• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Main
 Back Matter














Title: Climatic data for the design and operation of air conditioning systems in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003187/00001
 Material Information
Title: Climatic data for the design and operation of air conditioning systems in Florida
Series Title: Climatic data for the design and operation of air conditioning systems in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Ebaugh, Newton Cromwell
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003187
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4338
ltuf - ADL7818
alephbibnum - 000677029

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Foreword
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Matter
        Page 20
Full Text















CLIMATIC DATA FOR
THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
IN FLORIDA


by

N. C. Ebaugh
Head, Mechanical Engineering Department
and
S. P. Goethe
BRerch hginee

Bulletin No. 5
Published May, 1939
Reprinted September, 1947


LORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION
College of Engineering University of Florida Gainesville


i-o "1, I








The Florida Engineering and Industrial
Experiment Station
The Engineering Experiment Station was first approved by
the Board of Control at its meeting on May 13, 1929. Funds
for the Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
were appropriated by the Legislature of the State of Florida in
1941. The Station is a Division of the College of Engineering
of the University of Florida under the supervision of the State
Board of Control of Florida. The functions of the Florida En-
gineering and Industrial Experiment Station are:
a) To develop the industries of Florida by organizing and
promoting research in those fields of engineering, and the re-
lated sciences, bearing on the industrial welfare of the State.
b) To survey and evaluate the natural resources of the
State that may be susceptible to sound development.
c) To contract with governmental bodies, technical socie-
ties, associations, or industrial organizations in aiding them to
solve their technical problems. Provision is made for these
organizations to avail themselves of the facilities of the Engi-
neering and Industrial Experiment Station on a co-operative
financial basis. It is the basic philosophy of the Station that the
industrial progress of Florida can best be furthered by carrying
on research in those fields in which Florida, by virtue of its loca-
tion, climate, and raw materials, has natural advantages.
d) To publish and disseminate information on the results
of experimental and research projects. Two series of pamphlets
are issued: Bulletins covering the results of research and in-
vestigations by staff members; and Technical Papers, reprinting
papers or reports by staff members which have been published
elsewhere.
For copies of Bulletins, Technical Papers or information on
how the Station can be of service, address:
The Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
College of Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Ralph A. Morgen, Director.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


Engineering Experiment Station


Bulletin No. 5


CLIMATIC DATA FOR
THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
IN FLORIDA



by

N. C. Ebaugh
Head, Mechanical Engineering Department
and
S. P. Goethe
Research Engineer












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville, Florida
May, 1939













FOREWORD


One of the chief purposes of the Engineering Experi-
ment Station of the University of Florida is to make
available engineering data which will prove beneficial
to the industries and people of the state. The data in-
cluded in this bulletin should be useful to everyone
engaged in the general field of air conditioning, particu-
larly to architects, engineers, manufacturers, and pur-
chasers who are interested in the design, installation,
and sale of air conditioning systems in Florida.
Few industries in the state have grown faster during
recent years than has the air conditioning industry.
Many installations have been made on the basis of
much guesswork and thru "rule of thumb" methods.
To assist in the improvement of these conditions, the
staff of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at
the University of Florida, under the direction of Prof.
N. C. Ebaugh, has begun a series of investigations.
The logical sequence of air conditioning investigations
in Florida is to first determine the climatic factors
which affect the design and operation of this type of
equipment, and then to investigate ways and means of
economically meeting these conditions. This bulletin,
the first of a series which will be issued, covers the
results of some of these investigations. Additional bul-
letins will be published as additional worthwhile in-
formation is secured.
The Engineering Experiment Station will welcome in-
quiries pertaining to air conditioning. It cannot promise
to answer them completely but they may at least serve
as a basis for future investigations.

JOSEPH WEIL, Director
Engineering Experiment Station
University of Florida







4 ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN


Introduction

THE peninsula of Florida is the southernmost part
of the United States and lies in the same latitude
as Egypt and India. Miami is as far south as Monter-
rey, Mexico, and farther west than the Panama Canal.
Key West is just ninety miles from Havana and less
than this distance from the torrid zone.
Florida is nearly surrounded by water and has a
coast line in excess of 1200 miles. One is always with-
in an hour's drive by automobile of either the Atlantic
Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Breezes from these great
bodies of water temper the cold of winter and the heat
of summer and temperature extremes which are com-
mon to other sections of the United States are unknown
in this mild climate.
Object
Published climatic data for Florida are insufficient
for many studies concerning the design and operation
of air conditioning systems. Such data as are available
do not include enough information with respect to wet
bulb temperatures, the hourly variation of dry bulb
temperatures, and the intensity of solar radiation. The
principal objects of this report are to present reliable
data for both winter and summer concerning:
1-Dry bulb temperature extremes and normals.
2-Wet bulb temperature extremes and normals.
3-Degree-days of heating season and degree-hours
of cooling season.
4-Intensity of solar radiation on surfaces having
various orientations with respect to the sun.
No effort has been made to consider all possible cli-
matic factors and only those factors which are per-
tinent to air conditioning studies are given. However,
the data include more than just the important informa-
tion needed for the design of air conditioning systems
because the authors contemplate further studies in
which climatic data are involved.
Procedure and Results
The United States Weather Bureaus at Jacksonville,
Miami, Tampa, and Pensacola cooperated by furnish-






CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING


ing information for a 10-year period which is considered
long enough for studies of this type. This information,
together with data obtained from Bulletin 200, Uni-
versity of Florida Agri..ifl--al Experiment Station, en-
titled "The Climate of Florida." constitutes the main
basis of this report.
These four cities are widely enough distributed to
permit the estimation of data for intermediate points
within the state and the recorded data at these stations
is more complete than at most of the other points.

Dry Bulb Temperatures
A first guide to proper design temperatures was ob-
tained by selecting those days from the Monthly Me-
teorological Summary Sheets which showed a maximum
departure from normal and which also showed a low
minimum temperature in winter or a high maximum in
summer. The hourly readings for each of these days
was then obtained from the bureau and the averages for
each month over a 10-year period are given under B
in Tables 1 through 4.
The average extreme temperatures are not suitable
for design purposes but are useful in other studies. The
recommended design temperatures were obtained by
examining the maximum and minimum columns of the
monthly summary sheets. The recommended design
temperatures were only exceeded on 2% of the days
during the 10-year period. In other words, the de-
sign values will cover 98%o of all the extreme tempera-
tures occurring during the 10 years. These recom-
mended design temperatures are given under C in
Tables 1 through 4.
It will be noted that the recommended design values
differ considerably from the all time recorded values
also given under C in Tables 1 through 4. This is in line
with good practice in other sections of the country.
This insures a system of adequate capacity and also
one which will operate with good efficiency and proper
cost. Whereas, if a system is designed for the all time
extremes, it will be oversized most of the time and be
inefficient to operate.
The means of lowest temperatures occurring during
a 20-year period, differing from that considered here,
is given in Fig. 1. Another interesting plot is the typical







6 ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN

extreme cold wave shown on Fig. 2. Fortunately, cold
waves of this intensity only occur at rare intervals.

Wet Bulb Temperatures
The weather bureau summary sheets give wet bulb
readings for only three times per day. In order to in-
vestigate this point further, a recording psychrometer
was operated at the University in Gainesville long
enough to give the daily variation at this point which
is nearly centrally located in the state.
The data given in Tables 1 through 4 as Design Tem-
peratures are adjusted slightly due to the small amount
of uncertainty in wet bulb readings and are considered
to be amply high.

Normal Temperatures
Days near the middle of each month which showed
minimum departure from the normal temperature for
that day were selected from the monthly summary


Fig. 1. Means of lowest temperatures, 20 years (1894-5 to
1913-1 ').-From Bul. 200, Univ. of.Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station.







CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING


sheets. The hourly temperatures were then obtained
from the bureau for those days and the average of these
for the various years for each month are given under A
in Tables I through 4.

Degree-Hours and Days
The degree-day has been successfully used for the
comparison of the duration and severity of heating sea-
sons in other sections of the country and more lately it
appears that the degree-hour may prove of similar
value in connection with certain types of summer air
conditioning systems. In view of this, data of this type
are presented in Tables I through 4 under D and E.
Two methods of computation have been used to ob-
tain the normal values of duration. One is the con-
ventional way of subtracting the average daily tem-
perature from 65F in winter and adding up each of
the values so obtained to get degree-days per season.
The other method used the normal hourly temperature


Fig. 2. Lowest temperatures during the cold wave
of February 2 to 6. 1917.-From Bul. 200, Univ. of Florida
Agricultural Erperimnent Station.







8 ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BUl'LETIN

variations and thus eliminates those parts of the day
when the temperature exceeds the base value.
The summer degree-hours were calculated in a simi-
lar manner and it is believed that those obtained from
the normal hourly readings are more representative of
actual summer operation.
The two methods are in good agreement with the
exception of Miami (see D in Table 1). In this case
it is obviously impossible to place great significance on
the degree-day as a measure of the winter operation.
This is due to the fact that heat is usually needed only
in early morning and at night.

Correction to Street Level
Since the weather bureau thermometers are usually
mounted on top of buildings there is always some ques-
tion as to the temperatures at ground level in the down-
town areas of cities. The results of one effort to de-
termine such a correction are given in Table 5.
The authors feel that insufficient data are available
to warrant general recommendations on this correction.
It is included merely to bring out the fact that such
corrections should receive the consideration of design-
ing and application engineers.
The locations of the weather bureau thermometers
are as follows: Jacksonville, 104 ft. above ground;
Mliami, on top of Ingraham Building (approximately
130 ft.); Tampa, 88 ft. above ground; Pensacola, 149 ft.
above ground.

Solar Radiation
The results of calculations for solar radiation are
given on Figs. 3 and 4. These give the intensity of
radiation on various surfaces and also correct from sun
time to local standard time.
The method of obtaining these results is too long to
describe in this report and the authors hope to present
this at a later date as a separate report. Suffice it to
say that the method when applied to the latitude of
Pittsburgh, yields results which closely agree with those
published in the ASHVE Guide for 1938.








TABLE 1. CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-MIAMI

A-AvERAox NORMAL DAYS B-AVERAGE. EXTREME DAYS

Ha. JAN. I n. MAR. APR.A. MAY JUNE JULY AuG. SEP. OCT. Nov. Dec. Ha. JAN. FEB. JULY Auo. SEP. DEc.

DIRv Bul.n TEMPERATURE IN OF DIlY BOLB TEMPERATURE IN OF

I 62.8 67.o 68.1 70.6 75.9 77.5 8o.: 80.4 78.1 73.4 71.6 66.8 1 59.2 55.2 82. 80.7 81.4 So.2
64.3 66.4 68. 70.0 75,1 77.1 78.8 80.4 78.6 75.5 70.5 65.6 2 58.7 54.1 82.0 82.5 80.7 49.3
3 63..9 65.6 6; 6 70.0 74.1 76.9 78.1 8o.4 77.5 74.5 69.6 65.1 3 57.7 53.1 81.9 8.! 80.9 48.7
4 6,1.o 65.2 67.3 69.6 72.9 77.1 77.0 79.6 77.8 74.6 69.8 64.8 4 57.2 52.1 82.0 82.0 80.9 47.8
5 63.9 64.0 67.4 69.2 72.6 77.2 77.1 79.8 78.0 74.7 69.3 64.8 5 57.2 St.0 81.9 81.9 80o. 47.2
6 6-.8 63.4 6.,8 69.r 73.5 77.6 77.2 79.4 78.3 75.0 68.2 64.1 6 56.5 50.4 81.4 81.7 8o.1 46.6
7 6h.S 63.4 65.8 69.4 74.0 79.4 79.9 8o.o 78.9 75.o 68.4 64.4 7 55.2 50.2 82.7 82.2 80.4 45.8
8 62.8 64.4 67.o 70.7 76.1 81.: 82.3 8l.5 80.9 76.1 69.7 64.9 8 555 515.2 84.2 84.0 82.4 46.0
9 66.o 66.0 69.4 73.7 78.8 82.4 83.8 84.6 83.5 78.7 73.1 69.5 9 59.3 56.3 85.a 85.8 85.3 50.6
10 69.3 68.4 70.9 75.0 8o.0 82.4 85.0 84.4 84.1 79.4 74.9 71.6 10 62.9 63.3 87;. 86.5 86.7 54.6
11 7 1.6 71.0 71.4 76.0 80.4 8:.8 84.6 85.S 85.4 79.5 76.3 73.6 I 66.3 66.: 87.4 87.5 87.7 38.2
Noon 72.7 72.3 71.4 76.5 79.8 81.o 84.1 86.4 83.0 8o.o 76.7 74.3 Noon 68.0 68.5 87.3 87.8 87.7 60.7
S 74.3 73.0 71.9 76.9 80.7 82.3 83.9 86.8 83.6 8o.1 77.2 74.2 I 69.3 70.0 87.2 88.3 88.: 62.3
2 74.8 73.6 72.1 76.5 79.8 82.8 83.2 86.6 83.5 8o.5 77.4 74.2 2 69.5 69.7 87.4 88.3 87.5 63.4
3 75.0 72.8 72.8 76.2 78.9 81.4 84.1 85.3 82.3 80.5 77.2 73.4 3 67.5 70.4 87.4 86.6 86.2 63.a
4 74.8 71.6 71.4 76.1 78.3 80.3 83.4 84.8 82.6 79.3 76.1 72.1 4 68.6 69.4 87.0 85.7 86.2 63.3
5 74.6 70.6 70.9 75.1 77.0 79.2 82.5 83.9 81.7 78.7 75.2 70.7 5 68,5 68.9 86.4 85.4 85.2 62.4
6 73.0 70.0 70.0 74.2 77.5 79.6 82.4 83.0 81.0 78.2 74.3 69.1 6 67.6 67.7 85.3 84.7 83.4 61.o
7 71,o 68.6 70.0 73.6 77.2 80.6 82.2 8l.o 79.5 78.1 73.8 67.5 7 66.1 66.1 84.0 83.8 82.4 59.4
8 70.6 68.1 70.2 73.5 76.9 8o.S 8:.5 8o.o 79.3 77.8 73.6 67.0 8 655. 6 5.7 82.8 83.6 82.4 58.7
9 69.3 67.4 70.0 73.2 75.9 79.9 79.6 7S.5 78.9 77.8 72.5 66.4 9 64.6 65.: 82.3 83.0 82.1 57.8
to 68.0 67.o 69.8 72.4 76.4 79.4 80.4 78.8 78.9 77.0 72.1 65.8 io 63.7 65.1 82.3 82.6 81.8 56.8
r1 67.6 66.1 70.0 72.6 75.9 79.5 79.6 77.8 78.9 77.0 71.6 65.8 11 63.7 64.8 82.1 82.5 81.4 SS.7
t2 66.8 64.8 69.4 72.6 74.6 79.1 79.8 78.5 78.6 69.9 7z.5 66.4 12 63.5 63.7 81.9 8,.0 81.I 55.4
\v. 68.5 67.9 69.5 73.0 76.7 79.8 81.2 81.9 8o.5 77.2 72.9 68.4

WET BULB TEMPERATURE IN F WET BULB TEMPERATURE IN F

8 a.m. 59.2 61.6 60.7 63.4 68.6 75.2 76.0 75.8 74.8 70.0 '64.5 61.6 8 a.m. 52.5 48.0 77.0 76.1 77.2 42.2
:2 N. 6,.1 64.7 61.7 65.6 70.o 74.2 75.5 77.1 76.1 71.8 67.3 65.8 12 N. .8.o 58.1 77.0 78.0 77.4 51.0
8 p.m. 63.1 64.0 63.0 65.0 69.8 74.5 75.3 75.0 74.7 70.8 66.3 60.2 8 p.m. 58.o 57.6 76.5 76.5 75.8 50.5





I








TABLE 1 ICo.x.) CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-MIAMI

( --EXTREME AND )ESlGN TEMPERATURES. '.

DUIsGN TEMPERATURES
Highest Dry Bulb 96
of Record ) WINTER SUMMER

Lowest Dry Bulb I 27 D.B. W.B. D.B. W.B.
of Record (
33 26 92 So

COMPARATIVE SEASONAL DATA

I)-HEATINO SEASONS E-COOLING SEASONS

VARIATION IN % VARIATION IN %
Y DEGREE- YR. DEGREE-
DAYS' FROM FROM HOURS' FROM FROM
AVER. NORM. AVER. NORM.

1927 135 5.6 1927 5600 -3.8 36.2
1928 178 11.3 1928 3700 -36.3 -10.0
1929 136 15.0 1929 5470 -6.0 33.1
1930 189 18.2 See 1930 6ioo 4.8 48.4
1931 16o o.o Note 1931 6240 7.3 51.8
1932 157 1.9 Below 1932 7800 30.6 89.9
1935* 190 18.8 1935* 5780 0.7 40.6
1936 134 16.3 1936 6oso 4.0 47-2
1937 io8' -32.5' 1937 5540 -4.8 34-8

'During Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Nov.,
Dec. 65F base temp. Ave. degree-days 'Occurring during the months of:
based on mean daily temp. is 16o. Ave. May, June, July, August, September,
degree-days based on hourly tempera- and October. Based on 8oF base tem-
ture variations of typical normal days perature. Average number of degree-
is 26. Variation not listed as % varia- hours for the past ten-year period
tion from 26 degree-days would give based on mean daily temperatures is
high variation indication; which is not 582o. Average number of degree-hours
correct. Indicates heating is necessary per year based on the average hourly
for short periods in early morning an:l temperature variations of selected typ-
late evening. ical normal days is 4110.
'Data not complete for Nov. and *Data not sufficiently complete to be
Dec., 1937, at time of compilation, included.
*Data not sufficiently complete to in-
clude 1933 and 1934.
F-WIND DATA G-AVE. RAINFALL, IN INCHES

AVE. PREV.
Mo. MPH DR. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Jan. 9.4 NW I JAN
Feb. 9.3 NW FEB
Mar. 9.5 E
Apr. 9.9 E APR
May 9.2 SE
June 7.8 E JUN
July 7.2 SE
Aug. 7.9 SE
Sep. 8.2 E
Oct. 9.2 E
Nov. 11.o NE
Dec. 8.6 NW
Ann. 8.9 E








TABLE 2. CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-JACKSONVILLE

A-AVERAGE NORMAL DAYS B-AVERAGE EXTREME DAYS

IRi. JAN. Frll. MAR. AI. MAY JUNE JULY Auo. SEP. OCT. Nov. DEC. HR.| JAN. FED. JULY Auc. SEr. DEC.

DIRY Hl.i.i TEMPERATURE IN 1: DRY lUI.11 TEMPERATURE IN o[;

I .1., 56.0 54.6 63.4 70.1 73.7 77.4 76.8 75.6 70.3 60.6 56.5 I 40.0 41.0 79.1 79.6 70.7 41.7
32 4.6 55.7 54.5 63.6 69.7 73.2 76.8 76.8 75.5 70.0 6o.o 55.3 2 39.0 39.5 78.9 79.0 77.2 40.5
3 54.2 54.9 53.8 63.1 69.1 73.1 76.2 76.0 74.9 69.6 59.2 54.3 3 38.0 38.3 78.4 78.4 76.9 39.2
4 54.1 54.9 54.1 62.3 68.6 73.2 75.8 75.8 74.7 69. 59.4 53.7 .1 36.6 36.0 78.1 77.8 76.3 38.4
5 53.6 54.7 53.9 61.6 68.0 73.0 75.5 75.7 74.6 69.3 59.1 52.8 35.7 35.6 77.9 77.5 75.8 37.8
6 53.4 54.2 54.1 61.6 67.3 73.3 75.4 75.5 74.3 68.7 58.9 52.7 6 34.7 33.8 77.6 77.3 75.5 38.4
7 53.2 54.0 54.1 62.6 68.9 75.4 76.6 76.6 74.8 68.6 58.0 52.0 7 34.1 33.3 78.2 77.9 76.1 38.1
8 53.5 54.2 54.9 64.5 71.5 76.8 78.8 79.3 79.2 69.4 58.3 52.2 8 34.1 33.0 80.7 80.2 77.5 38.1
(1 53.2 55.8 56.o 67.8 75.0 79.8 8i.t 82.4 81.6 69.7 59.4 53.9 9 14.6 35.3 85.0 83.3 81.3 39.5
0o 54.3 58.5 59.3 70.2 77.4 82.1 82.6 84.2 82.1 72.3 o2.o 56.4 o1 38.0 38.8 86.0 86.1 84.0 41.6
I 56.4 61.7 61.4 72.2 79.7 84.1 84.9 85.8 83.1 73.6 63.7 58.3 11 41.7 42.4 87.8 88.7 87.1 43.6
Noon 57.3 63.5 63.8 73.4 81. 85.2 85.9 85.9 83.0 74.7 64.5 59.6 'oon 44.8 45.2 89.3 90.5 88.7 44.8
I 59.1 665 5.0 75.2 82.0 86.8 87.0 86.1 83.2 74.9 65.7 60.3 I 46.9 47.9 89.7 91.5 89.5 47.5
2 59.9 65.6 65.8 75.7 82.5 87.2 87.3 86.5 82.7 74.6 65.9 60.7 2 48.5 48.6 90.4 92.7 89.6 48.4
3 60.8 65.4 66.1 75.6 82.1 86.3 86.0 85.. 82.7 74.5 66.3 61.0 3 48.3 50.0 90.8 93.1 90.6 49.5
4 60.3 65.1 66.0 75.1 80.5 83.8 83.5 84.9 82.2 73.5 66.: 60.8 4 48.4 50.0 89.2 91.4 88.2 49.3
5 59.2 64.0 65.1 74.6 78.3 8l.5 82.6 83.5 81.2 73.0 65.3 60.3 5 47.9 49.8 88.9 89.1 86.3 47.9
6 56.9 6t.8 62.7 73.0 77.3 77.5 82.0 82.4 8o.1 72.2 63.8 58.8 6 46.0 48.0 87.4 86.6 86.3 46.3
7 54.8 59.5 61.4 70.9 75.1 76.6 81.1 81.2 78.6 71.1 62.4 57.4 7 44.8 46.6 86.2 85.0 83.0 45.6
8 53.7 57.8 60.5 69.1 74.7 76.3 79.1 80.3 77.6 70.3 61.9 56.8 8 43.9 46.0 84.5 82.6 8o.o 45.4
9 52.2 56.8 59.8 67.5 73.3 75.6 78.5 79.2 77.2 69.6 61.4 55.6 9 43.0 46.2 82.5 81.4 79.0 44.8
to 51.5 56.5 59.5 67.1 72.1 75.3 78.2 78.3 76.7 69.7 61.3 55.4 o0 42.3 46.2 8x.8 80.9 78.5 44.1
11 51.0 56.2 59.0 66.9 71.4 75.5 77.5 78.1 76.5 69.5 60.7 54.4 I1 41.6 46.2 80.9 80.5 78.1 43.4
12 50.6 55.7 58.5 66.8 71.0 75.2 77.4 78.1 76.0 68.7 60.0 54.6 12 40.5 46.0 80.6 79.8 77.7 43.9
Av. 55.1 58.6 59.3 71.0 74.4 78.3 80.2 80.6 78.6 71.1 6i.8 56.4

WET I1I.I u TEMPERATURE IN F WET BUI.D TEMPERATURE IN 'O:

8 a.m. 49.0 48-5 51.6 59.6 67.4 72.3 74.1 74.9 72.5 65.5 54.8 48.0 8 a.m. 32.0 31.5 75.0 75.0 73.1 35.5
12 N. 48.2 53.4 56.o 64.0 68.9 74.3 75.1 75.0 73.7 65.6 58.8 52.6 12 N. 37.5 35.0 76.0 75.3 75.0 36.2
8p.m. 45.0 52.8 54.6 63.8 68.3 71.8 74.3 74.6 73.0 65.3 58.6 5a.6 8p.m. 38.0 41.5 75.2 75.0 74.3 39.0


9-.





12

TABLE 2 (CoxT.) CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-
JACKSONVILLE


C-EXTREME AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES, F.

DESIGN TEMPERATURES
Highest Dry Bulb 10
of Record ( 4 WINTER SUMMER

Lowest Dry Bulb 1 D.B. W.B. D.B. W.B.
of Record 25 96 78

COMPARATIVE SEASONAL DATA

D-HEATINc SEASONS E--CooLNmc SEASONS

VARIATION IN % I VARIATION IN %
S DEGREE- YR. DEGREE-
R DAYS' FROM FROM Houns' FROM FROM
AVzE. NoM. AvER. NORM.

1926* 1193 13.6 19.0 1926 4440 -20.5 -21-4
1928* 1222 16.4 21.9 1928 34So -36.4 -38.0
1929 943 10.2 -6.0 1929 3744 -32.3 -33.5
1930 1249 18.9 30.6 1930 6312 13.7 12.7
1931 921 -12.1 -8.2 1931 6480 18.7 15.0
1932 718 -31.6 -28.5 1932 5976 9.5 6.o
1933 80o -25.8 -22.3 t933 7296 33.7 24.0
1934 1116 6.2 11.3 1935 5040 -7.7 14.0
1935 1192 13.6 18.9 1934 6312 15.6 10.0
1936* 1161 10.6 15.8 1930 5616 2.9 0.0

'Occurring during the months of:
November. December. January. Febru-
ary. and March. Based on 65F base 'Occurring during months of: May.
temperature. Average number of de- June, July. August, September and
gree-days per year is so3o. Average October. Based on 8oF base tempera-
number of degree-days per year based ture. Average number of degree-hours
on the average hourly temperature for past ten-year period based on mean
variations of selected normal days is daily temperatures is 5470. Average
o003. number of degree-hours per year based
*Data for these years not complete, on the average hourly temperature va-
Average value of other years under rations of selected typical normal days
consideration used to obtain averages is 5600.
given above, where actual data was in-
complete

F-WIND DATA CG-AvE. RAINFALL. IN INCHES

Mo. AVE. PREY.
MPH DIR. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Jan. 8.3 NE FES
Feb. 8.8 NE
Mar. 9.2 SW MAR
Apr. 9.z SW APR
May 8.4 NAY
June 8.r SW JUN
July 7.9 SW
AuL. 7.4 SW UG
Sep. 7.8 NE S
Oct. S.5 NE CT
Nov 8.0 NE NOV
I)rr n N
Ann. 8.3 NE







TABLE 3. CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-TAMPA

A--A\'VRAGE NourMAL DAY B-AVERAGE EXTREME DAYS

Ha. I'AN. FEB. MAR. APR. MjAY JUNE JULY ArI. SFP. OcT. Nov. DEC. HR. JAN. FEB. JULY Auc. SEP. DEC.

DRY I UL.L TErER.\TURI, IN 1 )IRv :tI.n TEMPERATURE IN oF

1 53.3 57.3 61.4 67.I 71 i 73.7 75.2 7-.5 74.S 69.3 62.9 55.3 I 43.8 51.8 80.6 80.3 76.6 46.9
2 52.9 56.5 60.3 66.1 7o.5 73.S 74.9 75.1 74.5 6S. 62.2 54.9 2 42.5 50.5 80.6 8o.o 76.2 45.8
3 52.2 55.5 59.6 65.4 69.5 73.0 74.S 74.) 74.0 68.3 61.6 54.9 3 41.4 49.0 80.0 79.4 75.8 44.6
4 51.8 55.1 59.2 64.9 69.4 73.0 74.4 74.5 74.3 67.3 6c.7 54.5 4 4.:2 47.5 79-4 79.1 75.6 43.3
5 51.2 54.5 57.6 64.6 68.9 72.6 74.1 7;.4 73.7 66.S 6o.o 54.0 5 39-0 46.5 79.0 78.5 74-9 42.3
6 51.3 54.2 57.3 64.7 66.7 77 74.3 73 73 73.4 65.S 59.3 54.0 6 3i. 45.6 789 78.7 74.7 41.9
7 51.6 53.7 57.0 65.5 70-2 73.7 75.9 75.5 73.9 65 7 59.5 54.2 7 37.4 44.4 80.7 79.9 75-5 41.6
8 52.2 54.0 58.5 67.4 72.5 76.4 78.5 78.3 76.3 68.2 60.3 54.5 8 37.0 45.0 82.6 81.7 77.7 41.7
9 55.2 57.1 64.3 71.0 76.0 79.9 81.S 5:.2 80.0 7; 7 64-7 57.4 9 39.3 46.0 85.5 84.8 82.1 43.8
o1 58.6 63.0 68.0 73.2 78.o 82.5 84.4 S3.9 82.7 76.2 68.7 60.3 to 42.1 48.5 87.0 86.6 84.7 46.3
11 63.0 63.4 70.4 75.7 8o.1 84.0 86.2 86.3 84.6 79.1 72.0 62.8 II 46.4 51.5 89.0 88.5 86.1 49.1
Noon 65.3 65.6 72.1 77.4 81.8 85.6 88.0 86.7 85.7 80.5 73.6 65.3 Noon 48.7 53.8 89.5 89.7 87.4 5.8
1 67.5 67.0 74.4 78.8 82.9 86.6 862 87-.9 87.0 81.7 74.8 67.8 1 51.2 55.9 90.6 90.5 89.4 54.0
2 68.1 69.8 75.4 78.8 83.8 87.4 85.1 86.7 84.3 81.9 76.x 68.6 2 53.3 57.2 91.1 91.9 90.7 55.9
3 69.0 71.1 76.3 78.5 84.5 87.6 81.9 S7..1 83.4 82.1 76.2 68.4 3 54.6 58.8 90.8 90.8 91.2 56.S
4 68.5 71.7 76.1 78.2 84.3 86.0 So.S 87.7 8r.0 81.6 75.7 67.8 4 54.8 59.6 90.1 90.7 90.3 57.3
5 67.8 70.5 74.2 78.2 83.4 85.4 8c.o 80o. 81.6 80.6 73.5 66.5 5 54.5 59.7 89.7 86.7 88.3 60.5
6 65.9 68.7 72.2 74.5 81.9 83.8 79.1 S8.o 80.1 78.5 70.1 64.9 6 52.9 58.5 87.0 84.5 86.0 57.c
7 63.4 65.6 68.8 72.5 79-5 8.o0 77.8 80. 7.7 7. 6.3 67.9 63.5 7 49.8 55.9 85.2 84.5 82.9 50.6
8 62.4 63.8 67.4 71.1 77-7 80.6 77.4 79.7 77.9 74.9 66.6 62.2 8 47.8 54.4 83.7 83.8 80.4 49.5
9 61.5 62.1 65.5 69.4 75.9 78.9 77.0 78.8 77.2 72.9 64.8 62.0 9 46.2 52.6 82.7 81.7 79.2 48.1
to 60.8 6r.o 64.4 68.2 75.0 77.5 76.6 78.2 76.9 71.7 64.0 60.0 o1 45.1 52.3 81.9 81.0 79.! 47.6
It 60.2 59.5 63.4 67.1 74.3 76.3 76.1 77.3 76.2 70.7 63.0 59.0 II 44.2 51.5 81.2 80.4 78.1 47-0
12 59.5 58.6 62.7 66.4 73.1 75.6 75.3 76.S 75.7 69.6 61.5 58-3 12 43.2 50.8 81.o 79.6 77.4 46.1
Av. 59-8 61.5 66.T 71.0 76.3 79.5 78.9 8c.5 78.6 74.2 66.6 60.4

WET BULB TEMPERATURE IN F WET BULB TEMPERATURE IN *F

8 .m.45.4 51.o 55.0 62.2 67.0 72.9 74.6 7-.6 73.7 64.4 58.2 52.1 8 a.m. 32.4 39.0 77-4 76.1 74.5 37.9
ia N. 55.1 54.0 5.59 64.9 68.5 72-5 75.4 74.5 74.4 67.8 62.4 58.2 12 N. 39.3 44.8 75-8 76.6 74.7 42.6
8p.m. s6.0 55.9 58.0 62.3 691 72.8 72.3 73.8 74.0 67.2 63-4 58.4 8 p.m. 41.0 47.6 75.7 74.6 74.2 44.7








TABLE 3 count. ) CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-
TAMPA

C-EXTREME AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES, "F.

DESIGN TEMPERATURES
Highest Dry Bulb 98
of Record WINmrTE SUMMER

Lowest Dry Bulb 19 D.B. W.B. D.B. W.B.
of Record 30 26 96 8o


COMPARATIVE SEASONAL DATA

D-HEATING SEASONS E-COOLING SEASONS

VARIATION I % VARIATION I %
DECREE- YR DEGREE-
DAYS' FnoM FROM HouRs' FROM FRao
AVER. NoRn. AVER. NORM.

1927 467 -7-.9 -72.9 1927 7340 17.8 15.2
1928 656 31.2 9-9 1928 5300 4.-9 16.7
1929 400 -21.2 -33.80 1929 4340 -30.2 -32.0
1930* 1930* -
1931 534 5-3 -11.72 1931 7210 IS.7 13.6
1932 S34 5-3 1.72 1932 7140 14.6 12.1
1933 309 -39.0 -48.8 1933 7160 14.9 12.4
1934 489 3.6 39.2 3934 6095 2.2 -2.2
1935 698 37-7 15-4 3935 5590 -10.3 2.2
1936 476 -4.1 -37.9 1936 5800 -6.9 -8.9

'Orcurring during the months of: 'Occurring during the months of:
Jan.. Feb., March, November, and De- May. June. July, August. September,
member. Based on 65F base tempera- and October. Based on 8oF base tem-
ture. Average number of degree-days perature. Average number of degree-
per year based on mean daily tempera- hours per year for the past ten-year
tur~es 5su. Average number of de period based on the mean daily tem-
gree-days per year based on average peratures is 6230. Average number of
hourly temperature variations of se- degree-hours per year based on the
elected typical normal days is 605. average hourly temperature variations
*Data for 193o not available at of selected typical normal days is-6370.
time of compilation. *Data not complete enough to include.

F-WIND DATA G-AvE. RAINFALL, IN INCHES

'AVE. PREV.
M. MPH DIR. 0 1 2 3 4. 5 6 7 8 9 10

Jan. 6.9 NE
Feb. 7.4 NE
Mat. 7.4 NE
Apr. 7-4 NE APR
May 6.9 NE MAY
June 6.2 NE JUN
July S.7 E JUL
Aug. 5.5 NE AUG
Sep. 6.3 NE
Oct. 7.3 NE
Nov. 6.8 NE
Dec. 6.7 NE
Ann. 6.7 NE








TABLE 4. CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-PENSACOLA


A-AVERAGE NORMAL DAYS
HR. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEP. OCT. Nov. DEC.

I)RY HIULII TE.1'PERAIURE IN F

1 51.8 55.0 58.1 66.6 72.5 76.2 78.2 80.4 77.1 68.6 57.2 50.7
2 50.9 54.2 57.4 66.2 72.5 75.6 78.0 79.7 76.5 67.6 56.9 50.6
3 50.2 53.5 57.4 65.5 71.8 75.1 77.3 79.4 75.6 66.9 56.4 50.3
4 50.0 53.1 56.6 65.4 71.5 74.3 77.4 78.8 75.3 65.9 55.9 49.9
5 49.7 51.5 55.9 64.8 71.4 74.6 76.6 77.8 74.6 64.9 55.4 49.8
6 49.1 50.9 55.7 64.4 72.0 74.7 77.5 77.7 74.6 63.9 54.6 49.7
7 48.6 50.7 55.5 65.3 72.5 77.0 79.0 78.2 75.9 64.5 54.7 49.8
8 48.5 51.9 56.4 66.5 73.5 79.4 81.1 8o.s 77.9 66.4 56.4 50.9
9 49.4 53.9 58.6 67.7 74.4 80.8 83.9 82.3 79.1 69.2 59.0 53.2
0o So.5 56.4 61.8 69.7 75.2 81.5 83.8 83.4 80.8 71.9 6:.8 S5.6
I 51.8 57.7 63.1 70.3 76.1 82.3 83.8 84.0 82.2 74.3 64.4 57.8
Noon 52.9 57.7 63.0 69.8 75.7 82.4 83.9 83.2 83.2 75.0 65.5 59.0
1 54.0 58.2 63.9 70.1 76.0 81.2 84.1 83.8 82.1 75.9 66.2 59.S
2 54.8 59.4 64.0 71.o 75.7 82.4 84.1 83.6 81.4 76.1 66.8 60.6
3 55.4 59.5 64.4 71.3 76.2 81.6 83.8 82.8 81.4 76.7 66.9 6o.1
4 54.9 59.8 64.3 70.6 75.9 81.8 83.5 82.2 81.l 76.4 66.5 59.6
5 54.2 59.o 63.6 69.3 75.7 82.1 83.6 81.3 80.6 75.5 65.8 58.7
6 53.9 58.r 62.6 68.7 75.2 81.3 82.5 80.8 79.8 74.3 65.7 57.5
7 53.2 57.5 62.2 68.2 74.4 80.3 82.4 80.7 79.9 73.7 65.5 56.8
8 52.2 56.4 61.2 68.2 73.9 79.0 81.3 80.0 78.2 73.1 65.1 56.0
9 51.4 56.3 60.5 68.1 73.6 78.3 81.2 79.8 77.6 72.3 64.2 55.3
to 50.7 55.6 6o.1 68.o 73.4 78.1 80.9 79.3 77.3 71.2 63.7 54.7
Ir 50.1 55.5 59.6 68.0 73.0 77.2 80.4 79.6 77.5 70.4 63.8 54.5
12 49.8 55.1 58.9 67,7 72.5 76.8 80.0 79.3 76.9 69.1 63.0 54.2
Av. 51.5 55.7 60.2 67.9 73.9 78.9 81.! 80.7 78.6 70.9 6z.6 54.7

WET BULB TEMPERATURE IN F


B-AVERAGE EXTREME DAYS

HR. JAN. FEB. JULY AUG. SEP. DEC.

DRY BULB TEMPERATURE IN OF

1 32.8 37.5 80.9 81. S 8o.o 40.7
2 30.9 36.9' 80.4 80.9 79.8 40.C
3 30.7 35.8 79.8 80.1 79.4 39.7
4 29.4 38.1 79.7 79.7 79.0 38.9
5 28.8 35.2 79.1 78.8 78.3 38.4
6 27.7 34.6 79.4 78.4 77.7 37.7
7 27.3 34.8 80.7 79.7 78.6 37.3
8 27.2 34.8 83.0 82.2 80,9 37.8
9 28.3 37.0 85.2 84.2 82.8 39.6
to 30.3 39.6 87.4 86.7 84.1 40.7
11 32.5 42.9 88.4 87.0 84.2 43.4
Noon 35.0 45.6 89.3 87.3 84.9 45.8
1 36.5 47. 89.2 87.2 87.1 47.2
2 38.3 48.4 88.5 88.0 86.5 48.7
3 39.5 49.3 88.0 88.0 86.0 49.5
4 39.6 49.5 88.1 87.2 84.7 49.6
5 38.9 49.1 85.9 85.6 84.0 48.8
6 38.0 48.6 85.1 85.0 82.9 47.9
7 37.2 47.7 83.8 84.3 82.3 47.4
8 36.0 47.2 83.2 83.4 82.0 46.3
9 35.0 46.7 82.9 83.1 8I.5 45.9
to 34.6 46.4 82.4 82.5 80.9 45.7
1 33.8 45.8 81.7 82.1 79.7 45.4
12 33.2 45.2 81.4 8r.6 79.5 44.7


WET BULB 'rEMPERATURE IN *F


7a.m. 25.8 30.5 76.1 76.z 74.8
12 N. 30.8 38.1 76.1 79.0 75.5
7 p.m. 32.4 41.6 76.8 77.4 76.4


7 a.m.44.6 47.8 52.0 6r.s 68.7 72.6 74.5 75.0 77.2 60.7 50.3 45.5
12 N. 48.0 52.2 56.2 63.5 70.1 74.4 75.2 77.0 75.2 66.4 58.1 5j.3
7 p.m. 48.6 53.1 56.7 64.9 70.1 72.5 75.9 75.4 73.6 65.9 58.9 So.6


I


I I


cn







TABLE 4 (CONT.) CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING-
PENSACOLA

C-EXTREME AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES, *F.

DESIGN TEMPERATURES
Highest Dry Bulb ---
of Record I WINTER SUMMER

Lowest Dry Bulb D.B. W.B. D.B. W.B.
of Record j
20 17 98 8S

COMPARATIVE SEASONAL DATA

D-HEATING SEASONS E-CooLING SEASONS

VARIATION IN % VARIATION IN %
Y. DEGREE- DEGREE-
DAYS' FRao From HOURS' Fsou FrOM
AVER. NORM. AVER. NORM.

1927 1162 13.2 -7-4 1927 3460 2.38 8.8
1928 1659 23.8 32.2 1928 3280 -2.98 3.S
1929 1273 -S.0 1.4 1929 2120 -37.4 -33.4
1930 630 21.6 29.8 1930 3190 -5.7 0.3
1931 1300 -3.0 3.6 1931 3740 10.7 17.6
1932 1219 -9.0 -2.9 1932 4560 35.1 43.4
1933 1023 23.6 18.5 1933 3980 17.9 25.1
1934 1407 5.0 12.1 1934 3340 1.2 5.03
1935 1323 1.3 5.4 1935 2445 -27.8 .5J.
1936 1450 8.2 15.6 1936 3190 12.2 19.1

'Occurring during the months of: 'Occurring during the months of:
January, February, Marct, April, Octo- June, July, August, and September.
ber, November, and December. Based Based on SoF base temperature. Av-
on 65F base temperature. Average num- erage number of degree-hours per year
ber of degree-days per year based on for the past ten-year period based on
daily mean temperature is 1340. Av- the mean daily temperatures is 3380.
erage number of degree-days per year Average number of degree-hours per
based on average hourly temperature year based on the average hourly tem-
variations of selected typical normal perature variations of selected typical
days is 1255. normal days is 3180.

F-VIND DATA G-AVE. RAINFALL, IN INCHES
AVE. PrEV.
Mo. MPH DIR. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Jan. 13.9 N
Feb. 14.0 N
Mar. 14.2 SE
Apr. 13.8 S
May 12.5 SW
June 11.4 SW
July 11.2 SW
Aug. 10o.3 SW
Sep. 11.7 NE
Oct. 12.9 NE
Nov. 12.9 NE N
Dec. 13.5 N
Ann. 12.7 NE









CLIMATIC DATA FOR AIR CONDITIONING


EASTERN STANDARD TIME FOR JACKSONVILLE, FLORIOA,
i 5 i it 7 i i i *
00SURFACE NORMAL TO SUN

CAST WALL -. 1
HORIZONTAL SU'RAC[-



SOUTH WILL
'-D


6 6 9 f ,11 31 2

CENTRAL STANDARD TIME FOR PENSACOLA. LOaIDA.

Fig. 3. Curvs showing intensity of sun heat in
Jacksonville and Pensacola.


Rainfall and Wind
Although rainfall is a minor factor in the design of
air conditioning systems, there is a peculiar condition
in Florida which is of sufficient interest to warrant a
brief discussion.
Rainfall charts are given under G in Tables 1 through
4, and again in a different way in Fig. 5. Examina-
tion of these charts reveals that the peninsula receives
a large portion of the rainfall during the summer.
months. Furthermore, local observation reveals that a
large part of this falls during the afternoon hours. The


Fig. .4. Curves showing intensity of sun heat in Miami.
All curves give values for August 1.








18 ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN

TABLE S-CORRECTION TO STREET LEVEL FOR
WEATHER BUREAU READINGS. MIAMI
iant Rzw AvalACG or WEATHER IAVnAGZ OW STrUT ACTUAL
SA BuaznMA READINms RrADnrGS ExcESS
Dry bulb........ 78. 83.8 .oF
Wet bulb........ 67.4 69.2 2.oF
Dewpoint ....... 61.4 61.7 o3F
Relative humidity. ss.o 47.5 -7.5%


net result is that the summer temperatures are greatly
moderated and extremes common to other sections of
the country are unknown in Florida. The close prox-
imity of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico with
their attendant breezes is also a major factor which
contributes to moderate temperatures in both summer
and winter.
Examination of the data under F in Tables 1 through
4 will reveal that the summer winds are chiefly from
the south and southwest and from the north and north-
west in winter.
The authors are indebted to the following meteorol-
ogists of the U. S. Weather Bureau for their coopera-
tion in securing the climatic data: W. T. Bennett of
Jacksonville, Ernest Carson of Miami, W. W. Talbott
of Tampa, and A. R. W. Stoeson of Pensacola.
W. A. Lawrence of the Florida Power and Light
Company supplied the data for street corrections in
Table 5 and the authors appreciate his interest and
cooperation.






























































Fig. 5. Normal annual temperature and precipitation, as con:piled from
all available records to 1917 inclusive. Lines with numbers and the de-
gree mark (*) at the end indicate temperature: shaded portions indicate
inches of precipitation during the year.









PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA
ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION

As long as the supply is adequate, copies of available publications
are free for general distribution. Address all requests to: The Director,
Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


BULLETIN SERIES

No. 1. "The Mapping Situation in Florida", by William L.
Sawyer.
No. 2. "The Electrical Industry in Florida", by John W. Wilson.
No. 3. "The Locating of Tropical Storms by Means of Asso-
ciated Static", by Joseph Weil and Wayne Mason.
No. 4. "Study of Beach Conditions at Daytona Beach, Florida,
and Vicinity", by W. W. Fineren.
No. 5. "Climatic Data for the Design and Operation of Air
Conditioning Systems in Florida", by N. C. Ebaugh
and S. P. Goethe.
No. 6. "On Static Emanating from Six Tropical Storms and Its
Use in Locating the Position of the Disturbance",
by S. P. Sashoff and Joseph Weil.
No. 7. "Lime Rock Concrete-Part 1". by Harry H. Houston
and Ralph A. Morgen.
No. 8. "An Industrial Survey of Hides and Skins in Florida",
by William D. May.
No. 9. "Studies on Intermittent Sand Filtration of Sewage-
Part 1", by D. L. Emerson, Jr.
No. 10. "Florida Spray Gun for Pine Tree Gum Flow Stimula-
tion", by Norman Bourke and Keith W. Dorman.
No. 11. "Development of Ceramic Compositions Suitable for the
Production of Poreclain Type Art Ware", by B. W.
Thorngate.
No. 12. "Mold and Mildew", by S. S. Block.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs