• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Topographic maps
 Use of topographic maps
 The value of topographic maps
 History of United States mappi...
 How topographic maps are made
 Federal government cooperation...
 How Florida compares with rest...
 Florida's opportunity
 Conclusion
 Bibliography














Group Title: University of Florida. Publication. Engineering experiment station. Bulletin
Title: The mapping situation in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003183/00001
 Material Information
Title: The mapping situation in Florida
Series Title: University of Florida. Publication. Engineering experiment station. Bulletin
Physical Description: 42 p. : ill., maps, tables ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sawyer, William Lincoln
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1933
 Subjects
Subject: Geology -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Surveys -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by William L. Sawyer.
General Note: At head of title: University of Florida publication.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003183
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4326
ltuf - ABZ0211
oclc - 09456934
alephbibnum - 000352258

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    Topographic maps
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Use of topographic maps
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The value of topographic maps
        Page 14
        Page 15
    History of United States mapping
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    How topographic maps are made
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Federal government cooperation in mapping
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    How Florida compares with rest of United States in mapping
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Florida's opportunity
        Page 40
    Conclusion
        Page 41
    Bibliography
        Page 42
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University of Florida Publication


Engineering Experiment Station


Bulletin No. 1


The Mapping Situation in Florida

By
WILLIAM L. SAWYER
Associate Member. American Society of Civil Engineers
Instructor in Civil Engineering
University of Florida


University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
March, 1933


S I















ACKNOWLEDGMENT


In the preparation of this bulletin, the author has received
suggestions, advice, and data from many sources. The
material consulted in its preparation is given in the bibli-
ography. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance
given by Director R. S. Patton and Dr. William Bowie. of
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Co!onel C. H.
Birdseye, Mr. J. G. Staack, of the United States Geological
Survey, and Mr. Herman Gunter, of the Florida State
Geological Survey. The author especially wishes to acknowl-
edge the help of Dean Blake R. Van Leer, of the College
of Engineering, University of Florida, who first suggested
the writing of this bulletin and who has contributed no
small part to the manuscript in suggestions, criticisms, and
editing, and to Professor P. L. Reed and Professor C. C.
Brown, of the Department of Civil Engineering, who have
reviewed the manuscript. Appreciation is also expressed
to Dr. O. C. Bryan, of the College of Agriculture, University
of Florida, who wrote the paragraph on Soil Mapping.
The illustrations and tables used in this bulletin were
furnished by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey,
the United States Geological Survey, and Civil Engineering.
the monthly publication of the American Society of Civil
Engineers.




















Chapter

Chapter

Chapter


Chapter

Chapter

Chapter


Chapter VII.


Chapter

Chapter


VIII.

Ix.


CONTENTS

Topographic Maps

Use of Topographic Maps

The Value of Topographic Maps and How
They Pay

History of United States Mapping

How Topographic Maps are Made

Federal Government Cooperation in Map-
ping

How Florida Compares in Mapping with the
Rest of the United States

Florida's Opportunity

Conclusion









INTRODUCTION
It is fitting that the first bulletin issued under the auspices
of the Engineering Experiment Station of the University
of Florida should be one which is essentially educational in
character.
"The Mapping Situation in Florida" gives briefly and con-
cise'y, in language which all may understand, the charac-
ter of topographic maps, what they are used for, their value
and cost.
The engineering profession in Florida has long viewed
with chagrin and humiliation the fact that Florida is the
most backward state in our country in topographic mapping.
It is believed that when the people of the state are made
conversant with the situation, appropriate steps will be
taken to topographically map the state. The availability of
such maps would place in the hands of the farmers, business
men, bankers, financiers, and engineers, the means of mak-
ing preliminary studies of drainage, soil distribution, road
location, mosquito hazards, canal locations, and of numer-
ous other problems. Today the cost of those preliminary
examinations frequently makes them prohibitive. An in-
vestor today will not spend large sums to ascertain whether
or not a project is feasible; he must know, or he will invest
his money elsewhere.
This bulletin is not intended as an engineering textbook
on the subject. It is prepared primarily for the non-tech-
nically trained man. It is noteworthy that the collection
and preparation of the information in the bulletin has been
made by Mr. W. L. Sawyer, a member of the faculty of the
Department of Civil Engineering, in addition to the per-
formance of his usual teaching duties, without costing the
State of Florida an additional dollar.
The Engineering Experiment Station solicits correspon-
dence with those who desire further information concerning
the Mapping Situation in Florida.

BLAKE R. VAN LEER, Director,
Engineering Experiment Station,
University of Florida.










THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA

CHAPTER I
Topographic Maps
A topographic map shows natural and artificial features
of the earth's surface, with their relative elevations in their
true geographic positions. A topographic map differs from
most maps in that it shows relative elevations. Maps with
which most of us are familiar show only relative distance
and direction: that is, they are "flat." regardless of the
shape of the ground. Such maps, therefore, show only two
dimensions. Topographic maps, however, show three dimen-
sions, direction, distance, and elevation, and thus show
accurately the true shape of the earth's surface. For this
reason topographic maps are much more useful than the
ordinary maps which show only two dimensions.
Many different symbols are used on topographic maps to
represent the "relief" or shape of the earth's surface, but
the uoie most commonly used is the "contour line." A con-
tour line is a line drawn through all points of equal eleva-
tion above the sea level. Each contour line is separated from
its neighbor by a distance known as the "contour interval."
The contour interval is chosen with regard to the scale of
the map and the roughness of the relief, and is usually some
whole number of feet: as. one foot, two feet. five feet. ten
feet. etc. Then, for a given area and a given contour inter-
val, steep slopes would be indicated by contour lines crowded
closely together, while gradual slopes would be indicated by
contour lines farther apart. In a region of rounded hills
the contour lines would be smooth curves, while in a rough,
mountainous region they would be irregular and close to-
gether. If the surface of a still, quiet lake were at an eleva-
tion of 150 feet. the line determined by the intersection of
the surface of the water and the natural surface of the
ground along the shore would be the contour line for that
elevation, which would coincide with the shore line. If the
lake rose two feet, another line would be formed in the same
way. This latter contour line would be a line drawn through
all points of 152 feet elevation, the distance between the two







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


contours, two feet, being the contour interval. In regions of
gradually sloping ground the water which rises to the next
contour elevation would travel through a considerable
horizontal distance, so that the contours would be far apart.
In regions of steep slopes the water would travel through a
comparatively short horizontal distance, and the contour
lines would be closer together.
Since it is possible to make a true relief model from a
topographic map, an experienced map reader can, by looking
at a topographic map, picture in his mind the exact appear-
ance of the country which the map represents. Such a relief
model would be made in the following manner: Select card-
board, the thickness of which would be the contour interval
taken at the same scale to which the map is drawn. Trace
each contour line on cardboard. Cut out the figure this con-
tour line would form. Having cut out these cardboard figures,
which are called laminations, build them up one on the other,
in their proper order of elevation, and place them in position
as shown on the topographic map. The resulting model
would not be true, because the relief would appear to be in
steps and not slopes. To make the model complete, add filler
between the steps to give the correct slope. Either color
tints or small symbols may be used to show trees, buildings,
lakes, rivers, woods, swamps, etc.








THE MAPPING SITUATION I.\ FLORIDA


CHAPTER II
Use of Topographic Maps
Topographic maps are of benefit either directly or in-
directly to every individual residing in the area represented
on the map. The benefit derived from the use of such maps
is approximately equally shared by all, because these maps
are useful in so many ways and each use effects such a large
number of persons.
The uses to which topographic maps are put include:
1. The Effective Development of Agricultural Drainage
2. Air Transportation
3. Flood Control
4. City Planning
5. Forestry and Reforestation
6. Geologic Mapping
7. Harbor Improvements
8. Highway Transportation and Location
9. Inland Waterways
10. Irrigation of Land
11. Land Valuation
12. Mosquito Control
13. Municipal Sanitation
14. National Defense
15. Port Improvement
16. Power Transmission
17. Public Health Planning
18. Public Water Supply
19. Railway Transportation and Design
20. Real Estate Development
21. Regional Planning
22. Reclamation by Drainage
23. Soil Mapping
24. Telegraph and Telephone Lines

The use of topographic maps is required in the construc-
tion of all large-scale public and private works. A few of
the uses of these maps are described in detail below.
Water Supply.-The highest use to which water is put
is furnishing a potable supply in sufficient quantity to cities







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


and industries. During droughts it is often necessary to
abandon some sources of supply because of the danger of
contamination, or because of insufficient flow. Water used
by industries is usually required to be free from certain
chemicals: for example, water used in paper and pulp mills,
in the manufacture of rayon, in dyeing and bleaching, and in
many other industries of the South must be free from iron,
carbonates, and other dissolved substances.
Another important factor in water supply is the size of
the reservoir required to furnish sufficient quantity at all
times. For all these factors affecting the question of a safe
and sufficient water supply, topographic maps are essential
and can be used to eliminate guess work in design of water
supply systems. By means of the United States topographic
maps, the City of New York saved hundreds of thousands
of dollars in extending its water supply.
City Drainage.-In cities and towns the question of ade-
quate drainage and sewage disposal is an important one.
These large quantities of wastes are primarily ground water,
surface water, or storm sewage, and domestic and trade
wastes or sanitary sewage. The amount of domestic sewage
alone amounts to an average of about 100 gallons per person
per day; with the additional waste waters added to this, the
problem becomes one of disposing of a large quantity of
waste material which is very undesirable in that it is capable
of contaminating the domestic supply, causing disease or
furnishing breeding places for mosquitoes.
Mosquitoes can best be fought by destroying their breed-
ing places. Mosquitoes breed in pools of stagnant water. To
effect drainage in an area would be to rid that area of such
pools of water and hence eliminate the mosquitoes.
The Department of Health, Los Angeles County, Cali-
fornia, states in part: "Topographic maps are, and have
been, very useful to us in studying drainage areas of water
supplies, as to the actual boundary and dividing lines of the
various watersheds. They are also of value in water-
distributing systems in getting elevations which may be
reached at a given point. They are of value in the disposal
of sewage, with particular reference to the protection of








TIE MAPPINGG SITUATION IN FLORIDA


water supplies, and to the community. These maps have
been of great usefulness to us in studying the disposal of
the sewage effluent from plants serving the City of Pasadena.
This effluent is discharged into the Rio Hondo and was
endangering various wells and other water supplies in the
lower country."
State-Wide Drainage System.-Problems of drainage or
irrigation require an accurate topographic map. If one is
not available for the area under consideration, it is neces-
sary to make one. A topographic map is necessary to show
the slope of the ground to be drained, the water-shed or
areas contributing water to a stream, and the size and loca-
tion of drainage ditches. Drainage, once effected, opens new
land to agriculture, is a factor in fighting mosquitoes, im-
proves rivers and lakes, and protects groundwater supplies.
Closely allied with drainage is irrigation, for which topo-
graphic maps are equally important. Topographic maps are
essential to flood-control studies. Damages running into
thousands of dollars may be caused over-night by unchecked
or uncontrolled flood waters. Such powerful forces of nature
can be properly studied only with the assistance of topo-
graphic maps.
In recent years an intensive study has been made as to
the practicality of a canal across Florida connecting the
Atlantic Ocean with the Gulf of Mexico. Since no topo-
graphic map was available, it was necessary to make surveys
across the state over a number of proposed routes, resulting
in an unnecessary delay and a considerable expense. Had
topographic maps been available, much of this delay and
expense would have been eliminated. A topographic map
would aid materially in the studies of the effect of a cross-
state canal upon the surface water and drainage of the state.
Natural Resources.-Topographic maps are essential in
the exploitation of natural resources, both as to a compre-
hensive inventory and as to proper administration. They
are a necessary medium for showing the location, extent,
and accessibility of such resources. Once a state is com-
pletely mapped, prospecting and scientific investigation in
the natural resources and their uses will be stimulated.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


Mr. Joseph Jacobs, President of the Washington Natural
Resource Association, has said: "To know what we have
and what we can do with it-and what we shall not do with
it, also-is a policy of wisdom, a policy of lasting progress.
And in furtherance of such a policy the first step is to know
our resources; the second step is to know their availability
for immediate use; and the third step is to guard them
against waste either through ignorance or wantonness. . .
A good topographic map is the basis, and a primary es-
sential, for the proper economic study of any country."
Topographic Maps as Sales Representatives. Once a
state is mapped, the maps can be had by any individual or
group. Maps of a given territory then may be found in any
part of the country, or in many parts of the world. These
maps show, among other things, the natural resources of
the state. They are in a sense, therefore, a sales repre-
sentative for that state. Just as a manufacturer with a
product to market has his sales representatives to show his
product, so can the state have its topographic maps to inter-
est and attract individuals or firms to invest in its natural
resources.
Sale of Land.-The mapping of an area will not only in-
crease its value to the owner but also make it more easily
transferable in selling. The increase in value results from
the fact that on a map an area is represented accurately in
its true location and its true surface features are shown, to-
gether with all other natural features and works of man.
Cadastral surveying has as its object the location of prop-
erty lines with great precision by a system of reference
monuments. When the first property surveys were made,
land was cheap and instruments were crude, with the result
that a number of property surveys are inaccurate. In the
process of mapping, the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey attempts whenever practical to "tie in" to monu-
ments which define the property surveys. Nothing would
be more satisfactory to property owners and political units
of this country than to have the cadastral surveys based on
the triangulation system of the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey. When complete, this triangulation system


























































































Figure 1.-Farm Survey Connected to a Triangulation Station.


Courtesy U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


will have permanent monuments placed at distances not
exceeding fifty miles apart, so that no point will be more
than twenty-five miles from a permanent reference monu-
ment. Thus, the property owners would be assured that
there never would be any difficulty in locating property
corners on any piece of property tied into the system of
triangulation (See Figure 1). This security against confu-
sion of property lines would place a higher value on the
property and save litigation costs in the event of boundary
disputes.
Power Lines for Cities and Utilities.-The reconnaissance
work in locating power lines or pipe lines, which is neces-
sary if they are to be placed at a minimum expense, can be
made properly only when topographic maps are available.
Soil Mapping.-Topography is one of the important fac-
tors involved in classifying and evaluating the soils for
agricultural and forestry purposes. Since the soil is the
greatest natural resource in the state, other than climate,
it behooves the citizens of the state to see that the soil is
properly classified, mapped, and evaluated. The progress
of soil classification and mapping depends to a large degree
on available topographic maps, the absence of which not
only retards but handicaps the soil survey work. Under
present changing economic conditions, an adequate soil map
is of fundamental value in appraising land for taxation, as
well as formulating sliding systems of taxation for tax-
delinquent land. Inasmuch as only about 25 percent of the
land in Florida has been classified as to soil (a part of this
classification is out of date) it is highly desirable to complete
this basic inventory. Adequate topographic maps, as well
as marked sectional maps, would greatly expedite the work
of mapping and evaluating the soils of Florida.
Attracting Outsiders to the State.-The direct and in-
direct benefits which are derived from having an accurate
topographic map, as shown above, would tend to make the
state more attractive to persons living outside the state.
Tapping of natural resources and the investment of outside
capital would increase the economic wealth of the state.
Drainage of swamps and lowlands and the throwing open of









THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA 13

many acres of fertile land to agriculture, together with the
fight which could be effectively waged against the mosquito,
would tend to make this state especially attractive to tourists
and home seekers.
Military Defense.-The importance of topographic maps
in military defense is fully appreciated by all military men,
and is the reason the Federal Government is willing to pay
half the cost of such maps. It is sufficient to say that the
success or failure of all military plans and operations de-
pends upon the use of accurate knowledge of the type and
character of the terrain or topography of the country in
which the military operations are carried on. In modern
times a military leader is almost certain to be defeated if
his opponents have a topographic map of the area in which
they are operating, and he has not.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


CHAPTER III
The Value of Topographic Maps
An almost unlimited number of uses are found for topo-
graphic maps, and the savings resulting from their use are
of various kinds. In a proposed project which requires care-
ful planning for an economical structure, the first step is an
accurate map showing the topography and natural features:
streams, lakes, timbered regions, and swamps, and works of
man such as cities, railroads, highways, cultivated land, and
artificial boundaries. Without a topographic map an exten-
sive and careful survey is required as a basis for design;
with a topographic map no such preliminary survey is neces-
sary. While a preliminary survey is necessarily limited in
extent, a topographic map is unlimited with regard to the
area of the state. Thus it can readily be seen that a choice
of the most economical design depends on a topographic map.
There is still another consideration. If a preliminary survey
is made by private individuals, their survey is their own
property and it is not available for other persons to use.
Standard topographic maps made by the United States Geo-
logical Survey in quadrangle units are available to any
person at the nominal sum of ten cents per quadrangle.
While there is a certain cost to obtaining a topographic
map of the State, there is, on the other hand, an unknown
but exceedingly large toll taken by the lack of such a map.
This toll is levied through flood damage to highways, rail-
roads, agricultural lands, towns and bridges, expensive pre-
liminary surveys, fertile but idle lands, and expensive delays.
Although such a loss of money is not readily appreciated, it
is strictly correct to say that the State of Florida is paying
more for the lack of such data than it would need to pay to
have the surveys made.
Those persons who have topographic maps available for
their use fully appreciate the economy and convenience
which result. On the other hand, many fully realize the
vast amounts of money wasted as a result of not having
accurate topographic maps. Below are given quotations
from various persons who appreciate the value of topo-
graphic maps.
R. A. Caims, formerly City Engineer of Waterbury, Con-








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


necticut. declares: "After expending $10.000 in examining
sources of water supply the vicinity was mapped, and I at
once, from an inspection of these maps, discovered a better
supply which the city is now using, and the preliminary
survey did not cost the city a cent."
T. H. Loomis, formerly Engineer for the Wabash Railroad,
relates how the examination of a single topographic map
caused him to change the location of a new line in such a
way as to save at least $85,000.
W. A. Nelson, at the time State Geologist, Nashville,
Tennessee, relates how the expenditure of $1,100 by the
State in cooperation with the Geological Survey resulted in
the location of a route between La Follette and Jellico, sav-
ing 7.3 miles of hard-road construction at an estimated
saving of more than $200,000.
Edward Hyatt, California State Engineer, says: "It would
be very difficult, if not altogether impossible, to evaluate the
saving that the use of these maps has made possible in con-
ducting the water-resources investigations by this division
during the last nine years. . Had these maps not been
available, it is doubtful that the State would have been in a
position to make the investigation on such a large scale with
the funds provided.
"The same situation exists in connection with our flood
control, reclamation, and river-rectification work. It would
be difficult to fix the value of United States Geological
Survey maps used in connection with this work. They are
indispensable and in constant use. Since the inception of the
Sacramento flood-control project plans they have saved many
thousands of dollars in surveys, and most of the existing
maps of the project were compiled from them. . ."
The following is an excerpt from Bulletin No. 46275 of
the United States Geological Survey: "At the end of the
World War the United States was spending money for war
purposes at the rate of $24,000,000 a day. If the possession
of suitable topographic maps shortens the period of hostili-
ties, even a few days, it is evident that the expense of map-
ping . is justified, without consideration of the saving in
lives to be effected or of the many necessary peace-time uses
of topographic maps . .."







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


CHAPTER IV
History of United States Mapping
Among the organizations of the Federal Government
charged primarily with map making are the United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey and the United States Geological
Survey.
The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, under the
Department of Commerce, is charged with the responsibility
of mapping our coasts and charting the contiguous waters.
It also establishes the basic reference points and permanent
monuments which are used in making the subsequent
detailed topographic maps. The determinations of latitude
and longitude of points defined by such monuments and the
observations of distances and directions of the lines deter-
mined by such points are made by the triangulation and
traverse executed by the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey. The triangulation scheme serves as a basis for such
detailed operations as soundings along the coast and map-
ping in the interior. Charting the coastal waters of the
United States is the most important function of the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, which has an unexcelled
reputation for accuracy among the scientific bodies of the
world.
The Coast Survey was established as a bureau under the
Department of the Treasury in 1807, during the administra-
tion of Thomas Jefferson. For various causes, including the
War of 1812, field work was delayed unti! in 1816. Work
was suspended in 1818 and not resumed until 1832. But as
this bureau grew, its scope of work became broader, and the
work came to include the determination of geographic posi-
tions, so that in 1878 it was renamed the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey. This bureau was transferred to the
Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903, and in 1913
to the Department of Commerce.
Ferdinand R. Hassler may be called the father of the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, since it was he who con-
ceived and planned the bureau approved by President Jeffer-
son. The aim of the present organization is essentially the
same as it has been since the beginning, and its present








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


methods are the perfected results of a century of experience.
Work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in
Florida.-For many years the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey has taken soundings along the Florida coast
and made nautical charts of the coastal waters. With the
passage of time, however, revisions in these charts are
necessary, as changes occur through the work of nature or
of man. Frequently harbors are developed to permit ships
of greater tonnage to trade in them, and revisions of charts
must be made in order to safeguard the navigation of the
larger vessels.
For the construction of these charts it is first necessary
to run arcs of triangulation, which consist of the extension
along the coasts of Florida of so-called third-order triangula-
tion. This work has been revised from time to time in order
to replace the stations destroyed. A traverse has been run
from stations along the coast to Lake Okeechobee and a tri-
angulation has been made of that lake.
Wire-drag surveying has been done along the region of
the Florida Keys in order to detect coral reefs. The finding
and charting of these dangers have safeguarded navigation
to a remarkable extent.
A line of second-order traverse was extended from the
vicinity of Jacksonville across the state to Cedar Key about
thirty years ago. It is probable that most of the stations
have been destroyed. In the northeastern corner of the
state is some first-order traverse which was done during the
period of the World War. All of this traverse work will be
connected with and adjusted into the first order triangula-
tion of the country at a later time.
Work on an extended program of triangulation planned
for Florida, which will establish triangulation stations or
points of orientation at ten-mile intervals along the routes
selected, is in progress.
The triangulation along the Atlantic coast between Jack-
sonville and Brunswick, Georgia, has been completed. This
triangulation is part of the great arc of continuous tri-
angulation extending along the coast from Providence,
Rhode Island, to Jacksonville, executed during 1932.








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION.


Figure 2.-Work of the United States Coast


Courtesy U. S. Coast and








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


Observations are now in progress on an arc of triangula-
tion to extend from Jacksonville to Mobile, Alabama. This
arc will pass over Macclenny, Lake City, Live Oak, Madi-
son, Tallahassee, Crawfordville, Apalachicola, Panama, and
Pensacola. From Tallahassee an arc will be projected north-
ward to Columbus, Georgia.
Stations are being located for an arc of triangulation to ex-
tend along the coast from Jacksonville through St. Augus-
tine, Daytona Beach, Titusville, Fort Pierce, West Palm
Beach and Fort Lauderdale, to Miami, thence across the
state to Everglades, and thence along the Gulf Coast through
Fort Myers, Punta Gorda, Sarasota, Tampa, Brooksville and
Cross City to Crawfordville. These arcs constitute impor-
tant links in the Federal Government's project of triangula-
tion authorized by Congress, which will eventually result in
the accurate measurement of distance and the placement of
triangulation stations within twenty-five miles of every
place in the United States.
The measurements fixed and the subsequent establish-
ment of triangulation or control stations furnish a strong
control for city, county, State and Federal surveys and maps,
for the location of public and private boundary lines, the ex-
tension of highway systems, and in fact, for all purposes
where a knowledge of location, distance, and direction are
needed in engineering projects.
In addition to this work on triangulation, traverse, and
charting along the coasts, the United States Coast and Geo-
detic Survey has made gravity surveys and magnetic sur-
veys which are valuable in retracing property lines.
The United States Geological Survey.-The United States
Geological Survey, under the Department of the Interior of
the Federal Government, does surveying work of the nature
of topographic mapping. In addition to topographic map-
ping, this branch also makes geological studies, investigation
of mineral resources, water resources, and in certain other
specialized engineering fields. The topographic mapping is
basic because it is necessary to know the topography and to
have a map on which to record the results of investigations
before other studies can be made intelligently.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


The United States Geological Survey was created by act
of Congress in 1879. The topographic branch was naturally
formed because it was apparent from the beginning that no
adequate classification of lands or conclusive geologic deter-
minations could be made without topographic maps.
The degree of accuracy with which topographic maps are
made has increased greatly over the period of years during
which the United States Geological Survey has been doing
topographic mapping. This increased degree of accuracy is
a result of many years of experience in mapping. Two fac-
tors tend to demand greater accuracy: namely, the higher
value of land, and the increasing number of uses to which
topographical maps are put.
The work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
and the United States Geological Survey sets a standard of
excellence to which all other surveying organizations may
aspire. In accuracy and efficiency these organizations are
the greatest of their kind. Over the long period of years
during which they have been working, methods which are
considered as standard have been developed for use in both
the field and the office. A great amount of equipment is
required to perform this work with the precision required
by modern times.
Board of Surveys and Maps of the Federal Government.-
For many years the different Federal organizations engaged
in mapping and other surveying operations were not in direct
contact with each other, so that in some cases there was a
duplication of effort. In order to increase the efficiency of
mapping operations, the President of the United States, up-
on recommendations made to him by the American En-
gineering Council, created in December, 1919, the Board of
Surveys and Maps of the Federal Government. This Board
is composed of one representative from each of the follow-
ing organizations:
Corps of Engineers, War Department
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of
Commerce
United States Geological Survey, Department of Interior
General Land Office, Department of Interior








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


Division of Topography, Post Office Department
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Reclamations, Department of Interior
Bureau of Public Roads, Department of Agriculture
Office of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior
Mississippi River Commission, War Department
United States Lake Survey, War Department
International (United States-Canada) Boundary Com-
mission, Department of State
Forest Service. I)epartment of Agriculture
United States Hydrographic Office, Navy Department
Military Intelligence Division General Staff, War Depart-
ment
Federal Power Commissions
Air Corps, War Department
Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department
Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department
of Commerce
Geographic Section, Department of State
Division of Maps, Library of Congress
Bureau of Lighthouses, Department of Commerce

The Board of Surveys and Maps is directed by executive
order to make recommendations to several departments or
to the President for the purpose of coordinating all map-
making and surveying activities of the Government and to
settle all questions at issue between executive departments
relating to surveys and maps insofar as their decisions do
not conflict with existing laws. It has accomplished a num-
ber of noteworthy results. By bringing into close contact
those men responsible for the immediate supervision of the
mapping efforts of the Federal Government, it has made
great progress in the coordination of mapping operations
and in standardization of results. Very little duplication of
effort in mapping exists today.
An Advisory Council, which is composed of non-Federal
agencies interested in mapping, brings the Board of Sur-
veys and Maps into close contact with the map-using public.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


Through this Council the mapping needs of the country
have been presented and plans have been made to meet
them. Valuable data from non-Federal sources have been
offered to the Federal mapping agencies.
A map information office has been established for furnish-
ing information regarding survey and map data. This office
does not distribute maps, but classifies, indexes, and records
both Federal and non-Federal map data and material.
Other results accomplished by the Board of Surveys and
Maps are:
Standard specifications for control surveys
Standard map symbols
Adoption of standard projections for different kinds of
maps
Selection of a standard series of base maps
Standard instructions for executing control surveys and
topographic surveys
Research in problems of aerial photography
Assistance in passage of the Temple Act
Specifications for description of tracts of land for use in
executive orders and proclamations. These specifications
were made mandatory by executive order on request by the
State Department.
The Board of Surveys and Maps of the Federal Govern-
ment has edited and kept up-to-date a publication entitled
Map Collections in the District of Columbia. This publica-
tion contains a brief description of the maps in each of the
forty-four collections listed, nearly all of which are available
for consultation in connection with research work and in-
vestigations. Maps for sale are noted in the description.
This publication is of great value to any person desiring to
know the kind of maps available and where they may be
found.
The Board of Surveys and Maps has recommended that
each state have an existing state agency become the reposi-
tory for all information regarding surveys and maps made
in the state by Federal, state, county, and municipal agencies
and private individuals. The need for such information is
quite apparent. The establishment of such an agency will








THE .MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


make for less waste in carrying on engineering and other
types of work.
The Director of the Engineering Experiment Station at
the University of Florida has consented to take over the
responsibilities of heading such a map information office.
Below is listed a few of the sources of maps and map data
for Florida. Information concerning maps and map data
is solicited, and when received will become a part of the
records of this agency.

Sources of Maps and Map Information for Florida
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of
Commerce, Washington, D. C.
United States Geological Survey, Department of Interior,
Washington, D. C.
Corps of Engineers, United States Army, Washington,
D. C.
State Department of Agricu!ture, Tallahassee, Florida
Land Office, Tallahassee, Florida
Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida
State Highway Department, Tallahassee, Florida
Each County Surveyor's office
Each City Engineer's office
Engineering Experiment Station, University of Florida,
Gainesville
General Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor-
ida.

The Temple Act. The area of the Continental United
States is more than 3,000,000 square miles. Of this area,
about fifty-five percent has not been mapped. That area
which has been mapped is published on about 3,400 different
topographic maps. Some of the early maps were made by
methods so crude that for present-day uses they should be
revised. Some of the states are completely mapped, while
some have never cooperated in mapping. As a result, only
about thirty percent of the country is represented on maps
adequate for present-day uses.
At the past rate of progress of mapping, it would take
about 100 years to complete the topographic mapping of the








I.\IVERSITY OF FLORIDA I'I BLICATIO.


United States-too long a time to allow the present genera-
tion to reap their share of the benefit of a complete topo-
graphic map of the country.
At a meeting of the Board of Surveys and Maps, Dr.
Temple, Congressman from the 25th District of Pennsyl-
vania, learned of the inadequate rate of progress of the map-
ping of the country, and asked the Board to prepare a state-
ment for him on the mapping situation of the country. As a
result, Dr. Temple introduced into Congress a bill to provide
for the completion of the mapping of the United States,
within a period of twenty years. This bill was enacted into
law during the 68th session of the Congress. The text of
the law follows:
A Bill to Provide for the Completion of the Topographical
Survey of the I'nited States
BE IT ENACTED BY THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRE-
SENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN CON-
GRESS ASSEMBLED, That the President be, and hereby is, author-
ized to complete, within a period of twenty years from the date of the
passage of this act, a general utility topographical survey of the ter-
ritory of the United States, including adequate horizontal and vertical
control, and the securing of such topographic and hydrographic data
as may be required for this purpose, and the preparation and publica-
tion of the resulting maps and data: PROVIDED, That in carrying out
the provisions of this act the President is authorized to utilize the
services and facilities or such agency or agencies of the Government
as now exist, or may hereafter be created, and to allot to them (in
addition to and not in substitution for other funds available to such
agencies under other appropriations or from other sources) funds from
the appropriation herein authorized, or from such appropriation or
appropriations as may hereafter be made for the purpose of this act.
Section 2. That the agencies which may be engaged in carrying out
the provisions of this act are authorized to enter into cooperative
agreements with and to receive funds made available by any State or
civic subdivision for the purpose of expediting the completion of the
mapping within its borders.
Section 3. The sum of $950,000 is hereby authorized to be appro-
priated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropri-
ated, to be available until the 30th day of June, 1925, for the purpose
of carrying out the provisions of this act, both in the District of Co-
lumbia and elsewhere as the President may deem essential and proper.
At the time that the bill was before Congress, an estimate
of the cost for the completion of the mapping of the United









THE MAPPING SITUATION I. FLORIDA


States, with the proposed program for each year, was made.
This estimate follows:

Estimated Cost of Completion of Mapping of the United States, with
Proposed Program by Years


Fiscal Year Control


1925 ............
1926 ............
1927 ............
1928 ............
1929 ............
1930 ............
1931 ............
1932 ............
1933 ............
1934 ............
1935 ............
1936 ............
1937 ............
1938 ............
1939 ............
1940 ........... .
1941 ........... .
1942 ............
1943 ............
1944 ............

Total .........


$ 200,000
300,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
100,000
100,000
100.000






$4,200,000


Mapping Total Federal Cost
$ 750,000 $ 950,000
1,000,000 1,300,000
1,250,000 1,650,000
1,500,000 1,900,000
2,000,000 2,400,000
2,000,000 2,400,000
2,000,000 2,400,000
2,000,000 2,400,000
2,000,000 I 2,400,000
2,000,000 2,300,000
2.000,000 2,200,000
2,000,000 2,100,000
2,000,000 2,100,000
2,000,000 2,100,000
2,000,000 2,100,000
2,000,000 2,000,000
1,500,000 1,500,000
1,250,000 1,250,000
1.000,000 1,000,000
750,000 750,000

$33,000,000 $37,200,000


To a certain extent the purpose of the Temple Act has
been defeated because the annual appropriations for carry-
ing on the work have not been made. In 1928 the appropria-
tion for mapping was approximately $520,600. The amount
appropriated has been increased until in 1932 it was $780,-
000. However, this is still far below the amount necessary
if the United States is to be completely mapped in 20 years.
The Temple Act has been further curtailed by restriction
of the Federal appropriations so that a large portion of the
funds are not available unless met with equal sums by the
states cooperating in mapping.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


CHAPTER V
How Topographic Maps Are Made
As previously shown, a topographic map is a map which
shows, by suitable symbols, the relief of the ground surface.
The problem of making a topographic map, then, is one
which requires measurements in three dimensions. Speak-
ing in terms of plane surveying, two of these dimensions lie
in the plane of the earth's surface or parallel to that plane,
and the third is any line perpendicular to the plane of the
earth's surface. A line lying in the plane of the earth's
surface is most commonly determined by distance and di-
rection from a given point. A line perpendicular to the
earth's surface is determined by only a distance from a
given point, since its direction is defined. That type of sur-
veying dealing with distances and directions in a plane paral-
lel to the earth's surface is known as horizontal control;
that dealing with distance perpendicular to the plane of the
earth's surface is known as vertical control. Since the earth
is not flat, as is assumed in plane surveying, corrections
must be made on account of the curvature of the earth.
Geodetic surveying is that type of surveying which takes
into account the curvature of the earth.
Horizontal control is established either by triangulation
or traverse. In using either of these methods, lengths of
lines are measured with a metal tape and relative directions
of lines are observed with a transit. In establishing the
horizontal control, a number of points are geographically
located on the earth's surface: that is, their latitude and
longitude are determined.
Vertical control is established by leveling. In this work
a line of levels is run from a point of known elevation, which
is usually at mean sea level or a point whose elevation above
(or below) mean sea level is known. In establishing the
vertical control, a number of points are fixed and the eleva-
tions of these determined.
These points defining the horizontal and vertical control
are perpetuated by monuments. Such a monument may be
a concrete shaft in the top of which is set a brass marker
on which are inscribed symbols which designate it as a








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


bench mark (vertical control) or traverse or triangulation
station (horizontal control). Such monuments, which are
set by a survey party, are of great value to the community,
for it is to these that local surveys can be "tied". Those
persons living near such monuments should assist in pre-
serving them from disturbance by informing others of their
value as survey marks. All the final data concerning these
monuments are published and are available to the public
when the survey is made either by the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey or United States Geological Survey
(See Figure 3).
The horizontal and vertical control constitute the skeleton
of the map to be made. These stations or control points can
be plotted readily on the map in their correct geographic
position as they actually are in the field. Then in the de-
tailed mapping, the smaller component parts are "tied in"
to these control points. Such a scheme is analogous to the
construction of a tall building. The floor beams and girders
which lie in horizontal planes are the horizontal load-carry-
ing members, and the columns at right angles to the hori-
zontal planes are the vertical load-carrying members. With
the beams, girders, and columns used for primary strength
and rigidity, the detailed parts of the building are built upon
these, and the result is the completed building.
In filling in detail, there are numerous methods of pro-
cedure in the field work. The most common of these are
either plane-table mapping or aerial photography.
When the plane table method is used, readings are taken
from points whose geographic positions and elevations are
known. These are plotted and the map is drawn in the field.
This method for most cases is the most efficient and econom-
ical of all, since it eliminates a maximum of work in the of-
fice and since the topography which is being represented on
paper is before the eyes of the mapper. A sufficient number
of observations are taken from each point to picture accu-
rately the topography on the map. It is again to be noted
here that these observations are for three dimensions, dis-
tance, direction and elevation.
In recent years aerial photographic surveying has been
found to be a very convenient and sometimes cheaper meth-








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION.


Figure 3.-Standard Station Marks of the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey: 1-Trangulation Station Mark. 2-Traverse Sta-
tion Mark. 3-Reference Mark. 4-Bench Mark. 5-Magnetic Sta-
tion Mark. 6-Hydrographic Station Mark.
Courtesy U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.








THE .AI'PPING SITI'.ITION IN FLORIDA


od of making topographic maps. Pictures taken from a
plane flying over the area are developed, corrected for per-
spective, and matched. For showing topography, contour
lines are traced on the map by means of a machine con-
structed on the principle of the stereoscope. As in any meth-
od of mapping, here again a careful system of horizontal and
vertical control is required.
Aerial photographic surveying could not be economically
or adequately employed to map the entire United States and
it can never replace ground methods completely, although
it will aid and expedite them and lessen the final cost of the
work. However, this type of surveying could be used to
great advantage in parts of Florida.
Aerial photography is a very convenient method for doing
reconnaissance work: that is, a visual survey of an area to
be actually surveyed later, with the object of setting control
points in the best positions for clear sights and so as to
cover all detail.
Where it has applications, aerial photographic surveying
can eliminate much of the detailed ground work. Areas
that are relatively flat and open or sparsely wooded can be
mapped in this way. In the mapping of cities, aerial photo-
graphic surveying is of tremendous value, especially in the
larger cities. Probably its greatest value will be realized
in the future when it will be necessary to bring the topo-
graphic map up to date. Those areas most subject to change
will be in and surrounding cities. Revisions can be made
accurately from aerial photographs, thus bringing topo-
graphic maps up to date cheaply and quickly.
Recently an aerial photographic survey was made along
the Florida East Coast from Ormond to Key Largo, and on
the West Coast from Cape Sable to the Caloosahatchee
River. This work was done by the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey for the purpose of revising the naviga-
tional charts for the Florida coasts. The photography was
done by the Army Air Corps at the request of the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Probably in no other
area has the usefulness of aerial photography been so strik-
ingly evident as in the Ten Thousand Islands on the West
Coast. To have mapped them with the plane table would







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


have cost a sum far out of proportion to the value of the
area. Miami and Lakeland have accurate large-scale photo-
graphic maps of their entire areas.
As the field work progresses in establishing control and
mapping, the notes, drawings, and reports are sent to the
office, where the necessary computations are made and the
map finished and engraved. It is then printed for distribu-
tion. The finished standard topographic maps issued by the
United States Geological Survey are on a scale of either 1
to 31,680 (1 inch equals one-half mile) or 1 to 62,500 (1 inch
equals nearly one mile), or 1 to 125,000 (1 inch equals nearly
two miles). The maps are printed on sheets of approximate-
ly the same size (16,Z x 20 inches) but cover different sized
areas depending on the scale. For example, maps on the
scale of 1 to 31,680 cover a quadrangle bounded by meridians
and parallels 71/. minutes apart, and those on the scale of
1 to 62,500, 15 minutes apart and those on the scale of 1 to
125,000, 30 minutes apart. No work on the last-named scale
has been, or will be done in Florida and it is probable that
many of the most important areas will be surveyed on the
first-mentioned or largest scale. The maps are printed in
three colors. Works of man, such as towns, railroads, roads,
as well as the lettering, are in black. Water features are in
blue, and the relief, as shown by contour lines, is in brown.
The contour interval used depends on the relief encountered
in the area and the scale selected for the map. Other colors
may be added, such as green to show woodlands.
The price of standard topographic maps published by the
United States Geological Survey is ten cents per map. If
ordered in lots of fifty or more the price is six cents each.
Thus, for ten cents a private citizen can procure a map
which, if he had to do all of the work himself, would cost
about $10,000.








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


CHAPTER VI
Federal Government Cooperation in Mapping
The State of Florida can get two dollars' worth of work
done in making a standard topographic map by investing
one dollar. This statement applies to the work of mapping
and to the local or third-order horizontal and vertical control
surveys incidental to topographic mapping. The first and
second-order control surveys necessary for establishing a
general framework, upon which to tie and fix the less accu-
rate surveys required for the local control of topographic
mapping, are accomplished entirely at the expense of the
Federal Government.
The United States Geological Survey has for many years
cooperated with state, county, and municipal governments
in mapping, sharing the expense on some agreed basis. For
making a standard topographic map of a state this has been
a dollar-for-dollar cooperation, the most attractive offer
made by the United States Geological Survey. For special
city surveys, where more detail is required and larger scales
are used, thus increasing the expense, the bulk of the ex-
pense is borne by the city.
There are in the United States approximately 300,000
square miles of National Forests under the supervision and
jurisdiction of the Federal Government, more than eighty
percent of this area lying west of the Mississippi River. It
has been the policy of the Federal Government since the
National Forest Reservations were established to pay the
total expense of mapping these Forest Reservations. It is
estimated that approximately fifty percent of these Reser-
vations have been mapped by the United States Geological
Survey with various scales of accuracy during the past
thirty-five years. This mapping has been confined almost
entirely to the western Reservations, close to three millions
of dollars having been expended on the work. Of this sum
probably not $100,000 have been expended east of the Mis-
sissippi River.









32 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION

Tabulation of the Total Amounts Expended for Cooperative
Topographic Surveys in Each State to June 30, 1932
Expended for cooperative topographic
State surveys to June 30, 1932
Federal State Total
Alabama ...........$ 109,501.75 $ 93,897.22 $ 203,398.97
Arizona ............ 57,775.86 57,078.73 114,854.59
Arkansas ........... 6,979.52 6,550.00 13,529.52
California .......... 599,705.11 762,147.92 1,361,853.03
Colorado ........... 91,664.22 84,672.40 176,336.62
Connecticut ......... 34,179.00 35,099.53 69,278.53
Delaware ........... 9,808.38 15,486.00 25,294.38
District of Columbia...........
Florida ............. ...........................
Georgia ............ 5,000.00 4,985.74 9,985.74
Idaho .............. 27,827.60 14,804.70 42,632.30
Illinois ............. 712,388.21 679,154.43 1,391,542.64
Indiana ............ 1,132.25 1,323.40 2,455.65
Iowa ............... 39,578.24 42,902.24 82,480.48
K ansas ............. ......... ..................
Kentucky ........... 409,644.09 399,453.79 809,097.88
Louisiana ........... 63,382.13 38,518.42 101,900.55
Maine .............. 316,905.36 324,030.90 640,936.26
Maryland ........... 53,775.00 53,775.00 107,550.00
Massachusetts ...... 67,845.00 40,000.00 107,845.00
Michigan ........... 268,468.12 260,095.48 528,563.60
Minnesota .......... 57,580.88 64,449.46 122,030.34
Mississippi ......... 59,776.80 72,427.82 132,204.62
Missouri ............ 228,081.21 243,232.59 471,313.80
Montana ........... 4,634.82 22,475.00 27,109.82
Nebraska ........... 6,971.24 7,250.00 14,221.24
Nevada ............. 10,382.22 9,196.73 19,578.95
New Hampshire ..... 134,994.76 132,489.92 267,484.68
New Jersey ......... 35,073.98 19,670.60 54,744.58
New Mexico ........ 33,113.26 30,578.52 63,691.78
New York .......... 496,766.65 529,987.87 1,026,754.52
North Carolina ...... 38,302.20 29,407.15 67,709.35
North Dakota ....... 55,119.52 54,954.30 110,073.82
Ohio ............... 264,743.16 360,500.00 625,243.16
Oklahoma ........... 68,882.19 64,956.53 133,838.72
Oregon ............. 136,871.95 128,523.49 265,395.44
Pennsylvania ....... 501,372.94 504,825.49 1,006,198.43
Rhode Island ........ 4,866.00 4,866.00 9,732.00
South Carolina ...... ......... .........
South Dakota ....... 9,822.54 6,994.29 16,816.83
Tennessee .......... 106,712.50 105,441.35 212,153.85
Texas .............. 426,704.45 520,134.82 946,839.27









THE IIAIPING SITI ATIO, IN FLORIDA


Utah ............... 42,329.75 40,336.36 82,666.11
Vermont ............ 70,441.48 67,650.91 138,092.39
Virginia ............ 247,838.75 233,599.16 481,437.91
Washington ......... 168,679.03 179,360.81 348,039.84
West Virginia ....... 273,321.62 296,626.06 569,947.68
Wisconsin .......... 205,858.23 202,296.76 408,154.09
W yom ing ........... ......... ..............
Total continental
United States, exclu-
sive of Alaska ..... $6,564,801.97 $6,846,207.89 $13,411,009.86
Hawaii ............. 266,372.78 331,173.77 597,546.55
TOTAL ........... .$6,831,174.75 $7,177,381.66 $14,008,556.41
Courtesy United States Geological Survey.

For twenty-one years, 1898 to 1918 inclusive, there were
carried in the Sundry Civil Acts (now known as Interior De-
partment Act) special items for $75,000 to $150,000 annu-
ally, or a total of $2,160,000, which were expended by the
United States Geological Survey in mapping such forest
areas as were designated by the Forest Service. The meth-
od of appropriating money for this purpose was changed in
1919. The funds for mapping forest areas since that time
have been included in the item for topographic surveys in
the Interior Department Act; the United States Geological
Survey has endeavored to secure from the Budget funds to
map such areas as the Forest Service requests, which have
largely been for reservations west of the Mississippi River.
Where these areas have been located in states that were co-
operating with the United States Geological Survey on a
fifty-fifty basis, the states have not been asked to contribute
any funds toward the expenses of mapping the Forest Res-
ervations.
The State of Florida has three National Forests within its
borders: the Choctawhatchee, 575 square miles; the Ocala,
411 square miles; and the Osceola. 253 square miles. It is
estimated that approximately $75,000 would be required to
map the three Reservations.
A state may make a notable saving by cooperating with a
Federal bureau, since the bureau already has a large amount
of equipment with which to carry on the work. If the state
had to make similar surveys the capital outlay for instru-







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


ments, equipment, etc., would be considerable. The lack of
special equipment is one of the things that sometimes pre-
vents a private corporation from making its own maps in
the most approved manner.
Through cooperation with the United States Geological
Survey the State of Florida can obtain standard topographic
maps made by the most efficient organization of its kind in
the world, at one-half the actual cost.
Cooperation to promote the common purpose of advancing
knowledge and aiding development has existed between state
organizations and the United States Geological Survey and
definite agreements for this purpose were entered into early
in its history.
Under terms varied to suit the conditions of each special
case, agreements involving cooperation of some sort have
been made between the Director of the United States Geolog-
ical Survey and nearly every state in the United States.
These agreements establish cooperation, set forth the duty
of each party, the duration of the agreement, the amount of
funds to be furnished by each, and the way in which the
results of the work are to be divided.
The United States Geological Survey has had about forty-
seven years of experience in cooperative work and during
that time it has found certain conditions essential to suc-
cessful cooperation. These essentials are as follows:
Each state, in entering into such a cooperative agreement,
obligates itself to promote topographic mapping, to obtain
scientific investigations which it is not equipped to obtain,
and to make topographic maps and data available to its
citizens.
The Director of the United States Geological Survey is
obligated in these agreements to expedite the work, make
more detailed studies where public -interest is greatest, to
encourage scientific work of value to the people of the coun-
try, and to maintain cordial relations with the cooperating
agency.
Usually the state is represented by a department, commis-
sion, or state official who makes the agreement with the
United States Geological Survey as to the method of con-








THE MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA 35

ducting the work and recommends the order in which dif-
ferent portions of the state shall be surveyed.
The Director of the United States Geological Survey has
charge of field operations. The United States Geological
Survey furnishes expert and experienced assistants for both
field and office work. The policy of the United States Geolog-
ical Survey is to employ residents of the state for the tem-
porary positions for which they may be qualified, thus in-
suring employment for residents of the state so far as prac-
ticable.
Each year the work is in progress, plans and estimates
for the season are prepared and a report of operations and
results is submitted to both state officials and the United
States Geological Survey. In the work certain standards
must be maintained, and the relative importance of different
areas must be considered with respect to the general public
interest.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


CHAPTER VII
How Florida Compares with Rest of United States
in Mapping
The United States is about forty-five percent mapped,
most of the work having been done by the United States
Geological Survey. Many states are completely mapped: for
example, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, New York, New
Jersey, New Hampshire, Delaware, Massachusetts, Connec-
ticut, and Rhode Island. Many more states not completely
mapped are now cooperating with the Federal mapping or-
ganizations: California, Colorado, Illinois, Maine, Michigan.
Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsyl-
vania, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin (See Figure 4).










i!,





Figure 4.-Areas covered by topographic surveys made by the United
States Geological Survey prior to July 1, 1930.

Many other states not completely mapped nor now co-
operating in mapping have cooperated in the past and have
much of their area represented on topographic maps, while
the few remaining states, including Florida, have never co-
operated with the Federal mapping organizations.
The officially determined area of Florida is 58,666 square
miles. Of this area 4,716 square miles have been topo-
graphically mapped, as shown on twenty-four maps pub-









THE MAIAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


lished by the United States Geological Survey. This area
represents about eight percent of the entire area of the State.
The oldest of these topographic surveys dates back to
1890. This early work comprises seven quadrangles: Ar-
redondo, 1890; Dunnellon, 1891; Ocala, 1892; and Williston,
Citra, Tsala Apopka and Pana Soffkee, 1893. It is quite
probable that because of changes during this period of about
forty years, these surveys should he revised and brought up
to date.
In 1912 the Palatka quadrangle was topographically sur-
veyed, and in 1915 the quadrangle directly west of Palatka,
the Interlachen, was topographically mapped (See Figure 5).
During the World War the area surrounding Jacksonville
was topographically mapped for defense purposes. This
survey, made in 1917, is included in fifteen quadrangles,
some of which extend into southern Georgia. These quad-
rangles are in a group, and extend from latitude 30'-0'
to latitude 31'-0', and from longitude 81'-15' to longitude
820-15'.
The State of Florida has never shared in any of the ex-
pense of mapping any of its area. Those portions now
mapped were done at the entire expense of the Federal Gov-
ernment.
Tabulation of Area Topographically Mapped and Percentages
in Each State to June, 1932
Ttial area Percentage of
nmapledl to total area of
STATE June. 1932 State mapped to
(Sq. mi.' June. 1982
A labam a .................. 21,491 ................ 41.3
A rizona ................... 59,150 ................ 51.9
A rkansas .................. 21,974 ................ 41.2
California ................. 131,047 ................ 82.8
Colorado .................. 56,270 ................ 54.1
Connecticut ................ 4,965 ................ 100.0
Delaw are .................. 2,370 ................ 100.0
District of Columbia ........ 70 ................ 100.0
F lorida .................... 4,718 ................ 8.0
G eorgia ................... 24,937 ................ 42.1
Idaho ..................... 32,563 ................ 38.8
Illinois .................... 35,462 ................ 62.6










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


STATE


Indiana ....................
Iow a .....................
Kansas ....................
Kentucky ..................
Louisiana ..................
M aine .....................
Maryland ..................
Massachusetts .............
Michigan .................
Minnesota .................
M ississippi ................
M issouri ...................
Montana ...................
Nebraska ..................
Nevada ....................
New Hampshire ............
New Jersey ................
New Mexico ...............
New York .................
North Carolina .............
North Dakota ..............
Ohio ......................
Oklahoma .................
Oregon ....................
Pennsylvania ..............
Rhode Island ...............
South Carolina .............
South Dakota ..............
Tennessee .................
Texas .....................
U tah ......................
Vermont ...................
Virginia ...................
Washington ................
West Virginia ..............
W isconsin .................
Wyoming ..................

Total continental United
States (exclusive of Alaska)
H awaii ....................


Total area
mapped to
June. 1932
ISq. mi.


3,668
13,167
64,159
26,620
9,921
18,967
12,327
8,266
14,069
8,040
6,754
45,990
43,088
27,117
50,680
9,302
8,224
42,450
49,204
19,040
13,148
41,040
41,927
36,206
37,839
1,248
13,737
19,243
23,627
88,284
19,527
7,969
37,897
36,813
24,170
19,155
31,309


................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................


1,369,209 ................ 45.2
6,435 ................ 100.0


Courtesy United States Geological Survey.


Percentage of
total area of
State mapped to
June, 1932


10.1
23.5
78.1
65.6
20.5
57.4
100.0
100.0
24.3
9.5
14.4
66.2
29.3
35.0
45.8
100.0
100.0
34.6
100.0
36.3
18.6
100.0
59.8
37.4
83.9
100.0
44.3
24.8
56.2
33.2
23.0
83.3
88.9
53.3
100.0
34.2
32.0


i









THE .MAPPING SITUATION IN FLORIDA


MAPPED

NATIONAL FORESTS
NOT TOPOGRAPHICALLY MAPPwD
S INDIAN RESERVATIONS ]
NOT TOPOGRAPHICALLY MAPPCO
TAKEN FROM U.S. GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY INDEX TO TOPOGRAPHIC
MAPS JANUARY 1931







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


CHAPTER VIII
Florida's Opportunity
The rate of progress of the work in completely mapping
Florida would depend on the amount of funds made available
for the work. On the basis of recent mapping costs, the cost
for mapping in Florida is estimated at about forty-five dol-
lars per square mile.
According to this estimate, were annual appropriations
of $50,000 made available and this amount matched equally
by the Federal Government, about 2,200 square miles could
be mapped each year. At this rate, it would take about
twenty-five years to complete the mapping of the state. The
total cost of mapping would be about $2,428,000 and the
cost to the state for accurate topographical maps would be
therefore about $1,214,000; about three and one-half cents
per acre.
It has been estimated that to pursue the work on a definite
program from year to year. a total of ten percent can be
saved over a program which would be intermittent.
In addition to this cooperative division of cost for mapping,
the Federal Government, through the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey, bears the entire expense of the necessary
first and second-order control work as triangulation, tra-
verse and leveling. It is estimated that this control work
will cost for Florida about $108,000. Therefore, the State
of Florida can get more than $2.00 worth of work for $1.00.
The inauguration of such a program of mapping would
help to relieve unemployment in the state, since it is esti-
mated that approximately one-half the cost of the work
would be spent for salaries of local men and about twenty
percent more would actually be spent in the state for sup-
plies and subsistence. Thus in a measure business would
be stimulated directly as a result of this work. Engineers
employed on this work would not compete with farming and
industry, but instead would furnish employment to residents
of the state, whose expenditures would be for those things
agriculture and industry produce.








THE MAPPING SIT7'UATN IN FLORIDA


CHAPTER IX
Conclusion
Topographic maps which show, by suitable symbols, the
surface of the ground as it actually exists, are of a benefit
to each and every individual.
Only eight percent of Florida's area of 58,666 square miles
is topographically mapped. This mapping was done at the
entire expense of the Federal Government, and largely for
war purposes.
Topographic maps can be used in any enterprise where the
shape of the ground surface is a factor; their use will insure
the most economical and satisfactory designs.
With Florida "on the map" there would be a minimum of
waste of money through flood damage and uneconomical de-
sign due to lack of topographic maps. Fertile but unusable
lands could be thrown open to agriculture through drainage
or irrigation. Effective health programs could be carried
on through municipal sanitation studies and mosquito con-
trol. Ports and harbors cou'd be improved. To connect the
survey with existing boundary markers would give land a
higher value and hence improve real estate.
On the basis of recent data, it would cost the State of
Florida about three and one-half cents per acre to obtain
accurate topographic maps by cooperating with the United
States Geological Survey.
With an annual appropriation by the State of Florida of
$50,000 and this sum matched equally by the Federal Gov-
ernment, the state could be completely mapped in twenty-
five years. To pursue this program would mean the employ-
ment of more men, more money in circulation within the
state, and the quickening of interest in scientific investiga-
tion.
The United States Geological Survey will cooperate with
any state, county, or municipal government in mapping an
area. For making a standard topographic map this coop-
eration is on a fifty-fifty basis.
The finished standard topographic maps issued by the
United States Geological Survey are available to any person
desiring one for the nominal sum of ten cents each. If this







I.'NIIERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


person had done all of the work represented on the map it
would cost him about $10,000.
Such maps could be cheaply and quickly revised and
brought up to date by the use of aerial photographic methods.
The cooperation of the State of Florida with the Federal
Government in topographically mapping the state would not
only produce a map with the advantages herein set forth
but would bring additional trade to the business men of
Florida.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Civil Engineering, Volume 1, Numbers 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 15; Vol-
ume 2, Numbers 1, 3, 8.
Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Volume 92, Paper Number 1691.
American Engineering Council Bulletin, Volume X, Num-
bers 5, 6, 7, 10.
The United States Daily, July 17, 1929; September 23, 1932.
Proceedings of the Industrial Development Conference, The
Southern Division of the American Mining Congress,
April, 1929.
Florida State Geological Survey, Twenty-first and twenty-
second Annual Report.
The Cornell Civil Engineer, Volume XL, Number 5.
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Bulletins, Serial
Numbers 23, 173, 216, 347, 529.
The United States Geological Survey Bulletins, 709-B, 788-A.
Hearings Before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign
Commerce.
House of Representatives, Sixty-eighth Congress, First Ses-
sion on H. R. 4522.
Florida Forest Service, April, 1931.
Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida, 71st Congress,
3rd Session, Document 314.




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