• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Analysis of contents
 List of Illustrations
 List of wood-cuts
 List of maps
 Map of Africa
 The elephant
 The lion
 The puma
 The gorilla
 The nshiego-mbouve
 The rhinoceros
 The tiger
 The hippopotamus
 The leopard
 The panther
 The jaguar
 The lynx
 The buffalo
 The wolf
 The boar
 The bear
 The ostrich
 The reindeer
 The oryx
 The chamois
 The moose
 The sambur
 The eland
 The sable antelope
 The kangaroo
 The giraffe
 The horse
 The wild ass
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Wild sports of the world : a book of natural history and adventure
Title: Wild sports of the world
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003265/00001
 Material Information
Title: Wild sports of the world a book of natural history and adventure
Physical Description: xxii, 426 p., <16> leaves of plates (6 fold.) : ill. (some col.), maps, ports. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Greenwood, James
Beeton, Samuel Orchart, 1831-1877 ( Publisher )
Melville, Harden Sidney, fl. 1837-1882 ( Illustrator )
Harvey, William, 1796-1866 ( Illustrator )
Zwecker, Johann Baptist, 1814-1876 ( Illustrator )
Weir, Harrison, 1824-1906 ( Illustrator )
Dickes, William, 1815-1892 ( Engraver )
Woods, H. Newsom ( Engraver )
Miller, W. G ( Illustrator )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: S.O. Beeton
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Spottiswoode and Co.
Publication Date: 1862
 Subjects
Subject: Hunters -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Hunting -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Big game animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1862   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1862
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Greenwood ; with woodcuts from designs by Harden Melville and William Harvey, coloured illustrations from water-coloured drawings by J.B. Zwecker, Harrison Weir and Harden Melville, portraits of celebrated hunters from original photographs, and maps showing the habitats of animals and plants all over the world.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by W. Dickes and H. Newsom Woods.
General Note: Portraits engraved from drawings by W.G. Miller.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003265
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230846
oclc - 03580829
notis - ALH1212

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Analysis of contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xviii
    List of wood-cuts
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
    List of maps
        Page xxii
    Map of Africa
        Page 1
    The elephant
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Structure of the elephant
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Habitat of the elephant
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        The war elephant of the ancients
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        How he is trapped and tamed
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 49a
            Page 50
            Page 51
        How he is hunted for his ivory
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
    The lion
        Page 65
        Structure of the lion
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 56
            Page 71
        Habitat of the lion
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        The fighting lion of ancient Rome
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        How the lion is hunted
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Plate
            Page 97a
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
    The puma
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    The gorilla
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Structure of the gorilla
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
        Habitat of the gorilla
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
        How the gorilla is hunted
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
    The nshiego-mbouve
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Plate
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    The rhinoceros
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Habitat of the rhinoceros
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
        How the rhinoceros is hunted
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
    The tiger
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Habitat of the tiger
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
        How the tiger is trapped and hunted
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Plate
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
    The hippopotamus
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Habitat of the hippopotamus
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
        How the hippopotamus is trapped and hunted
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
    The leopard
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        How the leopard is hunted
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
    The panther
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        How the panther is hunted
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
    The jaguar
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    The lynx
        Page 256
    The buffalo
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        How the buffalo is hunted
            Page 262
            Plate
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
    The wolf
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Habitat of the wolf
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
        How the wolf is trapped and hunted
            Page 276
            Plate
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
    The boar
        Page 285
        Page 286
        How the wild boar is hunted
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Plate
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
    The bear
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Structure of the bear
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
        Habitat of the bear
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
        How the bear is hunted
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Plate
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
    The ostrich
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Habitat of the ostrich
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
        How the ostrich is hunted for its plumage
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
    The reindeer
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Habitat of the reindeer
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
    The oryx
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    The chamois
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Plate
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
    The moose
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
    The sambur
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
    The eland
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
    The sable antelope
        Page 388
        Page 389
    The kangaroo
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Habitat of the kangaroo
            Page 392
        How the kangaroo is hunted
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
    The giraffe
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Habitat of the giraffe
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
        How the giraffe is hunted
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
    The horse
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Habitat of the wild horse
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
            Page 413
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
            Page 417
            Page 418
            Plate
            Page 419
            Page 420
            Page 421
            Page 422
    The wild ass
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text













WILD SPORTS OF THE WORLD.

























































LONDON

PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOOD AND CO.

NEW-STRKJT SQUARE

















C,











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THE OLD SHEKAILI'Y AI>]) TRE ELI'PH'lANTC.










WILD SPORTS


OF


THE WORLD:





A BOOK

OF

NATURAL HISTORY AND ADVENTURE.




BY JAMES GREENWOOD.


(TWENTY-FIFTH THOUSAND.)


WITH WOODCUTS FROM DESIGNS BY HARDEN MELVILLE AND WILLIAM HARVEY,
'OLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS FROM WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS BY J. B. ZWECKER, HARRISON WEIR
AND HARDEN MELVILLE,
PORTRAITS OF CELEBRATED HUNTERS FROM ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPHS,
AND MAPS SHOWING THE HABITATS OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS ALL OVER THE WORLD.








LONDON:
S. O. BEETON, 248, STRAND, W.C.
1862.

















PREFACE.




THE history of a nation like ours, the secret of its vast
successes, is not to be written in a word, or sought in any one
or any dozen qualities. But if we had to choose amongst the
philosophers who pretend to have traced the national life to its
source, there are not many of us who would not declare for
those who find the secret in Adventure. It is simply an
historical fact that England was born of Adventure. It was
this spirit in the great old Scandinavians, from whom we have
the honour to descend, which scattered amongst the oaks of
Britain a people that took as kindly to its soil as they, and which
in a thousand years had lost none of the fibre that pulled
the old beaked galleys over the terrible North Sea. Now if we
consider what adventure means, we shall find reason to hope
that many more years will pass away before this spirit begins
to decline. We may hope so for the world's sake, as well as
our own, without egotism;" for to adventure-to, our adventure-
is due almost all the colonisation that has ever been accom-
plished since the Romans quitted the trade. What colonisation
means is not to be told within the limits of a whole volume
such as this: in brief, it means existence to millions, and one-
half the comfort and prosperity we enjoy. But the subjugation







PREFACE.


of territory, and the supplanting of less useful races, is not all
the work of an adventurous people. The inspiration is omni-
present, more or less. It enters into everything to which a
man can lay his hands; for to it go curiosity, patience, labour,
self-sacrifice; it demands, while it nurtures, foresight, toleration,
steady aims, ready hands; without it man is little better than a
vegetable, with it he .has eyes .to -see and wings to fly all over
the world. It prompts discovery and pursues it. It constantly
adds new labours to the work of mankind, and supports them
through it, even where there is little but weariness and vexation
for reward. Those who imagine, then, that Adventure has
only 'to do with geographical exploration, or with sending ships
to sea, know nothing of its true force. It is the life of science,
the pioneer of religion even; for the missionary could no more
exist without it than could the chemist. Nay, it is doubtful
whether the -sinew of the British'navvy is all that carries him
through work which labourers of a less adventurous race call
on him to perform in every quarter of the globe.


Assuming this to be true, not a word need be said as to
the importance of keeping the ancient spirit alive in England.
On the other hand, a great deal might be said about the causes
which threaten its decline. Its own results are not the least
important of these. Luxury, and the growth of great towns,
with their overworked, overcrowded populations, are .unfavour-
able to adventure exactly as they lead to physical deterioration.
Nobody expects to find as much courage in a spinning-mule'
as in the wild horse; and it would be unreasonable to look for
the same spirit in a town-bred boy, as in one who had always
a river or a tree at hand, in which to risk his life and train his
faculties. But after all, the day has not yet come when we






PREFACE.


need entertain serious apprehensions on this head. We are not
likely to lose in one generation, or two, the North-Sea salt that
survives in our blood after so many centuries of change; it is
inherent. Just as every frog is born with a tail, so every boy
born in Britain comes into existence an adventurer-that is to
say, a seeker and conqueror. The world is to him, verily, only
an oyster, waiting to be opened. He dreams, but his dreams are
all of doing and enduring. Before fourteen, he has beaten-in
long engagements fought in the air-captains mightier than
Napoleon: Wellington could beat him. He has crushed French
navies, founded kingdoms, traversed deserts, superseded steam,
hunted new monsters, discovered strange lands, re-mapped the
heavens. The time comes, indeed, when these big fancies
have to give way to petty realities; but they are tonics of
the first order, and meanwhile they have helped to make a man
of him. Nor does his disappointment descend to his children:
they begin as he began.


Whether, in the face of so many discouragements as it
meets in our day, this spontaneous generation of energy might
not gradually cease, is a grave question. But the national
instinct is alive to the danger. Within the last five years
we have seen the country stirred with anxiety, not for its
enterprise-there is enough of that-but for its muscle; for
the hunting, rowing, leaping, hill-climbing spirit-for its manli-
ness, in short. Pluck and hardihood are the things most prized
-adventure, as much as can be had, the thing most pursued.

It is a fortunate revival, and nothing can be contemptible
that contributes to it. Perhaps this Volume may do so. It
is full of examples of courage and endurance-full of those







PREFACE.


stories of hardihood which fire the imagination of youth, not to
corrupt, but to chasten and attemper. That of itself is not
an unimportant thing; but the Book, we hope, will. not only
strengthen the spirit, but inform the mind of the youthful
reader. This is the claim we venture to set up for it: that
while it is instructive in a merely technical sense, the excitement
to be found in its pages cannot fail to stimulate the more
wholesome, more generous, more manly instincts of those into
whose'hands it is destined to fall.


7: 1-















ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


THE ELEPHANT.
ITS FossIL REMAINs.-Ancient univer-
sality of, 1; Chinese superstition concern-
ing-one preserved in ice upwards of a
thousand years, 3; elephant relics dis-
covered in London and other English
cities-mistaken for the hones of human
giants, 4; Dr. Harvey's inquest on some
such-his verdict approved by Bishop Hake-
well, 6 ; Mazurier's fossil fraud-the giant
of Lucerne proved by Blumenbach to be
part of the skeleton of an elephant, 7.
ITS STRUCTUnE.-Quaint delusion re-
specting the leg-joints of the animal, 8;
its dislike of lying down, 9; its marvellous
power of ascending steeps when heavily
laden-its vegetarian habits, 10; its anxiety
respecting the safe-keeping of its trunk-
wonderful formation of-its mobility and
general use-not used by the calf while
sucking, 12; the elephant's tusks, 14; its
teeth, 15.
ITs HAITAT.-Quantity of food con-
sumed by the elephant, 17; erroneous
notions concerning-its dainty feeding and
fondness for fruit and blossoms-amount of
food consumed by it when domesticated-
by no means a fair test of its natural
voracity-the Ceylon elephant better sup-
plied with food than its African cousin, 18;
its nocturnal gleaning expeditions to the
cultivated fields of the natives-its acute
sense of hearing-its contempt for travelling
-fifty miles in a single night no difficulty
-its feeding-grounds usually a great dis-
tance fr9m its drinking-place-its times for
drinking noted by Gordon Cumming, 19;
singular note of'alarm-how produced--
evidence of various travellers on the sub-
ject, 20; its stealthy mode of progression
-desertion of water-pools by other animals
on the elephant's approach-graphic descrip-
tion of by Andersson, 21; the elephant's
distrust of the slightest fence or other
obstacle to its progression-its inquisitive-
ness, 22; age attained by-its skeleton
seldom found in the forest-theory concern-
ing-singular superstition of the Singhalese


respecting its death, 23; affection of
for progeny disputed-brief mourning for
departed calves, 24; how baby elephant is
weaned-family likeness of adults, 25;
"caste" scrupulously observed among-
the rogue elephant, 26; malicious temper
of-its hostility to mankind-reciprocity
of feeling on the part of the natives-
elephant captives, 27 ; cautious tactics of,
28 ; its indifference as to the quality of the
water it drinks, 29.
THE WAR ELEPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.
-Its service in the armies of the Moguls-
how accoutred and armed-its prowess in
the battle-field, 30; Timour the Tartar's
invasion of India-he makes captive the
enemy's host of elephants, and enlists their
services on the spot, 31; elephants em-
ployed by the King of Ava, conquered by
Kublai Khan-account of by Marco Polo,
32 ; the story of Queen Semiramis and her
elephants, 34.
HOW THE ELEPHANT IS TRAPPED AND
TAMED.-Antiquity of the ivory trade-
the article greatly used by the ancient
Romans-Africa exhausted of its ivory to
supply the demand, 35; a short sermon on
cruelty to animals-elephants used in the
Roman amphitheatres-aneecdotes concern-
ing them, 36 ; elephant baiting "-Bishop
Heber's account of the fighting elephants
of the Rajah of Baroda-Bernier's account
of an elephant fight at the Court of Ava,
37 ; revival of the African ivory trade, 38;
elephant meat-conflicting opinions con-
cerning-vast numbers slaughteredannually
-a million pounds of ivory consumed in a
single year in Great Britain alone-great
quantities exported to China for the decora-
tion of the temples, &c. 39; splendour of
the elephant in olden times, 40 ; the white
elephant its colour a disease one
described by Tachard as feeding out of
golden vessels-Fitch's description of a
sacred one-a person of rank appointed to
wash its feet in a silver bason-one de-
scribed by Mr. Crauford -how it was
attired, 42; expiration of the elephant's







ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


protracted holiday-its services required by
idustry-the ancient plan of elephant-
catching unable to supply the modern
market-a trap for a hundred-the Ked-
dah or Corral, 43; how it is constructed-
number of natives required at its con-
struction-three thousand men employed
to "beat up" at one catch, 44; graphic
description of a "great catch" by Sir
Emerson Tennent, 45 ; decoy females em-
ployed- episode in the life of Siribeddi, a
famous decoy-tremendous struggles of the
snared beasts to escape-affecting instance
of affection of a calf for its mother, 49 ;
the occurrence of a corral a great holiday
in the neighbourhood-how the captives
are treated-means taken to "break "them
to labour, 51.
How IT IS HUNTED FOR ITS IVORY.-
Effects of the invention of gunpowder on
the elephant's existence, 52; how it used
to be hunted-a hunt with spears described
by Livingstone-various native modes of
hunting it, 53; hamstringing-the bullet
more merciful than the sword or spear-
one of Gordon Cumming's "sporting"
adventures-how to enjoy one's coffee-
queer notions of humanity, 54; where to
aim at the elephant-various opinions on
the subject-little danger attending the
sport, proved by the coroners' returns, 55;
the African elephant larger than any other
-its monstrous ears-serve as shelter from
the rain for its driver-the spectacle pre-
sented at the cutting up of a carcase-
picture of an elephant-carcase-butcher,
56; travellers' tales, tremendous exploits
with the long-bow-how Lieutenant Moodie
was hunted by an elephant, 57; Mr. An-
dersson's appalling adventure at Kobis, 59;
the "Old Shekarry's" prolonged battle with
a bull elephant, 61 ; wondrous structure
and intelligence of the elephant-the pro-
found wisdom of the Creator not a subject
for scientific controversy, 62; wonderful
instance of the animal's sagacity as wit-
nessed by Sir Emerson Tennent-memoir
of Sir Emerson Tennent, 63.

THE LION.
STRUCTURE OF THE Liox.-Intelligence
of carnivorous animals superior to that of
herbivorous, 65; enormous strength of the
lion-the peculiar structure of its paws,
67; obtuseness of its sense of taste, 68 ;
teeth of the lion-observations respecting
by Rymer Jones, 69; eyes of the lion-
a spike at the extremity of its tail-evidence
of modern naturalists respecting-roar of
the lion, 70; Livingstone's opinion concern-


ing, contrasted with that of other travellers
and sportsmen, 71.
HABITAT OF THE LION.-An argument
in favour of the lion's regal dignity, 72;
its "generosity" at least equal to that of
man-its qualities as a husband and father
-the treacherous vixen to whom it is
coupled, 73 ; mortality of females in ex-
cess of that of males-the reason thereof
-description of a leonine courtship-un-
faithfulness of the lioness, 74; a battle
royal for a fickle mate, 75; nocturnal
habits of the lion-Livingstone's contempt.
for the king of beasts-its liking for a dark
stormy night-the lioness's care of her
young-how she educates them, 76; age
at which the young lion commences business
on its own account, 76 ; its helplessness in
its old age, 77 ; lions never seen in herds-
how they attack their prey, 78.
THE FIGHTING LION OF ANCIENT ROME.
-Gladiatorial exhibitions first instituted in
Rome-how the gladiators were obtained-
schools established for their education-the
Colosseum, 79 ; various modes of fighting,
80 ; betting on the occasion-cruelty of the
spectators, 81; mode of expressing dis-
approbation or approval adopted by the
audience-royal ladies always present at
the sanguinary spectacles, 82; fights be-
tween wild beasts-eleven thousand pitted
against men and against each other at the
celebration of the triumph of Trajan-a
battle between five Bestiarii and five lions.
83; insensibility to pain while in the
clutches of carnivora, 85; Dr. Living-
stone's experience of-the martyrdom of
St. Ignatius, 85.
How THE LION IS HUNTED.--Hunting
tactics of Europeans abroad superior to

those of the natives, 87; the perilous
business of lion hunting-Andersson's first
lesson, 88 ; varieties of the Algerian lion-
its enormous depredations among the flocks
of the Arabs, 91; an Arab lion-trap-
directions to the "solitary hunter" by
Jules Gerard, 92 ; solitary hunting not to
Arab taste-an army of Arabs to hunt a
lion, 93 ; how they set about the business,
94; the Old Shekarry's lion duel at Natal,
95; Gordon Cumming's adventure with a
lion, 96; Cumming's bout with a man-
eater who steals a waggoner from the fire-
side, 98; Dr. Livingstone's marvellous
escape from a lion's jaws, 99 ; a lion-hunter
saved through the sagacity of his elephant,
101 ; how Piet punched the head of a lion
-decrease of lions within the last century
-Steedman's account of the "tree huts "
on the shores of the Mcriqua, 104; the








ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


maneless lion, 105; memoir of Jules
Gerard, 106.
THE PUMA.
Its numerous aliases-where found-
height, length, structure, and colour of,
107; scene of its hunting exploits-its
bloodthirsty ravages among the flocks of
the squatters-puma stories-a remark-
able one related by Josh Springett, a
Katskill hunter, 108; Sir Francis Head
testifies to the cowardice of the puma,
111; the story of Maldonata and her puma
champion, 113.
THE GORILLA.
Tyson's account of the Pigmy, Homo
Sylvestris "-Hanno, the Carthaginian cap-
tain-his discovery of wild men" while
circumnavigating the African continent,
115 ; Professor Owen's opinion of the ac-
count of Hanno contradicted by the
modern explorer, Du Ohaillu, 116; Battel's
exaggerated account of the gorilla, 117;
Ouvier denies the existence of such an
animal-reception by Owen of two skulls
from the Gaboon-the existence of the
giant ape set beyond a doubt, 118.
STRUCTURE OF THE GORILEA.-The
gorilla an ugly progenitor-the notion not
confined to the ignorant and unlearned,
120; Owen and Du Chaillu's opinions
thereon-height of the gorilla, 121; its
hide-its habit of resting at night against
a tree-the eyes of the gorilla-its mouth
-its formidable fangs-its powerful neck
and chest-its peculiar track when running
on all-fours, 122; structure of its hands
and feet, 123; remarkable resemblance of
the gorilla skeleton to that of man-small-
ness of its brain, 124; dentition of man
totally distinct from that of the ape family
-the low degree of the gorilla's cranial
capacity, 125 ; the absurdity of the idea
of the transformation of the ape into man
-the author of Conjectura Cabbalistica"
discourseth thereupon, 126.
ITs HABITAT.-Old tales concerning the
habits of the gorilla, 127 ; dispelled by Du
Chaillu-food of the gorilla-a strict vege-
tarian-its nomadic life partly attributable
to the quantity of food consumed by it-
ascends trees only for the purpose of
gathering their produce, 128; enormous
strength of its jaws-young ones cradled
high in the branches of trees to preserve
them from wild beasts-the gorilla not a
polygamist-pugnacious character of the
male-the pedestrian power of the gorilla,
129; instinctive ferocity of the animal-
Du' Chaillu's account of the capture of a
baby gorilla, 130; its untameable nature


-Du Chaillu tries his hand on a second
gorilla, 133.
How IT Is HUNTED.-Difficulties at-
tached to gorilla hunting, 135; a steady
hand and a brave heart the first essentials
-how the hunter should act, and how the
gorilla will, 136 ; fondness of the natives
for gorilla meat-its brains used as charms
by the savage-Du Chaillu's account of
his first gorilla, 137; curious weakness
of the gorilla's hind legs-fatal gorilla
hunt, 140.
THE NSHIEGO-MBOUVA.
Its habit of building in the branches of
trees-a neat building, 142 ; its solitary
mode of living-its diet-singular feature
of its domestic economy-its structure-
in what regions it is found-inhabits the
same woods with the gorilla-how the
nshiego-mbouv6 retires to rest at night,
143 ; Du Chaillu's account of the capture
of a baby of this species, 144 ; African ex-
plorations of Du Chaillu, 147.
THE RHINOCEROS.
ITs STRUCTURE.-Varieties of-their
characteristics -effects of a fatal shot on
the rhinoceros, 150; erroneous notions con-
cerning the impenetrability of its hide-to
what the error may probably be ascribed-
how the natives prepare the hides to be
manufactured into various articles of com-
mon use-species of rhinoceros found in
Africa-the square-nosed white rhinoceros,
its dimensions, 152; smallness of its eyes
-the acuteness of its hearing and smell-
its wonderful swiftness-the evidence of
certain African hunters thereupon-another
species of white rhinoceros-its similarity
to the foregoing-chiefly distinguished by
a difference in the shape and size of the
horns-superstitions concerning the horn
of the rhinoceros, 152; how they may have
arisen-value of rhinoceros horn-purposes
to which it is applied-its colour, 153;
made into drinking-vessels by the Turks-
wonderful properties of-shavings of rhi-
noceros horn a cure for convulsions and
spasms-goblets made thereof for the de-
tection of poison-testimony of most re-
spectable witnesses concerning, 154.
ITS HABITAT.-Birth of rhinoceros-
not an elegant baby-slow growth of its
horn-affection of for its young-reciprocal
attachment of calf, 155 ; singular instance
of-helplessness of young rhinoceros-
worried by wild dogs and hyenas, 156 ;
the rhinoceros not a voracious feeder-
quantity of food consumed by one kept
at the Zoological Gardens-more food re-
quired by the white than the black species








ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


-a large supply of water essential to its
existence-the fountains visited oiice at
least in twenty-four hours, 157 ; how the
hunters take advantage of this habit-
mildness of the white rhinoceros-the ex-
cellence of its flesh-ferocity of the black
rhinoceros-its diet, 158; flesh disdained by
the nigger"-calf-meat not disagreeable,
159; story of a ferocious keitloa-paying
toll-the lion unwilling to cross the path
of the black rhinoceros the elephant
equally cautious-fight between bull ele-
phant and black rhinoceros-defeat of the
former-family ties disregarded-Mr. An-
dersson's description of a rhinoceros fight-
four of them engaged-Buphaga Africana
-its services to the rhinoceros-a terrible
nuisance to the hunter, 161; a case in
point, 162; Mr. Oswell's terrible tussle
with a rhinoceros, 163; the Indian rhi-
noceros compared with that of Africa, 164;
the Exeter Change rhinoceros-a shocking
toper, 165 ; the Javanese rhinoceros, 166.
How Iars HuOTnD.-How the Bechuana
prefers to meet grim Borel6, 167 ; opinions
of European sportsmen on the use of
poisoned arrows m hunting the rhinoceros
-smallness of the brain of-stalking a
white rhinoceros--a black rhinoceros at-
tacks Mr. Andersson to within an inch of his
life, 168; tenacity of life in the rhinoceros-
Mr. Galton's battle with one at Tonnobis,
171 ; a horse and rider tossed in the air-
the Sumatran rhinoceros, 172; memoir of
Charles John Andersson, 173.
THE TIGER.
ITs STRnTTURE.-Similarity in structure
of all the cat tribe-disposition of bhe tiger
-its cunning and agility, 175; its hand-
some appearance-difficulty of discerning
the brute from the verdure in which it
lurks-its ability to condense its size-
strength of the tiger-able to bear off a full-
grown buffalo-instance of, 176..
ITS HABITAT.-Where found-purely of
Asiatic breed-usual number of "kittens "
at a birth-dimensions of a young tiger-
duration of life, 177; affection of the tigress
for her cubs denied by some writers-
reasons on which their opinions are founded
-inquisitiveness an important law in tiger
nature-evidence in defence of the tiger's
affection for its young-story of Captain
Williamson-hunting tactics of the tiger,
178; moralising of a she-tiger-unparal-
leled devotion to its progeny-" it is as
easy to coax a tiger kitten from its mother,
as money from a miser's coffers"-remark-
able instance of, 179; the buffalo a match
for tigiis regalis"-union is strength-


fear of oxen on the approach of a tiger,
181; how the latter strikes its prey-how
the carcase is devoured-tiger scraps con-
sumed by vultures and jackals-description
of the feasting thereon, by Lieutenant Rice
-the tiger a good swimmer, 182; the
tiger a pirate-its favourite haunts-the
biter bit-statistics of wild beasts destroyed
in India during 1859, and 1860, 183.
How IT IS TRAPPED AND HUNTED.-
Various modes adopted by the herdsmen to
trap the tiger-the bamboo scaffold-how
it is built, mounted, and armed, 185; the
poisoning dodge"-terrible story of a
poisoned tiger, 187 ; the spring-bow" trap
-how it is constructed-its mode of work-
ing, 188; another native trap-the bamboo
cage-the "mouse-trap" principle-the
plan employed by the natives of Oude to
entrap the tiger, 189 ; the gara, or live bait
-its precariousness-" man for dinner, goat
for supper," 190; native superstitions-
dread of the tiger-a revengeful race of
animals the hecatomb of the terrible
" man-eater"-the story of its depredations,
and its final destruction by the Old She-
karry," 191 ; a tiger-hunting adventure of
Lieutenant Rice, 194 ; remarkable in-
stance of the tiger's cunning-the use of
turbans, 195 ; a sportsman robbed of his
game-adventure of ship's captain-dis-
turbing a family party-discretion the
better part of valour, 196 ; an old story-
every rule liable to exceptions-the fatal
tiger hunt of Mr. Munro, 197 ; tiger and
buffalo fighting in Java-the pit, 198;
description of by Mr. Melville, 199 ; tiger
guards in Java, 200 ; the rifle preaches
mercy to the savage-memoir of Lieutenant
Rice, 203.
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.
ITS STRUCTURE. -Broderip's remarks
concerning its amphibious character, 204;
a traveller's opinion of its disposition-the
enormous strength of its jaw-a boat's crew
in jeopardy-biting a man in two-dimen-
sions- of the hippopotamus-its unsymme-
tricalproportions, 205 ; its formidable teeth
-its ugly and terrible-looking mouth-its
enormous stomach-the peculiar posi-
tion and shape of its nostrils, 206; Professor
Owen's remarks thereupon-the eyes of the
hippopotamus-their adaptation to the ele-
ment in which the animal lives-Broderip's
remarks concerning them-Owen's inves-
tigations-the voice of the hippopotamus,
207; the "musical ear" of Behemoth,
208.
HABITAT or THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.-The
hippopotamus identical with the Behemoth








ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


of Scripture-mention made of it in the
Book of Job-anciently common in Europe
and Asia-where it is now found-a shy
and solitary animal, 209 ; the home of
the hippopotamus-its weird and beautiful
aspect-Livingstone's description of its
haunts-the hippopotami at the Zoolo-
gical Gardens-the amount of food con-
sumed by the largest of them-depredations
of the Nubian hippopotamus in the rice-
fields of the farmer, 210; Cumming's de-
scription of a colony of hippopotami on
the banks of the Limpopo, 211; cautious
proceedings of the hippopotamus before
going on shore-Du Chaillu's discovery of
a new purpose to which the tusks are ap-
plied-the stupidity of the hippopotamus
negatived by the evidence of modern tra-
vellers-its keenness in scenting a trap-
precautions taken by hippopotami on the
discovery of the "spoor" of a man-its
cunning in keeping out of sight-result
of the discovery of man's ".spoor" by hip-
popotami, 213.
How IT is TRAPPED AND HUNTED.-
The strength and courage of wild beasts as
compared with reason-Behemoth over-
matched by the naked Bayeye, 214; how
the latter subdues the former-harpoon-
its length and shape-how it is made-how
the "reed-raft" is prepared, 215; its ad-
Svantages and disadvantages-how, with its
aid, the savage hunts the hippopotamus,
216; another mode employed by the Bay-
eye-the downfall," 218; the rifle in the
hands of a brave hunter the most success-
ful weapon-exploit of a celebrated hunter,
219; adventure of Mr. Cumming-a case
for the Society for Preventing Cruelty to
Animals, 221 ; abundance of hippopotami
in the regions visited by Du Chaillu, 223;
memoir of David Livingstone, 224.
THE LEOPARD.
HABITAT or THE LEOPARD.-Dread of
the animal by the natives-its tree-climbing
propensities render it doubly dangerous-
its extreme cunning-its thieving tactics,
225; its mode of entrapping deer-how it
pursues its prey-not particular in its diet
-Mr. Andersson loses his favourite dog
by the claws of a prowling leopard, 226 ;
curious superstition of the Singhalese con-
cerning the leopard-the black leopard of
Ceylon-leopards allured by the smell
arising from small-pox-its formidable
influence with the natives of Central Africa
-their rejoicings on the death of leopard,
227 ; the charms secured on the occasion-
Du Chaillu's description of a leopard hunt
and its results, 228; the Singhalese mode


of capturing the leopard-remarkable in-
stance of man's dominion over wild beasts
-Major Skinner and the leopard, 229;
-similar instance, narrated by Captain
Drayson, 230; the maned cletah, or
hunting leopard-where found, 231 ; how
it is trained to hunt deer-the opinion of an
old Nimrod thereupon, 232; the genus, size,
and habits of the hunting leopard, 233.
How IT Is HUNTED.-Hendrick's ad-
venture with a leopard-the wounded
hunter and his dead game, 235; Du
Chaillu's introduction to a South African
leopard, 237.
THE PANTHER.
ITs HABITAT.-Its courage and cunning
-size and colour of-its favourite resorts,
239 ; the sort of beast the panther is to
hunt-the rifle only of any use-curious
Arabian legend about the panther's first
defeat-Gerard's experiences and opinion
of the panther decidedly at variance with
those of Mr. Blakesley, 241; an Arab
panther trap-the "pariahs," or vagabond
dogs of India-dog flesh much esteemed by
the panther-Lieutenant Rice's evidence in
support of-two great dogs carried off by
thebeast, 242.
How IT is HUNTED.-The panther of
India the most terrible-Captain Shake-
speare's terrible fight with two, 244; its
wonderful tenacity of life, 246; its extreme
ferocity-" Where is the panther'?" "He
is eating me; don't you see!" 248;
Messrs. Rice and Little's brush with a
dangerous brute, 249 ; an old hunter's
apology for hunting, 251 ; cold-bloodedness
of the ruminantia, 251; Mr. Parry's evi-
dence respecting, 252.
THE JAGUAR.
The favourite haunts of the jaguar-its
fondness for fish-Darwin's evidence there-
upon, 253 ; the prey of the jaguar-its
mode of capturing and killing it-a hungry
jaguar an ugly customer-the unfortunate
deaths of two padres belonging to the church
of St. F--the jaguar at the Zoological
Gardens-the story of its voyage to Eng-
land, 254.
THE LYNX, 256.
THE BUFFALO.
ITS HABITAT.-The buffalo's respect-
able position in society-regions usually
affected by it, 257 ; its mud-bath-trolling
for fowls-the buffalo of North America
-properly the bison Catlin's opinion
thereon, 258; the importance of the buffalo
-the sole dependence of three hundred








ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


thousand people-what the North American
Indian does with the buffalo-its erratic
wanderings-horror of no buffalo meat"
-steps taken by the Indians on the de-
parture of the buffalo-the buffalo-dance,
259; wrong kind of "buffalo "-a blood-
thirsty species, 260.
How IT is HUNTD.-Buffalo-hunting
adventure of Captain Methuen, 262; the
courage of the buffalo when brought to bay
-a fight between a buffalo and three lions,
264; Textor erythrorhynchus-a parasite
of the buffalo-how buffalo-hunting is con-
ducted by the North American Indian,
265; the white wolf-a terrible enemy to
the buffalo-its presence greatly dreaded
by the latter animal-how it is taken ad-
vantage of by the Indian, 266; the mode
of capturing buffalo in the snow employed
by him, 267; story of a battle between a
herd of wolves and a solitary buffalo, 267 ;
conduct of the narrator on the occasion-
Captain Drayson's story of a buffalo chase,
268; memoir of the Hen. Grantley F.
Berkeley, 270.
THE WOLF.
ITs STRUoTUnE.-The wolf in Ancient
Britain-roadside refuges for travellers-
"Woolf-moneth," or wolf-month-the an-
cient office of wolf-hunter-general-to whom
first assigned-difference between the dog
and wolf, 271 ; charms anciently supposed
to attach to the wolf-pounded wolf's liver
--wolf's-grease a potent charm against
demons or other evil persons-wolfs snout
-the teeth of the wolf a remedy against
fatigue in horses-ancient cruelty to cap-
tured wolves, 272.
ITs HABITAT.-Birth of young wolves
-treatment of by their mother-learning
their business-young cubs inured to hard-
ships-fondness of she-wolf for her progeny
-the Indians allowed to handle her cubs,
273; superstitious reverence paid to it by
the Hindoos-curious instance of the she-
wolfs fondness of showing her young-the
extreme cunning of the wolf-a powerful
opponent to reynard-its extraordinary
tactics to escape-remarkable instance of,
narrated by Captain Lyons-its fondness
for pork, 274; its ferocity-the conduct of
the one at the Zoological Gardens, 275.
How IT Is TRAPPED AND HUNTED.-
Trap employed by the Esquimaux in cap-
turing wolves-common mode of hunting
the woif, 276; wolf-hunting adventure-
"more pork!" -a good dodge"-a
terrible wolf story, 277; adventure of Mr.
Atkinson, 280; close of the prosecution-


evidence in defence of the wolf-the wolf-
boy of Bondee, 281; adoption of a child by
a wolf, 282 ; the romance explained-Mr.
Jesse's story of a cat suckling a mouse-the
ancient myth concerning the founders of
Rome not at all improbable, 283; the
American wolf-its harmless nature when
trapped, 284.
THE BOAR.
A. celebrated hunter's opinion of the wild
boar-little of its ferocity retained by its
domestic relation, 285; the wild boar in
Ancient Britain-a curious legend-form
of the boar, 286.
How IT is HUNTED.-Where found,
287; its tremendous strength and courage
-bayed by four panthers-boar-hunting in
India-how it is managed-different spears
used-the secret of "riding" a wild-hog-
a well-trained horse essential to boar-
hunting, 288; Captain Shakespeare's horse,
289; how the hunter should act, 290 ; a
boar-hunting adventure, 291 ; the boar of
Equatorial Africa, 293 ; its strength and
activity-the wild boar of South Africa-
Mr. Andersson's account of-the wild hog
of Algeria-varieties of-mode of hunting
it, 293 ; a prey to lions, 295.
THE BEAR.
How the bear was treated by our ances-
tors-bear-baiting at Paris Gardens, 296;
Mr. Crowley, the poet, gravely reproves the
English for laying out their halfpence to
such an unlawful purpose-patent granted
in the reign of James VI. for bear-baiting
-held by Edward Alleyn of Dulwich Col-
lege celebrity-the patent taken away in
1642-behaviour of the patentee on the
occasion-its revival-description of the
"Bergiardin by Sodark" by Mons. Torevier
-its final destruction, 297 ; respect paid
to the bear by savage hunters-behaviour
of the Laps when hunting the bear-an
appeal to the bea's generosity-talisman
employed by the Singhalese to protect them
from bears-its efficacy put to the test--
the Moorman and the bear, 298.
IrT STRUCTURIE.-The teeth of the bear
-different from the teeth of the Plantigrade
-its diet-the feet of the bear-its claws
-their singular structure-the enormous
strength of the bear-mobility of its hind
limbs, 300; the polar bea-its gigantic
strength-how it attacks and slays the
walrus-the brown bear and its progenitor
-Mr. Lamont's remarks thereon, 301;
arguments against the theory, 302.
ITs HABITAT.-The grizzly bear: the
largest of his tribe-its dimensions and







ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS,


weight-carrying off and burying a bison,
303 ; curious propensity of the grizzly bear
to bury the bodies of dead animals-taken
advantage of by the hunters-the wolves
refuse to touch the bodies of animals buried
by the grizzly bear-the latter not a hugger,
304; its peculiar-shaped claws-scalping a
hunter-the Singhalese bear: a decent
fellow if left alone-a terrible one to fight
-the Indian bear not averse to the same
when necessary-Mr. Lamont's account of
the capture of two polar bear cubs-affec-
tion of the dam, 305 ; cannibal behaviour
of the cubs-they devour their mother, 306.
How IT Is HUNTED.-Utter disregard of
the grizzly bear for man-often the as-
sailant-its perseverance in tracking the
hunter-a long run for life-its tenacity of
life-mode of attacking the grizzly bear
in its den, 308; dangers attending it-re-
markable instance of, 309; a determined
struggle for life-Gersticker's adventure
with a bear-its slaughter of a man and
four dogs, 310 ; narrow escape of Gersticker
-alone with his dead friend and surrounded
by wolves, 311 ; the brown bear in Sweden
-its extensive depredations--the bear-
Shunt announced from the pulpit-primitive
character of the hunt-story of Jan Sven-
son and the brown bear, 312; the "Old
Shekarry's" account of a black bear hunt in
India-desperate character of the fight, 314;
scarcity of the polar bear as compared with
other animals-few shot by Mr. Lamont-
enormous one slain by him-description of
its chase and defeat, 316 ; Mr. Lamont's
cargo of Arctic curiosities-refused by the
English societies purchased by the Direc-
teur of the Jardin des Plantes-,keeping
them warm, 317.
.THE OSTRICH.
ITS STRUCTiuRE.-The ostrich a connect-
ing link between the families of aves and
mammalia-its representatives-the Aves-
trnz Petise-one at the Zoological Museum
-the story of its capture and preservation,
318; Dobrirhoffez' "account of the Abi-
poues"--the African ostrich-its height
and weight-breastbone of the ostrich-
its legs-the enormous strength of its foot
--its keenness of vision-colour of the
ostrich, 319; wonderful structure of its
feathers-belief of the Arabians and Per-
sians concerning the ostrich-gruffhess of
its voice-thickness of its skin-made into
shields by the ancients-formed into cui-
rasses by the Arabs, 320.
ITs HABITA.--Its incubation-a joint-
stock affair-with unlimited liability, 321 ;
evidence of Darwin with regard to the in-


cubation of the ostrich-eggs found outside
the nest-reasons assigned for it by various
travellers, 323; the argument not very
substantial Dr. Livingstone's remarks
thereon-the good Doctor's mistake-pro-
bable reason for turning out the eggs-
weight and nourishment of the ostrich's
egg-compared with that of the common
barn-door fowl, 323 ; an ostrich egga tit-bit
for three travellers-voracity of Andersson's
servant-his opinion of the egg of the
ostrich -Dr. Livingstone's opinion--the
"stone in the egg"-remarks of Barrow
and Thunberg-explained by Livingstone
-the vital power of the egg, 324; intel-
ligence of the ostrich-variety of opinions
concerning-an authority's remarks on its
stupidity-how the natives procure its eggs,
325 ; the shells made into water-vessels by
the bushmen--remarkable endurance of
thirst by the latter, 326; domesticated
ostriches-contradictions of their species.--
ostrich chicks-conduct of the cock-bird to-
wards them-their colour and general ap-
pearance-the little utility of domesticating
ostriches-enemies of, 327; curious mode
of breaking its eggs by the vulture-the
bushman's "dodge" of carrying ostrich-
eggs-the potent qualities of powdered egg-
shell-vulgar belief concerning the diet of
the ostrich-ancient delusion-"-Boke of
Philip Sparrow," 328; probable mistake
of the author in question-the ostrich's
obtuseness of taste-food of the bird in a
wild state--voracity of a domesticated
ostrich-the ostrich of Portsmouth-story
of the ostrich and the mariners' knives,
329 ; probably fictitious-the flesh of the
ostrich-regarded as unclean by the Jews
-ostrich-flesh very popular with the savage
tribes-a "dainty dish" in ancient Rome
- Heliogabalus and ostrich-brains the
speed of the ostrich- remarkable endurance
of-measurement of its stride, 330 ; the
ostrich an aquatic bird, 331.
How IT IS HUNTED FOR ITS PLUMAGAE.
-The feathers of the ostrich-where they
are obtained-the ostrich only parts with
his plumage with his life-somewhat chary
of the latter-modern hunting-tactics no
help to the ostrich-market-the ostrich
dangerous game to hunt on horseback--
King Fashion-the Damara and Bechuana
his humble slaves twelve guineas per
pound for plumage-the "feather season,"
332; how the savage sets about his busi-
ness-the poisonous N'gwra--its terrible
effects-care observed by the savage in
using it-his hunting tactics-when the
feathers should be plucked-another mode
of hunting the ostrich-disguised in its








ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


skin-Mr. Moffat's description of one of
these hunts, 333; how the Arabs hunt the
ostrich on horseback-running the game
down 334; hunted on foot-snaring the
ostrich-how it is commonly hunted by
European sportsmen-not sufficient danger
to render it acceptable to the latter, 335 ;
Mr. Andersson's account of an ostrich chase
-the maternal solicitude of the ostrich for
its young, 336.
THE REINDEER.
ITS STRt OTe U .-Weight of the reindeer
-its hair-its horns-difference between
those of the male and female-their annual
reproduction--their connexion with the
reproductive system-curious rapidity of
their growth-horns of the wapiti--the
Irish elk-Rymer Jones on the relation of
the bones of the neck to the horns, 337.
ITS HABITAT.-Value of the reindeer to
the Lap-its skin used as clothing-how to
make a reindeer-skin suit in two minutes,
339.; reindeer the Lap's only wealth-how
the small proprietor manages-the Barings
and Rothschilds of Lapland society, 340 ;
a Lap dinner-party-reindeer-blood pudding
-how the milk is preserved, 341; speed
of the reindeer-how it is harnessed to the
sledge-occasional obstinacy of the horned
steed-tactics of the coachman in such an
emergency-where the reindeer is found,
342; its sudden acquisition of fat-nutri-
tious qualities of the moss on which it feeds
-hunting it a dull sport-its innocence
of alarm-remarkable instance of its tena-
city of life, 344.
THE ORYX.
"Its resemblance to the chamois-size of
the male-its anomalous character-the
horns-their terrible sharpness-a match
for the lion-Gordon Cumming's adventure
with an oryx-curious appearance of its
horns at a side view, 345; belief in the
unicorn possibly attributable to-known in
England in the 15th century-the gemsbok
on the coat-of-arms of the Duke of Bedford
-the female oryx-gregarious in its habits
-the young-its food-does the oryx exist
without water ?-Cumming versus Anders-
son, 346; speed of the oryx-Mr. Cum-
ming's adventure with one, 348.
THE CHAMOIS.
Its genus-its habits and structure more
nearly allied to the antelopes than the
goats, 351 ; size and weight of the chamois
-its colour changeable-the marvellous
construction of its skull, 352; absurd be-
lief concerning-how the chamois uses
its horns in battle-difference between
those of the male and the female-its


keenness of sight and scent-remarks of
chamois hunters concerning-its clumsy
walk-how it is occasioned, 353 ; its swift-
ness and agility-romance and mystery
attached to the chamois-the author of "A
New and Perfect Art of Venery," and his
explanation thereof, 354; their manner of
moving on the snow the mysteries of
chamois hunting, 355 ; food of the chamois
-curious consequence of the resinous and
fibrous nature of its diet-the young of the
chamois- the period of gestation- the
patriarchal bucks--difficulty of hunting
them-a terrible trap for the hunter, 356 ;
the scented bladder found near the horns
of the bucks--its remarkable power of re-
taining its odour-at what season it is
found-a good period for the hunter-how
to trap the bucks by imitating the call of
the female-another mode of trapping them
-its inquisitiveness-how the hunter acts
with the wounded chamois-peculiarity of
its skin-difficulties of chamois chase, 357 ;
Miss Crewdner's poem on the chamois,
358; the awe with which the chamois
hunter is regarded by the valley dwellers-
his dangerous calling-his baggage and ac-
coutrements, 359; out of the world-always
at the verge of death and the grave-the
little "accidents" of life-description of a
chamois hunter-out of his element, 360 ;
-little romance in the chamois hunter's
life learning his business shooting-
grounds at Munich-the "fixed target"
and the "running target "-their mode of
working-the prizes-how they are distri-
buted, 361; Charles Boner, the famous
chamois hunter-his account of an adven-
ture on the Krammets Berg, 362.
THE MOOSE.-The largest of the deer
family-its dimensions and weight-its coat
-its mane-its horns-its extreme jea-
lousy, 366; its food, and how it gathers it-
the moose "yard," 367; caught in its own
trap-a first-rate swimmer-the life and
melancholy end of a domesticated moose,
368; story of another tame moose-the
various methods of taking moose, *369;
snaring-chasing with dogs, 370; call-
ing "-the moose that came almost before
it was called, 371; excitement of moose
hunting-the Indians the best "callers"-
the "caller's" pay, and how he conducts
his business, 372; "creeping" moose-
its rough character-" running"-the sort
of shoes worn to run in-the moose run
down, 373; Lieutenant Hardy's moose-
calling adventure, 374.
THE SAMBUR.-Its wariness-de-
scription of-its pugnacity-its horns, 378;
how the baby sambur is made to lie quiet


XVI1







ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


by its mamma-the fleet sambur subdued
by "a cord, a stone, and a thorn," 379;
effect of the terrible trap-a sambur hunt
by the Old Shekarry, 380.
THE ELAND.-Where found-its di-
mensions-its flesh superior to our vaunted
roast beef-an eland herd "like a cattle-
show "-dropping dead of fat, 383 ; a prey
to the "stalking" savage, the hyena,
and the "honden," or wild dog-habits
and manners of the wild honden-how
they hunt their prey-their fearlessness of
man, 384-speed of the eland-its tremen-
dous leaps-Captain Drayson's eland-hunt-
ing exploit, 385.
THE SABLE ANTELOPE.-The first
living specimen received in Europe-hand-
some appearance of adult buck-its pecu-
liar horns, 388-one shot by Sir Cornwallis
Harris-presented to the British Museum
-the ammal unknown even to the natives,
389.
THE KANGAROO.
ITs SBRCTUaRE.-The young born in an
embryotic state-the gradual development
of the wondrous little creature recounted
by Scaglier, 390; Professor Owen's experi-
ments on-the new-born kangaroo no
longer than an earth-worm--how it is
suckled, 391.
ITS HABITAT .-Small intelligence of
marsupiated animals, 392; where the kan-
garoo is found-use of its pouch-its
flesh-a Bushman's recipe for kangaroo
"steamer," 393.
How IT Is HUNTED.-With the "boom-
erang "-by stalig-the colonist's mode,
393 ; an exciting adventure, 394.
THE GIRAFFE.
ITs STRUCTURE.-Incredible accounts of
by travellers of olden times, 396; fact
stranger than fiction-the giraffe's won-
derful organs of sight, taste, and smell-
its eccentric walk-its mechanical run-
large. herds relative size of male and
female, 398.
ITs HABITAT.-Where the first giraffes
seen in England were captured, 399;
its pasturage not distinguishable at a
distance-why ?-Messrs. Andersson and
Cumming's evidence concerning-perfume
emitted by the giraffe-its confiding dispo-
sition, 400.


How IT is HUNTED.-Sir W. Harris's
giraffe adventure in the Basquani country,
402; reproachful gaze of dying giraffe-
its effect on a renowned and by no means
sensitive hunter, 404.
THE HORSE.
ITs STRUCTURE.-Specially formed for
man's assistance-structure of its foot-
action of its legs, 406; stride of Eclipse,
the celebrated racer, 407 ; working action
of the horse's joints-the "frog," 408;
teeth of the horse, 409.
HABITAT OF THE WILD HoRsE.-The
savage steed of the pampas compared with
our familiar cab-drawing quadruped, 410 ;
diversity of opinion as to the existence of
the wild horse Mr. Bell's argument-
Mr. Martin's, 411; sacred horses of the
ancient Persians-curious ceremony at the
grave of a Scythian king, 412; sacrifice of
the horse in India-honour paid him by
the Emperor C. Caligula-Bruce, and Pasil,
the Abyssinian chief, 413;- value of the
horse in Arabia-how one animal is par-
celled out to several owners-414; the
Arab's horse before his wife-description
of Arab steed, 415; how it is bred and
petted by its master-its wondrous speed,
416 ; horse-stealing not a crime in Arabia
-the story of Jabal and his marvellous
mare, 417 ; wild horses on the shores of
the Don-the tarpann" and "muzin"-
their domestic economy, 418; horse and
wolf fights-the horse-fields of the South
American prairies, 419; twenty thousand
wild horses at threepence each-the wild
horse in the thirsty season-terrible gran-
deur of a stampedeo," 420 ; how the
Indian uses his lasso-the Guacho horsemen
and the cannon-the Guachos deformed by
constant riding, 421 ; the pampas Indian
and his troop of war horses, 422.
THE WILD ASS.-The "khur," the
Sdziggetai," the yo-to-tze," and the
"kiang, 423 ; the wild and domestic ass
-speed of wild ass-Sir Ker Porter's
chase of-degeneration of in a domestic
condition-origin of the domestic ass, 424;
one foal at a birth-age at which it attains
its prime-Brettel's-account of the ass of
Cansbrook Castle-the zebra-the quagga,
425; courage of the quagga-human-like
voice of the zebra, 426.










LIST OF PORTRAITS


OF FAMOUS SPORTSMEN AND TRAVELLERS.

ENGRAVED FROM DRAWINGS BY W. G. MILLER, FROM PHOTOGRAPHS
PRINCIPALLY TAKEN EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK.


SIR EMEISON TENNENT . .

JULES GERARD . . .

PAUL B. DU CHAILLU . .

CHARLES JOHN ANDERSSON .

CAPTAIN W. RICE . .

DAVID LIVINGSTONE, LL.D .

HON. GRANTLEY F. BERKELEY .

CAPTAIN SHAKESPEARE ...


S. From a photograph by Mayall .

F rom a photograph . .

.. Froma photograph by T. R. Wiliams.

S From a photograph . .

S. From photograph by Mooe .

S. From a photograph . .

S. From a photograph . .

From a photograph by Mayall .


LIST OF COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS.

FROM WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS BY J. B. ZWECKER, HARRISON WEIR,

AND HARDEN MELVILLE.

ENGRAVED AND PRINTED BY W. DICKES.

PAGE
THE OLD BHEKARRY AND THE ELEPHANT . . .... 1

THE LION.-Assailed by death in three shapes . . . .. 07

LIEUTENANT RICE AND THE TIGER . . . . 194

THE BUFFALO.-A Miraculous Escape . . . .... 263

THE WOLF.-The Noble Sacrifce . ... ... . . 277

THE BOAR.-Conquered at last . . . . .. .291

THE BEAR.-Fangs and Talons v. Blade and Bullets . .. . 314

THE CHAMOIS.-The Chamois Hunter's Hunting-ground . . .. 363

THE OSTRICH.-Sailing under False Colours . . . ... 321

THE HORSE-The First Moment of Bondage . . . .. 418
































FROM DESIGNS BY HARDEN MELVILLE AND WILLIAM HARVEY.


ENGRAVED BY H. NEWSOM WOODS.




PAGE
GROUP OF EXTINCT ANIMALS-PALEOTHERION-MAMMOTH-DINOTHERION-
MASTODON ......... .... .......... 1
MILODON ............. .... ... ........ 1
SCHUMACHOFF'S DISCOVERY. ... . . .. 4
SKELETON OF MAMMOTH . . . ... . 7
SKELETON OF ELEPHANT ................... .. 8
ELEPHANTS DESCENDING A HILL . . . . 9
SECTION OF ELEPHANT'S TRUNK . . . . 11
DITTO DITTO . . . . 12
CONVEYING FOOD TO THE MOUTH . . . .13
GRASPING A SMALL SUBSTANCE ON THE GROUND . . .. 13
TEETH OF ELEPHANTS-ASIATIC AND AFRICAN . . ... 15
SKULL OF DITTO DITTO . . .. 16
THE ELEPHANT IN HIS NATIVE HOME . . . .. 17
MODE OF SUCKLING CALF .. . . . . .. 24
GROUP OF ELEPHANTS AT DRINKING PLACE . . ... .29
ANCIENT ELEPHANT OF WAR . . . . 31
HOW THE ELEPHANT BATHES . . . .... ... 34
WHITE ELEPHANT ........... .............. 41
HOW THE HOWDAH IS CARRIED . . . . .. 43
PLAN OF CORRAL WITH SECTION OF FENCE. . . . 44
DRIVEN INTO THE CORRAL .. . . . . 45
THE CAPTIVES AND THEIR TREACHEROUS BRETHREN . ... 47
THE INGENIOUS SIRRIBEDI . . . . .. 48
"HENDOO"-THE WEAPON USED TO GOVERN THE ELEPHANT . 50
HOW A RIVER IS CROSSED ...... . . . .61
ELEPHANT IN KEDDAH OR CORRAL .. . . . 52
A NOVEL UMBRELLA ................. ...... 56
HOW TO MOUNT ELEPHANT-BACK. . . . . .64
ASIATIC LION. ........... . . . 65









XX LIST OF WOOD-CUTS.

PAGE
THE LION'S SKELETON ....................... 66
PAW AND CLAW OF ......... ............ 68
PORTION OF TONGUE OF. ... . . . .. 68
DITTO MAGNIFIED ............ ....... .. 68
SECTION OF TOOTH OF ..................... 69
SPINEINTHE TAIL OF ................... .. 70
SKULL OF ......... ........ ........ 71
THE LION AND HIS FAMILY . . . . .... .72
BATTLE BETWEEN TWO LIONS . . . ...... .. 75
ALION IN HIS OLD AGE ................... 77
FOOTPRINTS OF LION ....................... 78
THE COLOSSEUM .............. .. ..... 0S
BATTLE BETWEEN GLADIATORS AND WILD BEASTS . . ... 81
MARTYRDOM OF ST. IGNATIUS. . . . . 85
AN ARAB LION PIT ...................... .. 92
THE FATE OF HENDRICK ...................... 98
A FRIEND IN NEED .. ............... ..... 102
HUTS BUILT IN TREES BEYOND THE REACH OF LIONS . ... ].04
MANELESS LION OF GUZERAT..... . . .. .. 105
A LAIR OF PUMAS.................. .......107
MALDONATA AND HER PUMA CHAMPION . . . 113
HANNO APPROACHING THE ISLAND OF WILD MEN . . .. 115
SKELETON OF MAN AND GORILLA . . . ... .120
FOOTMARKS OF THE GORILLA. . . . . ... .123
SKULLS OF CAUCASIAN, NEGRO, GORILLA, AND CHIMPANZEE . .125
THE INFANT GORILLA AND IT PARENTS . .... ... .127
A YOUNG GORILLA MADE PRISONER .. . . . 131
DU CHAILLU'S FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH GORILLA . . 138
DEATH OF DITTO ............. .. .......... 139
AT THE MERCY OF A MAN-APE ..... . . ... .141
NSHIEGO-MBOUVa AND YOUNG . . . .... .145
SKELETON OF RHINOCEROS ....... .. . . . 150
HORNS OF DITTO-INDIAN UNICORNIS-KEITLOA-BICORNIS-SIMUS-JAVE-
NUS-SUMATRIENSIS-OSWELLII . . . . 153
BLACK RHINOCEROS (KEITLOA) .. . . . . 155
A MOTHERLESS RHINOCEROS . . . . .156
WHITE RHINOCEROSES APPROACHING HUNTERS' SHOOTING SCREEN 157
THE WAGGON ATTACKED .. ........ .. ........ .. .159
BATTLE BETWEEN FOUR RHINOCEROSES . . . 161
BUPHAGA AFRICANA . . ..... .. 162
INDIAN RHINOCEROS. . . . . . 164
JAVANESE DITTO ......... .. ... .. ........ .166
"I SCRAMBLED OUT FROM BETWEEN HER HIND LEGS" ... . .. .169
SUMATRAN RHINOCEROS . . . ...... .173
SPOOR OF DITTO .......................... .174
TIGERS AT HOME ........................... 175
TIGER AND MUNTJAK DEER ...................... 177
A TIGER MOTHER ........... ....... .. ...... 180
UNION IS STRENGTH ...... .. .......... .. .. 181
FOOTPRINTS.OF THE TIGER . . .... . 184
THE TUG OF WAR ... .... ................ 187
MAN FOR DINNER, GOAT FOR SUPPER . . . . 190









LIST OF WOOD-CUTS. XXI

PAGE
THE OLD SHEKARRY AND THE MAN-EATER . . . 193
FIGHT WITH TIGER AND BUFFALOES . . . .. 200
JAVANESE TIGER GUARD . . . . . .. .201
LOOKING-GLASS TRAP . . . . . 202
SKELETON OF HIPPOPOTAMUS . . . . .. 204
SKULL OF DITTO ................... ...... 208
BEHEMOTH AT THE BATH ........................ 209
PLUNDERING THE RICE FIELDS . . . . 211
A STARTLING IMPRESSION . . . . .. .213
HARPOON .. .. .. .. .. . . . 215
THE "DOWNFALL" ................. ...... 219
SPOOR OF HIPPOPOTAMUS . . . . .. .223
GROUP OF LEOPARDS ............. ... .. ....... 225
AFRICAN LEOPARD ......... ................ 229
MANED CHEETAH ........... ... .. ........... 231
MANELESS DITTO ........... ......... .. .... 233
MOROCCO LEOPARD ........................ 24
AN AWKWARD PREDICAMENT . . . .. 236
ASIATIC LEOPARD .. ............. ..........238
MALE AND FEMALE PANTHER... .. . . . ... 239
SPOOR OF DITTO... ....... .......... ......... 243
TRAP FOR DITTO ........ ......... .. 244
UNDER THE BRUTE'S CLAWS . . . . .. 247
THE JAGUAR ON THE LOOK-OUT . . . . .. 253
THE LYNX .. .... ... .... ... .... .... .... 256
BUFFALO AND CALF .... ............ .. ..... 257
SKELETON OF BUFFALO . . . . ..... .2261
TEXTOR ERYTHRORHYNCHUS . . . . .. 265
BUFFALO SPOOR ................. ......... 269
SKELETON OF WOLF ................... ..... 271
THE WOLF AT HOME ................... . 273
A JOURNEY BY MOONLIGHT ................... .. 276
FOOTPRINTS OF THE WOLF . . . . .. .284
THE BOAR-PARENTS AND LITTER OF PIGLINGS . . . 285
HUNTING THE BOAR............ ..................... 289
AT THE DEATH ................... ... 293
SKELETON OF BOAR ................. ....... .295
THE POLAR BEAR ................ ....... .296
SKELETON OF BEAR ................. ...... 300
OLD BEARS AND CUBS .. ...... ..................... 803
SPOOR OF THE POLAR BEAR .................... 307
BLACK BEAR ... ...... .... ... .. ....... .. 308
GERSTACKER'S TERRIBLE BEAR FIGHT . . . .. 318
SKELETON OF OSTRICH ................... ....318
SPOOR OF DITTO ................... ...... 321
GROUP OF OSTRICHES ................... ..... 331
SKELETON OF REINDEER. ... . . . . .. 337
GROUP OF DITTO .......... ................ .. ... 39
SPOOR OF DITTO .......... . . .........344
THE DWELLING-PLACE OF THE CHAMOIS . . . 351
FALLOW DEER ................ . . 65
ROEBUCK .................. ....... 382








Xli LIST OF WOOD-OUTS.
PAGE
BULL ELAND .. .... ...... .. .. ... . 383
COW ELAND .. .. . . . . 387
SABLE ANTELOPE . . . . . . 388
SKELETON OF KANGAROO . ... . . . 390
THE KANGAROO AT HOME . . . .... .. .. 392
SPOOR OF DITTO ..... .......... ... .. .. 396
SKELETON OF GIRAFFE. . . . . ... .. 397
THE GIRAFFE IN HIS NATIVE WILDS .. .... ... . . 399
SPOOR OF DITTO ............... .. .... . 401
A HERD OF GIRAFFES .......... ................. 402
SKELETON OF THE HORSE . . . ... . 406
SPOOR OF ZEBRA ............. ...............409
A ZEBRA FAMILY ............ .. .........410
A HORSE-HUNT IN THE WILDERNESS . ... . .. .419











gisf jof ,aps,


SHOWING THE HABITATS OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS ALL

OVER THE WORLD.


AFRICA .............. ................ 1
ASIA . . . . .. . .... ... 49
NORTH AMERICA ............. ........... .. 97
SOUTH AMERICA. .................. ........ 145
AUSTRALASIA ................... ...... 193
EUROPE '.......... . ............. 241





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REFERENCE.
tfonalceys 15 rLanunigo.
LeatheryTor. 14 Otrao Outa i
ElyVulture 15 Guinea Fowl
Lions 16 TOrtle
Camel 17 Rlinoceros
Ostrich 18 Giraffe
Crocodile 19 Antelope
Egyp. Cobra 2O Zebra
Hippopoa E1t Elephant
CL-et lit Python
Oreylarrot I aSeletotry
Jaclal '24 Gor-ia
The PCn L elon oxtell.s
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MA~111O',lI. DINO 0111 .iI-~


THE ELEPHANT.

i HOUSANDS of years ago, when waved green
S and cool the mighty leaves whose im-
press is now and then found in coal,
fathoms below the earth's present sur-
i' face ;-when indeed what now are grim
S coal-fields, the lurking places of dark-
ness that may be felt," and of deadly
gases hungering for flame, were broad
forests, mellow and blooming, the
S elephant was common all over the world.
B


AIILOUDN.







2 THE ELEPHANT.

Out of the river we have named Thames has he many a time slaked
his hot thirst, and up the slope known to moderns as Ludgate Hill,
has he strolled leisurely, browsing among the great trees. The remote
and barren North, where now eternal snow is, at that period yielded
him pleasant pasturage; where the fur-clad sledger now guides his
sure-footed antlered steed, then flowed soft rivulets in which he
cooled his parched hide; and where hills and mountains of ice,
nurtured by bleak winds, grow and flourish apace, then sprouted juicy
palms and tender grasses for the maintenance of the. giant herds
there abounding.
It must have been so; for beneath the pavement of every city
in the world, .in beds of streams, on river banks, and in remote
caves, the bones of this ;ponderous animal have been discovered;
and although there exists between the ancient .fossil and, the living
animal with which we are, acquainted, a difference of structure, the
presence of, certain organs undoubtedly associated with peculiar
instincts are exhibited as prominently in one as the other;-instincts,
the means of gratifying which it was absolutely essential should be
co-existent. But it would be a waste of words, and an insult to the
reader's understanding, to enter upon an argument to prove that
herbivorous quadrupeds could not possibly exist without herbs, or to
show the impossibility of juicy leaves and succulent herbage growing
amid the withering frost of the northern hemisphere.
Indefatigable labourers in the field of science-Darwin among the
number-agree that the climate of the far North is now as it ever
was; and that that fact not at all precludes the possibility of such
mighty quadrupeds as the elephant and rhinoceros there abiding. In
certain regions of North America, the subsoil is perpetually frozen (as
in the neighbourhood of Bear Lake, where the summer thaw never
penetrates deeper into the soil than twenty inches); yet this frozen
substratum does not of itself destroy vegetation, for dense forests
flourish on its surface. At the present day, we have growing in
Siberia, where the temperature of the air is invariably below freezing
point, and the earth like iron, the birch, fir, aspen, and larch As far
as quantity alone of vegetation is concerned, the frozen. carcases and
ice-bound relics of various animals might have existed where the
remains are now. discovered. The kind of vegetation at present
existing is almost immaterial, because, as there is evidence of physical








THED ELEPHANT.


changes, it may be fairly supposed that the species of plants may
likewise have changed.
The nearer we approach the Arctic circle, in greater abundance
are vestiges not only of elephants, but of tortoises, and crocodiles
discovered. On the borders of Siberia they are so commonly found,
and in such prime condition, as to constitute a considerable article
of commerce, and one of sufficient value to be worth monopolizing
by the reigning Czar. Such of his subjects who live in these isolated
regions, hold a fabulous belief concerning this seemingly inexhaustible
wealth of ivory. They say that before man came on the earth, the
tremendous beast whose remains are these, burrowed mole fashion
underground. The Chinese patronize a similar superstition, and the
subterranean relics discovered throughout China are said to belong to
T yn-schen, the mouse that hides."
Writers of various periods have advocated the opinion that the
remains of elephants discovered in Siberia, were conveyed thither by
the mountain streams of India; but the fact of tusks and bones
being found in large quantities along the banks of the Don, the
Volga, and other rivers flowing from the north, goes far towards
upsetting the theory respecting their water passage. "There is
not," says M. Pallas, a renowned traveller, and a great authority on
this subject, "there is not in all Asiatic Russia, from the Don to
the Tanais, a single stream or river, on the banks or in the bed of
which are not found some bones of elephants, or of other animals
equally strange to the climate."
In 1799 was discovered, in the dominions of the Czar, a tremendous
elephant-perfect as when, a thousand years before, death had arrested
its breath-encased in a huge block of ice, transparent and clear as
crystal. A fisherman of Tongoose, named Schumachoff, was the
fortunate discoverer. This man, like his neighbours, was accustomed
when the fishing season was at end, to employ his time in hunting
along the shores of the Lena for elephant tusks, for the sake of the
government bounty; and while so employed, and when he had, in
the ardour of his pursuit, passed several miles beyond his companions,
,there suddenly appeared before his wondering eyes the miraculous
sight above alluded to. IUnfortunately, however, Schumachoff was
a man of dull and simple mind, and instead of turning his discovery
to profit, by proclaiming it to the world, or to that part of it with







THE ELEPHANT.


which he had dealings, he did nothing but gaze awfully on the
embalmed mammoth, between which and himself there stood but
a few hummocks of spiky ice. It was on account of this barrier
that he excused himself when the business came to light; but the
real barrier that stood in the fisherman's way, was one more for-
midable than a hill of bayonets as high as the Alps-his superstitious
fears. For five successive seasons from the time when he first dis-


covered it, did Schumachoff make stealthy journeys to his crystallized
monster, never finding courage sufficient to approach it closely, but
simply standing at a distance, once more to feast his eyes on the
wonder, and to carry away in his thick head enough of terror to
guarantee him nightmare for a whole month of nights. At last he
found the imprisoned carcase stranded on a' convenient sand-bank,
and boldly attacking it, broke the glittering casing, and roughly
despoiling the great beast of its splendid tusks, hurried home and
sold them for fifty roubles, leaving the well-preserved bulk of
elephant meat, a thousand years old, yet juicy and without taint,
to be devoured by wolves and bears, or hacked to bits by the







THE ELEPHANT.


natives as food for their dogs. It was not till full two years after
this event, that a celebrated naturalist got wind of the above par-
ticulars, and at once visited the spot. Too late, alas! what was the
carcase, huge as it was, to the many pairs of hungry jaws that had
assailed it through two seasons of starving frost! The elephant was
picked clean, an entire fore-leg even had disappeared, and nothing
remained but the tuskless, three-legged skeleton. The eyes, however,
were still in the sockets, and the brains entire in the skull.
But we need not travel to Russia to prosecute a successful search
for elephant relics. Canterbury has produced them. In Kirkdale
Cave, Yorkshire, Professor Buckland found them mixed with those
of the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the horse, the ox, and the
hyena; (this phenomenon has been attributed to the Great Deluge;
the frighted brutes hiding from the overwhelming flood). Elephant
remains have likewise been dug up in plenty in Gloucester, in
*brick-earth pits at Brentford, and in Gray's-Inn, London. The
Sloane Museum possesses a magnificent tusk, found at the latter
place, twelve feet deep in the gravel.
As lately as the seventeenth century, human anatomy was but
little understood, and comparative anatomy still less. To our fore-
fathers, a cartload of animal remains were but so many bones
of contention; and an inquest of six months' duration held on
them,. did not produce as many conclusive facts as to the structure.
of the various owners, as would he derived in six hours by a
modern Owen, with no more substantial ground to work on than
the defunct's solitary tooth or toe-nail. There can be little doubt
that much of the bygone superstition respecting "giants," sprung
from the contemplation of the great bones occasionally brought
to light. When, for instance, in the reign of James I. "big out-
landish bones" were discovered at Gloucester, the King appointed
Lord Cherbury to find out what he could respecting them. It would
seem that to everybody in the realm at all competent to judge of
a bone these relics were exhibited; but the verdict of the jurors
was by no means unanimous. Some gravely opined they were the
bones of a human giant, and advised their immediate re-interment
with Christian rites; others, including Dr. Harvey, declared the
bones to belong "to some exceeding great beast, as an elephant.'
Bishop Hakewell, who was one of those consulted by Lord Cherbury,







THE ELEPHANT.


says:-" His Lordship showed me some bones, which he had
collected; which were a huckle-bone, part of the shoulder-blade,
some parts of a tooth, and the bridge of a nose, all of a huge bigness.
.. The bridge of the nose was what confirmed his lordship's
and my opinion, that it could not be that of a man, for it did seem
to be a bone very apt to bear up the long snout of an elephant. ...
One of the teeth of this pretended giant, by the special favour of
my lord of Gloucester, was examined by me. I found it to be a
stony substance, both for hardness and weight; and it should seem,
by his lordship's letter to me, that he himself was not confident that
it was the tooth of a man."
In those "good old times," simple arithmetic must have been as
unknown a science as comparative anatomy. The tooth above spoken
of, supposing it to have been the tooth of an elephant, must have
weighed, say ten pounds. Now the average weight of adult human
teeth is a hundred and sixty to the pound, and taking the weight of
a grown man to be two hundred pounds, a single tooth is about a
thirty-thousandth part of his weight, so that the tooth of this
Gloucester giant weighing ten pounds, his entire carcase would have
turned the beam against a hundred tons,-the weight of about a
hundred and sixty fat bullocks.
Nevertheless it was a common practice to ascribe to these colossal
bones human origin. In the reign of Louis XIV. the subject gave
rise to a dispute, which for tenacity and the amount of argument
adduced on either side, is almost unmatched in the annals of con-
troversy. The remains in question were discovered in a sand-pit
in Dauphind, by a surgeon named Mazurier. He falsely represented
that the bones had been found in a sepulchre thirty feet long, and
that covering the top of it was a stone slab, on which was cut the
inscription Teutobochus rex, and further pretended that near the same
spot were found medals, and other evidence showing the relics to be
those of Teutobochus the giant king of the Cimbri, who fought
against Marius. Cuvier mentions twelve pamphlets published during
the controversy, but finally it was clearly demonstrated by Riolan,
that the bones were those of an elephant.
Germany has produced more fossil bones of elephants than any
other country; indeed, Blumenbach reckons two hundred places (in-
cluding Tonna in Gotha, at which place, and at a depth of fifty feet,







THE ELEPHANT.


an almost complete skeleton was discovered, the tusks of which mea-
sured eight feet in length), where elephant remains have been dis-
covered. This however may not be entirely attributable to the greater
profusion of such fossils in Germany compared with other countries,
but rather to the fact that the science of comparative anatomy found
its earliest patrons there, and that a hundred years ago even, there
was scarcely a district that could not produce a man capable of
authentically recording the details of every interesting discovery.
The giant of Lucerne is almost as celebrated as King Teutobochus.
Nearly three hundred years ago this prodigy was exhumed, and
by order of the council of Lucerne, examined by Felix Platen, a
renowned professor of Basle. Platen speedily announced to the
astonished council, that the remains were human, and to justify this
verdict, designed and put together an entire skeleton of corresponding
dimensions, by which it appeared that the tremendous fellow must,
when alive, have stood at least twenty-six feet high. So the good
folks of Lucerne believed in and continued to pay homage to their
giant patron, till a few years since, when there came along one of
those ruthless demolishers of mystery and hole-and-corner mum-
mery, Blumenbach by name, who visited the giant as it lay in awful
state at the Jesuits' College, and in a less number of hours than it
had been preserved centuries, pronounced it a sham, and without
difficulty convinced the worthy citizens that they had been guilty
of the grave error of mistaking elephant bones for human.


SKELETON OF MAMMOTH.


























STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.

IN ancient times the most whimsical notions were entertained
respecting the structure of this ponderous animal. "Folks held to
the fallacy," says Sir Thomas Brown, "that it hath no joynts, and
this absurdity is seconded by another, that being unable to lie down
it sleepeth against a tree, which the hunters observing, doe saw almost
asunder, whereon the beast relying, by the fall of the tree falls also
down itself, and is able to rise no more." Pliny, Aristotle, and other
equally celebrated writers of a by-gone age, were alike faithful to
this wooden notion. With the most perfect faith Pliny says, "In
the island of Scandinavia there is a beast called Machlis, that hath
neither joint in the hough, nor pastern in his hind legs, and therefore
he never lioth down, but sleepeth leaning to a tree; wherefore the
]hunters that lie in wait for these beasts, cut down the trees while
they are asleep and so take them: otherwise they would never be
taken, they are so swift of foot it is wonderful."
There can be little doubt that this error sprung from the fact,
that from the animal's peculiar construction he seldom or never lies
down. He can rest comfortably on those "grosse cylindrical
structures" his legs, and it is no uncommon thing for hunters to
discover their colossal game dozing in the shadow of a tree, its body.
leaning indolently against the trunk Again, the superstition may
have derived support from the circumstance of trees and rocks







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


found bearing impressions of the animal's great sides. But the
elephant has not been sleeping there, he has merely been following
the dictates of his piggish nature, and enjoying a comfortable rasp
-?- -~ after his mud bath. Elephants
Shave been known to remain
J., -' -tanding after they have been
-hot dead: Captain Deonman
hot one that remained so.
In captivity elephants sel-
.lom lie down; indeed the
keepers are accustomed to re-
gard a beast found prostrate as
fnoe smitten with some dis-
Order and at once place him
So ,n the sick list, regulating his
lliet and putting him to no
Skind of labour for a while.
An elephant that belonged to
Louis XIV. never assumed any
other position than a standing
one through five years, though.
.It the same time it was evident
;t was reduced to adopt that
coursee from other than natural
causes; for with the points of
its tusks it had scooped two
holes in the stone walls of its
den, and into these holes it
was accustomed to hitch its
S' ivory appendages when in-
clined for a nap.
In one respect do the hind-
legs of the elephant differ in
DESCENDING HILL. their formation from those of
any other quadruped. Instead of bringing them under him when
he lies down, he extends them behind him, as does a human
being. The struggle which horses and oxen experience in rising
from the ground is by this providential arrangement of the hind






STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


legs of the elephant avoided. He simply draws his hind feet
gradually under him, and his enormous weight is levered up without
a perceptible effort.
Owing to this beautiful arrangement of the bones and muscles,
the elephant is rendered one of the most sure-footed of animals.
Carrying on his back a heavily-laden howdah7, he will descend
precipitous slopes with the most perfect ease. He manages it in
this way: kneeling down at the commencement of the declivity,
he puts out one fore-leg and feels cautiously for a safe footing; if
he does not find it naturally, he sets about making it artificially by
hammering in the soil an indentation with his broad and heavy
foot. One foot thus accommodated, the other one is drawn out
with equal care, and provided for in the same fashion as the first.
Then one of the hind-legs is cautiously drawn forward, and one of
the fore-feet being released from the foot-hole, it is inserted in its
place. It might be imagined that to afford time to the cunning
elephant to go through these performances with the careful de-
liberation necessary to their perfection, travelling through a hilly
country must be tedious work; this is, however, far from being the
case : so rapidly does the sagacious animal perform the manoeuvres
above described, that in as little time as it has taken me to write
this paragraph, the howdah and its occupants would have reached
from the top to the bottom of a considerable hill.
He is a strict vegetarian, his intestines being formed exactly as are
those of the horse; unlike the horse, however, he has not the long
elastic neck so perfectly under the control of the possessor that
he can erect it above his chest straight as a column, or lower it to the
earth and browse without the least deflecture of his legs. Supported
upon a short and stiff series of vertebrae, the huge animal can
only move his head with constrained and pivot-like action. His sole
dependence, therefore, is his trunk, and when we consider that with
this member rendered incapable, the certain fate of the poor savage
brute would be starvation, it ceases to seem wonderful that he should
preserve the curious worm-like thing with such care in captivity:
should the elephant's trunk get injured, he has to be fed for the
remainder of his life. Mr. Williamson saw one whose trunk had been
sliced with a bill-hook, and though the wound healed up, it was cf no
farther use to the poor brute, who was fed with grass and hay doubled






STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


into bundles and thrust into his mouth. Some years ago, an elephant
kept in a menagerie at Dublin was accidentally burnt to death, and
when his remains came to be examined, no trunk could be found, so it
was of course thought that it had perished in the fire, but upon closer
examination it was found thrust two feet deep into the hard ground
that made the floor of his den.
Wild elephants sometimes go blind, but guided by the trunk, they
are still enabled to gather, food, to travel over unequal ground, and to
avoid ditches and hollows. So exquisitely fine is this organ of touch,
that the blind brute by extending it before him as far as possible, and
letting the finger-like appendage attached to the end of it skim along the
ground, is enabled to travel through leagues of forest with perfect ease.
Opposed to this finger is a smaller protuberance, which may be
called a thumb ; and if the objects he is collecting to eat be too
insignificant to be worth the trouble of being passed separately to the
mouth, he holds them one by one behind this thumb till he has
gathered a mouthful. If it be grass on which he is dining, he will
twist the end of his trunk round a tuft, pluck it up, and after beating
it against one of his fore-legs till the roots are free from earth, pass
it into his mouth.




-' ,FEM ALE.
ITOLDING BREANC.



PROFILE. MALC.
PLUCKING GRASS.

When he finds a cocoa-nut, lie first kneads it under foot to remove
th .outer bark, then after plucking off the coarse fibre with which the
inner shell is surrounded, passes the dainty into his maw, evidently
much enjoying the sweet liquid that exudes as he crunches up the
nut, shell and all.
The elephant's trunk is not composed of a mere series of muscular
rings, as its appearance would lead one to suspect. It is one of the
most marvellous constructions in creation, and one that manifests
completely the wondrous wisdom of the Mfaker of all things. Possessed







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


of it the elephant, despite enormous bulk, ceases to be unwieldy; it
is a magic wand that at once lifts him from the grovelling condition
of his even less bulky brethren, the rhinoceros and hippopotamus.
A curious delusion respecting the habits of the elephant existed till
within a very few years, viz. that the young ones imbibed the milk
of the mothers' teats through their trunks. It was such a plausible
theory, that, on the strength of their own sagacity, and the authority
of such renowned naturalists as Buffon and Perrault, writers of all
countries shut their eyes to facts and their ears to reason, and clung
to it most pertinaciously. The young elephant, however, does not
imbibe the mother's milk through its trunk; if it uses it at all
during the process of sucking, it is simply to knead the udder while















SECTIONS OF TRUNK.
the teat is in its mouth, in an endeavour to increase the flow of milk,
as human babies when they grow old enough to be able, will press
their mothers' breasts with their hands. At no time is the elephant's
disinclination to lie down so cleaily demonstrated as when the dam is
suckling her calf. In a wild state she will rather extend her legs
and assume a stooping and evidently inconvenient posture. When
in captivity, should the dam be tall, the keepers construct a little
platform for the baby elephant to stand on while it is sucking.
Damp, worm-like, disagreeable-looking thing as it seems, it has
three distinct and perfect uses. First of all it is an organ of smell,
an elongated and curiously elastic nose in fact, and without doubt
of incalculable value to the animal in selecting food above his range
of vision, and adding considerably to his ability to scent at a distance







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


savage beasts, or his still more formidable enemy, man. Two canals are
continued from the nostrils, which are reflected round the nasal bones
and then proceed straight to the termination of the trunk. The canals
are separated by and embedded in a fatty elastic membrane, containing
thousands of minute muscles. Of these there are three sets: an
outer longitudinal, composed of four layers; an oblique set, which
are variously directed; and a third set which radiate from the tubes to
the circumference. They are very small, and supposed to number as
many as forty or fifty thousand.
Besides an organ of smell, the proboscis of the elephant serves as a
sucker by which it can quench its thirst at a pool too shallow even for
the neat-mouthed horse to advantage himself of. There is, however,
no passage through the trunk to the mouth, so that when the former
is drawn full, its contents are transferred to the animal's throat by








FEEDING.

turning the little mouth to the great one and squirting the liquid
therein. Whether the elephant, having satisfied his thirst at a
river he has travelled twenty miles to reach, pro-
vides for an after-draught by filling this convenient
vessel before he starts for home, is more than I can
say; neither do I find it anywhere recorded whether
or no the animal can, with his trunk filled with
water, at the same time use it as deftly as though
it were empty, or trumpet with it, as is his wont
when pleasurably or otherwise excited. Last, but
by no means least, is tne wonderful little apparatus
that terminates the trunk boneless, yet mobile as
the thumb of a weaver. A pin is not too small an
object for this delicate member to grasp, and even
so slight and inconsiderable a substance as a sixpence it will apply
itself to and lift from the ground without bungling.







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


From the elephant's upper jaw extend two enormous teeth, fixed
in sockets in the front of the mouth, but which, correctly speaking,
are neither incisors nor tusks, although by this latter term they are
universally known. However, they do not perform the usual functions
of teeth, and are not situated as tusks usually are. French naturalists
of the modern school call the weapons in question Defenses, a term
applicable solely to their use, and evading the question of position.
The French title is correct, inasmuch as it exactly defines the use of
the ivory protuberances. Although often nearly ten feet in length,
and sharp enough to pierce easily the toughest hide that ever
enveloped a carcase, the elephant-except he be a "rogue" (of
which class of elephant kind mention will presently be made)-
seldom or never uses his tusks except in self-defence. These tusks,
as well as those of other Pachydermata, grow upon a simple pulp,
such as that which forms the teeth of the bottle-nose whale. They
are formed of ivory without any enamel, and their growth is only
limited by the abrasion to which they are subject.
In most carnivorous as well as herbivorous animals, the succession
of teeth is provided for precisely in the same way as with ourselves,
namely, by the formation of a new tooth below each of the deciduous
ones; so that when the latter falls out in consequence of the
absorption of its fangs, the former is ready to take its place.
The germ of the second tooth is at first imbedded in the jaw-bone
in the immediate vicinity of the roots of the one it is destined to
replace, and as its growth advances, the old and used tooth is
gradually removed to make way for the new-comer. The steps of
this process are exactly similar to those by which the milk-teeth
of a child are changed, and the details connected with it are familiar
to us all.
In the elephant, however, the succession of teeth is effected in a
very different manner; the place of the first formed being supplied
by others that advance from behind as the former become used.
'" Animals exhibiting this mode of dentition," says Rymer Jones, from
whose garner of anatomical curiosities these particulars are chiefly
culled, "have the grinding surfaces of their molar teeth placed
obliquely,. so that if they were to issue altogether from the gum,
the anterior portion would be much more prominent than the
posterior, notwithstanding that the opposed teeth act upon each







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


other in a horizontal plane." The consequence of this arrangement
is that the anterior portion of these teeth is ground down to the
roots and worn away sooner than the posterior portion. Moreover, the
posterior part of the tooth is considerably wider than the anterior;
so that as the succeeding tooth advances from behind, there is
always sufficient room to receive it, and in this way by the time
the first tooth is quite destroyed and falls out, a new one from
behind has already taken its office. There is therefore no absorption
of the roots of these teeth, but they are ground down from the
crown to the stump. The new tooth that thus advances from
behind, is always of larger dimensions than that to which it
succeeds; because the animal itself has grown in the interval,
and the jaws have become proportionately developed.
The elephant may in this way have a succession of seven or
eight teeth on each side in both jaws, or from twenty-eight to
thirty-two in all; and nevertheless seeing that the anterior ones
successively fall out, there are never more than two visible at once
above the gums on each side, or eight in all; generally indeed
there is only one visible at a time. Every successive tooth is
composed of more laminm than that which immediately preceded
it, and a longer time is required to perfect its growth.

TEETH.










ASIATIC. CENTRAL AFRICAN.


John Hunter, whose indefatigable labours embraced this among
a thousand other subjects, bears corroborative testimony to the
above. He says, "Elephants do not shed their teeth as other
animals do that have more than one; for those that have more
- than one tooth can afford to be for some time without their teeth:







STRUCTURE OF THE ELEPHANT.


therefore the young tooth comes up in .very nearly the same place
with, its predecessor, and some exactly underneath; so that the
shedding tooth falls sometimes before the succeeding tooth can
supply its use. But this would not have answered in the elephant,
for if the succeeding tooth had formed in the same situation with
respect to the first, the animal would, have lived for some time
entirely deprived of a tooth on one side, or at least if it had one
on the same side in the opposite jaw, that one could have been
of no use; and if this process took place in both sides of the
same jaw, and in either jaw, the animal would have been entirely
deprived of any use of the two remaining."




SKULLS.


AFYJuRI.. INDI.UX































HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


accounts of the tremendous herds of
elephants, and hippopotami, and rhi-






estimated that its entire weight was five tons and a half. An hip-
popotamus that was cut up, pickled, and exported for anatomical
purposes, weighed three tons. The fairly estimated weight of the
rhinoceros is three tons and a half. Indeed, Darwin roughly estimates
each of the ten largest quadrupeds of Africa to weigh, on an average,
two tons and a quarter. In a single day's march, Dr. Smith counted
about a hundred and fifty rhinoceroses, several herds of giraffes, and
a host of hippopotami, of which his party killed eight; yet, says the
Doctor, "the country was thinly covered with grass, and bushes
about four feet high, and still more thinly with mimosa trees; so that







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


the waggons were not prevented travelling nearly in a straight line."
It should be recollected, however, that the underwood which the
bulky animals consume, contains much nutriment in a small bulk,
and that, thanks to the rich rank soil n .which it grows, the green
boughs are replaced within a very short time of being cropped.
There is reason to believe that our ideas respecting the quantity
of food required by the giant quadrupeds are much exaggerated; as
truly says an acute writer, it should be. remembered, that the camel,
an animal of no mean bulk, has always been, considered an emblem
of the desert. As regarls the elepbint, he is as dainty in the selection
of his food' as the best of us. Certain sweet tasting fruits and
blossoms are his delight. He chooses the mohonono, the mimosa,
and other trees, which contain much saccharine matter, mucilage
and gum- Applying his trunk to the stem of a lofty palmyra, he
sways it gently to and fro to shake off the delicious seeds, which
he picks up and eats singly. It is by no means a fair test, to catch
an elephant, bring him to a climate which might have suited his
ancestors, but which is not so agreeable to him, feed him on hay,
carrots, and mangold wurzel, and summing up the weight of the
late contents of his manger, write down, "the elephant consumes
so-and-so in a day." It is extremely probable that if a day's provender
selected by the animal himself could be weighed, it would be found
to be less than half of that allowed to a menagerie elephant;, and it
is more than probable that the amount of sugar, and gum,, and
mucilage found in the smaller quantity, would considerably exceed
that of the latter. Night is the time selected by the elephant for
feeding; it is then more cool and comfortable for locomotion; the
buds and leaves are saturated with dew, and are thus doubly grateful.
The elephant of Ceylon is supplied much more plentifully with
food than his African brother. Tennent says: "The food of the
elephant is here so abundant, that in eating he never appears to be
impatient or voracious, but rather to play with the leaves and branches
on which he leisurely feeds. In riding by places where a herd has
recently halted, I have sometimes seen the bark peeled curiously off
the twigs, as though it had been done for amusement." The same
authority relates, that the natives of the peninsula of Jaffna always
look for the periodical appearance of the elephants at the precise
moment when the fruit of the palmyra palm begins to fall to the







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANhT.


ground from over ripeness. In like manner, in the eastern provinces,
where the custom prevails of cultivating chena land, by clearing a
patch of forest for the purpose of raising a single crop, after which
the ground is abandoned, and reverts to jungle again, although not
a single elephant may be seen in the neighbourhood during the early
stages of the process, the Moormen, who are the principal cultivators
of this class, will predict their appearance with unerring confidence
so soon as the grain shall have begun to ripen; and although the
crop comes to maturity at a different period in different districts,
the herd are certain to be seen at each in succession, as soon as it
is ready to be cut.
Acute as is the elephant's sense of hearing, it will hardly account
for the celerity with which the existence of danger becomes known
far and wide amongst them. This indeed constitutes one of the
greatest difficulties with which the elephant hunter has to contend.
Attack a herd to-night, and no matter how quietly the slaughter is
consummated, by sunrise to-morrow all chance of more elephant sport
in that neighbourhood is at an end. Somehow or another, news of
the presence of the man with the terrible gun gets wind, and straight-
way ensues an elephant gathering and flitting. He has the contempt
for short distances that might be expected of a brute of such magnitude,
and it is nothing for his bulky legs to trudge him along fifty
miles in a single night. Other wild and herbivorous animals
seldom think of selecting a haunt, without an abundant supply of
water in the immediate neighbourhood, but to the elephant, a score
of miles between his "bite and sup" is the most ordinary condition
of things. Indeed they almost invariably choose for their resort the
most lonely and secluded depths of the forest, at a very great distance
from the fountains at which they drink. According to Cumming, in
hot dry weather, the elephant drinks nightly; but in cool and cloudy
weather, only every third or fourth day. About sundown, says the
renowned lion-killer, "the huge creature leaves his midday haunt, and
commences his march towards the fountains, which are probably from
twelve to twenty miles distant. This he generally reaches between
the hours of nine and midnight; when, having slaked his thirst, and
cooled his body by spouting over it large volumes of water, he resumes
the path to his forest solitudes. Having reached a secluded spot, the
full grown bulls lie down on their broadsides, about the hour of
c2







HA13ITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


midnight, and sleep a few hours. The spot.which they usually select
is an ant-hill, and they lie around it, with their backs resting against
it. These hills, formed by the white ants, are from thirty to forty
feet in diameter at the base. The mark of the under tusks is always
deeply imprinted in the soil, thus proving that they lie on their sides."
It is, however, only in such solitary places where the elephant has
never been hunted or otherwise disturbed, that he will confide the
length and breadth of his great carcase to the earth. In elephant
districts common to the hunter, the animal sleeps as he stands, ready
at a moment's notice to flee. There can be little doubt that the
elephant accommodates his habits pretty much to circumstances. As
has been already remarked, he feeds by night and rests by day, and
no doubt such is the rule; but in regions where he may lie down
without fear, he will crop a meal night or day, just as it -suits
his fancy. Mr. Cumming says of the African elephant: "In remote
districts, and in cool weather, I have known herds to continue
pasturing during the whole day."
The mode by which one of a herd conveys to his fellows intel-
ligence of the approach of danger, is by uttering a low, suppressed
sound, made by the lips, somewhat resembling the. twittering of a
bird, and described by the hunters by the word "prut." Sir Emerson
Tennent, who was the first to notice this last-mentioned peculiarity,
further makes mention of a very remarkable noise uttered by elephants
when their alarm was too great to be expressed by the stealthy note
of warning just described. "On these occasions," he says, "the
sounds produced, resemble the hollow booming of an empty tub
when struck with a wooden mallet or a muffled sledge." Major
Macready, who heard the sound by night amongst the great forests
of Bintenne, describes it as "a sort of banging noise, like a cooper
hammering a cask;" and Major Skinner is of opinion, that it must be
produced by the elephant striking his sides rapidly and forcibly with his
trunk. Mr. Cripps informed Tennent, that he had more than once seen
an elephant, when surprised or alarmed, produce the sound by striking
the ground forcibly with the point of the trunk, and this move-
ment was instantly succeeded by raising and pointing it in the
direction whence the alarm proceeded, as if to ascertain by the sense
of smell, the nature of the threatened danger. As this strange sound
is generally mingled with the bellowing and ordinary trumpeting of








HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


the herd, it is in all probability a device resorted to not alone for
warning their companions of some approaching peril, but also for the
additional purpose of terrifying unseen intruders.
Considering his bulk and weight, the facility and noiselessness
with which the elephant can when it suits him glide through the
bushes is truly wonderful. Suddenly disturbed by the hunter, he
will burst away with a roar and a rush, crashing and rending all
before him: on he goes till hidden from view by a clump of dense
underwood, and then the clatter so suddenly ceases, so breathless
a stillness succeeds the uproar, that any one unacquainted with the
ways of the elephant would make quite sure that behind that bush
the great beast was hiding; impressed with the idea, the green hunter
creeps silently up to the hiding-place-to find it perfectly innocent
of elephant; the cunning brute without so much as snapping a twig
has got away, and could he be seen, is doubtless a mile away, con-
gratulating himself on his good fortune.
Thoroughly inoffensive as is the elephant, great respect is invariably
paid him by all the beasts of the forest; no one disputes his path.
The lion has no objection to step aside that the elephant may pass; the
leopard at the sound of the tremendous footstep skips up a tree, and
snugly ensconced amongst its branches, grins down on the lord with
the trunk." The author of "Lake N1gami" draws a graphic picture
of the approach of a herd of elephants to drink at a pool. "If
the spring or pool, as the case may be, be of small extent, all the
animals present will invariably retire from the water as soon as
they are aware of the presence of the elephant, of whom they seem
to have an instinctive dread, and will remain at a respectful distance
till the giants have quenched their thirst. Thus, long before I have
seen, or even heard the elephants, I have been warned of their
approach by the symptoms of uneasiness exhibited by such animals as
happened to be drinking at the time. The giraffe, for instance, begins
to sway his long neck to and fro; the zebra utters' subdued plaintive
cries; the gnoo glides away with a noiseless step; and even the
ponderous and quarrelsome black rhinoceros when he has time for
reflection will put up short in his walk to listen; then turning round,
he listens again, and if he feels satisfied his suspicions are correct, he
invariably walks off, usually giving vent to his fear or ire by one of his
vicious and peculiar snorts. Once, it is true, I saw a rhinoceros








HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


drinking with a herd of seven male elephants, but then he was
of the white species; besides, I don't believe that either party knew
of the other's proximity."
The disinclination of the elephant to make his way through the
merest fence is somewhat singular. The natives of Ceylon are
accustomed to erect round their rice patches a fence of slight sticks,
about six feet in height, and though the wild elephant is remarkably
fond of green rice, never on any occasion, except there be a rogue
about, is the fence broken. Pathways about twenty feet wide are
left between the fences, and through these, in the night, the wild
herds pass to drink at the water-tanks without doing the least
damage; yet that the ponderous brutes have every inclination to feast
on the dainty grain is sufficiently proved by the fact, that as soon
as the crop has been cut and carried home, the abandoned enclosures
are eagerly entered by the elephants, who resort to glean amongst
the stubble. Even when wounded by the hunter, the infuriated
beast will hesitate to charge his assailant through a hedge, rather
preferring to run along the barrier in search of an opening. Tennent
says, "It is possible that in the mind of the elephant there may
be some instinctive consciousness that owing to his superior bulk
he is exposed to danger from sources that might be perfectly harmless
in the case of lighter animals, and hence his suspicion that every fence
may conceal a snare or pitfall Some similar apprehension is apparent
in the deer, which shrinks from attempting a fence of wire, although
it will clear, without hesitation, a solid wall of greater height. At
the same time, the caution with which the elephant is supposed to
approach insecure ground, and places of doubtful solidity, appears to
me, so far as my observation and experience extend, to be exaggerated,
and the number of temporary bridges annually broken down by
elephants in all parts of Ceylon is sufficient to show that, although
in captivity, and when familiar with such structures, the tame ones
may, and doubtless do exhibit all the wariness attributed to them,
yet in a state of liberty, and while unaccustomed to such artificial
appliances, their instincts are not sufficient to ensure their safety ....
A fact illustrative at once of the caution and the spirit of curiosity
with which an elephant regards an unaccustomed object has been
frequently told to me by the officers engaged in opening roads through
the forests. On such occasions the wooden 'tracing pegs' which







HABITAT OF THE ELEPIHAT.


they are accustomed to drive into the ground to mark the levels
taken during the day, will often be withdrawn by the elephants
during the night to such an extent as frequently to render it necessary
to go over the work a second time.in order to replace them."
The belief that the elephant attains the age of two or even three
hundred years is still prevalent amongst the Singhalese; but it is
a tolerably well ascertained fact that the duration of elephant life
is only equal to man's own existence, viz. about seventy years. Of
course there have been exceptions. As we have our "Old Parrs"
and "Daddy Jacksons," so have they their long-lived ones. For
instance, amongst the papers left by Colonel Robertson (son to the
historian of Charles V."), who held a command in Ceylon, in 1799,
shortly after the capture of the island by the British, was found a
memorandum'showing that a decoy was then attached to the ele-
phant establishment at M1atura, which the records proved to have
served under the Dutch during the entire period of the occupation
(extending to upwards of a hundred and forty years); and was said
to have been found in the stables by the Dutch on the expulsion,
of the Portuguese, in A.D. 1656.
In elephant countries, too, the natives have as little belief in a
dead elephant as the most ignorant Cockney amongst us in a dead
donkey; and it really is an extraordinary fact that no one has ever
yet met with the skeleton of the elephant, throughout the mighty
Singhalese forests. Tennent quotes an instance of a gentleman
residing for thirty-six years without intermission in the jungle-
penetrating valleys and tracing roads during his trigonometrical pur-
suits, who never found the skeleton or body of an elephant that
had died a natural death. This does not appear to be the case in
Africa, for Beaver, in his "African M.emoranda," relates that the
skeletons of old elephants that have died in the woods are frequently
found. It has been suggested that the bones of the elephant may
be so porous and spongy as to disappear in consequence of early
decomposition, but, as Tennent observes, this remark would not
apply to the grinders or to the tusks. The last-mentioned authority
states that the Singhalese have a superstition relating to the closing
life of the elephant; they believe that on feeling the approach of
dissolution he repairs to a solitary valley, and there resigns him-
self to death. While hunting in the forests of Anarajapoora, the







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


native who accompanied Mr. Cripps, observed, when they came to
a secluded spot, that they were now in the immediate vicinity of the
spot where the elephants came to die, but that it was so mysteriously
concealed, that although every one believed in its existence, no one
had ever succeeded in penetrating to it.
The excessive fondness of the female elephant for its calf has been
much more frequently asserted than proved. Living together in
herds or families, the sucklings draw their nourishment from the first
ample udder that presents itself, and without the least consideration
as to whom it belongs. Sure it is that the mother elephant suffers
these liberties contentedly; but, as says White, the Selborne philo-















MODE OF SUCKLING.
sopher, this indiscriminate suckling of tne young of one animal
by another may have selfishness rather than tenderness for its source;
the pleasure the older animal experiences in having its teats drawn,
more than compensating for the inconvenience. Modern sportsmen
and travellers who have had frequent opportunities of observing the
habits of the wild elephant, agree in denying to the animal even an
average share of maternal affection; quoting in support of this view
instances in which, when pursued by the hunters, the elder brutes
have abandoned the'young ones and made good their own flight in
spite of the clamorous and imploring bleatings of the helpless little
things. Furthermore, it has been asserted by a sound authority, and
the assertion has never, to my knowledge, been contradicted, that if a
wild elephant gets separated from its calf but for the space of forty-
eight hours, she will take no further notice of it, although the







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


youngster by all sorts of cries and coaxing tricks manifests a know-
ledge of its dam and its anxiety to renew the acquaintance.
At its birth the elephant is from thirty to thirty-six inches in
height, and for the first day or two, very weak and incapable of any
further exertion than that which is necessary to reach the mother's
teat. Weaning a young elephant is a terrible job. How the poor
elephant mothers manage with their rebellious young ones in a
wild state is not known, but judging from the behaviour of the latter
in a domesticated condition, she must have a harassing time of it. An
English traveller who was an eye-witness to an elephant-weaning
at Ava, thus describes the operation :-" About two-and-thirty females
with their young ones were driven into the enclosure, and shortly after
there also went in four great male elephants, the riders of which had
in their hands a long rope with a noose in the end. After many
unsuccessful efforts they succeeded in snaring one of the calves by
the hind leg. This was a difficult matter to accomplish, for besides
its own opposition, it was protected by the adroitness of several of
the grown females, who crowded round it. So outrageously did the
calf struggle, that the big males had frequently to beat him, and
I observed that once or twice they lifted him literally off his legs with
their tusks, but without doing him any material injury. The cry
which he emitted on these occasions differed in no way but in degree
from the squeak of a hog in pain or fear." Ultimately the bereaved
calf was borne off by two of his full-grown male relations, and
condemned to solitary confinement till he became reasonable.
The similarity of feature existing among herds of wild elephants
goes far to prove that they do not associate promiscuously, but rather
congregate in families. In a herd of twenty-one elephants, captured
in Ceylon in 1844, the trunk of each exhibited the same peculiar
formation. In another lot of thirty-five prisoners the eyes of all
were of the same colour. Indeed there is generally to be found
among the members of one herd some peculiarity of feature that
distinguishes it from any other. These various herds are generally
on friendly terms, and will occasionally mingle till a body two or
three hundred strong is formed ; but should there occur the slightest
cause for alarm, the leader of his family will sound his trumpet, and
what was a minute ago a promiscuous mob is now so many distinct
squads, each without the least sympathy for the rest. It may be







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


fairly assumed, however, that in order to maintain the vigour of a herd
an occasional alliance out of the family circle is allowed, though it is
very certain that the elderly members keep a severe eye on the young
sweethearting bucks, and never a one of them dare bring home the
female of his choice without first securing the consent of a majority
of his relations.
To such extreme lengths is this system of caste carried, that should
an unfortunate animal by any chance lose all his relations, he is for
ever cut off from the society of his kind, and doomed to a life of
loneliness. The most modern and learned writers agree that the
above-given reason is sufficient for the perpetual banishment of an
elephant from among his species; but this view I can hardly under-
stand. It seems strange that even brutes in a natural condition
should conspire to act so unnaturally. The outcast is generally a
bull-a fine handsome fellow with a sleek coat and magnificent
tusks. We see no reason why he should be banned, but what do
we know of elephant economy? The solitary one may have
been a tyrant leader against whom his subjects have rebelled-he
may have been a wicked wretch who has slain his nearest kin.
What do we know of these things 1
There he is, however, and he is to be met wherever elephants do
congregate. In India he is called Goondal or Sawn, and in Ceylon
flora, which signifies "rogue." The rogue's tusks are against all
elephants, and the tusks of all honest elephants are against the
rogue-not to ill-use him, but to compel him to keep at a respectful
distance. So long as he "keeps himself to himself" he may browse
in the neighbourhood of his fellows-he may even bathe and drink
at the same pool,-but closer familiarity is strictly forbidden. Even
should the "rogue" be trapped with an honest herd, and driven
with it into the "corral," and the great beasts one and all lie
trembling with terror and trumpeting their lamentations, still the
rogue must keep aloof. Family pride is stronger than family
misfortune. Let not Hora deceive himself by hoping that in
the great calamity that has fallen on his relations his iniquity
will be forgotten. Nobody sympathises with him; nobody comes to
him to clasp trunks and otherwise according to elephantine nature
express condolence. Let the rogue dare even approach the family
circle, and in an instant every member of it will forget his grief







HABITAT OF THE ELEPMANT.


and combine with his friend to keep off the intruder. But, as has
already been observed, little love goes begging between the expelled
and his expellers. The rogue's fierce hatred for his kind is not
quenched because he happens to be taken prisoner with them. Sir
Emerson Tennent, who has observed the habits of the elephant in
every phase of its existence with greater care and attention than any
other writer, was once present when an animal of this sort was
driven with others into a corral in Ceylon. He says, Amongst the
last of the elephants noosed was a rogue. Though far more savage
than the others, he joined in none of their charges and assaults on
the fences, as they uniformly drove him off, and would not permit
him to enter their circle. When dragged past another of his
companions in misfortune, who was lying exhausted on the ground,
he flew upon him and attempted to fasten his teeth in his head.
This was the only instance of viciousness that occurred during the
progress of the corral."
The inhabitants of villages in the neighbourhood of elephant
haunts will always willingly lend their services at a hunt if there
be a rogue about. And not without reason. Rendered savage and
morose by his companions giving him "the cold shoulder," the
"rogue" becomes less timid of mankind, and breaks through the
fences the native erects round his crop of green rice and his
plantation of young cocoa-nuts, demolishing the labour of weeks
in an hour or so. The outlawed rascal thinks nothing of sauntering
in broad daylight among the rice reapers, catching up a sheaf and
marching off with it into the jungle to munch at his leisure.
Every herd or family of elephants has its leader. It however
by no means follows that the biggest animal in the flock is selected
to fill this responsible office; for though it generally happens that he
is a bull, and a "tusker" to boot, comparatively small creatures,
and not unfrequently females, are found in command, so that after
all it is more likely that the elephant endowed with the greatest
amount of pluck and cunning assumes the part as its right. The
amount of devotion and loyalty the band evince for their chief
is wonderful. They obey his merest gesture, submit to his chastise-
Sment, and protect his life at the risk of their own. If he should
be a tusker and a particular object of respect to the hunters, and
hard pressed by them, his subjects will surround him and catch







HABITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


in. their own carcases the bullets intended for his. They have even
been: known when their king has been badly wounded to club
shoulders and shuffle off with him to the depths of the jungle.
That the chief is as devoted to his subjects as they to him
cannot be better illustrated than by the following evidence of an
European sportsman of undoubted credit. Being in the vicinity
of a "tank" at which elephants came at night to drink, the
gentleman in question resolved to hide and watch their manouvres.
Within five hundred yards of the tank was a thick forest;
it was night and brilliant moonlight, and the watcher climbed
into, a thickly foliaged tree. "After waiting about: two hours,"
says he, "an unusually large elephant issued from the dense cover
and advanced cautiously across the open ground to within a hundred
yards of the tank, where he stood perfectly motionless. So quiet
had the elephants become, although they had been roaring and
breaking the jungle throughout the day and evening, that not a
movement was now to be heard. The huge vidette remained in
his position still as a rock for a few minutes, and then made three
successive stealthy advances of several yards, halting for some
minutes between each, with ears bent forward to catch the
slightest sound, and in: this way he moved slowly up to the water's
edge. Still he did not venture to quench his thirst, for though
his fore-feet were partly in the tank, and his vast body was reflected
clear in the water, he remained for some minutes listening in perfect
stillness. Not a motion could be perceived in himself or his shadow.
He returned cautiously and slowly to the position he had first
taken on emerging from the forest. Here in a little while he was
joined by five others, with which he again proceeded as cautiously,
but less slowly than before, to within a few yards of the tank,
and then posted his patrols. He then re-entered the forest and
collected around him the whole herd, which must have amounted
to between eighty and a hundred individuals, led them across the
open ground with the most extraordinary composure and quietness
till he joined the advance guard, when he left them for a moment
and repeated his former reconnaissance at the edge of the tank.
After which, and having apparently satisfied himself that all was
safe, he returned and obviously gave the order to advance, for in
a moment the whole herd moved into the water with a degree of








HA13ITAT OF THE ELEPHANT.


unreserved confidence so opposite to the caution and timidity which
had marked their previous movements, that nothing will ever persuade
me that there was not rational and preconcerted co-operation through-
out the whole party, and a degree of responsible authority exercised
by the patriarch leader.
I watched them with great interest till they had satisfied them-
selves as well in bathing as drinking, when I tried how small a
noise would apprise them of the proximity of unwelcome neighbours.

















I had but to break a little twig, and the solid mass instantly took
to flight like a herd of frightened deer, each of the smaller calves
being apparently shouldered and carried along between two of the
older ones."
The elephant is by no means particular as to the quality of the
water he drinks; indeed, it may be said that he seldom or never
imbibes it in a pure condition, it being his habit to plunge headlong
into the tank or stream, and bathe and drink at the same time. In
the dry season, and when the usual water-courses are exhausted, the
elephant turns well-borer-scooping a deep hole in the light soil, and
depending on its being filled by a neighboring spring. The animal,
however, is cunning enough to be aware that if he sank his well with
perpendicular sides, his great weight would crush them to the bottom
as soon as he approached to drink; so he constructs it with such a
gradient that the water can be safely reached with his trunk, without
endangering the construction by his ponderous weight.












THE WAR ELEPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.


DURING the earlier periods of the Mogul Empire, it was the ordinary
practice to enlist the strength and sagacity of the elephant for the
battle-field; indeed, scarcely more than two centuries ago, the chief
in India who possessed the greatest force of elephants was almost
sure of victory. It was not alone the irresistible power of the ele-
phant to break the ranks of the enemy that made it valuable to an
army. Describing the elephant of war, the author of the Ayeen Akbery
says: "Five plates of iron, each one cubit long and four fingers broad,
are joined together by rings, and fastened round the ears of the
elephant by four chains, each an ell in length; and betwixt these,
another chain passes over the head, and is secured beneath; 'and
across it are four iron spikes, with 7catasses and iron knobs. There
are other chains with iron spikes and knobs, hung under the throats
and over the breasts, and others fastened to the trunks; these are
for ornament, and to frighten horses. Pakher is a kind of steel
armour that covers the body of the elephant; there are other pieces
of it for the head and proboscis."
When Timour, or Tamerlane, invaded the dominions of the Sultan
Mahmood (A.D. 1399), the elephants of the latter were his greatest
obstacle. He surrounded his camp with an enormous ditch, and a
rampart of bucklers; buffaloes were tied together round the ram-
part, by the necks and feet, with brambles upon their heads, to
be set on fire when the elephants approached. The forces of the
Sultan when he set out to give Timour battle, consisted of ten
thousand horse, forty thousand foot, and elephants armed with
cuirasses, and poisoned daggers upon their trunks. In the wooden
towers upon their backs were cross-bowmen, and archers who could
fight under cover. On the sides of the elephants were fingers of
fire and melted pitch, and rockets shod with iron. The dread of
this array in the army of the invaders was extreme. Upon the
backs of the elephants were carried kettle-drums of brass; and
these united to the din of cymbals, and bells, and trumpets, dis-
mayed even the most dauntless. Timour fell upon the earth in








THE WAR ELEPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.


prayer: he that a month before had murdered a hundred thousand
captives in cold blood, besought God to give him victory. It was
the inscrutable will of Him to whom the Mongol prayed, that his
prayer should be answered. In the words of the Persian historian,
Sherefeddin-"The elephants of the Sultan threw his own left wing
into disorder; the right was repulsed, and Timour himself led his
troops against the centre. The elephants fled before the sabres of
the horsemen. The expert swordsmen aimed at the trunks of the

























terrified animals, and many of them were strewed over the field
with the slain. The alarm which the supposed invincibility of the
elephants had produced was dissipated for ever. Timour's grandson,
only fifteen years of age, wounded an elephant, and drove the animal
before him into his grandfather's camp. The next day the invader
sat on the throne of the Indian monarch, and received the homage
of his new subjects. Twelve rhinoceroses and a hundred and twenty
elephants were paraded before him."
In the hands of Timour, however, the captive war elephants were
made to do stout service and to win for the bold Mongol many bloody







THE WAR ELEUPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.


victories. In less than two years the conqueror was in Syria, and
in the battle before Aleppo the main body of his army was covered
with a rank of elephants, to serve as a. rampart. Their towers
were filled with archers and flingers of Greek fire. The triumph
of the elephants in this battle was a signal contrast to their defeat
'at Delhi. Remembering the terrible wounds inflicted on their
trunks by the swordsmen, the cunning animals learnt to coil up
that precious apparatus out of harm's way, and rushing upon the
main body of the Syrians broke it up, and trampled it under foot
like stubble. Marco Polo's account of the battle in which Kublai
Khan first conquered the elephants affords some curious illustrations
of the ancient Indian mode of employing this giant quadruped in
war.
"It happened that in the year 1272 the Grand Khan sent an
army into the countries of Yochang and Karazan, for their protec-
tion and defence against any attacks that foreigners might attempt
to make. When the King of Mien (Ava) and Bangala, in
India, who was powerful in the number of his subjects, in territory,
and in wealth, knew that an army of Tartars had arrived, at Vochang,
he took the resolution of advancing immediately to attack it, in
order that by its destruction the Grand Khan might be deterred
from again attempting to station a force upon the borders of his
dominions. For this purpose he assembled a very large army,
including a multitude of elephants, upon whose backs were placed
battlements, or castles of wood, capable of containing to the
number of from twelve to sixteen in each. With these and a
numerous army of horse and foot, he took the road to Vochang,
where the Grand Khan's army lay; and encamping at no great
distance from it, intended to give his troops a few days of rest.
The King of Mien, learning that the Tartars had descended into
the plain, immediately put his army in motion, took up his ground
at the distance of about a mile from the enemy, and made a
disposition of his forces, placing the elephants in the front, and
the cavalry and infantry in two extended wings in their rear, but
leaving between them a considerable interval; here he took his
own station and proceeded to animate his men and encourage
them to fight valiantly, assuring them of victory, as well from
the superiority of their numbers, being four to one, as from their







THE WAR ELEPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.


formidable body of armed elephants, whose shock, the enemy,
who had never before been engaged with such combatants, could
by no means resist. Then, giving orders for sounding a prodigious
number of warlike instruments, he advanced boldly with his whole
army towards that of the Tartars which remained firm, making
no movement, but suffering them to approach their entrenchments.
They then rushed out with great spirit, and the utmost eagerness
to engage; but it was soon found that the Tartar horses, unused
to the sight of such huge animals, with their castles, were terrified
and, wheeling about, attempted to fly, nor could their riders by
any exertions restrain them, whilst the King, with the whole of
his. forces, was every moment gaining ground. As soon as the
prudent commander perceived this unexpected disorder, he, with-
out losing his presence of mind, instantly adopted the measure of
ordering his men to dismount, and their horses to be taken into
the wood, where they were fastened to the trees. Being dis-
mounted, the men, without loss of time, advanced on foot towards
the line of elephants, and commenced a brisk discharge of arrows.
So incessant were the discharges, all the weapons being directed
against the elephants, and none against the soldiers in the castles,
that the animals were soon covered with arrows, and suddenly
giving way, fell back upon their own people in the rear, who
were thereby thrown into confusion. Smarting under the pain
of their wounds, and terrified by the shouting of the assailants,
they were no longer governable, but without guidance or control
ran about in all directions, until at length, impelled by rage and
fear, they rushed into a part of the wood not occupied by the
Tartars. The consequence of this was, that from the closeness of
the branches of large trees, they broke with loud crashes the
castles that were upon their backs, and involved in the destruction
those who sat in them. Upon seeing the rout of the elephants,
the Tartars acquired fresh courage, and filing off by detachments
with perfect order and regularity, they mounted their horses and
rejoined their several divisions, when a sanguinary and dreadful
combat was renewed, ending in a complete victory by the Tartars."
Whether true or, fabulous, the story of Semiramis, Queen of
Assyria, and her elephants, is sufficiently curious to bear relating
though it be for the hundredth time. At war with the Indian






THE WAR ELEPHANT OF THE ANCIENTS.


monarch Stabrobates and about to invade his dominions, her Assyrian
majesty to make up for her lack of elephants, and to strike with
terror her enemies, who had reason to believe that the huge animal
existed only in India, caused to be slain three hundred thousand
black oxen, and their skins to be stitched together and stretched
upon light frames, resembling the elephant in shape, and within each of
the sham elephants was placed a camel and a man to guide its locomotion.
The day of battle arrived and the armies approached each other,
the fictitious elephants going before Semiramis' host. Stabrobates
had however received private information of the cheat, and instead
of exhibiting alarm at the approach of the giant column, charged
with his horsemen fearlessly at it. However he was not quite so
successful as perhaps he imagined he would have been. The horse
has a natural antipathy for the camel, and when the fierce phalanx
neared the invisible skin-bearers, the war-steeds scented them, and
starting back, broke and fell into the greatest confusion. Semiramis
had probably counted on this, and at once charging the disordered
cavalry drove them back on the main army. Stabrobates was
amazed, but boldly led on his infantry, and placing his elephants
in front against their fictitious resemblances, charged. The movement
was triumphant. The antipathy of the elephant for the camel, the
terror of this animal, and its utter moral as well as physical
helplessness in such assaults is well known. The elephants bore
down the wretched and passive counterfeits, trampled them under
foot, pierced them with their tusks and tossed their carcases in the
air. Thus the tide of battle was turned in favour of Stabrobates,
and Semiramis and her army were routed entirely.








-- 1- A-v 0
II -"'M'-& r
c~


FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY MAYALL.


HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.

THE African ivory trade dates from a remote period. When
Rome was at -the height of her barbaric splendour, she drew largely
on Africa not only for cargoes of living elephants for the amphi-
theatre, but also for immense quantities of ivory, which was even
more highly valued then than now. Scarcely an article of luxurious
furniture was made without ivory entered into its construction. Africa
supplied the precious commodity-was drained of it-till it became
so scarce that the Romans altogether abandoned the African coast,
and sought tusks in another hemisphere.
D2


rrlR-00Ini^







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND~ TAJIED


In no way does man so grossly abuse the authority given him over
the beast of the field as when he subjects them to unnecessary pain.
When he is so guilty for the satisfaction of his avarice, or his
revenge, or his ambition, it is altogether shameful and despicable;
but when without reason or excuse of any sort, but merely for the
gratification of his monstrous appetite for sanguinary spectacles, and
the sight of living bodies mangled and bruised and horribly lacerated,
he pits fang against fang, and talon against talon, and, safely removed
from the contending brutes, looks coolly on, he is guilty of a savagery
worthy only of his M1ajesty of Dahomey. Moreover, in the case of
the elephant, much training and persuasion must be necessary to
induce him to fight at all. With animals of a naturally pugnacious
disposition, such as lions, and bears, and tigers, to put them in a
pit together is sufficient to insure a battle; but with the pacific
elephant, who has neither the desire to destroy life which belongs
to the carnivorous animals, nor the means of gratifying the desire
did he possess it, the case is altogether different.
The number of elephants shipped annually from Africa to Rome
to be trained to fight each other in the circus was immense.
At the dedication of his theatre, Pompey exhibited the incredible
number of five hundred lions, and eighteen elephants, and a host
of armed men all at one time together in the circus. In the
second consulate of Pompey (B.c. 54) a number of elephants were
opposed in the circus to Getulian archers; and this exhibition,
according to Pliny, was distinguished by several remarkable circum-
stances. One of the elephants, although furious from a wound,
is recorded to have seized upon the shields of his adversaries and
to have thrown them in the air with a peculiar movement, doubt-
less the effect of training, which caused the shields to whirl round
before their fall to the earth. On this occasion, too, an elephant
having been killed by a single blow of a javelin through the eye,
his fellows rushed forward in a general charge to save him, and
coming with great force against the iron railings of the circus,
broke them down and injured several of the spectators. Dion, the
historian, relates that on one occasion when "several elephants and
other brutes were contending together in the arena, the spectators
so compassionate the poor animals raising their trunks to heaven
and roaring piteously, as if imploring aid of the gods, that they


36








HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


rose from their seats, and disregarding Pompey's magisterial presence,
demanded that the elephants might be spared. Again, when Cmsar
returned to Rome, twenty elephants were exhibited fighting for
their lives against a host of spearmen; on this occasion the spectators
were protected from danger by the width of a deep ditch that
surrounded the circus.
We have no need however to refer back to so remote a period
as the Roman era for accounts of elephant baiting. In India the
"sport" was always a favourite one. Bishop Heber says: "While at
the court of Baroda, the rajah was anxious to know whether I had
observed his rhinoceros and his hunting-tigers, and offered to show
me a day's sport with the last, or to bait an elephant for me-a
cruel amusement which here is not uncommon. .. At the palace
of Jyepoor we were shown five or six elephants in training for a
fight. Each was separately kept in a small paved court with a
little litter, but very dirty. They were all what is called 'must,'
that is, fed on stimulating substances to make them furious; and
all showed in their eyes, their gaping mouths, and the constant
motion of their trunks, signs of fever and restlessness. Their mohouts
seemed to approach them with great caution; and on hearing a
step they turned round as far as their chains would allow, and
lashed fiercely with their trunks. I was moved and disgusted at
the sight of so noble creatures thus maddened and diseased by
the absurd cruelty of man, in order that they might for his diversion
inflict fresh pain and injuries on each other."
Bernier, who was an eye witness to an elephant fight that took
place at Ava, thus describes it:-
"A wall of earth is raised three or four French feet wide, and
five or six high. The two ponderous beasts meet one another face
to face on opposite sides of the wall, each having a couple of riders,
so that the place of the man who sits on the shoulders with a
large iron hook for the purpose of guiding the elephant, may
immediately be supplied if he should be thrown down. The riders
animate the elephants either by soothing words, or by chiding them
as cowards, and urge them on with their heels until the poor
creatures approach the wall and are brought to the attack. The
shock is tremendous, and it appears surprising that they ever survive
the dreadful wounds and blows inflicted by their tusks, their heads,








HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


and their trunks. There are frequent pauses during the fight; it
is suspended and renewed; and the mud wall being at length thrown
down, the stronger or more courageous elephant passes on and attacks
his opponent, and, putting him to flight, pursues and fastens upon
him with so much obstinacy that the animals can only be separated
by means of cherkys, or fireworks, which are made to explode between
them; for they are naturally timid, and have a particular dread of
fire, which is the reason why elephants have been used so little
in warfare since the introduction of fire-arms.
The fight of these noble creatures is attended with much cruelty.
It frequently happens that some of the riders are trodden under
foot, and killed on the spot, the elephant having always cunning
enough to feel the importance of dismounting the rider of his
adversary, whom he therefore endeavours to strike down with his
trunk. So eminent is the danger considered, that on the day of
combat, the unhappy men take the same formal leave of their
wives and children, as if,condemned to death. They are somewhat
consoled by the reflection, that if their lives should be preserved,
and the king be pleased with their conduct, not only will their
pay be augmented, but a sack of peyssas (equal to about two pounds
sterling), will he present to them, the moment they alight from
the elephant. They have also the satisfaction of knowing that in
the event of their death, their pay will be continued to their widow,
and that their sons will be appointed to the same situation. The
mischief with which this amusement is attended, does not always ter-
minate with the death of the riders. It often happens that some of the
spectators are knocked down, and trampled upon by the elephants
in the crowd; for the rush is terrible when, to avoid the infuriated
combatants, men and horses in confusion take to flight. The second
time I witnessed this exhibition, I owed my safety entirely to the
goodness of my horse, and the exertions of my two servants."
To return, however, to the coast of Africa, and the ivory trade.
The Romans having ceased their traffic, the mighty elephant was left
unmolested, and once more increased and multiplied. The native
having lost his customers, and requiring for his own purposes no
more ivory than could be made into a charm, nor fantastic ornament
for himself or his squaw, hunted the animal rarely, but when European
energy once more penetrated the savage elephant regions, and made







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


overtures for renewing the ivory trade, war was again declared against
the tusk bearers, and has continued ever since.
Except in a few districts of Africa, the flesh of the elephant is
not eaten; with regard to the flavour and digestibility of the meat,
it is hard to decide, as scarcely two Europeans out of the numbers
who have had an opportunity of tasting it, agree on the subject.
Tennent says: "The flesh is occasionally tasted as a matter of
curiosity; as a steak it is coarse and tough; but the tongue is as
delicate as that of an ox, and the foot is said to make palatable
soup." Major Denham says: "The flesh looks coarse, but is better
flavoured than any beef I found in the country." Le Vaillant
having, in the course of his explorations, dined off baked elephant's
foot, lauds it as a dish dainty enough to be set before a king.
"NIever," says he, "have our modern Luculluses been able to produce
on their table such a dish as I have before me. In vain their gold
reverses the order of the seasons; in vain they lay every country
under contribution, their luxury has not reached this point." Bruce
asserts, that the Abyssinians subsist for long periods on elephant's
flesh. "They cut the whole of the flesh from the bones, into thongs,
like the reins of a bridle, and hang them like festoons upon the
branches of trees, till they become perfectly dry, without salt; and
then they lay them up for their provision in the season of the rains."
It is certain, however, that if elephants were sought for their flesh
alone, of every hundred now made to bite the dust, ninety nine
would escape. In Great Britain alone, the annual consumption of
ivory, is about one million pounds, and as the average weight of
a tusk is sixty pounds, the number of male elephants alone annually
sacrificed must exceed eight thousand. This, however, by no means
represents the entire number slaughtered. From Ceylon, for instance,
the yearly importation of ivory, does not exceed a quarter of a ton,
which, despite the comparative lightness of the tusks of the Ceylon
elephant, would not involve the destruction of more than eight or
ten each year; but then a large quantity of Ceylon ivory finds its
way to China, to say nothing of the demands of the Buddhist
priests, in whose temples may be found tusks of the handsomest
and best description. Besides his ivory, his living muscles and sinews
are required by man, to whose cunning wiles thousands of these giants
of the forests annually succumb, and become docile beasts of burthen,







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMSD.


The existence of the elephant in a captive state is much more
prosaic and common-place than it used to be. Once upon a time
when Eastern splendour was at its highest, and to be a Mogul was
to be the most terrible man on the face of the earth, the elephant
was the most indolent and magnificent and pampered brute owning
man's supremacy. Slaves were retained to wait on him, the fat of
the land was spread before him, and when he wrathfully trumpeted,
people covered their heads, and hid from his anger. If the animal
had the good luck to be afflicted with a sort of leprosy, so that his
hide became white or cream-coloured,* his fortune was made ever-
lastingly. In the seventeenth century, there existed in Siam a white
elephant that kept three nations at constant war for its possession
for nearly a century, and caused the death of five kings and thou-
sands of soldiers. Tachard, who saw this pampered beast, says that
it was very small and old-three hundred years old he was informed.
This same Albino that. might have dyed its white hide red a thou-
sand times over in the blood that was shed on its behalf, was
attended by a hundred men, who fed him out of vessels of gold, and
waited on him in the splendid pavilion in which he was housed.
Fitch thus describes the treatment of some of these sacred ele-
phants, as witnessed by him beyond the Ganges: "Within the first
gate of the palace is a very large court, on both sides of which are
the houses for the king's elephants, which are wonderfully large
and handsome, and are trained for war and for the king's service.
Among the rest he has four white elephants, which are so great a
rarity, no other king having any but he; and were any other king
to have any, he would send for it, and if refused would go to war
for it, and would rather lose part of his kingdom than not have
the elephant. When any white elephant is brought to the king,
all the merchants in the city are commanded to go and visit him,
on which occasion each individual makes a present of half a ducat,
which amounts to a good round sum, as there are a good many
merchants, after which you may go and see them at your pleasure,
though they stand in the king's house. Among his titles, the king
takes that of king of the white elephants. They do great honour
Mr. Dalton, the author of many favourite boy's books, says in his story of
THE WHITE ELEPHANT, that it is not white, but a light mahogany colour ;" a
shade or two deeper, perhaps, than her Majesty's cream-coloured horses.







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


and service to these white elephants, every one of them having a
house decorated with golden ornaments, and getting their food in
vessels of gilt silver. Every day when they go to the river to wash,
each goes under a canopy of cloth of gold, or silk, carried by six or
eight men, and eight or ten men go before, each playing on drums,
shawms, and other instruments. When each has bathed and has
come out of the river, he has a gentleman to wash his feet in a
silver bason, and this officer is appointed by the king. There is no
such account made of the black elephants, be they never so great,
and some of them are wonderfully large and handsome, and full
nine cubits high."

















WHITE ELEPHANT.

In the Birman empire the white elephant has a comfortable time of
it-at least if handsome lodging and sumptuous food can insure com-
fort, which, after all, is more than doubtful It will be better perhaps
to speak of the Birman white elephant as "happy as a king." Major
Snodgrass in his narrative of the Burmese war, says: "So completely
influenced and guided are the Burmese by signs and omens, that
an unusual grunt from the white elephant was at all times sufficient
to interrupt the most important affairs, and cause the most solemn
engagements to be broken off."
It was in the Birman empire that Mr. Crawford saw a white
elephant, that had his ween or minister; his ween-dauk, or deputy








42 HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.

to that officer; his secretary, and other officers forming a complete
staff; besides which, the products of one of the finest districts
in the kingdom were set aside for his maintenance. The last-men-
tioned authority says, in relation to this wealthy beast: "I had
here as well as in Siam an opportunity of ascertaining that the
veneration paid to the white elephant is greatly exaggerated. The
white elephant is not an object of worship, but is considered an
indispensable part of the regalia of sovereignty. Royalty is incom-
plete without it; and the more there are, the more perfect is the
state of the kingly office considered. Both the court and people
would consider it as peculiarly inauspicious to want a white elephant,
and hence the repute in which they are held and the anxiety to
obtain them; the capture of a white elephant is consequently
highly rewarded. The present one was first discovered by four
common villagers, each of whom received two thousand five hun-
dred ticals in: money, and offices, titles, and estates. While we
were at Ava, a report was brought that a white elephant had
been seen;. but it was stated at the same time, that its capture
and transport on a sledge over the cultivated country, could only
be accomplished. by the destruction of ten thousand baskets of
rice. His.majesty is said. to.have exclaimed, more with the enthu-
siasm of an, amateur than the consideration of a patriot king:
" What signifies the destruction of ten thousand baskets of rice,
in comparison with the possession of a white elephant. and
the order was immediately issued for the commencement of the
hunt.
White, brown, or grey, however, the elephants of ancient Asia led
a life that all other quadrupeds might have envied; and whether
they were worthy through leprosy to be set up as idols, or, retaining
their natural colour, fit for no more honourable occupation than
dawdling along in the sacred processions of the Buddhist priests,
or to take some easy part in the gorgeous pageantries of some native
prince, they were nothing less enviable than sleek, well cared for,
indolent beasts. Their harness-chains were -of gold, studded with
pearls, silver bells surmounted their heads, and tinkled delicious
music to their broad-flapped ears; young maidens spread the path
to be trod by their awkward feet with gay flowers, and they were
clothed in garments of woven gold and scarlet.








Mow HE IS TRAPPED A.ND TAMED.


-v- W
ELEMENT WITH HOUbtIA.


In modern times, however, the elephant has fallen from his high
estate. His long holiday has expired; his sides are stript of the
cloth of gold, and his head shorn of the silver bells, and he owns
no more fantastic chain than the matter-of-fact iron links that secure
him in his stable. Industry has more need of him than Luxury, and
his vast strength is required to make roads, to, draw loads, and to
clear forests. The ancient elephant hunter, with his peddling system
-his pitfalls, and female decoys-is no longer equal to the task of
supplying the elephant market. In these days, the ponderous quad-
rupeds are snared a score at a time-nay, the whole of the elephantine
inhabitants of a great patch of forest, numbering frequently more
than a hundred, and embracing half a dozen distinct families, are
captured at one sweep.
In nearly all countries, the elephant'trap used is constructed on
pretty much one and the same principle. In India, it is called a
Keddah, and in Ceylon, a Corral (from the Portuguese curral, or
cattle-pen). One of the latter, witnessed by Sir Emerson Tennent;







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


and described by him in his "Ceylon," affords the very best de-
scription of the way in which this wholesale snaring is managed.
The period selected for a corral is that which least interferes with
the husbandry of the district, so that not until the rice is sown
does the business begin. There is a twofold reason for this arrange-
ment. Firstly, the labour of sowing at an end, the natives, of whom
large numbers are necessary to secure the success of an elephant
hunt, have leisure; and secondly, as the government pay only those
who assist in the erection of the corral, &c. it is essential to pick a
time when personal interest will induce the native farmers to volunteer
their services; for the chance of their sown rice springing up, and
ripening into maturity, depends pretty much on the number of wild
elephants allowed to remain at large in the neighbourhood.
The corral is an enclosure, straight-sided, and about half as wide
as it is long-500 feet by 250, say. A hurdle-like lattice is formed
of big poles lashed together with "jungle rope," (the flexible stems
of certain parasitic climbing plants). This enormous hurdling is
securely fixed in the ground, its height from the surface being
about fifteen feet; the interstices of the lattice being wide enough
for a man to glide through. Great forks of green timber are driven
aslant outside the hurdles, and secure them against outward pressure.
From each angle of the end by which the elephants approach, two
lines of strong fencing are continued on either side, and cautiously

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hidden by the trees. So, should the herd swerve to the right
or left instead of entering by the open passage, they would find
themselves stopped, and forced to retrace their steps to the gate.







HOW HE IS TRAPPEifD AND TAXEnD.


The position chosen for a corral is always some old and frequented
route of the elephants in their periodical migrations in search of water;
and such trees and brushwood as are included within the hurdles are
left undisturbed-especially on the side the elephants are to approach.












.... .....







DRIVEN INTO THE CORRAL.

As many as two or three thousand natives are employed to "beat
up" the game. According to the size of the patch of forest, and
the number of elephants known to be contained in it, so the beaters
fetch an entire circuit round the devoted spot. At first they make
no great display, only just enough to induce the great, timid beasts
to move slowly in the direction it is required they should take.
Perhaps an entire month is so passed; in the course of which, the
living ring has contracted-a mere foot at a time-to half its first
dimensions. Then the elephants become alarmed, and the beaters
become bold. Ten paces apart all round the ring great fires are lit,
and kept burning night and day; and anxious headmenn" gallop
about perpetually to see that not one of the legion of beaters flags
in his duty, for if the imprisoned brutes once discovered an outlet,
the portals of the corral" might yawn in vain for that season.
"Two months," says Tennent, "had been spent in these preparations,
and they had been thus far completed on the day when we arrived,
and took our places on the 'stage that had been erected for us,







.HOW HE IS TAPPED AND TAMED.


overlooking the entrance to the corral Close beneath us a group
of tame elephants, sent by the temples and the chiefs to assist in
securing the wild ones, were picketed in the shade, and lazily fanning
themselves with leaves. Three distinct herds, whose united numbers
were variously represented at from forty to fifty elephants, were
i enclosed, and: were at that moment concealed in the jungle within
Sa short distance of the stockade. Not a sound was permitted
to be made, each person spoke to his neighbour in whispers; and
such was the silence observed by the multitude of the watchers at
their posts, that occasionally we could hear the rustling of the
branches as some of the elephants stripped off their leaves."
"Suddenly the signal was made, and the stillness of the forest
was broke by the shouts of the guard, the rolling of the drums and
tom-toms, and the discharge of muskets; and beginning at the most
distant side of the area, the elephants were urged forward toward the
entrance into the corral. .... Dry leaves and sticks were flung
upon the watch-fires till they blazed aloft and formed a line of flame
on every side, except in the direction of the corral, which was
studiously kept dark."
Their great heads fairly turned by the flames, and shrieks, and
thunder of savage music, the leviathan herd rush headlong to
the only spot that promises quiet and seclusion-the pitchy-dark
entrance to the corral The great tusked leader leads the way,
and presently the corral gates are closed on the whole number.
Then, as the striking of a single match, great bonfires surrounding
the trap suddenly flare up. The effect is terrific.
"The elephants first dashed to the very extremity of the enclosure,
and being brought up by the powerful fence, started back to regain
the gate, but found it closed. Their terror was sublime; they
hurried round the corral at a rapid pace, but seeing it girt by
fire on every side, they attempted to force the stockade, but were
driven back by the guards with spears and flambeaux; and on
whichever side they approached, they were repulsed with shouts
and discharges of musketry. Collecting into one group they would
pause for a moment in apparent bewilderment, then burst off in
another direction as if it had suddenly occurred to them to try
some point which they had before overlooked; but again repulsed,
turned to their forlorn resting place in the centre of the corral"







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


As no more was to be done that night, the company occupying
the. stage retired. At daylight when Sir Emerson Tennent visited
the corral, he found the captives dead beat and subdued, and huddled
together in a group, while "the enclosure on all sides was surrounded
by crowds of men and boys with spears or white peeled wands
about ten feet long."
Meantime preparations were being made to conduct into the
corral the trained tame elephants who were to act as Delilahs to
the entrapped Sampsons. One of these crafty females was named
Siribeddi, and was allowed to be the cleverest brute in Ceylon,
and certainly she was guilty of nothing on this occasion to damage
her reputation.






















TAME AND WILD.

Having entered the corral noiselessly, she moved slowly along,
with a sly composure and an assumed air of easy indifference;
sauntering leisurely in the direction of the captives and halting
now and then to pick a bunch of grass or a few leaves as she
passed. As she approached the herd, they put themselves in motion
to meet her, and the leader having advanced in front and passed
his trunk gently over her head turned and paced slowly back to hia







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


dejected companions. Siribeddi followed with the same listless
step, and drew herself up close behind him, thus affording the
nooser an opportunity to glide under her and slip the noose over
the hind foot of the wild one. The latter instantly perceiving his
danger, shook off the rope and turned to attack the man. He
would have suffered for his temerity, had not Siribeddi protected
him by raising her trunk and driving the assailant into the midst
of the herd.
Again the terror stricken elephants gathered in the centre of
the corral, when two more decoys were sent to Siribeddi's assistance,
and between them they managed to single out the biggest fellow of
the captive company. This time the nooser was more successful;
the loop was hitched over the brute's hind leg, and the nooser
together with Siribeddi's two assistants sheered off, leaving the
former accomplished animal (to whose collar was attached the other
end of the looped cable) to secure her prisoner to a tree apart from the
rest of the herd. Calm as a human pig-jobber, who hauls by the leg
the poor poker to the slaughter-house, and with as much indifference
to its squeals and struggles, Siribeddi hauled off her lumbering charge
-tail first-toward the proper tree. Giving her end of the rope one
















SIRIBEDDI'S EXPLOIT.

turn round the trunk of the tree, she endeavoured to haul the beast
at the other end, close up; this however was beyond her strength,
so one of the tame ones who from. a distance had been critically
observing the performance, and saw Mrs. Siribeddi's dilemma, came










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HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


to the rescue; she coolly confronted the bellowing prisoner, placed
her shoulder to his, and "backed" him, while every inch of rope
thus gained was hauled in by the female at the tree, till he was
fairly brought to a stand at the foot thereof. The other tame
elephant now came up, and, shielded by the three, the nooser
fastened his "jungle-ropes" round the remaining three legs, securing
the other end of each rope to a tree, and the capture was complete.
Then the decoys moved off to attend to their business, leaving
the captive alone, and the brute seemed suddenly to become alive
to the extent of his misery. Says Tennent: "As long as the tame
ones stood beside him he remained comparatively calm and almost
passive under his sufferings, but the moment they moved off and
he was left utterly alone, he made the most surprising efforts to
free himself and rejoin his companions. He felt the ropes with
his trunk and tried to unfasten the numerous knots; he drew
backwards to liberate his fore-legs, then leaned forward to extricate
the hind ones, till every branch of the tall tree vibrated with his
struggles. He screamed, in his anguish, with his proboscis raised
high in the air, then falling on his side he laid his head to the
ground, first his cheek and then his brow, and pressed down his
doubled-in trunk, as though he would force it into the earth;
then suddenly rising he balanced himself on his forehead and his
fore-legs, holding his hind feet fairly off the ground. This scene
of distress continued some hours, with occasional pauses of apparent
stupor, after which the struggle was from time to time renewed
abruptly and as if by some sudden impulse; but at last the
vain strife subsided, and the poor animal stood perfectly motionless,
the image of exhaustion and despair."
Among the elephants trapped in the corral in question, were two
little creatures about ten months old. When the dam of the smallest
of the two was noosed and being dragged along by the decoys, baby
elephant kept close to her side, consoling her and quarrelling with
the noosers and butting them with its harmless head. It was driven
back to the herd, and there it sought comfort of another elderly
female, lying across her forehead while she caressed it and stroked
it with her trunk. As soon, however, as the noosers had properly
secured and left its parent, up got the young one and scampered
to her side, and was finally dragged off screaming and holding out






HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TMIED.


its trunk towards its mother piteously. Wonderfully, too, they
resemble infantile bipeds; for, says Tennent, "the most amusing
thing was, that in the midst of all their agony and affection, the
little fellows seized on every article of food that was thrown to them,
and ate and roared simultaneously."
For three days the captives lay there, the elder ones for more
than half the time proudly spurning and trampling under foot the
food offered them by their captors. Some stood motionless as though
overcome by stupor, others never ceased to chafe and writhe with
feverish impatience, while others, again, lay prostrate in the mud,
moaning their despair, and gently beating the ground with their
trunks in the extremity of melancholy. Round about the verge
of the corral, big fires blazed at night, and dusky watchers paced
to and fro with their spears and white sticks, or reclined about
the fires till their turn for duty came. In the day-time the natives
for miles round made holiday. By thousands they assembled round
the great hurdles; old women with their old husbands; young
women with brown babies lashed to their backs; and girls,
fantastically dressed, and mincing maidens were there, whose
genteel and well-oiled sweethearts called their attention to sights
worth seeing, or joined them in a dance to the mellow music of
the Kandyan flute. The captive leviathans within the enclosure
could hear the flute, and that some of their ears were not unmusical
was evident by the little piggy eyes directed toward the player,
and the placid wagging of the great flaps that covered their organs
of hearing.
When the captive's spirit is sufficiently subdued, a stall is appor-
tioned him between that of two half-tamed elephants, and he




HENDOO.

soon returns to his food. The stable servants are each armed
with a hendoo the point of which is held towards the wild
,elephant's trunk, while one or two others rub his back and keep
up a humdrum chant, in which the poor brute is addressed as the
chanter's "mother" or "son," according to its age and sex, and







HOW HE IS TRAPPED AND TAMED.


enjoined to behave itself as mildly as possible. In most cases,
however, the wild uncouth creature is callous to this politeness,
and strikes out furiously with its trunk; each time, however, the
tender weapon alights on the points of the spiky hendoos, and pre-
sently becomes so sore, that it is curled up and placed out of harm's
way, and an important step towards his subjugation is accomplished.
Then he is allowed a bath, an operation which he delights in in
a free state, but decidedly objects to for the first few weeks of his
slavery. He is escorted down to the tank by two trained elephants,
where his legs are hobbled, and he is goaded with the merciless
hendoo till he consents to lie down. Nor is the bath the only
thing necessary to a newly caught elephant. The skill of the ele-
S phant doctor is for many weeks needful to heal its poor legs, that
are certainly cut to the bone by the coarse vegetable rope with
which he was first noosed; sometimes, indeed, these wounds will
remain for months and even years. In most cases, however, within
three months of his capture the huge brute is found treading clay
in a brick-field (generally his first occupation), or in company of a
thoroughly tamed brother, drawing a great waggon.


CROSSING A RIVER.







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


I-~---1


ELEPHANT IN KEDDAH OR CORRAL.


HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.

As has been already stated, the prideful Romans in the prime of-
their barbaric splendour so unceasingly hunted the African elephant
for the sake of his ivory tusks, that the numbers of the animal
were thinned almost to extinction. Left once more to themselves,
however, regeneration was an easy matter. His mode of living
interfered with the peace and comfort of not one of his four-footed
forest companions. Of the lion, the leopard, and his other flesh-
eating neighbours, he went in no fear, for how hungry soever they
might be, the flesh of his mighty carcase was above their daring-the
elephant might safely crop the green boughs of a tree, in the shadow
of which the tawny monarch of the forest was grumbling over the
bones left from yesterday's dinner; and so his peaceful career might
have continued, had it not occurred to some cunning mortal to invent
that magic dust, called gunpowder.
Nothing more disastrous could have occurred to the savage portion
of brute creation than the invention in question, and before all
others, this remark must apply to the elephant and other colossal
animals, whose tenacity of life is almost, as remarkable as their
enormous size. Before the deadly dust was known, the elephant,







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


possessed of almost as much intelligence as his savage human foe,
could afford to despise his puny weapons; darts and arrows availed
not against his vital parts, and he could encounter the solitary
hunter armed with his javelin with as little concern as might a
grave mastiff an old woman flourishing her darning needle.
But against a hundred old women and a hundred darning needles
the mastiff would find himself in a sorry predicament; every vein
in its body would be punctured, and its life drained out by drib-
lets. So it was with the elephant in ancient times, when a score
of savages each bearing a sheaf of spears set upon him-so it is
to this very day in regions so barbarous and remote from civiliza-
tion, that the murderous bullet is unknown. On the banks of
the Zambesi in Southern Africa, Livingstone saw an elephant hunt,
and pictures the poor animal with red and streaming sides, bearing
in her carcase so many javelins that she looked more like a gigantic
porcupine than an elephant, and finally dying from sheer loss of
blood.
There is, however, in South Africa, a solitary hunter whom the
elephant can by no means afford to despise. This cunning savage
makes of the iron of the country, a blade nearly two feet long,
double-edged, and sharp as a razor; this he lashes to a shaft as
thick as one's wrist, and as long as a stable-broomstick. So armed,
he selects a tree in an elephant-track, and makes himself a little
stage amongst its branches, and thereon lodges till a fated brute
passes beneath. Then, like a gleam of lightning, descends the
long knife into the elephant's carcase, and though the wound does
not at once kill, the hunter has but to descend from his lurking
place, and follow the maddened brute, who with the blade in his
side seeks to hide himself in the depths of the forest. At every step,
however, the long handle knocks against the trees and brushwood,
and the dreadful gash is widened and deepened, and the blood
issues from it till, faint and helpless, the great creature sinks to his
knees, and the solitary hunter can despoil him at his leisure.
"Hamstringing" is another mode favoured by the native hunters
of Africa. Sometimes this is performed afoot, but generally with
the aid of a horse. Two hunters-both naked as when born-mount
him together, sometimes with a saddle, and sometimes on the steed's
bare back. The rider who sits in front carries no more formidable







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


arms than a switch, but the behind man has a broad sword-blade,
with a strip of hide bound round one end of it for convenient
handling. As soon as an elephant is seen, the horse is galloped
towards it, and if it flees it is pursued till brought to a stand, and
then the man with the switch proceeds to abuse it with all his
might. He invents wicked stories concerning the wild elephant's
respectable mother; declares that he slew its grandfather, its father,
and several of its uncles and brothers, and that now he has come
to slay it-without doubt the greatest ass of the entire family.
Every word of these reproaches, the hunter believes the wild
elephant to understand, and when it trumpets defiantly and charges
him, attributes it to sheer aggravation. Charge him it does,
however, and this is exactly what the man with the switch desires,
and by a series of cunning manoeuvres he manages so that him-
self and his horse, shall entirely engage the elephant's attention;
meanwhile he who sat behind with the broad sword has slipped
silently to the ground, dodges behind the elephant, and with one
swinging cut severs the tendon, just above the brute's heel. In
a moment the swordsman vaults to the horse's back, and away the
couple ride to fetch assistance, quite sure of finding their crippled
game at the exact spot where it was stricken.
After all, however, it must be acknowledged that, although more
destructive to their number, the bullet is more merciful than
the sword or spear. Though, indeed, one must peruse the hunting
exploits of more than one sportsman, or he may arrive at an
altogether different conclusion. This would, I am afraid, be the
case, were the doings of Roualeyen Gordon Cumming alone to be
reviewed. He might, for instance, be apt to find another term
than "Sport" for the following incident related as having oc-
curred to the above gentleman. Having. planted a bullet in the
shoulder bone of an elephant, and caused the agonized creature to
lean for support against a tree, the mighty hunter proceeds to unpack
his kit and brew a little coffee. Having refreshed himself with the
comforting beverage-taking observations of the tortured elephant's
spasms and writhings, between the sips--"I resolved to make
experiments on vulnerable points, and, approaching very near, I fired
several bullets at different parts of his enormous skull. He only
acknowledged the shots by a salaam-like movement of his trunk,








HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


with the point of which he gently touched the wounds with a striking
and peculiar action. Surprised and shocked to find that I was
only prolonging the sufferings of the noble beast, which bore its
trials with such dignified composure, I resolved to finish the
proceeding with all possible despatch, and accordingly opened fire
upon him from the left side. Aiming at the shoulder, I fired six
shots with the two-grooved rifle, which must have eventually proved
mortal; after which I fired six shots at the same part with the
Dutch six-pounder. Large tears now trickled from his eyes, which
he slowly shut and opened; his colossal frame shivered convulsively,
and falling on his side he expired."
All this is the more inexcusable as, over and over again, Mr.
Cumming narrates how he slew this and that giant beast with a
single well-directed shot. The bravery of his exploits is altogether
obscured by the "blood" by which they are deluged, and the
"sportsman" is altogether overshadowed by the wholesale carcase
butcher and ivory huckster.
As to the precise spot at which an elephant hunter should aim
his bullet, opinion widely differs. One authority says, "Hit him
behind the ear, or beware the consequences." Another (Andersson,
of Lake Ngami celebrity), "I found the best point to aim at was
the shoulder, either behind or in the centre, near to the lower edge
of the ear." Another hunter emphatically declares that no plan is
equal to that of "shattering his fore-leg, and reducing him at once
to utter helplessness; while among the Singhalese, says Sir Emerson
Tennent, "the practice is to aim invariably at the head; and the
sportsman finds his safety to consist in boldly facing the animal to
within fifteen paces, and lodging a bullet either in the temple or
in the hollow over the eye, or in a well-known spot immediately
above the trunk, where the weaker structure of the skull affords
easy access to the brain."
There would certainly seem to be immense danger attached to
the Singhalese system, but experience proves the contrary. For the
sake of the few shillings' reward offered by the government, they
were shot, from 1849 to 1856, at the rate of nearly a thousand each
year; and, as the coroners' returns prove, not more than three indi-
viduals died in any one year from hurts received of elephants, wild
or tame. It is, however, only fair to remark, that African sportsmen







56 HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.

generally. agree that the elephant of Ceylon is by no means the most
formidable sort. Certainly the African brute. is the largest, and
differs from all others in the size. of its ears. Livingstone makes
mention of one that was shot on the Zambesi, whose ear-flaps
measured four feet across, and four feet five inches in depth. The
above authority also asserts that he has seen a native, overtaken by
a sudden rain-storm, find snug and complete shelter under one of
his elephant's ears.

,-. --*












SHELTER FrOMI RAIN.

In those regions of Africa where the elephant is eaten, the cutting
up of a carcase must be a curious spectacle. It is thus described by
a modern traveller :--' The rough outer skin is first removed in large
sheets from the side that lies uppermost. Several coats of an under
skin are then met with. This skin is of a tough and pliant nature,
and is used by the natives to make water-bags. They remove this
skin with care, and it is formed into bags by gathering the corners
and edges, and transfixing the whole on a pointed wand. The flesh
is then removed from the ribs, when the hatchets come into play,
with which they chop through, and remove individually, each colossal
rib. The bowels are thus laid bare, and in the removal of these the
leading men take a lively interest, for it is throughout. and around
the intestines that the fat of the elephant is mainly found. This
fat is chiefly used in cooking their bilitonge (dried strips of elephant
flesh), and they also eat it with their corn. After the bowels are
removed, the operators set about finding the fat that lines the inside
of the flesh; and to accomplish this, men get into the cavity in the







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY. 07

side (like getting into a boiler through the man-hole), and hand up
the fat in great broad pieces to their comrades."
The same authority states that, during the process of carving the
carcase, the operators' delight is covering themselves with the blood,
"each man taking up the fill of both his hands, and spreading it
over the back and shoulders of his friend." After that, our terrible
market slaughterman, with his greasy thigh-boots, his belt full of
sharp knives, his face speckled red, and a flaring candle surmounting
his forehead, becomes quite a mild picture.
In remarkable contrast to the few individuals killed in elephant
warfare, stands the fact, that nearly everybody who ever handled
a rifle against this giant beast, and wrote about it, has at least one
marvellous escape to relate. Many of them, however, are so very
wonderful-so suggestive of the idea that the bow-the long one-
rather than the rifle, has been used-that I shall not venture to
quote'them. There is no need; enough of marvellous adventure
can be culled from the experiences of modern travellers-men whose
credit is beyond a question.
Although not the most modern, certainly one of the best stories
of elephant chase is related by Lieutenant Moodie. At the time
of the adventure, the experience of the lieutenant as regarded elephant
hunting was small-indeed, he had never seen but one of the mighty
quadrupeds slain, and that was only the day before. However, this
little taste of the noble sport was. sufficient to set him yearning for
another bout; and when early the next morning the presence near
the camp of a large drove of elephants was announced, the narrator
lost no time in equipping for the sport, and set off to join the
hunters. On his way, however, he got lost in the jungle, and saw
nothing of those of whom he was in quest until he heard a gun
fired and heard his own name shouted, together with cries of "passop!"
(look out). At the same time, he was aware of a rending and
crashing of jungle stems, and presently a whole troop of elephants,
headed by a mighty female, came bearing down directly towards
him. Being rather uncertain of his aim, the lieutenant thought
it best to step out of the path and run in a contrary direction.
He did so, but in looking back discovered to his horror that the
elephants, too, had altered their course and were in full chase of
him, the great female still in front and trumpeting like a very







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


demon, and three others on either side of her evidently fully bent
on mischief. Under the circumstances, Mr. Moodie resolved still
to reserve his fire, and increasing his speed made for the bank
of a small river with the idea of swimming across and taking refuge
among the rocks that skirted its opposite side. Before, however, he
could reach the stream, the thundering footsteps came close up
behind, and the screaming and trumpeting of the seven mighty
beasts became deafening. There was no other chance, so the lieu-
tenant, screwing up his courage, faced round, shouldered his gun,
and let fly at the big female. Unfortunately, however, the powder did
nut immediately ignite; and the aim being thus spoiled the bullet
merely grazed the head of the advancing elephant, who, halting
only for an instant, came on again more vengefully than before.
"I fell-I cannot say whether struck down by her trunk or
not. She then made a thrust at me with her tusk. Luckily she
had only one, and luckier still that one missed me. She then
caught me with her trunk by the middle, threw me beneath her
fore feet and knocked me about between them for a little space.
I was scarcely in a condition to compute the number of minutes
very accurately. Once she pressed her foot on my chest with
such force, that I actually felt the bones as it were bending beneath
the weight, and once she trod on the middle of my arm, which
fortunately lay flat on the ground at the time. During this rough
handling, however, I never entirely lost my recollection, else I have
little doubt she would have settled my accounts with this world;
but owing to the roundness of her foot I generally managed, by
twisting my body and limbs, to escape her direct tread. While I
was still undergoing this buffeting, Lieutenant Chisholm and Diedrick,
a Hottentot, had come up and fired several shots at her, one of which
hit her in the shoulder, and at the same time, her companions
retiring and screaming to her from the edge of the forest, she
reluctantly left me, giving me a cuff or two with her hind-feet in
passing. I got up, picked up my gun, and staggered away as fast
as my aching bones would allow; but observing that she turned
round and looked back towards me before entering the bush, I lay
down in the long grass, by which means I escaped her observation."
Murderous as was the behaviour of the she elephant above alluded
to, she was presently after the heroine of a tragedy, and as such so







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


comported herself as to induce one to forgive her previous delinquency.
It seems that while the crowd of hunters, including Mr. Moodie's
brother, were gathered round him listening to his marvellous story, a
big male elephant, who was probably related to the female and had
been an eye-witness to the indignities to which she had been
subjected, rushed from his hiding-place, and, seizing a soldier from
the company, carried him off, and in a few moments crushed him
into a shapeless mass beneath his ponderous knees. What followed
will be best related in Lieutenant Moodie's own language.
"Shortly after this catastrophe, a shot from one of the people broke
this male elephant's left fore-leg, which completely disabled him from
running. On this occasion we witnessed a touching instance of
affection and sagacity in the elephant, which I cannot forbear to
relate, as it so well illustrates the character of this noble animal.
Seeing the danger and distress of her mate, the female before
mentioned (my personal antagonist), regardless of her own danger,
quitted her shelter in the bush, rushed out to his assistance, walked
round and round him, chasing away the assailants and still returning to
his side and caressing him, and when he attempted to walk she placed
her flank under his wounded side and supported him. This scene
continued nearly half an hour, until the female received a severe
wound, which drove her again to the bush, where she speedily sank
exhausted from the loss of blood, and the male soon after received a
mortal wound and sank to the earth."
Few sportsmen have been placed in a more terrible predicament
than was Mr. Andersson while halting at Kobis, on his road to
Lake Ngami. Hearing that elephants and rhinoceroses were in
the habit of frequenting certain pools to drink, he set out alone
one moonlight night, carrying a blanket and two or three guns,
and took up his position on a strip of land that divided two
pools. "Just as I had completed my arrangements," says he, "a
noise like that of the passage of artillery broke the stillness of
the air-it evidently came from the direction of one of the numerous
stony paths or rather tracks leading to the water. Raising myself
from my recumbent position, I fixed my eyes steadily on the part
of the bush whence the strange sounds proceeded, but for some
time I was unable to make out the cause. All at once, however,
the mystery was explained, by the appearance of an immense elephant,







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


immediately followed by others, amounting to eighteen. Their towering
forms told me at a glance that they were all males.
"Crouching down as low as possible, I waited with beating heart
and ready rifle the approach of the leading male, who, unconscious
of peril, was making straight for my hiding-place. The position
of his body, however, was unfavourable for a shot; and knowing
from experience that I had little chance of obtaining more than
a good single one, I waited for an opportunity to fire at his shoulder,
which, as before said, is. preferable to any other part when shooting
at night. But this chance, unfortunately, was not afforded me till
his enormous bulk towered above my head. The consequence was
that, while in the act of raising the muzzle of my rifle, my body
caught his eye, and before I could place the piece to my shoulder,
he swung himself round and, with trunk elevated and ears spread,
desperately charged me. It was now too late to think of flight,
much less of slaying the savage beast. My own life was in immi-
nent jeopardy; and seeing that if I remained partially erect he
would inevitably seize me with his proboscis, I threw myself on
my back with some violence, in which position and without shoulder-
ing the rifle I fired upwards at random towards his chest, uttering,
at the same time, the most piercing shouts and cries. The change
of position, in all human probability, saved my life; for at the same
instant the trunk of the enraged animal descended precisely on the
spot where I had been previously crouched, sweeping away the
stones (many of a large size) like so many pebbles. In another
moment his broad fore-feet passed directly over my face.
"I now expected nothing short of being crushed to death; but
imagine my relief when, instead of renewing the charge, he swerved
to the left and moved off with considerable rapidity-most happily
without my having received other injuries than a few bruises occasioned
by the falling of the stones. Under Providence, I attribute my
extraordinary escape to the confusion of the animal caused by
the wound I had inflicted on him, and to the cries elicited from me
when in my utmost need."
A still more wondrous story is told by a gentleman, who adopts
the sobriquet of the "Old Shekarry" (a "Shekarry" is an Indian
game tracker), and who lately returned from a hunting tour, through
the Hunting Grounds of the Old World." While in the Annamullay







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


forest, Southern India, accompanied by his native "beater" Goo-
looloo, he had already laid low two bull elephants, when his beater
once more gave warning; and hardly had his master time to snatch
up his gun, ere a male and seven female elephants dashed past,
not more than fifty paces distant. Says the Old Shekarry:-
"I threw up my rifle and, aiming behind the ear, let drive a
couple of snap shots, for the chance of stopping him, the last of
which took effect, for it brought him to his knees; but ho immediately
regained his legs and, separating from the females, tore frantically
through the forest, which he made resound with his angry roar.
I snatched my second spare gun from Goolooloo, (a heavy two-
ounce double rifle), and, jumping down the bank, ran with all speed
to cut him off at the gorge, which was extremely narrow, as the
torrent made its way between a huge cleft in the rock, through
which I knew he must pass, in order to join the rest of the herd.
I was running down the bed of the stream, on either side of which
rose high banks, when I heard a rattling noise among the stones
behind me, and on turning my head, I saw the wounded bull
tearing after me, with his eyes flashing fire and his tail straight on
end, about forty paces distant. Speed I knew would not avail
me; he would have been down upon me before I could have
clambered up the bank, so I swung round and dropped on my knee,
to take a more steady aim. On he charged with a fiendish shriek
of revenge; I let him come to within fifteen paces, when I let
drive, aiming between his eyes-my favourite shot-but whether
it was that I was unsteady, being breathless from my run, or that
my rifle, which weighed sixteen pounds, was too heavy, I know not;
but my left arm dropped the moment I pulled the trigger (not
from nervousness, for I was perfectly cool, and never lost my presence
of mind for a moment), and my shot took effect four inches too
low, entering the fleshy part of the root of the trunk, instead of
penetrating the brain. It failed to stop him; and before I could
get out of the way the huge brute was on me. I saw something
dark pass over me, felt a severe blow, and found myself whizzing
through the air; then all was oblivion.
"When I came to, I found myself lying on my face, in a pool of
blood, which came from my nose, mouth, and ears. Although nearly
choked with clotted gore, a sense of my perilous situation flashed







HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


across my mind, and I strove to rise and look after my antagonist,
but he was nowhere to be seen. I picked myself up, and although
fearfully bruised and shaken, found that no bones were broken. I
was lying on the top of the bank, although quite unable to account
to myself how I got there. In the dry bed of the nullah I saw my
rifle, and after much painful exertion managed to crawl down and
get it. The muzzle was filled with sand, which I cleared out as
well as I could; and then, sitting by the edge of the stream, began
to wash away the blood, and bathe my face and head. Whilst so
employed, I heard a piercing shriek, and saw Goolooloo rushing
towards me, closely followed by the infuriated elephant, who was
almost mad from the pain of his wounds. Luckily, a hanging branch
was in his way, and with the agility of a monkey he caught hold of
it, and swung himself up the bank, where he was safe. The elephant,
baulked of his victim, rushed wildly backwards and forwards two
or three times, as if searching for him, and then, with a hoarse scream
of disappointment, came tearing down the bed of the nullah. I was
directly in his path, and powerless to get out of the way. A moment
more, and I saw that I was perceived, for down he charged on me
with a roar of vengeance. With difficulty I raised my rifle, and,
taking a steady aim between his eyes,' pulled the trigger-it was my
only chance. When the smoke cleared away, I perceived a mighty
mass lying close to me. At last I had conquered. Soon after this
I must have sunk into a swoon, for I hardly remembered anything
until I found myself in my hut.
"My body was very much swollen from the severe blow I had
received, my back being black from the waist upwards. A native
remedy was applied, and my back covered with leeches, but I was
entirely laid up, and had to return to Ooty to recruit."
Now that the elephant has played his part in the "Wild Sports
of the World," and another actor in our great Natural Drama waits
to be introduced, we are anxious to refer once again to the wondrous
structure and intelligence of the animal whom we have just seen
under a variety of aspects. Fruitless, however, it would be, and
to our mind unpleasant, to argue the sublime works of the Creator,
and to speculate how any alteration of the works of His hands
would have "answered." From the tiny ant to the huge elephant,
Perfection is the simple and only term that expresses animal formation






HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.


-Nature is never imperfect, never superfluous. The many-legged
centipede deprived even of an atom of a limb, would halt and go
lame; the shaggy bison of all his million hairs, has not one too
many; and of the host' of minute tubes composing the elephant's
trunk, each has its functions, and if maimed, the whole is an
imperfect machine, and so remains, without Nature consents to
repair the injury. The intelligence of the elephant is as wonderful
as its structure. Viewing with our ignorant eyes its vast bulk, its
shapeless legs, its huge tun-like body, its little head, and swinish
eyes and ears, it does not seem a promising casket, yet, as the dullest
schoolboy knows, it occasionally exhibits instinct so near akin to
reason, that one is puzzled to know where the line may be drawn.
The threadbare stories of the tailor who pricked the elephant's trunk
with his needle, and of the weak elephant, who watched his
opportunity to push his big bully brother into the well, might
be here repeated, as illustrative of the above-mentioned difficulty;
but it is not necessary, as there is a better story than either, related
by Tennent. Through ill usage and bad fare, an elephant had
fallen down in the road, and its attendants, attributing its behaviour
to laziness, and not illness, put a chain about it, and attaching one
end of the chain to another elephant, bade him haul up the lazy
beast. At the first pull, however, the poor creature groaned so
plaintively, that the puller saw at once how the case stood, and
immediately dropping the chain, faced the bystanders, and trumpeted
his indignation at their brutality; then turning to the prostrate one,
he tenderly loosed the iron links from about its emaciated carcase.

CONSIDERING that our account of the Elephant would be incomplete without
a portrait of the author on whom we have drawn so largely for our information,
we applied to Sir Emerson Tennent to give a sitting to Mr. Mayall, the pho-
tographic artist. Sir Emerson very obligingly acceded to our request, and we
are anxious to acknowledge this courtesy, and also to express the satisfaction
we feel that the majority of the Engravings of the Elephant have received the
commendation of one who is so perfectly acquainted with the animal. We quote
the following from an article prepared for Beeton's Dictionary of Universal
Information":-
TENNENT (Sir James Emerson), a modem statesman and writer, who after
concluding his educational career at Trinity College, Dublin, repaired to Greece,
whither he had been attracted by an ardent sympathy for the cause of Greek
independence. Three eloquent and remarkable works resulted from this journey:
"Greece in 1825," "Letters from the .ZEgean," and the "Historyof Modem







64: HOW HE IS HUNTED FOR HIS IVORY.

Greece;" the last of which contained some curious details relative to the
establishment of the monarchy. Shortly after the appearance of the last work,
he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but never practised. Until 1832 he
had borne only his paternal name of Emerson, but having in the previous year
married the daughter and heiress of William Tennent, a wealthy banker of Bel-
fast, he, upon succeeding to the estates of that gentleman, assumed the additional
name of Tennent. In the latter year he entered the House of Commons as
member for Belfast, and was returned a second time in 1835. He lost his seat
at the general election of 1837, but regained it upon petition; in 1841 he was
unseated upon petition, but was immediately afterwards again returned, and
continued in the House till 1845, when he received the honour of knighthood,
and was appointed Civil Secretary to the Colonial Government of Ceylon. At a
subsequent period he became Lieutenant-Governor of Ceylon. After his return
to England he was, in 1852, returned member for Lisburn, and received the ap-
pointment of Secretary to the Poor Law Board, an office which he resigned to
accept that of Joint Secretary to the Board of Trade. His active parliamentary
and official life did not prevent his frequently appearing as the author of valuable
works, the chief of which were Belgium," A Treatise on the Copyright of
Designs for Printed Fabrics," Christianity in Ceylon," and "Wine, its Uses and
Taxation." In 1859 he produced his Ceylon," which speedily became one of the
most popular works of the day, and was translated into several foreign languages.
It is distinguished among even the best works of its class for its correct and ex-
tensive series of observations upon natural history. Upon the habits of one
animal-the elephant-the book throws a world of light, and so greatly is our
knowledge of this gigantic quadruped increased, that it is not too much to say of
the book that, until its appearance, we were but dimly acquainted with perhaps
the most interesting animal of the brute creation. In the House of Commons,
Sir James Emerson Tennent distinguished himself by carrying the Copyright of
Designs Act, for which boon the manufacturers of the United Kingdom presented
him in 1843 with a testimonial and a service of plate of the value of 3,000.
Born at Belfast, 1804.


!ÐOD OF !&OUNTINO.











THE LION.
























ASIAriC LTONS.


STRUCTURE OF THE LION.

THE high degree of intelligence and activity exhibited by carnivorous
quadrupeds entitles them to take precedence of the herbivorous races.
Against this opinion, indeed, may be quoted scores of instances of
wondrous cunning, and sagacity, and docility, displayed by the
horse, the elephant, the camel, &c.; but the mere fact that such
instances are remarkable is of itself sufficient evidence of the general
intellectual inferiority of the animals quoted, and indeed of the
entire family represented by them. On the other hand, so far from
there being occasion to hunt up cases of peculiar intelligence among
the widely spread carnivorous tribes, the difficulty would be to find
a dull dog, or a cat incompetent to conduct its business.
And herein, as in everything, shines the surpassing wisdom of
the Creator. The ox that is yoked to the plough, the horse that
moves with us in the every-day paths of life, the camel, on whose
C ..'
,,4.

16
'L -'
































moves with us in the every-day paths of life, the camael, on whose











THE LION.
























ASIAriC LTONS.


STRUCTURE OF THE LION.

THE high degree of intelligence and activity exhibited by carnivorous
quadrupeds entitles them to take precedence of the herbivorous races.
Against this opinion, indeed, may be quoted scores of instances of
wondrous cunning, and sagacity, and docility, displayed by the
horse, the elephant, the camel, &c.; but the mere fact that such
instances are remarkable is of itself sufficient evidence of the general
intellectual inferiority of the animals quoted, and indeed of the
entire family represented by them. On the other hand, so far from
there being occasion to hunt up cases of peculiar intelligence among
the widely spread carnivorous tribes, the difficulty would be to find
a dull dog, or a cat incompetent to conduct its business.
And herein, as in everything, shines the surpassing wisdom of
the Creator. The ox that is yoked to the plough, the horse that
moves with us in the every-day paths of life, the camel, on whose
C ..'
,,4.

16
'L -'
































moves with us in the every-day paths of life, the camael, on whose








STRUCTURE OF THE LION.


patient docility frequently depends the lives of scores of desert
travellers; all these are endowed with just sufficient understanding
to obey the commands of man-to lie down, to rise up, to put out
their utmost speed at a shake of the rein-and possessing not a
single propensity or inclination that man is not empowered to check
or subjugate. But with the carnivora the case is very different.
Although, as was decreed, they are unable to contend against man's
authority, they disdain his patronage and protection, maintaining
their liberty with their lives, it forming no part of the Divine
scheme that they should ever forget their thirst for blood, or become
tame.













SKBELTON OF THE LION.

The domestication of the dog, an undoubted member of the digi-
tade carnivora, may be quoted against the above, but there can
be no doubt that the dog was specially provided for the use of
mankind. In the case of the dog, it has not been merely given to
man as a servant endowed with zeal and sagacity, but an efficient
helper in difficulties he is incompetent to meet. In bodily strength
man is unable to cope with ferocious enemies that surround him on
all sides; his senses are imperfect when compared with some of
the lower animals; in speed he is outstripped by the very creatures
appointed to be his food; how, then, are all these deficiencies to
be compensated? The dog has been placed at man's disposal: its
instincts, its size, its form, its senses, and its corporeal attributes,
are all subjugated to his control; and thus, whatever aid he may
require, is to be obtained by the cultivation of its faculties.







STRUCTURE OF THE LION.


The cat has no such claim to be considered a purely domesticated
animal, or one reclaimed from its primal savagery. It is merely a
beast of prey, availing itself of the advantages of civilization, while,
at the same time, it is faithful to the dictates of its bloodthirsty
and unsympathetic nature. The instincts of the cat are much more
stubborn than its fur, and though this may be cultivated to silky
softness, and Grimalkin lie all along your hearth-rug, innocent as a
lamb, and purring in the fulness of its contented heart, you have
but to turn your back, and lo! there rises from the hearth before
the affrighted eyes of your canary, or parrot, a grim monster with
bare teeth, and bristling tail, as anxious to rend flesh, and bathe its
nose in warm blood, as the tiger that crouches and glides through
the Indian jungle.
Of the wondrous strength of the lion, nearly all that can has
already been said. By one blow of his tremendous fore-paw he
will bring a running horse to a dead halt, with its shoulder-bone
shattered; and the skull of a man, curiously strong as it is, the lion
can crush beneath his foot, as you or I could crush a cherry-stone.
He can take a dead buffalo by the neck, and partly dragging, partly
carrying it, make off at a half-run; first, however, disembowelling
it, that it may be less cumbersome. It is even asserted, on credible
authority, that, leaping over a high farm-fence, it will slay a bullock,
and, dreading to stay and devour it on the spot, will bring it to
the wall, raise it from the ground in his mouth, and by a mighty
effort of his great muscles, toss it up so that it shall fall without
the fence. Quick as lightning the poacher follows the plunder, and
with it he is off in a twinkling.
The most important adjunct to the terrible strength of the lion,
and indeed of the whole of the feline carnivora, is the noiselessness
with which they are enabled to approach their prey; and the
mechanism that provides for this at the same time answers an
equally important purpose, viz., the keeping the animal's claws con-
stantly clean, and sound, and sharp. Three elastic ligaments, derived
from the penultimate joints of the toe, are inserted into the last
phalanx in such a manner, that by their elasticity under ordinary
circumstances, they keep the claw laid back upon the upper aspect
of the foot, so that the. soft cushion beneath the toes is the only
part brought into contact with the ground. But when the animal








STRUCTURE OF THE LION.


springs upon its prey, the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes
implanted into the opposite surface of the phalanx, overcoming the
elasticity of the retractile ligaments, pluck forward the curved claws,
and burying them deeply into the flesh of its victim, the strongest
animals struggle vainly to shake off a gripe so tenacious.







PAW. CLAW.

An inspection of the tongue of a carnivorous quadruped at once
shows that that member possesses little delicacy of perception. It
is only in man, and those herbivorous animals that prepare their
food in the mouth by a prolonged mastication, that the sense in
question is thoroughly developed. Seeing that the carnivora tear
to pieces and swallow their food in large morsels, it can scarcely be
supposed that they pay much attention to its sapid qualities.
In the cat tribe, all the middle portion of the surface of the
tongue is covered over with sharp recurved and horny spines, adapted,












PORTION OF SURFACE OF TONGUE, AND SMALL PORTION OF SAME MAGNIFIED,

as it were, to file off remnants of soft flesh from the bones of their
victims. The strength of these spines in the tiger tribe is very
remarkable, and, as will be found recorded in its proper place,
instances have repeatedly occurred where a tiger has been wounded
by a bullet, and discovered, a few hours afterwards, with several
inches round the wound licked as bare as the back of one's hand.







STRUCTURE OF THE LION.


There can be no doubt, however, that besides aiding in the pacification
of their ravenous appetites, the saw-like tongue of the tiger and his
brethren is useful in cleansing and dressing their beautiful skins.
The teeth of the lion, as of all the carnivora, the quadrumana, and
also of man, are composed of bone and enamel-the entire crown, or
projecting portion, being covered with the latter. From marked
differences in their form in different regions of the mouth, such
teeth are conveniently divisible, into four groups, called, respectively,
incisores, laniares, or canine teeth; pseudo-molars, or false grinders;
and molars, or grinding-teeth.






SECTION OF TOOTH.

"The ivory that forms the bulk of the tooth" (b), says Rymer
Jones, "is formed by the surface of an internal pulp (a), and as
it slowly accumulates, encroaching upon the central cavity, and pene-
trating more deeply into the socket, the fang is gradually formed,
and the central pulp shrinks until, in the fully formed tooth, it be-
comes.reduced to a thin membrane, richly supplied with vessels and
nerves, which lines the small central cavity that remains. Before
the progressively advancing tooth issues from the nidus wherein it
is produced, the enamel is deposited upon the surface of the ivory
by the lining membrane of the capsule (c), and becomes arranged
in crystalline fibres placed perpendicularly to the surface of the
ivory, until the whole crown of the tooth is adequately, coated with
this important additional substance. Meanwhile, the growth of the
tooth still proceeds by the lengthening of its root, until at last the
crown issues from the jaw, and the enamel-secreting membrane (c)
becomes obliterated." The feline have fewer teeth than the other
carnivora, having no tuberculous or flat grinders; of cheek teeth,
they have only three or four on each side, strong pointed and with
shear-like edges, solely useful for dividing flesh.
In the cats that hunt in the gloom, and consequently require every
ray of light that can be made available, the pupil is a long vertical








STRUCTURE OF THE LION.


fissure; but this only obtains among the smaller genera, for in those
feline carnivora that surpass the ocelot in size, such as the lion,
tiger, and leopard, the pupil again assumes a round form. Furnished
with a nictitating membrane, the eyes of this genus shine in the
twilight with a brilliant greenish or orange hue.
Among the ancients there was a pretty general belief that the
lion, being furnished with a convenient spike at the extremity of
its tail, availed himself of the same to lash his sides, and so get
up a violent passion whenever it suited him. This delusion is of
course scouted in these wise times, but, like many other superstitions,
it is not without a certain foundation. Actually, lions and leopards
have been found with this thorny tail; Blumenbach, M. Deshays,
Mr. Woods, and others, bring testimony no less substantial than
the prickle itself to prove its existence. The one exhibited by
Mr. Woods, was corneous, like an ordinary nail, solid throughout its
greater part, and sharp at the apex. The spine in question, however,
was so slightly attached to the skin, that
it came off in the hands of the beast-
keeper who was examining it; and, bearing
in mind this fact, too much stress should
SPINE IN LION'S TAIL.
SPINE IN ON' T not be laid on the circumstance urged
in disproof of the prickle doctrine, that among the tails of all the
stuffed specimens in the Society's Museum, the spine was, found
but in one instance. The same remark applies equally to the living
carnivora confined in menageries. It may be fairly assumed that never
did lion have such cause for angry tail-lashing as when he first found
himself pent in a narrow dungeon; and it is hard to imagine any-
thing more inimical to the safety of the slightly attached prickle
than constant collision with iron bars.
Respecting the voice of the lion, opinion, oir perhaps it would be
more correct to say taste, differs. A noise that may shake to their
very foundation your delicately strung nerves, may only afford to
mine, more blunt in quality, an unpleasant tingling. Maybe you
are a person of powerful imagination, who, catching a little sound,
inflate it bladderwise with the breath of fancy, till it assumes moun-
tainous proportions; on the other hand, I may be-just as uncon-
sciously-of mulish mind, and, hearing the roar of artillery, turn
and inquire, "Who whispered'"







STRUCTURE OF THE LION. 71
"Tn talk of the roar of the lion as majestic," writes Dr. Living-
stone, who for many months trod the very same paths as the animal in
question, is mere twaddle. Heard in combination with the tremen-
dously loud thunder of Southern Africa, on a night so pitchy dark
that every flash of the intensely vivid lightning leaves you with the
impression of stone blindness, while the rain pours down so fast that
your fire goes out, leaving you without the protection of even a tree,
or the chance of your gun going off, it is well calculated to inspire
fear; but when you are in a comfortable house or waggon, the case
is very different, and you hear the voice of the lion without either
awe or alarm. The silly ostrich makes a noise as loud, yet he was
never feared by man. In general, the lion's voice seems to come
deeper from the chest than that of the ostrich, but to this day I can
distinguish between them with certainty only by knowing that the
ostrich roars by day and the lion by night."
On the contrary, Mr. Cumming, who traversed the very regions
where Livingstone formed the above opinions, and had, as his book
attests, scores of opportunities of hearing the voice of the lion under
every possible circumstance, remarks over and over again on "the
lion's appalling and murderous roar," "the lion's majestic voice," "the
thunder of the king of brutes," &c. &c. When the lion speaketh,"
says a grave and ancient authority, "his breath maketh the big trees
to quake, and the smaller animals infesting his domain to gape with
fear." Jules Gerard, a wonderful hunter, and one who has studied
the habits of the lion as coolly and minutely as ever a dog-fancier
studied a peculiar breed of spaniels, tells us of "the noise that re-
sembles the distant roar of artillery;" never has your ear been struck
with a more harmonious and magnificent sound. Young and old
crouch at it, and listen with solemn respect to the voice before
which all others are silent; that voice which tells of the strength
and courage of the strongest and most courageous animal on the
face of the earth."


SKULL OF LION.





























HABITAT OF THE LION.


I, FOR one, am by no means
obliged to those modern imrnods
who have suddenly discovered
that the lion-the king of beasts
-the bold and generous monarch
of the forest-the grateful brute
that spared Androcles-the type
te c and emblem of British pluck and
magnanimity-is, after all, the merest cur. According to these
worthies the royal arms of England is an antiquated delusion,
and the true British nursery jingle, concerning the lion and the
unicorn, with the sad fate of the latter, and the triumph and
feasting of the former, one of the silliest errors ever propagated.
The lion beat the unicorn! Pshaw With one poke of his horn
the unicorn could bring the big-maned braggart to his knees roaring
for mercy !
I can't believe it-I won't believe it. Where is the evidence
to prove it You consult Mr. Cumming, and he tells you of the
scores of lions he has made to bite the dust as easily as pigs are
stuck in a Wiltshire farm-yard. But suppose, instead of the modern







HABITAT OF THE LION.


highly-finished, certain, death-dealing rifle, these wholesale lion
slaughterers had been armed with the old and uncertain flint-
mounted blunderbuss. They then would have had a very different
story to tell-but an insignificant per centage, indeed, being left
to tell anything. Is the noble beast to be defamed because some
clever Jacobs, or Baker, or Westley Richards invents improvements
in guns ? It seems to me that there the secret lies. What can with-
stand the constant growth of man's ingenuity? Hle throws bridges
over rivers wide and deep, but the tide runs just as fiercely; he
harnesses steam to his chariot and outstrips the wind, but a mile is
still a mile; he points his deadly rifle at the king of the forest and
lays him low, but that he is king of the forest, and as such
acknowledged by every living beast, I maintain.
As to this writer and that, busying their pens to prove that the
lion is not a "generous" brute, and that he will attack a lone man
in the wilderness, is, to say the least, absurd. Of course he will
attack a lone man, why shouldn't he He is a beast of prey,,and man-
flesh is as toothsome for him-no more nor less, possibly-as the
flesh of the boar and buffalo. What does he knowabout generosity?
His monitor is his belly. It appeals to him, reminds him of his
hooked fangs and sharp claws, and he acts on the hint the first
time he spies fair game. He is not a whit less "generous" than
man himself. Whenever did poetic reflection on the antlered monarch
of the glen ",spoil a man's appetite for venison? Who amongst us is
found wasting sentiment over the fleecy lamb" in the season of
green peas Now, hear his virtues.
Whatever may be said against the lion, Ro. hunter ever yet reported
him, wherever he has been found, anything but a faithful husband
and affectionate parent." So good an account cannot be given of
his wife, who, as a rule, is .cruel, mean, and vicious. When she
arrives at the age of three years, and her parents will no longer
support her, she goes abroad to seek a mate. She, however, is
fastidious, and seldom or ever .accepts the first young fellow that
makes up to her. She can afford to pick and choose-young he
lions being much more plentiful than shes,,in consequence of the
*latter having immense difficulty in cutting their teeth, and, in at
least one case in every four, dying from that cause in their infancy.
So she picks her way daintily along till two or three young fellows,




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