• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 History
 Classification and nomenclature...
 Factors in Florida cattle hide...
 Grades of hides
 Cattle slaughter in Florida
 Marketing of hides
 Take-off, cure, and handling
 Defects in Florida hides
 Leather outlets for Florida hides...
 Plant location factors
 Conclusion
 Appendix
 Acknowledgement
 Reference
 Addenda














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: An industrial survey of hides and skins in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003190/00001
 Material Information
Title: An industrial survey of hides and skins in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 67 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: May, William D
University of Florida -- Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
Publisher: College of Engineering, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1945
 Subjects
Subject: Hides and skins industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tanneries -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Leather industry and trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 66).
Statement of Responsibility: by William D. May.
General Note: At head of title: Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station of the University of Florida.
General Note: "June, 1945."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003190
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4335
ltuf - AJL4528
oclc - 27183054
alephbibnum - 001790864

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Advertising
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Foreword
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    History
        Page 6
    Classification and nomenclature of cattle hides and skins
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Factors in Florida cattle hide development
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Grades of hides
        Page 17
    Cattle slaughter in Florida
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Marketing of hides
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Take-off, cure, and handling
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Defects in Florida hides
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Leather outlets for Florida hides and skins
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Plant location factors
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Conclusion
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Acknowledgement
        Page 65
    Reference
        Page 66
    Addenda
        Page 67
Full Text



Florida Engineering and Indc
of the
University of


Bulletin No. 8


SJune 1945

June, 1945


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA






The Florida Engineering and Industrial
Experiment Station
The Engineering Experiment Station was first approved by
the Board of Control at its meeting on May 13, 1929. Funds
for the Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
were appropriated by the Legislature of the State of Florida in
1941. The Station is a Division of the College of Engineering
of the University of Florida under the supervision of the State
Board of Control of Florida. The functions of the Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station are:
a) To develop the industries of Florida by organizing and
promoting research in those fields of engineering, and the re-
lated sciences, bearing on the industrial welfare of the State.
b) To survey and evaluate the natural resources of the
State that may be susceptible to sound development.
c) To contract with governmental bodies, technical societies,
associations, or industrial organizations in aiding them to solve
their technical problems. Provision is made for these organ-
izations to avail themselves of the facilities of the Engineering
and Industrial Experiment Station on a co-operative financial
basis. It is the basic philosophy of the Station that the indus-
trial progress of Florida can best be furthered by carrying on
research in those fields in which Florida, by virtue of its location,
climate, and raw materials, has natural advantages.
d) To publish and disseminate information on the results
of experimental and research projects. Two series of pamphlets
are issued: Bulletins covering the results of research and in-
vestigations by staff members; and Technical Papers, reprinting
papers or reports by staff members which have been published
elsewhere.
For copies of Bulletins, Technical Papers or information on
how the Station can be of service, address:
The Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
College of Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
JOSEPHWEIL, Director.









PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA
ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
As long as the supply is adequate, copies of available publi-
cations are free for general distribution. Address all requests
to: The Director, Florida Engineering and Industrial Experi-
ment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
BULLETIN SERIES
No. 1 "The Mapping Situation in Florida", by William L. Sawyer.
No. 2 "The Electrical Industry in Florida", by John W. Wilson.
No. 3 "The Locating of Tropical Storms by Means of Associated
Static", by Joseph Well and Wayne Mason.
No. 4 "Study of Beach Conditions at Daytona Beach, Florida,
and Vicinity", by W. W. Fineren.
No. 5 "Climatic Data for the Design and Operation of Air Con-
ditioning Systems in Florida", by N. C. Ebaugh and
S. P. Goethe.
No. 6 "On Static Emanating from Six Tropical Storms and Its
Use in Locating the Position of the Disturbance", by
S. P. Sashoff and Joseph Weil.
No.7* "Lime Rock Concrete- Part 1", by Harry H. Houston
and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 8 "An Industrial Survey of Hides and Skins in Florida", by
William D. May.
TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES
No. 1* Heats of Solution of the System Sulfur Trioxide and
Water, by Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 2* The Useful Life of Pyro-Meta and Tetraphosphate, by
Ralph A. Morgen and Robert L. Swoope.
No. 3* Florida Lime Rock as an Admixture in Mortar and Con-
crete, by Harry H. Houston and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 4 Country Hides and Skins, by William D. May.
No. 5 An Empirical Correction for Compressibility Factor and
Activity Coefficient Curves, by Ralph A. Morgen and
J. Howard Childs.
*Not printed with State fund&.










Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
of the
University of Florida


Bulletin No. 8


June, 1945


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA











FOREWORD
Various private and state agencies have become interested
in the possibility of tanning Florida hides within the state.
They believe that this industry has a potential growth of con-
siderable magnitude in the near future. However, technical data
were lacking on which to base sound conclusions. The work
undertaken and published in this bulletin is an attempt to supply
that gap.
The data presented here indicate that one or more tanneries
could be established in the state. The data show not only the
availability of hides, but also the type and quality of leather
goods that can be produced from them. The next step is that
of bringing together those who would be interested financially
in a proposed tannery and those who are technically qualified
to operate a tannery. This is the function of agencies, private
and state, other than the Engineering and Industrial Experi-
ment Station. The manufacture of leather is a highly technical
process and requires the services of properly trained personnel.
A combination of adequate finances, enlightened management
and skilled personnel should result in a successful new enter-
prise for the state.
One of the important suggestions made in the bulletin is
that a distinctive type of "Made in Florida" leather could be
produced. It is hoped that development work in this field can
proceed at the Station so that it may be of further service to
any tannery that might be established in the state.
The Station is desirous to be of service to all who are inter-
ested in establishing new industries in Florida.
JOSEPH WEIL, Director


[2]






TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Forew ord ................... ..................... ............................... 3
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 5
History .............................................................................................................. 6
Classification and Nomenclature of Cattle Hides and Skins .................. 7
Factors in Florida Cattle Hide Development ........................................ ........ 9
Texas Fever Ticks ................................................................. 9
N nutrition ..................................................................... ......... ............................ 13
B reed ............................................. ............................................................ 14
Grades of H ides ............................................... ......................... ......... 17
Cattle Slaughter in Florida .......-.......................... ........................ ..... 18
War Food Administration Slaughter Figures for 1944 .................... 19
Hides from Florida Slaughter (based on U.S.D.A. 1944 figures)........ 22
Analysis of Florida Hides ................................................................... 23
Hide Movements in Florida ......................... ..... ................................ 24
Marketing of Hides ......... ..................................................................... 25
Take-Off, Cure, and Handling .............................. ............................... ....... 28
Defects in Florida Hides .......................... ......................................................... 32
Improper Branding .................................................................................. 32
Insect D am age ............................................................................................. 34
Screw-worms ....... ................................ ......................................... 34
W arbles .................................................................................................. 34
O their Insects ....... ............................................. ....... ................................ 35
Other Surface Defects .............................................. .................................. 36
Leather Outlets for Florida Hides and Skins ........ ...................................... 37
Plant Location Factors ................................................................................ 40
Economic Outlook for Shoe and Leather Industry ............................ 40
Availability of Hides and Skins .................................................... 42
Tanning M materials ............................. ...................................................... 43
Vegetable Tanning ............................ ............................................. 43
Mineral Tanning .......... ................ ............................................... 45
Syntans ................. ......... .......................... ........................................ 46
Labor ...............-.........- .............. ... ............. .... .... ..................... 48
U utilities ....................... ........ ................. ............................................. 49
Transportation ..................... ................................................................ 49
Water Supply ...................... ..... ...................................... 52
Fuel and Power ...................................................................................... 52
Buildings, Building Materials, and Equipment ..................................... ... 53
Factors in Modern Plant Designing ......................................... ........... 53
By-Products of the Tannery ................................................................... 54
Disposal of Tannery Wastes ................................................................ 54
Classification and Nature of Tannery Wastes .............................. 54
Purification of Tannery Wastes .............................................. .......... .. 55
C capital ........ ................ .. ................................. .................. ............... 56
Taxes .................................................................. .................................... 57
Supply and Demand ...................................... ........... .....5.... ............ 57
Conclusion ............................................................ .............................................. 57
Summary .................................. ........................................................... 59
Appendix A. Leather Outlets for Hides and Skins ................................ 60
Appendix B. Analysis of Workers According to Sex, Skill, and
Occupation .................................................................. 62
Acknowledgments ................. .................................................. ........65
References ............................ .. ...... ........................................ 66
Addenda ...................... . ........................... 67

[3]







INTRODUCTION


These data have been concentrated upon the hides and skins
from cattle and calves slaughtered in the state since there are
a comparatively small number of sheep skins, goat skins, and
horse hides available in Florida. Alligator skins are of economic
importance; however, it would be difficult to definitely ascertain
the number of skins sold annually in Florida. The number of
these animals is decreasing due to excessive hunting. Raccoon
skins are shipped by the thousands each year from Florida by
the various hide dealers. Some otter skins are also sold. In
general the climate in this state is not cold enough to produce
a desirable pelt on fur-bearing animals.
There has been some interest concerning the potentiality of
a sharkskin tannery in Florida. The leading producer of shark
leather was contacted and stated that of the 100,000 skins they
tanned last year only 1,800 came from Florida. This indicates
that Florida supplies only a small portion of the demand. The
reason given by the company was based on high freight rates
from Florida. A tannery located in Florida could not overlook
the potentialities of shark leather business.
The by-product from farm slaughter or packer slaughter
which brings the largest return is the animal's hide or skin.
On a percentage basis of the green product it amounts to better
than 7% for grown cattle, while on a percentage of cured hide
to live animal, about 6%. Calfskins average approximately
10% of the live weight of the animal, while on a percentage
of cured hide to live animal, about 8%. The return on the hide
to the farmer means more cash income to the farm, while in
the case of the packer, it can mean the difference between profit
and loss.
In the course of this survey the question was asked many
times if synthetics would replace leather after the war. Pos-
sibly there will be many plastic shoes and articles of wearing
apparel produced; however, the above paragraph concerning
the difference between profit and loss upon the part of the large
packer will decide the answer to a large extent. Unless some
new use is found for hides they will continue to be used for
leather, gelatin and glue. Leather has certain qualities which

[5]





cause it to be in demand. Besides the appearance of fine work-
manship, which helps to sell leather at a substantial price, it
has the ability to "breathe", that is, to provide proper ventila-
tion and yet keep the foot reasonably dry.
At the present time there are two light leather tanneries in
the state. One, which is now closed, is at the state penitentiary
and the other at Tarpon Springs. Both of these plants are
extremely small and have operated more or less as custom tan-
neries. In addition there are several other small establishments
tanning skins and pelts for taxidermy purposes.
HISTORY
The use of animal hides and skins has been known to earliest
man. In Genesis III, 21, we read, "Unto Adam also and to his
wife did the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them."
It is of interest to note that the first method for preserving
a hide or skin in a more or less pliable and imputrescrible con-
dition probably consisted of treating the pelt with the grease
and brains of the animal itself. This was accomplished by a
slow and tedious process of pounding and stretching. This
primitive method is still employed by aboriginals in various
parts of the world. It is believed that the smoke treatment
followed this method and later a process using salts containing
alum was developed. No doubt, the dying of these partially
tanned leathers led to the discovery that certain roots, leaves
and barks contain a substance which could greatly improve the
tannage and yield a more desirable leather.
The first authenticated record of domesticated stock from
abroad, entering what later became the United States, shows
that in 1520 Ponce de Leon brought cattle, horses, and swine to
the mainland of Florida. On May 25, 1539, Hernando DeSota
introduced the second "consignment" of foundation stock. Fol-
lowing DeSota, the various explorers and colonists brought
livestock to Florida. Many of these animals escaped and began
to increase as wild herds of cattle, horses, and swine. Previous
to the introduction of cattle to Florida, the Spanish had developed
a thriving cattle industry in the West Indies (1).* Newton states,
"Thirty years after Columbus great herds of cattle were to be
found on Espafiola. Some individuals owned 3,000 or 4,000
head. The cattle were only valued for their hides and fat and
*Figures in parentheses refer to References, page 66.






the number of ships laden with cargoes of hides that left
Espafiola for Seville grew each year. In the first half of the
sixteenth century Spain became celebrated for her manufactures
of leather and for the new purpose to which it was applied" (10).
Later as the cattle were introduced on the mainland, Florida
became an important contributor of hides sent to Spain and
later to England. The early Spaniards allowed the cattle to
become wild, and not until the British occupancy of Florida
around 1770 were measures taken to improve the cattle. About
1840 the Florida cattle industry inaugurated an impressive era
of expansion. On the ranches and plantations home-tanning
of cowhides occurred. Many cattle were shipped by boat to
Cuba, while ports such as Cedar Key and Punta Rassa became
boom towns. The cattle industry continued to expand and
during the Civil War contributed materially to the feeding of
the Confederate troops. During the Reconstruction days selling
of cattle was at a standstill. However, by 1880 business again
picked up, and heavy shipments of cattle went to Cuba where
the cattlemen found a ready market until the end of the Spanish-
American War.
In general, little improvement could be noticed in the cattle
over the years with the exception that they were becoming in-
creasingly adapted to their environment. During the 19th cen-
tury attempts were made to introduce purebred bulls in the
state, but with little success. In the first decade of the present
century, Texas fever ticks were the number one problem of the
cattlemen. The cattle were becoming small, gaunt and weak
with many dying on the ranges. A few purebred bulls were able
to leave a mark of improvement on the grade calves. It was
during this time that the once sought for Florida hide became
a non-marketable commodity. To a tanner a Florida hide meant
a ticky hide. The condition was so bad that the stigma still
goes with the words Florida hide even after complete eradication
of the tick.

