Gl.-What land east of Baffin's
Bay ? Gd.-What island on the western
coast of British America?' Vr. What
ilarnd east of the Gulf of St. Law~ence?
Nd.
MOUNTAINs.-What chain of mountains
along the west coast of North America,
parallel to the Pacific Ocean? Ry.-What
is the general direction of the Rocky Moun-
tains? From north-west to south-east.-
What chain of mountains on the Atlantic


side of the continent? Ay.-What is the
general direction of the Alleghany Moun-
tains ? From north-east to south-west.
SEAS, GULFS, BAYS, &c.-What sea be-
tween the West Indies and South America ?
Cn.-What large gulf south of the United
States? Mo.-What gulf on the western
coast of Mexico? Ca.-What gulf east of
British America? St. Le.-What bay in
British America? Hn's.-What bay north
of Hudson's? Bs.
RIVEns.-What river runs north into the
Arctic Ocean? Ms.-What two rivers run
into Hudson's Bay? Cl., Nn.-What river
of the United States runs into the Pacific ?
Ca.-What river runs into the Gulf of
California? Co.-What river partly sepa-
rates the United States from Mexico?
R. Ge.-What river runs into the Gulf of
Mexico near Ne Orleans? Mi.-What
two branches of the MHt...ippi on the
west? Mi., As.-What *-anch on the
east? Oo.-What river separates the
United States from British America on the
north-east? St. Le.
LAKEs.-What three lakes are connected
with Mackenzie's river? G. Br., G. Se.,
Aa.-What lake connected with Nelson
River? Wg.-What five lakes are con-
nected with the St. Lawrence? Go., Ee.,
Hn., Mn., Sr.
STRAITS.-What strait east of Hudson's
Bay? Hn's.-What strait north of Hud-
son's Strait? Ds.-What strait separates
Russian America from Asia ? Bg's.
PENINSULAS AND CAPEs.-Whatpeninsula
in Russian America? Aa.-What cape at
the southern extremity of Greenland ? Fl.
-What cape at the southern extremity of
the Gulf of California? St. Ls.







24 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


NORTH AMERICA.


SUSPENSION BRIDGE-NIAGARA FALLS.


By what three races chiefly is North Ame-
rica inhabited?
By Whites, Negroes, and Indians.
Whence did the white people of North
America come originally?
The white people of North America
came originally from Europe.
How long ago is it since Europeans came
to this continent ?
More than three hundred years.
By what European was America dis-
covered ?
By Christopher Columbus.


In what year did Columbus discover Ame-
rica ?
In the year 1492.
Whence did the Negroes come into this
country ?
The Negroes came from Africa.
Who are the Indians?
The Indians are the oir*inrl inha-
bitants of the country. They
were found here by the whites,
when the country was disco-
vered.







NORTH AMERICA. 25


What race is found in Greenland and the
other extreme northern parts of the con-
tinent ?
The Esquimaux.
How do the Esquirnaux lice?
Chiefly by hunting and fishing.


What are some of the animals which
abound in this region?
Walruses, white bears, and seals.
What is the climate of this region?
It is extremely cold, a region of
almost perpetual ice and snow.
What is the climate in Central America
and in the West Indies?
It is extremely hot.
What frequently occur in the hot regions
of the earth?
Violent hurricanes.
What sometimes takes place in a hurri-
cane?
Vessels are suddenly sunk in the
ocean, houses and fences are
blown down, and even trees are
torn up by the roots.


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FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON.


QUESTIONS ON TIIE MAP.


GENERAL DIVISIONs.-What c(i,:ntry li.:
north of the United States? B. ,.,'-\~ltat
ocean east? Ac.-What ocean w-' L Pc.
-What country and gulf south MW.
MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, &C.--Wh'bl .-.iin
of mountains in the eastern pjart .t lie
United States? Ay.-Into whr.t .'.can fl.,
the rivers east of the Alleghanies fluw .
Ac.-What chain of mountains in the west-
ern part of the United Stales? Ry.-Into
what ocean do the rivers west of the Rocky
Mountains flow? Pp.-Into what gulf do
most of the rivers between the Alleghany
and the Rocky Mountains flow? Mo.-


What five large lakes on the northern por-
tion of the United States ? Oo., Ee, Hn.,
Mn., Sr.
EASTERN STATES.-Which is the most
eastern of the United States? Me.-What
state is next to Maine on the west? N. He.
-What state is west of New Hampshire?
Vt.-What state south of Vermont and New
Hampshire? Ms.-What two states south
of Massachusetts? R. Id., Ct.-What are
these six states called ? The Eastern States.
-Which are the Eastern States? Me., N.
He., Vt:, Ms., R. Id., Ct.-What other name
is given tp these states ? New England.
MIDDLE STATES.-What state lies imme-
diately west of New England? N. Yk.-
What two states south of New York ? Pa ,









i THE UNIT]


1. .1h.-What small state south of New
rs..v :. De.-What are these four states
nib.i : The Middle States.-Repeat their
Infi-. in order? N. Yk., N. Jy., Pa., De.
I':j.Tii1fRN STATEs.-What state west of
'..!'ir..:' Md.-Southof Maryland? Va.
-S-.uth :. f Virginia?~ t Ca--South of
iN..rth Carlolina? S. Ca.-South of South
C ,...I.r : Ga.-South of Georgia? Fa.-
Wi l .:,' Georgia ? Aa.-West of Alabama ?
Mi -What state on the Gulf of Mexico
west of Mississippi? La.-What state
west of Louisiana? Ts.-What are these
ten states called? The Southern States.-
Repeat their names in order? Md., Va.,
N. Ca., S. Ca., Ga., Fa., Aa., Mi., La., Ts.
-Which five border on the Atlantic?-
Which five on the Gulf of Mexico ?
WESTERN STATEs.-What state west of
Pennsylvania? Oo.-West of Ohio? Ia.
-West of Indiana? Is.-South of Ohio,
Indiana, and Illinois? Ky.-South of
Kentucky? Te.-West of Illinois ? Mi.-
South of Missouri? .As.-North of Ohio
and Indiana? Mn.-West of Michigan?
Wn.-West of Wisconsin? Ma.-South of
Minnesota? Ia.-What are these eleven
states called ? The Western States.-Name
them in order. Oo., Ia., Is., Ky., Te., Mi.,
As., Mn., Wn., Ma., Ia.
PACIFIC STATEs.-What two states on the
Pacific Ocean? Ca. and On.-What are
these states called? Sometimes Western
States, sometimes the Pacific States.
TERRITORIES.-What territory west of
Minnesota? Da.-West of Dacota ? Na.
-South of Nebraska? Ks.-South of
Kansas? In.-West of Nebraska on the


ED STATES.


north? Wn.-West of Nebraska and Kan-
sas? Uh.-South of Utah? N. Mo.-
South of New Mexico? Aa.-How many
territories altogether? Eight.-Name them
in order. Da., Na., Ks., In., Wn., Uh., N.
Mo., Aa.
N. B. The territories are districts which,
for want of a sufficient population, have
not yet been admitted into the Union as
independent states. The Governor and
other officers are appointed by the Presi-
dent. Each organized territory is repre-
sented in congress by a delegate, who
may debate, but cannot vote. More than
half of the states were originally organ-
ized, as territories.
RECAPITUIATION.-How many Eastern
States ? Six.-How many Middle? Four.
-Southern? Ten.-Western? Eleven.-
Pacific? Two.-How many states in all?
Thirty-three.-How many territories?
Eight.
CAPITA..-What is the capital of the
United States? Washington.-How is
Washington situated? On the Potomac
River, in the District of Columbia ?-What
is the District of Columbia ? A small terri-
tory, less than ten miles square, belonging
originally to Maryland, and ceded by her
to the United States.
N. B. The District of Columbia originally
included Alexandria county on lte Vir-
ginia side of the river, and Washington
county on the Maryland side. These
counties were ceded to the United States
by Virginia and Maryland, in 1790. In
1846, Alexandria county (including the
city of Alexandria) was ceded back to
the state of Virginia.


























SLA NTIC


SE A N




THE EASTERN
OR
NEW ENGLAND
STATES.








THE NEW ENGLAND STATES. 31


QUESTIONS ON TIE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONs.-Which of the New
England states lies farthest north and east?
Me.-What state west of Maine? N. He.
-West of New Hampshire? Vt.-South
of New Hampshire and Vermont? Ms.-
What two states south of Massachusetts?
R. Id. and Ct.-How many New England
states? Six.
RIVERS AND LAKES.-What two rivers in
Maine? Pt., Kc.-What river in New
Hampshire? Mc.-What river between
New Hampshire and Vermont? Ct.-
What two states does the Connecticut run
through ? Ms., Ct.-In what general direc-
tion do the rivers of New England run?
Sh.-What lake in Maine ? Md.-Between
Vermont and New York? Cn.
N. B. Lake Champlain is navigable for
vessels of large burden. Several im-
portant naval battles have been fought
upon it. Commodore McDonough here
obtained a complete victory over the
British fleet. Every vessel belonging to
the enemy was captured. This occurred
in 1814. Lake Champlain is celebrated
for the beauty of its scenery. Many per-
sons travel hundreds of miles every year
merely to see it.
What sound south of Connecticut? L.
Id.-What island? L. Id.-What bay east
of Massachusetts? Ms.-What cape on the
north of Massachusetts bay ? An.-At the
south? Cd.-What mountains in New
Hampshire? We.-In Vermont? Gn.
MAINE.-What bounds Maine on the
north and north-west? C. Et.-On the
east? N. Bk.-On the south and south-
east? Ac. On.-On the west? N. He.-
What is its capital? Aa.-What other
city ? Pd.


NEW HAMPSHIRE.-What bounds New
Hampshire on the north? C. Et.-On the
east? Me., Ac. On.-On the south? Ms.-
On the west? Vt.-What is the capital? Cd.
VERMONT.-What bounds Vermont on the
north? C. Et.-On the east? N. He -
On the south? Ms.-On the west? N. Yk.
-What is the capital? Mr.
MASSACHUSETTS.-What bounds Massa-
chusetts on the north? N. He. and Vt.-
On the east? Ac. On.-On the south?
R. Id. and Ct.-On the west? N. Yk.-
What is the capital? Bn.-What other
town? Ph.-For what is Plymouth cele-
brated? It is the place where the first
settlers of New England landed, in the year
1620.
N. B. These first settlers of New England
are generally called the Pilgrims. Being
persecuted on account of their religion,
they left their native country and be-
came strangers and pilgrims. They
sought a home in the western continent,
which had then been but lately disco-
vered, and which was inhabited by only
a few savage Indian tribes. The vessel
in which the Pilgrims came was a small
ship, called the Mayflower.
RHODE ISLAND.-What bounds Rhode
Island on the north and east? Ms.-On
the south? Ac. On.-On the west? Ct.-
What two capitals has Rhode Island? Pe.,
Nt.
N. B. When a state has two capitals, it
means that the legislature meets some-
times in one of them and sometimes in
the other.
CONNECTICUT.-What bounds Connecti-
cut on the north? Ms.-On the east? R.
Id.-On the south? L. Id. Sd.-On the
west? N. Yk.-What two cities are its
capitals? N. Hn., Hd.






32 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


THE .E, ', T.E ,.
T HE ES E STE :.S R AT E T S.
.* .


ii -. :)i
r;-. ,,


c9F--

i
~Z~i' i.C i)

~I J
&


What name is sometimes given to the
country east of the Hudson river?
It is called New England.

Why did the inhabitants call it by this
name ?
Because they came originally from
England, a country on the other
side of the Atlantic Ocean.


They called the country which
they had left, Old England, and
that to wviich they had come,
New England.
When did they frlel.,la in New England?
In 1620.
Where did they land?
At Plymouth.


Ah,


I






THE EASTERN STATES.


LE.O u4-*Ru)


At what season of the year?
In the cold wintry month of De-
cember.
-What is the general character of the climate
and the soil in New England ?
The climate is generally colder in
winter, and the soil less fertile,
than in other sections of the
Union.
What is said of the people of New Eng-
land ?
They are distinguished for their
(


industry, good morals, and gene-
ral intelligence.
What is said of their manufactures?
They manufacture a larger amount
of cotton and woollen goods than
any other section of the Union.

What is said of their shipping?
They employ a large number of
vessels in the whale fishery, and
also in catching codfish and
mackerel.


~


33







SMAP OF
THE
MIDDLE STATES
AR AND
MARYLAND & VIRGINIA.







MIDDLE STATES, MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA. 35


QUESTIONS ON TIE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONS.-What state lies
south of Lake Ontario? N. Yk.-What
large state south of New York? Pa.-
What state east of Pennsylvania? N. Jy.
-What small state south of New Jersey
and Pennsylvania? De.-What are these
four states called? The Middle States.-
Name them. N. Yk., N. J., Pa., De.-
What two other states in this map? Md.
and Virginia.
RIVERS, LAKEs, &c.-What river runs
through New York into the ocean ? Hn.-
What branch has the Hudson ? Mk.-
What river between New Jersey and Penn-
sylvania? De.-What branch has it? S1.
-Into what bay does it empty? De.-
What river runs through Pennsylvania?
Sa.-Into what bay does it empty? Ce.-
What river between Maryland and Virginia ?
Pc.-Into what bay does it run? Ce.-
What river through the central part of
Virgina? Js.-Into what bay does it run?
Ce.-What two rivers in western Pennsyl-
vania? Ay., Ma.-At what city do they
unite? Pg.-What river do they there
form? Oo.-What river in New York runs
into Lake Ontario? Ge.-What river in
Canada is the outlet of Lake Ontario? St.
Le.-What other large lake south-west of
Ontario? Ee.-What celebrated falls be-
tween these two lakes? Na.-What lake
between New York and Vermont? Cn.-
What capes at the mouth of Delaware bay ?
My. and Hn.-What capes at the mouth of
Chesapeake bay? Cs. and Hy.-What two
ranges of mountains run through Pennsyl-
vania and Virginia? Ay. and B. Re.-
What is the general range of these moun-
tains? From north-east to south-west.-
What mountains in New York ? C1.


NEW YORK.-What bounds New York on
the north and west? C. Wt.-On the east?
Vt., Ms., and Ct.-On the south? N. Jy.
and Pa.-What is the capital? Ay.-
What city at the mouth of the Hudson?
N. Yk.-What is remarked of New York?
It is the largest city of the United States.
-What city on the Genessee river ? Rr.-
On Lake Erie? Bo.
NEW JERSEY.-What bounds New Jersey
on the north ? N. Yk.-On the east? Ac.
On.-On the south? De.-On the west?
Pa.-What is the capital? Tn.-What
other city ? Nk.
PENNSYLVANIA.-What bounds Pennsyl-
vania on the north? N. Yk. and L. Ee.-
On the east? N. Yk. and N. Jy.-On the
south? De., Md., and Va.-On the west?
Va. and Oo.-What is the capital? Hg.-
What city at the junction of the Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers? Pa.-What is re-
marked of Philadelphia? It is the second
city in size in the United States.-What
city in the western part of the state?
Pg.
DELAWARE.-What bounds Delaware on
the north? Pa.-On the east? N. Jy. and
Ac. On.-On the south and west? Md.-
What is the capital? Dr.-What other
city? Wn.
MARYLAND.-What bounds Maryland on
the north? Pa.-On the east? De. and
Ac. On.-On the south and west? Va.-
What is the capital? As.-What other
city ? Be.
VIRGINIA.-What bounds Virginia on the
north? Pa. and Md.-On the east? Md.
and Ac. On.-On the south? N. Ca. and
Te.-On the west? Oo. and Ky.-What
is the capital? Rd.-What other city?
Lg.






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.



THE MIDDLE STATES.


UnION SQUARE, NEW YORK.
What are the two principal Middle States? What is said of its shipping ?
New York and Pennsylvania. A larger number of vessels are to
By whom was New Yorkfirst settled? be found at its wharves than in
By the Dutch. They came from any other city of the United
Holland in 1613. States.
What is remarked ofthe city of New York? W4- i d qt'the population of the
It is the largest city on the state of New York?
Western Continent, and one of The state of New York has more
the greatest commercial cities in inhabitants than any other state
the world, in the Union.






THE MIDDLE STATES.


By whom was Pennsylvania settled ?
By the Quakers, under William
Penn. They came from England
in 1681.
What is remarked of Philadelphia?
It is the second city in the United
States, being next to New York
in size and in the number of its
inhabitants.
What is said of its manufactures ?
It is the largest manufacturing city
in the Union.


SWhat particular source of wealth .has
Pennsylvania?
Pennsylvania possesses immense
quantities of coal and iron. The
coal mines of this state are larger
than those of any other country
in the world.
What remarkable event occurred in Phila-
delphia?
In the State-house, in Philadelphia,
the Congress of the United States
signed the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, July 4th, 1776.


FlIEW OS CiBTTT 8thELT, HiLUDMILPUHi.
































MAP OF SEVEN OF
THE
SOUTHERN STATES,
AND OF
ARKANSAS & TENNESSEE.








SOUTHERN STATES, ARKANSAS AND TENNESSEE.


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL QUESTIONs.-What river in the southern
part of Virginia? Js.-What river in North Caro-
lina south of the Roanoke? C. Fr.-What two rivers
run through South Carolina ? G. Pe., Se.-What
river between South Carolina and Georgia? Sh.-
What river runs through Georgia? Aa.-What two
rivers in Alabama? Aa., Ty.-What large river
between Mississippi and Arkansas? Mi.-What
river in Arkansas? As.-Into what does it empty?
Mi.-What river in Louisiana ? Rd.-Into what does
the Red river empty? Mi.-What river between
Louisiana and Texas? Se.-What two rivers in
Tennessee? Te., Cd.-What is the general course of
the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers? Westerly.-
Into what do they empty ? Mi.-What rivers run into
the Gulf of Mexico? Mi., Aa., Se.-What is their
general course ? Southerly.-What rivers run into the
Atlantic? Re., C. Fr., G. Pe., Se., Sh., Aa.-What
is their general course? South-east.-What three
ranges of mountains in the Southern and Western
States? B. Re., Ay., Cd.-What is the general course
of these mountains? From north-east to south-west.
NORTH CAROLINA.-What bounds North Carolina on
the north? Va.-On the east? Ac. On.-On the
south? S. Ca.-On the west? Te.-What is its
capital? Rh.-What other city ? Wn.
SoUTH CAnoLINA.-What bounds South Carolina on
the north? N. Ca.-On the south-east? Ac. On.-
7/./^W /' '..-*.,


On the south-west? Ga.-What is its capital ? Ca.-
What other city? Cn.
GEORGIA.-What bounds Georgia on the north ? N.
Ca. and Te.-On the east? S. Ca., Ac. On.-On the
south? Fa.-On the west? Aa.-What is the capital?
Me.-What other city? Sh.
FLORIDA.-What bounds Florida on the north ? Ga.,
Aa.-On the east? Ac. On.-On the south? G. Mo.
-On the west ? Aa., G. Mo.-What is the capital? Te.
ALABAMA.-What bounds Alabama on the north?
Te.-On the east? Ga.-On the south? Fa., G. Mo.
-On the west? Mi.-What is the capital? My.-
What other city? Me.
MissIssIPPI.-What bounds Mississippi on the north ?
Te.-On the east? Aa.-On'the south? G. Mo., La.
-On the west? La., As.-What is the capital? Jn.
-What other city? Nz.
LOUISIANA.-Wh4at bounds Louisiana on the north ?
As.-on the east? Mi.-On the south? G. Mo.-On
the west? Ts.-What is the capital? B. Re.-What
other city? N. Os.
ARKANSAs.-What bounds Arkansas on the north?
Mi.-On the east? Te., Mi.-On the south? La.-
On the west? Ts., In. Ty.-What is the capital? L.
Rk.
TENNESSEE.-What bounds Tennessee on the north?
Ky., Va.-On the east? N. Ca.-On the south? Ga.,
Aa., Mi.-On the west? As., Mi.-What is the capital ?
Ne.-What other city ? Ms.


39






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


THE SOUTHERN STATES.


CAPTAIN SMITH AND POCAHONTAS.
Which was the first town settled in the By the French. Louisiana be-
Southern States? longed to France formerly, but
St. Augustine in Florida. It was was ceded to the United States
settled by the Spaniards in 1565. in 1803.
What was the first English settlement in What is remarked of the climate of the
the Southern States? Southern States?
Jamestown in Virginia. It was The climate is generally warm. In
settled by Englishmen in 1607. many parts ice and snow are
By whom was Louisiana chiefly settled? seldom seen.


40






THE SOUTHERN STATES.


g4


GEORGE WASHINGTON.


What are some of the principal products
of the Southern States?
Cotton, tobacco, sugar, and rice.
In what two states chiefly is tobacco raised?
In Virginia and Kentucky.
In what two states chiefly is sugar raised ?
In Louisiana and Alabama.
In what two states chiefly is rice raised?
In South Carolina and Georgia.
In what states chiefly is cotton raised ?
4*


Jn North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,
and Texas.
What is remarked of the cotton of the
Southern States?
More cotton is raised in the South-
ern States than in all the other
countries of the world, and the
cotton of these states is better
than that raised anywhere else.







T -___-_-II MAP OF NINE
BRITt SRH AMERICA
.E I CA OF THE
WESTERN STATES.,


-T -











.5 R
4&j V-I







II 00
-.. .. O.. ..I





LSpri gf er




e MCincinnati
Jefferson C ty Frankfortfe


_0 St >rnfr
I ~~~~- ----E ~r /\^\^ y





A R K K N T A j
,-- n nrr-^Tr T---n N E-^ -E







THE WESTERN STATES. 43


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL QUESTIONs.-What lake north
of Ohio ? Ee.-East of Michigan? Hn.-
North of Michigan? Sr.-Between Michi-
gan and Wisconsin? Mn.-What is the
principal river in the Western States ? Mi.
-What four states on the east of the Mis-
sissippi? Ky., Te., Is., Wn.-What four
states west? Mi., As., Ia., Ma.-What is
the principal eastern branch of the Missis-
sippi? Oo.-What three states on the
north side of the Ohio? Oo., Ia., Is.-
What two states on the south? Ky., Va.-
What branch has the Ohio in Ohio ? So.-
In Indiana ? Wh.-Between Kentucky and
Virginia? B. Sy.-What two branches in
the western part of Kentucky ? Cd., Te.-
What is the general course of the Ohio?
Wt.-What branch has the Mississippi in
Illinois? Is.-In Wisconsin? Wn.-What
western branch has the Mississippi in
Missouri? Mi.-In Iowa? D. Ms.-What
is the general course of the Mississippi?
Sh.
Onio.-What bounds Ohio on the north ?
Mn., L. Ee.-On the east? Pa.-On the
south? Va., Ky.-On the West? Ia.-
What is its capital? Cs.-What city on
the Ohio? Ci.-On Lake Erie? Cd.
INDIANA.-What bounds Indiana on the
north? Mn.-On the east? Oo.-On the
south? Ky.-On the west? Is:-What is
its capital? Is.
ILLINOIS.-What bounds Illinois on the


north? Wn.-On the east? Ia., L. Mn.-
On the south? Ky.-On the west? Mi.,
Ia.-What is its capital? Sd.-What city
on Lake Michigan? Co.
Missouan.-What bounds Missouri on the
north? Ia.-On the east? Is., Ky., Te.-
On the south? As.-On the west? Ks.,
Na., In.-What is its capital? Jn. Cy.-
What other city? S. Ls.
KENTUCKY.-What bounds Kentucky on
the north? Oo., Ia., Is.-On the east?
Va.-On the south? Te.-On the west?
Is., Mi.-What is its capital? Ft.-What
other city ? Le.
MICHIGAN.-What bounds Michigan on
the north? L. Sr., L. Hn.-On the east?
L. Hn.-On the south? Oo., Ia.-On the
west? L. Mn., Wn.-What is its capital?
Lg.-What other city ? Dt.
WIscoNsiN.-What bounds Wisconsin on
the north? L. Sr., Mn.-On the east?
L. Mn.-On the south? Is.-On the west?
Ma., Ia.-What is the capital? Mn.-
What other city ? Me.
MINNESOTA.-What bounds Minnesota on
the north? B; Aa.-On the east? Wn.-
On the south? Ia.-On the west? Da.-
What is the capital? S. P1.
IoWA.-What bounds Iowa on the north ?
*Ma.-On the east? Wn., Is.-On the
south? Mi.-On the west? Na.-Whatis
the capital? D. Ms.-What other city?
De






44 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


THE WESTERN STATES.


GOLD-MINING IN CALIFORNIA.


What name is given to the country lying
between the Alleghany and the Rocky
Mountains ?
It is called the Mississippi Valley.
It is watered chiefly by the Mis-
sissippi River and its branches.
What is said of the settlement of the West-
ern States?
The Western States were settled at
a much later date than those on
the Atlantic Ocean.
What is said of their growth ?


Their growth has been exceedingly
rapid.
Which is the Nmt populous of the Western
States.
Ohio. It is the third state in the
Union in population and wealth.
For what is California celebrated?
For its gold mines. This precious
metal is found in greater abun-
ance in California than in any
other country in the world.


_ : ._ _






WESTERN STATES. 45


CHCAGO.


Which are the three principal Western
cities ?
Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Chicago.
What is said of Cincinnati ?
It is one of the most beautiful cities
in the Union, and is the greatest
pork market in the world.
What is said of the situation of St. Louis?
It is admirably situated for com-
merce. The number of steam-
boats arriving at St. Louis is
greater than that of any other
western city.


What is said of Chicago ?
It is the centre of the immense
trade of the great western lakes.

What is said of its exports?
Its exports of grain are greater
than those of any other city of
the world.

For what are the states of Illinois and In-
diana remarkable?
Indiana and Illinois contain ex-
tensive prairies, or plains, of
great fertility.




























MAP OF THE
TERRITORIES
TEXAS, OREGON & CALIFORNIA.









THE TERRITORIES, AND TEXAS, OREGON, AND CALIFORNIA. 47


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.


GENERAL QUESTIONs.-What river separates Texas
from Mexico? R. Ge.-What river separates Texas
from Louisiana? Se.-Into what gulf do these two
rivers flow? Mo.-What is their general course?
From north-west to south-east.-What river separates
Texas from Indian territory? Rd.-What river runs
through Kansas, Indian territory, and Arkansas?
As.-What other river in Kansas? Ks.-Into what
river does it empty? Mi.-What territories does the
Missouri separate? Na., Da.-What southern branch
of the Missouriin Nebraska ? Y. Se.-What mountain
range runs from north to south through the middle of
this map ? Ry.-What river west of the Rocky Moun-
tains separating Oregon from Washington territory?
Ca.-Into what does the Columbia empty ? Pc. On.-
What two branches has it? Ce., Ls.-What large river
west of the Rocky Mountains, running south-westerly ?
Co.-Into what does it empty ? G. of Ca.-What other
western river emptying into the Pacific? So.-What
lake in the interior of Utah ? Gt. St.
TExAs.-What bounds Texas on the north? Aa., In.
Ty.-On the east and south-east? La., G. Mo.-On
the south-west? Mo.-On the west? Aa., N. Mo.-
What is its capital? An.-What other city? A..
CALIFORNIA.-What bounds California on the north ?
On.-On the east? Uh., N. Mo., Aa.-On the south?
Mo.-On the west? Pc. On.-What is the capital ?
So.-What other city? S. Fo.


OREGON.-What bounds Oregon on the north ? Wn.
-On the east? Wn.-On the south? Uh., Ca.-On
the west? Pc. On.
WASHINGTON.-What bounds Washington on the
north? B. Aa.-On the east? Na.-On the south?
On., Uh.-On the west? Pc.-On On.
DACOTA.-What bounds Dacota on the north? B.
Aa.-On the east? Ma., Ia.-On the south and west?
Na.
NEBRASKA.-What bounds Nebraska on the north ?
B. Aa.-On the east? Da., Ia.-On the south? Ks.-
On the west? Wn., Uh.-What is the capital ? Oa.
KANSAS.-What bounds Kansas on the north? Na.
-On the east? Mi.-On the south? In., N. Mo.-
On the west? Uh., N. Mo.-What is the capital? Ln.
INDIAN.-What bounds Indian territory on the north ?
Ks.-On the east? Mi., As.-On the south? Ts.-
On the west? Ts., N. Mo.
UTAH.-What bounds Utah on the north? On., Wn.
S-On the east? Na., Ks., N. Mo.-On the south? N.
Mo.-On the west? Ca.-What is the capital? St.
Le. Cy.-What other city? Fe.
NEW MEXICO.-What bounds New Mexico on the
-north? Uh., Ks.-On the east? Ks., In., Ts.-On
the south? Aa.-On the west? Ca.-What is the
Capital? S. Fe.
S ARIZONA.-What bounds Arizona on the north ? N.
SMo.-On the east? Ts.-On the south? Ts., Mo.-
On the west? Ca.






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


SCENE IN NORTH AMERICA


How are the Territories governed?
The governors, and other officers,
are appointed by the President
of the United States.
What is said of the Indians in the United
States?
Nearly all of them live in the West-
ern Territories.
Have any of the Indians been civilized?
Some of the Indians, particularly
those living in the Indian Terri-


tory, have been civilized and
converted to Christianity. They
can read and write, they have
good houses and farms, and live
as white people do.

What is said of the rest of the Indians?
They still live in a savage state.
They roam over the prairies, and
depend almost entirely on hunt-
ing and fishing for their food






TERRITORIES. 4f


n~r~~B* K~1
-.i


Are all the Territories in this condition? What is said of the prairie grass ?
Some of them are rapidly filling up The prairies are generally covered
with a white population, and will with a rank growth of tall
soon become States. grass.
How is Utah settled? What animals especially abound in the
By a people called Mormons. western prairies?
By whom chiefly are New Mexico and Ari- Buffaloes. They are often seen
zona inhabited? upon the prairies in immense
By a mixed race of Spaniards and herds, numbering many thou-
Indians. sands.









K~~~'~~' N1$ 1,; 1E L ~t





E, jj uA



"ap.~ 'in'. iO E IA V IA












VMA 0 F?:
C,,I nd
T.- .1,1 F,.
-( U









/. /~L '~~I ~ / I'





T. rr ..
L.i,







SOUTH AMERICA.


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

GENERAL DIVISIONS.-What state next to
the Isthmus of Panama ? N. Ga -East of
New Granada? Va.-East of Venezuela?
Ga.-South of Venezuela and Guiana? Bl.
-South of New Granada? Er.--South of
Equador? Pu.-East of Peru? Bl., Ba.-
South of Bolivia on the Pacific ? Ci.-East
of Chili? A. Cn.-South of the Argentine
Confederation ? Pa.-East of the Argen-
tine Confederation? Py., Uy., Bs. As.
MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, &c.-What moun-
tains along the west coast? As.-What
river runs through the central part of
South America? An.-What is its chief
southern branch ? Ma.-What river runs
through Venezuela? Oo.-What large
river empties into the Atlantic between
Uruguay and Buenos Ayres? R. d. 1. Pa.
-What cape on the north? Gs.-On the
east? St. Re.-On the west? Bo.-Onthe
south? Hn.-What islands north-east of
Cape Horn? Fd.-On the western coast?
J. Fz.-On the north? W. Is.-What
isthmus connects South America with North
America ? Pa.-What strait at the south-
ern extremity of the Continent? Mn.-
From what does it separate the main land ?
T. d. Fo.
NEW GRANADA.-What bounds New
Granada on the north? C. Sa.-On the
east? Va.-On the south? Er.-On the
west? Pc. On.-Whatis the capital? Ba.
VENEZUELA.-What bounds Venezuela on
the north? C. Sa.-On the east? Ga.-
On the south ? Bl.-On the west? N. Ga.
-What is the capital? Cs.
GUIANA.-What bounds Guiana on the
north? Ac. On.-On the east and south?
Bl.-On the west? Va.-What city in
Guiana? Gn.


EQUADOR.-What bounds Equador on the
north? N. Ga.-On the east? B1.-On
the south? Bl., Pu.-On the west? Pc.
On.-What is the capital? Qo.
BRAZIL.-What bounds Brazil on the
north? Er., Va., Ga., Ac. On.-On the
east? Ac. On.-On the south ? Uy.-On
the west? Py., Ba., Pu., Er., N. Ga.-
What is the capital? R. Jo.-What other
city on the eastern coast? Po.
PERu.-What bounds Peru on the north?
Er.-On the east? Bl--On the south?
Ba.-On the west? Pc. On.-What is the
capital ? La.-What other city? Co.
BoLIVIA.-What bounds Bolivia on the
north and east? Bl.-On the south? A.
Cn., Ci.-On the west? Pu.-What is the
capital? Se.-What other city? Pi.
CHILI.-What bounds Chili on the north ?
Ba.-On the east ? A. Cn.-On the south ?
Pa.-On the west? Pc. On.-What is the
capital? So.-What other city? Vo
ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION. What
bounds the Argentine Confederation on the
north? Ba., Bl.-On the east? Bl., Uy.,
Bs., As.-On the south? Pa.-On the west?
Ci.-What is the capital? Pa.
URUGUAY.-What bounds Uruguay on the
north? Bl.-On the east and south? Ac.
On.-On the west? A. Cn.-What is the
capital? Mo.
BUENos AYREs.-What bounds Buenos
Ayres on the north ? A. Cn., Uy.-On the
east and south? Ac. On.-On the west?
A. Cn.-What is the capital? Bs. As.
PATAGONIA.-What bounds Patagonia on
the north? A. Cn., Ci.-On the east?
Ac. On.-On the west? Pc. On.-What
cape on the south ? Hn.






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


SOUTH AMERICA.


A U1TY DfSTROYED
By what Europeans chiefly was South
America first seltled ?
By Spaniards and Portuguese.

What two other races are found in large
numbers in South America?
Negroes and Indians.

Where are the Negroes chiefly found?
In Brazil.

What is their condition in that country?
They are slaves.

What dreadful calamities sometimes oc-
cur ?
In some parts of South America
the country is subject to terrible


BY AN EARTHQUAKE.


earthquakes, by which whole
cities are destroyed.
What is said of the wild cattle?
Immense herds of wild cattle are

.- .6


LAMA AND CONDOR.


~


I






SOUTH AMERICA. 53


a-r



LASSOING WILD CATTI..
found on the pampas, or plains. Brazil.
They are caught by hunters on What a
horseback, with a rope called a Brazil
lasso. Coffee
Which is the largest country in South
America ? For wha
For its

What is
It is g
mount
i tPe


ANACONDA AND BORSE.
5*


cold.

W7hat a
South
Orange
bana:


e the two leadingproductions of
?
and sugar.

I is Peru remarkable?
mines of gold and silver.

the climate of South America?
generally very hot. In the
itainous regions, however, it
operate, and sometimes even


re some of the fruits found in
America ?
s, lemons, pine apples, and
nas.






_____________ / / ct
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( EUROPE.Ja




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lk: V. )r~7 0.: .

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pt It I ",.'P
in~.
C ~r:if%'IV


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't "








EUROPE. 55


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP. BRITISH IsLEs.-What are the two principal British
-Isles? Gt. Britain and Ireland.-Into what three
SEAS, BAYS, &c.-What sea between Europe and parts is the island of Great Britain divided? Ed., Sd.,
Africa? Mn.-North-east of Italy? Ac.-East of Ws.-What is the capital of the British Isles? Ln.
Turkey? Bk.-North of the Black Sea? Av.-East FRANC.-What bounds France on the north? E.
,, ,, ::=, : : c, ANCE.-What bounds France on the north? Eh.
of the Black Sea? Cn.--Between Sweden and Russia? Ch.-On the east? y., Sd, Iy.-On the south? Mn.
Be.-In the northern part of Russia? We.-What bay Sa-On the west? Ac. On.-What is the capital? Ps.
west of France? By.-IWhat gulf in the northern part SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.-What two countries south-
f te B B t e p F west of France? Sn., PL-What is the capital of
RIvERs.--What river forms part of the boundary Spain? Md.-Of Portugal? Ln.
between Europe and Asia? Ul.-What other river
empties into the Caspian? Va.-What river empties SWITZELAND AND ITALY.-What two countries south-
into the Sea of Azov? Dn.-Into the Black Sea on eastof France? Sd, Iy.-Whatisthecapitalof Italy?
Re.
the north? Dr.-What other river runs into the Black
Sea? De.-What river runs north into the White Sea? AUSTIA What bounds Austria on the north? Pa.,
Da.-Into the Baltic? Va.-Into the North Sea? Re. Ra.-Onthe east? Ra., Ty.-On the south ? Ty, y.
-Through the north of France? Se.-Through the On the west? Ba., -What is the capital? Va.
south of France? Re.-Through Spain? Ts. TURKEY.-What country south-east of Austria?
MoUNTAINs.-What mountains between Russia and Ty.-What is the capital? Ce.
Asia on the north? U1.-On the south? Cs.-What PRUSSIA.-What country north of Austria? Pa.-
mountains in Austria? Cn.-What mountains in What is the capital? Bn.
Turkey? Bn.-In Italy? Ae.-North of Italy? As. RusSIA.-What country occupies all the eastern part
-Between France and Spain? Ps.-Between Sweden Europe? Ra.-What is the capital? St. Pg.-What
and Norway? Dd. city near the centre of Russia? Mw.
CAPES, &c.--What is the most northern cape of NORWAY AND SWEDEN.-What two countries north
Europe? Nh.-The most southern? Mn.-What and west of the Baltic? Ny., Sn.-What is the capital
strait at the entrance of the Mediterranean? Gr.- of Sweden ?-Sm.
What islands on the west of Europe? Bh.-Between DENMARK, &c.-What four countries on the North
Spain and Italy? Ca., Sa.-South of Italy? Sy.- Sea? Dk., Hr., Hd., Bm.-What is the capital of
South of Greece? Ca. Denmark? Cn.






56 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


EUROPE.


A SCENE IN EUROPE.


How does Europe compare with the other
divisions of the earth as to size ?
It is the smallest of the grand divi-
sions of the earth. It is only
about one-fourth the size of Ame-
rica, but contains nearly five
times as many inhabitants.
What is said of the nations of Europe?
The European nations are exceed-


ingly powerful. They abound in
wealth and refinement, they cul-
tivate science and the arts, and
they profess the Christian reli-
gion.
What is said of the wild animals?
Wild animals are not as numerous
in Europe, as they are in most
other parts of the world. The






EUROPE


GIBRALTAR.


country has been civilized so
long, that the wild animals gene-
rally have been destroyed.
Which are the most powerful of the Euro-
pean Slates?
Great Britain, France, Russia,
Austria, and Prussia. They are
called the Five Powers.
What is said of London ?
London is the largest and most
wealthy city in the world.


What is the form of Government in Eu-
rope ?
Nearly all the states of Europe are
governed by a monarch.
What distinctions of rank exist?
The inhabitants generally are di-
vided into the nobility and the
common people. The nobles
are often enormously rich. The
common people are poor, and
are sometimes greatly oppressed.






n T h A I ERIC


MrAP OF urE~1

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ASIA. 59


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

RIVERS AND MOUNTAINs.-What river forms part of
the boundary between Europe and Asia ? U1.-What
three rivers run into the Arctic Ocean ? Oe., Yi., La.
What river in Chinese Tartary ? Ar.-What two rivers
in China? Ho., Yg. t. Kg.-What river in Anam?
Ca.-What river in the eastern part of Hindoostan?
Gs -What river in the western part? Is.-In Turkey ?
Es.-What chain of mountains runs through the central
part of Asia? Ai.-What chain of mountains separates
Hindoostan from Thibet? Ha.-What mountains form
part of the boundary between Asia and Europe? Ul.
SEAS, BAYS, &c.-What sea east of Arabia? An.-
Between Arabia and Africa? Rd.-West of Turkey?
Mn.--North of Turkey? Bk.-North of Persia? Cn.
InTurkestan? Al.-Eastof Siberia? Ok-Eastof
Chinese Tartary? Jn.-East of China? Yw.-East
of India? Ca.-What bay south of India? Bl.-South
of Persia ? Pn.-What lake in Siberia? Bl.
ISLANDS.-What group of islands east of Chinese
Tartary? Jn.-What islands east of the China Sea?
Pe.-South of it? Bo.-South of Hindoostan? Cn.-
West of Turkey? Cs.-West of Siberia? N. Za. *
PENINSULAS, CAPES, &c.-What peninsula south of
Siam? Ma.-In the eastern part of Chinese Tartary?
Ca.-In the eastern part of Siberia ? Ka.-What cape
at the southern extremity of Hindoostan? Cn.-What
strait between Siberia and North America? Bg.-


What isthmus between the Red Sea and the Mediterra-
nean? Sz.-What desert in Chinese Tartary ? Ci.
TURKEY IN AsIA.-What country south of the Black
Sea? Ty -What country along the eastern shore of
the Mediterranean? Sa.-What cities in Syria? Jm.,
Ds.-What mountains in the north-east part of
Turkey? At.
PERSIA.-What country east of Turkey? Pa.-
What is the capital? Tn.
ARAnIA.-What country south of Turkey? Aa.-
What is the capital? Ma.
AFGHANISTAN AND BELOOCHISTAN.-What two
countries east of Persia? An., Bn.-What city in
Afghanistan ? Cl.
TURKESTAN.-What country north of Persia and
Afghanistan? Tn.-What is the capital? Ba.
INDIA.-What empire east of Afghanistan? Ia.-
What four countries are included in India? Hn., Bh.,
Sm., Am.-What is the capital of Hindoostan ?-Ca.
CHINESE EMPIRE.-What empire north of India?
Ca.-What three countries compose this empire ? Ca.,
C. Ty., Tt -What separates China from Chinese
Tartary? G. Wl.-What is the capital?, Pn.-What
city on the sea-coast ? Cn.
SIBERIA.-What country north of Chinese Tartary?
Sa.-What other name for Siberia? Russia in Asia.-
What is the capital? Ok.





60 FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


ASIA.


:1 4


A SCENE IN ASIA.
What is said of the size and the popula- What is said of its antiquity?
tion of Asia. Asia was the cradle of the human
It is the largest and the most popu- race. There our first parents
lous of the grand divisions of the were created, and thence the
earth. Asia contains more than descendants of Noah, after the
one-half of the population of the flood, peopled the rest of the
globe. world.






ASIA


_a-
437







TIGER HUNT
TIGER BUNT.


IWhat is said of its connection with the
Bible?
Nearly all the events recorded in
the Bible occurred in Asia. It
was the birth-place of our Sa-
viour, and the scene of his mira-
cles and death.
What is said of the religion of the Asiat-
ics?
The native Asiatics are idolaters,
or followers of some false reli-
gion, except a few who have been
converted to Christianity.

What is said of their governments?
The governments of Asia are all
despotic.
What is said of the empires formerly ex-
isting in Asia?
Asia formerly contained some of
6


the largest and most powerful
empires that have ever existed.
What is the condition of the Asiatic go-
vernments now?
Most of the Asiatic governments
now have come into subjection
to various European powers.
What European powers chiefly have sway
in Asia?
Russia governs nearly all the
northern part of Asia, and Eng-
land nearly all the southern
part.
What is the largest native empire in Asia .
The Chinese Empire.
What is said of the population of China?
China alone is said to contain more
than one-third of the population
of the globe.


CAMELS.


S.ir~:





















































ec I

i,








AFRICA. 63


QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

BOUNDARIES.-What bounds Africa on the north?
Mn. Sa.-On the east? R. Sa., In. On.-On.the west?
Ac. On.
RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, &c.-What river runs north
into the Mediterranean ? Ne.-South into the Gulf of
Guinea ? Nr.-What mountains along the northern
coast? As.-On the east? Sw.-On the west? Kg.
-What cape at the southern extremity ? G. He.-On
the west? Vd.-On the east? Gi.-What sea between
Africa and Arabia? Rd.-What isthmus between the
Red Sea and the Mediterranean? Sz.-What strait
between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean ? B. el Mb.
-What island off the eastern coast? Mr.-What
channel between Madagascar and the coast? Me.-
What four groups of islands off the western coast?
As, Ma., Cy., C. Vd.
NORTHERN AFRICA.-What country on the north?
By -What four cities in Barbary? Mo., As., Ts., Ti.
-What region south of Barbary? Gt. Dt.-What
country on the Mediterranean, east of the Great
Desert? Et.-What is the capital of Egypt? Co.-
What other city ? Aa.-What country south of Egypt?
Na.-What country south of Nubia? Aa.-What is
the capital of Abyssinia? Gr.
SOUTHERN AFRICA.-What three countries at the
southern extremity of the continent? Bs., Hs., C. Cy.
-What is the capital of Cape Colony ? C. Tn.


WESTERN AFRICA.-What are the two principal
countries on the western coast, south of the Great
Desert? Sa., Ga. What city in Guinea? S. Sr.-
What small country between Guinea and Senegambia?
La.-What is the capital of Liberia? Ma.
EASTERN AFRICA.-What three countries on the
eastern coast, south of the Red Sea? Ba., Zr., Me.
CENTRAL AFRICA.-What is the great central region
between the eastern and western coasts, called? Ea.
-What lake in the southern part of Ethiopia ? Ni.-
What river flowing from Lake Ngami? Ze.-What
great central region north of Ethiopia? Sn.-What
city in Soudan? To.-What lake? Td.


A CROCODILE.






FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.


AFRICA.


OSTRlIRIS.


A SCENE IN APRICA.
What is remarked of the climate of Af-
rica?
It is the hottest region of the globe.
What native race inhabits the central and
S southern parts of the continent?
l The Negroes.
What is their character?
They are very ignorant and de-
graded.
What ancient kingdom in the northern
part of Africa?
Egypt.


64








AFIA.6


'a 14
-= '- .
,, TL-.


PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX.


What wonderful monuments of antiquity
in Egypt ?
The Pyramids.

What is said of the River Nile ?
The Nile overflows its banks every
year, and renders the soil on
both sides very fertile.
What is the Great Desert?
It is a great sandy plain, stretch-
ing nearly across the continent.
It is the largest desert in the
world.
What are the Oases ?
The Oases are fertile spots here
and there in the desert


What is the prevailing race in the north-
ern and most eastern part of Africa?
The Arabs.
In what are the Arabs especially skilful ?


In horsemanship.
..-. ;' .


i, ~ /


A LION


AFRICA.


65 '







AUSTRALIA
AND IlNC
ADJACENT ISLANDS.,






AUSTRALIA AND TIE ADJACENT ISLANDS. 67


AUSTRALIA.
What is remarked of the size of Austra-
lia ?
It is the largest island in the world.
It is sometimes called a conti-
nent.
To whom does it belong /
It belongs to Great Britain.
What source of wealth has lately been dis-
covered in Australia ?
Very rich mines of gold.
What has been the effect of this discovery?
Large multitudes of Europeans
have gone there, and the country
is rapidly filling up with settlers.
What other islands of this region belong
to Great Britain?
New Zealand.


QUESTIONS ON TIE MAP.

AUSTRALIA.-Into what five parts is
Australia divided? N. Aa., S. Aa., W. Aa.,
N. S. Ws., Va.-What city in Victoria?
Me.-What river in Victoria and NewSouth


Wales ? Dg.-What region along and near
the Darling river? Gd.-What curiously
shaped lake in South Australia? Ts.-
What gulf in North Australia? Ca.-What
island south of Victoria? Ta.-What town
in Tasmania? 1. Tn.

What group of islands east of Tasma-
nia? N. Zd.-Of what three islands does
it consist? N. Ur., N. Mr., N. Lr.-What
small island north of New Zealand ? Nk.
-What island north of Norfolk ? N. Ca.
-North of New Caledonia? H. Hs.-
What group north-west of the New Hebri-
des? S's. Ao.-What three islands north-
west of Solomon's Archipelago ? N. Bn.,
N. Id., N. Ga.-What island south of New
Britain? Le.
What large island north of Australia?
Pa., or N. Ga.'-What strait between Aus-
tralia and Papua or New Guinea? Ts.-
What group of islands west of Papua? Se.
-What island south of the Spice islands?
Tr.-North of the Spice islands? Go.-
West? Cs.-West of Celebes ? Bo.-South
of Borneo? Ja:-What sea north of Bor-
neo ? Ca ?-What group of islands east of
the China Sea ? Pe.-What is the capital of
the Philippine islands? Ma.-What group
east of the Philippines? Ce.-What island
north of the Philippines off the coast of
China? Fa.-What group east of Formosa?
Lo -What island on the coast south-west
of Formosa? Hn. -


/*