• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: The reign of Edward...
 Chapter II: Conclusion of the reign...
 Chapter III: The reign of Queen...
 Chapter IV: Conclusion of the reign...
 Chapter V: The reign of Queen Elizabeth,...
 Chapter VI: Continuation of the...
 Chapter VII: Continuation of the...
 Chapter VIII: Continuation of the...
 Chapter IX: Continuation of the...
 Chapter X: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XI: Conclusion of the reign...
 Chapter XII: The great Englishmen...
 Chapter XIII: The reign of James...
 Chapter XIV: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XV: Conclusion of the reign...
 Chapter XVI: The reign of Charles...
 Chapter XVII: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XVIII: Continuation of...
 Chapter XIX: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XX: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XXI: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XXII: Conclusion of the...
 Chapter XXIII: England a republic...
 Chapter XXIV: The protectorate...
 Chapter XXV: The protectorate of...
 Chapter XXVI: England without a...
 Chapter XXVII: Monarchy restored;...
 Chapter XXVIII: Continuation of...
 Chapter XXIX: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XXX: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XXXI: The reign of James...
 Chapter XXXII: The reign of William...
 Chapter XXXIII: Continuation of...
 Chapter XXXIV: Conclusion of the...
 Chapter XXXV: Reign of Queen Anne,...
 Chapter XXXVI: Continuation of...
 Chapter XXXVII: Reign of George...
 Chapter XXXVIII: Reign of George...
 Chapter XXXIX: Continuation of...
 Chapter XL: Continuation of reign...
 Chapter XLI: Reign of George the...
 Chapter XLII: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XLIII: Continuation of...
 Chapter XLIV: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XLV: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XLVI: Continuation of the...
 Chapter XLVII: Reign of George...
 Chapter XLVIII: Reign of William...
 Chapter L: Reign of Queen Victoria,...
 Chapter LI: Continuation of the...
 Chapter LII: Continuation of the...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: A history of England for the young
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003306/00001
 Material Information
Title: A history of England for the young
Alternate Title: Tallis's history of England for the young
Physical Description: 2 v. : col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tyrrell, Henry
London Printing and Publishing Company (Limited) ( Publisher )
Publisher: London Printing and Publishing Company (Limited)
Place of Publication: London ;
New York
Publication Date: <1853?-1856?>
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1855
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Henry Tyrrell.
General Note: Added t.p., illustrated in colors: Tallis's history of England for the young.
Funding: Brittle Books Progr
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003306
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239041
oclc - 06314942
notis - ALH9565

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page
    List of Illustrations
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Chapter I: The reign of Edward the sixth, A.D. 1547-1549
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
    Chapter II: Conclusion of the reign of Edward the sixth, A.D. 1549-1553
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
    Chapter III: The reign of Queen Mary, A.D. 1553-1554
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Chapter IV: Conclusion of the reign of Queen Mary, A.D. 1554-1558
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
    Chapter V: The reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1558-1559
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Chapter VI: Continuation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1559-1561
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Chapter VII: Continuation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1561-1566
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Chapter VIII: Continuation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1566-1568
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Chapter IX: Continuation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1568-1584
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Chapter X: Continuation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1584-1588
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Chapter XI: Conclusion of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1588-1603
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Chapter XII: The great Englishmen of the reign of Queen Eliszabeth
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Chapter XIII: The reign of James the first, A.D. 1603-1606
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 166a
        Page 167
    Chapter XIV: Continuation of the reign of James the first, A.D. 1606-1618
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Chapter XV: Conclusion of the reign of James the first, A.D. 1618-1625
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Chapter XVI: The reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1625-1628
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Chapter XVII: Continuation of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1628-1634
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Chapter XVIII: Continuation of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1634-1640
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Chapter XIX: Continuation of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1640-1642
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Chapter XX: Continuation of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1642
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Chapter XXI: Continuation of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1642-1647
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Chapter XXII: Conclusion of the reign of Charles the first, A.D. 1647-1649
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 264a
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Chapter XXIII: England a republic - A.D. 1649-1653
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 274a
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 276a
        Page 277
        Page 278
    Chapter XXIV: The protectorate of Oliver Cromwell - A.D. 1653-1658
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Chapter XXV: The protectorate of Richard Cromwell - A.D. 1658-1659
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Chapter XXVI: England without a government - A.D. 1659-1660
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
    Chapter XXVII: Monarchy restored; the reign of Charles the second - A.D. 1660-1662
        Page 300
        Page 300a
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
    Chapter XXVIII: Continuation of the reign of Charles the second, A.D. 1662-1677
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 310a
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 316a
        Page 317
        Page 318
    Chapter XXIX: Continuation of the reign of Charles the second, A.D. 1677-1680
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 326a
        Page 326b
        Page 327
        Page 328
    Chapter XXX: Continuation of the reign of Charles the second, A.D. 1680-1685
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 336a
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    Chapter XXXI: The reign of James the second, A.D. 1685-1688
        Page 342
        Page 342a
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 358a
        Page 358b
        Page 358c
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
    Chapter XXXII: The reign of William of Orange and Mary Stuart, A.D. 1688-1691
        Page 362
        Page 362a
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    Chapter XXXIII: Continuation of the reign of William of Orange and Mary Stuart, A.D. 1691-1694
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
    Chapter XXXIV: Conclusion of the reign of William the Third, A.D. 1694-1702
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 392a
    Chapter XXXV: Reign of Queen Anne, A.D. 1701-1707
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 396a
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 398a
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 400a
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 402a
        Page 403
    Chapter XXXVI: Continuation of the reign of Queen Anne, A.D. 1707-1714
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 420a
    Chapter XXXVII: Reign of George the First, A.D. 1714-1727
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 424a
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
    Chapter XXXVIII: Reign of George the Second, A.D. 1727-1737
        Page 432
        Page 432a
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
    Chapter XXXIX: Continuation of reign of George the Second, A.D. 1727-1737
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 452
        Page 450b
        Page 451
    Chapter XL: Continuation of reign of George the Second, A.D. 1746-1760
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 454a
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 458a
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 462a
    Chapter XLI: Reign of George the Third, A.D. 1760-1764
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
    Chapter XLII: Continuation of the reign of George the Third, A.D. 1764-1784
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 482a
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 492a
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 494a
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
    Chapter XLIII: Continuation of the reign of George the Third, A.D. 1784-1795
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 500a
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 502a
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 508a
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
    Chapter XLIV: Continuation of the reign of George the Third, A.D. 1795-1806
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 516a
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 522a
        Page 522b
        Page 522c
        Page 523
    Chapter XLV: Continuation of the reign of George the Third, A.D. 1806-1811
        Page 524
        Page 524a
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 526a
        Page 527
    Chapter XLVI: Continuation of the reign of George the Third, A.D. 1811-1820
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 532a
        Page 532b
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 536a
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 540a
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
    Chapter XLVII: Reign of George the Fourth, A.D. 1820-1830
        Page 544
        Page 544a
        Page 545
        Page 546
        Page 547
        Page 548
        Page 548a
        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
        Page 557
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 561
    Chapter XLVIII: Reign of William the Fourth, A.D. 1830-1832
        Page 562
        Page 562a
        Page 562b
        Page 563
        Page 564
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
        Page 568
        Page 568a
        Page 569
        Page 570
        Page 571
        Page 572
        Page 573
        Page 574
        Page 575
        Page 576
        Page 577
        Page 578
        Page 579
        Page 580
        Page 581
        Page 582
        Page 583
    Chapter L: Reign of Queen Victoria, A.D. 1837-1838
        Page 584
        Page 584a
        Page 584b
        Page 584c
        Page 584d
        Page 585
        Page 586
        Page 587
        Page 588
        Page 589
        Page 590
        Page 591
        Page 592
    Chapter LI: Continuation of the reign of Queen Victoria, A.D. 1838-1846
        Page 593
        Page 594
        Page 594a
        Page 594b
        Page 595
        Page 596
        Page 597
        Page 598
        Page 598a
        Page 599
        Page 600
        Page 601
        Page 602
        Page 603
        Page 604
        Page 605
        Page 606
        Page 607
    Chapter LII: Continuation of the reign of Queen Victoria, and conclusion of the work, A.D. 1846-1850
        Page 608
        Page 608a
        Page 609
        Page 610
        Page 611
        Page 612
        Page 613
        Page 614
        Page 615
        Page 616
        Page 617
        Page 618
        Page 618a
        Page 618b
        Page 618c
        Page 623
        Page 618e
        Page 618f
        Page 618g
        Page 618h
        Page 619
        Page 620
        Page 621
        Page 622
        Page 622a
        Page 623
        Page 624
        Page 624a
        Page 625
        Page 626
        Page 627
        Page 628
        Page 628a
        Page 628b
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text




















It

























We




MIT, lip


A 41 FAA -
My :5


SO
00 Y,. X
Wo AV 1

Ab




Ann lag,

LAW













74,










"Alt




lit.










5'

k
7


;.
i.. :: -4-


S,


I,.
"-C


-'.4


>4,
iI
VS~~~e j


i\ I
I i



II
1


'1


; *tpC ~

~J-sb


The Baldwin Library
m Univcrsity
of
9? m B u n'N.' mi.4


/*r-
* '/ V.*


~; 1
"


,;.3 "1"
p














I


-r- _
1 -


1(/9


I-c
fr
- 'r
~IK I'


/-


-I- Ac


II


-

-

1.. (-'


~-1~


j A-,


00


c'~ ~ ~~~-, -6 1~4_~ / L~


.F.
/ "/" ^
/ -^
^ /, i *! ''^
'>/I- 7^V^ /


- *


WI

'I


A 10


1'**,O, -


Nl4w,





























9 i






































































.4


i4





































































EDWARD VI.









HISTORY OF ENGLAND


FOR


THE YOUNG.


BY HENRY TYRRELL, EsQ.



VOL. II.



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THis
LONDON PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED,
LONDON AND NEW YORK.










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


VOL. II.


PORTRAIT OF EDWARD VI. .
Destruction of the Manuscripts and Missals at Oxford in the
Reign of Edward VI. -
The Duke of Northumberland persuading Edward VI. to change
the Succession -
Portrait of Queen Mary
Lady Jane Grey solicited to accept the Crown -
Martyrdom of Ridley and Latimer -. -
Portrait of Queen Elizabeth .
Murder of David Rizzio in the presence of Mary Stuart -
English Fire-ships burning among the Spanish Armada -
Portrait of James I. .
Arrest of Fawkes in the Vaults of the Houses of Parliament
Portrait of Charles I. -
Trial of Charles I. -
Execution of Charles I. -
Defeat of the Dutch Fleet by Admiral Blake -
Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament -
Portrait of Charlas II. -
The Great Fire of London -. -
Colonel Blood stealing the Regalia from the Tower -
Covenanters attacked by the King's Troops -
Murder of Archbishop Sharp -
Trial of Lord William Russell
Portrait of James I. -
Landing of William of Orange
Midnight Flight of James II. .
Judge Jefferies beaten by the Mob -
Portrait of William III.. .
Portrait of Queen Anne -
Queen Anne touching Dr. Johnson, when a Boy, to cure him of
Scrofula -
The Battle of Blenheim -
Siege of Gibraltar -
The Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Ramilies -
Portrait of George I. -
The Pretender raising his Standard on his first landing in Scotland
Portrait of George II. -

K_.__... __-- -^,


?AGE

1
13

28
31
32
52
63
91
135
157
166
186
264
267
275
277
300
311
316
326
327
336
343
358
359
ib.
362
393

396
399
400
402
421
125
132


WV--







1i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE
Flight of the Pretender at Culloden -. ._ 450
Massacre of the Highlanders by the Duke of Cumberland ib.
Political Papers, called" Constitutional Queries," burnt by the 45
common Hangman 45
Execution of Admiral Byng -
Portrait of George III. -463
Battle of Bunker's Hill 482
Death of the Earl of Chatham 493
Lord George Gordon addressing the Mob in St. George's Fields 495
Portrait of William Pitt 499
Attempted Assassination of George III. by Margaret Nicholson- 500
Trial of Warren Hastings at Westminster Hall 502
Execution of Louis XVI. of France 509
Battle of the Nile 517
Portrait of Napoleon Buonaparte 522
Death of Nelson 523
Portrait of Nelson b.
Mr. Fox 524
SDeath of Sir John Moore at Corunna 526
Charge of Cavalry at Waterloo 532
Napoleon surrendering to the English 533
S Portrait of the Princess Charlotte of Wales 537
| -- Duke of Kent- 54(
-- George IV. 544
Coronation of George IV. 548
Portrait of William IV. 562
---- Adelaide, Consort of William IV. ib.
---- Lord Brougham -568
-- ---- Queen Victoria 584
-..--- the Duchess of Kent -ib.
Queen Victoria's first visit to the City -b.
Windsor Castle-Buckingham Palace 585
Siege of Moultan (Upper India) 594
Capture of Rangoon (Burmese Empire) ib.
Portrait of Prince Albert 598
----Sir Robert Peel 608
---- the Duke of Wellington 618
Dangan Castle-Apsley House-Walmer Castle-Strathfieldsaye ib.
Lying in State of the Duke of Wellington 619
Funeral Car of the Duke of Wellington ib
-- of the Duke of Wellington in St. Paul's ib
Portrait of Admiral Sir Charles Napier 622
Charge of Cavalry at Balaklava 625
Osborne House-Balmoral 628
...........
-- '















CONTENTS.


VOL. II.


CHAPTER
I.


IV.
V.

VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.

XXVIII.
XXIX.


The Reign of Edward the Sixth .
Conclusion of the Reign of Edward the Sixth -
The Reign of Queen Mary -
Conclusion of the Reign of Queen Mary -
The Reign of Queen Elizabeth -
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
Conclusion of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth -
The Great Englishmen of the Reign of Queen
Elizabeth -
The Reign of James the First -
Continuation of the Reign of James the First -
Conclusion of the Reign of James the First -
The Reign of Charles the First -
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the First
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the First
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the First
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the First
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the First
Conclusion of the Reign of Charles the First -
England a Republic -
The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell -
The Protectorate of Richard Cromwell -
England without a Government -
Monarchy restored; the Reign of Charles the
Second -
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the Second -
Continuation of the Reign of Charles the Second -


PAGE
1
13
31
47
63
71
81
93
107
122
137

149
157
168
179
186
202
212
223
235
243
257
269
279
293
295

300
308
319


i --- -- --


1








CONTIMNT.


iv


CHAPTER
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.

XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
XLII.
XLIII.
XLIV.
XLV.
XLVI.
XLVII.
XLVIII.
XLIX.
L.
LI.
LII.


Conclusion of the Reign of Charles the Second
The Reign of James the Second -
The Reign of William of Orange and Mary Stuart -
Continuation of the Reign of William of Orange and


Mary Stuart -
Conclusion of the Reign of William the Third
The Reign of Queen Anne -
Conclusion of the Reign of Queen Anne
The Reign of George the First -
The Reign of George the Second -
Continuation of the Reign of George the Second
Conclusion of the Reign of George the Second
The Reign of George the Third -
Continuation of the Reign of George the Third
Continuation of the Reign of George the Third
Continuation of the Reign of George the Third
Continuation of the Reign of George the Third
Conclusion of the Reign of George the Third
The Reign of George the Fourth -
The Reign of William the Fourth -
Conclusion of the Reign of William the Fourth
The Reign of Queen Victoria -
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Victoria
Continuation of the Reign of Queen Victoria, a
. Conclusion of the Work .


PAGG?
329
342
362





,nd
608


/


_
i
ii -- --


- 372
- 378
- 393
- 404
S421
- 432
- 438
- 452
- 463
- 471
- 499
- 515
- 524
- 528
- 544
- 562
- 574
- 584
- 593










THE


Sisaft nf lng iani

FOR THE YOUNG.

t I
CHAPTER I.
THE REIGN OF EDWARD THE SIXTH.-A.). 1547-1549.
EDWARD THE Six'lw was little more than nine years old at the
death of his father. No son could be more unlike a parent
than he was to the brutal old king; indeed, he was so gentle
and amiable, so fond of his studies, and so forward in them,
that he has been described as a perfect prodigy of learning for
his age. Great care had bqen taken with his education; and,
before he was eight years old, he is said to have written letters
in Latin to his father, though I dare say that his tutors helped
him a little with them. He was also very religious, and
greatly attached to the reformed doctrines; for archbishop
Cranmer had taken care to appoint him tutors of sound pro-
testant principles. His love and reverence for the Bible was
remarkable; and, at one time, he was extremely offended
because a person about him, in order to reach something
hastily, laid a Bible on the floor to stand upon.
The late king had, in his will, named sixteen persons as his
executors, to whom he entrusted the care both of his son
and the kingdom, until the former should have reached the
age of eighteen. Amongst these executors were archbishop
Cranmer, Wriothesley the chancellor, and the king's uncle,
SEdward Seymour, earl of Hertford.
The earl of Hertford was soon afterwards made duke of
Somerset; and as he is much better known by that name, I will
at once call him so. He was a man of great ambition and
considerable talents; and he got one of the sixteen executors
VOL. II. B
^________ -I-------------- -- -- ----~







2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
to propose that he should be chosen protector of the realm and
of the king's person, though without the power to do anything
except with the sanction of the council. This proposal was
opposed by the chancellor, who hoped to get the chief power
of the state into his own hands. Somerset, also, was looked
upon as the head of the protestant party, and Wriothesley
as that of the catholic one: so there was a natural enmity be-
tween them. But the cunning courtiers knew very well that
i the young king had been educated to love the reformed
doctrines; protestant opinions, therefore, suddenly became
very fashionable: Wriothesley stood alone in his opposition,
and the duke of Somerset was made protector until the young
king should come of age.
The protector and the executors then proceeded to reward
themselves for the trouble they had taken in the affairs of the
kingdom. The late king, in his will, required them to make
good all his promises; but what these promises were it seems
the executors did not know. In this difficulty, they called sir
William Paget, sir Antony Denny, and sir William Herbert,
gentlemen with whom Henry had been accustomed to converse
with familiarity, and questioned them upon the subject. These
parties said, that the promises the late king had mentioned,
referred to some pensions and titles which, in his last illness,
he desired should be given to such as he named to them.
Accordingly, the earl of Hertford was made duke of Somerset;
his brother, sir Thomas Seymour, was made baron Seymour
and lord-admiral; Wriothesley, the chancellor, became lord
Southampton; and many other titles and pensions were
bestowed without any apparent reason fer the gift. The peo-
ple were discontented with these proceedings: they said the
courtiers had drained the dead king of his treasures, and that
their first step in their new trust was to provide honours and
estates for themselves. Some even declared that the whole
story was a forgery, and that Henry had never left any such
directions at all.
The body of the grim old tyrant, which had been lying in
state at Whitehall, was buried at Windsor, on the 16th of
February, 1547, the hypocritical courtiers making great
lamentations, and pretending to shed tears into his grave.
However sorrowful they might have looked, they must have
felt glad enough in their hearts; but they had acquired such a
I
_--____------____-_____________________________________ __,____ ^ '
-- ------ ,-- -- --- ^ ___- ^w-, n


__~__~ __


-1 ---C 1 -~L----- ~-~--------1 -- -- `







CORONATION OF EDWAR


D THE SIXTH.


8


--- -- ---
--


-- --c----*-*--------cr---t---T al-rC1Irr -C-----)~dml Z1~


habit of slavish cringing and deception during the life of
Henry, that they could not easily shake it off, even when he
was dead. The funeral of the old king was succeeded by the
coronation of the new one, which took place four days after-
wards. On this occasion the ceremony was shortened, that it
might not fatigue the young monarch; and some alterations
were made in it, to suit the great changes which had taken
place in the religion of the country. After the coronation, all
state prisoners were released, except a few. The old duke of
Norfolk, who had committed no crime at all, was one of the
exceptions, and he remained in prison until queen Mary
ascended the throne.
Wriothesley, the chancellor, now lord Southampton, deter-
mined to ruin the protector if he could; but his zeal on this
subject led to his own ruin. Having committed some irregu-
larity in his office, the council decided that the great seal
should be taken from him, and that he should be for a time
committed to prison. The duke of Somerset had then no one
to oppose him, and he turned his attention to the affairs of
Scotland.
A peace had been concluded between England and Scotland
during the latter part of Henry's reign; but it had never been
strictly observed. The protector, Somerset, was resolved, by
force or persecution, to carry out Henry's wish of uniting the
two kingdoms by marrying the infant princess of Scotland to
the young king of England. For this purpose, he collected an
army and a fleet for the invasion of Scotland; but before he
proceeded to hostilities, he sent a manifesto to the nobles of that
country. In it he said, that nature seemed originally to have
intended this island for one empire; and having cut it off from
all communication with foreign states, and guarded it by the
ocean, she had pointed out to the inhabitants the road to hap-
piness and security. That the people of both countries had the
same language, laws, and manners; that everything invited
them to an union; and that an incident had occurred which
would enable such an union to be effected, without any jealousy
or dishonour on either side. The crown of Scotland having
fallen to a princess, and that of England to a prince, who were
of a very suitable age for each other, their marriage would end
all ill-feeling between the two nations, and unite them in a
itate of happy tranquillity unknown to their ancestors.


1






SBlJSTORY OF ENGLAND.
These arguments had no effect upon the Scots, who were
resolved to marry the young princess Mary to a French prince,
and who regarded the English as a nation of heretics, and their
natural enemies. Somerset, therefore, crossed the borders with
an army of twenty thousand men, and gave the fleet, consisting
of sixty-five vessels, to the command of lord Clinton.
The Scots had summoned an immense army, double in num-
ber to that of the English, and taken up their ground on the
Banks of the Eske, about four miles from Edinburgh. At first,
Sa skirmish took place between the Scottish and English cavalry,
which was very fatal to the former; for while thirteen hundred
of them were killed, the loss of the English is said to have
amounted to no more than four! After this engagement,
Somerset and three hundred horsemen rode out to reconnoitre
the position of the enemy, which was a remarkably strong one.
The Scottish army consisted of four long rows of troops, not
unlike, says an eye-witness who wrote an account of the battle,
to four great ridges of ripe barley." On returning to his own
camp, Somerset was overtaken by a Scottish herald and a
trumpeter. The herald said that he came from the governor
of Scotland, who, wishing to avoid the shedding of Christian
blood, which must result if a battle took place, was willing to
allow the English to return home, if they would retreat with-
out doing any further injury. Then the trumpeter stepping
forward said, that his master, the earl of Huntley, had directed
him to say that he was ready to encounter the duke of Somer-
set, twenty to twenty, or ten to ten, or, if he preferred it, in
single combat.
Somerset rejected both offers: to the herald, he said, he had
not come so far to march back without doing anything, and
that his object was to obtain a lasting peace for both countries
He added, absurdly enough, that his quarrel was just, and
God would prosper it;.and since so many conditions had been
offered in vain, it must now be decided by an appeal to arms.
Then, turning to the trumpeter, he said, haughtily-" Tell thy
master that he seems to be somewhat wanting in discretion
(seeing that he is himself so much inferior in dignity), to send
his challenge to one who has the whole government of a king-
dom placed in his hands; though, if I had been my own
master, and not the bearer of so important a charge, I would
not have refused a personal encounter. Meanwhile, there are

~----~- -------------------`^----_






THE BATTLE


OF PINKIE.


I


-- ---5-- --~----r~~l~IIC-i-----__I__ ---L.~4 i.