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF CATTLE
HIDES AND SKINS (19)

"A skin is simply a small hide. In the case of cattle, a hide
weighing less than 15 lbs. in the green, salted state is called a
calf skin. When it weighs from 15 to 25 lbs., it is called a kip.






When it weighs from 26 to 80 bs, it is called an overweight kip.
When it weighs more than 80 Ibs., it is called a hide. A cow
hide weighing less than 68 Ibs. is called a light cow and one
weighing more than 58 Ibs., a heavy cow.
"Hides from male animals are classified as bull, steer and
stag according to characteristics of the hides caused by castra-
tion. Bul hides are from animals that have not been castrated,
and are characterized by very thick and rough head, neck and
shoulders and loose flanks. As a rule, bull hides are not only
poor in quality, but heavy in weight, ranging from about 60
Ibs. each to more than 100 Ibs. Fortunately, they constitute
only about 4 per cent of total production.
"Steer hides are from animals castrated as calves, often at
the age of about three months. The effect of castration is a
much more satisfactory development of the hide as well as of
the meat. The hide becomes much smoother and more uniform
in thickness and structure, as well as much denser and tighter
than that of a bull. Steer hides are used to make the best grades
of sole leather and are to be preferred to cow hides, which have
a looser structure. In very young calves, the skin of the female
produces a finer piece of calf leather than that of the male; and
this difference apparently persists throughout the lives of the
animals, except for the marked effects of castration, which cause
the hide of the steer to become far superior to that of the cow.
A cow hide is superior to a bull hide, although lighter in weight.
"Stag hides are from male animals not castrated at so early
an age as the steers, often not until they are over a year old.
During the period preceding castration, they develop hides like
bulls, and the longer castration is delayed the more like bulls
they become. In the hide market, stag hides have no official
designation of their own and are accepted as steers or bulls,
whichever they more nearly resemble. This is often annoying
because they mask that sharp line of differentiation between
steers and bulls.
"A steer hide weighing less than 48 lbs. is called an ex-light
steer. When it weighs from 48 to 58 lbs, it is called a light
steer and one weighing more than 58 lbs. is called a heavy steer.
"A native cow hide is one from an animal that has not been
branded, the term native merely indicating that the hide is free
from brand marks. A Colorado steer hide may never have been






near the state of Colorado; the term merely means that the
hide has been branded on the side or butt area, or both.
"For light suede leathers, fine pocketbook leathers, drum-
heads, parchment, etc., the skins of unborn or prematurely born
calves are often found most desirable. These skins are referred
to as slunks.
"In the largest packing plants, many butchers assist in flay-
ing, or removing the hide from a single animal. Each of these
butchers becomes highly skilled in one portion of the work of
flaying. This high degree of specialization results in less damage
due to improper flaying, and the subsequent curing is also car-
ried out more efficiently in the largest plants, resulting in a
superior hide for manufacture into leather. Such hides are
referred to as big-packer hides. In the smaller packing plants,
where there is less specialization, the hides are usually of a
lower standard, and are known as small-packer hides. Hides
taken off by city butchers are known as New York City butchers,
Milwaukee butchers, etc., and tanners usually learn by experi-
ence which are most suitable for their purpose and economical
to buy. Most hides taken off by country butchers and inexperi-
enced farmers are badly damaged in flaying and are not well
cured, although they may have come from animals of the same
class as those of the big-packer hides. Such hides are referred
to as country hides."

FACTORS IN FLORIDA CATTLE HIDE DEVELOPMENT

Factors in cattle development mean factors which have
changed the character of the hides themselves.
"There could be no material increase in the quality of Florida
cattle until the Texas fever tick in any area was eliminated.
The State Livestock and Sanitary Board and Federal agencies
have done an excellent job of this work. (The South particularly
at one time was infested with these ticks.) Up to 1914 there
was no organized system in Florida for the purpose of eliminat-
ing them, but from 1914 through 1922 local option was prac-
ticed. However, beginning with the year 1928 systematic tick
eradication was started, areas were set up with each having
a number (5). Figure 1 shows typical tick infested cattle. This
picture was taken in 1927.
"Area one was first dipped to eradicate the ticks in it. Area







two was also dipped for a period of about six months prior to
the completion of area No. 1. The principle provided for the
dipping of two areas adjacent to each other for a period of six
months or longer. Such system made it possible to clean out
most of the ticks in area No. 2 before area No. 1 was declared
free. By using this system for each of the succeeding areas,
tick eradication in the state as a whole has been finished. The
whole state of Florida would have been free of Texas fever ticks
as far back as 1936 except for the fact that it was determined
in 1934 that deer in certain highly populated deer swamp areas
were infected with these ticks; therefore, the period from 1934
to August, 1943, covered the deer elimination phase of the tick
eradication program in Florida.


Iourtesy OI W. j. 1neely
Fig. 1.-Herd of Ticky Cattle (1927).


"The table below shows the progressive steps in tick eradica-
tion in Florida, as furnished by State Veterinarian, Dr. J. V.
Knapp. The Federal authorities finally declared the state free
on September 14, 1944."
Dr. W. M. MacKellar states that "The fight to eliminate the
cattle fever tick from the United States is probably the most
[10]







TABI.E I.-I'rorressive Tick Eradication in Florida (4)


Number of Counties
Year Infested Clean
Local Option 1914-1922 67 0
(1923 63 4
(1924 63 4
(11125 57 10
(1926 55 12
(1927 .19 18
(1928 41 26
(1929 37 30
(1930 31 36
(1931 25 42
(1932 18 49
(1933 8 511
(1931 6 61
(1935 0 67

extensive and sustained campaign ever made on any of man's
parasitic enemies" (7).
Tick infestation not only lessened the value of the live ani-
mals but caused their hides to be graded as of No. 4 quality.
There were two factors which led to such a low grade: First,
the condition of the animal, and second, the scars left on the
hide by the ticks. "Cattle tick fever is a specific infectious
disease of the blood of cattle caused by the development and
activity of minute animal parasites, which are conveyed to the
animals by the cattle fever tick. The disease is characterized
by high fever, destruction of red corpuscles, enlarged spleen,
engorged liver, thick flaky bile, more or less jaundice, emaciation
and death in 10 per cent of the chronic and 90 per cent of the
acute cases" (7). As a result of this condition the animals'
hides were thin and of poor substance. The scars left by tick
bites were of a permanent nature on the hide, and hides from
old cattle which were living during the tick infestation period
will still show tick scars at tannery white weight inspection.
Much time has been spent in discussing the fever tick prob-
lem because of its importance to the sale of Florida hides. In
making this survey it was brought to the attention of the writer
several times by various tanners that Florida hides are still
ticky. This can be explained by an incident which occurred at
the beginning of the survey. One of the packing plants bought
a small herd of canner cattle for slaughter. In the course of
the conversation the owner of the cattle pointed out to the
packer specific cows which he had owned on his ranch for many
[11]






years. The hides from these cattle were so light as to go into
the kip range. At white weight inspection these kipskins showed
numerous tick scars. Kipskins normally are from young animals
and so the tanner continues to keep in his mind the fact that
Florida hides are ticky.


i ourtay ui i ne r lona t atnlemann
Fig. 2.-Purebred Bull and Common Florida Cow.


1. I


ICourtesy of W. .1. Sheely)
Fig. 2A.-Grade Cattle Resulting from Purebred Bulls and Common
Florida Cows.
Following tick eradication, purebred, good type beef bulls
were used on common Florida cows (Figure 2), for the improve-
ment in the size, uniformity, and quality of beef animals (Figure
2A). The continued use of purebred bulls on native cows and
[12]








selecting the heifers from these matings has developed high-grade
cattle (Figure 2A) that are producing good quality beef and
a higher grade of hides. Results of the above breeding oper-
ations can be seen in the Experiment Station herd at Gainesville
and on a number of farms over the state.
However, many problems needed to be solved before Florida
could be classed as a beef producing state. The Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station has found the answers to many of
them through long and extensive research. With the introduc-
tion of better cattle, attention was given to the production of
feed and improvement of pastures. New grasses were intro-
duced into the state which have proven well adapted to Florida
conditions. Figure 3 shows a herd of well fed steers grazing
on an improved pasture.


Fig. 3.-Steers Grazing on Improved Pasture.


For many years a condition occurring in cattle in Florida,
known as salt sick, has caused considerable loss to the cattle of
certain areas of the state. Affected animals gradually lose their
appetites and become emaciated and weak. Recent studies
indicate that salt-sick animals are frequently suffering from a
[ 13]







deficiency of one or more minerals and possibly other factors
also. Copper deficiency and cobalt deficiency may occur separ-
ately or overlap in some areas (8).
Neal and Becker of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion have done a great deal of work on this phase of cattle nutri-
tion. Today with the feeding of mineral supplements to cattle
throughout the state salt-sick is one more of the factors retard-
ing the growth of the cattle industry that is being eliminated.
Now, with the tick eradicated and with the above improve-
ments in feed, pastures, and the use of mineral and vitamin
supplements, the cattle have consistently improved in quality.
At the same time that these research workers were improving
the quality of beef and veal produced in Florida, they were
improving the substance and quality of the hides and skins.
Nutritional defects in animals show up in their hides and skins.
Wilson states that "In biology, a tissue is defined as one of the
elementary fabrics of which an organ is composed, formed by
cells and/or many tissues. An organ is a part of the body
that performs some definite function, and a hide is a vital organ
of the body" (19).
It is a long recognized fact by tanners that there are seasonal
differences in hides. An animal slaughtered in July, August,
and September will usually have a hide which will give the
tanner the best results. During those months the cattle are on
good feed and the hide contains more substance and less hair
weight than a winter hide. Summer hides produce leather with
a smoother grain. In the winter the blood vessels in the
sebaceous-gland layer of the animal's skin are highly developed,
tending to exaggerate the graining appearance of the grain
surface of the finished leathers and at the same time requiring
a greater proportion of the available food supply of the skin.
Florida has a warm climate during most of the year which
would tend to produce a hide that will give a leather of smoother
grain throughout the year than one from the North. Florida
hides in general are thin, spread, and of poor substance. Per-
haps the first factor causing this condition today is the breed
of cattle. The native scrub cattle of Florida, which is the basic
stock for our improved herds, had a thin, spread hide as a
result of degeneration caused by inbreeding, nutritional de-
ficiencies and the fever tick. In 1916 the first carload of Brah-
man bulls was brought into the Kissimmee River Valley for the
[ 14]







purpose of improving the native cattle. Brahman cattle are
tropical animals and produce a spread hide; thus, although
there was a definite change in the beef and veal produced, the
hides remained thin and spread. The peninsular portion of
the state has considerable lands of such a nature that Brahman
blood has wide adaptability. A typical herd of purebred Brah-
man cattle is shown in Figure 4.














*Courltsy of Florida Blrahman Bre *ld.rs' Aswiattionl
Fig. 4.-Typical Purebred Brahman Cattle.

Hides produced from these Brahman crosses if properly
cared for, have a definite place in the production of fine leathers.
They tend to give more area per weight of hide and have a
smooth grain thus adapting them for the production of uphol-
stery leather, luggage, apparel leather and specialty leathers.
With the introduction of the British beef breeds on the
Florida ranges a hide is being produced with greater substance
which will find use in heavy leather manufacture and for belting
and harness. However, it will be a number of years before
these breeds would so dominate the ranges as to consistently
produce 60 pound steer hides. British breed beef cattle shown
in Figure 5 are grazing on improved pasture in South Florida.
These cattle are also given supplemental feed and minerals.
It has been said that on coastal country the Brahman is
necessary while the British breeds are indispensable, thus with
such a combination of breeds, the peninsular section of the state
can be expected to produce in the future a spread hide of quality
which will be in demand by manufacturers of fine leather goods.
[15]






The cattle of the rolling red clay hill country of North Florida
are being crossed with the British breeds and there are also


I-ounrte 01 Ile rloarla st T MarertmletR i n uau
Fig. 5.-British Beef Cattle Grazing in South Florida.

a number of purebred British cattle being raised in that section.
Most of these cattle are farm cattle (see Figue 6), and in the
future hides coming from them should consistently improve in
weight and substance.


Fig. 6.-Typical Farm Cattle Scene in North Florida.


Today there are approximately 175 purebred herds of beef
cattle in Florida consisting of Brahman, Polled Hereford, Angus,
Shorthorn, Hereford, Devon, and Red Polled.
[16]








The second factor causing thin spread hides in Florida has
already been mentioned-that is, nutrition. Regardless of breed,
if a cow has to graze on dried up wiregrass and Spanish moss
and be without an adequate supply of water, she will not be
able to produce a good hide. Cattle raised on grass alone pro-
duce hides which will be different from those of cattle in a feed
lot.
GRADES OF HIDES
Hides are classified today in three grades; No. 1, No. 2, and
No. 3 (damaged). The No. 1 and No. 2 are also differentiated
as branded or not branded. At one time ticky Florida hides
were placed in a No. 4 selection category and were mainly of
glue stock value.
For a hide to be qualified as a No. 1 unbranded selection for
admittance to tenderability on hide future contracts through
the Commodity Exchange, Inc., New York, it must have the
following specifications:
Sound and fully cured
Standard pattern
Free from cuts, or holes through the hide
Free from slips
Free from warts
Free from sores, scabs, or rubs. damaging the grain
Free from a deep score in the body of the hide
Having fewer than five grub holes, either open or
which can be skewered.
It can readily be seen that the best of care must be taken
to produce such a hide. No. 1 branded selections allow a wart
no larger in size than an ordinary brand.
The Commodity Exchange No. 2 selection hides comprise
those hides which will not grade No. 1 selection but which will
qualify within the limits of a No. 2 selection, as generally ac-
cepted in the grade. They are free from warts except that a
branded steer can have one wart the size of an ordinary brand
and an unbranded steer is allowed two warts not exceeding the
size of an ordinary brand. The same stipulation is placed on
branded and unbranded cows.
Hides which are inferior to No. 2 selection are not tenderable
for certification and must be removed before a lot is offered for
certification.
(17]







It is in this latter group that the No. 3 selection is placed. A
No. 3 hide is one which contains more than 4 cuts in the body of
the hide-that is, the cuts are found more than six inches from
the edge of the hide and in the case of a calf skin, four inches
from the edge. They may show hairslip or be otherwise dam-
aged by scores, scratches, sores, or excessive grub holes. In
checking with several of the Florida hide dealers it was found
that today they place approximately 5% of their hides in the
No. 3 selection. This condition varies over the state and is
dependent upon the source of supply-that is, whether they are
country butcher or packer hides. Country butcher hides will
tend to run close to 20% No. 3's.
While prices of hides vary, at the present time Florida hide
dealers ship No. 1 and No. 2 packer selections together at an
adjusted Office of Price Administration ceiling of 15f per pound
to the tanner, while the country selection sells for a cent less
per pound. Bulls in the 30-58 lb. range are included at that
price; however, those weighing over 58 lbs. are separated and
sell for 5S less per pound. Florida hides average about 3%
bulls which is similar to national averages for bull slaughter.
With present labor conditions and the resultant poor hide
removal practices, one of the larger hide dealers estimates that
only 10-15% of the hides will qualify strict No. 1 selection as
outlined by the Commodity Exchange. However, the hides are
mixed as No. 1 and No. 2 and sold on the basis of 50-50. The
writer had one complaint on this method from a tanner who
stated that a shipment of No. 1 and No. 2 selection packer hides
he had received from Florida when checked at the tannery
showed that 50% contained holes and 85% of the shipment
was scored. At the same time a great deal of fat and meat were
left on the hides. This is an isolated case but one which is
significant to mention at this point. It illustrates the need for
training good butchers at the packing plants in order to reduce
hide damage. At the same time, training of good butchers will
overcome the general opinion that Florida packer hides are be-
coming increasingly poor from the standpoint of take-off.

CATTLE SLAUGHTER IN FLORIDA
In order to determine slaughter figures and then have an
analysis of the numbers and weights of hides available a system-
atic survey of the state was made. The Livestock and Meats
L 18









TABLE Il.-Federal Slaughter In Florida for 1944 by Classes and Months.

CA LIVES CATTLE

No. 4 4 47 378 4 4 47 378
Reporting Fed. Local Butch- Fed. Local Butch-
Insp. Slaugh- ers Insp. Slaugh- ers
terers erer
Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class
1944 1A 2 A 2 B 2 B Total I A 2 A 2 B 2 B Total
(THOUSANDS)

SJan. ........ 1.7 0.6 0.6 2.0 3.6 3.2 4.3 2.7 13.8
S Feb. ........ 1.1 0.1 0.4 0.5 2.1 2.5 3.6 3.1 2.6 11.8
Mar. ........ 1.6 0.6 0.6 2.8 2.2 2.9 4.2 2.8 12.1
April ...... 1.3 0.1 0.7 0.6 2.7 2.3 3.0 8.5 2.4 11.2
May ....... 3.0 0.2 1.1 0.5 4.8 2.8 4.7 4.8 2.2 14.5
June ....... 3.9 0.9 1.6 0.7 7.1 3.1 4.0 4.3 2.4 13.8
July ........ 5.5 1.7 1.8 1.0 10.0 2.8 3.8 4.5 2.7 13.8
Aug........ 5.6 1.8 2.0 1.0 10.4 3.6 4.6 5.2 2.6 16.0
Sept ...... 5.6 1.7 1.9 1.2 10.4 3.8 4.0 5.4 2.7 15.9
Oct ........ 5.8 0.6 2.1 1.2 9.7 4.3 4.6 5.6 2.9 17.4
Nov. ........ 5.7 0.3 2.1 1.2 9.3 4. 4.7 6.9 8.1 19.0
Dec. ........ 4.4 0.1 1.6 1.2 .5 3.7 3.4 55 2.7 12.6

45.2 7.5 16.5 10.3 79.5 39.0 46.5 67.3 31.8 174.6







branch of the War Food Administration was contacted for
Federal Slaughter figures for 1944 and data in Table I (page
19) were supplied.
A close examination of these figures will reveal the calf
slaughter for that year's period as 79,500 head and cattle other
than calves 174,600, or a total of 254,100.

Definitions of Clases of Florida Slaughterers
Class 1 A-Federal inspected plants.
Class 2 A-Non-Federal inspected wholesale slaughterers with
quota base over 2,000,000 pounds annually.
Class 2 B-Local slaughterers. Non-Federal inspected whole-
sale slaughterers with quota base over 300,000 pounds and
under 2,000,000 pounds.
Class 2 B-Butchers. Non-Federal inspected slaughterers with
quota base less than 800,000 pounds annually. Those with
an animal slaughter of less than 50 head of cattle and 300
head of all species are not required to report to War Food
Administration.
(Of 738 butchers in Class 2 B listed with War Food Ad-
ministration only 378 reported.)
Inspection trips were made to twelve of the larger packing
plants. Difficulty due to wartime travel restrictions prevented
the writer's visiting more plants. Excellent cooperation was
had from the packers in showing their plants and in discussing
their slaughter and hide problems. In all cases figures supplied
by the packers checked with Federal and State figures supplied
to the writer.
The War Food Administration figures are based on cattle
and calves with no further breakdown. This breakdown was
supplied by the packers themselves. At the start of the survey
in November, 1944, there existed one type of slaughter and
as the survey progressed so did the type of slaughter change.
These changes were due to fluctuations in Office of Price Ad-
ministration regulations and although they represent what was
occurring during the past six months, these changes are not
normal and cannot be considered as factors in Florida's hide
situation under post war conditions.
With the exception of two packing plants, most of the pack-
ing house slaughter is normally beef cattle. The average live
[20]








weight of these cattle for the year 1944 as given by the United
States Department of Agriculture was 656 pounds; thus it can
readily be seen that the average hide would weigh approximately
40 pounds. Of the number of plants reporting and including
the 2 B local slaughterers there were some 140,000 hides avail-
able at 40 pound average. It is difficult on the basis of the num-
ber of 2 B butchers reporting to determine the total number of
cattle hides. These hides will not be up to the standard of
those from the packing plants. Of the 174,600 cattle slaughter
reported by the War Food Administration it can be assumed that
about 3% of that number were bulls and stags. Although 656
pounds represents the average weight cattle killed, there nor-
mally are a number of heavier weight animals killed at the pack-
ing plants. In 1944 there were at least 35,000 steer hides which
would average 60 pounds. This came as a result of government
buying of beef, and federal records show 23,000 inshipments of
cattle to the larger packing plants. This 23,000 addition in-
creased the total weight of the cattle slaughtered and thereby
brought up the weight average of both the animal and hide.
Normally these heavy steers would not be brought into the
state and the hides would average less. It has been expressed
by most of the people contacted that the native cattle are rapidly
increasing in weight and the hides of these Florida cattle will
average heavier in the next few years. In other words, it can
be expected that the average Florida produced cattle hide will
average slightly better than 40 pounds when obtained from the
packing houses and there should be some 25,000 to 50,000 hides
53 pounds and upwards available annually.
The 1944 War Food Administration figures show 69,200
calf slaughter at the packing plants and 2 B local slaught-
erers, while only 10,300 at the 2 B butchers. This represents
about 30% of the total slaughter figures. The average weight
on these calves is placed at 197 pounds. This would indicate
that the hides would be either in the heavy calf or light kipskin
range. Actual average weight on calfskins sold by the packers
indicates that they weigh 11 pounds or slightly over-thus the
average weight calf is some 140 pounds and the remainder of
the skins are placed in the 15-25 pound kipskin range. Just as
these calves are placed in the kipskin range so do the light weight
cattle hides drop into the 25-30 pound kipskin range. From the
above data it appears that 50,000 calfskins at 11 pound average
[21]







are available at the packing plants and 2 B local slaughterers
and butchers.
The following is an approximate analysis of the War Food
Administration figures of 254,100 cattle and calves slaughtered
in Florida in 1944:
TABLE III-Hides from Flrida Slaghter (Based e U..D.A.
1944 Pgures).

Number Weight Range Type I Avg. Weight Per Cent


63 lbs. and up ....
30-53 lbs. ..................


hide
hide


(
(d


51,000 25-30 Ibs. .................... kip (
25,600 15-25 lbs .................... kip
51,000 ll-lb. average calfskin (1
4,100 58 Ibs. and up .......... bull hide ((

254,100 hides and skins @ 33 pounds average
1


00-lb. average)
41-lb. average)
27.lb. average)
20-lb. average)
l1-lb. average)
55-lb. average)


100%


Table III can be summarized on a percentage basis as follows:
48' cattle
2%9 bull
30% kip
20'r calf

100%'/
The above figures are based on information from the War
Food Administration and the twelve packing houses visited.
That was one approach to the survey; however two other ap-
proaches were made-one to the 10 leading hide dealers and
the other to the railroads.
From statements made by the various hide dealers and the
packing plants in the state the total number of hides shipped
from Florida in 1944 amounted to 468,000. The number of
hides missed by not visiting all of the dealers would probably
boost the total up to 480,000. It is of interest to note at this
point that the figure given as average weight of these hides by
the dealers is 30-35 lbs. or the same average as indicated by
packing house figures.
[22]


35,700
86,700








Variance in data:
480,000 Hide dealer figures
254,000 Federal figures of slaughter

226,000 Difference
23,000 Federal 1944 farm slaughter estimate

203,000 Hides bought by hide dealers in excess of total
Federal slaughter estimates.
It is estimated by the United States Department of Agricul-
ture that some 60,000 cattle and calves die annually in Florida
that are not fit for human consumption. The hides are salvaged
from the carcasses of some of these animals. It was the general
opinion of the dealers that they got only a portion of them.
In general the slaughter in excess of the Federal figures will
be lighter weight cattle. Most of these cattle will be native
stock which lack finish.
Thus, for a working analysis of the available hides the fol-
lowing table is set up:
TABLE IV.-Analysis of Florida Hides.

Number I Weight Range I Type Avg. Weight Per Cent
48,000 53 lbs. and up ....... hide (60-lb. average) 10
164,000 30-53 Ibs. .................... hide (41-lb. average) 34
110,000 25-30 Ibs. .................. kip (27-lb. average) 23
48,000 15-25 lbs. ................... kip (20-lb. average) 10
96,000 7-15 lbs. ..................... calfskin ( 1-lb. average) 20
14,000 58 lbs. and up .......... bull hide (65-lb. average) 3

480,000 100%

Table IV can be summarized on a percentage basis as follows:
44% cattle
3% bull
33% kip
20% calf

100%
('3 J







The railroads were contacted and gave numbers of cars of
hides shipped from Florida. Although it was difficult to deter-
mine the actual number of hides shipped, in some instances the
railroad figures and hide data obtained from packers or dealers
agreed. Some hide dealers ship mixed cars which contain tallow,
grease, and other commodities besides hides and skins. The
railroad figures served as a minimum figure and materially aided
as a cross check. Besides hide data, their agricultural and
commercial agents were most helpful in gathering information
and making contacts for the writer.





,- ..= -








,y -e



HIDE MOVEMENTS IN FLORIDA




CONCDENTATION PINTS .
LOCAL SHIPMENTS .....
HEAVY SHIPMENTS




Fig. 7.


(24]








Figure 7 points out movement of hides in Florida from orig-
inal source to centralized points and also lines of heavy ship-
ments from those points to the eastern seaboard and midwest.

MARKETING OF HIDES
The small packer sells on an all-weight basis to a hide dealer
while the larger packer sells on a selection of weights and grades
to a hide dealer
or through a hide
broker. It would
be advantageous
for the small
packer to cure his
hides and store
them until he has
sufficient n u m -
bers to sell on a *
selection rather
t h an all-weight
basis. He could .
then gain by sell-
ing a calf skin at
a calf skin price
rather than have
it included with
steer and bull
hides and have to
sell at the lower
all-weight price.
The small hide
dealers contacted,
who buy from
the farmers and
country butchers,
are in the employ
of the several
large hide deal-
ers in the state;
however, t h e y
still act as mid-
dlemen and are Fig. 8.-Country hide dealer.
[25 ]







unable to pay full price or buy on a selection basis. Hide dealer
in Figure 8 is weighing country take-off hides. These hides
are being bought on an all-weight basis.
Figure 9 shows a truck loaded with country hides. These hides
are not being properly handled since no attempt is made to
separate hides and skins as to classification or stage of cure.


Fig. 9.-Assembling country hides.


With the present system of hide marketing in Florida there
can be little change in the price received by the small packer,
country butcher or farmer. Various farm-produce cooperatives
have been successful in Florida. This is especially true in the
case of the citrus cooperatives. The State Farmers' Markets
and independent auctions have also added to the increase in price
[26]








of farm produce and cattle to the farmer. It is possible such
an arrangement might be feasible in the state in regard to the
selling of hides.
In certain localities of the country where there are several
slaughterers near each other, salting associations or cooperatives
have been formed which have worked out profitably. As a rule
such associations are located in districts slaughtering young
cattle, light in weight for city trade. Such associations naturally
are made up of a number of slaughterers whose take-off may vary
slightly, but in the main it is up to the prescribed standards.


(Courtesy of The Tanners Council of America)
Fig. 10.-Packer hide-flesh side up.
[27







The above has been included as a matter of discussion and
does not advocate a complete change in the hide marketing set
up in Florida.

TAKE-OFF, CURE, AND HANDLING

Before it can be determined which type leather can be made
from these 480,000 hides and skins it is necessary to con-
sider the method of take-off, cure, and handling.
Of these hides only 120,000 could be classed as packer hides,
that is, from packing houses using men skilled in removing
certain portions of the hides. In other words, about 25 per cent
of the hides sold in Florida should have graded as packer hides.
As mentioned previously, due to incompetent labor a good por-
tion of the 25 per cent did not come up to northern packer stand-
ards. It is probable that Florida country butcher hides are com-
parable to those from other sections of the South. Packer hide
in Figure 10 illustrates good pattern and is free from cuts, scores,
and excess flesh and fat.
According to Wilson (19): "The object of curing hides is to
protect them against the putrefactive action of bacteria until
the tanner is ready to start their conversion into leather. Salt
does not kill bacteria, but it restricts their activity and repro-
duction.
"The use of one pound of salt per pound of hide represents
much more salt than can be dissolved by the water of the hide,
but it tends to insure a more rapid and complete diffusion of
salt into every part of a hide and to produce a saturated solu-
tion. ... When the hide pack is taken down, some of the un-
dissolved salt is recovered by shaking it off the hides, but such
recovered salt should be washed before re-using to prevent the
staining of hides often caused by impure salt. The washing also
removes bacteria that adjust themselves to salt and become
salophilic." Note that clean salt is used on skins in packing
plant hide cellar (Figure 11).
"During the curing operation, the salt causes much water
to come out of the hides and to drain off as brine. This causes
the loss in weight of the hides that is known as shrinkage. This
does not represent any real loss, but it becomes very important
in determining the price at which the hides can be sold. Where
the shrinkage is larger, the water content of the hide is cor-
[28]
























Fig. 11.-Well operated hide cellar showing clean salt.
respondingly smaller, and it is worth more per pound because
it contains more leather-making material per pound.
"It is well known that bacterial action sets in very soon after
the death of an animal, making it desirable to start curing as
quickly as possible after the animal heat of the hide has been
dissipated. McLaughlin and Theis found also that delay in
starting curing causes the salt to be taken up by the hide at a
very much slower rate, tending still further to favor bacterial
action. First they showed that salt is absorbed 25 times as
rapidly through the flesh side of the hide as through the grain
side. Then they found that delaying curing only one hour caused
the salt to diffuse into the hide only 69 per cent as fast as when
curing was started at once. A delay of 6 hours reduced this
diffusion rate to only 26 per cent.
"Ultimately the hides became saturated with salt, but the
retardation of its diffusion into the hide permitted more time
for putrefactive changes which lower the leather yield. The
coagulation of blood and of coagulable proteins in the hide re-
tard greatly the diffusion of salt into it. McLaughlin and Rock-
well found that the blood left in hides not only greatly favors
bacterial action, but greatly increases the amount of salt required
for effective preservation."
[29]






Of all the packing plants and dealers' hide cellars visited,
only three can be rated adequate, while plans are underway to
improve four others. Climatic conditions are such in Florida
that hide cellars should be artificially cooled wherever possible.
The optimum temperature for curing hides is 50-550 F. This
can be accomplished by use of cooling coils as is shown in
Figue 12.

















Fig. 12.-Cooling coils in packing plant hide cellar.

Many of the hide cellars inspected were using dirty salt.
Stains by dirty salt on calfskins are a serious problem, especially
if the tanner desires to use the skins for making a leather of
light color. Several of the tanners contacted by the writer
strongly urged that something be done to improve the curing
conditions of Florida hides. Since such a large percentage of
the hides are coming from country butchers, educational work
in regard to methods of curing on the farm and caring for the
hides or skins until they reach a hide dealer would be highly
desirable. Additional information is available in the United
States Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin No. 1055
and A. I. C. Leaflets 24 and 25.
It is the general practice for the country butcher to throw
some salt on the hide without trimming it of snouts, dewclaws,
tailbone, sinews, switches, lips, ears and excessive meat and
[80]







fat and then fold it up and put it out of the way until a travel-
ing hide dealer comes, or, he takes it to one of the small country
hide buyers. It is during the time between the hide removal
and putting it in cure at the hide dealer's establishment that
deterioration occurs. This deterioration can easily be seen by
the ease with which the hair slips from the hide and at the same
time carrying along with it the grain layer. Many hides are
sold to the dealers where no attempt has been made to add salt.
Often these hides are so far deteriorated that they are only of
value for glue stock.
In most of the large packing plants in this country the hides
are cured in their own hide cellars for approximately 80 days
and are then shipped directly to a tanner. The transaction is
usually handled by a broker. Figure 13 illustrates hides being
prepared for shipment at a packing plant. Note that excess
salt is removed by shaking and beating over a table before
bundling.
Of the various packing plants visited throughout Florida,
only three cured their hides sufficiently to send directly to a
tanner. The other packing plants either partially cured or sold
the hides fresh to the hide dealers. Only partially curing the


Fig. 18.-Hide take-up at packing plant.
[81]







hides means extra handling which is not only uneconomical but
is considered poor practice by the tanners since it affects leather
yields. It would be advisable for the packing plants to make
a study of their individual hide curing problems, checking on
the amount and condition of salt being used, method of building
the hide pack, length and completeness of cure, temperature
of hide cellar, and ideal shrinkage of 15% in winter and 18%
in summer, inspecting hides at the take-up and keeping accurate
account of the various grades and classifications. These factors
are mentioned specifically for the benefit of the Florida packers.
In visiting their plants it was observed that at least one or
frequently all of these factors were causing loss to the packers.
For example, one plant was taking a 25 per cent shrinkage
which is an excess loss of 7-10 per cent.

DEFECTS IN FLORIDA HIDES
Certain phases of hide defects have been mentioned-namely,
poor take-off and cure. Besides these two problems there are
others which will be taken up in order of importance.
Improper Branding.-Branding is necessary in order to
identify the cattle. Since no known substitute is adequate, the
problem becomes one of properly locating the brands to mini-
mize the loss of potential leather. Figure 14 shows the prime
portion of the hide greatly damaged by excessive branding.
Figure 15 shows points of proper branding as indicated by round
spots. By more judicious designing of the form of the brand
and proper brand location, the total yield of serviceable leather
can be increased many pounds. There seems little excuse for a
brand running from the hip to shoulder, and a side so branded
is worthless for making the better grades of leather.
Different sections of the same hide yield leather of different
quality. The best leather comes from the butt and back areas.
In cutting a hide tanned for sole leather, each side yields four
pieces-head, shoulder, belly, and bend (butt and back). If
the bend (indicated by shaded portion of Figure 15) is heavily
branded, it will yield 35-40 per cent less serviceable leather than
if it were not branded. It is from the bend that sole leather
is cut. In case the shoulder is branded with the same mark,
its value is reduced only 15-20 per cent due to the fact that
shoulder leather, which is of loose fiber, is put to other uses
that are less valuable (6).
[32]









Florida is divided as to sections of the state where the cattle
will be branded and other sections where their numbers will be


(Courtesy of The Tanners Council of Amerlia)
Fig. 14.-Sole Leather Bend. Value seriously reduced through large
and numerous brands.


Fig. 15.-The round spots indicate points of proper branding. The shaded
area Indicates the most valuable portion of the hide.

negligible. Cattle from the open range country will run close
to 100% branded and the packing plants slaughtering range
cattle will show 70-75 per cent of their total kill as having been
branded. Packing plants in the Miami area show only about
[83]






50 per cent branded. Then, moving to the extreme opposite end
of the state, northwest Florida, where farm cattle are raised,
the numbers of brands in the packing plants average 10 per
cent or less. The maximum slaughter comes from range cattle,
and an over-all figure for Florida hides is about 60 per cent.
Through an intensive education program it would be possible
to eliminate improper branding and materially increase the
value of the hide. If a tanner could be assured of a continuous
supply of hides which would be free of brands on the butt and
back area, it would be a strong incentive for him to locate in
Florida and at the same time strengthen the reputation of
Florida's improved hides.
Insect Damage.-The role which the fever tick has played
in damaging Florida hides as been previously discussed. Re-
cently two new insects have crossed the state line and are be-
coming a menace to cattle production and causing damage to
hides and skins.
Screw-worms.-The one which does the most damage is the
screw-worm fly which attacks all types of farm animals by
laying its eggs in flesh wounds so that the young larvae will
have an adequate food supply. Screw-worms are causing an
unknown quantity of damage to both the meat and hides. Screw-
worms can be controlled by proper chemical treatment. The
best preventive is close inspection of livestock and immediate
treatment of any open wound which might invite the fly (6).
Warbles, Grubs, Heel Flies, "Wolves".-It has been estimated
that the ox warble fly or hide grub (larva of the heel fly) causes
an annual loss of $100,000,000 to the nation. This fly is increas-
ing in numbers in North Florida and gradually penetrating
deeper into the state. The fly lays its eggs on the heel of the
animal. When the egg hatches, the larva penetrates the skin
and works it way through the tissues of the body until it reaches
the kidney region of the back. There it grows, eating into the
flesh of the animal and finally punctures a hole through the
hide and falls to the ground where later it pupates and gives
rise to the fly, thus completing the life cycle. A piece of leather
with grub holes has as little cutting value as if it were deeply
scored and cut by the butcher knife. The reduction of grubs
has received much study, and remedial measures in the form of
chemical treatment are available. Since the main source of
infection is local, veterinarians recommend control measures
[84]






to eliminate the grub from the herd. Figure 16 shows holes
caused by grub damage in addition to damage by improper
branding and numerous scratches.


















ICourtesy of The Tanner Council of America)
Fig. 16.-Shoe upper leather damage by grub holes, scratches, and brands
on the prime portion of the hide.
Information concerning grubs was requested from each pack-
ing plant. It was found that the grub damage reaches a maxi-
mum in December and January. Cattle on the range country
below Ocala usually are free of grubs, while the greatest numbers
are found along the Georgia and Alabama border. A West
Florida packer stated that, "the grub situation this past winter
has not been serious". He estimated about 15 per cent grubby
hides during the grub season.
Other Insects.-Lice, fleas, various ticks, mange, and scabies
are also causing damage to Florida hides. The damage caused
by lice is perhaps the most serious, and many of the farmers
are dipping their cattle as a means of eradicating lice and other
surface parasites.
The various state agricultural groups are doing extension
work to reduce the losses caused by screw-worms, grubs, and
other insects. Florida State Agricultural Extension Bulletin
No. 123-"Screwworms in Florida" gives a thorough covering
of that subject and includes methods of controlling this menace.
[35]






Other Surface Defects.-During the life of the stock certain
diseases, wire cuts, brush scratches, prod marks, and rough
handling, especially during shipment, cause waste in hides and
skins. The diseases require veterinary treatment while the
scratches and other cuts can be greatly lessened by the removal
of sharp pointed objects that can tear the skin. Loading chutes
and pens frequently have nails or wires projecting so that the
animal's skin is torn. If the tips were removed from the horns
less damage would be done to the hide while cattle are penned
up or being shipped (6). Figure 17 below illustrates damage
caused to meat by tipped horns.


Fig. 17.-Damage to meat due to horns.
These damages can be observed at central market points. The
importance of these defects cannot be overlooked in Florida hides
because of the uses to which light weight hides are put. They
are of a weight desired by tanners for the production of fine
quality luggage, upholstery leathers, and specialty leathers.
The side of shoe upper leather in Figure 18 shows how patterns
of the various shoe upper parts are placed so that cutting will
[36 ]








result in the least waste. It can readily be seen how brands,
grub holes, warts, etc., will greatly interfere with economical
cutting.


