• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Escape from France
 A first battle
 A new command
 The two alliances
 Active operations
 Success the reward for patienc...
 France as it was
 Changes
 Liberty in October
 Doubts
 A lamentable flight
 Trouble at home and abroad
 Exile
 The family at Olmutz
 France much changed
 A new king of France
 Visit to the United States
 A happy home
 The old soldier
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Life of Lafayette : written for children
Title: Life of Lafayette
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003243/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life of Lafayette : written for children
Physical Description: 218 p., 6 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cecil, E. ( Author, Primary )
Crosby, Nichols, and Company ( Publisher )
Welch, Bigelow & Co ( Printer )
University Press (Cambridge, Mass.) ( Printer )
Publisher: Crosby, Nichols and Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Manufacturer: University Press
Welch, Bigelow & Co
Publication Date: 1860
Copyright Date: 1859
 Subjects
Subject: Generals -- Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France -- Revolution, 1789-1799   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Revolution, 1775-1783   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1860   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1860
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by E. Cecil ; with six illustrations.
General Note: "Electrotyped and Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co."--T.p. verso.
General Note: Added title page, engraved.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003243
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223528
oclc - 04600700
notis - ALG3777
lccn - 10025523
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 3
    Preface
        Preface
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Escape from France
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
    A first battle
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    A new command
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    The two alliances
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Active operations
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Success the reward for patience
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    France as it was
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Changes
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Liberty in October
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Doubts
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 121
        Page 122
    A lamentable flight
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Trouble at home and abroad
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Exile
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
    The family at Olmutz
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    France much changed
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    A new king of France
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Visit to the United States
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    A happy home
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    The old soldier
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text







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:.'" ~~J~. .i^h het^ :



LaBayeic altl62Ba.iIe, of:r G BrTc.I ivw:,3 hininguup irewoul.c inhisleg.








OF
. 'd .." .


7 BOSTON '"**'
SCROSBY NICHOLS &CO." 7
117 Washington Street







LIFE



OF




LAFAYETTE.


WRITTEN FOR CIILIDREN.



BY E. CECIL.



W ith Six Illustrations.



BOSTON:
CROSBY, NICIOLS, AND COMPANY,
117 WASHINGTON STri':EIr.
18 0.




































Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

CROSBY, NICHOLS, AND COMPANY,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.




















University Press, Cambridge:
Electrotyped and Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co.
















THE Life of Lafayette seems properly to fol-
low that of Washington for several reasons.
They were closely connected in the dark days
of our Revolutionary war ; and in the stormier
scenes of the French Revolution, the young
republican constantly took Washington for his
model. Nor was it only in public services that
their lives were united, but the friendship
which bound them to each other was pure and
lasting.
As the friend of Washington, Lafayette
claims our respect; as the disinterested bene-
factor of our country, we owe him more grat-
itude than is often expressed, -more, perhaps,
than is often felt.
This memoir is an attempt to interest Amer-
ican children in the character and history of
one who stood so near our Commander-in-chief
in many difficulties, and whose after lili was
so varied and remarkable.

















CONTENTS.


CHAP.
I. ESCAPE FROM FRANCE

II. A FIRST BATTLE

III. A NEW COMMAND. .

IV. THE Two ALLIANCES

V. ACTIVE OPERATIONS

VI. SUCCESS TIE REWARD OF PATIENCE

VII. FRANCE AS IT WAS

VIII. CHANGES

IX. LIBERTY IN OCTOBE .

X. DOUBTS

XI. A LAMENTA.LE FLIGIIT

XII. TROUBLE AT HOME AND ABROAD

XIII. EXILE

XIV. THE FAMILY AT OLIUTZ .

XV. FRANCE MUCII CHANGED

XVI. A NEW KING Or FRANCE

XVII. VISIT TO TIIE UNITED STATES

XVIII. A HAPY OE .

XIX. TIHE OL SOLDIER


PAGE
1

13

29

47

7.

69

77

87

S 101

111


S 13

147

159

S 170

179

186

198

210















LAFAYETTE.




CHAPTER 1.

ESCAPE FROM FRANCE.

LAFAYETTE was born on the 7th of September,
1757, at the castle of Chavaniac, in the province of
Auvergne, which lies between the centre and the
south of France. His family had long been dis-
tinguished for courage and high spirit, and he inher-
ited the rank of Marquis. His names were Marie-
Paul-Joseph-Roch-Ives-Gilbert de Motier; but he
seems never to have been called by or to have signed
any of them.
Little is known of his childhood. He never saw
his father, who was killed at the battle of Minden,
and his excellent mother died when he was eleven
years old. He was at first educated in the country
among his relations, then sent at the age of eleven







LAFAYETTE.


to a college in Paris, and afterwards to the Academy
of Versailles; but his studies must have come to an
end early in life, as lie was married at sixteen to his
cousin, Mademoiselle Franuoise Adrienne de Noaillcs.
Probably, if his parents had been living, they
would not have allowed so youthful a marriage; but,
in spite of its imprudence, all ended happily for both
parties. Madame de Lafayette was descended, like
her husband, from a noble family, and had many
charming and admirable qualities. They loved each
other devotedly, and shared both pleasures and cares.
From the time when he was a mere child, Lafay-
ette recollected loving everything that was free.
IIe liked high-spirited animals, and hoped to meet a
hyena which had (lone some mischief in the neigh-
borhood of his home; at school lie was very unwil-
ling to be forced to do anything,- lie would work
industriously, but could not bear the idea of ainy
constraint. IIe liked to read and think of free
nations, and managed to avoid a place at court which
his wife's family were very anxious to secure for him.
On his first appearance in the distinguished society
which lie went into on account of his own and his
wife's connections, lie did not make a particularly
favorable nipres.ion. lie was ob-erving and rather


[1774.







LAFAYETT'E.


silent; lie did not enjoy the conversaiioi lie heard,
and was thought very cold. lie never could adopt
what were ealIled the graces of thei court," -a kind
of manner which was never seen in this country,
and probably never will be.
IIe went into the army, :is almost all young men of
rank did at that time in France.
Lafayette was but nineteen years old when he
first heard of the Revolutionary war in America.
lie was stationed at Metz on military duty, when the
Duke of Gloucester, brother of the King of Eng-
land, happened to come there. At a dinner given ia
honor of' him, the conversation turned upon the
rebellion of the colonies, and the king's determi-
nation to crush it. The idea of a nation fighting for
freedom at once interested himn; they were (d1i)i
what lie had read of and dreamed of'. lie aked
questions, and from the Duke's own account was
disposed to believe that the Americans were in the
right. Before lie left the table, lie thought how
much he should like to go over to the United State ,
and give whatever help lie could in so noble a cauce.
For several days this idea was constantly in his
mind.; lie could not forget what lie had heard, and
dwelt upon it until lie positively longed to be uo; his
way.


AGE 19.]







4 LAFAYETTE. [1776.

IIe went to Paris, and spoke of his wishes to a
few persons; two of his young friends shared his
enthusiasm, and would gladly have joined him, but
were forbidden by their families. Lafiayette had a
fortune of his own, but lie knew that all his own and
his wife's relations would oppose him. He also
foresaw that the government might put some diffi-
culties in his way, and he took for a motto, at this
time, the Latin words, "cur non?" (why not?)
One old friend of the family refused even to give
him any advice, and said to him, I have seen your
uncle die in the wars of Italy, I witnessed your
father's death at the battle of Minden, and I will not
be necessary* to the ruin of the only remaining
branch of the family." Lafayette remained, how-
ever, perfectly bent upon the undertaking, and made
the acquaintance of Mr. Silas Deane, a commissioner
from the United States, by whom of course he was
cordially received, for his rank and connections with
the court would make his going to America an im-
portant event. Several other French officers wanted
to go at this time, and Mr. Deane was trying to get
a ship in which he could send then and some guns

Tu be accc-ary is tu help in any way. by wurd or act.







LAFAYETTE.


which he had bought for the United States army,
when bad news reached Paris. The campaign of
1776 had been unsuccessful for the Americans;
Washington, with a very small army, had been com-
pelled to retreat from New York through New
Jersey. In Europe all hope was at once given up;
the friends of America expected soon to see the
power of Great Britain triumph over her feeble
colonies. The Americans in Paris were extremely
discouraged, and Mr. Deane told Lafayette the
whole truth, advising him not to attempt to sail.
Lafayette thanked him for his frankness, but said
immediately, Until now, sir, you have seen only my
ardor in the cause, and that may not at present
prove wholly useless. I shall purchase a ship to
carry out your officers; we must feel confidence in
the future, and it is especially in the hour of clanger
that T 'wish to share your fortune."
It was now impossible for Mr. Deane to obtain a
ship; Lafayette, therefore, bought one at Bordeaux,
and lhad her fitted up for lighting, in case they should
meet an enemy at sea. The preparations went on
with perfect secrecy, and lie did not yet venture to
tell any of his family what lie was doing.

..A .i.l..e -m o J11 i n ., 1- illlv on 1 i- i r.


AGE 19.]







LAFAYETTE.


Just before le was ready to sail, lie was obliged to
go over to England, as lie had promised to spend a
few weeks there, and was afraid of exciting suspicions
if he refused. He received a great deal of attention
in London, and quite enjoyed thc joke of dancing at
the house of a general who had just returned from
New York, and whom lie afterwards came near meet-
ing in a very different scene. He was careful,
however, to refuse invitations to visit the ships of
war, and not to see any of the preparations made
against the rebels. IHe did not think it honorable
to gain knowledge as a friend which lie might be
tempted to use as an enemy. But he openly ex-
pressed his sympathy with the Americans. On his
return, lie spent but a few days in Paris, and went
to Bordeaux, hoping to sail immediately; but lie
found that his plans had become known to the gov-
ernment, and he was forbidden to go to America and
ordered to go to Marseilles. lie got his ship safely
out of the harbor, and then went back himself and
sent several letters to Paris; lie wrote to the French
ministers,* and to his family and friends, whose regrets

Persons who manage the business of a government, as the
Minister of War, who attend to everything about the arml the
Mini tcr of the Marine, who cintrol.- all the -hip-, etc.


[1777.







LAFAYETTE.


and reproaches distressed him. Still he was per-
fectly firm in his decision, and, as no answer came
from government during the next few days, he deter-
mined to take his own course.
HIe set off with another young officer on the road
to Marseilles, but after travelling a little distance
disguised himself as a courier,* and rode back before
the carriage. He had gone in safety about half the
way, when a young girl, a postmaster's daughter,
recognized in the pretended servant the Marquis de
Lafayette, whom she had seen near Bordeaux. He
made a sign to her not to betray him, and she not
only kept silence herself, but prevented other people
from suspecting who the courier really was.
At last, on the 26th of April, 1777, Lafayette set
sail for America. But his adventures were not over.
The captain of the ship insisted upon stopping at the
WeC, India islands, which Lafayette was equally
resolute not to do. After some time, he found out
that the captain was anxious about a cargo he had
on board, and promised that he should lose nothing
by taking him directly to America. The French

A courier makes arrangements for people who travel in a
carriage, or now-a-days in the cars. He provides fresh horses,
engages rooms at hotels, and used to ride on the coach.


AGE 19.]








LAFAYETTE.


government had, as he suspected, sent orders for his
arrest to these isles, and if lie had stopped there
his voynge would have proved a long one.
Every ship of war they met gave them a great
fright, for they could have made but a poor resist-
ance had they been attacked. After Lafayette recov-
ered from sea-sickness, he employed himself' in study-
ing the English language and the art of war. And
so seven weeks of dieoinfort, doubts, and hopes
passed, and he landed in June at Georgetown, South
Carolina. As his foot touched American ground, lie
resolved in his heart to conquer or perish in that
cause which was so dear to him. lHe landed at
night at Major Huger's.* The family at first sup-
posed lie and his companions came from one of the
enemy's ships, but, on finding that they were French
officers, received them with the greatest hospitality.
The next morning Lafayette was delighted with
the prospect from his windows and the beauty of the
weather, while the house and the black servants
coming to wait on him made him feel that lie was
in a strange, new world, lie went immediately to
Charleston, and wrote to his wife that it was "one

PrT Olnollie'' YOIGEE.


[177.







LAFAYETTE.


of the best-built, handsomest, and most agreeable
cities" that he had ever seen. "The American
women," he says, are very pretty, and have great
simplicity of character, and the extreme neatness of
their appearance is truly delightful; cleanliness is
everywhere even more attended to here than in
England. What gives me most pleasure is to see
how completely the citizens are all brethren of one
family." .... The inns are very different from
those of Europe; the host and hostess sit at table
with you, and do the honors of a comfortable meal.
If you should dislike going to inns, you may always
find country houses in which you will be received
as a good American, with the same attention that you
might expect in a friend's house in Europe. My
own reception has been particularly agreeable. I
have just passed five hours at a dinner given in com-
plimenl te me by an individual of this town. We
drank each other's health, and endeavored to talk
English, which I am beginning to speak a little."
... The night is far advanced, te heat in-
tense, and I am devoured by mosquitos; but the
best countries, as you perceive, have their incon-
veniences."
Lafayette very soon went on to Philadelphia, to


AGE 19.]







LAFAYETTE.


offer his services to Congress. He was at first re-
ceived with a little coolness, which, however, did not
disturb him much, as he was reasonable enough to
see the cause of it. Congress was at this time beset
every day by foreign officers eager for high rank in
the Continental* army. That army was so small
that it was impossible to find places for all the for-
eigners and keep any American officers at all; and
the natives, who had borne the hardships of the
first two years of the war, were extremely disgusted
when European officers were put above them in
rank. At the same time, the foreigners were dis-
satisfied with low places, because they said they had
"seen service" abroad. Mr. Deane, in Paris, was
apt to encourage Frenchmen to come over, thinking
that their experience would be valuable to so young
an army; but the numbers that flocked here were
a sore trial to General Washington.
Lafayette, not discouraged by the backwardness
of Congress to give him an appointment, sent in by
one of the members this little note: "After the
sacrifices I have made, I have the right to exact two
favors: one is, to serve at my own expense, the


* This wan the first name of the American army.


L1777.







L A F.\ AY I:TTr:.


other, to serve as volunteer." This ivtyh, -o
different firom that of the genilemnen who d(mnianed
high rank ad gh agh iay, pleased Congres-; 1ite
letters ihe brought were imnuediatcel ecxa':llineil( ;id
lie was aipoiuit'd a Major-( general. Ie did what lhe
could lfr,the ollicers who hid come in the .-:riie .-hip
with him.
While lie was in Philadelphiai, at a 1publi( dinner
Lafayette saw General WaAhington for the fir t
time. lie immediately distinguished hint. among
many officers, by his majestic figure and dignified
manner. Washington was then forty-five years old,
and in look and bearing exactly what one would
wish to see a Commander-in-c.hief. Lal'ati e was
no less charmed with his cordiality than with his
appearance. lie expressed inuch interest in the
young Mlarquis, and invited himi to make his head-
quarters his home, saying, with a smile, that lie could
not promise him the luxuries of a court, but that
doubtless lie would cheerfully bear the privations of
an American soldier.
The army was then staltioned near Philadelphia.

A volunteer is a person attCi( ed to tile arnny 1y h i-i own
request. lie receives neither rank nor pay, and l11 :y 1 ,jill ianI y
general lie prcfir-.


AG1: 1!).]







LAFAYEITTE:.


Lafayette says of his lirst sight of it: "About eleven
thousand men, ill-armed and still worse clothed, pre-
sented a strange spectacle; their clothes were parti-
colored, and many of them were almost naked; the
best clad wore hunting-shirts,-large gray linen
coats, which were much used in Carolina." General
Washington said to him, "We ought to feel em-
barrassed in exhibiting ourselves before an officer
who has just left French troops." "It is to learn,
and not to teach, that I come here," replied the
Marquis; and this pleasant, modest answer made
him very popular.
HIe had every reason to be satisfied with his
reception. In the Commander-in-chief lie soon found
a true friend; the soldiers were quite ready to
admire him; and throughout the country great in-
terest was felt in this enthusiastic young Frenchman,
who had left his country, his home, his wife and
friends, and all the pleasures lie might have enjoyed
at the French court, for the sake of joining the army
of the United States; or, rather, for the sake of
helping with his sword a people determined to be
free. Lafayette took great pains to learn to speak
and write English, and in every way to feel and
think as an American.


[1777.






























































Lafayette at a Review of American Troops.


r~rrC~
















CHAPTER II.


A FIRST BATTLE.

LAFAYETTE arrived at a time of great uncer-
tainty in the military movements. Sir William
Iowc had sailed from New York with his army, and
no one knew where he was going. The American
army was waiting near Philadelphia, ready to march
to any place at which he might reappear. After
many days of suspense, the ships were seen coming
up Chesapeake Bay, approaching Philadelphia in a
round-about manner. The Americans, although they
were not in a very good condition for fighting,
immediately marched to meet the enemy. The
troops were new recruits,* not well drilled, but
spirited and eager for an action. In fact, the whole
country was then impatient to have a regular battle
fought; people at a distance did not understand how
*- Men who have joined an army, but have never been soldiers
before.






LAFAYETTIE.


poor the army was, and grew tired of General
Washington's prudence and caution, which were in
truth caused by necessity, and not at all agreeable to
his disposition. It was fortunate for the Americans
that Sir William Howe had wasted so much of the
summer before opening the campaign.
General Washington made( some opposition to the
landing of the British, and the battle of the Brandy-
wine,* the first in which Lafayette was engaged, took
place on the 11th of September. At first, success
seemed to be with the Americans, but the firing was
not very heavy; Lord Cornwallis, in the mean time,
by marching seventeen miles, brought his troops up
behind the Americans, and so separated parts of the
army. The generals were not informed of this
manoeuvre f in time to make the best arrangements
to receive him; and, though the young American
troops at first behaved with spirit, in the course of
the day they gave way before the superior discipline
of the British.
Lafayette as a volunteer remained for some time
with the Commander-in-chief; at length lie asked

k A river in Pennsylvani a which fluow into tle l)e:iawrce.
t A change of position in a company, regiment, or larger
division.


[1777.







AG E 20.] LAFAYETTE. 15

permission to go where he saw the fight was hottest.
In the midst of great confusion, he was rallying the
troops, when a ball wounded him in the leg. General
Washington brought up some fresh soldiers, and
Lafayette was preparing to join him, when loss of
blood obliged him to stop and have his wound ban-
daged; he had not cared for the pain, but le could
not afford to faint on horsebaCk. As it was, he was in
great danger of being taken prisoner.
Night came on, and nothing more could be done.
Men, cannon, wagons, baggage crowded along the
road from ( I.I'-. Ford to Chester, about twelve
miles distant. At Chester L i..% -. made a great
effort to stop this hurried and confused retreat. The
Commander-in-chief and the other Generals arrived
at tile same place, and the remains of the army
passed there the sorrowful night after the battle.
At last Lafayette had time to have his wound
dressed.
The people of Pliladelphia heard the firing,
although the field of battle was twenty-six miles
from the city. The defeat of the army was a ter-
rible blow to tlhe Whigss; whole families left their


I Thooe who were opposed to Great Britail.







LAFAYETTE.


homes, expecting that the British would occupy the
city during the winter. Congress sought a safer
place of meeting at Yorktown, among the mountains.
Lafayette was at first taken by water to Philadel-
phia, where he received the kindest attentions from
some of the citizens who were not too much occupied
with fears for their own safety to care for a stranger;
but it was of course no place for him when his
friends were flying, and he was removed to Bethle-
hem, where the Moravians took good care of him,
and his wound gradually healed. He wrote to his
wife that his wound was but a trifle. "The surgeons
are astonished at the rapidity with which it heals;
they are in an ecstasy of joy each time they dress it,
and pretend it is the finest thing in the world. For
my part, I think it most disagreeable, painful, and
wearisome; but tastes often differ. If a man, how-
ever, wished to be wounded for his amusement only,
he should come and examine how I have been struck,
that he might be struck in precisely the same man-
ner. This, my dearest love, is what I pompously

Devout Christians, who live together somewhat as Shakers
do, and during the war often took care of the wounded. Their
neatness and gentleness fitted them for this work. They are
called Moravians because the sect was first formed in Moravia.


[1777.






LAFAYETTE.


style my wound, to give myselfairs, and render
myself interesting.
"I must now give you your lesson as wife of an
American general officer. They will say to you,
'They have been beaten.' You must answer,
'That is true; but when two armies of equal num-
bers meet in the field, old soldiers have naturally the
advantage over new ones; they have besides had the
pleasure of killing a great many of the enemy, -
many more than they have lost.' They will after-
wards add, All that is very well; but Philadelphia
is taken, the capital of America, the ra:upart of
liberty!' You must politely answer, 'You are all
great fools! Philadelphia is a poor, firlorn town,
exposed on every side, lose harbor was already
closed; though the residence of Congress lent it, I
know not why, some degree of celebrity.' This is
the fimnous city which, be it added, we will, sooner
or later, make them yield back to us."
Lafayette certainly did all lie could to make his
wife's mind easy by writing constantly, and in a very
cheerful strain; but letters were then six or seven
weeks in crossing the ocean, and she probably often
heard false reports from London. The Engli-h, in
writing home, would naturally make the most of
2* 1


AGE 19.]







LAFAYETTE.


every success of theirs, and every loss on the Ameri-
can side. And Madame Lafayette must have mourned
over this separation from her husband, as it is not
likely that she was as enthusiastic as he in the cause
of American independence. IIe had something to
suffer, too. He says once, Why was I so obsti-
nately bent on coming hither? I have been well
punished for my error; my affections are too strongly
rooted for me to be able to perform such deeds. I
hope you pity me." Speaking again of himself,-
"Be perfectly at ease about my wound; all the
faculty in America are engaged ip my service. I
have a friend who has spoken to them in such a
manner that I am certain of being well attended to;
that friend is General Washington.
"This excellent man whose talents and virtues I
admired, and whom I have learnt to revere as I
know him lcllter, has now become my intimate
friend; his :iifectionate inter. in me instantly won
my heart. I :am established in his family, and we
live together like two attached brothers, with mutual
confidence and cordiality. His friendship renders
me as halpply I can possibly be in this country.


Mlcdican;l ftcult y pl-iciani, and surgeons.


[1777.







LAFAYETTE.


When he sent his best surgeon to me, he told him to
take ch'lge of me as if I were his son, because he
loved me with the same affection. Having heard
that I wished to rejoin the army too soon, he wrote
me a letter full of tenderness, in which lie requested
me to wait for the perfect restoration of my health.
I give you these details, my dearest love, that you
may feel quite certain of the care that is taken of me."
During his recovery, while he was compelled to
be idle, the Marquis, as lie was generally called in
the United States, became very anxious for news
from France. In one letter le says to his wife, It
is dreadful to be reduced lo hold no communication
except by letter with a person whom one loves as I
love you, and as I shall ever love you until I draw
my latest breath. I have not missed a single oppor-
tunity, not even the most indirect one, of writing to
you. Do lile same, on your side, my dearest life, if
you love me."
Lafayette occupied himself while among the peace-
ful M1oravians with writing letters full of warlike
plans and schemes. But by his absence from the
army he lost only a defeat. At the battle of Ger-
mantown, about three weeks after that of the Bran-
dywine, the Americans were seized with a sudden


AGE 20.]







LAFAYETTE.


panic, and a fog came up which confused them, so
that they were finally routed, though they had begun
very well. But at this period of the war even
defeats were useful to the inexperienced Ameri-
cans,-by them they learned that they could fight,
and needed only more training to be equal to the
British.
Lafayette rejoined the army early in November,
before lie could put a boot upon the wounded leg.
Sir William Iowe was established in Philadelphia
for the winter, and had only to get possession of two
forts on the Delaware River. They were bravely
defended, but at last yielded to superior force. The
American army remained on high ground near the
city, watching the enemy, but too weak to do much.
Lafayette distinguished himself in a little action
on the 25th of November. lie was reconnoitring*
with three hundred and fifty men, and imprudently
ventured too near one of the enemy's posts, where
they had cannon. Instead of retreating, however,
he boldly attacked them; they gave way, supposing
he had a large division of the army, and thus lie had
an opportunity to rejoin in safety the main body.


4 Examining the country or an enemy's post in a military way.


[1777.







LAFAYETTE.


This slight success pleased both the army and Con-
gress; and at this time they had to make the most
of small gains.
Lafiyette's first campaign in America ended gloom-
ily in the encampment at Valley Forge. lie wrote
hopefully, on the way thither. "The American
army will endeavor to clothe itself, because it is
almost in a state of nudity; to form itself, because
it requires instruction; and to recruit itself, because
it is feeble; but the thirteen States are going to rouse
themselves and send us some men. My division
will, I hope, be one of the strongest, and I shall exert
myself to make it one of the best. . Our Gen-
eral is a man formed, in truth, for this Ievolution,
which could not have been accomplished without
him. I see him more intimately than any other man,
and I see that lie is worthy of the adoration of his
country. I admire each day more fully the excel-
lence of his character and the kindness of his heart.
.... We are not, I confess, so strong as I cx-
pected, but we are strong enough to light; we shall
do so, T trust, with some degree of success; and with
the assistance of France, we shall gain the cause
that I cherish, because it is the cause of justice,
because it honors humanity, because it is important


AGE 20.]







22 LAFAYETTE. [1777.

to my country, and because my American friends
and myself are deeply engaged in it."
Speaking of himself as so young for tIh post he
had to fill,-being a Major-General at tweniy.--
he adds: "I read, I studv, I examine, I listen, I
reflect; and the result of all this is the endeavor to
form an opinion into which I iltilse as much common
sense as possible. I will not talk much, fbr fear of
saying foolish things; I will still less ri.k acting
much, for fear of doing fiolish thing ; bfr I amn not
disposed to abuse the conlidenec tlec Americans have
kindly placed in me."
Lafayette's cheerfulness was put to a severe test
during this winter at Valley Forge. The sunffirings
of the army were really terrible. The soldiers lived
in huts, and clothes, blankets, and shoes were want-
ing. The winter was a very cold one, and fbod often
fell short both for officers and men. Sickness was
the natural consequence of so many hardships and
exposures. It was very easy for men to desert*
into the back country, and at times the force was so
small that if Sir William HIowe had attacked them
they would have found it hard to defend themselves.


To leave the llrnny eccretly.







LAFAYETTE.


But he seems never to have thought of such a thing.
The patience of the army excited every one's admi-
ration, and was the more remarkable because the
British both in Philadelphia and New York had
every comfort. But the sight of their -.ti. iti,
naturally prevented the men of the neighborhood
from enlisting,* and troops came in very small num-
bers from the distant States.
The Commander-in-chief was greatly distressed at
the condition of the soldiers, and made every effort
to relieve them. But the United States were very
poor; the war had interrupted trade of all kinds,
and Congress did not know how to provide for the
army.
This winter proved the truth of Washington's first
words to Lafayette; the young Frenchman shared
all the privations of the Americans. "IIe adopted in
every respect American dress, habits, and food. He
wished to be more simple, frugal, and austere than
the Americans themselves." And what a change it
must have been from living in Paris, the winter be-
fore! There was one great pleasure in the midst
of hardships. General Washington put great con-


* Joining the army.


AGE 20.1







LAFAYETTE.


fidence in him. It was safer for him to speak of
anxieties and difficulties to Lafayette than to the
American officers; he was less likely to be discour-
aged, he was hopeful, faithful, and true ; and Gen-
eral Washington, himself upright and true, valued
that quality more than any other in a friend. Lafay-
ctte had also influence with the foreign officers, both
from France and other countries, and thus felt that lie
was useful at Valley Forge, where there was much
discontent among all ranks of the army.
He soon had an opportunity of proving publicly
his devotion to the Commander-in-chief. In addition
to the distresses of the army, Washington had the
private trial of having his reputation attacked in a
mean, underhand way. Several discontented officers
and members of Congress joined together in what was
called Conway's Cabal. VWe do not know now all
that they wanted to do, but they were certainly bent
on ruining General Washington's reputation as a
soldier, and were constantly comparing the failures
of his last campaign with successes in other parts of
the country.
So brilliant and popular a young officer as Lafay-
ette would have been a great gain to their party; but
he despised their arts, which he saw might impose


[1777.







LAFAYETTE.


upon the ignorant. People who are not accustomed
to war do not know that it is impossible to fight
without men and money, and the Commander-in-
chief was obliged to keep his wants secret, lest the
enemy should find out his weakness, and how very
easily they might attack him. There were many
Torics* always ready to carry reports to the British
camp, and General Washington bore any amount of
blame rather than risk a loss to the army. His
friends were not idle, they put him on his guard,
and both in and out of Congress took pains to make
his conduct and character known. Still lie had no
means of finding out how many officers were engaged
in the Cabal, and, as suspicion was most painful
to his generous temper, Lafayette's frank, openly
expressed affection and sympathy were a special
comfort to him this dreary winter.
One thlng which particularly troubled the Marquis
was that General Conway, who gave his name to the
Cabal, though an Irishman, had served in the French
army, and professed great devotion to him. IIe was
afraid that other French officers would be led away
by Conway's example and talking, and that his own

People who took sides with England.


AGE 20.]







LAFAYETTL.


name might be used quite too freely. In a letter to
the Commander-in-chief he says: "I don't need to
tell you that I am very sorry for all that has hap-
pened for some time past. It is a necessary depend-
ence* of my most tender and respectful friendship
for you, which affection is as true and candid as the
other sentiments of my heart, and much stronger
than so new an acquaintance seems to admit; but
another reason to be concerned in the present cir-
cumstances is my ardent and perhaps enthusiastic
desire for the happiness and liberty of this country.
I see plainly that America can defend herself if
proper measures are taken, and now I begin to fear
lest she should be lost by herself and her own sons.
When I was in Europe, I thought that here almost
every man was a lover of liberty, and would rather
die free than live a slave. You can conceive my
astonishment when I saw that Toryism was as openly
professed as Whiggism itself; however, at that time I
believed that all good Americans were united togeth-
er, that the confidence in you was unbounded.
Then I entertained the certitude that America would
be independent in case she should not lose you. Take

Consequence.-- Lafayette always wrote in English to Gen-
eral Washington, and sometimes made little mistakes.


[1778.







AGE 20.]


away for an in-tant that dmoet dillidence of your-
self, (which, pardon my firedom, my dear (General,
is sometimes too great, and I wih you could know
as well a.; my elf what dillbrencce there i- between
you and any other man.) you would see very plainly
that itf you wvre lo-t ftl Aime'rica, there is nobody
who could keel the army and the Revolution for six
months."
In (General Wa.hingtoxn's an~,wer to the affection-
ate letter of which thlii is a part. lie thanked Lafay-
ette for hii friindshilp, c explained what lih supposed
to Ie tihe reasons of Conway's dislike to him, and
expressed his own indiffltrelwn' to slander, ending, as
usual, hopefully: 'I hlave no doubt that everything
happens ftr the be-t, that we shall triumph over all
our misfortunes, and in the elnd be happy ; when, my
dear Mariqis, if you will give rme your company in
Virgini, we. will laugh at our past diltieultic-e, and
the folly cf others."
Thus, throughh various troubles, the attachment of
these two friends of different nations, ditiUerlnt edu-
cation, different character', and different ages, became
strong and lating.
In the co.ure' of tihe winter, however, they \.wre
separate. The Cabal, very anxious to enIgage


LA FAYETTE.







LAFAYETTE.


Lafayette in their interest, offered him a separate
command at Albany, quite independent of tie Conm-
mander-in-chief. A few soldiers in that neighbor-
hood were called the Northern army, and an expedi-
tion into Canada was proposed. No doubt such a
command would have been very tempting to the
vanity and ambition of many young officers; but La-
fayette's first request was that lie might correspond
with General Washington. lie went to York to
arrange plans for the expedition with Congress, to
find out exactly how many men lie might depend
upon, and how he was to treat the Canadians. The
Cabal soon saw that they could get no hold upon
him. At a dinner at General Gates's house, after the
officers had given several toasts, lie remarked that
there was one which had been forgotten, he would
give them, The health of the Commander-in-
chief!" Of course they could not refuse to drink
it, but it was coldly received, and Lafayette could
not have found a way to show his intentions more
clearly.


[1778.



















A 1:NW CD(OIAND.


LAFAYETTE set out on his horseback journey from
York, Pennsylvania, to Albany, without any very
bright hopes of success in his new position. The
roads were blocked up w ith snow and ice, but he
found some pleasure in tle opportunity of seeing the
country people in their homes; he liked their simple,
independent way of living. lie wrote to General
Washinglon, on the way: "I go on very slowly;
sometimes drenched by rain, sometimes covered by
snow, and not entertaining many handsome thoughts
about the projected incursion into Canada. .. ..
Lake Clmnilplain is too cold for producing tile least
bit of laurel, and it I :un not starved I shall be as
proud as if' I had gained three battles ...
Could I believe for one single instant that this pom-
pous command of a Northern army will let your


C 11 P T14" I I.I







LAFAYE.TT E.


Excellency forget a little us absent friends, tlln I
would send the project to tlih place it comes from.
But I dare hope you will renmeber me sometimes."
He was greatly disappointed to find that no prepa-
rations haid been begun at Albany; he ininediately
gave orders for enlisting men, though checked by
want of money. He wrote, )ear General: Why
am I so f fir from you, and what business had the
Board of War to hurry me through the ice and snow
without knowing what I should do, neither what they
were doing themselves? The plan had been to
cross the lake upon the ice, and some Canadians
showed an interest in tle Marquis; but the British
general was much stronger than Congress had sup-
posed, and repeated delays in the supplies which had
been promised convinced Lafayette that the scihme
was useless. Ie might possibly have dashed into
the enemy's country with a handful of half-clothled
troops. and ihave accompli'-ihel some one brilliant
little action ; but it would ha11ve done no good, and lie
had the good sei-e not to ri'k men's lives lor the
sake of his own distinction.
Still to do nothing at all was a trial, and lie began
soon to be di-tres-ed about his reputation. liI wrote
to hi h1e-t tiiend : I confei.s, my dear General, that


[1778.







L.AFlAYEITTE.


I find myself of very quick feelings whenever my
reputation and glory are concerned in anything. It
is very hard indeed that such a part of my happiness,
without which I cannot live, should depend upon
schemes which I never knew of but when it is too
late to put them into execution. I assure you, my
most dear and respected friend, that I am more
unhappy than I ever was.
My desire of doing something was such that I
have thought of doing it by surprise with a detach-
ment ; but it seems to me rash, and quite impossible.
I should be very happy if you ,cere here to give me
some advice; but I have nobody to consult with."
In March the ice began to melt, and Laftyette
with regret gave up his last hope of action, and
obeyed the counsels of prudence. General WVash-
ington's answer to his letter did not arrive until after
Ilis deci-ion, but was full of sympathy and consola-
tion, ar.d ('onrrc-s thanked him for his wisdom
and forbearance.
IIe endeavored to make better arrangements for
the troops in the neighborhood of Albany, and to
protect the country people from the attacks o f the
Indians. lie was present at :a meeting of chief of
the Oneidas, Tuscaroras4, and other tribes, with Gen-


AGE 20.]







LAFAYETTE.


eral Schlyler and iMr. D)uane, who were charged
with the management of Indian affairs. 10e made
speeches, and, like many otlier Frenchmen, had much
more influence over the Indians than the Elnglish.
They gave him the nammi of Kayewla. and kept
him in remqlmblrance for nily years. On his part,
he was quite pleased with the politics of tie old
sachems.*
Early in the spring Lafayette rejoined Wash-
ington at Valley Forge, and fund the army in a
better state than when lie left it. The Cabal had
lost its power, and General Washington was more
beloved than ever.
The 2d of May, 1778, was celebrated joyfully by
the army, because they hiad received the news that
France had joined with them in the war again-t
England. .It was agreed that neither nation should
make peace separately, and the Americans had hopes
of great assistance fiom so powerful an ally.t This
event gave much pleasure to tie Marquis; Ihe had
been wislhing for it a long time, and though lie was
in disgrace with the French government on account
of the manner in which he quitted the country, lie

SChiefs of I tric-.
t A person or nation who is boulnd by promise to help :mother.


[1778.







LAFAYETTE.


had many friends and relations at court, and his
letters may have influenced people il power'.
IIe, unlike many discontentied fbreiglners, always
sent home favorable accounts of the U'nitd States.
In this country, also. le tried Io make the lcppledf feel
kindly towards France; but there were .-ome obh-ta-
cles in his way. For lhindreds of years the English
and French had been enmiies, often fighting, always
laughing at and despi-ing eaIch other; and Ihe Amer-
icans, being de-cended from the Englislh, had inher-
ited many( of their pr'judice-,. Lathyetle was very
much liked here, on account of his pleasant manners,
his entlhusiaL-i for libciiy, and his romantic story;
and his wish was to tul'r his own popularity into an
affection for his beloved country.
At the saIme time with these good tidings from
France, came the news that Great Britain would send
commissioners to make one more eflbrt for peace.
But still the King refused to acknowledge that the
States were independent, and Congress would listen
to nothing short of that.
The campaign of 1778 opened rather late. Sir
William Howe was in no haste to leave Philadelphia.
On the 18th of May, (General Washington sent
Lafayette with 2.000 chosen men across the Shuiyl-


AGE 20.








LAFAYETTE.


kill River, to get information of the enemy's move-
ments and plans. The Marquis proceeded to Barren
Hill, about eleven miles from both armies. lie
stationed his troops there, and on the morning of the
20th was told that some red dragoons whom lie
was expecting had arrived at Whitemarsh, on the
left of his force. On examining carefully into the
truth of this story, he found that a column of red-
coated British soldiers was advancing upon him.
He had just altered the position of his troops, that
he might receive the enemy better, when lie was
told that they were also on a road behind him.
This information was brought to him in presence of
the men, and, unpleasant as it was, lie forced himself
to smile. No general should ever look discouraged.
He immediately decided to march rapidly, but
without hurrying, to Matson's Ford ; the enemy was
nearer to it lthan lie. General Grant, commanding
a detachment of 7,000 men, had possession of heights
above the road ; but he was deceived by Lafayette's
coolness and skilful arrangement of his men, and
fancied that le saw but a part of his force. While lie
was examining, the whole body passed by him.

Soldicrs who are usually on lhorebackb heavier arnned than
cavalry.


[1778.







AGE 20.] L A.-AYL ETTI. 35

General (rey's column of 2.0)00, now ill the rear,
was inip)os(d upon in the samin way, and. Lafayette
succeeded in arranging his men oil the opposit( i'bank
of the Schuylkill before any attack had been nmadle.
A third division of the British army came up), a:nd
the generals were a.stonihlid to find that they had
only each other to fight with. They decided not to
cross the river, but returned to IPhiladelplia,i much
disappointed that the 'Marquis d(: Lafayette was not
their prisoner. Sir Williain lHowe had b)en so sure
of taking him, that lhei had invited some! ladies to
meet himi alt supper. Lafayette likewise narcllcd
back to Valley 'Foirg, wi'lrec lie was reccived with
great joy. The alarm had reached the canmp, and
General Was~hington had f:tared not only a r'plil--e,
but the loss of the Icbest miin in his army. The
Marquis'., conduct on this dI:y added ImuhII' to his
reputation as a military nl:LI, tor it wants thought
remarkable that so young a grntlral had ilrovud more
than a match for two old ones.
In June Lafayette received the sad news of the
death of his oldest child, iL little girl. For t time,
all his thoughts turned to France, and lie woihl have
been glad to go home to console his wif' ; but a
soldier cannot leave his l)pot in the middle of a
campaign.







LAFAYETTE.


On the 17th of June the British army left Phil-
adelphia, and began to march through New Jersey.
There was a great division of opinion among the
American officers as to the propriety of attacking
them, or letting them go undisturbed. General Lee,
a distinguished officer, (English by birth, but who
had served in many countries,) spoke warmly in favor
of letting them go. He said the time was unfavor-
able for an attack, and that the Americans should
rather help than hinder the departure of the enemy.
L .'.i. r. took the opposite side of the question,
and thought it would be disgraceful to allow the
eifemy to pass quietly through the State. Though
Lee's opinion had great weight, on account of his
age and experience, some of the officers agreed with
Lafayette, and the Commander-in-chief decided that
an attack should be made on the rear of the British
force.
A division of the army was to be sent forward for
this purpose. The command of it belonged by rank
to General Lee; but, as he had never liked the plan,
General Washington, with his consent, gave it to
Lafayette. Lee then changed his mind and wished
to take it himself, but was persuaded to yield; find-
ing, however, it was to be a large detachment, lie


[1778.







LAFAYETTE.


again requested the Commander-in-chief to allow
him to lead it. So many chaIngis were very trying
to Laftyctte's temper,-h e was a young general,
and eager fir the glory which l.ec had won years
before; the command of a division, any opportunity
for distinction, was very rare during this tedious war,
and much sought ftr,-luit lie was thoroughly
obliging. General LeC said to hlim," It is my fi)rtlne
and honor that I place in ,yor hands; you anr too
generous to calle the lo-~ of' lothl;" and IUfavette,
after he had actually hflt thie :iinp, wrote, in a note
to General WalVhington, ." Sir, I want to replat to you
in writing what I !'hav. told to yon; which is. that
if you believe it. or ifit is Ielieve\d Ineer-ssary oir -I-
ful to the gosHl f tt the sri the honor ot' ( in-
end Lee, to send him down with a couple of tlii-i:ind
men, or lny greater force, I will che(lrlhilly obey
and .crvu him, not only out ofit dil v, bhut out of wlhat
I owe to that gentlemnai's llchi:ira r." This wia t
more generonll on his part. lhera:S i(sc anid lI li:ii
constant little dliagreenments. (iGncral Lve h:dI \Nry
strong Elnglish pr'judic(s, and the iMara'(is \v:ws :n1
ardent Frenechinan. Finally tlhe C(o'onlllialer-ii-
chief increa-ed the iuninlper of troops, thus making
it more proper to give tile command to the pl.r-on


AGE 20.]







LAFAYETTE.


next to himself in rank, and at the same time
requested generall Lee not to alter any arrangements
which Lithyette had already made.
On the '2tli of June the battle of Monmouth was
fought. The Americans attacked the British army
as it was leaving the town, but General Lee's con-
duct was very strange; ih ordered his men to retreat
early in the day, and at the very moment when the
Commander-in-chief was bringing up tile main body
of the army. The meeting ofl'ourse produced great
confusion, and General Washiington was exceedingly
displeased. With great quickiiess and with the best
judgment, he rearranged ithe troops, and the Amer-
icans gained a decided advuatage. Lafayette says of
him: General Washiington was never greater in
battle than in this action. His graceful bearing on
horseback, his caln and digiified deportnleut, which
still retained some trace of thie displeasure lie had
experienced in the morning, wcre all calculated to
excite the Iighest degree of enthusiasm." The
Marquis himi.elf was in con..tant motion from four
o'clock iln lth morning until niglit, when tle Ilnttle
ended. He was first ordered to cross an exposed
plain to attack the enemy's hl.t, and then to tadl back;
he had only to obey General Lee's orders, though lie


[1778.







LAFAYEITTE.


could not understand them. Afterwards, while Gen-
eral Washington was forming his new lines, he
undertook to keep back the advancing enemy. The
heat was so intense that soldiers fell dead without
having received a single wound."
At night Washington and Lafayette lay down
upon the same cloak, talking of General Lee's
behavior, and expecting to renew the fight in the
morning. But when daylight caine they found that
the British had moved on, and General Washington
thought his men too much exhausted to pursue them
in such sultry weather.
The next important evcnt was the arrival of a
French fleet off New York harbor. Lafayette was
disappointed in his first hopes that the ships would
attack the city by soa, while Washington did the
same by land. No pilot could be found to take the
large % ,-ssels into the harbor.
A plan was then ft'rmied for an attack oin Rhode
Island by the fleet combined with land forces. (Gn-
eral Sullivan was already at Providence, "and La-
fayette and General Greene were despatched fro n
head-quarters.
But this expedition was likewise unfortunate.
The land forces were not ready when the fleet ap-


AGE 20.]








LAFAYETTE.


peared off Newport, and while the French admiral"
was waiting for them, Lord Howe, who had wiathed
his movements, came to meet him. The two flhots
immediately put out to sea. with the intention of
fighting; but a violentt storm scattered them. and
when the French admiral returned to Newport lie
declared that lie must go immediately to IBoston to
relit his ships. Thlis was a terrible blow to the
Americans who, in thec mean titme. had drawn near
Newport, and were hoping to make the combined
attack. Lafayette and General Gr(ene were sent
on board Count d'Estaing's sMlipi to urge himn to
remain, but they could not prevail upon hiii to
do so.
Lafayette's regret, deep as it was, was soon min-
gled with indignation. All the American ollh'ers,
except General Greene, spoke of the admiral's con-
duct with great bitterness, and (General Sullivan
even went .so thel' : to say publicly -our allies
have deserted iu." It was I'wrfitly natural that
they should feel vexed and disappointed, but very
unwise to exlprss Itheir feelings so strongly; for when
people of difibrent nations are trying to act together.

('nnt d'E*tsing.


[1778.







AGE 20.] LAFAYETTE. 41

they must pass lightly over causes of disagreement,
and do their best to keep the )peace while they make
war.
Such language touched Lafayette in a most sen-
sitive place; his country's honor was dear to him.
lie wrote to General Washington: "My reason for
not writing the same day tihe French ileet went to
Boston was that I did not choose to trouble your
friendship with the sentiments of an injured, atllicted
heart, and injured by that very people I came from
so far to love and support. Don't be surprised, my
dear General; the generosity of your honorable mind
would be offended at tlhe hocking sight I have
under my eyes." And further on, after a long account
of the troubles, lie says: IRenlnmber, my dear
General, that I don't speak lo the Cominli:llder-in-
chief, but to lily friend; thait am in r fromll ctom-
plaining of anybody. I have no complaints to lmake
to you against any one, but I lament with you that I
have ad an n ocean of teeing seei o ngeneroll sen-
timents in American hearts. ..... I earieslly ]beg
you will recommend to the several chief persons of
Boston to do everything they can to put tile French
fleet in a situation for sailing soon. Give me leave
to add that I wikh many people, by the declIration






LAFAYETT:E.


of your sentiments in that affair, could Icarn how to
regulate theirs, and blush at the sight of your gener-
osity.
Farewell, my dear General. Whenev er I quit
you, I meet with some disappointment and misfortune.
I did not need it, to desire seeing you as much as
possible."
The Commander-in-chief did, in fact, act as peace-
maker, and wrote most pressing letters to the otlicers,
trying to infuse into their minds a little of his own
patience and consideration. In spite of his indig-
nation, Lafayette did the same, and made the best
use of his influence in Boston. He was constantly
sent with messages from the army to the fleet, and
even followed the Admiral to Boston to arrange
plans.
Whil e he was absent, General Sullivan removed
the troops fiom the neighborhood of Newport to the
northern end of Rhode Island, and Lafayette hurried
back, expecting an engagement. He travelled on
horseback eighty miles in eight hours, but arrived
only in time to meet the main body crossing the
ferry between Rhode Island and the main land.
A thousand men, the rear-guard," had been left on

Those who come last in marching.


[1778.







LAFAYETTE.


the island, and wen'- almost surroiuniid lby the enemy.
Lafayette took tile 'OiImnland of tlihe'In. anld succeeded
in willthdrawing them without the loss of' it single lil'r.
When Congress returned thank-4 tlo his. coindlet
during this retreat, they also expnre-.'d their gral-
itude to him for undertaking the journey to l-lton
"at a period wlheli he might rationally Ihave expected
an engagement."
No battle took pnlce in the State of Rhode Island,
and the British were left at Newport exactly as they
hadl been before the expedition waA propo-ed.
Lafayette went agnin to Boston lir a little while,
hoping to be of' tist to hIis coumitrynt' ii there, nIInd
afterwards rejoined thlle mainly lly of tile army.
At thii time, Lord Carlisle. one of the Briti-h
comnmis-ioners Fsnt to C'ongre r iiimad ulse in a
public letter, of some expression ilnsulting to Frainve.
Lafiayette, tlicereftore, challenged himil o light a dlil,
which was rather a Imvii Iih act. as Lord (':arlisle wa:l
not a man tc tight. nor in a prolmjr lIj>itiion to acreptl
a challenge. Hle r,,itl-,id it; hut even i'people who
disapproved of Lnafityette's conduct, Maw lIearly tllht
his high spirit and love of his country were tihe
motives of it. Fighting a duel wa days. and especially among the French, the dis raTe-
4


AGE 20.]






LAFAYETTE.


fill act that it is now considered in mo't civilized
countries.
The campaign of 1778 drew to a closr in the
United States, and. ai France wa> al wiar. Lafhvette
thought it his duty to ri'Irn to hii nalive country,
and a ked permission oft' Con"2re-s to do .o. This
was immediately granted, with tle war:est thanks
for his services. A sword was ordt'er It be pre-
sented to him, and a hlip of war. tie Alliance,
chosen to convey him home.
lIe was to embark at Poston, ant set out on
horseback from Philadelphia. Iis journey was often
interrupted by entertaiinents at various places, and
was at last brought to an end by a severe fever.
He had had a great deal of labor and exposure,
besides excitement of mind, at Rhode Iland; and,
although he struggled hard to keep up during this
journey. his strength was no longer sufficient to resist
tie violence of the disease. Fortunately he was
able to reach Fishkill, on the Ifulson, eight miles
from the headquarters of the army. D)r. Cochran,
the chief surgeon, wns devoted to him, ani d General
Washington came every day to inquire about him.
He became so ill that his death was constantly
expected for several days, and every one in the


[177S.







AGE 21.] LAFAYETTI. I.'

army, from the Commander-in-chief to the private
soldiers, expressed the sincerest, grief. 'The idea of
this young foreigner dying inl a strange land just
when he was expecting to go home, touched (ever
one's feelings. His mind was perifctly lehar; he
made some necessary arranigt I( ents in case of his
death, and then only regretted that lie could not see
again those whom he loved best.
But the fever did not prove hftal; lie recovered,
and at the end of three months was thinking again
of his voyage. lie took a no>t fall'ectiona:t leave of
General Washington, to whom he had become miore
and more attached, .;ver i:n e lie arrived in Americ:a.
He respected and admired WaVshington as nmuih :a
he loved him ;-lwhen absen, lie constantly tuned
to him for sympathy and advice ; when they l u cold be
together, lie was always happy. What a fbrtuinate
man to hlve such a friend !
IIe proceeded to I:oston in January, 1779. The
citizens, whlo had always been very friendly to hiim,
now paid hlim the kindlls~ t attentions, anld he w-as )-
plied with excellent Madeira wine, which hi fn)111t d
very useftl in restoring his strength. 1Ie was% de-
layed a few days, because llie crew of the Alliance was
not complete, and it was Jinally filled up within some







4{; LAF'AYETTF. [1779.

British deserters and prisoners. The Marquis wrote
letters to Canada, sent presents to the Indians, and
repeated his farewells to his friends. A long letter
to General Washington ends thus: Farewell, my
most beloved General. It is not without emotion I
bid you this la t adieu before so long a separation.
Don't forget an absent friend, and believe me, for
ever and ever, with the highest respect and tenderest
affection, Lafayette." As he did not sail immediately,
he opened his letter to say good by once more.


















C IIAP TER ItIV.


TE Ti\V ALLI DANCES.


THE Alliance sailed on the 1 lt of' January, 1779,
and her passage was stormy; but La:ifyctte had to
meet a greater danger wlihit l the slhi]p than that from
winds and waves witliout. Eight da:s be!fre tliv
reached the coast of France, thIe Eingliihinn' on
board formed a de -ign of getting po-sssion of 1the
ship and guns, and then killing tlie li ..., pasen-
gers, :nd any of the crew who should resist. They
would then have t:iken the ship inli some Briti.h
harbor, and would have received ats much money a.,
she was worth.
Fortunately, the nmutineers,* mistaking an Ameri-
cut fior an Irishman, told him of their plot, and
offlired him the command of lie vessel. lie gav

.Men lctermnince not to obli their officers.








I.AFAYETTEI.


warning to the captain and to Lafityette just one hour
before the ship was to be seized. Th'ly rushed on
deck, sword in hand, and. with the assistance of the
passengers and French and American sailors, $seercid
tllirtv-one of the British. The re-t of the crew
weIr not strong enough to carry on the llmutilly, llld
the ship went safely on her way.
As soon as le landed in Irance. Lafayette has-
tened to Paris, :and was delighted to meet his own
family and friends once more. IH had much to tell
of a world unknown to Parisians, lint which he was
determined to make them care fri. His mind was
constantly fill of schemes for carrying on the war.
-for annoying England and helping America. lie
was still out of favor with government for the way
in which he hiad left the kingdom ; but all France
was proud of his bravery, iand delighted with his
romantic enthusi:an. We can hardly imagine how
nimuch a young nobleman who llad had such uncom-
mn111 adventures would be talked aIboul. lie was. as
a matter of form, desired not to appear in public
places, and to visit only his relations; but, as lie and
his wife had an enormous number of them, such an
order did not oblige him to lead a very quiet life.
The court ladies were eager to see him, and the


[1779.








LAF AY1.TTEI.


rninlis'r i~i ha 111:111 ltie-tiM 14 : a-k himi I le ~oon
receive I tlhe, hlono rable appolltliiinltmet of' co'l)oinel ot a
re'-imenit of tlihe Kii rig's d1rago(ons~,au Ian bg:-m to
corresiu~tlln withi the mrirxj'lur of' war' allouwr his
N ariou~i plan.;~ tlr the Iuuriubt of' Ilk- at:iu crd
countrY.
Ile had lift thie United States lired with tlie idea
of a grand expedition :~:ligniit Canada ; hut the
Frenceh gover'nlment W:I. :as 'low lio eg:ga.g ilr -u) cx-
pen'isi e a ulani a C'oil e, gr- had 1 ueun. mtidi hei was
oLuli,'" 'l tou 1be v' ,liitelnt V. ith Ia Iore moderlate' mli v)llc .
lie next Iuruuposcdl that a .1nieull Ilcut Shiouilul :pju'tul' Off
Suomeli' ofh: Ow al'A rich l1':llisiih Io\vi-, u'114-1
IverpUoo ; Illi inhiilp jitul:1it Ior fi':1r (t in Ijr Io lii


I n l ar111. tho :pliu 1d l pro b %Iilleti 'I llar-f, i)(e


of' mom. v,~ll :111.: 1 di' :lll()Illlll 4. vo.llectill I:LA I Im1I


I ill I I i s 11 .4 ( JI t : t 1 4 1 %v: k4 nf of I c vI -) I I ; t I I 1 14 1) 111
miiiutu'r-. awl.i w ilc t( *iv %iu.% ta:king' uol ,111-il I 0 jitli


a. -ked andl ulluiauiuiuI tor I( hhtitc Statu- thu.' a--i-t-
;hii('u (if land t r'uop4, %vic 11:14 i lnot beeni 11i ) tI I
ti&- tirri, :11l wh IichI ( ulin.i' *-- 14 hnou t lu4-i u-I lii1
to a-k fi~r. 11c wva- ju'rt-iu'tly -tire. ]iuwcu-r -. thiat
tihey wi-ru ricvv-u'i-nru, :inii tlrit thu( iimii:j.ter,- mo uuld. be


AGE 21.1







LAFAYETTE.


more ready to send a good fleet if they were inter-
ested in the oicers of the army.
In August, 1779, the grandson of Dr. Franklin
who was the envoy of the United States in Paris,
presented to him the sword ordered by Congress,
which had been made in France. It was engraved
with figures representing his exploits at Gloucester,
Barren Hill, lIonmouth, and Rhode Island. Dr.
Franklin said, in the letter which accompanied it,
" By the help of the exquisite artists of France, I find
it easy to express everything but the sens e we have
of your worth and our obligations to you; for this,
figures and even words are insullicient."
Lafayette's heart was certainly half in America,
during the whole summer. lie wrote to General
Washington: "I cannot express to you how uneasy
I feel on accomut of your health, and thle dangers
you are, perhaps at this moment, exposing yourself
to. These you may possibly laugh at and call wo-
manlike considerations ; but so, my dear friend, I feel,
and I never could conceal the sentiments of my heart.
. I know, my dear General, you wish to hear
something about my private -afilirs. My family, my
friends, and my countrymen made me such a recep-
tion, and showed me every day such an affection as


[1779







LAFAYETTE.


I .-hlould not have dared to hope. .. What I
wish, my dear General, what would make me tlt
happiest of men, is to join American colors, or to put
under your orders a division of ibur or five thousand
countrvinelln of miline... ....
"All Europe wants to se you so much, my dear
Sir, that you cannot refuts them tllhat pleasure. I
have boldly airined(l that you will pay me a visit
iillir tIe 1)peace is settled; so that, if you deny me, you
will hurt your friend's reputation throughout the
world. . I almost earnestly entre'Cat you, my
dear General, to let me hear firo1nt you. Write me
how vOlU do, hlw things are going on. The minut-
est detail will be interesting. Don't forget me. my
dear General; be ever n, affectionate to lme a< voiml
have, been; these sentiments I deserve from l ti
ardent ones which fill my hearl."
In a letter written on lthe 71h of O()lober, 1779. he
laments that Ie h.Ias not once leard frol m General
Washington, and says: '- Let me be-eoch you. my
dear General, by Ilhat mutual tender and experienced
fl':endIship in which I have put an immense portion
of my happine-s, to be very exact in inquiring fl)r
occasions, anld never to miss those which llmay ewo've
to ine letters that I -hiall be so much pleased to re-


AGE' 21.]







LAFAYETTE.


ceive ..... Be certain, my dear General, that in
any situation, in any case, let me act as a French or
as an American olliccr, my first wish, my first pleas-
ure, will be to serve again with you. However
happy I am in France, however well treated by my
country and king, I have taken such a habit of being
with you,--I am tied to you, to America, to my fel-
low-soldiers by such an affection, that the moment
when I shall sail for your country will be one of the
most wished-for and the happiest of my life."
During the autumn and winter lie persevered in
his efforts to obtain money and land forces for the
American army, and lie was at last successful; the
money was placed at General Washington's disposal,
the troops were to be commanded by Count Rocham-
beau, and Lafayette was to resume his station in
the service of the United ,l.r ..
lHe sailed from France the second time in March,
1780. No despatches fi-om government delayed his
departure, and on the 27th of April he wrote from
Boston harbor to announce his arrival to the Comn
mander-in-chief. The people of Boston received t/he
Mtrquis with the greatest joy. IHe was taken in
triumph to Governor Hancock's house, but he was
too impatient to see General Washington to allow


[1779.







AGK 22.] LAFAYETTE. 5:;

himself to be long detained by any festivities. This
welcome, however, was for himself: nothing was
known as yet of the good news Ihe brought.
He hastened on to head-quarters. ** After the lir.t
pleasure of their meeting was over." lii learned froii
General Washington the bad state (o' thie American
army. Money and provisions were' scarce, and it
was very difficult to collect men; the country was
exhausted and indillrent. Then Laflhette revealed
his good tidingsl; li. had gone bevondI the orders of
Congress, but tilhe wanilt of tlie I'iitvl States w[r,.
exactly those whiitih lie had supposed, and Wash-
ington fielt tll, strongest hope thalmt thli timely arriN\al
ofl tll. French fl,.t would rou-e tlle Amir!.:iui t,,
frlOli exertion-.
Secret preparations were imadle flr thile lhl ait
Nvwport, Rhodio Island. It was ,xm)- and Ll.l'yette took up his stntioli in ll the front of' 1h1,
('Cou!lllll: er-in-lchiei"I- divi-ion Io t i. :IrIn which w\:i
e.tallihllced on tlie Ihank- of the llllonl River. 11,
hli'd brought from I'rI:Ire swordil,. h:nlllners. and t-,IIm
oriili'nts for thle ollhiers and solidirs of his corps,*
-hI, was so much attached to thll,. thl:t it wa-w lik,


-A 1-1. tXinp. u-el to uthti,' l- -t~Iwr.







LAFAYETTE.


giving presents to his friends. Clothes, much needed
by many others beside his men, had been promised
in France, but never came.
The French fleet arrived at the appointed time,
and the first plan proposed was that of a joint attack
on New York ; but all hopes of an action were soon
overthrown by the blockade ofl tle French fleet in
Newport harbor. The English squadron was decid-
edly larger, and the French admiral could not move.
Count Rocliambeau would very gladly have joined
General Washington in an attack by land; but there
seemed not thle smallest prospect, of success, inlless
the ships could assist them. This state of things
was exceedingly trying to Latlhvette, who was Wash-
ington's messenger and secretary in all his communi-
cations with the Count, and was positively longing
to see somethlin/e accomplished.
During his first visit to Rhode Island, however, lhe
had the pleasure of finding the allied armies on very
friendly terms. lie wrote to (General Washington
that, on tile arrival of some American militia-men,
"every French soldier and officer took an American
with him. and divided his bed and his supper with
him in a most friendly manner. . The French
discipline is such that chickens and pig, walk between


[1779.







LA FA YETT :.


tile tents without being disturbed, and that there is
in tlhe camip a ceorn-field of which not oe leaf lh' as
been tounlhed. The Tories don't know wliat to say
to it." To iunder-tand what high praise this is. youi
must remember that soldier's are generally very
careless in their habits, and are apt to coimpel fthirinrs
to give them whatever tlly van see in lthe way of
fbod. To prevent their doing nischlief' requires
great care on the part of the ollicers. as well as obe-
dience and good-temper from the men.
While waiting for further aid from France, Count
Rochambeaii was very desirous of seeing generall
Washington, who fogind it. difficult to leave head-
quarters. On the 18th of September, however, ie
set out for Hartford, Connecticut, where lie liad a
most agreeable meeting with the Count. HIe Ie-
turned to VWest Point on the '25.h, a few hours after
the escape of General Arnold, who had betra ved the
place to tlie enemy. The arrest of the unfortunate
Major Andr6, the British ollicer who made the
agreement with Arnold, prevented Sir Henry (lin-
ton from gaiining any advantage by this piece( of
treachery ; but the first discovery of it was IapIalling
to the Comnanider-in-chief. and to all those about
him. Lathyette was walking up to Arnold's house
with General Washington and General Knox, when


AGE; 22.]







5; LAFAYETTE. [17SO.

Colonel Hamilton came olu and said a few words to
the Conmmander-in-chief in a low voice, but this
probably excited no surprise in the minds of his
companions. In a short time howeve,o r, Washington
rejoined then, and put into their lhntld the papers
which proved Arnold's guilt. They were shocked,
for, though General Arnold's character was not en-
tirely without reproach, lie had been one of the
bravest and most distinguished officers of( the Amer-
ican army. But no time could be lost in feeling, -
it was necessary to act; and since it was too late to
capture Arnold, all efforts were turned to the secur-
ity of West Point. Latfyette shared his General's
anxiety, and did not fail to observe and admire his
kind and delicate attention to Mrs. Arnold, who was
left alone in a most unhappy condition.
He was one of the fouireen generals who tried
Major Andrd, and decided that he must sutffr death
by hanging,--the usual fhte of a spy; yet his
feelings were very much touched by Andrd's situa-
tion, and the cheerful fortitude with which ie bore
his sentence. General Washington would have been
glad to have exchanged Andrd for Arnold ; but Sir
Henry Clinton would not consent to such an arrange-
ment, though lie made great efforts to save Andrd's
life.

















CIA1'A PER V.


ACTIVE OPERATIONS.


IN October of this year Lafayette wrote a long
letter to the Commander-in-chief, urging an immedi-
ate attack on the city of New York. lHe was very
tired of reconnoitring parties, and plans which came
to nothing; and lie felt that some action was needed,
both for the honor of America and the credit of the
French army. General Washington in his heart
desired activity quite as much as his young friend;
but lie did not think the time favorable enough for
so large a scheme, and lie could only recommend to
Lafayette the patience which lie so constantly prac-
tised himself.
In November the Marquis de Clastellux, a French
traveller who visited the Commander-in-chief at
head-quarters, thus describes Lafayette's appearance:
" We availed ourselves of the cessation of the rain







LAFAYETTE.


to accompany his Excellency to the camp of the
Marquis. We found all his troops ranged in line of
battle on the heights to the left, and himself at their
head, expressing both by his deportment and physi-
ognomy that he preferred seeing ine there to receiv-
ing me on his eta-le in Auvergne. The confidence
and attachment of his troops are most precious in his
eyes, for lie looks upon that species of wealth as one
of which he cannot be deprived, lint what I think
still more flattering to a young man of his age is
the influence which he has acquired in political as
well as military circles. I have no fear of being
contradicted when I assert that simple letters from
himi have often had more influence in some of the
States of the Union than the strongest invitations on
the part of Conlgress."
In February, 1781, Lafayetle was despatched
from head-quarters to Portsmouth, Virginia, to oppose
with but a small fbrce the traitor Arnold. The
French fleet which was to assist him was defeated at
sea on its way, anid Lafayette, having blockaded
Portsmouth, was retreating northwards, when at
Head of Elk lie met despatches fiomn General Wash-
ington. These informed him that reinforcements
were to go from the British head-quarters to Arnold,


[1781.







LA2F.3Y.E]T TI .


and that he must aid the Virginians. Now, like all
Anmerican generals, Latfiyette fiundI himself beset
by difficulties. His men were fro lli ( New Eng-
land States, and were unwilling to be exposed to the
southern climate; they Ibegnt to desert. Lafayette
told them, in a general orderr* that lie was setting out
on a difficult, dangerous enterprise, atid that whoever
wished to quit himi might obtain leave to do so by
coming to head-quarters. From that day there were
no more desertions ; the men f1elt it a: honor to follow
their leader, and one serlgeant, whio lwas laue and
could not walk, hired a cart rather thlIa be left
behind. They were without proper clothes for a
southern campaign, and Lalh,,tlt e borrowed money
to buy linen for them, which th(e ladies of Baltimore
made into shirts.
lie had not men enough ftbr lightli ngI bat tle-. Ili,
objects ill this campaign were to deceive antd alnnov
the enemy, to protect thli military stores, which
supplied the army of (Gent'ral (treemn in ('arolili.
and to prevent the British from gaining any advantage
t'rom their superior troops manl e qipmients. IHe
immediately distinguished him.eilf' by i rapid march

Direction.- a il a n .1 ,.:i, rl. hiih ar; rv..\ al.I.1
tl, the troop.


AGE 23.]







LAFAYETTE.


to Richmond, the capital of Virginia, which greatly
astonished the British General Phillips. This officer
died soon after, and Lafayette refused to receive a
letter from Arnold, who succeeded him in the com-
mand. This spirited determination pleased General
Washington and Congress.
Perhaps it seems strange that the commanders of
hostile armies should have any occasion to write to
each other; but there are always questions of busi-
ness coming up; sometimes relating to the treatment
and exchange of prisoners; sometimes to the protec-
tion of the country people near the camp, who are
always in danger of being robbed; and in various
ways generals can show civility and respect for each
other. By refusing to hold any communication with
General Arnold, Lafayette plainly showed that he
did not think him a proper person for an American
officer to speak to.
Virginia became at this time the principal scene
of war. General Greene was active in the Carolinas,
but was ill-supplied, had been defeated, and could
only hope to delay Lord Cornwallis's arrival in
Virginia. IIis lordship was fighting his way up from
Charleston, South Carolina, to join General Phillips.
Between the Commander-in-chief, Greene, and







.LAIFAYETTE.


Iidiyette, there was thie nioA perfect agreement
both inl %ishe" ait( act ions. ( tr iWsIi t4

waIcvilledI both (i' sliiils, anId ass iiiid Ibolh as fa w ni
lio colil ; but lie could( not leave hii s station ical.e New
York, which wwi still to bie attacked whenever tIe
long-4 expected F reniich 1111 t shid arr11 1 iv e. General: i
G reene was like W~~iiitii ~tiiprudent
and hlopeful ; hut L1 adyet te necldeldI a double shalire of'
liscretion wh'Ien ill May lie foundl hiiishtlf oppo0euld to
Lord Cornwallis., tinhe b4 Briti-i giirill America.
FroItmt the IM a iqii i;.; youth and141 iniexlperienie,
Cmilin valhis proiii iseil. him lself an i asy victory, and i
WaSj (lliitiili'n~t enough~rl to S:aY, ill ojie, oI' hisle i,
boie Iiiy canniiot esIcape me1. I Iehad one 0 1W gnat
advantages Ic ll moi()llltillgr I& dr ag.:rl()ll.-4 oil Ilw filic(
V'irginia horse.; s Ivblich he t ;)und1I ill almodanceLI(. ill OwI(
istiih)Ie of, tile pilanters. flufyel te ,auys, ill oliC of' his
lItters: -Tlhere is no tfighilng here iiii-e 1you014 I:t
it naval supJ~eriolrity! or an :tit ariii iiii iiiit (oii ia:ii-
hlorses;" mid,441(1. lgaIIn be .Ie:ik itf' Iew i- ilnii'mee ulld
emxelleit bod v of' hoiirse, whom tie milili a fear a:-i ii
theiy~ Ivi Similany vilI beasts."' 11' IIovas, Iiow% (.',


initelligencee anid bigh .Jirift Wereo'l gt~ri'at 11 lls to himij.
Met- haini lg -:ijiii'd (o.i.iait' llihiiondi. 114-


AGE 23.1







LAFAYETTE.


was not strong enough to remain there, and slowly
retreated betbre Lord Cornwallis, hoping to be joined
by solme Plennsylvania troops. I l never allowed the
two armies to meet in such ta way that there could
he( an engagement ; and yet lie moved as .lowly
as possible, leaving each place just as the British
advance guard entered it. lie could not continue
long on this plan ; for the P1ennsylvanians did not
come at the time they were expected, and there
were some stores at Albemarle Old courtt Hlouse,
which it was necessary to guard. It was supposed
that lie must pass in front of the whole English army,
and so expose himself to certain defeat ; but he dis-
covered an old road, which lhad Ieen long unused,.
had it mended by night, and led his nwn esucclo-
fully to the spot. Lord Cornwallis was surprised
to hear of him established in so strong a position.
11h now turned towards Riclhnond and Williamsliurg,
and Lafavette, being joined by the Penn-vylvania
troops, under (lGeneral \avline. and by- another re-
inhrvcement, under Balron Steulbe, \ 'lltured to follow
him.
There were e constant skirmishes, but nothing that
could be called a regular attack until thie (;li of .ily,
when the 1Erilih army was 'ro.-.in, lame Ki\r.


[1781.






LAFAYETTE.


on the march from Williamsburg to Portsmouth.
Lafayette, believing that the larger part of the army
had crossed, ordered an attack upon what he sup-
posed to be a rear-guard. Lord Cornwallis, intending
to deceive him, had sent forward, with great parade,
only a small detachment, and received the Americans
with the main body of his army. General Wayne,
nick-named Mad Anthony, was in command, and
when lie found out his danger continued to advance,
thinking it safer than to retreat. Lafayette, with
fresh troops, was ready to follow, if lie were needed;
but, as lie listened to the heavy firing, it struck him
that there must be more than a rear-guard engaged,
- lie galloped to a place where lie could see the ac-
tion, and immediately sent assistance to Wayne, with
orders to fhll back. This was successfully done, and,
n:; it was growing dark, Lord C(..'i .1I. did not pur-
sue him. The violent beginning and sudden end of
the attack made hlim suspect a snare.
This was a severe conflict. Our field officers,"
says General Wayne, were generally dismounted
by having their horses killed or wounded under
them. I will not condole with the Marquis for the
loss of two of his, as lie was frequently requested to
keep at a greater distance. His natural bravery
rendered him deaf to admonition."


AGE 23.]







LAFA-YETTE.


A few days later, the British proceeded to Ports-
month, which they considered a very advantageous
place, on account of the communication with New
York. Lafayette had been hoping that they would
go to the sea-coast, as lie thought it would then be
much easier for him to watch them on land, and
believed that a French fleet would surely come, in
the course of the season, to blockade them by sea.
IHe wrote to General Washington, saying that he was
glad of this arrangement; and about the same time
the enemy got possession of a letter to him from the
Commander-in-chief in which he spoke of his plans
for an attack upon New York, and gave the Marquis
permission to return to head-quarters and take part
in it. This letter made the British feel very easy in
Virginia, and consider New York alone as thle place
to be protected.
The active campaign of the last four months was
now exchanged for a steady watching of the enemy
at Portsmouth, and constant communication with
head-quarters. On the 20th of July, Lafayette wrote:
" I am entirely a stranger to everything that passes
out of Virginia, and Virginian operations being for
the present in a state of languor, I have more time
to think of my solitude; in a word, my dear General,


[1781.






3LA FAYETTE.


I ami homesick, and it' I cannot g-o to head-quarters,
wish at least to lihar from thlie nc. I am anxious
to know your opinion of the Virginian campaign.
.....So long as my lord wi-hed bfr an action,
not one gun has bei e fired; the moment he decliicd
it, we have been skirmishing; but I took care never
to comnuit the army." And to Colonel Hamilton lie
wrote, Independence has rendered ime the more
cautious, as I know my own warnith."
At the end of July lie saw the greatest part of
Cornwallis's arnly at Portsmouth embark on board
vessels which did not immediately sail. He supposed
they must be going to New York, but in less than
three weeks found out they were removed to York-
town and Gloucester Point. where they began to firt-
ify. In the mean time le he ad heard from generall
WVaslhington that the French lbeet would arrive in
Chesapeake Ulay, instead of New York Harbor.
The attack on New York was given up, and Vir-
ginia was to be the scene of action. Lafayette no
longer regretted that lie had been sent away from
hlad-quarters. Ile followed Lord Cornwallis and
took measures to shut him in completely, while the.
British General felt so secure within his fortili-
cations, and with only Lafayette for an opponent,


AGI:E 23.]







LAFAYETTE.


that lie offered to send some of his men to New
York.
Lafayette wrote to his wife, when matters were
thus far advanced: "It was not prudent in ithe
General to confide to me such a comunand. If I
had been unfortunate, the public would have called
that partiality an error of judgment." But he had
already proved that the Coniiunander-in-chief had
judged wisely of the capacity of his young general.
About this time Lafayette wanted a spy to send
into the British camp, and a New Jersey soldier
named Morgan was pointed out to him as a lit
person to be employed. It is not an easy thing to
find a spy: a man must be trustworthy and faithful
to his own olliccr, and yet willing to deceive the
enemy; lie mnu-t be observing, and yet must not
appear to be getting information. Morgan was
unwilling to put himself in such a position, but at
last consented, oil condition that, if lie should be
killed, the General would have a full account of lithe
case printed ill the New Jersey newspapers, so that
no reproach might fll upon his honor le went, to
the British camp ad faithfully obeyed orders. After
several weeks had passed, thinking lie could no
longer be useful, lie came back, and brought with


[17S1.






LAFAYETTE.


him five deserters and a prisoner. The next day
the General, to reward him, oftlred to make him a
sergeant. Morgan thanked him, but declined, say-
ing that he thought himself a good soldier, but was
not certain of being a good sergeant. lie likewise
refused other offers. What can I, then, do fir
you ? inquired Lafayette. I have only one flvor
to ask," replied Morgan. During my absence my
gun has been taken from me; I value it very much,
and I should like to have it back again." Orders
were given that the gun should be found, and it was
his only reward for this difficult, dangerous service.
On the 1st of September the French fleet, under
Count de Grasse, arrived. The Marquis de Saint
Simon immediately landed with three thousand sol-
diers. Lafiyette added his force to theirs, and took
:ii a strong position at Williamsburg. Lord Corn-
wallis marched out, intending to make an attack ; but
finding them so strong, contented himself with im-
proving his fortifications at Yorktown. In an en-
gagement at sea between the French fleet and the
British under Admiral Graves, Count de Grasse
was victorious, and Lord Cornwallis's confidence
began to waver a little as he saw himself blockaded
on both sides.


AGE 23.]







6; LAFAYETTE. [17SI.

Lafayette was now exposed to a great temptation,
or what might have been a great templ;ation to a
more selfish man. The F'renchl admiral and the
Marquis de Saint Simon strongly urged him to
make an a nsault upon Yorktown. They sai that lihe
had had tile danger, fatigue, and anxiety of tle
campaign, and that it was but thir that he should
have the honor of receiving Lord Cornwallis's sur-
render. 1uit Lafayette would not listen to any such
proposals. lHe told them that General Washington
and Count lochainbeau were already on their way,
and that the combined forces would make so Inrge
an army that Lord Cornwallis would surely yield to
a regular siege, and iln that way many lives would
be spared which must le lost in t violent attack
made by his present force.

















CHIAPTEIR VIT.


SUCCESS TilE 1REWA1R O1 I'PATIENCE.


THE Conmuander-in-chief and Rochinnbeau arrived
on the 1-1lit of September, and Laftyette saw one of'
his cherished wishes f'ulfillel when General Wash-
inglon was at the head of the united arny of Fren',
uani Americans. Even after their arrival, however,
the whole scheme was put in peril fir a: day by the
IFrench admiral's declaring that it was not prudent
lotr ilim to remain at Yorktown, and tIhat lie must put
out to sea to meet and fight withl soime new British
men-of-war which had just arrived at New York.
Laf,:yeatte, at ('Geneal Wa-hlingtonl's request, went
on board the admiral's ship, and with considera:lh
dilliculty persuaded himni to wait until the siege of
Yorktown should le ended. Then the i works went
on; the Americans gradually .-urroinded the town
with earth-works, redoubts, and trenches, and all thl







.LAFAYI:rTTEr r.


regular means of besieging a city, while Lord Corn-
wallis continued to strengthen hiis fortifications.
On the 11th of October the siege was begun by
General Wahington's firing the first gun. For
several days a steady firing w:a kept up on both
sides; cannon-halls were constantly crossing each
other in the air, and at night red-hot shot glared out
of the darkness. One English ship and some smaller
vessels were set on fire by tlinm, and as the flames
ran up to the top of the masts, tlhe sight was at once
splendid and horrible. The noise of the large guns,
and of the shells bursting and tearing up the ground
all about them, was perpetual, and added not a little
to the dreadful eflect of the scene.
On the I Ith it was decided to take by storm two
redoubts, the only defences outside the city which the
enemy still held. One was to le attacked by the
French under the Baron de Viomenil, the other by
the Americans under Lafiyette. The Baron had
said once, in conversation, that in an attack of this
sort lie thought the French superior to the Ameri-
cans. Laftyette answered, We e arbut young
soldiers, and we have but one sort of tactic on such
occasions, which is to discharge our muskets and
push on straight with our bayonets." In making his


[1781.







LAFAYETTE.


atiark, Lafayette carried out this plan exactly; lie
tliiIghit that only such an impetuous assault would
ei:nable his inexperienced troops to overcome tle
well- rained British soldiers waiting within their
h rtilications. In a very few minutes le took the
redoubt, and, as lie still heard firing from the other,
lie sent his aide to the Baron, to inquire if he should
give him any assistance, and to say that lie had won
his prize. Viomenil answered, Tell the Marquis
that I am not yet master of my redoubt, but that I
shall be in less than live ininutes." And in less than
that time he entered it with his men, in perfect order.
lhe had followed strict military rule, and had had the
way cleared for him before his onset; but while lie
was waiting his troops were exposed to a terrible
fire fiomi the enemy. Colonel Barber, the aide who
carr','i Lafayette's message, lad( received a wound,
but would not allow it to be dressed until lii had
executed his commission. Perhaps lie had a little
pride in showing the French officers how inditfer-
ent to pain an American could be.
After the taking of these redoubts, Lord C(orn-
wallis's position became still more hopeless; the
camion continued to destroy his works, lie could do,
but little to injure the French and American-, and


AG;E 21.]






LAFAYETTE.


bad weather prevented an escape in boats to Glouces-
ter, which he had planned. On the 17th he requested
an interview with an American officer, that the terms
of surrender might be agreed upon, and on the l!th
his army laid down their arms.
The French and American troops were drawn up
in long lines, and were quiet and orderly as the
conquered army passed between them; but their
secret triumph and rejoicing must have been great
as they saw how full the ranks were, and felt how
important a victory they had won. Every one was
eager to see Lord Cornwallis, but this distinguished
general did not make his appearance; General
O'IIara took his place.
Count Rochambeau, General Washington, and
Lafayette sent their aides to offer their compliments
to Lord Cornwallis; who sent a message to tell the
Marquis that, after having made this long campaign
against him, he wished to give him a private account
of the reasons -which had led him to surrender.
The next day Lafayette went to see him. I
know," said the English general, "your humanity to
prisoners, and I recommend my poor army to you."
ILafayette replied, You know, my lord, the Ameri-
cans have always been hulnane towards imprisoned


[1781.







ILAFAYETTE.


annies. Il! Q olidiI not accep t (%elIt :a comphdi:im nt
whiliv seeedflc14)i mpaurate lhim tinjll is ad~ uopteil
coun~itr~ymne. l1T a olif-v gciieraiI. :1L( visited L orud
Coirnwal:lis, mi and civi ( lity which lid(d11 majke lii.;
moa rt ifying IK)-itio ii I iloreucdia r:LbIA I'.t A lo%%Iio I,)l
Ili ii.
thie knilt i-iii:vLaii knIelvw that at lay Ihad ga:linc a gre:at,
ad(InLa:1gc ill taking thIis oilily ; bat thley were very
ule-i laus of cli -il g die) caimipaaign byli the recapwrt I
of Cliarlesatoi Soi alt CI:.Lrolim 10. whic hi l:zil 144cd l ill
thit liN)ss(sion~ iii thaietll 4- -m lalee Maya. I 7SO ( ;4-n-
eroll (srecnlie ha: hadu :a very 11:141 stillllkaer, olllluli:eu
SLordiiiiI Mm'doih4)il 1 w tillia I hot Cornw walis~ Iliz
('(ilna jlto Vi rginhia. It -ceillail v:aly now to gi a
himil ii I [i fleet A a reIad I 'i :i iii andthei
l~andi 1;arce;so fiathr aaia their wayv Iii teuilitohi. 1Lta)'l-


ianda would hae1 bevi "44 lad to tilidertoke it with ai


ill a fl-w e-. l ;hit[ the. Fretieha noinindro 4-caleehora


Wesi t Inidies. It iA Sa:idI that M1-1 anIjLord Coja a w :411
SM4V Lalt:L)(th! 1,atalralillg, from is uIa-1, i-kit to 1114a
alihiiir.Wls :klo. Il!e -:ajl to -olika uithifiia-I NhIao Wa.1t4, %%~ oh
hiiia. I hery a w~ia r Ilia- haa I illii inaakiia~g orrant.,vi-


AGE 24.]







74 LAFAYETTE. [1781.

ments to ruin us at Charleston." This remark shows
that he understood Lafayettc's disposition and talents.
There is every reason to suppose that such a scheme
would have succeeded. As it was not undertaken,
the campaign came to an end, and the army went
into winter-quarters.
During all the time that the French and American
armies were together, the most perfect friendliness
prevailed between them. The French officers ad-
mired Washington with the ardor that belongs to
their nation, and only laughed at the hardships they
had to bear. And doubtless their example influenced
the common soldiers. On their part, all Americans
felt themselves under great obligations to those who
had come so far to fight for them. Lafayette men-
tions, as a proof of good feeling, that when the
French troops under the Marquis de Saint Simon
joined his, lie ordered them to be supplied with flour
enough to last three days before the Americans
received any. The latter were obliged to live chiefly
on Indian meal, but were quite satisfied. He also
gave horses to the French hussars, while the Amer-
ican officers had none, yet lie never heard a com-
plaint. Perhaps nothing shows more clearly that lie
felt as an American than his thus treating his own






AGE 24.] LAFAYETTE. 75

countrymen as guests. He had taken the precaution
before they left France to have it settled that they
were always to be considered as auxiliaries,* and
that French officers were always to be under the
orders of Americans of equal rank.
In November of this year, Lathyette again asked
leave to return to France, and, with the most cordial
thanks from Congress, and the respect and gratitude
of every patriot, he once more set sail from Boston.
He carried with him the consciousness that his
services to this country had been great and highly
valued here. His friendship for General Washing-
ton was one of the delights of his lift, and lie felt
sure that the United States would always hold a
place in his affections second only to France.
No mutiny this time disturbed his voyage. He
found all things prosperous in his family, and he
had gained a military reputation which made him
still more admired than b(efbre.
He was commis-ioneld Iy Congress to make
arrangements for them in lEurope, and the next year
was chiefly occupied with preparations for a com-
bined expedition from Fraunc anad Spain, which now


Tho,-c whou give :--i-tance, but never take the eatl.
6







7(; LAFAYETTE. [1782.

joined in the war against England. Tle fleet of
sixty vessels was to be commanded by Count d'Es-
taing; the army of thwenty-four thousand men, by
Lafihyettc. The plan was to sail from Cadiz for the
island of Jamnica. then to proceed to New York,
and alier taking that city to go on to Canada.
There were so many delays in getting together this
grand army, and arranging all: tie points of the
agreement between the nations, that Lafayette was
still at Madrid when lie heard the news of the Peace
of Paris, which put an end to our Revolutionary
war. It was signed in January, 1783, and lie was
the first to inftbrmn Congress of this joyful event.
















C'I1LAPTER %-H.


FRANCE AS IT WAS.


Ix the next year, 1784, Lafayette allowed himself
the pleasure t' a: visit to the United States. lie
arrived at New York in August, went to the south
as far as Yorktown and Ricllmond, and paid to Gen-
eral Washington at Mount Vernon that visit so often
anticipated in their letters written by camp-fires aid
amid the hardships of war. lie was present at the
making of a treaty with the Indians of the Six
Nations, some of whose chiefs called him by his old
name of Kayewla, which they gave him in 1778S.
lie also went through the Eastcrn States, and was
everywhere, as Washington wrote to Madame de La-
fayette, crowned with wreaths of love and respect."
IIe was particularly interested in seeing the old
soldiers of the army, and often touched by finding
the children of those who had fallen making part of







LAFAYETTE.


the processions in his honor. Every one was eager
to see him, either from gratitude or curiosity, and his
reception was cordial and affectionate.
At the end of November lie was again at Mount
Vernon, and after their parting General Washington
wrote this note, so expressive of his affection : "At
the moment of our separation, upon the road as I
travelled and every hour since, I have felt all that
love, respect, and attachment for you, with which
length of years, close connection, and your merits
have inspired me. I often asked myself, as our
carriages separated, whether that was the last sight
I should ever have of you. And though I wished
to answer no, my fears answered yes."
Lafayette would not admit this idea; though lie
saw that his beloved friend was never likely to cross
the water, he promised himself the happiness of
several visits at Mount Vernon. IHe could not fore-
see the political storms that were to sweep over his
life, and he cared little for those lie must meet on the
Atlantic Ocean.
Afler a great public entertainment at Boston, lie
embarked on board a French frigate, and had a
prosperous voyage, bearing home with him many
bright recollections of warm friends and happy hours


[1784.







AGE 27.] LAFAYETTE. 79

in the United States, and strong hopes for their
future prosperity.
lie did not find France in an equally promising
condition.
The following year, 1785, Lafayette undertook
a shorter journey into Austria and Russia. Though
republicans were not much admired in those coun-
tries, Lafayette's distinguished family connections,
and his reputation as a young general, gained for
him a polite reception. In Prussia, he went to all
the military reviews in company with the king,
Frederic the Great, at that time the most distin-
guished soldier in all Europe.
After his return to France, he gave much time
and attention to a scheme in which his benevolence
interested him. IIe bought a plantation at Cayenne,
in French Guiana, and sent out an excellent superin-
tendent, to teach the slaves and to prepare them
gradually for freedom. lie had been particularly
pleased with a school for free-negro children, which
lie had seen at New York, and wished at least to
try the experiment of training the blacks. Difference
of color could not check his enthusiastic love of
liberty. He honestly desired that all men, not
merely himself and his countrymen, should be free;







LAFAYETTE.


but he had the common sense to see that some races
of men require preparation even for freedom, and
that a slave, who has all his life been fed and clothed
by a master, does not know how to provide for him-
self in his old age.


We now come to a great change in Lafayette's
life. We have seen him fighting for freedom, and
interested in military affairs; the love of liberty,
from this time forth, led him to a different work, to
an endeavor to reform the government of his country.
Other men's minds were fill of the same idea, and
there was a general feeling in Paris, and throughout
France, that the hour was come for a great change.
It is difficult to explain to those who have lived
only in the United ",.ii. how bad the French gov-
ernment was, and had been for several hundred
years. But one great evil, which caused many
others, was, that the kings and the nobles had long
believed that government was made for their pleas-
ure and glory, not for the happiness and welfare of
the common people. They did not know that a few
hundred noblemen were but of small importance,
compared with the hundreds of thousands who toiled
for their daily bread in France; on the contrary,


[1785.







I.AFAYETTE.


thlivy Illouglit that I le poor were created to) Avork
fiill them. T i v consliequenci wa 4, t hat :c I*
VIIII'lty to ft(! Iow-hiolr NvCre looked upon wih per-
toc-t inlifilereclli fly the grou lr. Yo0u ]lltlt ll(
:lIppo-e tha~t therv were mot k lind-hlearted peopir


those Nvlo dclighltid to make all : L thenk hIapip.,
jiniihiihii tile hiev.:ulktl ; butl, i :1 geimemad ruIle, I hiru
lives were fidll of' othiii occlj~tilint.n ManY ill' ililli
were soldivi t, :1l ii 41I .%)tl tim. Nvc moIiIl t act itilly vn-i
gigit'1d ill wari iiilin 1Iplai l in. Ill.-w v:mli:aiilli. oi-I
else ailliusel diillslvicv with limiting Otlher lp(olNt
neIveI "iv jll lilly tlItle to thiinlgi iii 0 1ow tlihe pool

Ipeophle ariuiiiiii tll-ll lkicd.
T1 ii kill, ,mid thei hmnijiu' fliln.ti. inc 'ludiilng I.44li,
Inime Vit clle-iiJV 11111-t (I vi. pa s 14) liC. ill t.
"n.; 1 ts, liol-'es uld varrillgf~lil-, :till[ Illonc( Y to) IJlvlld,
provided fi 1;l- 1l1-Ill loW of' Ilw p]lIiklic wcalth111 ; :111 l11w




:11I(~111 clothed. '11*\1111 : LI 11 sv w raII1 of, iill(,' lic')JI14.





Or tile v'ille--gru wer" I'r \lie. sll~i~ it.


A(;C: 29.]







LAFAYETTE.


But there was no less expense at the court because
the nation was growing poorer. The ministers had
not the courage to tell a King of France that lie
could not have anything he desired; and so lie and
all those who lived at court went on spending money
for trifles, while the peasant and the shop-keeper
were pressed harder and harder with taxes to pay
upon everything they ate or drank, or bought or
sold. A tax upon salt, which is so constantly in use,
caused great distress. Any person could be licensed
to sell salt, if lie would pay a large sum to the gov-
erinent. Of course, then, the seller asked the high-
est possible price for it, because lie wanted to secure
his own profit in addition to what lie had to pay over
to the government. Thus hard men were more
likely to undertake the business than any others,
beciase asking ,sili high prices made them very
nmuhc disliked. France was divided into districts,
in some of whichvI the people were compelled to buy
a certain quantity of' salt every year; in others, they
did as they cho.-,e. Thills made onle hardship tihe
10more; for a poor n11iii wlho lived in one district
might be ruined Iy being forced to buy a great
quantity, while his near neighbor was perhaps free
from any restraint in the matter.


[1787.






LAFAYIETTE.


And this is only a sliapl of the way taxes were
paid tl n everything. This salt-tax-thel gf/belle, as
it was called was iimuch talked about, andl was very
irritating to the poor people: but the real stuflering
was owing to the great number of taxes.
An Engli-h traveller, passing through France at
this time, says of what he saw in one day's journey,
"'Thi liilds are scenes of pIitiable management, as
the hou-es are of misery;" and again. All the
country girls and women are without shoes or stock-
ings, and the ploughmen at their work have neither
sablotls* nor feet to their stockings."
And, two years later. tlie same traveller, in walking
up a hill, chanced to overtake a poor woman, who
seemed unhappy, and complained of( the times.
When lie a':ked question,, slhe told himl that she was
married and had seven children ; that lher husband
had but a small bit of ground,. a little hori'se, and a
cow, yet they had to I ay 12 pounds of wheat and
three chiickens to one great lord. and 1 4 iounds of
oatt~, one chicken, and one franc to anotlihr. besides
several very heavy taxes. She said sle hoped
something would be done for poor people, for the


* Wis, vn hia tc..


AG : 29.]







81 LAFAYETTE. [1787.

taxes were crushing them. She was twenty-six
years old, but her figure was so bceni, and her face so
wrinkled, that she might have been taken for sixty.
And she was only a specimen of the women that
were to be seen almost everywhere in France. It
was not uncommion for the poor people to gather
nettles to make soup of.
When a nobleman heard of some unfortunate
wretch dying ot hunger, no doubt lie might feel
sorry for a few minutes ; but lie was not apt to think
what could be the reason, or if lie himself could do
aiyllhing to remedy it. And here was a point in
which Lafayette was quite different from other peo-
ple of his own rank and age. lie did think about
the condition of working-people, and longed to
make them happier and better; he believed freedom
would do that.
Such a state of thlings cou ld not last forever;
when people are perfectly miserable, they grow
resless and fierce. This was the case in Franc(e.
A great many people in a middle condition of life,
neither very rich nor very poor, were fired with ideas
of liberty and equality ; they began to ask why dukes
anid counts were better than themselves, and why
-ulime lives werv passed in ease ind luxury, and







LAFAYETTE.


others in toil and want and pain. There can le no
doubt, too, thiat tli accounts of the United Staies
brought home by tie soldiers ainl ollieers who liiad
served there helped to keep llup the excitement.
It had bcen proved there that contentment and
proslprity couill be fund without a king, without
a court, without an order of priests, and, above all,
without so iniuiy taxes.
At this time (1787) Louis thie Sixteenth, who was
the king of France, was a just and hlinane man, who
would have been very glad to do whatever lie could
to make his subjects happier; but lie did not know
how or where to Ibegin.
One thing wa:s certain, that the government
needed money; and in order to rai-e it, tile king's
ministers advised him to call a meeting of the No-
tabls of France. Tle' wiee the ili princes, brothers
or cousins of lie king; somei dukes and coiuns,
marshals of France, and other military oflivers;
several bishops and magi-lIratle. They nlmet in
February, 1787, and began to con-ider what could
lie done about the national debt and taxes. A. hln-
ldredl and sixty years had passed since they were
last called together, and all tlie old rules of buisile-
were ftorotten.


AGC 29.]







LAFAYETTE.


Lafayette took his place among the nobles, and
spent much time upon a plan for reducing the debt
and expenses. lie also brought forward several
proposals for limiting the king's power. One of
these was, that lie should no longer have the right
to send a person who had displeased him to prison
without any accusation, and without any trial or
chance to defend himself. Such a pri-oner had no
hope of release except from tile king's mercy, and
might die in his cell, forgotten. Another proposal
was to grant greater liberty to Protestants, who were
in many ways kept in a position very inferior to
that of the Catholics.
Finding that the Notables were not doing much
work, Lafayette suggested that the king should be
asked to sunmmion a National Assembly. What! "
said the Count d'Arlois, the king's brother, "do you
make a motion for tlhe Statcs-(General ?" "Yes, and
even more than that," was his answer.


[1787.
















CIIXPTER VIII.


CHANGES.


TnHE States-General were composed of representa-
tives from the nobles, the clergy, Iand the third estate,
or common people of France. They had not met
for a hundred and seventy-five years, and had in
former times been most submissive to the kings; but
there was little hope of making any change without
them, and they only had the rig/t to alter the gov-
ernment.
They met on the 4th of May, 1789, in a hall at
Versailles which the king had prepared for them,
and where he cane with the queen to receive tlhei.
It is diticult to imagine now the excitement which
there was then in Paris and throughout all the large
towns of France. The kingdom was poorer than it
had been the year before.- everything was dear,
complaints were loud. Men left their offices and







LAFAYETTE.


their workshops to make speeches and to become
national deputies; the newspapers were full of
articles on liberty and the rights of man; new
pamphlets were printed every day, and eagerly read
by a few of those who were suffering under real
wrongs, and by all the foolish people who fancied
they should be the happier for being as idle as the
counts and marquises they pretended to despise.
Every one, except the court and those who were
satisfied with the kingdom as it was, looked forward
with hope to the meeting of the ii i. -.-General, not
knowing what would befall them, but trusting to
secure freedom and many other good things. Politics
were the one thing everybody cared for, not only in
Paris, but in all the towns of France. A stranger
in the city writes: "I went to the Palais Royal t to
see what new things were published. Every hour
produces something new. Thirteen pamphlets came
out to-day, sixteen yesterday, and ninety-two last
week. . Nineteen twentieths of these produc-
tions are in favor of liberty, and commonly violent
against the clergy and nobility." The coffee-houses
were always open, and orators declaimed in the most

e Members of the States-General, or National Assembly.
t An old palace, now used in part for shops.


[1789.







LAFAYETTE.


vehement manner to an excited crowd, who loudly
applauded anything particularly fierce and harsh.
The king and his ministers were troubled and did
not know what to do. They felt that something
would have to be yielded to this extraordinary
passion for liberty which had got possession of some
of the nobles and common people, they did not at
all understand the power of the mob, and they were
obliged to admit that their schemes had not made the
debt any less. The king's natural desire to secure
himself led him to collect a great many soldiers in and
about Paris, and so many more mouths to be filled in-
creased the scarcity of flour. He thought the troops
would be faithful to him, but experience proved that
the new ideas of liberty and equality had made their
way into the army.
After much trouble in getting ready to work,
the twelve hundred National Deputies (three hun-
dred nobles, three hundred of the clergy, and six
hundred of the common people) began their task;
which was, to give France a new government. They
first destroyed many of the bad laws which had come
down from old times; they took away power from
the king and nobles, and forbade many of the privi-
leges of the rich and great which had caused suffer-


AGE 31.1






90 LAFAYETTE. [1789.

ing among the poor. But this was not all. A
kingdom cannot exist without laws; and while the
Assembly was talking* and listening to speeches,
people who had been kept down by fear of the laws
might do a vast deal of mischief. The Deputies had
no hesitation in saying that certain punishments
should never be repeated in France; but then there
was a long pause before they could make up their
minds what should take their place. They found
building up a slower work than pulling down. It
was easier to make speeches, and set the nation in
order by adding up figures and writing papers, than
to supply food for a hungry mob, or teach the
peasants not to revenge themselves on their former
masters.
The French are so easily stirred up that merely
reading the reports of what was done each day in
the Assembly added to the excitement of distant
towns and villages, and it must be remembered that
while their minds were thus filled with hopes and
expectations, their real wants of food and clothes and
comforts had not been relieved. Nor were they

h A Swi-s, who went often to the Assembly, says thateach
man ,was vain enough to fancy himself equal to tleu whul labor
of remodelling the government.







LAFAYI.ETTE.


likely to be during this summer (17891), tfo mor-
chants and fa(l ners 1no longi er gave o eir whole
attention ss, to sthe nobles began Io quit
France, taking with themii the Iony they li:l been
necusltomdi to spn ii 4vr.ry v,,ar.
Tihe natural consi qenilice'- of suchl a condition
were mobs and ltui ilts in tie cities, the burning of
chateanis Ianld sometimes killing the lords, in tih
country.
Laflavette took parl in the labors of the Assembly
with great spirit. lie welcomed everything which
was at all like the laws and cistomis of the United
States, and his letters to General Washington were
full of hope. l1' excused the outbreaks, alarming
as they were, on account of the lonwg muflering of the
people.
Put a more serious one took pliee in Paris when
the citizens heard that Mon ieiur Necker, a popular
minister, had l, en di-minsed, andI that the troops
were drawing nearer to Paris. and even entering the
city. The excitlemeit was inten-e tfor several days
in July, and at last, after some regiments had arrived
and others were reported, it broke out into a iiii-

The country-hm-,'- of the oll-, which ;l t '.nerally bel
castle'.


AGE 31.1




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