L-------P~--------l~-- ----- --Yr-^C


_ I_


many in my army who are equal in nobility and rank to Hunt-
ley; whom, if he thinks fit to challenge, he will find, perhaps,
readier to fight than he wishes."
Somerset, not approving of his position, led his army nearer
towards the sea, where his fleet was stationed; the Scots,
supposing that he wished to escape them, left their strong
position, crossed the river Eske, and approached rapidly to
encounter him. As they advanced, they were fired upon by the
English ships; many Scots were killed, and the highland
archers thrown into confusion. Lord Grey, on seeing this,
thought, by attacking the Scottish infantry with his heavy-
armed horse, that he should decide the day, and gain the
honour of the victory. In this he was fatally mistaken: the
Scottish infantry presented an impenetrable bank of bristling
spears; about two hundred of the English were thrown from
their horses, and dispatched with the daggers which the Scots
carried in their girdles. Lord Grey himself was wounded in
the mouth, and his standard nearly taken. The rest of the
English were glad to save themselves by galloping back, again.
At that moment, the whole army was in extreme danger; and
had not great efforts been made to restore it to order, a defeat
would have followed.
The coolness of the English saved them. A body of Spanish
carabineers advanced, and fired their pieces right into the faces
of the Scots: the English harquebussiers followed their example.
The ships, also, galled the Scots with their batteries; and the
English archers shot amongst them so thickly, that the arrows
fell like hail-stones. Such steady, combined, and murderous
attacks threw the Scots into confusion; which was increased
by the want of discipline among the highlanders, who, being
unused to command, had broken from their ranks, robbed the
dead, and then, believing the day to be lost, fled to secure
their plunder. In a very short time, the panic became general;
the Scottish army dispersed and fled, and were savagely pur-
sued by the English cavalry, who were eager to avenge the
disgrace they had experienced in the early part of the day.
The flight lasted from one o'clock in the day until six in the
evening; and for five miles the ground was thickly strewed
with mangled bodies, and the river Eske looked as if it had
been turned into blood. Some tried to save themselves from
death by standing up to their necks among the rushes in the


5






HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


Water; but many of them were discovered, dragged out, and
butchered. The number of those slain in the Scottish army
has been differently estimated-some saying ten thousand,
others, thirteen; very few were spared and taken prisoners-
altogether, not more than fifteen hundred. The loss of the
English was comparatively trifling; for this fearful massacre
took place not so much in the battle as in the pursuit.
Thus ended the famous battle of Pinkie-the greatest defeat
that Scotland had suffered since the fatal conflict at Flodden
Field. It was fought on Saturday, the 10th of September,
i1547-a day that was long afterwards remembered by the Scots
as the Black Saturday.
After burning Leith and the ships in the harbour of that
town, and taking a few castles, the protector Somerset returned
in triumph to London, where he was received with every
demonstration of joy on the part of the citizens. He had
hurried back because news had reached him that his younger
brother was conspiring to overthrow his authority. Thus his
great success against the Scots was not followed up; and the
only result of this shocking sacrifice of human life was to
incense them still further against the English, and to destroy
all hopes of that marriage between the young king of England
and the Scottish princess, Mary-to bring about which, the
battle had been fought. Even those of the Scots who were
inclined to think an alliance with England would be an advan-
tage, objected to having that alliance forced upon them. The
earl of Huntley said it was not that he disliked the match, but
that he hated the manner of wooing. To protect themselves
against the further attempts of the English, the Scots very
naturally entered into a closer friendship with France, and sent
the young princess Mary for safety to the court of the French
king, where she was shortly afterwards betrothed to the
dauphin.
On the protector's return to England, he summoned a par-
liament, which acted in a very different manner to the slavish
and contemptible parliaments of the late king. That wicked
act, by which the king's proclamation was made to have the
same power as a law, was repealed. So also was the cruel law
of the Six Articles, or the Bloody Statute, as it was called.
All the late savage enactments on the subject of treason were
likewise abolished; but, unhappily, the fiendish statute which

L* ^^ ^ ^^_


__ I~~ __I __ ____ _~__ ~_~II
---~. -- -- ---







CRUEL LAW AGAINST BEGGARS. 7
condemned heretics to death by fire was still retained. Other
useful laws were passed, and also one which was both useless
I and merciless. It was called an act for the punishment of
vagabonds, and for the relief of the poor and impotent per-
so:is." I mentioned, that when the monasteries were put down,
fecble old people and beggars were left without any means of
support. They had been fed daily by the monks; and now
they swarmed about the country, starving or thieving, and be-
came a terrible nuisance. The new law declared that all the
helpless and aged poor should have houses provided for them
at the expense of the parish where they were born, or where
they had lived for the last three years. This was both humane
and proper; but what followed was cruel and tyrannical. All
persons who loitered about the country, and had no honest
means of getting a livelihood, were to be branded on the breast
with a hot iron as vagabonds, and condemned for two years to
be the slaves of the person who informed against them. Their
masters were not required to give them any better food than
bread and water; and, if they would not work, were allowed to
beat or chain them up like dogs. Should any poor wretch run
away from this severity, he was to be burnt on the forehead,
and condemned to be a slave for the whole of his life. If he
ran away a second time, he was to be put to death.
Archbishop Cranmer plucked up heart on the death of
the late king, and worked more boldly in the cause of the
Reformation. He was supported by the protector Somerset;
and the young king himself was favourable to the protestant
doctrines. Several of the bishops, therefore, wished the Re-
formation to be fairly completed; but Cranmer was a prudent
man. He saw the danger of great and sudden changes, and
resolved to proceed by degrees, and to explain the reasons for
every advance so fully, that he hoped to convince the nation of
the justness of it, and to prevent that dangerous opposition
which might otherwise be expected.
Cranmer and the council began by appointing visitors to all
the dioceses in England, like those which had been used by
Cromwell in the last reign. The duty of these visitors was to
enforce the protestant doctrines, and examine any clergyman,
or even bishop, upon the points of his belief. To prevent the
clergy from preaching the doctrines of the Roman church, a
book of homilies, or sermons, was written, and given them to






HISTORY OF EENGLAND


read in their pulpits. From this arose the present practice of
the clergy of reading their sermons; before that time, dis-
courses from the pulpit were generally delivered extempora-
neously-that is, they were composed and spoken at the mo-
ment, and not delivered from a written paper. In these
homilies, the people were taught to disregard the superstitions
of the church of Rome; to depend, instead, on the sufferings of
the Saviour; and to lead their lives according to the rules of
the Gospel.
The visitors were also to see that a copy of the Bible was
placed in every church; for although Henry had recommended
this to be done, the priests, who were attached to the ancient
form of religion, had neglected to do it. They resolved that
their parishioners should not read the Bible if they could help
it; but they could help it no longer, and were obliged to sub-
mit. Besides the Bible, a paraphrase of the New Testament,
by a famous Dutch scholar, named Erasmus, was placed in the
churches, to enable the people to understand the Scriptures.
Directions were also given for a stricter observance of the
Sunday: it was explained to the people that it was not suffi-
cient for them to hear mass in the morning, and then spend the
rest of the day in drunkenness and revelling, as was commonly
practised; but that the whole of the day should be occupied in
acts of devotion or charity. Besides this, the visitors were
ordered to remove all idolatrous images ou: of the churches;
and a great number of absurd-looking wooden saints were
chopped to pieces, and burnt for fire-wood.
Bonner, the bishop of London, and Gardiner, bishop of
Winchester, stood out against the visitors. Bonner said, that
he would obey the injunctions if they were not contrary to the
laws of God; but Gardiner declared that he would not have
the homilies preached in his diocese; and that, if he must
either quit his bishopric or sin against his conscience, he
resolved to choose the former. In consequence of this, they
were both committed to the Fleet prison, and the two greatest
enemies of the Reformation thus kept out of the way. This
was but a mild form of persecution for those days; but still it
was imprisonment for opinions' sake; and shows that the
catholics were not the only people who persecuted those who
differed from them.
After the rising of the parliament, Cranmer persuaded the
ti'


___,,
-- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- a







SUPPRESSION OF ANCIENT RELIGIOUS RITES. 9
council to issue an order forbidding that candles should be
carried about on Candlemas Day; ashes, on Ash Wednesday;
or palms, on Palm Sunday. These, he said, were superstitious
customs, contrary to the simplicity and dignity of the Christian
religion. The people, especially in the country, very much
regretted this change. They loved these cheerful shows, and
looked for them as holidays. I dare say there was no harm in
them; but they were amusements, and not religion. Many
other gay ceremonies were put down, to the grief of great
numbers of ignorant people, who understood so little of the
real nature of religion, that they thought going to church
merely to pray to God and be instructed in their duties towards
him, was a very dull affair. Besides the ceremonies which I
have just mentioned, the elevation of the host or consecrated
wafer was forbidden. The host had been originally held up to
remind the people of Christ's elevation and sufferings on the
cross ; but it came at last to be raised that it might be wor.
shipped. The council also decreed, that the service of the
church should be read in English; and Cranmer published an
English catechism, for the instruction of the nation in the
principles of their religion.
Before the parliament broke up, it passed an act for the
liberation of state prisoners; and so bishops Bonner and Gar-
diner became free again. The latter bishop, however, was an
active, troublesome man; and he offered so much opposition to
the reformed religion, that many complaints were made against
him. He was accordingly summoned before the council, and
there offered to explain himself openly in a sermon before the
king. Permission to do so was granted to him; and he had the
candour to approve of many of the changes that had been
made; but when he came to speak of the sacrament of the
Lord's Supper, he contended so strongly that the consecrated
bread was actually turned into the body of the Saviour, that a
great disturbance took place in the church, and the affair ended
by his being sent to the Tower.
A great part of the year 1548 was occupied by petty wars in
Scotland, in which the English got by no means the best of it.
To relate all these little skirmishes and sieges, is very tedious
and uninstructive; for they are nearly all alike. The English
ravaged the borders of Scotland, and took some castles; then
the Scots and French ravaged the English borders, and retook
VOL. II. C






S10


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


I


~--i-~---^-^---^I- -~-- --I-`~-
L I-------~I-^ ----~---`-~----`~------t------xI


-- I
- -- -- -- -- -I-. ___


I


c


the castes: tnus many people were murdered and ruined;
many a village left a smoking heap of rubbish; and no one
gained any advantage by it. Wars to resist an invader, or
defend a nation's freedom, are defensible and just; but paltry,
irritating, meaningless wars like that then carried on between
England and Scotland, are infamous national crimes. Somerset,
who had begun the war, certainly wished for a peace, and
offered to enter into a ten years' truce; but, as the Scots would
not consent to it unless he restored all the places he had taken,
the proposal ended in nothing.
The protector, Somerset, had, for some time, been much an-
noyed by the conduct of his brother, who had been made baron
Seymour and high-admiral. The baron was a bold, ambitious,
profligate, and reckless man, who wished to supplant his elder
brother's power. He was remarkably handsome; and within a
very short time after the death of the late king, had married
his widow, the lady Catherine Parr. Somerset and the council
were much offended at this match; but the admiral paid no
attention to them. He had obtained much wealth and con-
sideration by it, and also a familiar access to the young king.
This was exactly what he wanted; and he set to work, by
presents, to win the affection of Edward and of those around
him. He even persuaded the royal boy to write a letter to the
parliament, desiring that admiral Seymour might be appointed
his governor; and it is said that he had formed a party in the
two houses of the legislature to forward his designs. These
designs seem to have been the ruin of his brother, and the
obtaining of the chief power of the state for himself. He
represented, that formerly, during the minority of a king, the
office of governor of his person had always been kept separate
from that of protector of the kingdom, and that it ought to be
so now. His brother held both of these offices, and one of
them, at least, admiral Seymour resolved to obtain for himself.
Somerset and the council expostulated with him on his trouble-
some conduct, but he treated their expostulations with con-
tempt; and it was not until they threatened to send him to the
Tower that he submitted, and promised to give up his turbulent
practices. A hollow reconciliation then took place between the
two brothers; but it was not destined to last very long.
On the 30th of September, 1548, the queen-dowager, Cathe.
rine, then the wife of admiral Seymour, died, after giving birth






AL OF ADMIRA---L SEYMOUR. --
-i
LALij OF ADMIRAL SEYMOUR. 11


to a daughter. She had married her second husband for
ambition, and her third for love; but she had not been happy
with either. She complained on her death-bed that the admiral
had ill-treated her; and no sooner was she laid in her grave
than he turned his attention to the princess Elizabeth, after-
wards queen Elizabeth, who was then a fair, cheerful, rattling,
high-spirited girl, in her sixteenth year. The princess seems
to have been attached to him; and a sort of flirtation had been
carried on between them even during the life of Catherine:
indeed, so much so, that that lady was occasionally jealous of
her daughter-in-law; and it seems not without some reason.
Somerset was so much enraged at his brother's ambition as
to declare, that if he presumed to follow the lady Elizabeth, he.
would send him to the Tower. There was another objection to
the marriage; for the late king had declared in his will, that if
either of his daughters married without the consent of the
council, they should be excluded from the succession to the
crown. This was much against the admiral's wishes; for, in
becoming the husband of the princess, he looked forward to
the possibility of some day being the husband of the English
sovereign. As he could never expect to obtain the consent of
the council, it was supposed that he would accomplish his
design in a treasonable manner. It was said, that he intended
to seize the young king and carry him away to his castle in
Denbighshire; that he had brought over many nobles to his
purpose, and had surrounded himself with so large a number
of followers, that he could raise an army of ten thousand men.
On the other side, the admiral accused his brother of endea-
vouring to enslave the nation, and of engaging foreign troops
to put down its liberties, and to make himself master of every
thing. In consequence of this, Seymour was seized on the
19th of January, 1549, and sent a prisoner to the Tower.
I very much doubt if the accusations brought against the
admiral were all true ones: he was certainly a troublesome,
dangerous man, and a struggle for power existed between him
and his brother. It seems strange and unnatural that one
brother should arrest another; but it must be admitted that,
supposing what was charged against the admiral to be correct,
it was scarcely safe to leave him at liberty. To imprison him,
therefore, was justifiable; but what followed was not only
unjustifiable, but shocking. A pardon was promised him if


JL ---- --


HI


I1





------S A- ..%- -
12 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
he would confess his reasons; but he replied, that he had com-
mitted no treason;-that he would not answer questions put for
the purpose of criminating him; and that he demanded a fair
and open trial. For some suspicious reason, such a trial was
refused: the protector ordered a charge of thirty-three articles
to be drawn up; a bill of attainder was passed against him in
parliament, and he was condemned to die the death of a traitor.
The slavish and abject house of lords passed the bill at once;
but the commons at first objected to it. They said they did
not like condemning an unheard and absent man, and thought
that the admiral ought to be put on his trial, and permitted to
speak in his own defence; but these objections were overruled
by a message from the young king, who at once abandoned the
uncle that had been so generous to him, and urged the com-
mons to condemn Seymour without bringing him before them.
Edward was not eleven years old, and no doubt persuaded that
it was necessary to act in this manner; but it looks very like a
want of natural affection; for the admiral was his mother's own
brother.
The young king gave his consent, with a startling readiness,
to the bill which condemned his relative; and a warrant for
that nobleman's execution was drawn up and signed by the
council. The first name upon the fatal document was that of
Seymour's own brother, the protector! Such an unnatural use
of authority caused much surprise and disgust even in that
Sage; nor were the people reconciled to it by Somerset's declar-
ing that it was a most sorrowful business for him, but that he
preferred his duty to his kindred. In the month of March,
1549, the ambitious admiral, the uncle of his sovereign, and
the favoured lover of the princess Elizabeth, was led to a
scaffold upon Tower Hill, and publicly beheaded. He was
attended, in his last moments, by the eccentric preacher and
sturdy reformer, bishop Latimer, who afterwards became
famous for his heroic martyrdom in the days of queen Mary.
Seymour died courageously, protesting to the last that he had
never meant any treason against the king or kingdom. That
his offences did not amount to treason, is certain; and many
people thought him a victim to a brother's jealousy. In a few
years that brother also fell from power, and himself tasted the
bitterness of a violent and ignominious death.
The parliament which condemned Seymour to the scaffold,


-I


_ _I __~~ I __


_


- --- ____ I
---




EITI(lt




('jI 1 1 ___


,, F ; /' If -. ,





I/IM .. \* \\. ***







\





\\ \IZ
H-~S
\~N\..


;Z'A
10


DESTRUCTION OF THE MANUSCRIPTS AND M ISSALS AT OXFORD IN THE lti:A LN


OF EDWARD IT.


I~


''



c


3!S
~S~s ;~
~f ,,~,,.I


~---


~F~p~4~Y'
-'CC~-.
---
I






INSIJRRECTOIN~S


13


made another blow at the existence of the catholic religion in
England by permitting the clergy to marry, the same as other
people, instead of condemning them to live a single, solitary
life, as they long had done. It was said that the priests men-
tioned in the Old Testament were not only married, but that the
sacred office descended by inheritance from father to son;
while, in the New Testament, marriage was declared honourable
in every one; and that to be the husband of but one wife, was
reckoned as one of the qualifications of bishops and deacons.
Other reasonable changes were made; most of the peculiar
doctrines and practices of the catholic churches were abolished;'
and that gigantic revolution, so famous under the name of the
Reformation, was almost complete.




CHAPTER II.
CONCLUSION OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD THE SIXTH.
A.D. 1549-1553.
IN the summer of 1549, insurrections among the common
people broke out in many counties of England; and a cry was
raised against the Reformation, against the use of the new
church service, and against the gentry.
There is an old proverb which says, "where there is smoke
there is fire;" and in the same way we may say, that where there
are insurrections there is want and misery. The people were in
a state of great poverty: the price of food had risen; while the
price of labour remained the same, or even sank lower than it
had been; for so much ground was turned from agricultural
uses to, pasture-land, that a number of labourers were thrown,
out of employment. The English people knew very little
about manufactures, which were not much followed among
them; and as hands were constantly increasing, while employ-
ment for them was at a stand-still, there was of course a great
deal of misery. Before the monasteries were suppressed, the
poor could always obtain assistance; for, as I have told you,
the monks were very charitable, and gave relief to all poor
people who applied for it. But now that resource was gone;


p~- -- I--- --~ I -







14 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
and the poor man who could not find work, knew not where to
look for shelter or a meal. Besides this, people's minds were in
a state of great excitement: they did not understand the many
rapid changes which had been made in their religion: some
few were violently in favour of the new doctrines; but the
majority loved the old religion, and regretted not only the
suppression of the monks, but also the religious holidays, shows,
and ceremonies they had been deprived of. This excitement
on the subject of religion had also the effect of unsettling men's
minds, and preventing them from quietly following their usual
occupations.
The protector, Somerset, loved popularity; and, although he
had acted so cruelly towards his own brother, he was generally
kind to the people. A complaint had long been made by them
that gentlemen had railed round the commons and waste lands,
and converted to their own private uses what had been meant
for the general benefit of all. Pitying the sufferings of the
people, and wishing to obtain their love, Somerset issued a
proclamation against enclosures, and taking in of fields and
commons that were accustomed to lie open for the behoof of
the inhabitants dwelling near to the same." Commissioners
were also appointed, and sent about the country, to hear and
decide all causes concerning such encloures. Instead of paci-
fying the people, this only added to the mischief; for they were
encouraged by the proclamation to take the matter into their own
hands; and mobs of ignorant, riotous men set to work to break
down the fences and hedges of gentlemen's estates, to kill the
deer in their parks, and commit many other outrages.
These petty riots were soon followed by open rebellion.
Historians differ as to the county in which the insurrections
first took place; but, in a very short time, the people were in
arms over more than half England. At first, complaints against
the gentry and the enclosures only were made; but, in Devon-
shire, a cry arose for the restoration of the ancient religion.
Humphrey Arundel, a gentleman, and governor of St. Michael's
Mount, was their leader, and they had a number of catholic
priests also for their captains. On the 10th of June, these
Devonshire rebels rose to the number of ten thousand men,
and formed themselves into a regular army. Lord Russell was
sent against them; but, as his troops were too few to risk any
encounter, he kept at some distance, and sent word to know

I II ,i l^ -M S f1 M M HWI M II iW H M 111 i- ^ ... .. I 1 1 I I I II| I K







THE REBELS FAVOUR THE OLD RELIGION. 15
what were their complaints, which he promised to lay before
the government. Arundel and the rebels drew up their de-
mands in writing: the chief of them were, that the statute cf the
Six Articles should be restored; that the mass should be said
in Latin; that the host should be held up, and those who
refused to worship it, punished as heretics; that images should
be set up again; that the Bible should no longer be permitted
to be read by the people; that holy bread, holy water, holy
candles, holy palms, and holy ashes should be again used; and
that half of the abbey lands should be restored to the church.
It is plain enough to see that the priests were at the bottom of
this insurrection; but how the people could be so stupidly
ignorant as to demand that they might not be permitted to
read the Bible, is a difficult thing to understand.
You may be sure that these foolish and unreasonable de-
mands were not granted. Cranmer wrote a long letter in reply
to them; and a haughty message was sent to the rebels by the
young king, commanding them to disperse immediately, and
granting his pardon to all who would do so. But the men of
Devonshire were too much excited to submit so quietly; and
they marched towards Exeter, carrying before them crosses,
banners, holy water, candlesticks, the consecrated host, and
other things used in the ceremonies of the Roman church.
The people of Exeter shut their gates, and refused to admit the
rebels, who were so much enraged, that they laid siege to the
city. The inhabitants were reduced to great distress; but the
rebels were foiled in their attempt. After five weeks of delay,
the town was saved by the king's troops, and the rebels attacked
and defeated. Numbers were slain in the encounter, and a
great many taken prisoners. Amongst these was Humphrey
Arundel, their leader, who was sent to London, and there
executed. Many of the captives were hanged on the spot
without any trial; and the vicar of St. Thomas, a sort of captain
among them, was suspended by the neck, on the top of his own
steeple, dressed as a Romish priest, and with his beads hanging
at his girdle. About four thousand of these poor ignorant
wretches perished either in the fight or by the hands of the
executioner; and thus the insurrection in Devonshire was put
down.
The rebellion, in many other parts of the country, was extin-
guished without much bloodshed; but that in Norfolk was very
,_,, -_IZZZIZ--._711Z IXXI---- lIZZIE-- --- --





,, .. ___ -----' II---- .. II 1II

16 HISTORY OF ENGLAYND.
formidable. It was headed by a wealthy tanner, named
Robert Ket, who, in a short time, collected no less than six-
teen thousand men around him. He exercised great authority
amongst them, and summoned those who had committed any
offence to take their trial. On these occasions, he sat beneath
the broad branches of a noble old oak-tree, which stood. on
Monshold Hill, near Norwich. This tree, from its being the
place where justice was administered, obtained the name of the
Tree of Reformation. The rebel orators addressed the people
from beneath its shades; and the mayor of Norwich and other
persons were also permitted to speak from it, and urge them to
give up their foolish enterprise, and go peaceably home.
As the protector, Somerset, did not at first interfere, the
rebels became very bold. They demanded that there should
be no gentlemen at all; and proceeded to rob the wealthy
houses and parks in the neighbourhood. They not only killed
all the deer they could find, but drove away herds of cattle,
flocks of sheep, and immense quantities of poultry, with which
they made themselves merry in their camp. At length a herald
came from the king, and standing before the Tree of Reforma-
tion, proclaimed the royal pardon to all that would disperse to
their homes; but threatening death to those who refused to do
so. The rioters told the herald to go about his business, for
They did not require any pardon. The marquis of Nor-
thampton, with a small army, was then sent against them.
Taking up his quarters in Norwich, he drove all the rebels out
of the town; but the next day they came back and returned
the compliment, by driving him out, and setting Norwich on
fire. The action was a fierce one; many of the royal troops
were slain, and lord Sheffield amongst them. The beaten
marquis hurried back to London; and then, the earl of
Warwick, a very brave and skilful soldier, was sent against the
rebels with an army of six thousand men. After several
skirmishes, Warwick made a fierce attack on them, in a valley
called Dussingdale, and routed them utterly. Ket and the
rebels took to their heels; but they were pursued by the
horsemen for more than three miles, and massacred in heaps.
The roads were covered with the corpses of these unhappy
wretches; and it was calculated that as many as three thousand
five hundred of them perished. Ket was found, the next day,
hid in a barn, and being tried and condemned, as a traitor, he






CONSPIRACY AGAINST SOMERSET. 17
Iva. hanged in chains on the top of Norwich Castle. His
brother, also, shared his fate; nine of the other leaders were
hanged on the nine branches of the Tree of Reformation. The
rebels in Yorkshire were so discouraged by this sad ending of
the insurrection at Norfolk, that they accepted the royal pardon
and dispersed. Thus, after a fearful sacrifice of human life, by
which no good was gained, the rebellion was extinguished in
blood, and peace restored.
These troubles in England had drawn the duke of Somerset's
attention away from Scotland; indeed, there was no longer any
reason for carrying on hostilities against that country, now that
the young princess Mary was safely lodged in the court of
France. The French king had also taken advantage of the
disturbed state of the English, and endeavoured to recover
Boulogne, which, you may recollect, had been captured by
Henry the Eighth. Somerset wished to enter into an alliance
with the emperor of Germany; but Charles declined an alliance
with heretics, and the protector was then anxious to make
peace with both France and Scotland. This was the wisest
thing he could do; but, for that very reason, he seems to have
been violently opposed by the members of the council.
Another cause of this opposition was, that a conspiracy had
been formed in the council against the protector, who, since
he had risen to the lofty situation which he occupied, had been
extremely arrogant, and paid no attention to the opinions of
the other executors. All the councillors, who were not entirely
devoted to his service, were sure to be neglected; while, who-
ever opposed him, was treated with anger and contempt. This
sort of conduct made him many enemies, who were secretly
headed by the earl of Warwick, a clever, but bad and ambitious
man, who wished to ruin Somerset and obtain his place. The
protector had been building a magnificent palace in the Strand,
upon the ground on which the Somerset House now stands,
and to complete it, he had pulled down several churches, merely
for the sake of the materials. Many of the sacred monuments
in these churches were broken to pieces, and the bones of the
dead treated with disrespect. This increased the envy and
bitter feeling against him, and his ruin was determined upon.
Accordingly, the earl of Warwick, and some other members
of the council, met at Ely Place, in London, and represented
Somerset as the cause of every public misfortune that had
VOL. II. D
~~-- ,- ., .1






HISTORY OF ENGLAND*


- -- --- ~----
__~ __ __ ~_~~_rr~u


lately occurred. They wrote letters to the chief nobility and
gentry in England, informing them of their intentions against
him, and desiring their assistance; they also sent for the iord
mayor and aldermen of London, and for the lieutenant of the
Tower, and enjoined them to obey their commands, without
paying attention to any contrary orders that might be given by
the duke. The mayor, the aldermen, the citizens of London,
and the lieutenant of the Tower, all deserted the cause of the
protector, and promised obedience to the council.
When the news of these proceedings reached Somerset, he
sent the young king to Windsor,-armed his friends and
servants, and set his enemies at defiance. But upon finding
that the nobility were all against him, and that the people,
whom he had courted so much, did not seem to care about
him, he wrote to the council saying, that he would agree to
any reasonable thing that they might require. The council, in
reply, called him a traitor,-drew up a charge, and sent him as
a prisoner to the Tower.
The earl of Warwick now became the chief man in the state,
very much to the joy of the catholics, who hoped that the
ancient religion would be restored. But Warwick cared
nothing at all for religion, either of one kind or the other; and
finding that the young king was strongly attached to the
protestant doctrines, he took them up too; and though he was
supposed rather to favour the catholics in his heart, became
apparently as zealous a protestant as anybody in the kingdom.
On the 4th of November, the parliament again met, when the
late law, by which beggars and vagabonds were permitted to
be seized and sold as slaves, was repealed, because it was found
too severe to be put in practice. Acts were also passed to
prevent unlawful assemblies of the people, and to forbid pre-
tended prophesies relating to the king or his council. The late
insurrections had been greatly promoted by some mischievous
and impudent prediction, that there should soon be no king in
England, and that all the nobility and gentry should be des-
troyed. Early in the following year (1550), Somerset, after
having been frightened into signing a confession of the reasons
which it was said he had committed, was deprived of all his
offices and personal property, and condemned to pay a fine of
two thousand pounds a-year. Thus degraded, he was set at
liberty, when he conducted himself with so much humility, that


_ _i _


18


i i


_1
----7
I


i j






CONDEMNATION OF JOAN BOCHER. 19
the king forgave the fine, and he was admitted to be a member
of that council of which he had so lately been the head.
The council had violently opposed Somerset when he wished
to conclude a peace with France; but they soon found them-
selves in exactly the same difficulties that had puzzled him.
Though the insurrection had been put down, the people were
still discontented, and the treasury was empty. Warwick and
the council, therefore, agreed to sell Boulogne to the French
king for four hundred thousand crowns, and to abandon a claim
for tribute, which they had upon that monarch. Scotland, also,
was included in this treaty; and peace was made, chiefly
because each of the countries were too poor to go to war.
Meantime the work of reformation in the church proceeded
favourably; but it is very sad to reflect, that the protestants
were tainted with that intolerant and persecuting spirit which
had disgraced the church of Rome. Some persons, in London,
were accused of holding heretical opinions, because they had
said that a regenerate man (that is, one born anew by grace to
a Christian life) could not sin, and that the body of Christ was
not born of the Virgin Mary, but that the word of God was
made flesh. This notion seems as harmless as it was unintel-
ligible; but the council did not think so. Those who held it
were arrested; but as they consented to abjure their opinions,
they were dismissed. Shortly afterwards, a young woman,
named Joan Bocher, and commonly called the Maid of Kent,
was arrested for holding the same heresy. Joan was a young
woman of some education, and exceedingly zealous on behalf of
the strange doctrine she entertained; and as neither arguments
nor threats had any effect upon her, she was condemned to be
burnt to death at the stake, as an incorrigible heretic. How
Cranmer and the reformers could reconcile this cruel sentence
with their own principles, especially that which claimed for
every sincere Christian the right of private judgment, I cannot
tell. The young king was of a more merciful nature: when the
warrant for Joan's execution was presented to him, he could
not prevail upon himself to sign it. His young mind had not
lost the natural tenderness of early life: he was unused to acts
of cruelty; and he shrunk back from the fatal parchment with
a sense of disgust.
In this state of feeling, the archbishop Cranmer undertook to
expostulate with the young king, and reason him out of his

_____ ____^- ai r, i _w i u~i n1. _-M- wu^ i l *- *-- *- I-- ^ '






20 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
merciful scruples! Yes, Cranmer, who had denounced the
intolerance of the catholic church-who had been one of the
foremost in the cause of the Reformation-who had condemned
the superstitious mummeries of papistry, and preached the
doctrines and example of Christ, the Saviour-he, above all
men, stepped forward to demoralise the mind of a mere boy,
and root up out of it the holy principles of mercy, tolerance, and
charity. But the voice of nature and compassion was strong
within the bosom of young Edward: he listened to the argu-
ments of the archbishop, in favour of burning a foolish girl
to death for an unimportant doctrinal error, and remained
unconvinced. At length he consented, in deference to the
judgment of one so much older than himself: with tears
starting from his eyes, he signed the warrant, and delivered it
to Cranmer, at the same time telling him, that if the act was
wrong, he must answer for it at the throne of God, for that it
was done only in submission to his authority.
For a moment, Cranmer was touched with a sense of the
awful responsibility he encountered, in procuring the death of
a fellow-creature, by horrible torture, for a trifling fault: both
he and bishop Ridley sent for Joan to their houses, and tried
to reason her into submission and recantation. The unhappy)
girl rejected their arguments, and clung to her opinions with
singular obstinacy. Cranmer then abandoned her to her fate;
and Joan Bocher perished by fire, in Smithfield, on the 2nd of
May, 1550. Foxe, the author of the history of the martyrs,
generously says-" Unprejudiced spirits, under full Christian
control, would have mercifully provided this poor victim of
lunacy with some appropriate asylum, rather than indulge the
thought of leading her to the stake, and kindling the flames
around her. Gracious God! that this should be done by
Christians and protestants! and that while they were reforming
the church, and attempting to establish, on the ruins of a bar-
barous policy, the gospel of peace and love !" Cranmer's con-
duct towards this poor girl caused him to be severely blamed;
and people recollected how that, in the last reign, he had con-
sented to the deaths of Lambert and the brave and beautiful
Anne Askew, only for holding such opinions as he himself now
professed. Joan Bocher was not the only person that the
protestants persecuted to the death in the reign of Edward the
Sixth; for, about a year after her cruel execution a Dutch




C -- -- -- -

THE PRINCESS MARY. 21
surgeon, named Von Paris, who had been living in London,
was burnt, in Smithfield, for saying that Jesus was not the Son
of God. Paris appears to have been a crazy enthusiast; for
he not only seemed to despise the horrible torture to which he
had been condemned, but even hugged and caressed the burning
faggots which were consuming him.
Although the nation, generally, received the protestant reli-
gion, there was one person of high rank who refused to conform
to it. This was the princess Mary, the king's eldest sister. In
the beginning of the reign, she had written to the protector,
that it was proper that no further changes should be made in
religion until her brother was of age. Somerset, in reply, said
That he believed some mischievous person had set her on to
write that letter, and implored her not to "esteem true religion
and the knowledge of the Scriptures to be new-fangledness and
fantasy," but to examine the subject fairly, and without preju-
dioe. This answer, you may suppose, had no effect on the
Princess Mary; and she continued steadily attached to the
Roman form of religion. At last, the council sent her word
that they could not permit mass to be performed, even in her
Sown private chape). Mary resented this interference, and
wished to leave the country, and take refuge in the court of her
cousin, the catholic emperor of Germany; but the council sent
a fleet to sea, to prevent her escape; though, if she had gone,
Sand never come back, it would have been a glorious blessing
for England.
In the December of 1550, two of Mary's chaplains were
indicted for performing mass; and, in the following spring, the
princess appeared before the council and her brother, the king,
who were unable to shake her faith in the doctrines of the
ancient religion. The next day, a message arrived from the
emperor, to whom she had appealed, to the effect that, if the
princess Mary was interfered with on the subject of religion, he
should declare war against England. The council knew that
the country was not in a fit condition to engage in a war with
so powerful a monarch; therefore, they told the young king,
that, though it was wrong to give license to sin, yet that, when
he could not help himself, it was very excusable to wink at it
for a little while, and take no notice. The young reformer was
obliged to submit; but he was so agitated at his sister's ob-
stinacy, that he burst into tears, and lamented his own hard

:1






22


HISTORY OF ENGLAND


fate,-that he must suffer her to continue in what he considered
such an abominable mode of worship.
But this liberty of conscience was not long permitted to the
princess: the council could not, or would not believe that, in
religion, sincerity and a devout heart were the most important
points; and that, although the protestant faith was the best
and purest, yet, if the suppliant possessed these, a lowly prayer
would as easily ascend to the throne of God from -a catholic
chapel, as a protestant church. The blessed spirit of charitable
forbearance was not yet understood or practised in England.
The officers of Mary's household were commanded to prevent
the use of the Roman liturgy in her family; and, on refusing
to do so, they were sent to the Tower. Several members of the
council then visited the lady Mary, to reason with her on
religion; but they were unable to make the least impression.
She told them, that when the king came to be of age, so that
he could order these things for himself, she would obey his
commands in religion; for though he-good, sweet king--had
more knowledge than any of his years, yet he was not a fit
judge in these matters; for if ships were to be sent to sea, or
any matter of policy to be determined, they would not think
him fit for it; much less could he be able to resolve points of
divinity. As for her chaplains, if they would say no mass, she
could hear none; and for her servants, she knew they all
desired to hear mass. Her chaplains might do as they would;
it was but a while's imprisonment: but for the new service, it
should never be said in her house; and if any were forced to
say it, she would no longer remain in the house.
I told you that the earl of Warwick, who rose into power on
the disgrace of Somerset, was a very ambitious man; and, as
the last earl of Northumberland had died without leaving any
children to succeed him, Warwick persuaded the young Edward
to confer on him the title and immense estates of that deceased
noble. Therefore, when 1 speak. of the duke of Northumberland,
you will understand that I mean the haughty and reckless head
of the council, who had taken Somerset's place as governor of
the king. Though Somerset was now a very insignificant
person, in comparison with what he had been, he still enjoyed
jome favour at the hands of his nephew, and had been made
one of the lords of the bedchamber. He could not, however,
quite forget his former grandeur and pnwer, and frequently


ii


r?-
i ~ _~~_~___ ---------


1 46 i I







SOMERSET SENTENCED TO DEATH,. 23
iaoed about some means of regaining them. These conversa-
tions were all reported to Northumberland, who, out of a
Jealous fear of the late protector, had surrounded him with
spies.
Suddenly, on the 16th of October, 1551, Somerset was a
second time arrested, and sent to the Tower, on a charge of
conspiracy and high treason. He was accused (on the authority
of sir Thomas Palmer, who had acted as a spy upon him) with
having intended to seize the person of the king; to raise an
insurrection in the north of England; to attack the royal
troops on a muster-day; to seize the Tower; to raise a rebellion
in London; and to invite the duke of Northumberland, with his
friends, the earls of Pembroke and Northampton, to a banquet,
and there murder them. These charges, except the last, are
generally supposed to have been got up against him, or, at the
worst, to have been founded on some thoughtless expressions;
but, as no proper record of the trial exists, it is impossible to
say how far he was really guilty.
On the 1st of December, the fallen duke was placed on his
trial at Westminster Hall, before a jury of twenty-seven peers,
amongst whom were Northumberland, Pembroke, and Nor-
thampton-the very persons he was accused of a design of
attempting to murder; so that they were both complainants
and judges also. Somerset defended himself so well from the
charges of treason that were brought against him, that he was
acquitted on that head. He confessed, however, that he had i
spoken about murdering the duke of Northumberland and the
rest; but that, on reflection, he had abandoned his wicked
intention; and he begged their pardon for the malice he had
borne towards them. This was considered sufficient; and,
though acquitted as a traitor, he was condemned to death as a
felon. The unhappy duke was guilty of a great offence in the
sight of God, in contemplating murder; but, as he had never
committed it, he had not broken the laws of man; and to sen-
tence him to a violent and ignominious death, was a flagrant
injustice. But, in those cruel times, the favourites and ministers
of kings played a desperate game, in which failure too often
led to the scaffold.
Northumberland had convinced Edward that his uncle was
guilty; and the young monarch made no effort to save the
life of his near relative. Indeed, he seems to have spent







24


HISTORYY OF ENGLAND.


more than usually merry Christmas, while his mother's brother
lay in the Tower, waiting for the sad morning that should
consign him to the darkness of a blood-stained and dishonoured
grave.
On the 22nd of February, 1551, the duke was led to the
scaffold on Tower Hill, where an immense crowd of people
were assembled to see him die. Somerset, who loved popu-
larity, had always been kind to the poor; and now that he had
fallen into such trouble, they implored blessings on him, and
Trusted that he would receive the royal pardon. He himself
was composed, and seemed perfectly resigned to his fate. After
he had delivered a speech to the multitude, a great noise was
heard, which some said was like a violent storm, or an explosion
of gunpowder. Others thought it was like the tramp of a
multitude of horsemen; but nothing was to be seen. The
people were alarmed, and cried, "Jesus, save us !" while others,
seeing a gentleman, named sir Antony Brown, riding towards
the scaffold, shouted-" Pardon! pardon is come! God save the
king !"
The duke himself calmly told them they were mistaken, and
continued his dying address, which he thus concluded :-" If
there be any who hath been offended and injured by me, I most
humbly require and ask him forgiveness; but especially Al-
mighty God, whom, throughout all my life, I have most
grievously offended; and all others, whosoever they be, that have
offended me, I do, with my whole heart, forgive them. Now,
I once again require you, dearly beloved in the Lord, that you
will keep yourselves quiet and still, lest, through your tumult,
you might trouble me. For, albeit the spirit be willing and
ready, the flesh is frail and wavering; and through your quiet-
ness, I shall be much more composed. Above all, I desire you
to bear me witness, that I die here in the faith of Jesus Christ;
desiring you to help me with your prayers, that I may perse-
vere constant in the same unto my end." Having finished this
address, and spent some time in prayer, he laid his head upon
the block, and, while he was utte':ng the name of Jesus, it was
at one blow struck from his body. Many of the spectators
rushed forward, and dipped their handkerchiefs in the blood,
which they preserved as a sacred relic. Though very far from
being a blameless character, Somerset was, without doubt,
unjustly put to death; and his memory was revered by the

^ *- ____-_____----------__


3:_






PARLIAMENT'


T RECOVERS ITS SPIRIT.


1 ----, ,-


- --~~-- I -- IL--~------- -^L----q
--


people. The worst act of his life was the unnatural part he
took in the death of his own -brother, lord admiral Seymour.
Sir Thomas Arundel, sir Michael Stanhope, sir Miles Partridge,
and sir Ralph Vane, friends of the unfortunate duke, were
condemned, as being sharers in the offences imputed to him,
and put to death. They all protested their innocence of any
design either against the king or the lives of any of the
council; and Vane declared, that as often as Northumberland
laid his head upon his pillow, he would find it wet with their
blood.
Immediately after the execution of Somerset, the parliament
again met, and discovered some symptoms of a returning love
of justice and liberty. It passed an act for enforcing the Book
of Common Prayer, as amended by a committee of bishops and
divines; it altered the law against treason, and declared that
no one should be convicted of that offence, unless it was proved
by the oaths of two witnesses confronted with the prisoner. It
also made some regulations for the use of the poor, and for the
stricter observance of fast-days and holidays; and declared
that it was perfectly lawful for priests to marry.
This parliament, also, acted in a very resolute and manly way,
in opposing an attempted tyranny of the duke of Northumber-
land. Tunstal, the bishop of Durham, though attached to the
old religion, was much respected as a learned and pious man. He
had always opposed all changes in the church; but submitted
to them when they were made. His high character had
protected him from any severity during the rule of the late
duke of Somerset; but when Northumberland gained the chier
power of the state, Tunstal was sent to prison, Northumber-
land's object was, to seize the revenues of the bishops; and,
for this purpose, he brought a bill of attainder against that
prelate, on a pretence that he had possessed a guilty knowledge
of the reasons charged against the duke of Somerset. The
house of lords was mean enough for anything, and the peers
passed the unjust bill; only archbishop Cranmer and one
nobleman opposing it. But the commons would do nothing of
the sort; they desired that the witnesses against Tunstal should
be examined in his presence, and that he should be allowed
to defend himself. This was merely simple justice; but Nor-
thumberland refused it, and then they, very properly, rejected
the bill of attainder. English parliaments, during the reign of
VOL. II. E


25






HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


the last king, had been so base and grovelling, that the
tyrannical Northumberland was'astonished at the independent
spirit of this one; and dissolving it in disgust, resolved to call
another.
The duke exerted himself to the utmost to get a parliament
which would be merely the instrument of his wicked ambition.
He even induced the king, who knew no better, to send a
circular letter to the sheriffs, commanding them to cause the
election of such unprincipled persons as would vote just as
he wished them. Having thus got the sort of parliament he
wanted, Northumberland induced it to suppress the bishopric
of Durham, and turn it into a royal property, which he
intended, soon afterwards, to beg from the king.
Edward was a lad of very delicate health; and, in the spring
of the year 1552, he had been attacked, first, by the measles,
and then by the small-pox. From that time he had gradually
declined; and in the beginning of 1553 he was seized with a
troublesome cough, which no medicines could cure. It was
commonly suspected that some slow poison had been given to
him; and the duke of Northumberland was so much hated by
the people, that they said, in low whispers, that he was the
would-be assassin of their king. But the accusation was
unjust; the hectic flush, the unnatural brightness of the eye,
the wasting form, and the precocious intellect of the young
king betrayed the presence of that curse of our climate-
consumption. During his illness, bishop Ridley preached
before him, and spoke very eloquently of charity, and the duty
of the great to be eminent in good works. Edward was
touched with the sermon, and when it was over, sent for the
bishop, and desired his opinion how he should do his duty on
that point. Ridley took some time to consider; and, after
consulting the lord mayor and aldermen of London, he
suggested that the king should build three hospitals;-one for
the recovery of those who were ill or had met with accidents;
another for the correction of wilfully-idle and vicious people;
and a third for the maintenance and education of poor orphan
children. Edward joyfully took the bishop's advice; and
without delay, endowed St. Bartholomew's Hospital for the
first; Bridewell for the second; and Christ's Church, or the
Blue-coat School, as it is called, for the third.
These three institutions are still in existence, and flourishing;


I I


C~CUI ------- -- -. --- ~--~LL
C --- IC-C------~---^-


//


26





!f- -- -- -- ---------- -- --.. ._.---------
GUILDFORD DUDLEY AND LADY JANE GREY. 27
j though, it must be confessed, that the governors of the last-
the Christ's Church, or Blue-coat School-appear to have sadly
forgotten for what class of boys it was intended. The benevo-
lent Edward, languishing in illness, and feeling the slow but
sure approach of death, wished not to descend to the grave
before he had given to his country some benefits which should
bless and cheer the friendless and suffering, even of unborn
generations of his people. The death-smitten prince thought
of the future orphans of the greatest city of England: he was
himself an orphan, and had never known a mother's love; for
she had died in the hour which gave him birth; and his
sympathetic heart yearned to cast some stray flowers across
their rugged, weary path of life. He wished to rescue them
from that lonely desolation of the spirit which breeds despair,
and to snatch them from ignorance, misery, and crime. So he
raised a noble building, which should be at once a college and
a home for the orphans of London. Alas! how little are the
intentions of the generous dead respected: the school and
home, built for the orphans, has been usurped, to a large
extent, by the sons of wealthy tradesmen and retired citizens!
The ambitious duke of Northumberland resolved to profit by
the illness and expected death of Edward; and to forward his
purpose, he was constantly about the royal lad, and endea-
voured, by every kindness and attention, to win his affection.
He had lately married his fourth son, lord Guildford Dudley,
to the beautiful and accomplished lady Jane Grey; and by this
alliance he hoped to place his family upon the throne of
England.
How could that be ? you will say;-what title had lady Jane
Grey to the crown ? I will tell you. Princess Mary, sister of
the late monarch, was first married to the gouty old king of
France, and after his death, to her handsome and chivalrous
lover, Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. She left two children
only (both daughters), the eldest of whom was married to the
marquis of Dorset, and she and her husband became duke and
duchess of Suffolk. Lady Jane Grey was their daughter, and
consequently great-grand-daughter to Henry the Seventh.
Thus, after the princesses Mary and Elizabeth, and the daughter
of Margaret Tudor, the widow of James the Fourth of Scotland,
the lady Jane would have the right of succeeding to the crown.
Genealogies are, generally, puzzling things; but I fancy I hav
Gene___________s areq_ _______ gener y ^H----,





_______________ ______ _________ -.------_-_ --- ---- --.- --^ ..- i "------ -

28 HISTORY OF ENGtAND.
made this clear to you. The sum of it is, that lady Jane was
royally descended from the sister of the late king; but that the
princess Mary, the princess Elizabeth, and Mary queen of
Scots, had a right to succeed to the crown before her.
Northumberland, after marrying his son; to the lady Jane,
set to work to induce the now (lying king Edw.vard to settle the
crown upon that lady. He drew a terrible picture to the
feeble and susceptible young monarch, of the dangers to which
the protestant religion would be exposed, and the persecutions
to which the reformers would be subjected, if the princess
Mary, an avowed papist, became sovereign of England. He
reminded him, that both she and her sister Elizabeth had
been declared illegitimate by acts of parliament which had
never been repealed; and that, as it would seem insulting and
irregular to pass by one and not the other, on that account,
that the better and safer way would be, to exclude them both
from royalty, and to declare his cousin, the protestant lady
| Jane, as his successor. As to the queen of Scots, he said that
she was excluded by the late king's will, and being an alien,
had lost all right of inheritance to the regal power of England-
not to mention, that as she was betrothed to the dauphin of
France, she would make England merely a province of that
country.
Edward was convinced by this reasoning, and himself wrote
out a rough draft of the legal instrument necessary for the pur-
pose. Sir Edward Montague, chief-justice of the Common Pleas,
two other judges, and the attorney and solicitor-general were
summoned to the council. The minutes of the intended deed
being read, the king desired them to draw it up in a proper
legal form. The judges were astonished; hesitated to obey, and
desired time for consideration. An act of parliament already
existed, which settled the succession; and they said, unless that
act were repealed, no deed, such as the king wished, would
have any power.
After having consulted together for some days, Montague
and the judges returned, and said, that upon examining the
statutes, they found that such a deed. would not only be entirely
useless, but that it would subject the judges who drew it, and
every member of the council who signed it, to the risk of being
proceeded against as traitors. They added, that the only
proper way of changing the succession, and giving a lawful











SII















INI
I i i
. .. .












lil
----, --- /__ ___ I 4 //''





















































THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND PERSUADING EDWARD Vt.

TO CHANGE THE SUCCESSION.
'10 C hA BNG THi 2IIE SU~C CE~:S SIO N.






DEATH OF EDWARD THE SIXTH. 29
sanction to the new settlement, was by summoning a parliament,
and obtaining the consent of that assembly. The king was still
resolute; and Northumberland, rushing into the room where
the judges were, flew into a violent passion; called Montague a
traitor, and said that he was ready to fight any man in so just
a cause as that of lady Jane's succession. In the end, the
judges were bullied into drawing up the deed, the king telling
them that he intended to have it confirmed by the parliament
as soon as it met, agreeing to give them a warrant under the
great seal to do it, and a pardon for having done it. After
this, it was signed by all the lords of the council and most of
the judges.
This deed of settlement, or will, was signed on the 21st of
June; and early in the following month, it was evident that
Edward was dying. When his physicians declared that they
were unable to save him, he was confided to the care of an
ignorant woman, who undertook to restore him to health. As
might have been expected, he got worse under her treatment,
and the fatal symptoms of his disease increased. He breathed
and spoke with great difficulty, his pulse seemed scarcely to
beat, his legs swelled, and his complexion became livid. The
foolish old quack was then dismissed, and the doctors recalled;
but the time when medical skill could save him was past: he
sank gradually, and expired at Greenwich on the 6th of July,
1553, in the sixteenth year of his age. He had reigned six
years and-a-half.
An account of his last moments is very affecting. Just
before his death, he prayed fervently that God would release
him from this wretched life; that he would bless the people of
England, preserve the country from popery, and maintain his
true religion in the land. Then, after a pause, he turned his
face towards his attendants, and said, "Are ye so nigh? I
thought-ye had been further off." Dr. Owen answered, We
heard you speaking to yourself; but what you said, we know
not." The patient sufferer smiled faintly, as he murmured, I
was praying to God." His last words were, I am faint;-
Lord have mercy upon me, and take my spirit." Sir Henry
Sidney supported him in his arms: the poor lad rested his head
on the bosom of the courtier, and sighed gently. For some
moments he remained motionless. Sir Henry guessed what had
occurred, and raised him tenderly. His suspicion was too true:

I 1 I ---------- -- --------l







gO HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
the silver cord was loosed-the bowl was broken at the
fountain;-the royal boy was dead.
It is pleasant to speak of the character of this good young
king, especially as I had last to sum up that of his brutal and
disgusting father. A virtuous mind is always a beautiful and
improving thing to contemplate, especially when we meet it in
a monarch; for then the charm of rarity is added to its other
attractions. Ha4 Edward the Sixth lived till he became a man,
he would, most likely, have been one of the best of our English
kings. His love of learning and his actual accomplishments
were wonderful. Some of his protestant admirers called him
the wonder of his age; others named him their Josiah, or
Edward the Saint; and others, again, the phoenix that rose
from the ashes of his mother. He was acquainted with several
languages; with the general outlines of science; and with the
state of his kingdom. He kept a journal, in which he wrote
an account of many of the events of his reign; and he took notes,
in Greek, of all that he heard that interested him. His love
for religion, and his zeal for the protestant form of it, was
remarkable: nor did he, like his father, constantly talk about
religion, and act in forgetfulness or opposition to its precepts.
He was gentle and merciful; as his conduct, in so long refusing
to sign the warrant for the death of Bocher, will show. He
was also honest and prudent; careful to have his debts paid;
and anxious that his people should not be oppressed by heavy
taxes. It is to be wished that he had shown a little more
concern for the fate of his two uncles, each of whom he suffered
to be executed on an unjust charge. It would have been more
in unison with the natural tenderness of youth, if he had
interfered to spare their lives; but some excuse may be found,
by saying, that when his uncle, lord admiral Seymour, was
condemned, he was very young; and when the duke of
Somerset shared his fate, Northumberland wickedly made him
believe that the duke was a dangerous and guilty man.
Generally, his disposition was mild, even to sweetness, and
his affability of manner endeared him to his people. Hie was
commonly distinguished by a gravity and quietness not often
to:be found in one so young; but sometimes he would be both
cheerful and playful, as the following anecdote will show. One
St. George's day, after he had returned from hearing divine
service, he suddenly said to the noblemen by whom he was

, ___________

















































4L


:~t~


t






CHARACTER OF EDWARD THE SIXTH.
CHABA~eCT~EE, OF EDWAB.BD THE SISTH. 31


I


_ ____ ___ \


I i


surrounded, My lords, I pray you, what saint is St. George,
that we here so honour him ?" It seems that none of these
learned courtiers were able to give any information upon the
subject; and they looked at each other in a rather stupid sort
of silence. Well they might do so! for a day was expressly
set apart in honour of the memory of St. George; and these
very noblemen had just come from a service instituted to keep
alive a remembrance of him, and yet none of them knew who he
was, or whether there was ever such a saint at all. At last, the
treasurer answered, "If it please your majesty, I never read in
any history of St. George, but only in Legenda aurea, where it
is thus set down, 'St. George out with his sword, and ran the
dragon through with his spear.'" At this odd description the
young king laughed so heartily, that for some time he was
unable to speak; but on recovering his breath, he humorously
inquired, I pray you, my lord, and what did he with his sword
the while ?"
But I must now turn, from describing the virtues of this
young prince, to a gloomy reign of terror, where the interest
excited is that of a tragic horror.




CHAPTER III.
THE REIGN OF QUEEN MARY.-A.D. 1553-1554.
IN order to get the crown for lady Jane Grey, the duke of
Northumberland concealed the death of Edward, and sent
messages to the princesses Mary and Elizabeth to hasten them
to court. His object was to make them prisoners; but in this
he was disappointed; for both the ladies were secretly informed
of their brother's death, and of the duke's sinister intentions.
Mary, who was living at Hunsdon, in Hertfordshire, had
arrived within half-a-day's journey of the court when she heard
of this conspiracy against her, and hurried away to Framling-
ham, in Suffolk; from which place she could easily embark and
escape to Flanders, in case of her being unable to obtain the
crown. Elizabeth, who was also in Hertfordshire, very wisely
remained where she was. Though Mary had fled, it was not
from fear, but for safety; and she immediately sent letters to


i !






32 HISTORY OF ENGLAND
the nobility and the principal gentlemen of the country, com-
manding them to help her to obtain that crown which had
descended to her from her father. She also wrote to the
council, telling the members of that assembly that she was
aware of her brother's death, promising a pardon for their
present conduct, and giving them directions for proclaiming
her as queen.
For two days the ambitious duke of Northumberland-and his
friends debated what was best to be done. After that, the
duke summoned the lord mayor, six aldermen, and many of the
principal citizens, and showing them the king's will, by which
lady Jane Grey was declared his successor, induced them to
swear allegiance to her as their queen. All this had been done
without the knowledge of Jane, who was one of the most
retiring and least ambitious persons in the world. She had no
wish to be a queen, and was perfectly happy in the society of
her young husband, and the enjoyment of her books. She had
been educated with the late king; and though not yet seven-
teen, had made an astonishing progress in her studies. She
was familiar with the Greek, Latin, French, and Italian
languages, and well acquainted with all the elegant literature
then esteemed. Much of her time was passed in intellectual
pursuits; and she was quite indifferent to the little frivolities
with which so many young ladies chiefly occupy themselves.
A famous scholar, named Roger Ascham, having paid her a
visit at Bradgate Hall, a residence of her father's, when she was
but fourteen years of age, was astonished to find her reading
Plato's Dialogue on the Immortality of the Soul, in the original
Greek, while the rest of the family were out hunting. On
expressing his surprise at her choice, she told him that she
received more pleasure from reading Plato, than the others
could reap from their sport and gaiety.
When Northumberland and her father, the duke of Suffolk,
saluted her as queen, she wisely refused to accept the title, and
reminded them of the superior right of the princesses Mary and
Elizabeth. She even expressed her fear of the consequences of
an act which, she observed, was dangerous, if not even crimi-
nal; but in the end she was overcome by their entreaties, and
consented to their wishes. She was, in consequence, proclaimed
in London and other places as queen of England; but no shouts
were raised: the people looked coldly on, and many feared that

1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .~-~---"---- --------- ------





























I 'U
ILL I


F~


~. *~/f

V


-( Ii // A




I,
'.l .\


LADY JANE GREY SOLICITED TO ACCEPT THiE CHOWN.


I

'Ij


-ftT


rcl -~~-
.i~----- ?--L-
~j~,7_~~r-s7 -
Lc,,. ~~ nr;*
--------------


r~
..
:' Y i
L
d~


Uj nrlC






PROCLAMATION OF LADY JANE GREY. 33
this imprudent act might lead to a civil war. Some of the
spectators even expressed their contempt; and a young man,
named Gilbert Pot, a vintner's apprentice, was nailed by both
his ears to the pillory for some insulting words on that occasion.
This severity was done by the duke of Northumberland's order,
and it helped to destroy the little favour with the people which
his daughter-in-law possessed. In the meantime, many noble-
men joined the princess Mary, and the council themselves
secretly favoured her cause; but they could not declare for
her, because the rough-fighting Northumberland kept them all
like prisoners in the Tower, where the lady Jane held her
court. Ridley, bishop of London, who was a zealous pro-
testant, preached from St. Paul's Cross, to convince the people
of the justice of Jane's title; but he was unable to make any
impression upon them.
Mary had become very powerful: the people of Suffolk de-
clared for her; the nobles and gentry daily joined her with their
retainers; and a small fleet and a body of troops raised by
Northumberland had deserted to her. When she had written
to the council to demand the throne, they were compelled by
Northumberland to answer, that her claim was opposed by her
illegitimate birth, by custom, by the will of the late king, and
by the general voice of the people: but now they saw how
powerful she was getting, they regretted having done so, anc
watched for an opportunity of declaring for her.
That opportunity soon presented itself; for it was necessary
for some one to lead the troops to oppose the princess Mary.
Northumberland wished the duke of Suffolk to perform this
hazardous enterprise, while he remained with lady Jane to
uphold her authority. The council, who wanted Northumber-
land to go, that they might be rid of his tyrannical domineering,
worked upon the fears of Jane, by telling her of the great
danger to which her father would be exposed; and that lady,
with many tears, implored that he might be permitted to
remain with her. They then represented to Northumberland
that he was the bravest and most experienced soldier in the
country, and by far the fittest to command the army. As he
knew Suffolk was a man of no talent at all, he consented to do
so; and having reminded the council of their oaths of allegi-
ance to the lady Jane, departed with a little army of six
thousand men. As he led his forces through the city, he was
VOL. II. F
_______________, _____________ __o~- --







340


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


discouraged by the coldness of the people, who thronged the
streets to gaze on his soldiers, but uttered no shout, and spoke
no word of encouragement. "Many," said he to lord Grey,
" come out to look at us; but I find not one who cries, God
speed you !"
Northumberland had forced the council into proclaiming
Jane; but no sooner was he gone than they contrived to get
out of the Tower and declare for Mary, whom they proclaimed
as queen in Cheapside, to the great satisfaction of most of the
people. A few protestants shook their heads with mournful
forebodings; but the citizens generally shouted with joy at the
triumph of their rightful hereditary queen. This expression of
feeling was so general and decided, that even lady Jane's
father, who commanded the Tower, thought further resistance
useless; and throwing open the gates of that fortress, declared
for queen Mary himself. He then entered his daughter's
apartment, and told her that she must be a queen no longer.
That amiable young lady, who had worn a crown only ten
days, expressed no regret, but said that she trusted her willing
abandonment of the honour that had been thrust upon her,
would procure a pardon for the error she had committed.
Northumberland, whose grasping ambition was the cause of
this conspiracy, had gone to Cambridge, where he learnt that
the council had declared for Mary. Seeing that his troops
also were continually deserting, and that the cause of lady Jane
was unpopular everywhere, he became alarmed for his own
safety. So that, though he had gone out with an army to fight
Mary, and, if possible, take her a prisoner, when he found his
cause hopeless, he turned with the rest, and himself actually
proclaimed her as queen in the market-place at Cambridge.
This hypocrisy did him no good; for a stern message was sent
to him from the queen and council, commanding him to lay
down his arms. As he hesitated to do so (for he scarcely knew
whether to trust to the queen's mercy or to fly for his life), he
was arrested by the earl of Arundel, on a charge of treason, and
conveyed to the Tower. This blustering lord, the moment that
he found himself in trouble, behaved in a very undignified and
cowardly manner, and even fell on his knees before the earl
and begged his life. It would have been better to have spared
himself this humiliation; for Arundel was his bitterest enemy,
and rejoiced in his fall.


-I


-4


__
1 -~ 1 --I --- ~I---


- -I --------
- --- -------


t 1





' ; -- ^ -^ ,. ,- -._ ^ -^ -j ^ -^ ,^ _^ ^ _____
EXECUTION OF NORTIIUMBERLAND. 35
SHad Northumberland himself been the only victim of his
insane ambition, few or none would have regretted it; but it too
often happens that the innocent are punished with the guilty.
The amiable lady Jane and her youthful husband were also
sent as prisoners to the Tower, as well as the other sons of the
duke, and several of his friends. Very soon after, Northum-
berland, his eldest son the earl of Warwick, and the marquis
of Northampton, were placed on their trial at Westminster
Hall as traitors. The duke said, very truly, that all he had
done was with the consent of the council, and under the
warrant of the great seal of England; and he asked, whether
those who had acted with him could properly set in judgment
on him for offences in which they had shared P The members of
the council replied, that they had been compelled to act as they
did through fear of him; and they condemned him to death all
the more readily for reminding them of their inconsistency.
He tried by submissive conduct, and by hinting that he was
ready to return to the catholic faith, to procure the royal
pardon; but the stern Mary was not the woman to forgive one
who had offended her so deeply. The earl of Warwick and
the marquis of Northampton received sentence with him; and
on the following day, sir John Gates and sir Thomas Palmer
were also condemned.
On the 22nd of August, these two unfortunate gentlemen
and the earl of Northumberland were beheaded on Tower
Hill. The earl made a long and penitent speech upon the
scaffold, in which he prayed that it might please God to grant
Mary a long reign; and declared that he died in the catholic
faith. So much was he disliked, that some of the bystanders
insulted him while he stood upon the scaffold, holding up
handkerchiefs stained with the blood of the duke of Somerset,
and reproaching him as the murderer of that nobleman. Nor-
thumberland, once so bold, seemed utterly humbled and
crushed in spirit, and declared, that if he had a thousand lives
he deserved to lose them all. Then laying his neck upon
the block, the axe fell, and the bleeding, quivering head fell
with a dull hollow sound upon the boards. Sir John Gates
was the next victim; and after him, sir Thomas Palmer suf-
fered. He was a man of great nerve and courage, and beheld
the companions of his misery die before his face without showing
any sign of agitation. In his dying speech, he thanked God







HISTORY OF ENGI


AND.


I166


I


that He had caused him to know more in his cell in the Tower,
than he had learnt in all his travels. "There," said he, "1
have seen what God is and what I am: I have beheld the
bitterness and vanity of the world, and learnt to despise death."
He added, that not even that violent end, nor the sight of the
blood-stained axe, could impress him with fear: then, desiring
their prayers, he submitted himself to the headsman.
A short time before these executions, the body of the young
king Edward had been committed to the earth. He was
buried at Westminster Abbey, according to the rites of the
protestant church, on the 9th of August; though Ma-y, on the
same day, had his obsequies performed at the Tower, in the
catholic fashion, a dirge being sung in Latin, and mass per-
formed for the good of his soul. Her intention of restoring
the ancient religion had been shown on her first arrival in
London, by the liberation of all the state captives who had
been imprisoned for their attachment to the Roman church.
Among them were Tunstal and Bonner, the late bishops of
Durham and London, and the old duke of Norfolk, who had
been in prison ever since the death of Henry the Eighth.
On the 1st of October, the coronation of Mary took place at
Westminster Abbey. It was celebrated with great magnifi-
cence, and with all the ancient ceremonies. In the procession,
after the queen's chariot, came another, covered with white
cloth of silver, and containing the princess Elizabeth and Anne
of Cleves, thd good-tempered Flemish princess, whom Henry
had married and then so contemptuously cast off. Mary was
no longer a young woman: she was thirty-seven years of age at
the time when she became queen. This, with many ladies,
would be still the flower of life; but persecution, disease, ill-
temper, and a bigoted attachment to a gloomy, superstitious
form of religion, had made Mary much older in mind and
person than in years. She remembered that Cranmer and the
protestants had driven her mother to an early grave, by
annulling her marriage with king Henry. She herself, also,
had been declared illegitimate; had been kept in fear of her
life, and worried by the protestant preachers to abjure the
religion in which she had been educated; and she hated the
protestants with an intense bitterness.
With a perverted education, a morose and irritable temper,
and a diseased body, Mary was not likely to become very


a


__


I





I~c--^-----* --=---_.
ARREST OF CRANMER. 37
amiable or forgiving. She had been good-looking; but at the
time of her coronation the bloom of youth was utterly gone.
She was pale and sickly; and a few wrinkles, caused more by
sorrow than by time, were to be seen upon her forehead. She
was rather short and thin, but had a loud harsh voice.-a thing
which seems to have been common to Henry the Eighth and
his family. Though very short-sighted, her eyes were remark-
ably piercing, and when she was angry, seemed to glare like
those of a tigress.
Mary, at first, wished to acquire the attachment of her
people; and she issued a proclamation that all persons sl:ould
be permitted to worship God in the manner in which they
thought best; and she very properly commanded her subjects
not to irritate each other by the use of such offensive names as
heretic and papist. She had, however, no intention of per-
mitting the toleration she talked about; but she had been
advised to proceed cautiously in restoring the old form of
religion, lest she should drive her subjects to rebellion. As
might be expected, archbishop Cranmer was the first to excite
her revengeful feelings. Mary longed to degrade and punish
him; but strangely enough, it was his own indiscretion that
first brought him into trouble. A report having been spread
that he was ready to desert the reformed religion, and had
offered to restore the rites of the ancient church, he published
a manifesto in his own defence. In it he said, that as the devil
was a liar from the beginning, and the father of lies, he had
stirred up his servants to persecute Christ and his true religion;
that this infernal spirit was endeavouring to restore the Latin
satisfactory-masses (a thing of his own invention and device);
and that, the better to effect his purpose, the fiend had made
use of his (Cranmer's) name and authority: that the mass was
not only without foundation, either in the scriptures or the
practice of the primitive church, but was also a plain contra-
diction to antiquity and the inspired writings; besides being
full of horrid blasphemies.
It is strange how the generally timid Cranmer had the
courage to publish such a declaration as this; but perhaps he
thought his case was desperate, and could not be well made
worse. Some have said that he did not make it public himself,
but merely wrote it to keep by him, and that some treacherous
person contrived to obtain and show it to the queen. However


1 __ _


_ __ __ __ __ ~_______ ~ _____~~. ar-*l






in.-


HISTORY OF ENGLAN


that may be, Mary did see it; and she caused the archbishoi. to
be instantly arrested and put on his trial, for favouring the
views of lady Jane Grey, and opposing the queen's acces-
sion. Of this he was no more guilty than all the rest of the
council had been; yet he was condemned to suffer the death of
a traitor. But Mary did not wish the man she hated to die so
easily; therefore she pardoned his treason, as it was called, and
sent him back to the Tower on the still more fearful charge of
heresy, where he remained for more than two years a prisoner.
Shortly after Mary's coronation the parliament assembled,
and was opened by a celebration of the mass of the Holy Ghost
in Latin. When the host, or consecrated wafer, was raised for
the adoration of the members, they all fell down upon their
knees before it. One man only had the courage to refuse to
do what the whole of that assembly had lately declared to be
impious and unlawful: this was Taylor, the bishop of Lincoln;
and he was instantly hustled, as if he had been among a gang
of thieves, and violently thrust out of the house of lords.
Having gratified their mean and slavish natures by this gross
act of rudeness, the members proceeded to business. Theii
first act was, in spite of their want of good-breeding, a wise and
humane one: they abolished every sort of treason not con-
tained in the statute of Edward the Third, and every sort of
felony not in the statute-book before the time of Henry the
Eighth; for, since those periods, a number of trifling and frivo
lous offences had been declared to be reasons and felonies
They then pronounced the queen to be legitimate, ratified the
marriage of Henry with her mother, Catherine, and annulled
the divorce pronounced by Cranmer, whom they severely
censured for his conduct in that matter. Then, with one vote,
they repealed all the statutes made in the reign of king
Edward with respect to religion. But the queen still kept the
titie of supreme head of the church,-a title very shocking to the
ears of catholics; and although she declared herself willing to
restore all the church land which had been forfeited to the
crown, she did not press her nobles upon that tender point.
After the parliament, a convocation of the clergy also as-
sembled, in which the catholic bishops had it entirely their own
way;rfor the protestant ones scarcely dared to utter a word.
The new Book of Common Prayer was voted an abomination
the reformed English catechism was declared to be equally


:I--


38





I~ -______________ __ _~___I________
Vlk~r


ItEISTORATION OF THE ROMAN RELIGION.


39


wicked; and it was recommended, that all clergymen that
would not turn their wives out of doors, and believe in the
doctrine of transubstantiation, should be severely punished.
In consequence of these measures of both parliament and con-
vocation, the old form of religion began rapidly to reappear
over the land, and great numbers of priests returned to their
holy wafers, holy water, holy candles, confession, and mass.
But there were many sincere good men in the church, who
preferred ruin to apostasy; and some of these were thrown into
prisons, and others driven out of their livings, to beg or starve
upon the highways. Of the bishops, about half of them con-
sented to return to the rites of the Roman church; and most
of those who did not, were deprived of their sees and sent to
prison: others voluntarily resigned. Bishop Latimer had
already been sent to the Tower; Holgate, the archbishop of
York, was also sent there for being married; Ridley, of
London, for preaching in favour of the title of lady Jane;
Poynet, of Winchester, for having a wife; Taylor, of Lincoln,
for not believing properly about the holy wafer; Hooper, of
Worcester and Gloucester, and Harley of Hereford, for mar-
riage and heresy; Ferrar, of St. David's; Bird, of Chester; and
Coverdale, of Exeter, for no heavier offences.
After the parliament was dissolved, the church service began
to be performed in Latin all throughout the kingdom; and the
queen hit on a plan to put an end to all preaching of the
reformed doctrines. Under pretence of discouraging disputes
and bitterness on religious subjects, she issued a proclamation,
forbidding any one to preach without a license. Of course, no
one suspected of any leaning to the protestant opinions was
able to obtain one. The inhabitants of Suffolk, who were the
first to recognize her as queen, when she was bat a fugitive,
ventured to address a remonstrance to her upon this point;
but they received an insulting answer; and one, who was
bolder than the rest, was set in the pillory. Judge Hale, who
had resolutely contended for the queen's title, was also thrown
into prison for opposing this illegal conduct, and treated with
such severity that he became insane and destroyed himself.
The bigoted and tyrannical queen now wished to marry.
First she thought of her young and handsome cousin, Fdward
Courtney, the earl of Devonshire, to whom she gave many
proofs of her favour and attachment. But the earl was not


_L~


CJ







40 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
tempted by her grandeur; and he preferred her more lively and
pleasing sister, the princess Elizabeth. On discovering this,
Mary hated Elizabeth with a bitterness which she never over-
came. Disappointed of the earl, she turned her attention to
another kinsman, the eloquent cardinal Pole, who, as he had
never taken priests' orders, was at liberty to marry, had he
wished to do so. But the cardinal had no idea of the kind;
and was living in pleasant retirement with his books, in a
lovely Italian monastery. He was also fifty-three years of age;
and, upon reflection, Mary seems to have thought that she
would like a younger husband. She then cast her eyes towards
Philip of Spain, the eldest son of the powerful emperor, Charles
the Fifth. The ambitious emperor was very anxious that this
match should take place; for he hoped, by that means, to make
England a province of Spain~ His son Philip was a widower,
and eleven years younger than the queen; but that, Mary was
not likely to object to. The emperor, therefore, sent ambassa-
dors to England; and Mary, who wanted very little persuasion,
consented, even without the knowledge of her council, to marry
the Spanish prince.
As soon as this proposed match was known in England,
there was a general outcry against it: the catholics were dis-
pleased, and the protestants thrown into a perfect fury. The
former feared that England was to be subjected to Spain, and
che latter that the dreaded and infamous tribunal of the
Inquisition would be introduced into this country. The house
of commons was particularly incensed against this alliance; and
the members sent a sort of remonstrance to the queen upon the
subject, who, to prevent the necessity of answering them, dis-
solved the parliament.
Early in the year 1554, bishop Gardiner, who had been made
chancellor, addressed an oration to the nobility and gentry in the
presence-chamber, on the subject of the queen's marriage. He
also explained the terms of the treaty between England and
Spain, which were very fair and moderate. Though Philip was
to have the title of king of England, the royal power was to
rest entirely in the hands of the queen. It was agreed that no
Spaniard should possess any office in this country; that no
alterations should be made in the national laws, customs, or
privileges; that Philip should not take the queen abroad
without her consent, nor any of her children without the cona

-- __ ^ I


I


__I_ ___ __
--


_ --
-----L~1







INSURRECTIONS TO PREVENT MARY'S MARRIAGE.


sent of the nobility; and that if the queen outlived Philip, she
should receive a jointure of sixty thousand pounds a-year. It
was also arranged, that if the queen had a son he should
inherit, besides England, both Burgundy and the Low Coun-
tries; and that if Don Carlos, Philip's son by his former
marriage, should die, Mary's children, whether male or female,
should inherit Spain, Sicily, Milan, and all the other dominions
of Philip. The courtiers approved of these articles, as a mrter
of course; but the aversion of the people was not to be over-
come. They said that the Spaniards were the most tyrannical
and cruel people in the whole world; and that Philip was a
sullen, proud, overbearing barbarian, whose object was to make
England merely a province of Rome. They admitted the con-
ditions were reasonable enough; but they would not believe
that Philip had any intention of observing them after he had
obtained the title of king.
These feelings were so strong and so general throughout the
country, that insurrections broke out, at the same time, both in
Kent and Devonshire. The one in Kent was headed by sir
Thomas Wyatt; that in Devonshire by sir Peter Carew. Their
object was to resist the landing of Philip in England, and thus
prevent his marriage with the queen. Carew's insurrection was
soon suppressed by the earl of Bedford, and he himself was
glad to save his life by escaping into France. Wyatt was a
bolder and more able man, and a great multitude flocked to his
standard. The queen sent the old duke of Norfolk against the
rebels, who had taken Rochester Castle. When the duke
reached Rochester Bridge, he found it so well defended, that
instead of fighting, he sent a herald with a proclamation of
pardon to all who would go quietly to their homes. But
Wyatt was too wise a leader to permit this proclamation to be
read,; and Norfolk ordered his troops to advance to the assault.
Amongst them were five hundred Londoners, led by captain
Bret, who, when his troops had reached the bridge, suddenly
stopped short, and thus addressed them:-" Masters! we go
about to fight against our native countrymen of England and our
friends, in a quarrel unrightful and wicked; for they, consider-
ing the great miseries which are like to fall upon us, if we should
be under the rule of the proud Spaniards, are here assembled
to make resistance to their coming; for the avoiding of the
great mischiefs likely to alight, not only upon themselves, but
VOL. ll. G


j


I _
I


41 1





L ---------------------- ------f

42 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
upon each of us and the whole realm; wherefore, I think no
English heart ought to say against them."
This speech had the intended effect: the Londoners shouted,
a Wyatt! a Wyatt!" and went over in a body to the rebels.
The old duke was so much astonished at this unexpected deser-
tion that he turned and fled, while many of the royal troops
followed the example of the Londoners, and joined the
insurgents. The queen was alarmed: she entered the city,
attended by a numerous train, and declared, before the lord
mayor and a body of the citizens, that she had no intention of
marrying in any other way than her council should consider
honourable and advantageous to the country; and therefore
she hoped all her true subjects would enable her to repress any
rebellion on that account.
In the meantime, sir Thomas Wyatt marched on towards
London, in hopes that the citizens would rise in his favour.
The rebels rested in Southwark, and did no mischief except
plundering bishop Gardiner's house there. The people were
kindly disposed towards them; but the Londoners drew up the
draw-bridge, and would not admit them into the city. After
remaining two days in Southwark, the Tower guns opened a
fire upon that place, and the people implored Wyatt to go
somewhere else. Not wishing them to be hurt on his account,
he led his followers to Kingston, and crossing the bridge
there, turned back to London on the left bank of the Thames.
Many of the rebels, despairing of success, deserted him and
returned to their homes; and by the time he reached Hyde
Park, a royal army had been collected there to oppose him.
This force was greatly superior to Wyatt's, whose men were
fatigued and dispirited. Still he determined to fight his way
through the queen's troops, and get to London, the inhabitants
of which city he yet vainly hoped would declare in his favour.
He and about four hundred of the rebels succeeded in this bold
attempt, but the rest fled; and notwithstanding that he fought
with the courage of desperation, he was taken prisoner, and his
followers put to flight; though some hundreds of these poor
fellows were afterwards captured.
As you may suppose, Wyatt was executed as a traitor; but
the saddest part of the business was, that no less than four
hundred other persons were hanged for being concerned in this
rebellion. A number of others were led into the presence of





I- "~'""*'"'-- *--- -- _--- -- ~__rt -- ___ J--
", ----~-----------^x--------___----- --------
EXECUTION OF LADY JANE GREY. 43
the queen, with halters round their necks; but her thirst for
revenge was satisfied, and she pardoned them. It had been
rumoured that the princess Elizabeth was secretly connected
with this insurrection, and Mary gave orders for her arrest.
Mary would 'not have hesitated to take the life of her sister,
who was loved as much as she was already disliked; but as
no evidence could be obtained against her, and sir Thomas
Wyatt declared upon the 'scaffold that she had no share or
knowledge of his rebellion, it was thought better to restore her
to liberty.
Though Elizabeth escaped, this rebellion sealed the doom of
lady Jane Grey and her husband, lord Guildford Dudley. This
hapless young couple had been tried and condemned as traitors
immediately after the accession of queen Mary, but their youth
and innocence created a general pity for them. Mary, there-
fbre, granted them a respite, and they were treated with lenity
and even kindness. Indeed their lives would, no doubt, have
been spared, but that Jane's incapable and foolish father, who
had been released from the Tower and pardoned by the queen,
had the folly and ingratitude to rise in arms the moment he
heard of Wyatt's rebellion. His object was to depose Mary,
and restore his daughter to the throne; but he was soon cap-
tured, tried, condemned, and finally executed. His rebellion,
instead of raising his daughter to the throne, sent her to the
scaffold; for Mary now thought that Jane's death was the only
means of preventing insurrection and disorder upon her
account. Accordingly, the queen signed a warrant for the
execution both of her and her husband. Lady Jane received
the warning to prepare for death with heroic resignation: she
had been expecting it, and was prepared. The bigoted Mary
sent Fecknam, afterwards abbot of Winchester, to disturb the
last hours of her victim, by attempting to convert her to the
catholic church; but Jane argued with him with much sense
and spirit, and was not to be moved. Fecknam at last left her,
saying he was sorry for her fate, for he was sure that they
would never meet in heaven. The spirited girl replied, that
was certainly true, unless it pleased God to turn his heart.
The 12th of February, 1554, was the day appointed for her
execution, which was directed to take place within the walls of
the Tower, on account of the compassion it was expected her
fate would excite among the people. On that sad morning her







ENGLAND.


husband desired to see her, that they might speak to each other
for the last time. Jane would not consent to this interview;
but sent him word that the pain of parting would overcome
their fortitude. She added, that their separation would be but
momentary, and that they would soon rejoin each other in a
place where neither death, disappointment, or misfortune could
disturb their eternal happiness.
Lord Guildford was first led to execution on Tower Hill: he
was taken past her window, from which she handed him some
little.token of affectionate remembrance. She even beheld his
dead body brought back in a cart, not only without fear, but
without apparent emotion: for her the bitterness of death was
past; and she longed for that repose which was only to be
reached through the dark passage of the grave. Sir John
Gage, the constable of the Tower, then led her to the scaffold
prepared for her death on the green within the walls of the
fortress. The ladies who attended her wept bitterly; but she was
calm. Sir John shared in the general sympathy for her fate,
and begged some little present, which he might keep as a
memorial of her. She gave him her table-book, in which she
had just written three sentiments on seeing the headless body
of her husband; one in Greek, another in Latin, and a third in
English. The meaning of them was, that though human
justice was against his body, divine mercy would be favourable
to his soul; that if her fault deserved punishment, her youth
and her inexperience were excuses for it; and that God and
posterity, she trusted, would show her favour. After ascending
the scaffold, she addressed the spectators in a brief speech,
making no complaint against any one; but declaring that she
was innocent of any treasonable desires. She said she had
sinned in loving herself and the world, on which account she
was brought to so sad an end; *but she thanked God, who had
given her time for repentance, and desired the people around
to assist her with their prayers. She then tied a handkerchief
over her eyes, and groping forward to the block, exclaimed,
" What shall I do ? where is it ?" An attendant guided her to
it, when she laid down her beautiful head, and had just time to
say, "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit," when the
axe fell, and her troubles were at an end for ever. She had
not completed her seventeenth year. Her death," says an
old writer then living, was as much lamented as her life had


~------------------~---~--~--~-~l~l~"-
i--~UY --- I


I


44


HISTORYt OF E







PUNISHMENT 01


SA JUST JURY.


I


- "- ,------- I-- i-


_ __ I
__


been admired. It affected judge Morgan, who had pronounced
the sentence, so much, that he became insane, and thought she
perpetually followed him. The queen herself was troubled at
it; for it was rather a reason of state than private resentment
that induced her to sign the death-warrant of one whose virtues
she must have envied and admired."
Other executions arose out of sir Thomas Wyatt's fatal
insurrection, which it is not necessary for me to particularise;
but it also led to an instance of wild, shameful tyranny, which
I, must not omit. A certain gentleman, named sir Nicholas
Throgmorton, who had been a friend of Wyatt's, was tried at
Guildhall on suspicion of being concerned in the rebellion;
but he defended himself so well that the jury acquitted him of
the charge. The servile judge who sat upon the bench knew
that the queen desired to put Throgmorton to death, and he
refused to receive the verdict; and even when the jury con-
firmed their verdict, notwithstanding the threats of the judge,
that wicked officer, instead of liberating the prisoner, sent him
back to the Tower, to see if something else could not be got up
against him. The upright jury were then summoned before an
infamous tribunal called the Star Chamber, to answer for
having honestly discharged their duty as Englishmen. Four
of them having been terrified into asking pardon, were permitted
to depart; but the other eight, after having been kept six
months in prison, were fined, some of them a thousand pounds
each, and two others, who spoke more boldly than the rest,
two thousand pounds a-piece. These fines were afterwards
reduced, because the victims were unable to pay them; but it
seems wonderful that such wicked injustice and extortion did
not provoke another insurrection.
All this violence did not make the people submit quietly to
the queen's approaching marriage with Philip of Spain, or to
her arbitrary proceedings in restoring the Roman church. The
feeling of the nation broke out in various ways. One morning
a cat, with its head shaved and dressed in imitation of a priest
ready to say mass, was discovered hanging upon a miniature
gallows at the Cross in Cheapside. The two fore-feet of the
animal were tied over its head, and a bit of round paper, like a
consecrated wafer, placed between them, as though it was in
the act of elevating the host. This was a cruel frivolity; but
the queen and the bishops were very angry: and Mary offered


45 1i


I
i


I f







46 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
twenty nobles for the arrest of the offender, but without dis-
covering him. Shortly afterwards, one Dr. Pendleton, a
Roman priest, was shot at and nearly killed while he was
preaching at Paul's Cross; but no one would reveal the
offender. Another strange event happened about this time. A
poor girl, named Elizabeth Croft, used to lay concealed in the
wall of a house at Aldersgate in such a manner, that she could
speak to the passers-by without being seen. The citizens were
astonished at hearing strange sounds come from the wall; and
some of them said it was an angel, and others a voice from
heaven. It used first to attract attention by an odd sort of
whistling, and then, when a crowd was assembled, uttered some
threatening predictions against the Romnsh church, the queen,
and the prince of Spain. The listeners, who quite believed this
whistling and talking to be supernatural, gave it the name of
the Spirit in the Wall. Elizabeth Croft, however, was detected,
and very properly punished, by being made publicly to confess
her imposition.
Mary was now eagerly expecting the arrival of her future
husband, Don Philip. Though they had never yet seen each
other, she was struck with a violent affection for him: she
complained of his cold delay, and said, that although she,
brought him a kingdom as a dowry, he had been so neglectful
as never to have sent her a single letter. This terrible woman,
who was so indifferent to the sufferings of others, worried her-
self ill with her anxious fears for the safety, and her desire for
the arrival, of her careless lover. On perceiving that her
nervous anxiety was adding to the wrinkles that already
appeared upon her pallid brow, she was filled with a new fear
that when Philip met her he might entertain a dislike for one
whose good looks, impaired by grief and time, were still further
injured by sickness. She went so far as to fit out an English
squadron to fetch Philip from Spain; but the admiral appointed
to command it, told her that he feared the life of the hated
Spanish prince would not be safe in the hands of her sailors.
Mary dismissed them in a fury, and a new cause of hatred
towards her people arose in her gloomy and misanthropic
-ind.




.........








CHAPTER IV.
CONCLUSION OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN MARY.
A.D. 1554-1558.
AT length, on the 19th of July, 1554, the queen's expected
bridegroom arrived at Southampton. A few days afterwards
Mary met him at Winchester, and the elderly maiden and her
distant lover were married at once. In a little while they
proceeded to Windsor; and, on the 12th of August, entered
London in great state. Philip was not the sort of man to win
the affections of the English: he was exceedingly proud and
haughty; and so cold and reserved in his manners that he
scarcely deigned to take any notice even of the most distin-
guished nobles of the land. To this, Mary had no objection;
for she was so fond of him that she scarcely liked him to be out
of her sight, and so extremely jealous that she could hardly
bear him to speak to any other woman. Philip, however, cared
very little for her: ambition was his ruling passion; and his
object in marrying was, that he might become sole master of
England.
Soon after her wedding the queen assembled a parliament,
which she took great pains to have made up of such spiritless
persons as were quite devoted to her will. The first thing this
parliament did was to repeal that act by which the king or
queen of England was made supreme head of the church.
Neither lords nor commons had any objection to that, so long as
those who had obtained possession of the church lands were
allowed to keep them. They were ready to pass any act the
queen required, if she did not touch their pockets. Cruel,
ignorant, and bigoted as Mary was, she was far better than
her degraded nobles and parliament. She was sincere in her
religious professions, and they were not. She restored to the
church all the abbey lands which had been seized and annexed
to the crown by her father, although the sacrifice threw her
into a state of extreme poverty; but her nobles would not give
up a rood of that land that had been stolen from the church,
though they were quite ready to change from protestants to
papists to win the smiles of their superstitious queen.
After Mary had resigned her title as supreme head of the
church, the parliament presented an address to her, in which
they declared, that they were exceedingly sorry for the state of


----- --rT-- -_ 1.; --~; -I--- ---~ -~ -~ -;.- -.--. i; ~.-?-1:::---5) r-~ .r -T171.-i--i~T.
I~-CZ~L~-- I ---C_







48 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
heresy they had been living in, and implored her and cardina.
Pole, who had lately visited England, to intercede with their
holy father, the pope, for their forgiveness and absolution. As
England had been very profitable to the pope, he was glad
enough to pardon its people; and accordingly he directed
cardinal Pole to revoke all papal curses that had been pro-
nounced upon the parliament and the people, and to receive
them back again as penitent members of the church.
Being thus reconciled to the pope, the parliament proceeded
to revive all the old savage laws against heretics which had
been repealed during the reign of young king Edward; and it
was also made treason either to imagine or attempt the death
of the queen's husband, Philip. But when Mary wished the
parliament to permit Philip to wear the crown with her, or to
declare him king in case of her death, they would not consent
to anything of the kind. Though so mean and pliant on
almost everything else, they hated the Spaniards bitterly, and
were as firm as a rock upon that.
Mary was very anxious to have a son to succeed her; for she
thought that by having him educated as a strict papist, she
could bind the nation to the church of Rome, even after she
., was dead. At length she fancied she was about to present her
Husband with an heir, and public thanks were offered up to the
SAlmighty for so great a blessing-as it was called. A magni-
i ficent cradle was prepared for the little stranger, and arrange-
ments made for his education; but after some time, it was
Found out that no little prince was coming, and that the queen
'was only ill of the dropsy.
The spirit of the English people, though terribly sunk and
degraded, was not actually crushed; and several members of
the house of commons, who were too honest to approve of the
acts of that assembly, and too weak to oppose them with any
success, kept away from the parliament altogether. This the
queen considered as obstinate disloyalty; and when the parlia-
ment was dissolved, she ordered these members to be proceeded
against. Some of them submitted, and were pardoned after the
payment of heavy fines: but the others defended themselves;
and the queen died before the long law proceedings, which
arose out of the affair, were ended.
In the year 1555 queen Mary began to show the cruel
bigotry of her nature in earnest. She first sent ambassadors
1 '-- ,A.







A COMMISSION FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF HERESY.


49


to Rome, to confirm the reconciliation of England with the
pope; and then ordered a commission of priests to search out
and punish all protestants, or, as she called them, heretics.
This commission sat in the church of St. Mary Overy, South-
wark, and at the head of it was the bitterpassionate Gardiner,
bishop of Winchester. John Rogers, a prebendary of St.
Paul's, who had been in prison for more than a year, was first
brought before the commission. Bishop Gardiner took great
pains to make him recant, but without being successful. My
lord," said Rogers, I cannot believe that you yourselves think
in your hearts that the pope is supreme head in forgiving of
sin, seeing that you and all the bishops of the realm have now
for twenty years preached to the contrary." Rogers was
examined three times before the court, and as he remained true
to the principles of the reformed church, he was condemned to
be burnt to death as a heretic.
Early one morning in February, Rogers was aroused from
his sleep by the wife of his gaoler, and warned to prepare him-
self for death, as he was to be burnt that day. Instead of
showing any fear, he answered, that then he need not take pains
in dressing himself. On his way to Smithfield, Woodroofe, one
of the sheriffs, asked him if he would revoke his abominable
doctrines; to which he answered-" That which I have preached
I will seal with my blood."-" Then," continued the sheriff,
"thou art an heretic."-" That will be known," replied the
martyr, at the day of judgment."-" Well," continued this
pitiless sheriff, I will never pray for thee."-" But I will for
thee," was the noble and touching answer. At the stake,
Rogers' wife and eleven children (the youngest a little infant
yet clinging to its mother's breast, and smiling in happy
ignorance of its father's cruel fate) were brought before him,
and a pardon was offered him if he would recant. Even in that
awful moment, and under such temptations, he subdued the
pleadings of nature, and preferred death to apostasy.
Rogers was the first who was burnt in Mary's reign for
holding protestant opinions ; but he was but the first of a long
and horrible list of martyrs. A few days afterwards the
learned and eloquent bishop Hooper was led to the stake, in
his own diocese at Gloucester. While he was on his knees in
prayer, a box was placed before him, and his pardon laid upon
it, which he was told he might have if he would recant; but
VOL. II. H


I__ __ ___ _


I)


-- ---- -- -- -- ----- -------


__--_ ~~---cl


c~-Y






\r ', ,* '----"----- -

50 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
he answered, "If you love my soul, away with it-away with it."
His sufferings were very great; for by some accident there
were not sufficient faggots, and the wind blew the flames away
from his body. Three times was the fire relighted, and for
three-quarters of an hour did this good man remain in mortal
agony. The description of his sufferings is too shocking for
repetition: may the Almighty restrain our rulers from ever
again committing a crime so awful.
The very day that bishop Hooper was thus cruelly put to
death, Dr. Rowland Taylor was burned in the town of Had-
leigh, in Suffolk. When he was brought before bishop
Gardiner on a charge of heresy, that stern bitter man said to
him, Art thou. come, thou villain ? How darest thou look
me in the face for shame ? Knowest thou not who I am ?"-
' Yes," replied the courageous preacher, I know who you are:
you are Dr. Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, lord
chancellor, and yet but a mortal man. But if I should be
afraid of your lordly looks, why fear you not God, the Lord of
us all? How dare ye for shame look any Christian man in the
face, seeing ye have forsaken the truth, denied our Saviour
Christ and his word, and done contrary to your own oath and
writing? With what countenance will ye appear before the
judgment-seat of Christ, and answer to your oath, made first to
king Henry the Eighth, of famous memory, and afterwards to
blessed king Edward the Sixth ?" Bishop Gardiner must have
blushed at this reproof; but he pretended that he did not mind
it, and answered," Tush! tush that was Herod's oath,-unlaw-
ful, and therefore worthy to be broken. I have done well in
breaking it; and I thank God I am come home again to our
mother, the catholic church of Rome, and I wish thou shouldest
do so also."
Dr. Taylor was not to be moved either by the abuse or per-
suasions of bishop Gardiner, nor by the promises both of
pardon and promotion in the church if he would recant his
opinions. When bound to the stake, just as the flames were
rising up around him, a brutal fellow threw a faggot at his
face, upon which this truly Christian martyr meekly exclaimed,
0 friend, I have harm enough; what needed that." He then
began to repeat the fifty-first psalm in English, when sir John
Shelton, who was standing by, struck him on the lips, saying,
"Ye knave, speak in Latin, or I will make thee." Taylor then
__ -....-=,-- -.. .._- !"







HORRORS OF MARTYRDOM.


51


bore his sufferings in silence; and soon one of the guards, in
mercy, gave him a blow on the head with his halberd, and
ended his agony.
Instead of this horrible severity putting down heresy, as it
was called, it served only to increase it; and the fires of mar-
tyrdom were lighted all over the kingdom. Bishop Gardiner,
disgusted with the butcher's work he had taken up, resigned
his task into the hands of bishop Bonner, of London, a man
of so brutal a character, that he seemed to delight in the in-
fliction of torture and death. Amongst other atrocities, this
wretch whipped a poor child (the son of a tailor, accused of
heresy) in so unmerciful a manner, that it died a few days
afterwards. During this year (1555), in England as many as
seventy-one persons, of various ranks of life, were burnt to
death at the stake for opinion's sake. To relate many of these
shocking events, would be only to excite in you a feeling of
pain and horror; but I will mention a few more of the most
distinguished victims, that you may look back upon such
wickedness with a feeling of aversion, and that all intolerant
and bigoted persons may be warned against falling into any
similar crimes for the future.
Robert Farrar, bishop of St. David's, was burned at the town
of Carmarthen, in Wales. His supposed offences were his
being married and denying the doctrine of transubstantiation.
His courage and trust in God for support were so great, that
he told a person who lamented his fate, that if he saw him
shrink from the fire that was to consume him, to give no
credit to his teaching. Accordingly he stood amidst the flames
like a statue, and neither uttered any cry, nor gave any sign of
suffering. This so provoked one of his tormentors, that the
fellow struck him on the head with a staff, and the heroic
bishop fell dead amidst the fire.
But the two most famous victims of priestly intolerance
during this year, were bishops Ridley and Latimer. The
former had been bishop of London, and the latter, bishop of
Winchester; but for some time they had been living in prison,
because they would not deny the truth. They were put to
death at Oxford, on the 16th of October, 1555, a day which has
been in consequence regarded with a certain reverence by all
admirers of patient heroism and true piety. Ridley walked to
thp place of execution in a black furred gown with a velvet


I,


. II


__
I___


- --- ---


- -- --


-- --~-


_
_~__ ___~ I--,,--,-nn~--u







52


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


tippet, such as he used to wear when he was a bishop. Lati-
mer, who was a white-haired and very old man, tottered along
in a shroud which he had had made for the occasion, and wore
outside his ordinary dress. On arriving at the stake, Ridley
embraced his fellow-sufferer, and tenderly said to him, Be of
good cheer, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the
flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." One Dr. Smith then
preached a sermon, exhorting them to recant and be saved,
taking for his text the words, Though I give my body to be
burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing." It was
a cruel mockery in this bigoted man even to utter the name of
charity at such a time: that sacred spirit was far, very far
away. As the executioner approached with a lighted faggot,
the venerable old bishop Latimer said to his companion, Be
of good comfort, brother Ridley, and play the man; we shall
this day light such a candle in England, as I trust shall never
be put out." On the fire being applied, Latimer soon expired,
but Ridley suffered for a long time; for the faggots which
surrounded him would not burn freely. Many of the spectators
shed tears, as well they might; and hundreds went away
secretly hating a church which could sanction such barbarities.
Indeed, the bigoted Mary and her priestly advisers may be
truly said to have burnt a love and respect for the Roman
religion out of England.
The month following these cruel persecutions, bishop
Gardiner, who had been the chief enemy of the reformed
religion, went to his last account, "hated," says an old writer,
"of all good men." He had attempted to put down protes-
tantism with severity, and to terrify the people of England
into a blind unreasoning submission to popery. But the human
mind is not to be controlled, and truth cannot be hid for ever.
Gardiner heaped sin after sin upon his soul; made his memory
infamous for ever; and yet helped the very cause he laboured
all his life to destroy.
Queen Mary's husband, Philip, was hated very much on
account of the constant burnings of the best and most consci-
entious protestants. At first, he pretended they were done
without his wish; but, as nobody believed this, he threw off
the mask, and he and his miserable and gloomy wife endea-
voured to bring the Inquisition, with all its horrors, into
England. The bishops' court, over which Gardiner had pre-


I


I- -~


~'--- -C-l--~---
'I ---- ------. ---


-- -- ----
- ------~






/


.i--





2 ( ~~..



2"'/~:i J


----- ,-

I, -~ __________c~r


-' I~ ___ I'----~-- -- -~


f~L2L- --N


I,,


r


/'


r J4
-


* *1*


V60% -
I~cnV,4 dr


a-1
I F-~,- J--c---


MAI&TYRDOM OF RIDLEY AND LATIMElR.


iv


~--.---


-I- -'


" --


- U1~-- --


/
I


f; :


,W:


i 1
at I i:l
!~ I


!
n






THE ENGLISH INQUISITION. 3
it THIE ENGLISHI INQUISI~iON. 53


I


sided, did not do its work of terror quickly enough; and in
spite of imprisonment and burnings, protestants went 'on
increasing faster than ever. A sort of inquisition was therefore
appointed, which, had Mary lived long enough, might have
grown as hideous and fearful as the horrible tribunal of that
name which existed in Spain. Twenty-one priests were named
as an ecclesiastical commission, to inquire into and punish
heresy. Their duties were to arrest all persons who sold or
had any books about the reformed doctrines; to punish every
one who was guilty of any misbehaviour or negligence at church
or chapel; to try all priests that dared to preach any principles
except those of the church of Rome; and all persons that did
not hear mass, or come to their parish church to service, or that
would not walk in religious processions, or objected to take
holy bread or holy water.
In order to obtain information, spies and informers were en-
couraged; and directions were given to the justices of the
peace to send men watching and prying about, that they might
be able to get up accusations against any one who was incautious
enough to say a word against the papal tyranny which ground
the people into the dust. Commands were also given to put
all accused persons to the torture if they would not confess!
Every villain who hated his neighbour might accuse him of
some act of heresy, and betray him to imprisonment or even
death. But it is to the credit of the English of that age, that
all this spying and treachery was against their nature; and
justices and others stood aloof, and avoided executing the com-
mands of the savage queen. During the year 1556 the number
of martyrs who suffered at the stake amounted to eighty-nine,
and in the following year eighty-eight more perished in this
shocking manner, besides those who were punished by impri-
sonment, fines, and confiscations. Indeed, at this time, a
horrible fashion for religious persecution prevailed throughout
Europe; and shocking as were the deeds done in England,
worse were performed elsewhere. In a few years, in the Nether-
lands alone, the awful number of fifty thousand persons were
hanged, beheaded, burnt, or buried alive on account of religion.
In Germany, and in France also, martyrs were to be counted
not by hundreds but by thousands. Still, with all this severity
in England, criminals were terribly on the increase, and exe.
cautions for robbery and murder were very frequent.


I _


-- 1


- -r~T------------------------


I







54 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
Before persecution had got to such a height in England,
SPhilip had returned to his native land. His father, the empe-
Sror Charles the Fifth, who, for forty years, had been the
greatest sovereign in Europe, became sick of power and royalty,
resigned his kingdom to his son, and retired to spend the re-
maining years of his life in tranquil retirement at the monastery
Sof St. Just, on the frontiers of Castile and Portugal. It is said
That when he gave his regal authority into the hands of his son
Philip, he shed tears as he thought of the solemn responsibility
he had imposed upon him. In his retirement he spent his time
in cultivating a little garden, in reading works on religion, and
in making clocks. Although he had all his life sternly resisted
the progress of the Reformation, in his solitude he is supposed
to have become rather favourable to. its principles. Having
observed that he could never make two watches that would go
exactly alike, he was grieved at the blood that he had shed in
the vain attempt to make all mankind think alike on the sub-
ject of religion.
The English parliament, offended by the terrible persecutions
inflicted on the people, refused the queen a part of the supplies
she demanded, and showed so much dissatisfaction that she
dissolved it. This miserable woman then fell into a deep
melancholy in consequence of the absence of her husband; and
she passed her time in writing letters to him, which he seldom
answered; in weeping over her own wretchedness; and in
urging on the cruelty practised against her protestant subjects.
She felt that almost every one hated her, and she began to hate
almost every one. God will not permit tyrants and bloodshedders
to be happy or tranquil: a dreadful sense of weary heaviness hung
upon this fearful woman, poisoned every enjoyment, and slowly
wasted away her hateful life. Indeed, throughout England there
was scarcely one poor labourer or mechanic's wife that was not
happier than its queen.
Mary was very poor; and after a fiendish thirsting for the
blood of protestants, the next object that attracted her attention
was the extortion of money from her subjects. She adopted
many shuffling, swindling, and tyrannical ways of getting
money; most of which she sent to her husband, or the priests
at Rome. Her dreadful rapacity interfered with commerce,
and made the merchants afraid to engage in speculation; so
that trade languished: many rich men became poor, and poor







THE LAST DAYS OF CRANMER. 55
men became destitue; and yet this was a time when the queen
had very little need of money; for England was at peace with
all neighboring countries.
Though Cranmer had been kept in prison when bishops
Ridley and Latimer were sent to the stake, the queen had no
intentionn of sparing his life. She hated him too bitterly for
that; for, besides being the chief protestant of the kingdom, he
had pronounced the divorce of her mother, queen Catherine,
from the fickle king Henry the Eighth. She and the bigoted
priests, by whom she was surrounded, wished to cover him
with disgrace and contempt, and then send him to a horrible
death. For this purpose they practised upon him in a shock-
ingly treacherous manner. After degrading him from the
priesthood, they placed him in an easier confinement, and sur-
rounded him with persons who constantly argued with him and
entreated him-to recant and save his life. They gave him
hopes that he should be restored to his dignity as archbishop,
and said that if he would only put his name to a paper, confess-
ing the errors of his faith, that the queen would easily grant
him either riches or dignity, or a private life in retirement.
They told him that he was not so old but that many years
might yet remain to him of this life; and they exhorted him to
accept a pardon while it was offered him, as he might afterwards
seek for it when he could not obtain it. Finally, they told him
that if he cared little for life, that he should remember that to
die is grievous at all times, especially in the ripeness of age and
flower of dignity; but that to die in fire and torment was most
grievous of all. These entreaties co prevailed upon the fallen
archbishop, and the fear of an hideous death so appalled him,
that he signed a recantation of the protestant faith, and an
acknowledgment that the pope was the only supreme head of
the church, and that the bread and wine in the sacrament was
really transformed into the body and blood of the Saviour.
This recantation was immediately printed and distributed, to
the great sorrow of all good protestants, who were much
grieved that Cranmer should fall away from the truth; and to
the joy of the papists, who looked upon it as a triumph over
heresy. Not satisfied with one recantation, his persecutors
worried him into signing no less than six, and then, with a
dreadful malignity, resolved upon breaking the promise of
pardon and burning him to death. Mary signed the fatal

i-- i L i i i l -, -- -





|,- _: ..

56 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
warrant, and sent orders to Dr. Cole, of Eton College, to pre-
pare the archbishop's condemned sermon. On the 21st of
March, Cranmer was brought, in an old ragged gown, into St.
Mary's church at Oxford, and placed on a platform near the
pulpit. Dr. Cole then commenced his sermon, and explained
that repentance did not do away with all punishment; and that
Cranmer's offences were so great, that he must suffer death
both as a traitor and a heretic. He then, with a sort of mock
sympathy, hypocritically comforted the wretched primate,
telling him to die with patience and with hope, for that he
would soon receive that reward the crucified thief did, to whom
the expiring Saviour said, This day shalt thou be with me in
Paradise." Then, out of St. Paul, he armed the archbishop
against the terror of the fire by saying, The Lord is faithful,
and will not suffer you to be tempted above your strength."
He also spoke of the three children to whom God made the
flame to seem like a pleasant dew, and of the rejoicing of St.
Andrew on his cross, the patience of St. Lawrence on his bed
of fire; and assured Cranmer that if he died in the Roman
faith, the Lord, if he called upon him, would abate the fury of
the flame, or give him strength to abide it. He then thanked
God for the archbishop's conversion, which he wickedly said
had been quite willing and voluntary; and assured him that
after his death there should be dirges and masses performed in
all the churches of Oxford for the succour of his soul.
During this cruel, mocking sermon, the astonished Cranmer,
who had believed that, now he had recanted, he should be
permitted to spend the remainder of his life in peace, sat the
very image of misery. Sometimes he raised his hands and eyes
to heaven, as if imploring for that mercy which seemed to be
banisned from the earth, and then, letting them fall again to
the ground, shed floods of tears. At the end of the sermon, he
was required to confess his errors to the congregation, before
he was carried away to death. This was too much: the old
prelate had lived for years in fear of the dreadful fate which
had overtaken him; but now that he saw that it was unavoid-
able, he mustered courage, and met it boldly. Instead of
declaring his submission to the pope, and that the reformed
religion was a heresy, he said that his recantation was forced
from him by a fear of death, that his principles were unchanged,
that the pope was Antichrist and that his offending hand which

,__________________________i






MARTYRDOM OF CRANMER. 57
had signed the recantation, should be first consumed in the fire
in which he was to perish.
You may be sure the popish priests were disappointed and
vexed enough at this unexpected change. They burst out into
a storm of indignation; and Dr. Cole roared out, "Stop the
heretic's mouth, and take him away." Accordingly, Cranmer
was hurried off to the same place where Ridley and Latimer
had suffered, and where preparations had been made for his
execution. Stripping himself to his shirt, he was bound to the
stake with a chain of iron, and the pile of faggots was lighted.
Timidly as he had lived, he died like a hero. He did not even
flinch from the flames, but held forth his right hand, with
which he had signed his recantation, in the midst of them until
it was consumed, frequently exclaiming, "This unworthy right
hand !" At length the fire crackled and blazed around him
with great fury; and raising his eyes, he exclaimed, in the
words of the first martyr, Stephen, "Lord Jesus, receive
my spirit!" and expired. Thus died Cranmer, in his sixty-
seventh year; and his death, instead of being a triumph to the
papists, was a blow to their principles. His martyrdom purified
his fame, and made men forget his weakness and duplicity, and
esteem his memory as that of a champion of the protestant
cause. Men would have thought more honourably of him, if,
in the time of his prosperity, he himself had not been a perse-
cutor; but when we think of his sufferings it is difficult to for.
get those of John Lambert and Joan Bocher. In less than
three months after this legal murder, as many as thirteen persons
were burnt to death together on account of their religious
opinions at Stratford-le-Bow.
After Cranmer's death, the queen's relative, cardinal Pole
was made archbishop of Canterbury; but though he was a man
of a gentle disposition, he was unable to check the fury of the
queen against heretics.
Early in the year 1557, Mary's husband, king Philip, visited
England, in order to persuade her to assist his plans, by
declaring war against France. The doting queen was willing
to oblige him in almost anything; but she hesitated in this
especially as all her ministers were against it. Philip then told
her that unless she consented, he would never look upon her
face again. Mary was terrified, and threatened to dismiss hei
counsellors: but still they remained firm. Chance, however,
VOL. II. I






HISTORY OF ENGLIND.


brought about the fulfilment of the queen's wishes. An
English gentleman, named Thomas Stafford, who had fled from
his native country, and taken refuge in France, landed at
Scarborough, with only thirty-two persons with him, and at-
tacked the castle there. He entertained the mad idea of pro-
ducing a revolution; but, as you may suppose, he and all his
comrades were taken prisoners. Stafford and a few others were
executed, and the rest pardoned. Before his death, he confessed
that he had been set on by the French king: this was
considered sufficient; and war was declared against France
accordingly.
Mary was so poor that she scarcely knew how to collect an
army. First, she compelled the citizens of London to lend her
sixty thousand pounds-very much against their will: then she
extorted other loans from her people; and because she had not
provisions for her troops, seized all the corn she could find in
Suffolk and Norfolk, just like a robber, without paying any-
thing for it whatever. At length she managed to collect about
ten thousand men, who joined the Spanish army; and Philip
having got what he wanted, left England, never to return.
Philip's army, altogether, amounted to sixty thousand men;
and with it he gained a great victory over the French at St.
Quintin. When this news reached England, there was much
rejoicing; and Mary especially was delighted at the success of
her husband. She had, however, very little cause for gladness.
The French general, the duke of Guise, though foiled by king
Philip, was a brave man, and he resolved on a plan which
should restore the honour of his troops and inflict a blow upon
the English. This was no less than retaking Calais; which it
had cost the warlike Edward the Third nearly a year to become
master of, and which had been in the possession of the English
for more than two centuries.
Calais was considered impregnable; and as wars were never
carried on during the winter, the garrison at that season was
always reduced. Though the attack of the duke of Guise was
sudden, Mary had warning of it; but her treasury was empty:
she had no soldiers; her fleet was in ruins; and her people had
been fleeced so much already, that they would pay no more.
Calais, therefore, was left to its fate; and so fierce were the
assaults of the duke of Guise, and so well arranged were his
plans, that the city was compelled to surrender in eight days.


I-


P~*~"~IILI~ICI-.----c
~ --- ---- t )


- __
__ __


58


I







MARY LOS


SES CALAIS.


59


i `


- --~- -- 1- 1-~ 1


U_. -


The mortification and disgrace of the English was as great as
the joy of the French. Calais was lost in the month of January,
1558; the English inhabitants were driven out, and the place
repeopled with French. Struck with shame, Mary sent a few
ships to attempt to recover the town; but the very elements
seemed bent against the royal tigress: the vessels were dis-
persed by a storm, and compelled to return home without doing
anything.
Soon after the loss of Calais, Mary Stuart, the young and
beautiful queen of Scots, whose crimes and misfortunes after-
wards attracted so much attention, was married to Francis, the
eldest son of the French king. The ceremony took place
at Paris, on the 24th of April, 1558, the lady being only in her
sixteenth year, and her boy-husband a few months younger.
When the English parliament met, queen Mary applied for
money, that she might make another attempt to recover Calais,
or else revenge its loss. Poor as the nation was, the parliament
liberally responded to the queen's demand, and she fitted out a
considerable fleet of English and Flemings. This fleet, after
plundering and burning many places on the coast of Brittany,
and causing a great deal of misery to the unoffending people
who lived there, assisted an army of Spaniards, at the seaport
town of Gravelines, in Flanders, and enabled them to obtain a
decided victory over the French. A great slaughter occurred;
and the English fleet, satisfied with the revenge they had taken,
returned home.
I must say a few words about what the princess Elizabeth
was doing all this time. Queen Mary hated her very bitterly,
and had twice sent her to the Tower. Elizabeth, who was loved
by the people, was wise enough to know that her safety con-
sisted in keeping herself quiet, and attracting as little notice as
possible. Her jealous sister surrounded her with spies, and
would not have hesitated, on the slightest provocation, to have
had her beheaded as a traitress, or burnt as a heretic. It is
really wonderful how Elizabeth escaped; but she was extremely
cautious. She lived in retirement in the country, saw very little
company, meddled in no business, and spent her time in reading
and study. .She also either was, or pretended to be, a sincere
catholic. She had a little chapel in her house, where the
service of the Roman church was constantly performed: she
kept several priests among her attendants; had a large crucifix







60 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
hung up in her bed-room; and even worked garments for
saints and Madonnas; and whenever she visited the court, she
attended the queen in all her religious processions.
Some say that she despised these things in her heart, and
was secretly a protestant all this time. I cannot tell whether
this was so or not. Elizabeth's conduct was very doubtful;
and, although she afterwards restored the protestant religion,
it must be remembered, that as the pope refused to acknowledge
her as queen, it was her interest to do so, and that she found
the nation generally was leaning to the reformed doctrines. On
many occasions, she showed an attachment to the ceremonies of
the Romish church; and if she could have had her own way,
would probably have followed a religion half-way between that
and protestantism. Indeed, cruelly as she afterwards persecuted
the catholics, she was never herself a very sincere protestant.
It has been supposed, and I think rightly, that she would have
remained a catholic, had she thought that the catholic religion
would still retain its influence on the minds of the people.
Perhaps she did not attach much importance to the forms of
either side, but believed that a sincere and devout prayer, or a
grateful thanksgiving, would be equally acceptable to the
Almighty, either from a papist or protestant. A curious story,
however, is related of Elizabeth, which, if true, seems to imply
that, at least on the important subject of the sacrament of the
Lord's Supper, she held the reformed opinions. It is said that
some one who had been set to trap her in her speech on the
subject of religion, inquired what she thought of the words of
Christ--" This is my body !" and whether it was the real body
of the Saviour that was in the sacrament. It is reported, that
after a little reflection, she replied in the following cautious
and ingenious lines:-
"Christ was the word that spake it:
He took the bread, and brake it;
And what the word did make it,
That I believe and take it."
But happily for Elizabeth and for the English nation, the
time had arrived when both she and they were to be delivered
from the tyranny of her bigoted sister. Mary had long been
in a declining state of health; and about the beginning of
September she fell very ill. What her exact disorder was is





-- : --- : ^

DEATH OF QUEET MARBY. 61
not known: some said it was a tympany,-a kind of flatulent
disease that puffs up the body like a distended bladder. Others
said it was a hot and cold fever,-a name given to an illness then
very much about. Whatever it was, the wretched woman lay
in her bed in a sad gloomy state, continually sighing. Her
council begged to know the reason of her sorrow, and asked if
it was on account of the absence of her husband, king Philip P
Her answer was, Indeed that may be one cause; but that is
not the greatest wound that pierces my oppressed mind."
What that wound really was she would not reveal; though
afterwards, when some of her favourite attendants told her that
they feared she grieved on account of king Philip's absence
from her, she exclaimed, Not that only; but when I am dead
and opened you shall find Calais lying in my heart."
Mary was prematurely old: she had always been of a delicate
constitution; and now her strength was consumed by her
gloomy and malignant temper. After languishing in pain and
sadness until the 17th of November, 1558, she died on the
morning of that day, between the hours of five and six. She was
nearly forty-four years old, and had reigned for five years, four
months, and a few days. In her last moments mass was per-
formed in her chamber, and she expired ih a vain endeavour
to bow at the elevation of the consecrated wafer. During the
reign of this fearful woman, nearly three hundred persons
perished in the flames on account of their religion. Foxe, the
author of the Book of Martyrs, says there were two hundred
and eighty-four; a second old writer says two hundred and
seventy-seven; and a third calculates them at two hundred and
ninety. Some historians, however, suppose that many other
victims perished, whose fate has not been recorded.
All these unhappy persons were put to a death of torture for
no crime or even fault; but because they were too honest and
religious to pretend to believe what they did not, and too
sensible to acknowledge that a wafer or a bit of bread could
possibly be transformed into the flesh of the Saviour. Indeed,
such a notion, founded upon a misunderstanding of a passage
in the New Testament, is so revolting and disgusting, and when
considered with a calm and rational. devotion, so impious, that
I wonder any person ever was mad enough to have placed an3
faith in it. A cheering warmth in religion is doubtless pleas-
ing to the Divine Founder of our faith; but a bitter, furious
m tothe"___ a. bit-----t --e-^----^ -fOr.io-....







62 HISTORY OF ENGaLAfD.
zeal can never be acceptable to him. Not only does it make
men and women uncharitable and cruel, but, as you have seen
from the horrible events of this reign, hurries them on to the
most awful and irrevocable crimes. It is vanity, obstinacy,
and arrogance that induce men to persecute one another. True
religion teaches forbearance, mercy, and gentleness. Beware of
spiritual pride and. intolerance: be humble before God and
patient with your fellow-man. Your opinion may differ from
his as widely as the radiant stars are sundered in the blue un-
fathomable universe: still, he may be right; and if wrong, God
is his judge, not you.
Mary's savage ferocity has obtained for her the coarse but
truthful surname of the Bloody Queen. To estimate her
character is a painful task. She was obstinate, bigoted, super-
stitious, revengeful, merciless, and extortionate; and her mis-
government reduced England to a feeble and ruinous condition.
Still, she was not destitute of some virtues, and possessed many
of the talents common to the family of the Tudors. She was
firm, courageous, and generally sincere, and she could even be
merciful where religion was not concerned. She was also
generous to the church, or rather to those furious and unchris-
tian members of it by whom she was surrounded, and occasion-
ally charitable to the poor; though she certainly beheld the
sufferings of the great body of her people with an awful
callousness. Her understanding was narrow, but her education
had been liberal; for she was mistress of five languages-the
English, Latin, French, Spanish, and Italian. She was also
fond of music, and before she came to the throne played upon
three instruments-the virginals, regals, and lute. All these
accomplishments, however, were utterly thrown away on
account of her morose bigotry. She had never, she said,
opened a protestant book, and she never would,-a sentiment
such as none but a very weak-minded person would utter.
This stupid obstinacy confirmed her in all her dark errors and
bitterness, and fostered her cruel nature. Indeed, such were
the awful actions into which a savage temper and a mistaken
sense of religion hurried her, that the few gleams of goodness
which would otherwise irradiate her character, are obscured and
lost beneath a dark stormy sea of fire, of smoke, and of blood.



J. =,, --_ -__ __ ___-_

































































QUEEN


ELIZABETH.








CHAPTER V.
THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETIH.-A.D. 1558-1559.
IT is pleasant to turn away from thinking of the horrors which
were perpetrated in England during the time of the morose and
cruel Mary, to become acquainted with the events which took
place in the long reign of the great and wise Elizabeth. I call
Elizabeth a great and. wise ruler, which she certainly was; but I
do not call her a good and amiable woman, for many reasons
which, in this account of her brilliant reign, you will easily dis-
cover. Indeed, her's was a mixed character, containing virtues
and vices so mingled together, that she may be considered both
as an ornament and a disgrace to her sex. But these are only
statements, as yet not backed by any facts: read patiently
through the account of this interesting period, and then you
will be acquainted with my reasons for making them.
The parliament was sitting at the time that Mary died, and
Heath, the archbishop of York and chancellor of England,
attended to inform the members of that event. They looked a
Little serious at first, just for form's sake, and then burst into a
shout of God save queen Elizabeth! long and happy may she
reign." Elizabeth had long been popular; and indeed any
change would have been welcome after uch a reign of horror
as that of Mary's. The people showed much greater joy than
the parliament; and when the new queen was proclaimed, the
air rang with cheerful shouts, and the streets were lit by
the blaze of bonfires.
Elizabeth was living in retirement at Hatfield when she
received the news of the death of her dreaded sister, under
whom she had lived in constant fear. Her delight was too
great for concealment, and falling upon her knees she ex-
claimed, "It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our
eyes !" -This was the only allusion she made to her past fears
and sufferings. She was generous and prudent enough to
forget all offences she had ever received from the servants of
the late queen.
At first, Elizabeth was very cautious about religion, and took
care not to let anybody see whether she was a catholic or a
protestant. It was fortunate for her that she did so, or the
catholics might have offered a powerful opposition to her acces-







64 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
sion to the throne. As it was, both sides courted her, in the
hope that she might promote 'their peculiar views. Although
the protestants believed that she had a secret attachment to the
reformed church, the papists seem to have had very little sus.
picion that she was not a devout catholic, especially as she
commanded the funeral of her sister Mary to be conducted
according to the solemn and gorgeous rites of the Roman
church.
On her accession, Elizabeth \vas in her twenty-fourth year,
and although not beautiful, she was loved for the graces, insin-
uations, and condescending familiarity of her manner. Her
coronation took place on the 15th of January, 1559. It was a
very magnificent ceremony; but what was much better, there
was a great deal of honest rejoicing on the part of the people.
One thing, however, attending the ceremony was very remark-
able;-all the bishops, except one, refused to crown her. That
one was Dr. Oglethorpe, the bishop of Carlisle. You may
remember that Elizabeth had been declared illegitimate by the
church of Rome; and it has been supposed that that was the
reason of the strange conduct of the bishops, or that they were
acting from secret orders from the pope. Perhaps they sus-
pected that she intended to declare against the Roman church,
and so wished to prevent her from ascending the throne. At j
any rate, their refusal to crown Elizabeth was the silliest thing
they could do; for it gave her a dislike to the catholic form of
religion.
Elizabeth had retained the services of eleven of the late
queen's counsellors; but she appointed eight new ones of her
own choice. These men were all secretly in favour of the
protestant religion, though they had been prudent enough to
remain silent upon that point, and go with the times. Amongst
them was that wise statesman sir William Cecil, who had long
been the queen's adviser, and whom she now created her
secretary of state. He afterwards became very famous under
the name of lord Burleigh. Another was sir Nicholas Bacon,
an eminent lawyer, who, besides being a member of the council,
was made keeper of the great seal. His name has been
rendered illustrious by the wonderful talents of his son Francis,
afterwards lord Bacon, the profound thinker, and reformer of
modern philosophy. Indeed, Elizabeth always had the dis-
cernment to appoint men of talent and great business qualities

11 .--~ -/ n -- T -- -- -- --- L...-.. --







RE-iSTA.3BLISlMENT OF PROTESTANTISM.
for her advisers and she had the tact ever to let them gain
an ascendancy over her. By her shrewd sense and strong will
she kept them her servants, and never permitted them to
assume a tone of equality. A good deal of the stern dictatorial
character of her father, Henry the Eighth, is to be seen in the
conduct of this remarkable queen,
She frequently consulted with her new counsellors, but par-
ticularly with sir William Cecil, about the national religion, and
that sagacious minister assured her that the great part of the
nation were inclined to the Reformation, and were constantly
becoming more and more so. Although pressed by her protes-
tant subjects to declare her opinions on the subject of religion,
Elizabeth still hesitated to do so. An incident soon occurred,
however, which decided her upon the subject. Having sent
news of her coronation to the pope at Rome, that pontiff, who
was a very haughty and obstinate old man, returned an insolent
message, that he considered her as illegitimate, and that she
ought to lay down her crown and await his decision as to
whether she should be queen or not. This was enough: such
conduct, added to that of her bishops, made Elizabeth turn her
back on the church of Rome, and resolve to establish the
reformed religion in England.
Very soon after her coronation, the queen assembled her first
parliament. To that parliament she very wisely left the settle
ment of the national religion; merely giving them to understand
what were her wishes upon the subject. It was soon seen that the
commons, at least, was attached to the protestant faith. They
passed an act for suppressing the monasteries erected in Mary's
time, and for restoring tenths and first-fruits (a sort of taxes paid
to the Romish church) to the crown. They declared that the
queen, and not the pope, should be supreme head of the English
church; though they gave her the milder and much more
appropriate title of governess. The bishops opposed this law
with all their might; but it was carried in spite of them. Then
all the laws made for the regulation of religion in the reign of
Edward the Sixth were restored; the mass was abolished; and
it was decreed that the Book of Common Prayer, in English,
should be used in all churches, to the exclusion of any other.
Some parts, however, of that book that were very offensive to the
catholics were softened down a little. Thus, as far as parliament
was concerned, the protestant religion was re-established in
VOL. II. K





-'--a


I 1-


*1
i


66 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
England, and the Romish form once more overthrown. There
was to be a good deal of. struggling, and I am sorry to say, a
good deal of persecution yet, before the nation would altogether
submit to the change. Upon the catholics rest the odium of
being the most savage and bitter persecutors; but the pro-
testants are by no means free from that shocking taint, or rather
crime. It must also be admitted that there would have been a
great deal more protestant persecution, if Elizabeth and her
ministers had not checked that cruel spirit.
During the time that parliament sat, a solemn discussion was
appointed by the queen, to be held between the chief divines of
the protestant and those of the catholic faith. Sir Nicholas
Bacon presided, and ten bishops and doctors on each side con-
ducted the debate. The protestants then contended for the
three following points:-" First-It is against the word of God
and the custom of the ancient church to use a tongue (that is, a
language) unknown to the people in common prayer and in the
administration of the sacraments. Second-Every church hath
authority to appoint, take away, and change ceremonies and
ecclesiastical rites, so the same be to edification. Third-It can-
not be proved by the word of God, that there is in the mass
offered up a sacrifice propitiatory (that is, of a conciliatory or
atoning kind) for the quick and the dead." As the catholic
bishops hesitated, and would not go on with the discussion, it
was declared that the protestants were entirely triumphant, and
some of the former were even punished by imprisonment. But
it was almost impossible that a debate of this kind should be
fairly conducted; for, as it was known that the queen aid
parliament were now both adverse to the papisL., it was not
likely that they would dare to press their opinions very
vehemently; for to deny that the queen was head of the
church, as a catholic must do, was not only to lose all chance of
preferment, but to incur the charge of being a traitor.
One bitter-minded and obstinate prelate did indeed suffer the
fate of a traitor, for uttering his bigoted opinions too freely.
He said that he had been much talked about on account of his
persecuting and burning the heretics; but instead of regretting
it, he was only sorry he had not been more severe. He added,
" that he hal earnestly exhorted his associates on that subject,
and had beetf not a little grieved with them; for that they
laboured only about the young and little sprigs and twigs,


r'


.


-- -- ---L-----------cU----~-- _
- -- _I __ ___


I







RESOLUTION OF ELIZABETH. 67
while they should have stricken at the root, and clean have
rooted it out." It was very well understood what this bold
speech meant. Elizabeth was the root of the protestant princi-
ples; and Dr. Story hinted, that if he had his will, she should
have been rooted out (that is, put to death) during the reign of
her sister Mary. Aware of the danger his bigotry had led him
into, Dr. Story fled for safety to Antwerp; but the queen was
not the woman to permit such treasonable language to pass
unpunished. She employed some men to seize him by force,
and bring him over to England, where he was executed as a
traitor. This conduct on the part of Elizabeth was very des-
potic; though I cannot say that I pity the coarse persecution-
loving doctor in the least: but the queen was determined to
show the catholics, in the outset, that though she was but
a young girl, she would submit to neither intimidation or
insult.
Before the parliament was dissolved, the house of commons
sent a deputation of their members up to Elizabeth with an
address, in which they begged her to marry, so that, in due
time, she might have a son to succeed her on the throne.
Although this address was written in very flattering language,
she seemed rather displeased at it. She told the speaker of the
house of commons, who headed the deputation, that as the
application was made in general terms, and only recommended
her to marry, without pretending to direct the choice of a hus-
band, she could not be offended at it, or consider it otherwise
than as a new instance of their affectionate attachment to her.
But she added, any further interference on their part would ill
become them to make as subjects, or her to bear as an indepen-
dent princess. Even while she was a private person, she had
always declined marriage, and regarded it as an incumbrance;
but that now, when the charge of a great kingdom was com-
mitted to her, she considered it a duty to persevere in that
opinion. Her life ought to be entirely devoted to promoting
the interests of religion, and the happiness of her subjects.
That as England was her husband, so all Englishmen were her
children; and while she was employed in rearing or governing
such a family, she could not deem herself childless, or her life
useless and unprofitable. If she ever thought of changing her
condition, the care of her subjects' welfare would be uppermost
in her thoughts; but should she live and die a virgin, she







68 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
believed that Divine Providence would be able to settle Ill
dispute about the succession, and send them a sovereign who
would imitate her example in loving and cherishing her people.
She concluded a long speech by saying, that she desired no bet-
ter remembrance of her to be transmitted to posterity than that
this inscription should be engraven on her tomb-" Here lies
Elizabeth, who lived and died a virgin queen."
The decisions of parliament in favour of the protestant
religion were soon put into force. The bishops and principal
churchmen were summoned before the queen and her council,
and admonished to make their clergy conform to the laws which
had just been enacted. The churchmen were not inclined to
comply either with the royal will, or to the changes in religion
required by an aroused nation. Cardinal Pole was dead; but
archbishop Heath, who had been made primate in his stead,
reminded the queen of her sister's late reconciliation with
Rome; of her own promise not to change the religion which she
found by law established; and added, that his conscience would
not permit him to obey her present commands. What the
archbishop said, all the other bishops said; but the queen
and her ministers were still resolved to have their own way.
The bishops were then required to take the oath by which
the pope was disclaimed, and the queen acknowledged as
supreme head of the church on earth-called the oath of
supremacy. Nothing, however, could induce them to give up
their slavish submission to the pope : they all refused the oath
except one; and all, except that one, were deprived of their
sees. At that time, however, a recent sickness that had been
very prevalent had reduced the number of bishops to fourteen,
and small pensions were conferred upon them, that they might
not be left destitute. Many other dignitaries of the church were
also deprived of their livings because they would not take the
oath; but the great majority of the clergy took it, and con-
formed to the reformed ceremonies of the church. The places
of the bishops were filled up by the most learned of those
divines who had been driven from the church during the reign
of queen Mary. The protestant religion was thus actually re-
established throughout the kingdom, and with much less diffi-
culty than might have been imagined.
All this was well enough; but besides the act of parliament
which obliged all clergymen to take the oath of supremacy,







PROTESTANT INTOLERANCE.
there was another act, which was unjust and cruel. It was
called the act of uniformity, and was meant to extirpate the
catholic religion, by making every one worship God in the
same uniform way; that way, of course, being the protestant
one, which the parliament had established. It not only abolished
the mass and other Romish rites, but punished those who used
them as ix they had been criminals. For the first offence, they
were to forfeit all their property; for the second, they were to
be imprisoned for a year; and for the third, condemned to
pine away in prison until death released them from their suf-
ferings. Those also, who did not attend the protestant church
on Sunday and holidays, were to be fined a shilling for
every time they omitted going. This was a petty, teazing kind
of persecution, which irritated the catholics very much. It was
very foolish, too; for while the papists were permitted to attend
their own churches, the queen could tell who were protestants
and who were papists-that is, who were loyal subjects, and who
were not. Now, all were mingled together; and she could no
longer tell the sincere protestant from the compelled hypo-
crite, or the loyal man from the would-be traitor.
Queen Elizabeth was not altogether to be blamed for this
intolerant spirit on the part of the protestants. It did not
originate with her, but with the clergy and the people. Although
she permitted it to a certain extent, she and her ministers took
a great deal of trouble to keep it within bounds. On one
occasion, two protestant bishops wrote to the queen's council
that a priest had been apprehended in a lady's house, and
that he would not take an oath to answer any questions that
might be put to him, saying, naturally enough, that he would
not accuse himself. And what do you suppose these two
protestant bishops proposed to do with the obstinate priest?
Why, put him to the torture-lay him upon the rack and
wrench his limbs to dislocation till he accused himself of the
offence of praying to God in the manner which he, however
wrongfully, thought best. The council very honourably re-
fused to sanction any such shocking and criminal proceeding.
I lay some stress upon these incidents, to show you that violent
and uncharitable people, whatever are their principles, will hate
and try to injure those who differ from them; and also to let
you see, that although in the matter of persecution the catholics
were as red as blood, the protestants were not so white as snow.


I._____________________________________________________________







70 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
But while Elizabeth checked the triumphant spirit of the
protestants and prevented its running into wild excesses, she
also kept down the catholics with a hand of iron. Towards the
end of the year 1559, five of the deposed bishops (among whom
was the detestable Bonner, who had. so often gloated over the
agonies of the victims whom he had sent to the stake in Mary's
time) gathered courage to present what they called a petition
to Elizabeth. It was, however, much more like a reproof than
a petition. After praising her grim sister Mary as the pattern
of a religious woman, it called upon Elizabeth to follow her
example, without loss of time, and prayed that God would turn
her heart and preserve her life, and also make her evil advisers
ashamed and repentant of their wicked heresies. Perhaps
these prelates thought that as the queen was but a young lady,
not more than five-and-twenty, they could awe or intimidate
her. If so, they were greatly mistaken; for they soon found
out that Elizabeth had temper and spirit enough for a dozen
ordinary young ladies. Colouring with rage, she answered
them in a very stern tone, telling them to be careful what they
did, lest they should provoke the punishment provided by the
laws for all who impugned her royal authority and prerogative.
The bishops retired: but they were not to escape so easily;
for, socA after, they were all committed to prison. The
infamous Bonner, who was detested by all humane persons of
either religion, remained in confinement with his own dark,
bitter thoughts for nine long years, and then he died. It
would have been a happy thing for him and for the country if
he never had been born. The other offending bishops were
set at liberty and provided for.
During the first year of her reign, Elizabeth had received an
offer of marriage from Philip of Spain, the widower of her late
sister Mary. Philip was wealthy, powerful, and a king; but
he was hated by the English; and although the queen took
care not to offend him, she very prudently declined the
alliance.
The public religion being settled, Elizabeth turned her
attention to foreign affairs; and a general treaty of peace
between England, France, Spain, and Scotland was concluded
at Cateau-Cambresis. The queen was very anxious to get back the
city of Calais, which had been taken by the French in the latter
part of her sister's reign; but she was persuaded by her ministers&





i:


I


I


MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. 71


to abandon it so long as she could save her honour. It was
therefore agreed that the French king should restore Calais at
the expiration of eight years, and that if he failed to do so, he
should forfeit five hundred thousand crowns, and the queen's
right to the city should still remain. This was, in reality, an
abandonment of Calais; for statesmen believed, as it afterwards
turned out, that Henry of France would find some excuse, both
for keeping the city and for not paying the money. However,
Elizabeth's honour was saved, and peace was established in
Europe. After all the dreadful scenes that had so lately
occurred in England, together with the decay of commerce, and
the increasing poverty of the people, you may be sure peace
was needed for the recovery of its prosperity; and the young,
fair-haired, spirited queen of England had acted wisely in
securing it; and would have done so, even if it had cost her
far more than the troublesome and unnecessary city of Calais.




CHAPTER VI.
CONTINUATION OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
A.D. 1559--1561.
I MUST call your attention for awhile to Scotland, to the change
of its religion, and to the affairs of its young queen, Mary
Stuart, or, as she is commonly called, Mary, queen of Scots.
Mary had a title to the English throne-a title which the
catholics said was superior to that of Elizabeth's. It was
grounded upon her descent, through her father, from Margaret
Tudor, one of the sisters of Henry the Eighth. The princess
Margaret married king James the Fourth of Scotland, who
was killed at the battle of Flodden Field, and left his queen
the mother of a little infant prince. In time, this little prince
became James the Fifth, and married a French princess, called
Mary of Guise, who brought him a little girl; and this little
girl grew up to be the beautiful and fascinating Mary, queen
of Scots. So you see that if Elizabeth had been illegitimate--
that is not born in wedlock-as the catholics pretended, Mary
was the true heir to the English crown. But though Henry


4%k





V *. -srrr~11Ilrr~~--~l~


72


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


the Eighth's marriage with the unfortunate Anne Boleyn was
somewhat irregular, and contracted in defiance of the pope's
decision against its lawfulness, still unprejudiced people must
believe that it was a lawful marriage both in the sight of God
and man. I have explained this little point carefully, because
all the events which afterwards passed between Mary and
Elizabeth rest entirely upon it.
I have already mentioned that Mary, when scarcely sixteen,
was married to Francis, the eldest son of the French king.
That monarch thought it would be an excellent thing if he
could obtain the kingdom of England as well as that of France
for his son; and he directed him and his daughter-in-law,
Mary, to assume the arms and title of king and queen of
England. Elizabeth was naturally offended at this assumption,
and she directed her ambassador to complain of it. The
French king answered, that as the queen of Scots was de-
scended from the royal blood of England, she was properly
entitled to assume the arms of that kingdom. This only
increased Elizabeth's anger; and from that time she felt a
violent jealousy of her ambitious cousin. Mary.
On the death of Henry the Second of France, Mary and her
husband, Francis, ascended the throne of that country as king
and queen; her mother, Mary of Guise, acting for her in
Scotland as regent.
It is not to be supposed that while such a struggle had been
taking place in England about religion, that people were
indifferent or quiet upon that subject in Scotland. The
reformers there were excited by the fearful tales of persecution
which they heard from England, and a zealous, and even bitter
dislike of the Romish church spread among the people. Some
of the principal protestant nobles of Scotland entered into a
sort of secret society, and called themselves The Congregation
of the Lord, to distinguish them from the established church, I
which they named the Congregation of Satan. All the
members of this association bound themselves to devote their
lives and fortunes to maintain and establish the reformed
religion, and to have faithful preachers truly and purely to
minister Christ's gospel and sacraments to His people.
The catholic priests were much alarmed in consequence of
this association; and Mary of Guise, the regent of Scotland.
cited the most eminent of the protestant preachers to appear at







Jo IN IKNox. 73
Stirling on the 10th of May, 1559, and give an account of their
conduct. The preachers came; but they came attended by
such a multitude of people, that the regent thought she had
better send them home again. Accordingly, she promised that
no proceedings should be taken against them on' account of
any violence or heresy that had been committed, provided they
would behave peaceably in future. Whether they forgot their
promise, or whether the queen-regent broke her word, is a
matter of doubt; but it is certain, that after the protestant
preachers had dispersed, she caused them to be proceeded
against as heretics. This enraged the people, who had nearly
all embraced the reformed religion, and made them resolve to
dispute the regent's authority even by force of arms; and to
oppose the priests of the established religion to the very last.
Among the Scottish reformers was a bold and vehement
preacher, named John Knox-an honest and sincere man, but
bitter in his sentiments and ferocious in his conduct. The day
after the reformers had been summoned to Stirling, he preached
a sermon at Perth, against what he called the idolatry and
other abominations of the church of Rome. His discourse was
so fierce and eloquent, that the people were excited to a strange
degree of violence and enthusiasm. In this spirit they resolved
to root out the catholic religion from the land. When this
fiery sermon was .ended, a foolish priest began to open his
repository of images and relics, and prepare to say mass. An
altercation took place between him and some of the by-standers,
which ended in their attacking the priest, and breaking his
images to pieces. They then overthrew the altar, tore the
pictures to pieces, broke the sculptured fonts, scattered the
consecrated vases, and left the church a ruin. Not satisfied
with this work of destruction, they pillaged and then pulled
down several magnificent neighboring monasteries. This fury
soon spread to other places; and many noble abbeys and
churches were left mere heaps of ruins. Knox encouraged
all this sad havoc, saying that the best way to prevent the
crows from returning, was to break up their nests. These
furious destroyers of the popish monasteries and churches were
called Iconoclasts (which means breakers of images), in conse-
quence of the number of stone and wooden saints that they
broke in pieces.
The queen-regent was so enraged at this violence, that she
VOL. II. L
n ', I t -- n








74 HISTORY OF ENGLAND
collected an army to punish the impious rebels and heretics-as
she called them. The Scottish nobles who had assumed the
name of the Congregation of the Lord," then collected another
army and stood on their defence. They sent an address to the
regent, and another to the catholic clergy. They told Mary of
Guise that if they were persecuted by those cruel beasts, the
churchmen, they would apply to some foreign prince for assist-
ance; that they were her faithful subjects in all things not
opposed to the law of God; and they signed themselves-the
Faithful Congregation of Christ Jesus. Their address to the
church was far more violent: and it was directed To the
generation of Antichrist, the pestilent prelates and their
shavelings in Scotland." In it these fierce reformers said to
the priests, As ye by tyranny intend not only to destroy our
bodies, but also of the same to hold our souls in bondage of the
devil, subject to idolatry; so shall we, with all the force and
power which God shall grant unto us, execute just vengeance
and punishment upon you: yea, we shall begin that same war
which God commanded Israel to execute against the Canaanites
-that is, contract of peace shall never be made till you desist
from your open idolatry and cruel persecution of God's children.
And this-in the name of the eternal God, and of his son Christ
Jesus, whose verity we profess, and whose gospel we have
preached, and holy sacraments rightly administered-we signify
unto you to be our intent, so far as God will assist us to with-
stand your idolatry. Take this for warning, and be not
deceived."
The queen-regent, who was a wise and prudent princess,
seeing the power of the reforming army, thought it best again
to come to some peaceable arrangement. Thus encouraged,
Knox and the Congregation of the Lord, or the Lords of the
Congregation as they began to be called, entered into a new
covenant, and vowed to extirpate popery from the land. To
show that they were in earnest, they began zealously to
demolish those churches and monasteries which had before
escaped their fury. After these excesses, the reformers pro-
ceeded to Edinburgh; and the regent took shelter in the
castle of Dunbar.
In this condition, Mary of Guise received money and a rein-
forcement of troops from France; and news arrived that her
brother was collecting an army in Germany to reduce the
*






ELIZABETH SUPPORTS THE SCOTTISH REPORMERS. 75
reformers to submission. The Scottish nobles were alarmed:
they had not the money to support a regular army, and their
followers were daily deserting for want of pay. Such was their
position when they resolved to apply to the protestant queen
of England for assistance.
Here was an opportunity for Elizabeth to punish Mary, who
was now queen of France, for assuming the royal arms of
England. But it was not spite alone that made Elizabeth
support the violent reformers of Scotland against their govern-
ment and their church. It was a cautious policy,-perhaps
an over-cautious policy; but which many writers have thought
a wise one. The French had a constantly-increasing army in
Scotland, and were secretly aiming at obtaining the mastery of
the whole country. Supposing them to be successful,-a queen
of both France and Scotland, who had also a claim to the crown
of England, was a dangerous neighbour. If the protestants
were crushed in Scotland, there was very little doubt the
catholics would try to place Mary Stuart on the throne of
England; and, in that case, the safety not only of Elizabeth,
but of the protestant religion in England, depended on the turn
of affairs in Scotland.
Early in the year 1560, Elizabeth concluded a treaty at
Berwick with the Lords of the Congregation, for mutual defence.
It was to last during the marriage of Mary Stuart with the
French king, and for a year afterwards. She had, before this,
sent them secret assistance, in the shape of sums of money;
but she now openly sent both a fleet and an army to aid them.
The fleet, which consisted of thirteen large ships of war, was
sent to the Frith of Forth; and the army, consisting of eight
thousand men, was assembled at Berwick. The French court
offered immediately to restore the city of Calais to her, if she
would not interfere in the affairs of Scotland; but Elizabeta
answered proudly, that she would never put a fishing-town in
competition with her dominions; and she ordered her fleet and
army to commence hostilities.
The French troops in Scotland were ravaging the county of
Fife, when the English made their appearance. As the French
were not half so numerous as the English, they took refuge in
Leith, and protected themselves by fortifications. The English,
assisted by an army of Scottish reformers, attacked the place
with great fury; and after two skirmishes, in which the French







HISTORY OFi E~NGLAND


-------J





fought bravely, they were reduced to great distress. Still they
held out, and the siege was converted into a blockade-that is,
the place was surrounded with soldiers, so that no food could
be brought into it-and endeavoured to be starved into a sur-
render. But two events that occurred induced the French
garrison to yield, before the grim spectre of famine made its
appearance within the walls of the town. The first was the
dispersion, by a storm, of a fleet which was bringing -an army
to their assistance; and the second was the death of Mary of
Guise, the queen-regent.
On the 7th of July a peace was brought about by the Treaty
of Edinburgh," as it was called, and then Leith was surrendered
and abandoned by the French. It was agreed that France
recognized the right of Elizabeth to the English throne; and
that Mary and her husband should no longer assume the royal
title or arms of England. The affairs of Scotland were to be
placed in the hands of a council of twelve nobles of that
country, of whom the queen of Scots should choose seven, and
the parliament five. No foreign troops were in future to be
brought into Scotland without the full consent of the parlia-
ment; and a pardon was to be granted for all past offences.
As to religion, it was agreed that the parliament should report
their wishes upon that subject to Mary and her husband, and
that some arrangement should be entered into respecting it.
Thus, though Elizabeth obtained what she wanted, the cause
for which the Scottish lords made war upon their government
remained unsettled.
Immediately after the French had left Scotland, the parlia-
ment of that country assembled. It met on the 1st of August,
1560, and very memorable work it did. The Lords of the
Congregation immediately presented a petition, in which they
demanded that their own religion should be made the estab-
lished one of the country, and that the catholics should be
suppressed and punished. This was very unjust and intolerant;
for they would not allow to the catholics that liberty of
conscience which they insisted on for themselves. The
parliament shared the spirit of the reformers, or, as a popular
writer says, they seem to have been actuated by the same
spirit of rage and persecution." They abolished the ceremony
of the mass utterly, not only in all public churches and chapels,
but they would not permit it to be celebrated in private


I


-1


---- -- --- -- -- ---


- -- --


I\







REFORMATION OF THE SCOTTISH CHURCH. 77
houses. It was declared to be not only an error but a crime;
and whoever officiated in it, or was present at it, were con-
demned to be punished-for the first offence with confiscation of
their goods and imprisonment; for the second, with banishment
from their native land; and 'for the third, with death. This
atrocious law was almost as bad as anything the papists would
have done; but it was not all that these fiery protestants did
now that they had the power. They voted that the authority
of the pope in Scotland should be abolished; that bishops and
the other dignitaries of the church were limbs of the devil.and
agents of papal superstition and tyranny; and that, for the
future, the PRESBYTERIAN form of religion should be established
in Scotland. The savage tone of the reformers frightened all
the bishops away from their seats in parliament; for they very
naturally felt they were not safe there. The members, desirous
that their conduct should appear quite legal, summoned the
bishops to attend; and as no notice was taken of this summons,
the parliament voted that the prelates were satisfied with the
new constitution of the church. When the parliament had
proceeded to this extent, they sent a messenger to France to
tell their queen what they had done, and obtain her sanction
of their measures. Mary, as a devout catholic, was not likely
to be pleased at their violent reforms: she received the messenger
with coldness, and refused her assent. However, the reformers,
who did not care much for her refusal, resolved to have their own
way. They put their laws into practice; abolished the mass,
plundered the monasteries, took possession of the great part of
the revenues of the church, and appointed their preachers to all
livings. Thus was popery destroyed in Scotland, and a new
form of worship built upon its ruins. The change was a great
and good one; but the manner in which it was made unjust,
furious, and unchristian.
On the 6th of December, 1560 (a few months after the
change of national religion in Scotland), Mary's husband, the
young king of France, died. Thus, after a reign of seventeen
months, she was no longer queen of France; and she resolved
on returning to her native land and devoting herself to its
government. Before doing so, she directed D'Oisel, her
ambassador, to apply to her cousin Elizabeth for a safe conduct
across the seas into Scotland, and to permit her to pass through
England, if it should be necessary. Elizabeth's jealous dislike
L ___!







78 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
to Mary was so extreme that she refused this trifling request;
and refused it, too, in coarse and angry language ;-very unbe-
coming to her high station. The reason that she gave for this
rude conduct was, that Mary had declined to ratify the treaty
Sof Edinburgh. The Scottish queen had given up wearing the
royal arms of England; but she very justly refused to abandon
ner claim to the throne of England in the event of the death of
Elizabeth.
When Elizabeth's answer was brought to Mary by sir
Nicholas Throgmorton, the Scottish queen was extremely
indignant; and, after ordering her attendants to leave the
apartment, she made the following spirited remarks, which I
will insert entire, because they show something of the character
of that extraordinary woman:-" How weak I may prove, or
how far a woman's frailty may transport me, I cannot tell:
however, I am resolved not to have so many witnesses of my
infirmity as your mistress had at her audience of my ambassador
D'Oisel. There is nothing disturbs me so much as the having
asked, with so much importunity, a favour which it was of no
consequence for me to obtain. I can, with God's leave, return
to my own country without her leave; as I came to France, in
spite of all the opposition of her brother, king Edward: neither
do I want friends both able and willing to conduct me home, as
they have brought me hither; though I was desirous rather to
make an experiment of your mistress's friendship, than of the
assistance of any other person. I have often heard you say,
that a good correspondence between her and myself would
conduce much to the security and happiness of both our king-
doms: were she well convinced of this truth, she would hardly
have denied me so small a request. But perhaps she bears a
better inclination to my rebellious subjects than to me, their
sovereign-her equal in royal dignity, her near relation, and the
undoubted heir of her kingdoms. Besides her friendship, I ask
nothing at her hands. I neither trouble her nor concern
myself in the affairs of her state: not that I am ignorant that
there are not in England a great many malcontents, who are
no friends to the present establishment. She is pleased to
upbraid me as a person little experienced in the world. I freely
own it; but age will cure that defect. However, I am old
enough to acquit myself honestly and courteously to my friends
and relations, and to encourage no reports of your mistress





'^ ---- I- .. ._ -- --- -- --MBIB--| ^-^_ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 V-
MARY STUART RETURNS TO SCOTLAND. 79
which would misbecome a queen and her kinswoman. I would
also say, by her leave, that I am a queen as well as she, and
not altogether friendless; and perhaps I have as great a soul
too; so that methinks we should be upon a level in our treat-
ment of each,other. As soon as I have consulted the states of
my kingdom, I shall be ready to give her a reasonable answer;
and I am the more intent on my journey, in order to make the
quicker dispatch in this affair. But she, it seems, intends to
stop my journey; so that either she will not let me give her
satisfaction, or is resolved not to be satisfied-perhaps on pur-
pose to keep up the disagreement between us. I have not been
wanting in all friendly offices to her; but she disbelieves or
overlooks them. I could heartily wish that I were as nearly
allied to her in affection as in blood; for that indeed would be
a most valuable alliance."
Perhaps Elizabeth never received a better schooling than
was contained in this biting speech; but, though it vexed her
extremely, she did not profit by it. Indeed, it was not the
Sort of language fitted to encourage friendship, or remove the
jealous feelings that already existed between the two queens.
It was during the lovely month of August, of 1561, that
SMary Stuart embarked to return to her native country. France
Shad been her home almost since her infancy, and she felt pain-
ful emotions of regret in leaving it. It is said that she kept
her eyes fixed upon the coast until the night closed in and shut
it from her gaze. As its dim outline was rapidly disappearing,
she sat upon a couch on deck frequently repeating, "Farewell,
France, farewell! I shall never see thee more!" On arriving at
Leith she was received by the people with enthusiasm; for her
youth, beauty, and the gentleness of her manners won for her
Sa general admiration. Besides, she was the only descendant of
their ancient line of kings; and, on that account, the people
were disposed to love her. Her first step was a very wise one:
she issued a proclamation declaring her intention to maintain
the protestant form of worship which she found established,
and forbidding any one to interfere with it on pain of death.
She even sent for John Knox, and tried to win him to a quiet
submission to her authority; but the rude zealot coarsely in-
sulted her. He and the other reformers were resolved, not only
that they would not go to mass themselves, but that their
queen should not have the liberty of doing so.





S. -


80


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


The first Sunday after her arrival, there was a riot in conse-
quence of its being performed in the palace at Holyrood. The
people asked each other, Shall we suffer that idol to be again
erected within the realm ?" One noble even shouted aloud in
the court-yard of the palace, That the idolatrous priest should
die the death !" Indeed, the uproar was so great that it was
with some difficulty the priest was prevented from being
murdered at the altar's foot. While this was going on in and
around the palace of the young queen, the preachers offered up
prayers in the churches that God would turn her heart, which
was obstinate against him and his truth: or, if his holy will
was otherwise, that he would strengthen the hearts and hands
of the elect stoutly to oppose the rage of all tyrants.
With much difficulty, Mary obtained from her subjects a sort
of equivocal permission to hear mass in private. But the
knowledge that she still adhered to the ancient religion of her
ancestors, seemed to poison all feelings of affection and gene-
rosity that they might otherwise have felt for her. She was
exposed to constant insults, especially from the preachers.
But the violent fanaticism of John Knox was absolutely
brutal: his conduct alone was sufficient to make Mary view
the religion which he professed with disgust, and to make her
adhere more strongly to the catholic church. The usual name
by which he alluded to her was that of Jezebel, although she
was (at least as yet) a pure-minded, beautiful, and amiable girl.
She tried to subdue his violence by the most gracious conde-
scensions; but no gentleness could touch his sour, discontented,
bitter nature. She promised him access to her presence when-
ever he desired it; and begged him, if he found her blamable,
to reprehend in private and not vilify her in the church before
all the people. The bigot only answered, that if she pleased to
come to church she would hear the gospel of truth : that it was
not his business to apply to every individual; nor had he
leisure to do so.
Knox was indeed quite as much a rebel as a reformer. If
he had been an English subject, and had acted with half as
much insolence to queen Elizabeth, she would have sent him
to the pillory or else to the scaffold. On one occasion he told
Mary that he would submit to her as Paul submitted to Nero.
Another time he had the audacity to tell her that "Samuel
feared not to slay Agag, the fat and delicate king of Amalek,
" i__ II I I :-l I, ~ "' !iii I. i ^- i- ,





~---------------------- ------------_
VIOLENCE Or JOHR I NOX, 81
whom king Saul had saved: neither spared Elias Jezebel's false
prophets and Baa's priests, though king Ahab was present.
And so madam," he added, your grace may see that others
than chief magistrates may lawfully inflict punishment on such
crimes as are condemned by the law of God." Indeed, this
inan and the rest of the zealous preachers filled Mary's life with
bitterness and sorrow. Her temper was naturally cheerful, and
she was fond of gaiety; but these men condemned all innocent
pleasures as crimes, and threatened her with God's judgment
for indulging in them.
On one occasion, Knox was called in question for his conduct.
While Mary was absent from Edinburgh, some ruffians broke
into her chapel, defiled the altar, and behaved in a very riotous
manner. Two of them were arrested and indicted for this
offence. Knox immediately took up their cause, and wrote
circular letters to the most furious protestant zealots in each
town to arm for the defence of the two rioters. This was
treason, and he was accordingly summoned before the council
to answer for it.' He knew that some of the council secretly
hated the queen, on account of her religion, as much as he did;
and this emboldened him to defend himself with his usual
audacity. He told the queen that the pestilent papists who
had inflamed her against these holy men (he meant the chapel-
breakers) were the sons of the devil, and must, therefore, ooey
the directions of their father, who had been a liar and a man-
slayer from the beginning. This troublesome man was
acquitted, and made still more violent by the triumph he had
gained.
Here, for a time, I must leave Mary Stuart and return to the
affairs of England and Elizabeth.




CHAPTER VII.
CONTINUATION OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
A.D. 1,561-1566.
ELIZABETH soon saw that she had not much to fear from the
Scottish queen, who possessed little or no power over her
V OL. II.
-. ... - - - - -..-- -






HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


J -


82


_I __


I


-7'


_ __ __


turbulent subjects, She, therefore, turned her attention to
promoting the prosperity of her kingdom and the happiness of
er people. She was very.careful with her money, and soon able
to pay many of the great debts of the crown. The coin had been
alloyed by her predecessors, and she restored it to its ancient
purity. She imported great quantities of arms from Germany;
and introduced into England the art of making gunpowder and
brass cannon. She encouraged agriculture by allowing corn to
be exported; favoured trade and navigation; and built- so many
ships, that she began to be called the restorer of our naval
glory, and the queen of the northern seas.
The fame of Elizabeth, as a wise and powerful princess, soon
spread abroad; and many foreign kings and nobles made her
offers of marriage. Amongst them was Eric, the king of
Sweden; Charles, the archduke of Austria; the duke of Hol-
stein; and the earl of Arran, heir to the crown of Scotland.
Besides these princes, several of her own subjects humbly
aspired to the honour of her hand; the most favoured of whom
was a handsome but profligate young nobleman, lord Robert
Dudley, afterwards the notorious earl of Leicester. Elizabeth
had resolved to remain single; for she was too ambitious to
share her power with any one: but she gave all her suitors
such a gentle refusal, that they still had hopes of succeeding a*
last. This was a wise plan; for it kept them all devoted to hei
service: but it is very likely that the famous-queen was also
fond of the attentions and professions of attachment which she
was frequently receiving from her would-be husbands.
With all her greatness as a queen, Elizabeth was a cold-
hearted woman, and very vindictive towards those whom she
disliked; and, about this time, she committed a mean and
cruel act of tyranny. Lady Catherine Grey, a sister of the
unfortunate lady Jane who was beheaded by the orders of
queen Mary, contracted a secret marriage with the young earl
of Hertford. They were married privately; because the queen
was known to entertain a jealous feeling of every one who was
of royal blood; and the lady Catherine was the next heir to the
crown after Mary, queen of Scots. Although they had comr
mitted no crime, or even offence, Elizabeth, on discovering the
marriage, sent them both as prisoners to the Tower, declared
their children to be illegitimate, and inflicted on the earl a fine
of fifteen thousand pounds. Death released the unfortunate





--- -- '- 1 '--*---^ -- -'" -- ^ i-ii -
,,, i" i 1 -i .. .i .
RELIaIOUS CONVULSIONS IN FRANCE. 83
iody from confinement; but her unhappy husband remained a
prisoner for nine long, weary years. Still, Elizabeth could act
with magnanimity; and when, about the same time, two
nephews of the late cardinal Pole were condemned to death for
a treasonable design to place queen Mary upon the English
throne, and to change the religion of the country, she generously
granted them the royal pardon. As they had been led into their
design by the pretended predictions of some foolish astrologer,
the queen caused the parliament, soon after, to pass a severe
law against prophecies, conjurations, enchantments, and witch-
craft.
During this time, France was distracted with civil wars
between the catholics and the protestants, who were there
called Huguenots. The catholic party was led by the duke of
Guise, and the Huguenots by the prince of Cond6e; and between
the two, horror reigned from one end of the land to the other.
The people seemed actually mad with religious excitement, and
murdered each other with such a savage ferocity, that in all
directions the ground was soaked with blood. The parliament
of Paris added to the general misery by passing an act giving
the catholics permission to massacre the Huguenots, who, as
might be expected, retaliated in a similar manner. "Wherever,"
says a famous writer, the Huguenots prevailed, the images
were broken, the altars pillaged, the churches demolished, and
the monasteries consumed with fire: where success attended the
catholics, they burned the Bibles, rebaptised the infants, and con-
strained married persons to pass anew through the nuptual
ceremony; and plunder, desolation, and bloodshed attended
equally the triumph of both parties."
In this dreadful state of things, the duke of Guise (the
catholic leader) applied to Philip the Second, the bigoted king
of Spain, for assistance, who, as he entertained a bitter hatred
to the reformed religion, readily gave it. The prince of Conde
(the leader of the Huguenots) then applied to Elizabeth for help,
and offered to put her in possession of the important town of
i Havre-de-Grace, in return for it. The English queen con-
sented; and after sending money and men to the prince of
Cond6, Havte was given up to her, and garrisoned by a body
of three thousand of her troops. Elizabeth had two reasons
for this: she wished to help the protestants abroad, lest the
catholics should become powerful enough to molest her; and
'_ _____,.,,.. _.. -\ -----------.--------







84


HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


she thought Havre might prove as useful to her subjects as the
town of Calais, which they had so recently lost. Soon after
Elizabeth had assisted the Huguenots, a battle took place
between them and the catholics at Dreux. The Huguenots
were defeated: but their party still kept up the struggle; and
Elizabeth sent them a hundred thousand crowns, and offered
to be security for as much more, if they could find some
merchants to lend the money.
As the queen's purse was empty, she again summoned her
parliament. That body met on the 12th of January, 1563: its
frst 'act was to present another address to her, entreating her
to marry. She had lately been suffering so severely from the
small-pox, that her life was despaired of; and the commons
desired her to marry, that in the event of her death, she might
leave a son to .succeed her. They reminded her of the sad
civil wars that had arisen from the contending titles of York
and Lancaster, and begged her to save them from the chance
of such another calamity. But they added, that if her high
mind was for ever set against matrimony, they entreated that
she would permit her successor to be named and appointed by
act of parliament.
Elizabeth was puzzled: to declare Mary the heir to her
throne, was to gratify her rival and to encourage the catholics
to hope that their form of religion might yet be restored in
England; while to accept a husband, was to act in opposition to
her own wishes. In this difficulty she had recourse to that
deception of which she was such a mistress. She told the
parliament, that notwithstanding what she had said at the
beginning of her reign, yet she had no fixed resolution never
to marry; and that, for the sake of her people, she would
endeavour to lay some solid foundation for their future security*
At that very time a new suitor made his appearance,-the duke
of Wirtemberg, a protestant prince. The queen received his
offer in a very polite manner; said that though she was not tired
of a single life, yet the care of her kingdom counselled her
to avoid it. But that, as the welfare of her people depended
upon her choice, it was necessary for her to make it with great
care. In the end, she thanked the duke and promised to
deserve his good opinion. By this evasion, she contrived to
get rid of the application of the parliament, without giving any
direct answer.

4 I


_ __ ___ __ A




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs