Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 State board of education, board...
 The staff
 The objectives of the station &...
 Personnel of the station
 Sponsored research
 Fields of research
 Specialized technical service
 Appendix A
 Appendix B. Publications

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Engineering and industrial research at the University of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003195/00001
 Material Information
Title: Engineering and industrial research at the University of Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 67 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1947
Subject: Engineering experiment stations -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Research, Industrial -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Engineering -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, College of Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March, 1947."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003195
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4330
ltuf - AJL4526
oclc - 27180455
alephbibnum - 001790862

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
        Page 7
    State board of education, board of control, and administrative officers
        Page 8
    The staff
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The objectives of the station & Reasearch facilities
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Personnel of the station
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Sponsored research
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Fields of research
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Specialized technical service
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Appendix A
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix B. Publications
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
Full Text

Cni u an Sinudl Resea'c
at te



Bulletin No. 13 March. 1947

By Invention, Discovery and Conservation
Will Make a Greater Florida

El ~-



President. University of Florida

College of Engineering
and Director,
Florida Engineering
and Industrial
Experiment Station

Assistant Director
Florida Engineering
and Industrial
Experiment Station


The purpose of this bulletin is to give our citizens and the
industries a comprehensive picture of the part which the Florida
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station can play in the
industrial development of Florida.
The importance of the Station in Florida's future growth
and the resulting increase in stability of the State's economy
were contributing factors which motivated the 1941 Legislature
in stipulating:
"The functions of the Florida Engineering and Industrial
Experiment Station shall be to organize and promote the prose-
cution of research projects of engineering and related sciences
with special references to such of these problems as are im-
portant to the development of industries in Florida."
To realize these objectives, the Station established the fol-
lowing operating principles:
1. Utilizing, to the upmost. the State's resources in the suc-
cessful development of new industries.
2. Maintaining existing industries at an economic peak
through continuous research.
3. Promoting engineering applications to the furthering of
the health and welfare of our citizens.
This bulletin, by describing the available facilities and by
enumerating some of the projects that have been undertaken,
may stimulate interested persons to contribute ideas of value.
The Station welcomes the opportunity to be of service and
believes that no industry is too large, nor is any too small, to
benefit by the use of its services and facilities.

^^Z^^t -/^-c

Forew ord .. ........- ......- .... ... .. .. .. ..... 5
State Board of Education, Board of Control.
Administrative Officers ............. 8
The Staff ... ......- ........--...... ...... 9
The Objectives of the Station ... 11
Research Facilities .. ....---- .. 11
Personnel of the Station ............. ............. 19
Sponsored Research. Including a List of Sponsors 23

1. Projects for the Armed Forces
(a) The VT (Variable Time) Fuze -.-... .....--.... 26
(b) Sferics (Location of Atmospheric Disturbances) 30
(c) Army Air Forces Research .32
2. Forest Products
(a) Spray Gun for Stimulating Turpentine and
Rosin Production .......... 32
(b) Tannin from Scrub Oak ...... 33
(c) Pull) from Fresh Stumps 35
(d) Wood Impregnation .......--.. 36
(e) Veneer Replacement Development 36
3. Industrial Wastes and By-Products
(a) Yeast from Paper Mill and Citrus Wastes 37
(b) Scale Elimination and Evaporation of Citrus
W astes ...-... ........... .. ..... 37
(c) Citrus Juice Concentrator .... 38
(d) Drying of Molasses ........... .. 38
(e) Phosphate Waste Disposal 39
(f) Tung Meal Utilization 39
4. Non-Metallic Minerals
(a) Limerock Utilization ...... 39
(b) Procelains .... ... ..... .. .. .. 41
(c) Ceramic Structural Parts -..... ....... 41
(d) Materials of High Dielectric Constant .42
5. Agricultural Mechanization
Crate Closing Equipment for Citrus and Celery. 43

6. Sanitation and Public Health
(a) Sewage Treatment Processes 44
(b) Water Supply Survey ....... 44

7. Insect and Mildew Control
(a) Mildew and Mold ..........- -46
(b) Insecticidal Protective Coatings .............-.... 47
(c) Effectiveness of Wire Screen Against Insects 47

8. Corrosion
(a) General Studies on Corrosion Prevention 48
(b) Cathodic Protection of Pipe 49

9. Tung Oil Production
(a) Tung Nut Drier .. 49
(b) Tung Oil Filtration ........... 49
10. Preservation of Botanical Specimens in Plastics 50
11. Survey on Florida Hides .................. 51
12. Evaluation of Florida Petroleum ..52
13. Solubility of Magnesium Salts in Boiler Water 54
14. Utilization of Solar Energy ........... ... 54
15. Reverse Cycle Refrigeration for Heating .. .. 54
16. M apping of Florida -------....... .. .... .... .......... ..... 55
17. The Greater River and Harbor System of Florida.... 56
18. Low Velocity Stream Flow Meter ... ........................ 56
19. Protection of Small Buildings Against High Velocity
W inds .------------------ -.. ... .. 56
20. Hibiscus Manihot Mucilage ....- ........ 57
21. Peat Utilization ......... ................. 58
22. Testing Electricians' Gloves for Safety ....... ......... 58
Specialized Technical Service ......... .... ........ 59

Contract Form .. .... . .. 61

Publications (Bulletins and Technical Papers) ............... 65


MILLARD CALDWELL .............. ...--.......... ..... ........ Governor
R. A. GRAY ..-.......... .... .......... ........ Secretary of State
J. EDWIN LARSON .........- ..-..... ....... ....... State Treasurer

J. TOM WATSON ..-............. .... Attorney General
-State Superintendent of Public Instruction


J. THOMAS GURNEY. A.B. (Mississippi), LL.B. (Cumberland)
Chairman of the Board
Orlando, Florida
THOMAS W. BRYANT, B.S., LL.B. (Florida) .. Attorney-at-Law
Lakeland, Florida
N B. JORDON ..... ...... .... ......- ........ --.-...... -- ... Banker
Quincy, Florida
HENSON MARKHAM, A.B., J.D. (Florida) ........ Attorney-at-Law
Jacksonville, Florida
M. LUTHER MERSHON, LL.B. (Florida) ............ Attorney-at-Law
Miami, Florida
JOHN T. DIAMOND .................. Secretary of the Board of Control
Tallahassee, Florida
J. W. BLANDING .. ................. .Auditor for the Board of Control
Gainesville. Florida


JOHN JAMES TIGERT, M.A. (Oxon.), LL.D., Ed.D., D.C.L.,
D.Litt., L.H.D., President of the University
JOSEPH WEIL, B.S.E.E., M.S., Dean, College of Engineering, and
Director of the Engineering and Industrial Experiment

RALPH A. MORGEN, Ph.D. (California), Assistant Director of
the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station


W. H. BEISLER, D.Sc. (Princeton) .................................. Chemical Engineering
N. C. EBAUGH, B.E. in M3. & E.E., M.E., M.S. .......... Mechanical Engineering
A. F. GREAVES-WALKER, D.Sc. (Alfred) ................ Non-Metallic Minerals
F. H. PUMPHREY, A.B., B.E.E., E.E .................... Electrical Engineering
R. A. THOMPSON, B.S.M.E., M.S. .......................... Aeronautical Engineering
C. D. WILLIAMS, B.S.C.E. ................... ........ Civil Engineering
P. O. YEATON, B.S., S.B. .... ..... ... ... Industrial Engineering

W. I. BURG, D.Sc. (Naples) ............................ ... Non-Metallic Minerals
H. N. CALDERWOOD, B.S.Ch.E., Ph.D (Wisconsin) Chemical Engineering
S. P. GOETHE, B.S.M.E., M.S. ............. .. .. Mechanical Engineering
EARLE B. PHELPS, B.E. ................ ...... .. ................ Civil Engineering
F. L. PRESCOTT, B.S.M.E., M.E. .. .......... Mechanical Engineering
S. P. SASHOFF, E.E., M.E. .......... ............... Electrical Engineering
W. L. SAWYER, B.S., M.S. .. ............ ............. Civil Engineering
R. C. SPECHT, B.S., Ch.E ...................... .... Non-Metallic Minerals
P. M. TEDDER, B.S.E.E. .. ........... Electrical Engineering
R. D. WALKER. JR., B.S. ... ................... ........ Chemical Engineering

-Mechanical Engineering
S. K. ESHLEMAN, M.A., S.M., M.E., E.E., J.D. ....... Industrial Engineering
H. J. HANSEN, B.S.C.E., C.E. ...... ........... ....... ... Civil Engineering
J. S. JOHNSON, Ph.D. (Iowa State) ............................ Electrical Engineering
W. J. NOLAN, Ch.E., Ph.D. (Michigan) ......... ... Chemical Engineering
H. E. SCHWEYER. B.S.Ch.E., Ph.D. (Columbia) Chemical Engineering
E. F. SMITH, B.S.E.E., E.E. ................... ................ Electrical Engineering
MACK TYNER, Ph.D. (Cincinnati) ............. .. .... Non-Metallic Minerals
J. W. WILSON. B.S.E.E., M.S. ................ .. .......... Electrical Engineering

S. S. BLOCK. Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State) ............ Chemical Engineering
R. E. CARROLL ................------ ------ --.. ..................... Electrical Engineering
H. D. COMINS, B.S.C.E., M.S ............ ............. .... ... Civil Engineering
STEPHEN A. DFRRY, B.S.C.E. .............. ...................... .... Civil Engineering
E. J. DIEHL, B.S.E.E ............ .................. . Electrical Engineering
CHARLES G. EDSON, B.S. .............. ........ .. .... .. ........... Civil Engineering
D. L. EMERSON, B.S., M.S. .............. ..... ... ........ ....... Civil Engineering
D. M. FRENCH, Ph.D. (Virginia) ....... ............... Chemical Engineering
H. M. HAWKINS, B.Ch.E., M.S.Ch.E. ....... .............. Chemical Engineering
FRED HIRSCH, B.S., B.M.E., M.M.E. ........................... Mechanical Engineering
R. S. HOFF, B.S.E.E. ........................................................ Electrical Engineering

L. J. HORN, B.S. ..
W J. KESSLER ............
A. L. KI.MMEL, M.Ch.E...
M. H. LATOUR, B.S.E.E ....
R. R. MCPHERSON, B.E.E. ............
GORDON S. MOBLEY, B.S.C.E. .................
E. N. LURCH, B.E.E., M.E.E. ...........
A. F. RENO, B.S., M.S. ..-............
L. J. RITTER, B.S.C.E., M.S.C.E ...
J. M. SCOTT, JR., B.S.E.E ...
G. S. SHAW B.E.E ..... ............
P. P. TURNER, B.Cer.E., M.S.Cer.E.
H. B. W ILLIAMS, B.M.E ..............

Industrial Engineering
. Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
. Electrical Engineering
Chemical Engineering
.Electrical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
. Electrical Engineering
.. Civil Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Civil Engineering
. Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Non-Metallic Minerals
Mechanical Engineering


R. F. MORSE, B.E.E .....
H. K. SILER, JR.. B.E.E...

.... Civil Engineering
....... Civil Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
...... Civil Engineering
Electrical Engineering


Only through continuous research can Florida be made a
progressively more prosperous and healthful State in which to
live. It is the aim of the Station to accomplish this result by
the successful prosecution of research projects of the type de-
scribed in this Bulletin. The whole philosophy of the Station
and its staff is to render the maximum service to the industries
and citizens of Florida.
The Station is following the directives of the Legislative Act*
that created it by:
1. Studying the natural resources of the State to determine
what new industries can be established.
2. Helping existing industries by making basic improve-
ments in their processes and by converting their wastes
and by-products into useful articles.
3. Cooperating with professional engineers and others in
the solution of special problems.
4. Offering short courses to train technicians for specific
types of work.
5. Serving as the research laboratory, through an approved
contract, for anyone interested in solving a special en-
gineering problem. The attention of industry is called
particularly to the availability of this type of sponsored

The Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station is an
integral part of the College of Engineering and all of the equip-
ment and facilities of the college are available for use in re-
search problems.
Through the acquisition of Government surplus equipment.
the Station has at its disposal one of the most modern and com-
plete machine shops in the South. Many unique types of re-
search equipment are built to specifications in this shop. The
versatility of the equipment ranges from a jeweler's lathe, small
and accurate enough to make precision parts for watches, to
the 21 inch bed lathe which is large enough to turn an axle for
a railroad car.
Florida General Law. Chapter 20982, (774, 1941).

Fig. 1.-A view showing some of the machines in our shops.

Complete heat treating equipment is available for metal
working and almost any metal part can be welded using gas
welding, atomic hydrogen, electric welding or resistance weld-
ing techniques.
Our testing laboratories are well equipped for determining
the strength of a wide variety of materials. Testing machines
available vary in size from the large 400,000 pound compression
machine for testing steel beams and concrete columns to the
small but accurate tensile testing equipment for use on textile
fibers. Shown in the large compression machine (Fig. 3b) is
a concrete sample containing limerock made in the course of
the limerock concrete investigation. The cotton sample which
is being tested in the small tensile testing machine is one of
numerous samples treated chemically for mildew resistance in
another Station project.
Our chemical engineering laboratories have adequate facili-
ties for many types of research work. The preliminary work
is usually done in the chemical laboratories which contain, in

Fig. 2 (a .-Making a small precision part on our

Fig. 2


smallest lathe.

ig. 3~ (b). Operating the 400,000 l). testing mntchintn

T(AilgOwStenthof : pec o d th

addition to the ordinary test tubes and beakers associated with
such laboratories, much specialized equipment for making ac-
curate measurements using new techniques. The next step is
to carry the process into the unit operations laboratories which
contain pilot plant equipment. In this way the work is carried
to the point where the results can be used directly for design
of the commercial plant. Rotary, tray, spray and vacuum driers,
evaporators, filters, furnaces, centrifuges, stills, absorption
columns and mixing machines are typical of the equipment



Fig. 4.-A spray drier for pilot plant tests.
A well selected assortment of fuel testing equipment is avail-
able for the study and evaluation of gaseous. liquid and solid
It is recognized that since corrosion is a particularly aggra-
vating problem in warm. damp climates, studies along this lint
are of paramount importance. Included in the equipment of
the Station is a salt spray cabinet which is one of the most
modern and up-to-date methods of evaluating corrosion re-
sistant materials and processes.


Fig. 5.-Experimental sewage plant under construction.

Fig. 6.-A corner of the sanitary laboratory.

For sanitary research the Station is equipped with the finest
pilot plant sewage disposal unit in the South. This plant was
built as an emergency auxiliary plant to take care of the sewage
in connection with a Veteran's Housing Project on the Campus.
Complete sewage facilities including Imhoff tanks, rapid sand
filters, trickling filters, sludge bed and chemical (losing are
available. The design provides great flexibility in operation. A
well equipped sanitary laboratory is housed adjacent to the pilot
plant for accurate control and study. The complete unit repre-
sents an investment of over S40,000. It may be operated in
conjunction with the new campus sewage plant now under con-
The electronic and electrical machinery laboratories, through

Fig. 7.-Some of the equipment in our electronics laboratory.

studies sponsored by the Federal Government during the war,
have acquired an unusually wide variety of equipment. Some of
this equipment cannot be found at any other place. These
laboratories are particularly well adapted to the study of elec-
trical wave motion varying from a frequency of 10 kilocycles.
corresponding to a wave length of 30,000 meters, to ultra-
high frequencies of the order of a few centimeters in wave
length. During the war these laboratories developed electronic
devices for the armed services; they are now available for studies
on devices for industrial applications.
The mechanical engineering laboratories have such useful
pieces of equipment as air conditioning units and various types
of internal combustion engines in addition to the shop facilities.
The Civil Engineering section, in addition to the sanitary
facilities, is well equipped for highway road stabilization studies
and for testing all types of construction materials.
In any research project equipment and facilities from several
fields of engineering usually are needed to solve the problem.

Fig. x.--A unit for winter and summer air conditioning.

It is pertinent to emphasize, therefore, that the Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station is not a group of depart-
mentalized research projects, but each project has available to
it the facilities of all the departments in the College of Engi-
neering. A conservative estimate places the value of the re-
search equipment available, not including the specialized equip-
ment which was built in the shops of the College. at more than
The staff of the Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station consists of all members of the staff of the Engineering
College who are conducting research projects. In accordance
with the law establishing it. the Station employs full-time re-
search workers, part-time research workers and it utilizes the
part-time services of members of the teaching staff of the Uni-
versity of Florida. The executive head of the Station is the
Director. who may be the Dean of the College of Engineering
or a person nominated by the Dean. approved by the President
of the University and appointed by the Board of Control. In
the latter case, the Director reports to the Dean of the College
of Engineering. By this procedure, the research projects re-
ceive the benefit of advice and counsel of all of the departments
of the College.
In addition, the fact that the Station is located on the
Campus of the University of Florida gives it another outstanding
advantage. The staff of the University contains hundreds of
persons with specialized training and information who may
be called upon for assistance in solving special problems. A
problem in bacteriology which might affect an industrial process.
but which would ordinarily be considered outside the scope of
the College of Engineering. may be handled by using the part-
time services of persons on the Campus who are trained in that
field. Market surveys to determine the economic possibilities
of products, materials or processes developed in the engineer-
ing field have been assigned to specialists of the College of
Business Administration. Such expert assistance is of great
importance to the solution of many engineering problems.
The size and the adequacy of the training of the staff of the
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station can best be
illustrated by listing the fields of specialization and highest
degree attained by the staff members now working on projects
in the Station. There are (February 1947) 107 employees on

Fig. 9.-The chemical engineering andt non-metallic minerals .taff.

the staff of the Engineering and Industrial Station. Of these.
ten have the degree of Ph.D. or I).Sc.. and nineteen have the
degree of 'Iaster of Science or a )professional degree above the
Bachelor's degree. Thirty members of the statf have the Bache-
lor's degree.
Graduate students in the College of Engineering may serve
as Research Assistants on Station (projects and they may select

I"i. 10. I'lh. civil cnginccring staff.

Fig. 11.-The electrical engineering staff.

Fig. 12.--The mechanical engineering staff.

certain phases of such projects to meet the thesis requirements
of the Graduate School. In this manner the more promising
students are encouraged to do graduate work at the University
of Florida and the State's industries have a pool of trained
personnel with advanced degrees who are familiar with Florida
problems and qualified to fill responsible positions in Florida
In order to facilitate the work of the Station there are nine-

Fig. 13.-A graduate student installing research equipment built
in our shops.

teen technicians and assistants including those who operate
the shop facilities. The office of the station has a clerical staff
of eight full time persons who prepare the reports and handle the
other necessary details of the operation of the Station. Graduate
students are employed part time on the various projects as
required. Staff members from other colleges are also utilized
for special services. It is believed that this Station has the
largest and most versatile research staff of any research in-
stitution in the South.


Fig. 15.-Clerical and stenographic stair.

In addition to the research projects which are conducted for
the benefit of the State as a whole, the facilities of the Station
may be used to solve specific problems for a particular industrial
concern or for a group of manufacturers having a common prob-
lem. In such cases, the industries concerned are expected to
pay a proportionate share of the cost of the work done.
Individual companies receive the benefits of a much larger
research organization than would be possible if the work were
attempted in the company's own laboratory. This is the way
for progressive industries to get the maximum research results
for the minimum expenditure.

F 14.- -TUC1111 iCi1111S l It' L hV <1 W ill]).

Research work for industry is conducted after a contract
has been negotiated between the interested parties and the
Station and the contract has been approved by the Board of
Control which is the governing body for the University of Flor-
ida. A standard form of contract for use by the Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station has been approved by the
Attorney General. (See Appendix A.) This contract was drawn
up after studying those used by most of the leading research
institutes in the country. (See Technical Paper No. 8 for further
details.) It is believed that the rights and benefits accruing to
the sponsor under its provisions are sufficiently liberal to pro-
tect him and to be in accordance with the accepted practice
of the better research institutes.
There are three possible patent clauses which the sponsor
of the research may select. The details may be obtained by
applying to the Office of the Director, but it can be pointed out
that in general the three plans are:
a) The sponsor receives a non-exclusive, free license to any
patentable material developed as a result of the research.
b) The sponsor joins with the State in receiving royalties
from any patent which may result from the research.
c) The sponsor pays for and obtains exclusive title to the
patent for his own use.

Which of the three plans the sponsor may elect depends on
the investment of funds he makes, the type of project under
consideration, the probability of patentable information coming
out of the research and the protection of the welfare of the
people of the State, which is a prime concern of the Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station.
Below will be found a partial list of industrial concerns and
other organizations which have utilized the services of the En-
gineering and Industrial Experiment Station within the past
few years.
Office of Scientific Research and Development
Office of Production Research and Development
Stapling Machines Co.
National Bureau of Standards
Jones Construction Co.
United States Signal Corps
Insect Wire Screening Bureau
Army Air Forces, United States Army

Florida Citrus Commission
Davison Chemical Corp.
United States Forest Service
Swift and Company
Invex, Inc.
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp.
Florida State Hospital
The American Agricultural Chemical Co.
Stine Machine and Supply Co.
Pembroke Chemical Co.
Florida Geological Survey
American Cyanamid Co.
Limerock Association of Florida, Inc.
International Minerals and Chemical Corp.
Reynolds, Smith and Hills
Wallace and Tiernan Co.
Coronet Phosphate Co.
General Tung Oil Corp.
American Tung Oil Association
Alachua Tung Oil Co.
Trail Metal Products Co.
Florida Power Corp.
Research Corp.
St. Johns Shipbuilding Co.

In order to be of further service to industry, short courses
are offered at the University and elsewhere in the State. The
Station believes that properly trained men are as essential to
good industrial operation as adequate and modern equipment.
By attending short courses industrial employees are enabled to
keep abreast of modern development. Specialists from industry
and other divisions of the University are used to supplement
the Station staff.
Two courses will be described briefly. The Short Course for
Electric Meters and Relays sponsored by the Electrical Engi-
neering Section has been in operation for twenty-five years
except for a short interruption during the war. It is a short,
refresher course which includes study of the newest develop-
ments in meters as well as the application of theory to the
solution of practical problems. Attendance is drawn from all
of the Southern States and there are usually some registration
from the Midwestern and Eastern areas.

Fig. 16.-A session of the short course for electric meters and relays.

The Civil Engineering Section, in cooperation with the State
Health Department and the Alachua County Health Unit, has
a series of short courses for the training of Sanitary Officers.
Sanitarians completing these courses may qualify for employ-
ment as County Health Officers. Industrial Health Officers or
for similar positions in public health work.
As the needs develop, the extension services will be ex-
panded. The Station will be glad to consider proposals for short
courses from any group in the engineering or industrial field.


In order to present a clearer picture of the wide variety of
problems that have been solved, or are being solved, a brief
description of the active projects of the Station is given below.
(See Appendix B for more details on available publications.)

(a) 'The VT Fuze
The VT (Variable Time) Fuze was considered one of the
most important developments of the war in bringing victory to

our Armed Forces. The fuze is a miniature radio sending and
receiving set which sends out its own signal and receives back
a signal reflected from the target. When the proper relation-
ship is obtained between the outgoing and incoming signal, the
fuze activates another circuit which fires the projectile. En-
gineers engaged on this project at the Station assisted in reduc-
ing the size of the fuze as used by the Armed Forces so that
it could be used on projectiles as small as those required for
the trench motar. improved the circuit characteristics so that
the sensitivity of the fuze was greatly increased, incorporated
many safety features and eliminated the need for batteries by
the application of an ingenious air driven turbo-generator.



Fig. 17 (a).-The Florida V. T. fuze. A radio sending and receiving set
that "Fits in the Palm of Your Hand".
Fig. 17 (b).-V. T. fuze development. At left is shown the fuze size
at the time the station started its work compared to the present fuze at
the right. Comparative tube sizes are shown for illustration.

The Station's part in this program has brought commenda-
tion from many sources. Dr. Vannevar Bush. Director of the
Office of Scientific Research and Development, in awarding



OSRD certificates of effective service to members of the staff,
expressed official recognition of the Station's contribution as
. This letter gives me the pleasure of expressing to you
my personal and official appreciation and commendation of
the aid the University of Florida has given in the war effort
through the work which it has performed under contract
with this office. The University of Florida was called upon
to do important work. That work was well done.... .."

The University's part in this program was further recognized
by the presentation of the Naval Ordnance Development Award
by Admiral Ralph Davison in May, 1946. It is significant to
point out that this award was presented by the Navy although
the Station's contracts were with the Office of Scientific Research
and Development for the Army. The Chief of the Bureau of
Ordnance of the United States Navy in a letter stated:
"It is the great pleasure of the Chief of the Bureau of
Ordnance to confer upon the War Research Laboratory of
the University of Florida the Naval Ordnance Development
Award which has been granted in recognition of the dis-
tinguished service of this laboratory to the research and
development of naval ordnance. The congratulations of the
Bureau of Ordnance are extended to every man and woman
of the War Research Laboratory for outstanding performance
in connection with development of components for the radio
proximity fuze. The Certificate for Distinguished Service
to Naval Ordnance Development and the lapel emblem for
each member of your organization connected with the par-
ticular developments referred to above are the symbol of
appreciation from the Bureau of Ordnance and from the
entire Navy for the keen initiative and determined efforts
which you have consistently displayed."

Those given the award are:
Samuel Allen Avid Gano
John W. Beal Marion D. Gillispie
Robert Beasley *Sam Goethe
*Ralph Carroll Gwenda Lee Holmes
*Palmer H. Craig Wm. Kessler
N. C. Ebaugh *Alfred Khouri
Lynden Elmore Harold Knowles

James Leggett Charles Swartz
Winifred Meachen *Paul Tedder
Dana Mathewson Robert Thompson
Charles A. Moreno J. J. Tigert
R. A. Morgen Robert Walker
Richard Morse *Joseph Weil
Irene Pardue Robert Williamson
Wilda Scarborough John W. Wilson
E. F. Smith Eugene Wright
N. E. Springstead Wallace Zetrouer
Daniel Swanson

SAlso received Certificate for Exceptional Service.

The Station was chosen as one of the few laboratories to
continue with experimental programs at the conclusion of hos-
tilities. Significant new developments are being made but in
the interest of national security this work can not be publicized
at this time. After the conclusion of the war the functions of
the Office of Scientific Research and Development in this field
were taken over by the National Bureau of Standards. Dr. E. U.
Condon. Director. wrote about the initiation of the postwar pro-
gram in part as follows:
"At the beginning of a new program of radio proximity
fuze development at your University, it is appropriate to
review and express our appreciation of the excellent work
performed by your University during the war. Among these
achievements were the design, construction and successful
demonstration of early trench mortar fuze models, the de-
velopment of new and improved fuze circuits, and collabora-
tion in the production designs of the mortar fuzes . .
"May I congratulate you on your fuze work and on the
high caliber of your staff. I am sure that the new work
you are undertaking will be completed in the same satis-
factory manner as was your past work."
While this work was undertaken at the request of the Fed-
eral Government with the immediate objective of perfecting
more deadly implements of war, the principles learned and the
techniques acquired are applicable also to the development of
new products and the improvement of others.
Hearing aids that give superior reception and are much
smaller in size and lighter in weight than pre-war models may
result from the new circuits.

The principles of the VT fuze has possible applications in
improved signal devices. Warning can be given of the proximity
of an object to lessen the chance of accidents on ships, airplanes
or railroads.
(b) Sferics
The work on location of atmospheric disturbances through
static discharge started in the Engineering Experiment Station
in 1934 before any appropriations for research had been re-
ceived. Considerable progress was made in the years before
the war. and when the Signal Corps of the United States Army
needed help in this field. it turned to the University of Florida.
Through contracts with the Signal Corps, investigations in this
field were greatly accelerated. When the Armed Forces found
that it was not possible to get a commercial manufacturer to
produce the storm location sets promptly enough for immediate
use in the Pacific Theater. sets were manufactured in the lab-
oratories of the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
and flown to the field of action where they saw service during
the war. Due to the inability of industry to "tool up" for the
manufacture of these instruments in time. all sets in action
before the war came to an end had been constructed in our
laboratory. Major H. C. Ingles. Commanding Officer of the
Signal Corps. in a letter to Dr. Tigert commended the University
for this important contribution as follows:


Fig. 18.-Sferies equipment with loop antenna.

... Under Signal Corps Ground Signal Agency contracts the
University has developed and constructed equipment for
static direction finding. It has trained military personnel
in its operation and maintenance. It has provided facilities
and equipment for putting into operation the first static di-
rection finding sfericss) network in use by the United States
Army. These contributions have been the foundation of the
establishment of a working system of static direction finding
which is now in tactical use by the Armed Services.
"Requests of theaters of war for sferics equipment have
indicated the importance of this project. Although equipped
only with facilities intended for research and development.
the University of Florida met the demand for required equip-
ment until regular production could be arranged. The co-
operation and industry of the University enabled fulfillment
of the requests from the theaters of war with a minimum
of delay.
Fig. 19.-Sferics set produced at the University of Florida. Cut shows
Admiral Ralph Davidson examining the instrument.

ii. 1 I
*L A I
1r r r- ^pd-"

"The effort put forth by the University of Florida in
sferics work cannot be measured on a 'dollars and cents'
basis. However, it has supported a spirit of maximum co-
operation between the Signal Corps Ground Signal Agency
and itself. It is this interest, provided above the ordinary
contract execution, that has resulted in getting equipment
into the field immediately.
"I welcome this opportunity to thank the University of
Florida and its personnel for their contributions to this pro-
ject. Through the efforts of the members of the War Re-
research Laboratory, Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station, the development of static direction finding has been
substantially accelerated."
Investigations in this important field are continuing and
applications to the peace-time economy of the state are possible
as a result of the ability to spot atmospheric disturbances which
later develop into hurricanes at a much greater distance than
was previously possible. This work is of importance particularly
in the field of "static" studies and weather forecasting. Since
most of the experimental program is in the 8 to 20 kilocycle
bands, it has particular significance in that most research is
being carried on at higher frequencies. Station Bulletins No.
4 and No. 6. describing the earlier work in this field are available
for distribution.
(c) Army Air Forces Research
Three Army Air Forces contracts for research are in active
operation in the Station. Since these are confidential projects.
no disclosure of the contents can be given at this time.

(a) Spray Gun
The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Lake City
Branch, found that by treating the freshly cut slashes of the
pine tree with sulfuric acid, increased flow of oleo-resin from
the trees could be obtained with a reduction in labor costs.
However, the USDA people did not have equipment for applying
the acid. A lung poured spray gun has been developed by this
Station and is now in commercial production.
Largely as a result of this work, the United States Govern-
ment has made an appropriation to the Forest Service for co-
operative work in connection with the Engineering and Indus-
trial Experiment Station to further mechanize the Naval Stores

Fig. 20.--.ung operated spray gun for stimulating the flow of turpentine
and rosin.

Industry. It is hoped that further mechanization will reverse
the downward trend in Naval Stores production as a result of
high labor costs. Publications now available on this project are
United States Patent No. 2.391.42.1 and Station Bulletin No. 10.
The Naval Stores industry is most interested in this develop-
ment and the attitude of the industry is summed up in the state-
ment of MIr. C. P. Davis. editor of the Naval Stores Review as
follows: "The Naval Stores Review is backing your . re-
search into Naval Stores mechanization to the utmost. . The
work you have done on the spray gun is splendid. and we like
to hold your department of the University of Florida up as a
shining example of the good work being done for our industry."
(b) Tannin from Scrub Oak
It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that the bark
of the scrub oak contains a grade of tannin that is suitable for
the manufacture of sole leather and other heavy leathers. From
completed field surveys it is estimated that Florida has available
1,500,000 tons of bark from scrub oak. Based upon its proven
tannin content this bark is worth conservatively S12.00 per

ton f. o. b. the shipping point. It is estimated that scrub oak
land in Florida occupies an area of over 6,000 square miles.
Much of this land can be converted to more remunerative uses.
In addition the scrub oak is gradually encroaching on the pine
lands which are valuable for timber, pulp and naval stores pro-
duction. Some of the land on which the scrub oak grows is
valuable only for the growth of scrub oak, and there is sufficient
acreage of such land to keep a tannin extract plant in operation

CLCt n-Curr^V _____. ro /A. ENi TM
setum am Agr ^niM r

Fig. 21.-Tannin process-flow chart.

The studies have been completed to the point where the
utility of the tannin from the bark has been definitely estab-
lished. A method has been developed whereby the entire tree
is chipped and the bark and wood chips separated mechanically.
In order to make the process economically sound, uses must be
found for the wood chips which occur in the proportion of 41/"
tons of wood chips for each ton of bark recovered.
Progress has continued to the point where semi-commercial
production of the bark and wood chips is now indicated and it is
believed that a tannin extract industry and the utilization of a
hitherto wasted resource (the scrub oak) is now a distinct possi-
bility. This project is described in Technical Paper No. 10.

Fig. 22.-Hog for chipping scrub oak.

(c) Pulp from Fresh Stumps
During the war the shortage of wood for pulp production
became quite acute. The Office of Production Research and
Development of the War Production Board contracted with the
Station to make a study of the possibility of recovering wood
for pulp uses from fresh stumps. It is well known that if the
stumps are left in the ground for any length of time. the cellu-
lose degrades to the point where it is not useful for pulp produc-
tion. Studies were made of the length of time before this
degradation occurs and it was found that in many cases the
degradation sets in within three months after the tree is cut.
It was hoped that the use of explosives of a special type would
permit the removal of stumps from the ground with a minimum
labor cost. Completed results indicated that this was not the
case but that the use of explosives might be valuable for the
small land owner in clearing his own land. For larger opera-
tions the use of bulldozers and mechanical equipment is indi-
cated. OPRD Report No. WPB 194 is available on the results
of this work.

(d) \ood Impregnation
Through a gift from the Barrett Division of the Allied Chem-
ical and Dye Corporation to the School of Forestry, money
became available for a wood impregnation laboratory. This
Station designed and procured the equipment, prepared the lay-
out design and installed the laboratory. It is planned with this
equipment to make cooperative studies with the School of For-
estry on: (a) improved methods of impregnating wood to lessen
loss from insect infestation and rot, (b) development of treat-
ing agents to improve the density, finish and other properties
of second growth pine.

Fig. 23,.-Equipment for research on wood impregnation.

(e) Veneer Replacement Development
The quantity of wood going into veneer boxes and crates
of various sorts is very large. It is becoming more and more
difficult to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials for such
crate and box manufacturing. The purpose of this project is
to develop a board from wood wastes or from other materials
to replace veneer which is expected to become very scarce in
the near future. The work on this problem is closely tied in
with the problem on tannin from scrub oak mentioned above.
Extensive tests are being conducted on the wood chips from
the tannin project to determine in what manner they may be
used to produce a board suitable for packing cases and con-
tainers. This research is being sponsored by the Stapling
Machines Company.

This is another area of research in which the staff workers
of the Engineering College were engaged before any State funds
became available for research. It is highly important that this
subject be studied both from the standpoint of removal of the
nuisance value of industrial waste and the economics of re-
covering all possible valuable materials.
(a) Yeast from Paper Mill and Citrus Wastes
It is known that the waste liquors from paper mills and from
citrus processing plants contain appreciable amounts of sugar.
but in such dilute concentrations that its recovery by evapora-
tion is economically sound only in a scarcity market for sugar.
For the long term utility, some other means must be found to
obtain economically a value from the sugar contents of these
wastes. One of the serious shortages in the whole southeastern
area is protein feed for stock and other animals. Work at the
station indicates that these liquors can be used to grow a yeast
and the recovered yeast becomes a valuable high-protein feed
material. Results in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of
this process and the building of a pilot plant for semi-commercial
production is now indicated. Publications available on this pro-
ject are Technical Papers Nos. 7 and 11.
(b) Scale Elimination and Evaporation of Citrus Wastes
The citrus feed industry has risen to rather large propor-
tions; recent production being of the order of 100,000 tons per
year. From present indications, it will increase to still larger
In the process of producing a dry feed from waste citrus
rag and peel, the waste is treated with about 1', lime (based
on the dry weight of the waste). The lime brings about both
physical and chemical changes in the waste and results in free-
ing a considerable amount of liquid which can then be pressed
from the waste. The press waters contain from 9 to 12 solids
and amount to 1500 to 1800 gallons per ton of dry feed produced.
Citrus press waters contain large quantities of sugars and
may be evaporated to form citrus molasses. A considerable
number of the citrus canneries are now doing this as a method
of disposal of these highly putrescible materials and also as a
possible source of revenue. Evaporation of citrus press waters.
however, is attended with a very difficult scaling problem. The
magnitude of the problem is indicated by the fact that it is
common practice to operate an evaporator for two eight hour
shifts and shut down for de-scaling on the third shift.

The composition of the scale is not definitely known, although
it seems plausible to assume that it contains calcium carbonate,
calcium sulfate, calcium citrate and calcium pectate along with
other possible scale forming salts. The purpose of this project
is to study the composition of the scale and to develop ways
and means to eliminate or minimize the scaling problem. An
alternative improvement, if removal of the scale cannot be ac-
complished, is to develop a new type of evaporator from which
the scale can be removed more easily and thus shorten the
shutdown period of the evaporators.

(c) Citrus Juice Concentrator
In the manufacture of concentrated citrus juice the prob-
lem is to remove the water at as low a temperature as possible
so as not to affect the flavor of the fresh juice. The Florida
Citrus Commission has sponsored this project which is aimed
at developing a new type of evaporator in which the fluid passes
very rapidly over a rotating hot plate. The objective is to
cause the water to evaporate rapidly without cooking the con-
centrate and to remove the concentrated fluid from the heat-
ing zone promptly by centrifugal action.

(d) Drying of Molasses
Large quantities of molasses exist as the by-product of
the sugar industry and a further potential supply may be ob-
tained as a by-product of the citrus seed industry. To dispose
of this material at a profitable figure is one of the major prob-
lems of the industry in normal times. For certain applications
a solid molasses product appears to be more suitable than the
commonly known liquid products. Molasses can be dried, but
the product suffers from a serious disadvantage. It is so hygro-
scopic that it cakes seriously when stored at ordinary tempera-
tures and humidities. Caking occurs whether the dried product
is stored alone or incorporated as a mixture with other materials.
To date it has not been possible to prepare a suitable non-
hygroscopic molasses product. The present investigation pro-
poses to coat the dried particles of molasses with a non-
hygroscopic layer.
If such a dried molasses product, which is non-hygroscopic,
can be prepared, then this material with its high mineral feed
value as well as its sugar content can be incorporated in mixed
feeds profitably. One of the major pieces of equipment used
in this study is the spray drier shown in Figure 4.

(e) Phosphate Waste Disposal
The modern trend in industrial production is to dispose of
waste materials without causing a nuisance to the neighboring
community. In line with this modern and progressive concept
of industrial responsibility, most of the major producers of phos-
phate rock have banded together to conduct a cooperative re-
search program in order to explore and evaluate the possible
waste disposal problems of the phosphate producing industry.
While there has been some indication in the past that certain
streams have been polluted by phosphate wastes, there has, up
to this time, been no indication of any hazards produced by that
industry. However, the industry feels that it is most important
to explore the problem thoroughly and. once the problem is
evaluated, to determine whether or not any experimental pro-
gram is indicated to reduce the waste nuisance.
It is possible that through such waste studies. a by-product
may be recovered which is now going to waste. In addition to
the fact that this work is being sponsored by the phosphate
producers. the State Board of Health is cooperating in this
The fact that industry is showing such interest in the wel-
fare of the State is highly commendable. It is hoped that many
more progressive industries will conduct their research problems
in connection with the Station for the mutual benefit of the
citizens of the State and the industries involved.
(f) Tung Meal Utilization
The press cake which is left after tung oil is removed from
the meal may have some industrial possibility. Studies are now
under way to determine whether or not useful by-products can
be obtained from this material.

(a) Limerock Utilization
Investigation aimed at wider industrial use of limerock, one
of Florida's important mineral resources, was the first project
in the Station sponsored by a commercial organization. This
work was started for the Limerock Association of Florida in
1941, three years before State funds for research were avail-
able. It has resulted in a better understanding of the use of
limerock in concrete. In the building material crisis following
the war limerock concrete provided a useful construction mate-
rial using all local products that are abundant.

Soil stabilization studies for improved sub-grades in high-
way construction are in progress and they should yield results
that will provide longer lasting roads. In 1944, in cooperation
with the State Road Department, the Portland Cement Associa-
tion and several raw materials producers, a test road using
limerock in various combinations was laid on United States
Highway No. 441 extending from just north of the Gainesville
City limits to Paradise, Florida. In this test road, there are
approximately fifteen types of road sections and the evaluation
of the results will proceed over a period of years to determine
the most suitable construction from the viewpoint of wearing
quality and first costs. Already the preliminary results are
pointing towards some very interesting improvements in road
quality at low cost. Published information on this work appears
in Bulletin No. 7 and Technical Papers 3 and 12. The industry
is maintaining financial support of this program and a letter
received from one of the members of the Association stated:

"In my opinion we are only beginning our research work
and this member of the Association feels that your organiza-
tion has already repaid us several times over what we have
contributed to it."

S. . ,,;;Wa. a'* -

Fig. 24.- Special test road near Gainesville using various types of
construction materials.

(b) Porcelains
Florida is an ideal location for small speciality industries
using highly skilled labor. The ceramic artware industry is,
therefore, a distinct possibility for establishment in the State.
This work was undertaken in order to demonstrate the feasi-
bility of such an industry and to gather the necessary facts so
that interested parties would have information on the composi-
tion of the bodies, glazes and colors in sufficient detail so they
might establish themselves in the State. The cost of raw mate-
rials is shown to be a minor part of the total cost. It is believed
that anyone with the proper artistic background and business
ability should be able to make a success of such a venture.
Station Bulletin No. 11 has been published to give this informa-
tion to the public.

Fig. 25.-Decorating a igurine of original designn.

(c) Ceramic Structural Parts
Florida clays are notably lacking in certain characteristics
necessary for the production of structural products such as
brick, roofing tile and quarry tile. In this project it is being
determined whether, by processing the clays, products can be
made economically which have the qualities necessary to com-

~" .c.
Q 1.3

pete with products now being shipped into the State. Some
very interesting samples have been obtained from portions of
the State hitherto not reported as containing clay deposits.
Many of these deposits have favorable qualities in some respects.
but are lacking in certain other necessary properties. Additions
of sand, sandy clay, shale, flint and other substances are being
made in an effort to correct the deficiencies of the natural clays.
There are numerous sand deposits in the State. These are not
being overlooked as possible additive agents in structural ceram-
ics. Another highly interesting and important use for sand is
in the manufacture of glass containers, window glass, glass
blocks and glass fibers for insulating materials and textiles.

I- 2~

Fig. 26.-Machine for extruding clay samples.

(d) Materials of High Dielectric Constant
In connection with the research work mentioned under the
VT fuze and the Sferics equipment, it was apparent that there

was a real need in electronics development for materials with
very high dielectric constants. If a standard material with a
very high dielectric constant can be produced, the size of con-
densers can be reduced materially with a consequent reduction
in size of the entire electronic instrument. Such a development
would he highly beneficial to manufacturers and users of radio
sets. hearing aids and other electronic devices.
Florida has large amounts of titanium minerals. Compounds
containing titanium seem to be the most promising source for
high dielectric constant materials. Successful production of
high dielectric constant materials would therefore not only
help the electronics industry. but also provide a better outlet
for one of the natural resources of the State-the sands which
contain the rare earth oxides. including titanium.

(rate (losing Equipment for Citrus and Celery
In the hand closing operation of crates filled with vegetables
or citrus, investigation shows that one out of three celery crates
was either damaged in closing or not completely closed. This
resulted in bruising or other
loss in value of the product
in transit.
A machine was developed
Sf 1or holding the crate in place
:lnd positioning it so that
Proper closing would be in-
sured. The value of this equip-
S- ment is attested to by Edward
SDahill. Chief Engineer, Asso-
nation of American Railroads.
in his recent letter:
"One of the biggest faults
we have found with the .....
Crate is the improper closing
by the shipper... . I was
very happy to see this device
perfected and I am hopeful
Fig. 27.- -(rate closing device. that many of the shippers will
adopt it."
Complete blueprints and specifications for building this de-
vice can Ibe obtained from the Station Technical Paper No. 6.


(a) Sewage Treatment Processes
A principle objective in this program is to develop adequate
sewage disposal treatment for the smaller community. In this
study it is assumed that the plant under consideration will be
limited to a population load of 5,000 persons. It is thought
that the larger communities can be cared for adequately by
known methods but that a special system needs to be developed
for the smaller ones. These communities frequently lack engi-
neering, or even skilled operating, personnel. Therefore, the
objective is a completely self-sustained unit utilizing Florida
materials and requiring a minimum of maintenance and operat-
ing skill. Mr. A. E. Williamson, consulting sanitary engineer.
has written for the interested engineers of the State as follows:
"Another item which interested me . was the development
of plants for small communities and industries. . The Experi-
ment Station will undoubtedly pay for its upkeep on this item
Due to Florida's climate the whole program of sewage dis-
posal is different here than it is in the areas where most of the
previous research in this field has been done. The relatively
high average temperature in Florida may make possible the
development of more rapidly acting digestive flora. It also
reduces the importance of heated digestion tanks. Improve-
ments in sewage disposal methods and equipment would be as
important to the larger cities and industrial plants as they
would to the small community.
An essential study for sewage disposal is the availability
of sand for sanitary filtration purposes. Laboratory experi-
ments are now being conducted on the sands available in the
State, and their location and suitability for sewage disposal
purposes are being recorded. Many of these sands show promise
of being useful in intermittent sand filtration of sewage. Other
processes are also under consideration.
Pilot plant studies will be conducted on the experimental
sewage disposal plant which is now available in the Station.
This work is being done in cooperation with the State Board
of Health. Station Bulletin No. 9 gives a more detailed account
of this project.
(b) Water Supply Survey
One of the important health problems of the State is to
insure an adequate supply of good drinking water to each

Fig. 28.-Experimental Sand Filters.

community. In order to accomplish this. it is necessary to have
information regarding the flow of underground water. Such
data will be helpful in locating water supplies and sewage dis-
posal plants so there is no danger of the former being con-
taminated by the latter.
Many general methods that are being used in this project
involve the use of harmless dyes and chemicals which can be
put into any type of waste disposal line. The course of the
water flowing in the waste disposal line can be followed by

Fig. 29.-Adding tracer dye for following effluent from a sink hole.

measurement of the (lye or chemical. If it is found that a water
supply is being contaminated, recommendations are made for
the proper treatment of the sewage disposal plant effluent and
for the treatment of the water supply so as to produce a safe
water for the community. Any state-wide water conservation
program must be predicated on a thorough knowledge of the
underground and surface water supplies. This project is being
conducted in cooperation with the State Board of Health and
the City of Gainesville.

(a) Mildew and Mold
In tropical and semi-tropical climates, such as Florida has,
there is considerable property damage and deterioration due to
rotting, decomposition and disfigurement caused by the growth
of mold and mildew. Mold rots fabrics, wood, and paper; it
disfigures painted surfaces, books and leather goods. Mildew

is also a domestic nuisance in Florida homes during the rainy
A thorough survey of the fungicides available was made and
samples were tested under Florida conditions. A series of 160
strips of cotton duck was treated with fungus proofing chemi-
cals and set out for tests in an area favorable to fungus growth.
Measurements of these strips at various intervals of time show
the effectiveness of the fungus proofing agents. Many of the
treatments suggested have been developed under war time condi-
tions and this study is important in evaluating the materials
for peace time uses. Station Bulletin No. 12 describes this
(b) Insecticidal Protective Coatings
With the development of certain of the newer insecticides.
including DDT. it appeared possible that an approved paint or
surface coating could be obtained which would last for a whole
season and still have active killing power for insects. Tests
along this line indicate that this is possible and new coating
formulations have been developed for this purpose.
(c) Effectiveness of Wire Screens Against Insects
A study of the effectiveness of different sizes and shapes of
wire screening against insects was sponsored by the Insect Wire
Screening Bureau. an association of window screening manu-
facturers. During the war the manufacturers were producing
a new 18 x 14 mesh screen which has approximately the same
area of opening as the standard 16 x 16 but was somewhat
cheaper to manufacture. The purpose of this investigation
was to determine whether this new type of screening was as
effective in keeping out insects as the conventional 16 x 16. In
general it was found that there was no appreciable difference
in effectiveness between the ordinary 16 x 16 mesh screening
and the 18 x 14 screening. However, it was recommended that
an 18 x 18 mesh screening would be more effective in Florida
than either of the two mentioned above.
That the work of the Station was of value to the sponsor
is attested by the following statement from Mr. Ralph Bacon.
Secretary of the Insect Wire Screening Bureau: "I believe that
in order to get the greatest benefit from the work which you
are doing, your report'should be sent broadcast to our distribut-
ing trade . .where the data will be passed along . .to the
consuming public."
Technical Paper No. 13 gives a detailed report of this work.


(a) General Studies on Corrosion Prevention
Corrosion in some form is present in every industrial in-
stallation and if successful measures can be found for prevent-
ing or reducing it, the life of equipment can be greatly increased.
In the State of Florida there are many structures of iron and
steel and, due to the high average temperature and close prox-
imity to sea water, corrosion is especially severe.

Fig. 30.-Salt spray equipment used for corrosion studies.

Experiments are being conducted to protect steel structures,
water tanks, and pipe lines by various means. A test installa-
tion at the North Florida Station of the Agricultural Experiment
Station at Quincy is now in operation.
In developing the spray gun for acid stimulation of pine
trees, studies were made to find materials for its manufacture
that would withstand the corrosive action of sulfuric acid.
A new method of cathodically protecting metal structures
has been developed in the laboratory and is now being tested
under different conditions of use. If this method should be
successful in practice a big saving would be found in many
industries and by many municipalities in their pipe line and
utilities systems.

(b) Cathodic Protection of Pipe
In protecting pipe lines and other structures through which
corrosive fluids flow, there is evidence to show that the degree
of protection obtained is a function of the velocity of the fluid
flowing in the pipes. The object of this work is to compare
the amount of electric current necessary to cathodically protect
a pipe structure with water at rest with that required for a
similar pipe in which water is flowing at fixed velocities. Vary-
ing current densities and varying flow rates will be correlated
to determine the proper operating conditions for cathodic pro-
tection under different rates of flow of water.

(a) Tung Nut Drier
The growing and processing of tung nuts has become an
important industry in Florida and the other southern states
bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. One of the pressing problems
of the tung industry is the proper preparation (hulling and
dehydration) of the tung nuts for efficient expression of the oil.
When the tung fruit drops from the tree, it contains approxi-
mately 70 moisture. It is the present practice to allow the
fruit to remain on the ground until it has dried sufficiently to
permit ventilated storage where it undergoes further natural
drying without danger of deterioration. This process of natural
drying takes several months and is materially affected by
weather conditions.
In order to develop an efficient artificial drier for tung nuts,
the American Tung Oil Association and the General Tung Oil
Corporation sponsored research on the development of such a
drier. Collaboration is maintained with the tung oil labora-
tories of the United States Department of Agricultural Bureau
of Plant Industry and Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial
Laboratory tests indicate satisfactory results from the ex-
perimental drier and complete working drawings and specifica-
tions for the building of such a drier are available upon request.
(b) Filtration of Tung Oil
In the process of expelling the oil from the tung nuts it is
necessary to filter the oil at the mill. The filterability of the
oil varies considerably due to many factors. It has been found
that filter aids may be used in obtaining better filtration, but
the abrasive nature of the filter aids now being used causes
excessive wearing of the expeller.

.' r;~1

ii 'ijjirfJi

vj I

Fig. 31.-Bomb filter used for clarifying tung oil.

The particles in the oil that are causing the filtration trouble
are the very fine particles, probably of colloidal dimension.
Studies are being made to improve the filtration by the follow-
ing procedures:
A. Use of electrically charged plates to coalesce the particles
by removing any electrical charge that they may be
B. Cause the particles to coalesce by removing moisture.
C. Use of non-abrasive filter aids.

Studies have been made of the dehydration and preservation
of flowers in their natural colors and shapes. After successfully
dehydrating and preserving the shape and color, the flowers
are impregnated in a plastic so that they retain their natural
appearance for an indefinite length of time. As a result of this
work, a contract has been entered into with a Florida manu-

facturer to produce useful articles using the techniques de-
veloped at the Station. A patent application is now in process
to protect this development.




Fig. 32.-Flowers preserved in natural color in plastics.


Although Florida is considered to be one of the leading cattle
states in the Union. very little is known about Florida hides.
Tanners buying Florida hides contract them as southern country
hides with no differentiation as to quality.
A survey was made to study the overall picture of the cattle
situation in Florida with respect to the possible production of
hides for tannery purposes. Station Bulletin No. 8 has been
published as a result of this survey which indicates that one
or more tanneries can operate successfully in the State on do-
mestically produced hides. Recommendations were made for
the production of a "Made in Florida" style sport shoe or leather
sports apparel as an attractive prospect.
One tannery is now under construction in the Lakeland area
and inquiries received by the Station indicate that one or more
additional tanneries may be established shortly within the
State. In addition to Bulletin No. 8. Technical Paper No. 5
describes the work of this project.

Z-~L7~ r7. 2;It



- -AT

L ^ *^ "' t '

Fig. -Packer hide. Flesh ide up.


Recently it has appeared probable that crude oil in com-
mercial quantities will soon be available from Florida sources.
The general purpose of this study is to determine the physical
and chemical characteristics of the crude oil which is being ob-
tained in the State. Measurement of these properties may
determine possible specialty applications for which this par-
ticular crude is peculiarly suited. Samples of Florida crude have
been made available through the courtesy of the Humble Oil
and RefFiing Co. and the first studied. Flesh side being made to de-

Recently it has appeared probable that crude oil in com-
mercial quantities will soon be available from Florida sources.
The general purpose of this study is to determine the physical
and chemical characteristics of the crude oil which is being ob-
tained in the State. Measurement of these properties may
determine possible specialty applications for which this par-
ticular crude is peculiarly suited. Samples of Florida crude have
been made available through the courtesy of the Humble Oil
and Refining Co. and the first studies are being made to de-

termine the usual physical characteristics through laboratory
distillation processes.
Since the crude oil appears to be asphaltic in nature, one of
the promising fields of investigation appears to be the action
of polymerizing agents, to produce new and useful asphalt mate-
rials. Large quantities of asphalt are used on the roads of the
State and the characteristics of the asphaltic materials in Flor-
ida crude oil for road purposes will be determined along with
other possible uses.
Solvent extraction techniques will be conducted on a labora-
tory scale on the asphaltic residue, not only from the crude
supply from the Florida field, but also through the courtesy of
the Texas Company from the mid-continent fields.
As the quantity of crude produced in the State of Florida
increases, it is expected that a background of information will
be available from this Station that will be useful in evaluating
the crude of this area for specialty purposes.

Fig. 34.-Equipment for the vacuum distillation of crude petroleum.


One of the requisites for Florida's industrial expansion is a
method for overcoming difficulties due to the high silica content
of the water supply. The silica deposits in steam turbines due
to vaporization with the water in the boiler. These deposits are
extremely difficult to remove by any means which will not injure
the machine. They cause decreased hourly output of the tur-
bines due to the restricted steam flow areas. Experimental
work is now in progress to alleviate this difficulty. The work
involves solubility studies of various materials which will re-
move the silica from the water and prevent it from causing
trouble in the boiler.

It has been recognized by Dr. C. G. Abbott, of the Smith-
sonian Institute, that Florida is the only state east of the
Mississippi which has sufficient solar energy radiation for pos-
sible commercial application. Two different investigations in
this field are now under way, one of which is sponsored by the
Research Corporation of New York City. The first study is
that of improved performance of the conventional hotbox type
of hot water heater which is used rather extensively in the
southern part of the State. Improvements in absorbers, and in
installation and design, should make this equipment more satis-
A study of possible refrigerating liquids which can use the
solar energy for space refrigeration during the summer is now
under way. Calculations show that sufficient absorption area
is available on the average house roof to make a refrigeration
system practical if the proper refrigerating fluid and design
can be developed. Station Bulletin No. 5 on "Climatic Data for
the Design and Operation of Air Conditioning Systems in Flor-
ida" provides background data for the work on this project.

It is a well known thermodynamic principle that a refrig-
erating unit can be used for heating purposes. This can be
accomplished by interchanging the absorber unit, which is
generally used for cooling the refrigerated space, and the con-
denser. which is generally used for radiating the energy to the

Fig. 35.-Experimental solar water heater.

surroundings. in order that the same machine can be used for
heating purposes. Climatic conditions in Florida appear favor-
able for this kind of combined refrigerating and heating unit.
The purpose of this project is to collect sufficient operating data
so a practical combined heating and refrigerating machine can
be produced for space cooling and space heating small homes
and other buildings in Florida. This work is being financed in
part by the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers.

Early in 1934 the Florida mapping project was initiated with
the help of the Works Projects Administration and in coopera-
tion with the State Road Department. Florida Advisory and
Planning Board. State Forestry Department. Conservation De-
partment, Geological Survey. State Public Health Engineering
Department. State Soil Survey. Department of Internal Improve-
ment Funds and the State Department of Agriculture. The
area of the State which was considered for mapping at that
time was that portion of Florida lying between 270 45' and 31
North Latitude reaching in width from 81: 15' West Longitude
to the western boundaries of the State. Thirty-five counties
were included in the project and in 1937 a bulletin entitled
"Florida Triangulation. Traverse and Leveling. Vol. 1. Lambert

~ :

Projection" was published jointly by the Florida Works Progress
Administration, Florida State Planning Board and the Engi-
neering Experiment Station. Contents of this publication in-
clude stations and descriptions for both horizontal and vertical
Due to lack of funds and the intervention of World War II.
the work was discontinued.
The need for such a mapping project is more acute now than
it was at the time the project was started. The present work
is directed towards correlating the information which has been
collected previously on the Florida Mapping Project and on
other mapping programs with a view towards recommending
a general program for completion of the mapping of the State.
The State Road Department and the Florida State Improve-
ment Commission are cooperating on this project.

A study has been initiated on the background information
of the river and harbor systems of Florida. Questions of prop-
erty rights involved when rivers change courses and shore lines
erode were considered. The work on the St. John's River system
has been completed. Station Bulletin No. 4 on this subject is
available for distribution.

In any comprehensive study of Florida's water resources
it is important to know the amount of runoff from various
streams. Particularly in the southern part of the State there
are canals which at times flow inland from the ocean and at
other times flow to the ocean. There is now no device for ac-
curately measuring on a continuous basis how much runoff
occurs in these low velocity streams. The low velocity stream
flow meter is being developed in connection with the District
Engineer, Geological Survey, United States Department of In-

The purpose of this study is to find methods of construction
that will give greatest protection against high wind velocities

at the lowest possible costs.
being used in this study.

The University wind tunnel is


IN *fii

Fig. :3.-Windl tunnel.

During the past few years there has been a shortage of
vegetable mucilages. It has been suggested that the Hibiscus
Manihot which can be grown in Florida might be a source of
such a mucilage. Results at this Station indicate that the


A /

quality of the mucilage by conventional extraction methods
would not justify the production of Hibiscus Manihot for that


Because there are large quantities of peat in the State in
areas that are not suitable for agricultural development, it was
thought that some industrial use might be found for this peat.
Practical considerations make it appear that at present it is
not a satisfactory source for fuel. Plastic materials can be
made from peat but the present processes are not favorable
for commercial production.

As a safety measure, persons working in places where they
may come into contact with electrical energy are required to
wear insulating gloves and other protective devices. These

Fi'. 37.-Electricians' glove testing equipment.


protective devices must be tested frequently for safe operating
conditions. After a careful survey, it was found that no testing
laboratory in Florida was able to take care of this important
service for the industries of the area. Further, it was deter-
mined that none of the commercial testing laboratories was
willing to put in the necessary equipment because of the high
capital investment and the low probable returns from the
service. Since the Station has the necessary facilities, a non-
profit testing service was established for the benefit of the
industries in the area. This service will be continued until
commercial laboratories make the necessary arrangements for
doing this work.

In addition to the research projects described above, the
staff of the Station endeavors to supply information on technical
matters for the benefit of industry. There is a gap between the
services that the professional engineers supply and the needs
of industries both small and large. Every professional engineer
and every other citizen of the State should know that technical
questions can be referred to a specialist in the Station for a
suggested solution. If the information is available, an answer
will be given; where further data are needed, an experimental
program will be suggested: where the services of a consulting
engineer are indicated, the inquirer will be referred to registered
engineers specializing in that field.
During the past several years. the number and variety of
inquiries have been increasing rapidly. Every effort is made to
give a practicable, usable solution. The fact that the recom-
mendations of the Station have been of practical use to the in-
quirer is shown by the quotation received from IMr. D. J. Ma-
honey of the St. Johns River Shipbuilding Co.: "It would be
difficult to select the most outstanding feature of the service
which you gave us. .. The excellence and adequacy of your
equipment, as well as the very thorough and sound analysis ...
were noteworthy. . the manufacturers of the equipment
made a similar analysis some three weeks later . much too
late for our purposes . and confirmed your findings in every
single detail." The nature of the inquiries can best be illustrated
by a few examples selected at random from the files.
1. A consulting engineer inquired about a method of con-
trolling temperatures in a special refrigerating problem. He

received an outline of a method which would enable him to de-
sign the apparatus for his client.
2. Standard measuring equipment has been made available
to both industry and governmental agencies for calibration of
their own equipment.
3. Substitute materials for a variety of purposes have been
suggested when industrial shortages occurred. In some cases
the replacement material has been found superior to the original.
4. In one case a manufacturer was threatened with serious
trouble due to a condition in his plant that might result in death
or injury to his workmen. A simple rewiring suggestion elim-
inated the difficulty.
5. A painter asked for a solution to a discoloring problem
caused by certain atmospheric contaminants. A material which
was inert to these conditions was suggested and the problem
was solved.

This list could be continued to include hundreds of inquiries.
The Station is glad to offer this, as well as other, types of service.
Routine testing and chemical analysis are properly functions
of the commercial testing laboratories. The Station does not
enter into such types of work. In those cases where the Univer-
sity has specialized equipment not available to the industry
through regular commercial testing laboratories, a limited num-
ber of tests may be made. This service proved of particular
value to industries entering new fields during the War and should
continue to be very useful to industries in the rapidly changing
post-war era.
It is expected that Florida will expand industrially during
the next decade. With the growth of industry the need for
research becomes increasingly greater. The Station looks for-
ward, with confidence, to the opportunity to be of service to
the new and old industries of the State. Whether it is a natural
resource to be developed, a new product to be produced, an old
product to be improved or a technical problem to be solved, the
Station invites industry to make its wants known. There is no
problem in the Engineering field too small or too large that every
effort will not be made to find a solution. It is hoped that more
industries will become acquainted with the services, the facilities
and the personnel of this Station to the mutual betterment of
the industries and the State.


In order that sponsored research may be conducted by the
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, a contract form
has been approved by the Attorney General for this use. The
contract form is printed in full so that anyone interested can
ascertain how the Station may become his personal research

Gainesville, Florida
D ate ..... ........ ........................... Project N um ber ........... ........

Subject ... ..... .... .....

"The functions of the Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station shall be to organize and promote the prosecution of research
projects of engineering and related sciences, with special references to
such of these problems as are important to the development of industries
in Florida."
General Law of Florida Chapter 20982 (774), 1941

Gainesville, Florida
The University of Florida (hereinafter called the "University") proposes
that it will conduct for you a research and experimental program in ac-
cordance with the following:
Work on this project is to be started .....
and is to be terminated .........................----- ...................
unless covered by a renewal or otherwise arranged in writing.
Charges to you will be based on our estimate of the items a, b, c, d,
and e mentioned below. You will be billed in accordance with Paragraphs
4 and 5.
(a) Technical assistance, salaries and labor
(b) Equipment, materials, and supplies
(c) Travel

(d) Service charge including supervision, use of equipment and facilities
(e) If you elect, at the time of acceptance of this proposal, to take the
patent rights defined in Paragraph 7(c), hereof, a patent charge
shall be added to the charges in Paragraph 5.
With reference to special equipment, which it may be necessary for us
to purchase or fabricate for your account in conducting this investigation,
it is understood that except when said equipment forms a part of an ap-
paratus or instrument for the production of which the work in whole or
in part was undertaken, said equipment is to become the property of the
University unless otherwise specified herein or otherwise requested in writ-
ing by you within one month after the completion of work. It is understood
that we shall not purchase any major piece of equipment without your
written approval.
It is agreed that the cost to you, including all charges set forth in sub-
paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of Paragraph 3, but not including the
Patents Charge mentioned in sub-paragraph (e) of Paragraph 3, shall not
exceed ........ ...............- . ..... ...- - -- .................-.... ...-.... ........ D dollars
($ .......................... ) without your written approval first had and obtained.
It is understood, however, that because of the very nature of research, we
can make no guarantee of completion of the work mentioned within the
limits of this stipulated cost limitation.
It is understood that this contract may be renewed in writing for stated
periods by the payment of additional funds covering specified dates. All
other provisions of the contract will remain unchanged for the new time
period. In case the work should not be completed when the contract period
shall have expired, the University shall so notify you and give you an esti-
mate of the amount required for continued work and research, and you shall
have ...................... -....... days within which to renew the contract.
In the event y u should fail to renew the contract within said ......................
days from the date on which notification and estimate of additional costs
are mailed or otherwise delivered to you, your option to renew shall there-
upon expire. If under such circumstances you should fail to renew this
contract, the University reserves the right to continue the work at its own
expense or to contract with others to continue the work. Should subsequent
patentable information on the subject matter of this contract be obtained
within two years from the time when this contract expires by reason of
your failure to renew as herein set out, the University reserves the right
to grant you a free non-exclusive license in accordance with sub-paragraph
7 (a) below, or to refund the money paid on this contract, in full settlement
and satisfaction of all your rights, claims and interests in or under this
contract; and this provision applies irrespective of the Patent Option
selected under sub-paragraphs 7 (a), 7 (b) or 7 (c). Should such subse-
quent patentable information on the subject matter of this contract be
obtained later than two years from the time when this contract expires by
reason of your failure to renew as herein set out, you shall have no right,
claim or interest in such subsequent patentable information or under this
It is understood that you are to pay to the University
(a) First month in advance, thereafter monthly, on receipt of invoices,
all charges for the above experimental and research work as spe-
cified in this proposal or
(b) Quarterly in advance or
(c) The amount specified in Paragraph 5 in advance or
(d ) .................. ...... ....
(Strike out all but one of (a), (b), (c). (d)).

You have the option of selecting one of the three patent procedures out-
lined below. Your choice will be indicated by selections at the time the
contract is signed and is not subject to change thereafter.
(a) If the University obtains letters patent on the subject matter of
this contract, it is understood that payment of costs of this project as
covered in Paragraph 5 entitles you to, and you do hereby acquire, an ir-
revocable, non-exclusive, non-transferable, free license, without guarantee
of protection or indemnity; to make, have made for you, use and sell the
articles, machines, or devices (or the right to practice the process, if a
process invention) under any and all patents that may be granted to the
Board of Commissioners of State Institutions of the State of Florida or to
the University or to any of its employees engaged upon said research work
upon any invention resulting from said research work. It is understood
that neither the University nor the inventor shall be under any obligation
to prosecute any patent application.
(b) Any and all inventions resulting from the work done in connection
with this agreement shall be the joint property of the University and you.
All expenses incident to patent applications shall be borne by you and you
shall receive a free, non-exclusive license. Any monies received from other
licenses shall go first to compensate you for the actual expense of obtaining
the patent, after which fifty per cent of subsequent proceeds shall go to you
and the remaining fifty per cent of such subsequent proceeds shall go to the
University to be expended in accordance with the "Policies and Regulations
of the University of Florida Concerning Patents and Copyrights." You
have the right to abandon by notice in writing your interest in any inven-
tion or discovery resulting hereunder, in which case the University reserves
the right to prosecute letters patent in accordance with paragraph 7 (a)
If you elect, at the time of acceptance of this proposal to pay an
additional patents charge of $ ....................... in addition to the charges
in paragraph 5 above, then in the event that one or more patentable inven-
tions are made by our employees in the performance of this research work
you shall have the option of electing to acquire ownership of a patent on
each such invention at any time within six months after the date the in-
vention is reported to you in writing, under the following conditions:
(1) If you elect to acquire ownership of any of said patents you shall
be under the following obligations:
(a) You shall undertake, at your expense, the preparation and
prosecution of an application of letters patent covering said invention, it
being understood that you will determine whether one or more patent appli-
cations covering such invention shall be filed.
(b) You shall pay an Inventor's Fee of One Hundred Dollars
($100.00) at the time each application is executed by the inventor and if
divisional applications are later filed, you shall pay said Inventor's Fee of
One Hundred Dollars (S100.00) for each divisional application at the time
it is executed, it being understood, however, that the payment of this In-
ventor's Fee for any one patent application in any country shall entitle you
to the right to make application for letters patent upon the claims covered
by said application in all other countries, subject to the provisions relative
to divisional applications herein above specified; said Inventor's Fee is to
be paid to the Business Manager of the University for the account of the
said inventor.
(c) You shall grant to the Board of Commissioners of the State
Institutions of the State of Florida and to the State Board of Control an
irrevocable, non-exclusive, and non-transferable free license to make, have
made and use, for governmental purposes of the State of Florida, articles,
machines or devices or to use processes for such purposes embodying inven-
tions developed during performance of this contract and to sell such arti-.
cles, machines or devices as are declared to be surplus or obsolete property
in accordance with the laws of the State of Florida. but in no case shall this

license extend to sales of articles, machines or devices manufactured by or
for the State of Florida for the purpose of sale.
(2) The six (6) months option period herein above mentioned shall be
deemed to have begun when the University shall have reported the inven-
tion to you in writing, shall have furnished to you information and data
thereon in the hands of the University, and shall have called upon you to
elect whether or not you will exercise your option of taking the entire
rights thereto, it being understood that your election to take such rights
shall be made in writing.
(3) It is further understood that in the event you fail to elect to prose-
cute said patent application within six (6) months from the date the in-
vention is reported to you in writing, the Board of Commissioners of State
Institutions of the State of Florida, the University or the inventor may, at
their, its or his option, prepare and prosecute the patent application or
applications at their, its or his expense, in which event you shall receive
only the non-exclusive free license described above in Paragraph 7 (a).
(4) It is understood that all correspondence relating to elections, execu-
tion of licenses or applications or assignment of inventions shall be ad-
dressed to the Director of the Florida Engineering and Industrial Experi-
ment Station of the University.
We agree to use, in carrying out the research work covered by the agree-
ment, only such of our employees as shall have executed and delivered to
us contracts known as "Patent Agreement." This agreement shall obligate
said employees to make to us prompt and full reports of all inventions made
during the prosecution of the research work hereunder, and to execute
patent applications and assignments thereof or grant licenses in connection
with inventions and patents in accordance with this agreement.
We agree to give you reports of the progress of the above described
research project during the term of this contract, and in the event of the
discovery of an invention believed to be patentable, we agree to report the
same to you and if you have elected to operate under Paragraph 7 (c)
hereof, we will cause a full and complete disclosure of data and information
relating to said invention to be made to you as promptly as reasonably
The University agrees to use its best efforts to prevent the disclosure
of any facts or data furnished by you or your agents. It is to be under-
stood, however, after mutual agreement, that publication of the results of
the research project will be made for the benefit of Science and Engineering.
In preparing publications, due regard will be given to the patent protection
provided in Paragraph 7.
It is agreed by you that you will not under any circumstances state or
imply in any advertisement that the University has tested or approved, any
manufactured product, material or thing, sold or distributed under a specific
brand, name or trade mark.
This proposal will continue effective as a proposal until ........................
........-...............-........... .. it will become a contract when and only when
it has been accepted by you and approved by the duly authorized officers
of the State Board of Control.
All agreements changing the terms of this contract, either in the kind
of work undertaken or in the costs, will be valid only if made in writing
and approved by the duly authorized officers of the University and the State
Board of Control.

Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
B y....................................................
The foregoing proposal and contract including the choice and obligations
involved in sub-paragraph 7 (a), 7 (b), 7 (c) (strike out all but one) is
hereby accepted and signed in triplicate this
day of .......... .................... .. .. .. 19 ......

B y . ...... .... ................. .. ..- ..- .. -.........- ... .. ..
T itle ... .... . ....
Approved by the State Board of Control for the University of Florida
th is ..... ... ............. day of . ..... .. . 19
....... ......... ... ...... ..... ...Ciiai,'



The Station publishes two series of publications. Series
No. 1 is entitled "Bulletins". A Bulletin is a report of the re-
sults obtained on a completed research project, or some phase
of a research project, on a specific Florida problem. Many of
these bulletins are written in a style which makes them readily
understandable and useful to the nontechnical reader.
Series No. 2 is entitled "Technical Papers". The Technical
papers are reprints of articles published by staff members in
recognized technical journals. The subject matter usually in-
cludes information of general technical value to those outside
of Florida as well as to citizens of the State.
As long as the supply is adequate, copies of available pub-
lications are free for general distribution. Address all requests
to the Director of the Florida Engineering and Industrial Ex-
periment Station. University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.

No. 1. "The Mapping Situation in Florida". by William L.
No. 2. "The Electrical Industry in Florida", by John W. Wilson.
No. 3. "The Locating of Tropical Storms by Means of Asso-
ciated Static", by Joseph Weil and Wayne Mason.
No. 4. "Study of Beach Conditions at Daytona Beach, Florida.
and Vicinity". by W. W. Fineren.


No. 5. "Climatic Data for the Design and Operation of Air
Conditioning Systems in Florida". by N. C. Ebaugh
and S. P. Goethe.
No. 6. "On Static Emanating from Six Tropical Storms and Its
Use in Locating the Position of the Disturbance".
by S. P. Sashoff and Joseph Weil.
No. 7. "Lime Rock Concrete Part 1". by Harry H. Houston
and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 8. "An Industrial Survey of Hides and Skins in Florida".
by William D. May.
No. 9. "Studies on Intermittent Sand Filtration of Sewage-
Part 1", by D. L. Emerson, Jr.
No. 10. "Florida Spray Gun for Pine Tree Gum Flow Stimula-
tion", by Norman Bourke and Keith W. Dorman.
No. 11. "Development of Ceramic Compositions Suitable for the
Production of Poreclain Type Art Ware". by B. W.
No. 12. "Mold and Mildew", by S. S. Block.

Technical Papers:

No. 1. "Heats of Solution of the System Sulfur Trioxide and
Water", by Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 2. "The Useful Life of Pyro-Meta and Tetraphosphate".
by Ralph A. Morgen and Robert L. Swoope.
No. 3. "Florida Lime Rock as an Admixture in Mortar and Con-
crete", by Harry H. Houston and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 4. "Country Hides and Skins", by William D. May.
No. 5. "An Empirical Correction for Compressibility Factor
and Activity Coefficient Curves", by Ralph A. Morgen
and J. Howard Childs.
No. 6. "Crate Closing Device", by William T. Tiffin.
No. 7. "The System Sodium Acetate Sodium Hydroxide -
Water", by Ralph A. Morgen and R. D. Walker, Jr.
No. 8. "Patent Policies for Sponsored Research", by Ralph A.

No. 9. "Conservation of Municipal Water Supplies in Air Con-
ditioning Systems", by Newton C. Ebaugh.
No. 10. "Florida Scrub Oak-New Source of Vegetable Tannin",
by Howard N. Calderwood and William D. May.
No. 11. "Protein Feed from Sulfite Waste Liquor", by Robert D.
Walker, Jr., and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 12. "Thermal Properties of Limerock Concrete", by Mack
No. 13. "Insect Wire Screening", by S. S. Block.

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