Courtesy of TIh Tanners Council of Amerla)


Fig. 18.-Side of shoe upper leather. Showing how patterns of the
various shoe upper parts are placed so that cutting will result in the least
waste.

LEATHER OUTLETS FOR FLORIDA HIDES AND SKINS

There are many types of leathers which can be produced
from hides and skins. James Price lists 75 leather varieties
in his book, NORTH AMERICAN PACKER HIDES (12). Although
there is a possibility of producing all 75 varieties from Florida
hides, a tannery located in the state must concentrate its pro-
duction on the basis of the volume available of definite weight
hides. In order to point out the differences in hides and skins
and the uses to which they can be put, the data from Price are
included in Appendix A, page 60.
From this information, Florida hides can be arranged to
show their possible uses in leather manufacture as follows:


96,000 Calfskins


-Upper leather:
Full grain (skins)
S Corrected grains
Patent leather
Specialty leathers:
Golf grips
Pocketbook, etc., leather
S Parchment, vellum, etc.

[37]











48,000 Light Kipskins







110,000 Heavy Kipskins















164,000 Cow and Steer
Hides (light)


Upper leather:
Full grain (skins)
Corrected grains
Sport elk leather
Patent leather
Buckskin leather
Specialty leathers:
Golf grips
Pocketbook, etc. leathers


Upper leather:
Full grain (skins)
Corrected grains
Sport elk leather
Patent leather
Buckskin leather
Sueded leather


Sole leather:
Vegetable tanned
Chrome tanned
Chrome retanned
Upper leather:
Full grain leather (sides)
Corrected grains
Sport elk leather
Work shoe and retain elk sides
Patent leather
Buckskin leather
Belting leather:
Oak tanned, curried (light weights)
Lace (rawhide or Indian tanned)
Harness leather:
Collar leather
Strap leather
Latigo, halter, and thong leather
Apparel leather;
Garment cowsides, grains or suede for
coats, etc.
Buckskin for leggings, gloves, etc.
Grain leather for puttees, belts, etc.
Glove cowsides (grains, splits)
Luggage:
Case, bag, and strap leather
Portfolio and brief case leather
Specially leathers:
Athletic cowsides (baseball, basketball,
and football leathers)


[38]


















48,000 Cow and Steer
Hides (heavy)












14,000 Bulls Hides
(heavy)


Sole leather:
Vegetable tanned (bark or extract)
Vegetable (Finders leathers) extra heavy
Collar leather
Belting:
Oak tanned, curried (Hy. wts.) also ex-
tract tanned
Rawhide or oil tanned-(used for hy-
draulic, valve, washer, gasket, gear
lines)
Harness:
Oak and Union tanned
Oak stagline leather (extra heavy)
Skirting leather
Collar leather
Strap leather
Luggage:
Case, bag, and strap leather
Portfolio and brief case leather
SUpholstery leather:
Upholstery, carriage, and automobile
leather
Buffings and bookbinding (grains, splits)
I-

Harness:
I Oak stagline leather (extra heavy)
Belting:
Rawhide or oil tanned (used for hydraulic,
valve, washer, gasket, gear lines)
Splits:
Upper leather (patent)
I-


480,000 TOTAL-Hides and Skins

It thus appears that a tannery or tanneries built in Florida
for the purpose of using Florida produced hides must concentrate
on the production of upper leather and specialty leathers. With
the condition of the grain improved by better curing practices
the quantity of No. 1 hides should merit strong consideration
in determining the feasibility of establishing a plant. Branded
hides usually give one clear side. The grain tends to be smooth
and in conjunction with that the spread nature of those hides
gives more area per unit weight and thereby increases cutting
value.
In the case of the heavy hides, steer, cow, and bull, they are
usually in a good condition and of good substance. Most of these
cattle are being raised on farms where they have received sup-
plementary feeding and then they are slaughtered at a packing
plant. On the basis of the total number of heavy hides in Flor-
[39]





ida, a tannery working on a 326 day year could tan 150 hides
per day as sole leather, or about 50,000 hides per year. It would
be more economical to operate a larger tannery and more hides
could be obtained with low transportation costs from Georgia
and Alabama.
The supply of light hides and kipskins is sufficiently large to
establish a plant tanning 1,000 hides per day or about 325,000
per year for upper leather.

PLANT LOCATION FACTORS

Up to this point only the hides have been considered in the
development of the leather industry in Florida. There are other
essentials to be considered such as: Various types of tanning
materials, supply and demand, transportation, labor, water sup-
ply, power, disposal of tannery wastes, building materials,
climate, fuel, and many others.
Economic Outlook for Shoe and Leather Industry (16)
Shoe Industry .......................... Favorable
The post-war outlook for shoe manufacturers is moderately
favorable, since they will be faced with no reconversion prob-
lems, and high consumer purchasing power, together with de-
ferred demand for shoes, will result in large sales. Military
demands will, of course, fall off rapidly after the war, but govern-
ment orders for shoes for foreign rehabilitation will be large
in the immediate post-war period.
Over the longer term, marked growth is unlikely since there
were some signs prior to the war that the industry was approach-
ing a saturation point. Generally speaking, demand will remain
relatively stable because of the essential nature of the com-
modity, and sales should parallel the growth of the population
in the country. Lifting of rationing and relaxation of price
controls will have a temporary beneficial effect on operations,
and removal of the excess profits tax would improve final earn-
ings.
Leather Industry .................... Uncertain
Prospects for the leather industry are less clearly defined,
since a great deal will depend upon governmental policy affecting
hide and skin prices. Inventories will be at a low level, while de-
[401






mand for leather goods will be heavy. Since changes in the
hide and skin supply come slowly, it appears likely that inven-
tories will have to be replaced in a high and rising market.
While inventory profits may be obtained temporarily, the in-
dustry will be vulnerable to any subsequent decline in hide
prices.
The demand for shoes-the principal outlet for leather-is
relatively stable. However, the rise in popularity of the oxford
type shoe since the last war has considerably curtailed the
market for leather. Increased use of fabric uppers, as well as
rubber heels and rubber and composition soles, has had a similar
effect, while keener competition from leather substitutes also
has been evident in the industrial field-notably in belting and
luggage.
There is a definite threat to the leather trade in the grow-
ing competition afforded by substitute products. Over the longer
term, moderate increases in leather usage are likely during
periods of industrial recovery, but it is unlikely that peak levels
can be maintained unless additional uses for leather can be
developed.
Hide prices in a free market are usually very sensitive to
changes in economic conditions. Accordingly they often fluc-
tuate in line with the trend of the stock market on the theory
that the market foreshadows the general direction of business
activity. As hides are used chiefly in the manufacture of shoes,
and shoe demand in turn reflects changes in consumer purchas-
ing power, prices also are sensitive to the trend of factory
pay rolls.
Moreover, supplies normally fluctuate in cycles with cattle
population and are quite independent of demand. Hides are
produced as a by-product of the meat packing industry, the
volume of which is governed by factors remote from any re-
lationship to the demand for leather. This situation adds to
the inventory problem normally facing the industry.
It is concluded, therefore, that most companies in the indus-
try will realize only slim profits, except under the artificial
stimulus of war or during the initial stages of a broad cyclical
advance in commodity prices, when a reasonable return on in-
vested capital can temporarily be obtained (16).
In discussing the future outlook for the leather industry
in this country it is necessary to consider the tremendous
[41]






changes which have occurred in the tanning industry through-
out the world in the past five years. Prior to 1940 many coun-
tries, which were primarily raw material producing areas, ex-
ported hides and skins, and imported leather from Europe and
the United States. The war interrupted this trade, it severed
such importing nations from their sources of supply and pro-
vided the stimulus for the expansion of existing tanning facilities
or the establishment of new plants.
While tanners in this country have been faced with restric-
tions, other countries, particularly those in South America, have
been free to produce and consequently leather is available for
shoes, handbags, and for various other purposes. Since the
expansion of tanning industries in South America, South Africa,
Australia and elsewhere was a direct result of abnormal war-
time conditions, the capacity of such industries is far in excess
of their domestic requirements. After the war the existence
of surplus capacity must inevitably prompt these war-born in-
dustries to find foreign markets in order to maintain enterprise
which must otherwise shrink in scope.
These above mentioned countries have the tanning materials
and raw hides and skins available and at the same time a low
cost labor. Wages are one of the important costs of manufacture
of leather, and the earnings of tannery workers in foreign coun-
tries are only a fraction of wage rates in the United States.
From the above it would appear that the future of the leather
industry is rather gloomy, for the nation perhaps it is true, but
there is such a thing as a successful operation under localized
conditions. The writer feels that Florida comes under this
category for leather production. The state is increasing in
population, going forward agriculturally and becoming indus-
trialized. The new edition of the State Chamber of Commerce's
"Directory of Florida Manufacturers" lists some 3,000 places
of business. Admittedly these are not all big factories, but they
are the nucleus for an industrialized state.
Availability of Hides.-Although sufficient hides could be
obtained to operate a tannery, the fact must be considered that
the hide dealers have their customers to whom they have been
selling hides for many years and normally would be reluctant
to take on a new customer to supply him with their entire out-
put. The tanner could buy hides directly from the packing
plants and during post-war conditions the number of good take-
[42]





off packer hides should almost double the present number of
packer hides. The various packers indicated that they would
be in favor of a tannery in Florida and would be willing to supply
it with their hides.
With a question in mind as to actual number of hides the
tanner could obtain in Florida without high shipping costs, the
United States Department of Agriculture figures are given for
cattle and calves slaughtered in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia
for the year 1944 at packing plants and abattoirs under Federal,
state, and municipal inspection. As released by War Food Ad-
ministration Office of Marketing Service, January 24, 1945:*
Cattle .............................................. 508,273
Calves ....................... ................. 287,066

Total ......................................... 795,339
As previously given, Florida showed 254,000 slaughter:
795,339 Total Alabama, Florida, Georgia
254,100 Total Florida

541,239 Total Alabama and Georgia
Since this survey did not include Alabama and Georgia it is
necessary to accept the figure of 541,239 as hides available in
those two states. Due to the fact that most of these cattle are
raised on small farms the hides will tend to be free of brands.
However, during the grub season they will run more grubby
than Florida hides.
From the 795,339 hides in these three states a tanner should
be able to buy a selection of hides which would suit his needs
without necessitating inshipments from other states.
Tanning Materials.-There are two distinctive types of tan-
nages, i.e., vegetable and mineral. Synthetic tannins are also
coming into use. THE HIDE AND LEATHER AND SHOE ENCYCLO-
PEDIA (2) states: "Vegetable Tanning-In the past, this was
generally known as a 'bark' tannage, because practically all
leather was tanned with an extract of some kind of bark and
every tannery was equipped to produce a bark extract for the
purpose. Vegetable tanning was applied to every type of
leather; that is, both sole and upper. Today the largest quantity
"These fitures do not include farm slaughter which represents a larre volume.
[43]





of vegetable tanned leather is used for sole, bag, case and strap,
harness, upholstery, lining, and belting leathers, etc."
All vegetation contains a bitter principle which, for want of
a better name, is called "tannin". Tannin has the property of
combining with protein to form an imputrescible compound.
The principal sources are the leaves, nuts, barks, and/or
woods of hemlock, oak, chestnut, sumac, quebracho, mangrove,
cutch (Philippine and Borneo), myrobalan, divi-divi, and wattle.
Other sources are available but the above are in more general
demand. These natural vegetable materials are leached or ex-
tracted with hot water, which removes the tannin bearing ma-
terials. This in turn is used for tanning the bated hides and
skins.
Today domestic vegetable tannins are becoming increasingly
scarce due to the chestnut blight which killed off the chestnut
trees and also to the lack of reforestation of the hemlock and
oak. The industry depends upon importation for about 70 per
cent of its vegetable tannins. Most of the imported tannin
comes from Argentina in the form of solid extract.
Florida is in an excellent position geographically for its
ports to serve as entry points for foreign tannins, and thus a
tannery located in Florida would be saved the expense of trans-
portation of a large percentage of the tanning materials needed
for plant operation.
Another factor to consider is the possibility of utilizing the
bark of the Florida scrub oak trees. At the present time re-
search is underway through a cooperative program between the
Federal government and the Florida Engineering and Industrial
Experiment Station of the University of Florida to determine
the economic feasibility of producing scrub oak bark extract
in Florida. Pilot plant investigations have indicated that a
good extract can be made, and the hides and skins tanned with
the extract were considered satisfactory. If it can be shown
that production costs can be held in line with those of other
vegetable tanning materials, Florida will not only have the
hides available but also an adequate supply of tannin. Figure
19 shows a representative scrub oak forest scene near Gainesville.
There has been much discussion about the use of saw pal-
mettos and Florida mangrove for tanning. The small amount
of tannin and the difficulty of extraction prevents the use of
saw palmetto, while the difficulty in handling mangrove renders
[44]






that source un- -,
available. The
cost of gathering
the mangrove
bark would be ex-
ceedingly h i g h
(9). Figure 20
shows red man-
grove trees grow- .
ing on coral flats
with two to three
feet of fibrous
peat accumulated.
This picture was
taken a half mile
inland from shore
in Collier County.
The map shown
in Figure 21 out-
lines general dis-
tribution of scrub
oak and man-
grove forests in
Florida.
Mineral Tan-
ning Chrome Fig. 19.-Scrub oak forest in vacinity of Gainesville.
tanning is the
principal type of mineral tanning and is used for the bulk of
light leather. However, zirconium and alum are frequently used
to produce white leathers. Although vegetable tanning was
developed many thousands of years ago, chrome tanning was
developed within the past century.
"Chrome tanning is principally applied to shoe upper leather
although large quantities of chrome sole are produced. It is
not suitable for the purposes of upholstery or bag, case and
strap because of its property of stretching. Very large quantities
are used for the purpose of manufacturing handbags; however,
where embossed work is performed, vegetable tanning is con-
siderably more adaptable. Chrome tanned leather which is
thoroughly impregnated with heavy greases and waxes is used
[45 ]

























(Courtesy of John E
Fig. 20.-Red mangrove growth (Collier County).


to very large extent for mechanical purposes such as hydraulic
rams, pump gaskets, oil seals, etc" (2).
With the type hides and skins available in Florida it would
indicate that at present a goodly portion are chrome tanned.
At least one tannery starting in Florida could use the chrome
process. The cost of chrome to a Florida tanner would be
slightly higher than at one of the northern tanneries due to long
hauling distance, but the amount is negligible in the final cost
of the leather.
Syntans.-Besides vegetable and mineral tannages some tan-
neries are using synthetic tannins. In 1912 Edmund Stiasny
(18) discovered that new types of tanning materials can be pro-
duced synthetically by mixing phenolsulfonic acids with for-
maldehyde under the right conditions. The products formed
are water-soluble, precipitate gelatin from solution and exhibit
marked tanning properties. They are very different from the
natural vegetable tanning substances. There have been many
attempts to produce an adequate synthetic tannin which could
be substituted for vegetable tannins.
[46]







Recently Dr. H. (. Turley (18) developed a new synthetic
tannin which he called Orotan. This material is capable of pro-
ducing heavy sole leather and gives excellent results when used
in blends. Although it is relatively expensive at present, it is
expected that under post-war conditions it will compete with


SOLID) AREA
General distribution of
Scrub Oak.




STIPPILEI AREA
Mangrove Forests.


di~IIhhi)


rv,


Fig. 21.-General distribution of Scrub ()ak and Mangrove forests in IFlorida.
[ 47






present sources of tannin. A tanner considering establishing
a plant in Florida may well investigate Orotan for use in his
tannery. The material would originate at the Port of Phila-
delphia and could be shipped by boat to one of the Florida ports.
Post-war tannery competition will be keen, and the man
utilizing the results of the latest research developments in tan-
ning materials will stand the best chance in opening a iew plant
or keeping his present one in operation.
Labor.-In 1939 the United States Department of Labor
undertook a survey of the earnings and hours in the leather
industry and published its findings in Bulletin No. 679 (11).
The following information is quoted from that bulletin:

Characteristics of the Industry
"As an employer of labor, the leather industry is fairly im-
portant. In the aggregate, the 402 establishments' in the in-
dustry, according to the Census of Manufacturers, provided work
for 50,687 wage earners in 1937. The total wage bill of these
plants amount to $61,288,375, which represented 54.0 per cent
of the value added by manufacture.
"For many years, an outstanding feature of the leather in-
dustry was the remarkable decrease that had taken place in
the number of establishments. This was accompanied by an
almost steady rise in the number of wage earners. According to
the Census of Manufacturers, the number of plants declined
from somewhat less than 7,000 in 1849 to 680 in 1919,2 but the
number of wage earners increased from approximately 26,000
to 72,000. This was the result of a gradual expansion in the
size of establishments.
"Even between 1921 and 1937, the number of establishments
in the leather industry decreased by about one-third.3 On the
other hand, the number of wage earners, which was subject to
considerable fluctuation during this period, never approached
the high level reached in 1919. It will be noted, however, that
I Includes only plants with an annual production valued at $5,000 and over.
2 Prior to 1905, however, only manufacturing establishments conducted under what is
known as the factory system have been included. This change affects the comparability
of the data as rewards the number of plants for the various industries.
*Likewise, the figures since 1921 are not strictly comparable with those for 1919 and
prior years. Before 1921, the Ceius of Manufacturers covered all establishments with
a value of product amounting to $600 and over. Beginning with that year, however, the
minimum requirement was extended to a product value of $5,000 and over. This change
probably accounts for most of the decrease in number of plants between 1919 and 1921.
The establishments excluded due to the shift in definition were very small, so that the
reduction in number of wage earners between the 2 years was due primarily to other causes.
[481






the size of plant in terms of number of wage earners has in-
creased generally during these years.
"Although the size of the producing unit in the leather in-
dustry has been growing steadily, the typical plant is still rela-
tively small. In 1937, for example, the average per establish-
ment was 126 wage earners. Of the 402 plants in that year,
only 20 reported between 501 and 1,000 employees. In contrast,
about three-fifths of the plants employed 100 workers or less,
and virtually one-fourth showed 20 employees or less.
"Leather manufacturing is widely scattered geographically.
The New England States, the early center of the industry, still
remain an important producing region. Most of the leather
plants in the Pacific states are located in the vicinity of San
Francisco. In the Southern states, by contrast, establishments
making leather are scattered throughout the Appalachian belt,
but their combined employment constitutes only a minor portion
of the industry's total."
In order to give a complete picture of labor used in the tan-
ning industry as to sex, skill and occupation, portions of Tables
(13) and (15) from Bulletin No. 679 are included in Appendix
B. A study of these tables will show that on the basis of all
leather products manufactured, 91.69r of the employees were
male and 8.4% female. The male workers were further classified
at 13.4% skilled, 50.7% semiskilled and 27.5% unskilled. It
will be noted that the number of semiskilled workers predomi-
nates. Since Florida is without a sizeable tannery at the present
time it would be necessary to bring into the state skilled and
some of the semiskilled workers from tanneries in other states.
Florida's mild climate should aid in inducing some of these
workers to move from their present homes.

Utilities
Transportation.-"For more than half a century Florida has
had a system of freight rates different from and on a higher
level than that of any other part of the South. Throughout
this era, Florida citizens have accepted these rates under protest.
Their criticism against the rate structure has grown to tor-
rential proportions" (4). The results of this intense criticism
finally brought about the Interstate Commerce Commission
ruling on May 19, 1945, that the South (including Florida) and
[49 ]





the Western States out to the Rocky Mountains are given parity
with the East in basic freight rates.
In that decision, as released by the Associated Press, the
Interstate Commerce Commission ordered, in effect, that as soon
as schedules can be prepared an article moving by railroad
freight shall take the same rate classification regardless of where
it starts and stops. This applied even to the Far Western States.
The Commission also directed that uniform class rates be estab-
lished for the whole territory east of the Rockies, eliminating
present territorial divisions. The Far West had not petitioned
for that change. Only class rates such as those applied to shoes
were affected.
For this revision the Commission recommended that a class
rate scale approximately 15 per cent higher than the present
first class rates of eastern territory be established as a base.
This means an increase in class rates for the East and a lowering
of class rates for the other territories.
Because considerable time will be required to make the
classification and rate changes ordered (Commission observers
estimated it might take as long as two years), the Commission
directed the railroads to provide temporary relief by raising
all class rates within Eastern territory by 10 per cent and lower-
ing all class rates in and between Southern, Western, and South-
western territories, and between these territories on one hand
and Eastern territory on the other by 10 per cent.
Such a change in freight rates will tend to stimulate industry
in the South. Florida will especially benefit, thus, a tannery
or shoe factory located at a port in Florida would have the ad-
vantage of lower railroad water rates than in the past. Although
distance must be considered, the Florida manufacturers will be
able to compete with northern and midwestern leather industries
as a result of this decision by the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission. Extract could be brought by boat to the ports and laid
down at less cost than at northern tanneries. The same would
be true of imported hides and skins.
Figure 22 illustrates the transportation involved with the
production of shoes and leather goods for residents of Florida
from hides originating in Florida. The hides are either shipped
up the eastern seaboard or to the middle west. The leather pro-
duced from these hides is manufactured into shoes and other
leather goods or shipped to some other points before manufactur-
[50 ]




































-- In the state hide shipment \
Out of tate hide shipment
----a Shoes and other leather goods
SLeather





ing and then the finished product must be sent back the same
route the original hides took when they left Florida. At the
same time many leather goods are shipped by rail from distant
points for uses on Florida ranches. By localizing the tanning
and manufacturing in Florida the producer and consumer would
benefit by reduction of transportation costs upon the product.
Water Supply.-Florida has an abundant supply of water.
There are numerous artesian wells which supply millions of
gallons of water daily at no pumping cost. In general, Florida's
water supply is hard and would necessitate treating before use
in the tannery. Due to the variation in analyses of water in
the state, the type and cost of treatment would depend upon
the location of the plant. Some cities in the state have installed
water softening equipment and could supply a tannery with
treated water. In many cases it would be advisable for the
tannery to install its own water softening equipment.
The temperature of the water in Florida is relatively high
in contrast with that supplied the tanneries in the mountain
country of the North. For use in beam house operations it would
be advisable to artificially cool the water. Iron content should
be below 50 parts per million and hardness not over 200 parts
per million. For coloring and fatliquoring the water should
be as nearly free of solids as possible.
Fuel and Power.-Besides heating the buildings in the winter
months, a tannery requires heat for drying leather and for
various other operations. Since a boiler is required to produce
steam for processing, power can be produced as a by-product
at a cost comparable to that in other parts of the country.
Coal is relatively high in Florida, costing approximately $7
per ton. However, it has been barged to one of the ports on
the Florida west coast at $4 per ton. Bunker C fuel oil can be
bought for $1-$1.50 per barrel in tank-car lots, the lower value
at one of the ports such as Jacksonville and Tampa or higher
if it must be delivered into the interior of the state. Many in-
dustrial plants throughout the state, requiring heat for process-
ing, are using oil as a fuel. Some of these plants have waste
material which they burn and when necessary supplement with
fuel oil.
In general, fuel requirements are lower in Florida than other
sections of the country due to the higher mean temperature.
Commercial electric power can be bought for 14-11/2 per
[521








K. W. H. from local power plants. It is possible in a location
where power consumption is high that the cost would drop to
1-11/4A per K. W. H.
Although fuel and power are comparatively expensive in
Florida, the cost of those items, when included in total cost
figures, is low and not a deciding factor in the establishment
of a leather industry in the state.
Buildings, Building Materials and Equipment
A tannery constructed in Florida should be built on the prin-
ciples of an "assembly line" basis. Economies can be made
through the use of proper handling and modern manufacturing
methods in connection with production. The tannery should
utilize equipment that has proved worthwhile. Cost of con-
structing the walls of buildings, various vats, and bases for
equipment can be materially lowered in Florida by the use of
limerock concrete.
The importance of building a hide house in which the
humidity and temperature can be uniformly maintained must
be strongly emphasized. It would pay a tanner building a hide
storage house in Florida to install air-conditioning equipment.
The floors should have proper drainage and there should be
plenty of water at a reasonable pressure available to keep floors,
drains, and machines clean. Cleanliness will minimize tannery
odors.
Smith has outlined the following items as important in de-
signing a modern tannery that will show returns (15):
1. Improved handling will show returns on the cost of a
square foot or pound of leather delivered.
2. Adequate natural and artificial lighting.
3. Improved methods in driving machines. Both these bills
are reflected in power bills and power consumed.
4. Better sanitation and better working conditions attract
a higher percentage of better class operators even if there is
no hourly differential.
5. Warehousing of raw tanning materials and other materials
adjacent to operations.
6. One floor operation at truck height for loading and un-
loading and for transferring materials to the plant.
By-Products of the Tannery
As in most industries, the by-products of the tanning indus-
[53]







try help the tannery show a profit. The main by-products are
found in the beam house in the form of hair, trimmings, and
grease. The trimmings and fleshings from calfskins are sold
to manufacturers of gelatin. Those from heavy hides are sold
to manufacturers of glue. Nearly all tanners find a ready mar-
ket for hair. It is now customary to wash and dry the hair
before offering it for sale. The screenings and worthless flesh-
ings are usually pressed, dried and burned. They could be sold
as an organic fertilizer.
Since Florida does not produce gelatin or glue, to utilize the
trimmings and fleshings it would be advisable to construct a
small plant for manufacturing these raw materials into finished
products. The spent lime from the beam house as well as the
leather trimmings from the finishing section of the tannery
could be sold as fertilizers.

Dispoeal of Tannery Wastes
Formerly tanneries were associated with odors and stream
pollution. Modern disposal methods make this unnecessary.
"Tanneries are among the largest producers of industrial organic
wastes. Each day's run-off consists of many gallons of liquid material
teeming with bacteria and containing much organic matter, both dissolved
and suspended, and of a highly putrescible nature. In the past practically
all tanneries have been discharging this waste into streams, lakes, or sewer
systems without preliminary treatment.- Many municipalities and boards
of health are beginning to prohibit by law the pollution, directly or indirectly,
of natural waters by industrial wastes. Where tanneries discharge their
waste into local sewer systems authorities are at least insisting that
suspended matter be excluded, so that the sewers shall not become clogged.
Where cities are treating as well as collecting their sewage and industrial
waste, they are stipulating that all material harmful or burdensome to
the disposal plant processes shall be excluded or reduced by dilution to
such a degree that the waste, along with the sewage, can be successfully
and economically treated. In fact, the policy now followed in some localities
is to insist that no industrial effluent stronger than the average sanitary
sewage be permitted to enter local sewer systems. Thus it is readily seen
that the problem of disposing of tannery waste, especially where the tanner
is compelled to treat his own material, is fast becoming important and
serious." (17)
Classification and Nature of Tannery Wastes:
I. Soak liquors-containing blood, manure, hair, etc.
2. Lime liquors-containing lime and magnesia, calcium carbonate, hair,
and dissolved hide substance.
3. Bate liquors-containing bacteria, enzymes, hide substance, etc.
[M4]






4. Pickle liquors-containing salt and acid in solution and calcium
sulphate in suspension.
5. Chrome tanning liquors-containing salts in solution; chromium com-
pounds in solution or suspension.
6. Vegetable tanning liquors-containing tannins, "reds", coloring mat-
ter, etc.
7. Dye liquors-consisting of solutions of weak dyestuffs.
8. Fat liquors-containing small quantities of oils and fats.
9. Wash waters-in large volumes containing undissolved or suspended
solids which, when removed, leave practically pure water.
10. Condenser water.

In establishing a tannery in Florida, the disposal of tannery
wastes must be considered as a cost factor, both initial and
operating. Should the tannery be located in the vicinity of an
efficient city sewage disposal system, it would pay the company
to lay a sewer line up to two miles to connect with the disposal
system.
Hommon (3), in his "Studies on the Treatment and Disposal
of Industrial Wastes" presented the following conclusions in re-
gard to purification of tannery wastes:
1. Tannery wastes can be most economically and efficiently treated by
combining all wastes. This procedure reduces the number of units and
devices and utilizes the chemical reaction between the several wastes.
2. Preliminary treatment of spent tan liquors with lime sludge is
beneficial to precipitate the tannins.
3. Addition of ferrous sulfate copperass) at rate of 11 grains per gallon
(1.5 pounds per 1,000 gallons) aids precipitation.
4. Preliminary filtration of the chemically treated effluent through
cinders, coke, or slag acts to further reduce the suspended solids content.
Filter depth of 4 feet is sufficient and feeding rate should not exceed
200,000 gallons per acre per 24 hours.
5. Secondary filtration through a 3-foot depth of sand at a similar rate
oxidizes the effluent.
6. Sludge can be dried on underdrained cinder beds. Sludge volume
averaged 1.1 cubic feet per hide; average of twenty days should be allowed
for drying.
"The desirability of effecting all possible recovery of waste products
in the tannery is stressed as a means of reducing the cost of treatment.
"The sludge was found to contain about twice the amount of common
fertilizing ingredients as barnyard manure and in addition, contained about
30% of calcium as carbonate. Actual growing tests were made to confirm
these conclusions."

The tannery waste disposal problem has been given much
study by the Stream Pollution Committee of the American
Leather Chemists Association (13). Today it is possible through
modern methods of sewage disposal to minimize the odor of the
tannery and the contamination of streams and rivers. Although
waste disposal involve expenditures, the return on the recovered
waste for fertilizers has at some plants paid in part or in full
for the cost of handling operations.
[65]





Capital

The capital required to build a tannery and put it in operation
until the first piece of leather is produced is rather large. The
actual cost depends upon the number of hides or skins and the
type of leather to be produced. Due to present day prices it
is difficult to obtain the actual cost of putting a tannery in pro-
duction; however, a figure of $250,000 should be adequate to
build and put into operation a small economical size tannery.
Although the money could be obtained, difficulty would be had
in getting permission from the War Production Board for con-
structing a plant.
The following information was supplied by the War Pro-
duction Board: "Order M-310, paragraph (c) (2) (3) and (4)
states that unless a man was tanning or having hides tanned for
his account during the year 1942, he would not be permitted to
engage in that business now. As a matter of fact, there is a
larger tanning capacity in the United States than there are hides
to be tanned, and therefore, nothing would be gained in per-
mitting a new company to erect a plant for the purpose of tan-
ning leather."
Granting that the plant could not be built until after the
war, then, who will supply the capital? Tanneries already in
existence would have no incentive to move to Florida if their
plants are paid for and cleared off their books. There is a ten-
dency for the small plants to cease operation and the larger
companies to concentrate their tanning in a few large plants.
Moreover, the leather industry is very much integrated with
packers and shoe manufacturers.
This type of integration offers an opportunity for the small
independent packers in Florida to set up a corporation or cooper-
ative supplying hides and skins to a tannery in which they hold
shares, and at the same time induce a small shoe manufacturer
to move to Florida and utilize this leather production. The packer
would be able to make a higher return on his hides. As stated
previously, the by-products of the packing industry can mean
the difference between profit and loss.
Taxes.-Florida has no state income tax, homes under $5,000
evaluation are homestead tax exempt. Both of these are ad-
vantageous to the skilled worker.*
*Information on Florida taxes and corporation laws can be obtained from the Florida
State Chamber of Commerce in Jacksonville.
[56]






Supply and Demand


The supply of hides is such that both upper leather and
factory type sole leather can be produced in Florida. With a
population of about 2,000,000 it would appear that there should
be sufficient demand to absorb a good portion of the shoes made
from these hides and skins. Thus, it seems logical for a shoe
factory to be established near the supply of raw materials and
the demand for the finished product.
In recent years tanneries and leather goods factories have
been established in Texas and California and have been success-
ful by creating a distinctive style with the name of the state
on each product. Florida, with its light weight hides and skins
could become a style center for leather sportswear. The "needle
trade" has already set the pace in the Miami area for "Made
in Florida" sports clothes.
Florida's rapidly growing cattle industry requires leather
for saddles, bridles, harness, clothing, boots, and many other
necessary items. Many of the saddles and boots seen on the
ranches bear the labels, "Made in California" or "Made in Texas".
The Florida cattleman is proud of his industry and wherever
the writer went in the cattle country, he was asked: "With
all the cattle in this state, why can't we have our saddles and
other leather goods made in Florida? and, Why isn't there a
tannery in Florida?"
The cattlemen would support a tannery and leather goods
factory. There would also be a tendency to take better care of
their cattle hides in order to assure themselves of good leather
since the best saddles are made from clear fine grained leather.

CONCLUSION
From the standpoint of numbers of hides, Florida could
adequately supply at least two good-sized tanneries or several
small ones. The matter of quality is unfavorable due to poor
take-off, and cure. Florida hides are basically thin, spread and
of poor substance. They are best adapted for light leather
manufacture, however, there are sufficient hides of a weight
range suitable for factory sole leather and some finders leather.
Extension work is needed to educate butchers as to proper
methods of handling hides. The farmer should be taught the
[57]






value of the hide and the importance of locating the brand on
the less valuable portions of the hide. An intensive extension
program could materially raise the quality of Florida hides and
skins in a short time.
The cattle industry is constantly expanding. Much has been
done to improve the cattle through breeding, improved pastures,
and supplemental feeding. The United States Department of
Agriculture's estimate for numbers of cattle in Florida for the
year 1944 is 1,159,000 head. On the basis of this hide survey,
indications are that the actual number is greater. Last year
approximately 100,000 cattle and calves were shipped out of the
state as feeders and for veal. It is difficult to make a definite
statement as to the number of cattle there are to serve as a
background for possible available hides. The reader can arrive
at his own total from the basis of the data obtained in this
bulletin that the annual turnover of cattle and calves in Florida
for 1944 was between 600,000 and 700,000.
With reference to utilities in Florida, the following must
be considered:
(a) Florida has parity with the states east of the Rockies
in basic freight rates. A tannery located at one of the ports
would have the advantage of railroad water-rates.
(b) The water supply in Florida is hard, and it would be
necessary to treat it before using it in a tannery. In certain
locations cost of pumping is eliminated due to artesian wells.
(c) Fuel costs in Florida are generally high. Bunker C fuel
oil when obtained at a port sells for slightly over a dollar per
barrel in tank-car lots. Power can be obtained for 1-11/ kilo-
watt, depending upon the source. Heat is required in the tan-
nery for processing, and power can be made as a by-product.
Marketing of hides deserves further consideration on the
part of the packers and abattoirs. A tanner interested in locat-
ing in Florida should thoroughly investigate and make definite
arrangements for a hide supply before constructing a plant.
It is hoped that Florida will have an adequate supply of
scrub oak bark tannin extract produced in the state. With port
facilities, foreign tannins and other materials could be laid down
at the tannery at a comparatively low cost.
By-products of the tannery in the form of glue, gelatin, hair,
and fertilizers would help to increase the income on the invest-
ment above the sale of leather. At the same time, through
[58]





modern means of sewage disposal, offensive odors and undesir-
able tannery waste can be eliminated satisfactorily.
By using limerock concrete, buildings, vats, and machinery
bases can be built at a low cost.
Private homes under $5,000 evaluation are homestead exempt
and there is no state income tax.
Skilled tannery and shoe-manufacture labor would have to
be imported. Florida normally has an adequate supply of un-
skilled labor.
The economic outlook for the shoe industry in the nation
appears favorable since the demand for such an essential com-
modity is stable. There is uncertainty for the future of the
leather industry due to foreign war-born industries and com-
petition of plastics and other synthetic materials; however, there
always is a place for something that is distinctive in style and
utility. There is a strong demand for saddles, boots and various
other leather products by the cattlemen and farmers through-
out the state. Florida could produce a "Made in Florida" sport
shoe or leather sports apparel which would attract attention
and create a demand.
SUMMARY
Florida is the birthplace of the cattle industry in the United
States, dating as far back as 1520. Florida today can supply
between 400,000 and 500,000 hides and skins annually. These
hides and skins are light weight and spread and mainly adapted
for light leather manufacture. Extension work is needed to
improve conditions of the hides and skins. A tannery in Florida
to be successful would have to be located at a point of advantage
with reference to transportation, fuel, power, water, source of
supply, and labor. Success would mainly depend upon a supply
of improved hides and an outlet for the leather into a manu-
facturing plant which would be producing a product that could
compete with other plants. A distinctive "Made in Florida"
style should be created.


[59 ]







APPENDIX A

LEATHER OUTLETS FOR HIDES AND SKINS
(Reprinted by permission of Pratt Bro. Company from North American
Packer Hides by Jame Price.)

"Below are given tables showing the varieties of leather into which
the several descriptions of hides and skins find outlet. Each description
of leather carries a designating number, which appears opposite the varieties
of hides and skins which can be utilized to produce such leather.
"Many branded hides have a brand on one side only, permitting tanners
of both branded and native hides to utilize such stock advantageously.
The clear or native side can be used in harness, belting and other descrip-
tions of leather, while the branded side usually moves into the sole leather
vats.
"Leather numbers having 's' appended indicate that the hide base is
used in that type of leather only when thin and spread. Similarly the
letter 'w' indicates outlet into women's weights of the designated leather,
and 'c' indicates the clear side of a branded hide."


Used in All
Seasons
Description Mainly Winter
and Spring Kill


Used in Best Seasons
Mainly Summer
and Fall Kill


Bulls: (Native) 75-85 lbs. up
Bulls: (Native) 60 lbs. up
Bulls: (Branded) all weights
Steers: (Native) 58 lbs. up
Steers: (Native) 48-58 lbs.
Steers: (Native) 48 lbs.
Steers: (Butt brand) 58 lbs. up
Steers: (Butt brand) 48-58 lbs.
Steers: (Side brand) 58 lbs. up
Steers: (Side brand) 48-58 lbs.
Cows: (Native) 53 lbs. up
Cows: (Native) under 53 lbs.

Cows: (Branded) all weights


Cows and Steers: (Native)
43-58 lbs.
Cows and Steers: (Native)
under 43 lbs.
Kipskins: (Native) Overweights,
25-35 lbs.
Kipskins: (Native) Regulars,
15-25 lbs.
Kipskins: (Branded) all weights
Calfskins: (Heavy) 10-15 Ibs.,
or 9%-15 Ibs.


1, 2, 3, 24
1, 3, 24
1, 3,24
1, 3, 4, 5
1, 3, 4, 5
1, 23, 36
1, 2
1, 3, 4, 5, 23s
1, 2
1, 3, 4, 5
1, 23s, 42, 44
12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19,
42, 43, 51, 36
1, 3, 23s, 36 (In-
cludes branded
steers under 48
Ibs.)
1, 3, 4, 15, 36
1, 23s, 36, 42, 44


32, 61, 62
17, 32
32
22, 25, 31, 33, 61, 62
22, 25, 33, 34, 35
12, 13, 14, 51, 52
21e, 31c, 33c
13c, 14c, 22c, 25c, 31c,
34, 35c
21c, 31c, 33c, 34c, 35e
13c, 14c, 22c, 31c, 34c,
35c
16, 17, 22, 35, 41, 43,
51, 52, 61, 62, 71

52, 71, 73
12c, 13, 15c, 18c, 19c,
35c, 41c, 42c, 44c

22, 25, 34, 35, 41, 43,
51, 52, 71
12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 41,
43, 72


11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19
11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 72,
S 73
13, 14, 74 \ 18c, 19c, 72c, 73c
-. 13, 14, 17, 72, 73, 74
[60










Calfskins: (Lights) 8-10 lbs., or 11w, 13w, 17w, 19w, 72,
under 9% lbs. 73, 74, 75
Calfskins: (Deacons) 7-8 lbs. 11w, 19w, 72, 73, 74, 75
Calfskins: (Deacons) under 7 lbs. 11w, 19w, 72, 73, 74, 75
Slunks: (Regulars) 19w, 73, 74, 75
Slunks: (Hairless) 19w, 74, 75
LEATHER VARIETIES
Sole Leather
1-Vegetable tanned (bark or extract)
2-Vegetable (Finders leather) extra heavy
3-Chrome tanned
4-Chrome retanned
5-Alum tanned (white leather)
Upper Leather
11-Full grain leather (skins)
12-Full grain leather (sides)
13-Corrected grains
14-Sport elk leather
15-Work shoe and retan elk sides
16-Moccasins and shoe pac sides
17-Patent leather
18-Buckskin leather
19-Sueded leather
Belting Leathers
21-Oak tanned, curried (Hy. wts.) also extract tanned
22-Oak tanned, curried (Light weights)
23-Lace (Rawhide or Indian tanned)
24-Rawhide or oiled-(used for hydraulic, valve, washer, gasket, gear
lines)
25-Textile leather (for carding, combing and picking machines)
Harness Leather
31-Oak and Union tanned
32-Oak stagline leather (extra heavy)
33-Skirting leather
34-Collar leather
35-Strap leather
36-Latigo, halter and thong leather
Apparel Leather
41-Garment cowsides, grains or suede for coats, etc.
42-Buckskin for leggings, gloves, etc.
43-Grain leather for puttees, belts, etc.
44-Glove cowsides (grains, splits)
Luggage
51-Case, bag, and strap leather
52-Portfolio and brief case leather
Upholstery Leather
61-Upholstery, carriage, and automobile leather
62-Buffings and bookbinding (grains, splits)
Specialty Leathers
71-Athletic cowsides (baseball, basketball, and football leathers)
72-Golf grips
73-Pocketbook, etc., leather
74-Parchment, vellum, etc.
75-Drumheads, etc.
[61]









APPENDIX B
(Reprinted from United States Department of Labor Bulletin No. 679.)

TABLE (13).-Analysis of Workers According to Sex and Skill in the
Leather Industry.


All Males Fe-
Product Workers Semi- Un- males
Total Skilled I skilled skilled mal

Per Cent of Workers

All products .............. 100.0 91.6 13.4 50.7 27.5 8.4

Side upper leather' 100.0 92.1 11.3 56.7 24.1 7.9
Sole, including
belting leather .... 100.0 99.9 9.7 47.0 43.2 .1
Kid upper leather.... 100.0 81.7 23.5 37.8 20.4 18.3
Calf upper leather.... 100.0 83.0 18.5 46.5 18.0 17.0
Glove leather ........ 100.0 100.0 10.3 64.7 25.0
Other sheepskin
leather .................. 100.0 87.4 10.4 53.4 23.6 12.6
Miscellaneous leather 100.0 95.0 14.8 51.4 28.8 5.0
SIncludes integrated plants engaged in both tanning and finishing of patent leather.
SIncludes sheep, kid. "Cabretta". and cape glove leather.

TABLE (15)


Sex, Skill, and Occupation


Number of
Workers
(Weighted)


All workers .......................................... 47,672
M ales ...................................................................... .................... 43,663
Skilled ......................................... .............................................. 6,419
Carpenters .................................. ........................................ 283
Daubers, final coat, patent leather .................................. 206
Electricians ....................................................................... 106
Engineers, power plant ....................................... ........... 243
Foremen, working, beam house ........................................ 166
Foremen, working, finishing .............................................. 656
Foremen, working, sorting, and shipping ...................... 109
Foremen, working, tanning ................................ ...... 184
Foremen, working, miscellaneous .................................... 331
Glazing machine operators ............................................ 977
Inspectors .......... ............................................................. 215
Machine repairmen ............................................................... 574
Millwrights .......................................................................... 113
Shaving matching operators ............. .......................... 1,015
Sorters, finished leather ....................................... 591
Splitting machine operators ................................................ 319
Miscellaneous workers, maintenance, skilled .................... 280
Miscellaneous workers, other, skilled ............................ 56
Semiskilled ........................................................... ..................... 24,235
Beamsters, or scudders, hand .............................................. 762
[62]






TABLE (15)-Continued
Number of
Sex, Skill, and Occupation Workers
(Weighted)

Beamsters or shudders, machine .......................................... 168
Bleaching machine operators .............................................. 123
Boarders or grainers, hand .................................................. 160
Boarders or grainers, machine .......................................... 195
Brushing machine operators ............................................. 275
B uffers ...... .......................................................... ..... ....... 1,498
Buffers and polishers, hand .................................................. 113
Clerks, plant ... ................... ..... ....... .................................. 505
Color wheel operators .......................................................... 722
Croppers or cutters, hides and skins, hand ...................... 227
Finishers or seasoners, hand .......................... ................... 1,354
Finishing or seasoning machine operators ...................... 480
Firemen, power plant .......................................................... 544
Fleshing machine operators ................................................ 838
Ironers, leather, machine .................................................... 155
Liquor men, tanning .................................. .......... .......... 193
Measuring machine operators .... ........................................ 330
Mixers, finishing solutions .................................................. 303
Mixers, solutions, beam house ............................................. 74
Oiling-off machine operators ....................................... ........ 76
Pasters, leather drying ........................................................ 313
Plating and embossing press operators .......................... 939
Press operators, miscellaneous ........... .............................. 142
Rolling machine operators ..................... ............................ 1,094
Setters-out, hand ..................................................................... 201
Setters-out, machine ...................................... ......... ......... 1,626
Sorters, hides and skins ...................................................... 318
Sorters, leather in process ... ............................................. 494
Splitting machine helpers ...... . ................................... 349
Sprayers, leather ........................................... ..................... 410
Stakers, hand ......................................................................... 348
Stakers, machine .................................. .......... ...... 1,805
Stretching machine operators ............................................ 72
Stuffers, spongers, and oilers, leather, hand .................... 350
Stuffing and oiling wheel operators .................................... 283
Tackers, leather drying ..................... ............................... 1,399
Togglers, leather drying ........................................................ 1,323
Trimmers, hides and skins, hand ................................... 717
Trimmers, leather, hand ...................................................... 385
Truck and tractor drivers .................................................... 214
Unhairing-machine operators .............................................. 453
Weighers and counters ...................... .................................. 147
Wet wheelers, emery grinding .... ................................. 133
Wheel operators, miscellaneous ..................................... 336
Wringing-machine operators .............................................. 319
Miscellaneous workers, maintenance, semiskilled ............ 337
Miscellaneous workers, other, semiskilled ........................ 633
U nskilled ...... .................................................................................. 13,009
Cleaners, equipment ............. .................................. ..... 96
Dippers, dampening ............ ........ .................................... 276
Dippers, finishing solutions .................................. ..... 216
D riers, leather ........................................ ..... ..................... 1,327
Elevator operators ... .......................................................... 158
Hair-room workers .................................................................. 202
Haulers, beam house ............................................................. 1,583
[63 ]






TABLE (15)-Continued
Number of
Sex. Skill, and Occupation workers
(Weighted)

Haulers, tan house .................................................. .. 1,800
Janitors .......................... ........................... .......- ...... 237
Laborers, beam house ............................. ............ ........ 721
Laborers, finishing .......1... .............-....................- 1,467
Laborers, hide house ................... ... ... 472
Laborers, shipping and stock ........................ ...... 266
Laborers, tan house ............................................ 364
Laborers, miscellaneous .......................-- .....--..--....... 531
Learners ............................. ..................... 63
Measuring-machine helpers .......................................... 119
Packers, leather ............. ........................................6.. 16
Plating and embossing press helpers ................................ 304
Set-out machine helpers ............................ ........... 106
Stampers, hides and leather .................................. 89
Strippers, leather, other than patent ................................ 268
Watchmen ............................................................. 515
Miscellaneous workers, beam house, unskilled .......... 213
Miscellaneous workers, finishing, unskilled .................... 519
Miscellaneous workers, tan house, unskilled .................. 245
Miscellaneous workers, other, unskilled .......................... 236
Fem ales ............................................ ... ...................... 4,009
Skilled ................................ ..... ................... .....35
Glazing-machine operators ............................................... 260
Miscellaneous workers, skilled .......................................... 75
Sem skilled ............................................... ......................... 3,036
Clerks, plant ............................. ........ .. ...... .....-- 97
Finishers or seasoners, hand ........................................ 1,277
Finishing or seasoning-machine operators ........................ 318
Ironers, leather, machine ............................ .......... ...- 118
Measuring-machine operators ....................................... 78
Sprayers, leather ...................... ................ ... 153
Trimmers, leather, hand ...................................................... 439
Miscellaneous hand workers, semiskilled .......................... 248
Miscellaneous machine operators, semiskilled ................ 308
Unskilled ........................................................................... 638
Driers, leather ........................................... ..... ...... 150
Learners ............................... ............ .......... 80
Measuring-machine helpers ................................ ............ 110
Miscellaneous workers, unskilled ..................................... 298


[64]













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author desires to express his appreciation to all agencies
from whose data material were taken and especially to the
Florida Cattlemen's Association, Tanners Council of America,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension
Service, State Department of Agriculture, the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Florida State Chamber of Commerce,
various packing plants, hide dealers, and tanners, and to the
agricultural and commercial agents of the various railroads.
The author desires to express especial appreciation to the
following men who read the manuscript, assisted in gathering
data and offered invaluable suggestions:
Dr. R. A. Morgen-Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station
Dr. A. L. Shealy-Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Mr. P. E. Williams-Florida Cattlemen's Association
Mr. L. H. Lewis-Florida State Marketing Bureau
Mr. J. C. Townsend-United States Department of Agriculture (B.A.E.)
Mr. C. W. Beebe-United States Department of Agriculture (B.A.I.C.)
Dr. W. C. Morris-Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station
and to also express appreciation to many other persons and
agencies from whose thoughts materials were taken.


[65]






REFERENCES

1. DACY, G. H.-Four Centuries of Florida Ranching, Britt Printing Com-
pany, St. Louis, Mo., 1940.
2. Hide and Leather and Shoes Fncylnopedia-Hide and Leather Pub-
lishing Co., 1941.
3. HOMMON, H. B.-Public Health Bulletin No. 100 (USPAS), Nov. 1919.
4. Joumrr, W. H-Florida, The South, and Freight Rates, Economic
Leaflets, Vol. 2, No. 7, University of Florida, June, 1943.
5. LEWIS, L. H.Florida in the National Livestock Program, For Sale,
Want, and Exchange Bulletin, Florida State Marketing Bureau,
Jacksonville, Fla., March 1, 1944.
6. Beef Cattle in Florida, Bulletin No. 28, 3rd Edition,
Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla., May,
1945.
7. MACKELLAR, W. M.-Cattle Tick Fever, Yearbook, 1942, United States
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
8. MADSEN, L. R.-Nutritional Diseases of Cattle, Yearbook, 1942, United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
9. MAY, W. D. and FRAM, E. E.-Immediate Sources of Vegetable Tan-
nins in Florida, Journal of the American Leather Chemists Asso-
ciation, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 6, 1943.
10. NEWTON, A. P.-The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688,
A. & C. Black Ltd., London, 1933.
11. PEBLMAN, J.-Earnings and Hours in the Leather and Leather Belting
and Packing Industries, 1939. United States Department of Labor,
Bulletin No. 679.
12. PRIuE, JAs.-North American Packer Hides. Pratt Bros. Co., New
York, 1939.
13. REUNINC, H. T.-Report of Stream Pollution Committee IT, Journal of
the American Leather Chemists Association, Vol. XXXIX, No. 10,
1944.
14. ROGCES, ALLEN.-Practical Tanning. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Inc.,
New York, 1922.
15. SMrrH, JAY.-Equipping and Designing the Post-War Tannery, Hide
and Leather and Shoes, January 13, 1945.
16. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys.-Standard Trade & Securities,
Vol. 2 L1-3, Standard Statistics Corp., Inc., New York, May 12,
1944.
17. TRENT-NAIRNE, E.-Private Correspondence.
18. TuRLEY, H. G.-A New Synthetic Tan That Can Replace Vegetable
Tans, Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, Vol
XL, No. 2, 1945.
19. WILSON, J. A.-Modern Practice in Leather Manufacture, Reinhold,
Publishing Corp., 1941.


[66]


















ADDENDA


The Office of Marketing Services of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture reports that packing plants and abat-
toirs in Florida under Federal, State and Municipal inspection
slaughtered a total of 71,200 cattle and calves in the first six
months of 1945. This is an increase of 9.1% over the same
period in 1944. Accurate information as to Class 2 B Butchers
and farm slaughter is not available. However, spot checks indi-
cate that the over all 1945 slaughter figures for Florida will be
approximately 10% greater than 1944.


[67]




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs