Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Map of the central part of...
 Mary's childhood
 Her education in France
 The great wedding
 Return to Scotland
 Mary and Lord Darnley
 The fall of Bothwell
 Loch Leven Castle
 The long captivity
 Back Cover

Group Title: Abbott's histories
Title: History of Mary, queen of Scots
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003107/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Mary, queen of Scots
Series Title: Abbott's histories
Alternate Title: Mary Queen of Scots
Physical Description: 286 p., <3> leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), ports., map. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879
Roberts, William, b. ca. 1829 ( Engraver )
Gordon, John Watson-, 1788-1864 ( Illustrator )
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1861
Copyright Date: 1848
Subject: Queens -- Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Queens -- Juvenile literature -- Scotland   ( lcsh )
Queens -- Juvenile literature -- France   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France -- Francis II, 1559-1560   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Scotland -- Mary Stuart, 1542-1567   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Blind stamped cloth (Binding) -- 1860   ( local )
Bldn -- 1860
Genre: individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Biography   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Blind stamped cloth (Binding)   ( local )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Jacob Abbott.
General Note: Illustrations engraved and signed by W. Roberts.
General Note: Portrait engraved from original painting by John Watson Gordon.
General Note: Added chromolithographed title page.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003107
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA4031
notis - AEQ7658
oclc - 01720951
alephbibnum - 000945789
lccn - 03013427

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
    List of Illustrations
        Page x
        Page xi
    Map of the central part of Scotland
        Page xii
        Page xii-a
    Mary's childhood
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Her education in France
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    The great wedding
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Return to Scotland
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Mary and Lord Darnley
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    The fall of Bothwell
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Loch Leven Castle
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    The long captivity
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
    Back Cover
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
Full Text

The Baldwin Library


I)UMBARTON CASTLE. on toe uly(e.




- -










iftD 3SEngtrablfns.










Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year

eight hundred


one thousand

and forty-eight, by


in the Clerk's

Office of the District Court of the Southern Districe
of New York.


THE history of the life of every individual
who has, for any reason, attracted extensively
the attention of mankind, has been written in
a great variety of ways by a multitude of au-
thors, and persons sometimes wonder why we
should have so many different accounts of the
same thing. The reason is, that each one of
these accounts is intended for a different set of
readers, who read with ideas and purposes wide-
ly dissimilar from each other. Among .the
twenty millions of people in the United States,
there are perhaps two millions, between the ages
of fifteen and twenty-five, who wish to become
acquainted, in general, with the leading events
in the history of the Old World, and of ancient
times, but who, coming upon the stage in this
land and at this period, have ideas and concep-
tions so widely different from those of other na-
tions and of other times, that a mere republica-

viii PRE FAC E.
tion of existing accounts is not what they re-
quire. The story must be told expressly for
them. The things that are to be explained,
the points that are to be brought out, the com-
parative degree of prominence to be given to
the various particulars, will all be different, on
account of the difference in the situation, the
ideas, and the objects of these new readers,
compared with those of the various other classes
of readers which former authors have had in
view. It is for this reason, and with this view,
that the present series of historical narratives is
presented to the public. The author, having
had some opportunity to become acquainted
with the position, the ideas, and the intellect-
ual wants of those whom he addresses, presents
the result of his labors to them, with the hope
that it may be found successful in accomplish-
ing its design.


I. MARY'S CHILDHOOD ..............



IV. MISFORTUNES ..---.--..-----...--..



VII. RIZZIO.........................

VIII. BOTHWELL ....................


X. LOCH LEVEN CASTLE ................

XI. THE LONG CAPTIVITY ................

Xit. THE END ...........................












CLYDE. .. .Frontispiece.





- - - - - -. a







m w I . . . . .
- S ..e -e e e e e e e

.. . . ...-- - - - -



VIEW OF DUNBAR CASTLE .................





.. ............

- - - - - - - - - - - - -


- . . -

vignette represents the Castle of Loch
low represents the arms of Scotland,
national emblem, the thistle. On the
with the lilies ; and on the left those o
red roses, which were blended by Mar

gn by Gwilt
Leven. The
right are the
f England, w

Mapleson. The
middle shield be-
beneath with the
arms of France,
ith the white and

y's grandfather, Henry























Palace where Mary was born.

Its situation.

7THRAVELERS who go into Scotland take
- a great interest in visiting, among other
places, a certain room in the ruins of an old
palace, where Queen Mary was born. Queen
Mary was very beautiful, but she was very un-
fortunate and unhappy. Every body takes a
strong interest in her story, and this interest
attaches, in some degree, to the room where
her sad and sorrowful life was begun.
The palace is near a little village called Lin-
lithgow. The village has but one long street,
which consists of ancient stone houses. North
of it is a little lake, or rather pond: they call it,
in Scotland, a loch. The palace is between the
village and the loch; it is upon a beautiful swell
of land which projects out into the water. There
is a very small island in the middle of the loch,
and the shores are bordered with fertile fields.

Ruins. The room. Visitors.
The palace, when entire, was square, with an
open space or court in the center. There was
a beautiful stone fountain in the center of this
court, and an arched gateway through which
horsemen and carriages could ride in. The doors
of entrance into the palace were on the inside of
the court.
The palace is now in ruins. A troop of sol-
diers came to it one day in time of war, after
Mary and her mother had left it, and spent the
night there: they spread straw over the floors
to sleep upon. In the morning, when they went
away, they wantonly set the straw on fire, and
left it burning, and thus the palace was destroy.
ed. Some of the lower floors were of stone; but
all the upper floors and the roof were burned.
and all the wood-work of the rooms, and the
doors and window-frames. Since then the pal-
ace has never been repaired, but remains a mel-
ancholy pile of ruins.
The room where Mary was born had a stone
floor. The rubbish which has fallen from above
has covered it with a sort of soil, and grass and
weeds grow up all over it. It is a very melan-
choly sight to see. The visitors who go into the
room walk mournfully about, trying to imag-
ine how Queen Mary looked, as an infant in her

1542.] MARY'S
Mary's father in the wars.



His death

arms, and reflecting on the reckless-

ness of the soldiers in w(
beautiful a palace. Their
dow, or, rather, to the crur
wall where the window or
upon the loch, now so dese
their heads it is all open t
Mary's father was King
time that Mary was bor
home engaged in war with

wantonly destroying so
. they go to the win-
nbling opening in the
ice was, and look out
>rted and loneljr; over
o the sky.
of Scotland. At the
1, he was away from
the King of England,

who had invaded Scotland. In the battles Ma-
ry's father was defeated, and he thought that the
generals and nobles who commanded his army
allowed the English to conquer them on purpose
to betray him. This thought overwhelmed him
with vexation and anguish. He pined away
under the acuteness of his sufferings, and just
after the news came to him that his daughter
Mary was born, he died. Thus Mary became
an orphan, and her troubles commenced, at the
very beginning of her days. She never saw her

father, and
mother was

her father never saw her. Her
a French lady; her name was Mary

of Guise. Her own name was Mary Stuart, but
she is commonly called Mary Queen of Scots.
As Mary was her father's only child, of course,
when he died, she became Queen of Scotland,




Catholic religion.



The Protestants

although she was only a few days old. It is
customary, in such a case, to appoint some dis-
tinguished person to govern the kingdom, in the
name of the young queen, until she grows up:
such a person is called a regent. Mary's moth-
er wished to be the regent until Mary became
of age.
It happened that in those days, as now, the
government and people of France were of the

Catholic religion. England,
was Protestant. There is
between the Catholic and t
teams. The Catholic Church
nearly all over the world, i

Ion the other hand,
a great difference
he Protestant sys-
, though it extends
s banded together,

as the reader is aware, under one man-the
pope-who is the great head of the Church,
and who lives in state at Rome. The Catho-
lics have, in all countries, many large and splen-
did churches, which are ornamented with paint-
ings and images of the Virgin Mary and of

Christ. They
churches, the

perform great ceremonies in these
priests being dressed in magnifi-

cent costumes, and walking in processions, with
censers of incense burning as they go. The
Protestants, on the other hand, do not like these
ceremonies; they regard such outward acts of
worship as mere useless parade, and the images




England and France.

The Earl of Arran.

as idols. They themselves have smaller and
plainer churches, and call the people together in
them to hear sermons, and to offer up simple
In the time of Mary, England was Protest-
ant and France was Catholic, while Scotland
was divided, though most of the people were
Protestants. The two parties were very much
excited against each other, and often persecuted
each other with extreme cruelty. Sometimes
the Protestants would break into the Catholic
churches, and tear down and destroy the paint-
ings and the images, and the other symbols of
worship, all which the Catholics regarded with
extreme veneration; this exasperated the Cath-
olics, and when they became powerful in their
turn, they would seize the Protestants and im-
prison them, and sometimes burn them to death,
by tying them to a stake and piling fagots of
wood about them, and then setting the heap on
Queen Mary's mother was a Catholic, and
for that reason the people of Scotland were not
willing that she should be regent. There were
one or two other persons, moreover, who claimed
the office. One was a certain nobleman called
the Earl of Arran. He was a Protestant. The




The regency.

Arran regent

Earl of Arran was the next heir to the crown,

so that
have b
ern it
not be
not liv

if Mary had died in her infancy, he would
een king. He thought that this was a
why he should be regent, and govern the
m until Mary became old enough to gov-
herself. Many other persons, however,
?red this rather a reason why he should
regent; for they thought he would be
lly interested in wishing that Mary should
e, since if she died he would himself be-

come king, and that therefore he would not be
a safe protector for her. However, as the Earl
of Arran was a Protestant, and as Mary's moth-
er was a Catholic, and as the Protestant inter-
est was the strongest, it was at length decided
that Arran should be the regent, and govern the
country until Mary should be of age.
It is a curious circumstance that Mary's birth
put an end to the war between England and
Scotland, and that in a very singular way. The
King of England had been fighting against Ma-
ry's father, James, for a long time, in order to
conquer the country and annex it to England;
and now that James was dead, and Mary had
become queen, with Arran for the regent, it de-
volved on Arran to carry on the war. But the
King of England and his government, now that

New plan. End of the war. King Henry VIII.
the young queen was born, conceived of a new
plan. The king had a little son, named Ed-
ward, about four years old, who, of course, would
become King of England in his place when he
should himself die. Now he thought it would
be best for him to conclude a peace with Scot-
land, and agree with the Scottish government
that, as soon as Mary was old enough, she should
become Edward's wife, and the two kingdoms
be united in that way.
The name of this King of England was Hen-
ry the Eighth. He was a very headstrong and
determined man. This, his plan, might have
been a very good one; it was certainly much
better than an attempt to get possession of Scot-
land by fighting for it; but he was very far
from being as moderate and just as he should
have been in the execution of his design. The
first thing was to ascertain whether Mary was
a strong and healthy child; for if he should
make a treaty of peace, and give up all his
plans of conquest, and then if Mary, after liv-
ing feebly a few years, should die, all his plans
would fail. To satisfy him on this point, they
actually had some of the infant's clothes re-
moved in the presence of his embassador, in or-
der that the embassador might see that her form





Janet Sinclair.

King Henry's demands.

was perfect, and her limbs vigorous and strong.
The nurse did this with great pride and pleas-
ure, Mary's mother standing by. The nurse's
name was Janet Sinclair. The embassador
wrote back to Henry, the King of England, that
little Mary was as goodly a child as he ever
saw." So King Henry VIII. was confirmed in
his design of having her for the wife of his son.
King Henry VIII. accordingly changed all his
plans. He made a peace with the Earl of Ar-
ran. He dismissed the prisoners that he had
taken, and sent them home kindly. If he had
been contented with kind and gentle measures
like these, he might have succeeded in them, al-
though there was, of course, a strong party in
Scotland opposed to them. Mary's mother was
opposed to them, for she was a Catholic and a
French lady, and she wished to have her daugh-
ter become a Catholic as she grew up, and mar-
ry a French prince. All the Catholics in Scot-
land took her side. Still Henry's plans might

have been accomplished, perhaps, if I
moderate and conciliating in the eff
he made to carry them into effect.
But Henry VIII. was headstrong
nate. He demanded that Mary, sin

e had been
orts which

and obsti-
ce she was

to be his son's wife, should be given up to him


__ __

1543.] MARY'S
Objections to them.


Plans for Mary

to be taken into England, and educated there,
under the care of persons whom he should ap-
point. He also demanded that the Parliament

of Scotland should let
in the government of S
going to be the father-in

The Parliament
these plans; they
low their little qu.
country, and put
and rude a man.
too, to give him
during Mary's mi
were entirely in
adopted, have pu
Scotland and the

een to

him have a large share
cotland, because he was
-law of the young queen.
not agree to either of
entirely unwilling to al-
be carried off to another

under the
Then the
any share
nority. B(
t both the
kingdom i

charge of so rough
y were unwilling,
of the government
)th these measures
; they would, if
infant Queen of
itself completely in

the power of one who had always been their
greatest enemy.
Henry, finding that he could not induce the
Scotch government to accede to these plans,
gave them up at last, and made a treaty of
marriage between his son and Mary, with the
agreement that she might remain in Scotland
until she was ten years old, and that then she
should come to England and be under his care.
All this time, while these grand negotiations
were pending between two mighty nations about






Plan of the palace

her marriage, little Mary was unconscious of it
all, sometimes reposing quietly in Janet Sin-
clair's arms, sometimes looking out of the win-
dows of the Castle of Linlithgow to see the
swans swim upon the lake, and sometimes, per-
haps, creeping about upon the palace floor, where
the earls and barons who came to visit her moth-
er, clad in armor of steel, looked upon her with

pride and pleasure.

The palace where she lived

was beautifully situated, as has been before re-

marked, on the borders of a lake.

It was ar-

ranged somewhat in the following manner:

Shore of the lake.


S church.
------ Church-yard.

a. Room where Mary

was born.

e. Entrance through

great gates.

to. Bow-window projecting toward the water
a lion. t. t Trees.

d. Den where they kept



I-- -



The lion's den.

There was a beautiful fountain in the center
of the court-yard, where water spouted out from
the mouths of carved images, and fell into mar-

ble basins
and of the
at d was
could look
ten feet de
dens near

below. The ruins of this fountain
images remain there still. The den
a round pit, like a well, which you
down into from above: it was about
ep. They used to keep lions in such
the palaces and castles in those days.

A lion in a den was a sort of plaything in form-
er times, as a parrot or a pet lamb is now: this
was in keeping with the fierce and warlike spirit
of the age. If they had a lion there in Mary's
time, Janet often, doubtless, took her little charge
out to see it, and let her throw down food to it
from above. ,The den is there now. You ap-
proach it upon the top of a broad embankment,
which is as high as the depth of the den, so

e bottom of the den
the ground, which*
is a hole, too, at the

wall, where they used to
The foregoing plan o
grounds of Linlithgow is
plans usually are, the up
north. Of course the rooi
born, is on the western

is level with the sur-
makes it always dry.
bottom, through the
put the lion in.
f the buildings and
drawn as maps and
per part toward the
m a, where Mary was
side. The adjoining

that th
face of


Explanation of the engraving. The coronation.
engraving represents a view of the palace on
this western side. The church is seen at the
right, and the lawn, where Janet used to take
Mary out to breathe the air, is in the foreground.
The shore of the lake is very near, and winds
beautifully around the margin of the promonto-
ry on which the palace stands. Of course the
lion's den, and the ancient avenue of approach
to the palace, are round upon the other side, and
out of sight in this view. The approach to the
palace, at the present day, is on the southern
side, between the church and the trees on the
right of the picture.
Mary remained here at Linlithgow for a year
or two; but when she was about nine months
old, they concluded to have the great ceremony
of the coronation performed, as she was by that
time old enough to bear the journey to Stirling
Castle, where the Scottish kings and queens
were generally crowned. The coronation of a
queen is an event which always excites a very
deep and universal interest among all persons
in the realm; and there is a peculiar interest
felt when, as was the case in this instance, the
queen to be crowned is an infant just old enough
to bear the journey. There was a very great
interest felt in Mary's coronation. The differ

PALACE OF LINLITHGOW-Queen Mary's Birth-place

Stirling Castle.



Its situation.


Rocky hill.

ent courts and monarchs of Europe sent embas-
sadors to be present at the ceremony, and to
pay their respects to the infant queen; and Stir-
ling became, for the time being, the center of
universal attraction.
Stirling is in the very heart of Scotland. 11f

is a castle, built upon a
rocky hill, which rises li
midst of a vast region (
country, rich and verdE
Beyond the confines of
dark mountains rise on

rock, or, rather, upon a
[ke an island out of the
)f beautiful and fertile
nt beyond description.
this region of beauty,
all sides; and wherever

you are, whether riding along the roads in the
plain, or climbing the declivities of the mount-
ains, you see Stirling Castle, from every point,
capping its rocky hill, the center and ornament
of the broad expanse of beauty which sur-
rounds it.
Stirling Castle is north of Linlithgow, and is
distant about fifteen or twenty miles from it.
The road to it lies not far from the shores of the
Firth of Forth, a broad and beautiful sheet of
water. The castle, as has been before remarked,
was on the summit of a rocky hill. There are
precipitous crags on three sides of the hill, and a
gradual approach by a long ascent on the fourth
side. At the top of this ascent you enter the




The coronation scene.

Linlithgow and Stirling.

great gates of the castle, crossing a broad and
deep ditch by means of a draw-bridge. You
enter then a series of paved courts, with tow-
ers and walls around them, and finally come
to the more interior edifices, where the private
apartments are situated, and where the little
queen was crowned.
It was an occasion of great pomp and cere-
mony, though Mary, of course, was unconscious
of the meaning of it all. She was surrounded
by barons and earls, by embassadors and prin-
ces from foreign courts, and by the principal
lords and ladies of the Scottish nobility, all
dressed in magnificent costumes. They held
little( Mary up, and a cardinal, that is, a great
dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church, plac-
ed the crown upon her head. Half pleased with
the glittering show, and half frightened at the
strange faces which she saw every where around
her, she gazed unconsciously upon the scene,
while her mother, who could better understand
its import, was elated with pride and joy.
Linlithgow and Stirling are in the open and
cultivated part of Scotland. All the northern
and western part of the country consists of vast
masses of mountains, with dark and somber
glens among them, which are occupied solely


The Highlands and the Highlanders. Religious disturbances.
by shepherds and herdsmen with their flocks
and herds. This mountainous region was call-
ed the Highlands, and the inhabitants of it were
the Highlanders. They were a wild and war-
like class of men, and their country was seldom
visited by either friend or foe. At the present
time there are beautiful roads all through the
Highlands, and stage-coaches and private car-
riages roll over them every summer, to take
tourists to see and admire the picturesque and
beautiful scenery; but in the days of Mary the
whole region was gloomy and desolate, and al-
most inaccessible.
Mary remained in Linlithgow and Stirling
for about two years, and then, as the country
was becoming more and more disturbed by the
struggles of the great contending parties-those
who were in favor of the Catholic religion and
alliance with France on the one hand, and of
those in favor of the Protestant religion and al-
liance with England on the other hand-they
concluded to send her into the Highlands for
It was not far into the country of the High-
lands that they concluded to send her, but only
into the borders of it. There was a small lake
on the southern margin of the wild and mount.




Lake Menteith. Mary's companions. The four Maries
ainous country, called the Lake of Menteith.
In this lake was an island named Inchmahome,
the word inch being the name for island in the
language spoken by the Highlanders. This isl-
and, which was situated in a very secluded and
solitary region, was selected as Mary's place of
residence. She was about four years old when
they sent her to this place. Several persons
went with her to take care of her, and to teach
her. In fact, every thing was provided for her

which could secure her improvement and hap-
piness. Her mother did not forget that she
would need playmates, and so she selected four
little girls of about the same age with the little
queen herself, and invited them to accompany
her. They were daughters of the noblemen

and high officers about the court. It is very
singular that these girls were all named Mary.
Their names in full were as follows:
Mary Beaton,
Mary Fleming,
Mary Livingstone,
Mary Seaton.
These, with Mary Stuart, which was Queen
Mary's name, made five girls of four or five
years of age, all named Mary.
Mary lived two years in this solitary island,





Angry disputes. Change of plan. Henry's anger.
She had, however, all the comforts and conven-
iences of life, and enjoyed herself with her four
Maries very much. Of course she knew noth-
ing, and thought nothing of the schemes and
plans of the great governments for having her
married, when she grew up, to the young En-
glish prince, who was then a little boy of about
her own age, nor of the angry disputes in
Scotland to which this subject gave rise. It
did give rise to very serious disputes. Mary's
mother did not like the plan at all. As she
was herself a French lady and a Catholic, she
did not wish to have her daughter marry a
prince who was of the English royal family,
and a Protestant. All the Catholics in Scot-
land took her side. At length the Earl of Ar-
ran, who was the regent, changed to that side;
and finally the government, being thus brought
over, gave notice to King Henry VIII. that the
plan must be given up, as they had concluded,
on the whole, that Mary should not marry his
King Henry was very much incensed. He
declared that Mary should marry his son, and
he raised an army and sent it into Scotland to
make war upon the Scotch again, and compel
them to consent to the execution of the plan,

Henry's sickness and death. War renewed.
He was at this time beginning to be sick, but
his sickness, instead of softening his temper,
only made him the more ferocious and cruel.
He turned against his best friends. He grew
worse, and was evidently about to die; but he
was so irritable and angry that for a long time
no one dared to tell him of his approaching dis-
solution, and he lay restless, and wretched, and
agitated with political animosities upon his dy-
ing bed. At length some one ventured to tell
him that his end was near. When he found
that he must die, he resigned himself to his fate.
He sent for an archbishop to come and see him,
but he was speechless when the prelate came,
and soon afterward expired.
The English government, however, after his
death, adhered to his plan of compelling the
Scotch to make Mary the wife of his son. They
sent an army into Scotland. A great battle
was fought, and the Scotch were defeated. The
battle was fought at a place not far from Edin-
burgh, and near the sea. It was so near the
sea that the English fired upon the Scotch army
from their ships, and thus assisted their troops
upon the shore. The armies had remained sev-
eral days near each other before coming to bat-
tle, and during all this time the city of Edin-



Danger in Edinburgh.

Aid from France.

New plan.

burgh was in a state of great anxiety and sus-
pense, as they expected that their city would
be attacked by the English if they should con-
quer in the battle. The English army did, in
fact, advance toward Edinburgh after the bat-
tle was over, and would have got possession of
it had it not been for the castle. There is a
very strong castle in the very heart of Edin-
burgh, upon the summit of a rocky hill.*
These attempts of the English to force the
Scotch government to consent to Mary's mar-
riage only made them the more determined to
prevent it. A great many who were not op-
posed to it before, became opposed to it now,
when they saw foreign armies in the country
destroying the towns and murdering the people.
They said they had no great objection to the
match, but that they did not like the mode of
wooing. They sent to France to ask the French
king to send over an army to aid them, and
promised him that if he would do so they would
agree that Mary should marry his son. His
son's name was Francis.
The French king was very much pleased
with this plan. He sent an army of six thou-
sand men into Scotland to assist the Scotch

* See the v*ew of Edinburgh, page 179.





Going to France. Dumbarton Castle. Rock of Dumbarton.
against their English enemies. It was arrang-
ed, also, as little Mary was now hardly safe
among all these commotions, even in her re-
treat in the island of Inchmahome, to send her
to France to be educated there, and to live there
until she was old enough to be married. The
same ships which brought the army from France
to Scotland, were to carry Mary and her reti-
nue from Scotland to France. The four Maries
went with her.
They bade their lonely island farewell, and
traveled south till they came to a strong castle
on a high, rocky hill, on the banks of the River
Clyde. The name of this fortress is Dumbar-
ton Castle. Almost all the castles of those

times were built upon
crease the difficulties
preaching them. The
very remarkable one.
bank of the river. TI
ships and steam-boats
and down the Clyde, to
of Glasgow, and all t
gaze with great interest
Rock of Dumbarton, s
the sides, and the tower,
ing the summit.* In

precipitous hills, to in-
of the enemies in ap-
Rock of Dumbarton is a
It stands close to the
here are a great many
continually passing up
and from the great city
he passengers on board
t, as they sail by, on the
vith the castle walls on
s and battlements crown-
Mary's time there was





Journey to Dumbarton. Tourists. River Clyde.

comparatively very little shipping on the river,
but the French fleet was there, waiting oppo-
site the castle to receive Mary and the numer-
ous persons who were to go in her train.*
Mary was escorted from the island where she
had been living, across the country to Dumbar-
ton Castle, with a strong retinue. She was
now between five and six years of age. She
was, of course, too young to know any thing
about the contentions and wars which had dis-
tracted her country on her account, or to feel

Travelers who visit Scotland from this country at the
present day, usually land first, at the close of the voyage
across the Atlantic, at Liverpool, and there take a Glasgow
steamer. Glasgow, which is the great commercial city of
Scotland, is on the River Clyde. This river flows northwest
to the sea. The steamer, in ascending the river, makes its
way with difficulty along the narrow channel, which, be-
sides being narrow and tortuous, is obstructed by boats, ships,
steamers, and every other variety of water-craft, such as are
always going to and fro in the neighborhood of any great
commercial emporium.
The tourists, who stand upon the deck gazing at this excit-
ing scene of life and motion, have their attention strongly at-
tracted, about half way up the river, by this Castle of Dum-
barton, which crowns a rocky hill, rising abruptly from the
water's edge, on the north side of the stream. It attracts
sometimes the more attention from American travelers, on ac-
count of its being the first ancient castle they see. This is
likely to be the case if they proceed to Scotland immediately
on landing at Liverpool.




The four Maries.

Departure from Scotland.

much interest in the subject of her approaching

departure from
the novelty of
passed on her j
the dresses and
companies her,
floating in the

her native land. She enjoyed
the scenes through which she
ourney. She was pleased with
the arms of the soldiers who ac-
and with the ships which were
river, beneath the walls of the

Castle of Dumbarton, when she arrived there.
She was pleased, too, to think that, wherever
she was to go, her four Maries were to go with
her. She bade her mother farewell, embarked
on board the ship which was to receive her, and
sailed away from her native land, not to return
to it again for many years.





Stormy voyage





T HE departure of Mary from Scotland, lit-
tle as she was, was a great event both for
Scotland and for France. In those days kings
and queens were even of greater relative im-
portance than they are now, and all Scotland
was interested in the young queen's going
away from them, and all France in expecting
her arrival. She sailed down the Clyde, and
then passed along the seas and channels which
lie between England and Ireland. These seas,
though they look small upon the map, are real-
ly spacious and wide, and are often greatly agi-
tated by winds and storms. This was the case
at the time Mary made her voyage. The days

and nights were tempestuous and
ships had difficulty in keeping in
company. There was danger of
upon the coasts, or upon the roe
which lie i~ the way. Mary was
give much heed to these dangers,

wild, and the
each other's
being blown
ks or islands
too young to
but the lords

and commissioners, and the great ladies who



_ ___



Journey to Paris.

OF SCOTs. [1548
Release of prisoners.

went to attend her, were heartily glad when the
voyage was over. It ended safely at last, after
several days of tossing upon the stormy billows,
by their arrival upon the northern coast of
France. They landed at a town called Brest.
The King of France had made great prepare.
tions for receiving the young queen immediate-
ly upon her landing. Carriages and horses had
been provided to convey herself and the com-

pany of her attendants, by easy
Paris. They received her with
and ceremony at every town which
through. One mark of respect
showed her was very singular. '.
dered that every prison which she
route should be thrown open, and

set free

of the
days, c


journeys, to
great pomp
h she passed
which they
rhe king or-
passed in her
the prisoners

a. This fact is a striking illustration
different ideas which prevailed in those
compared with those which are enter-
now, in respect to crime and punish-
Crime is now considered as an offense
the community, and it would be con-
no favor to the community, but the re-

verse, to let imprisoned criminals go free. In
those days, on the other hand, crimes were con-
sidered rather as injuries committed by the
community, and against the king; so that, if


Barabbas. St. Germain. Celebrations.
the monarch wished to show the community a
favor, he would do it by releasing such of them
as had been imprisoned by his officers for their
crimes. It was just so in the time of our Sa-
vior, when the Jews had a custom of having
some criminal released to them once a year, at
the Passover, by the Roman government, as an
act of favor. That is, the government was ac-
pustomed to furnish, by way of contributing its
share toward the general festivities of the occa-
sion, the setting of a robber and a murderer at
liberty f
The King of France has several palaces in
the neighborhood of Paris. Mary was taken to
one of them, named St. Germain. This pal-
ace, which still stands, is about twelve miles
from Paris, toward the northwest. It is a very
magnificent residence, and has been for many
centuries a favorite resort of the French kings.
Many of them were born in it. There are ex-
tensive parks and gardens connected with it,
and a great artificial forest, in which the trees
were all planted and cultivated like the trees
of an orchard. Mary was received at this pal-
ace with great pomp and parade; and many
spectacles and festivities were arranged to amuse
her and the four Maries who accompanied her.

The convent. Character of the nuna.
and to impress her strongly with an idea of the
wealth, and power, and splendor of the great
country to which she had come.
She remained here but a short time, and then
it was arranged for her to go to a convent to be
educated. Convents were in those days, as in
fact they are now, quite famous as places of
education. They were situated sometimes in
large towns, and sometimes in secluded places
in the country; but, whether in town or coun-
try, the inmates of them were shut up very
strictly from all intercourse with the world.
They were under the care of nuns who had de-
voted themselves for life to the service. These
nuns were some of them unhappy persons, who
were weary of the sorrows and sufferings of the
world, and who were glad to retire from it to
such a retreat as they fancied the convent would
be. Others became nuns from conscientious
principles of duty, thinking that they should
commend themselves to the favor of God by
devoting their lives to works of benevolence
and to the exercises of religion. Of course there
were all varieties of character among the nuns;
some of them were selfish and disagreeable,
others were benevolent and kind.
At the convent where Mary was sent there

Interest in Mary. Leaving the convent.
were some nuns of very excellent and amiable
character, and they took a great interest in
Mary, both because she was a queen, and be-
cause she was beautiful, and of a kind and
affectionate disposition. Mary became very
strongly attached to these nuns, and began to
entertain the idea of becoming a nun herself,
and spending her life with them in the con-
vent. It seemed pleasant to her to live there
in such a peaceful seclusion, in company with
those who loved her, and whom she herself loved;
but the King of France, and the Scottish no-
bles who had come with her from Scotland,
would, of course, be opposed to any such plan.
They intended her to be married to the young
prince, and to become one of the great ladies
of the court, and to lead a life of magnificence
and splendor. They became alarmed, there-
fore, when they found that she was imbibing a
taste for the life of seclusion and solitude which
is led by a nun. They decided to take her im-
mediately away.
Mary bade farewell to the'convent and its in-
mates with much regret and many tears; but,
notwithstanding her reluctance, she was obliged
to submit. If she had not been a queen, she
might, perhaps, have had her own way. As it






Visit of Mary's mother

was, however, she was obliged to leave the con-
vent and the nuns whom she loved, and to go

back to the palaces of the I
afterward continued to live,
and sometimes in another,
Wherever she went, she wa
scenes of great gayety and
wished to obliterate from he:

ing, in which she
sometimes in one



tions of the convent, and all
and seclusion. They did not

for many years.
surrounded with
splendor. They
mind all recollec-
love of solitude
neglect her stud-

ies, but they filled up the intervals of study with
all possible schemes of enjoyment and pleasure,
to amuse and occupy her mind and the minds
of her companions. Her companions were her
own four Maries, and the two daughters of the
French king.
When Mary was about seven years of age,
that is, after she had been two years in France,
her mother formed a plan to come from Scot-
land to see her. Her mother had remained be-
hind when Mary left Scotland, as she had an
important part to perform in public affairs, and
in the administration of the government of Scot-
land while Mary was away. She wanted, how-
ever, to come and see her. France, too, was
her own native land, and all her relations and

friends resided there.

She wished to see them




Queen dowager. Rouen. A happy meeting.
as well as Mary, and to revisit once more the
palaces and cities where her own early life had
been spent. In speaking of Mary's mother we

shall call her sometimes the queen
The expression queen dowager is the

ally applied to the widow of a king,
consort is used to denote the wife of
This visit of the queen dowager of
to her little daughter in France was
of great consequence, and all the arra
for carrying it into effect were condu
great pomp and ceremony. A large

attended her, with many
and ladies among them.
too, went from Paris towa


one usu-
as queen
an event

cted with

of the Scottish lords
The King of France,
rd the French coast,

to meet the party of visitors, taking little Mary
and a large company of attendants with him.
They went to Rouen, a large city not far from
the coast, where they awaited the arrival of
Mary's mother, and where they received her
with great ceremonies of parade and rejoicing.
The queen regent was very much delighted to
see her little daughter again. She had grown
two years older, and had improved greatly in
every respect, and tears of joy came into her
mother's eyes as she clasped her in her arms.
The two parties journeyed in company to Paris.




Rejoicings. A last farewell. Visit to a mourner.
and entered the city with great rejoicings. The
two queens, mother and daughter, were the ob-
jects of universal interest and attention. Feasts

and celebrations without end
them, and every possible mea
and rejoicing were contrived
Paris, of St. Germain's, and
Mary's mother remained in
year. She then bade Mary

were arranged for
ns of amusement
in the palaces of
of Fontainebleau.
France about a
farewell, leaving

her at Fontainebleau. This proved to
farewell, for she never saw her again.
After taking leave of her daughter, 1
dowager went, before leaving France,
own mother, who was a widow, and
living at a considerable distance from
seclusion, and in a state of austere an

be a final

the queen
to see her
who was
L Paris in
id melan-

choly grief, on account of the loss of her hus-
band. Instead of forgetting her sorrows, as she
ought to have done, and returning calmly and
peacefully to the duties and enjoyments of life,
she had given herself up to inconsolable grief,
and was doing all she could to perpetuate the
mournful influence of her sorrows. She lived
in an ancient and gloomy mansion, of vast size,
and she had hung all the apartments in black,
to make it still more desolate and gloomy, and
to continue the influence of grief upon her mind.


The queen dowager's return. The regency
Here the queen dowager found her, spending
her time in prayers and austerities of every
kind, making herself and all her family perfect-
ly miserable. Many persons, at the present day,
act, under such circumstances, on the same prin-
ciple and with the same spirit, though they do
not do it perhaps in precisely the same way.
One would suppose that Mary's mother would
have preferred to remain in France with her
daughter and her mother and all her family
friends, instead of going back to Scotland, where
she was, as it were, a foreigner and a stranger.
The reason why she desired to go back was,
that she wished to be made queen regent, and
thus have the government of Scotland in her
own hands. She would rather be queen re-
gent in Scotland than a simple queen mother
in France. While she was in France, she urged
the king to use all his influence to have Arran
resign his regency into her hands, and finally
obtained writings from him and from Queen
Mary to this effect. She then left France and
went to Scotland, going through England on
the way. The young King of England, to
whom Mary had been engaged by the govern-
ment when she was an infant in Janet Sin-
clair's arms, renewed his proposals to the queen





A page of honor.

Sir James Melville.

dowager to let her daughter become his wife;
but she told him that it was all settled that she
was to be married to the French prince, and

that it was now
There was a yo
or twenty years
land also, not far
Mary as her pag
tendant above th
whose business ii

too late to change the plan.
ung gentleman, about nineteen
of age, who came from Scot-
from this time, to wait upon
e of honor. A page is an at-
e rank of an ordinary servant,
; is to wait upon his mistress,

to read to her, sometimes to convey her letters
and notes, and to carry her commands to the
other attendants who are beneath him in rank,
and whose business it is actually to perform the
services which the lady requires. A page of
honor is a young gentleman who sustains this
office in a nominal and temporary manner for a
princess or a queen.
The name of Mary's page of honor, who came
to her now from Scotland, was Sir James Mel-
ville. The only reason for mentioning him thus
particularly, rather than the many other officers
and attendants by whom Mary was surrounded
was, that the service which he thus commenced
was continued in various ways through the
whole period of Mary's life. We shall often
hear of him in tle subsequent parts of this nar-




Mary's character. Her diligence. Devices and mottoes.
rative. He followed Mary to Scotland when
she returned to that country, and became after-
ward her secretary, and also her embassador on
many occasions. He was now quite young, and
when he landed at Brest he traveled slowly to
Paris in the care of two Scotchmen, to whose
charge he had been intrusted. He was a young
man of uncommon talents and of great accom-

tion for h
the quee]
years of a
After t
Mary wei
and more
and amia
and she (

s, and
im to
a, alth
Lge an
he qu(
it on i

it was
be app
d she w
en reg<

a mark of high distinc-
ointed page of honor to
he was about nineteen
ras but seven.
went's return to Scotland,
ng in every respect more

. She was diligent, industrious, and
She took a great interest in her
She was not only beautiful in person,
ble and affectionate in heart, but she
a very intelligent and active mind,
entered with a sort of quiet but earn-

est enthusiasm into all the studies to which her
attention was called. She paid a great deal of
attention to music, to poetry, and to drawing
She used to invent little devices for seals, with
French and Latin mottoes, and, after drawing
them again and again with great care, until she
was satisfied with the design, she would give

Festivities. Water parties.
them to the gem-engravers to be cut upon stone
seals, so that she could seal her letters with
them. These mottoes and devices can not well
be represented in English, as the force and beau-
ty of them depended generally upon a double
meaning in some word of French or Latin,
which can not be preserved in the translation.
We shall, however, give one of these seals, which
she made just before she left France, to return
to Scotland, when we come to that period of her
The King of France, and the lords and ladies
who came with Mary from Scotland, contrived
a great many festivals and celebrations in the
parks, and forests, and palaces, to amuse the
queen and the four Maries who were with her
The daughters of the French king joined, also,
in these pleasures. They would have little
balls, and parties, and pic-nics, sometimes in the
open air, sometimes in the little summer-houses
built upon the grounds attached to the palaces.
The scenes of these festivities were in many
cases made unusually joyous and gay by bon-
fires and illuminations. They had water par-
ties on the little lakes, and hunting parties
through the parks and forests. Mary was a
very graceful and beautiful rider, and full of

Hunting. An accident. Restraint.
courage. Sometimes she met with accidents
which were attended with some danger. Once,
while hunting the stag, and riding at full speed
with a great company of ladies and gentlemen
behind her and before her, her dress got caught
by the bough of a tree, and she was pulled to
the ground. The horse went on. Several oth-
er riders drove by her without seeing her, as
she had too much composure and fortitude to
attract their attention by outcries and lamenta-
tions. They saw her, however, at last, and
came to her assistance. They brought back
her horse, and, smoothing down her hair, which
had fallen into confusion, she mounted again,
and rode on after the stag as before.
Notwithstanding all these means of enjoy-
ment and diversion, Mary was subjected to a
great deal of restraint. The rules of etiquette
are very precise and very strictly enforced in
royal households, and they were still more strict
in those days than they are now. The king
was very ceremonious in all his arrangements,
and was surrounded by a multitude of officers
who performed every thing by rule. As Mary
grew older, she was subjected to greater and
greater restraint. She used to spend a consid-
erable portion of every day in the apartments





Queen Catharine. Her character. Embroidery,
of Queen Catharine, the wife of the King of
France and the mother of the little Francis to
whom she was to be married. Mary and Queen
Catharine did not, however, like each other very
well. Catharine was a woman of strong mind
and of an imperious disposition; and it is sup-
posed by some that she was jealous of Mary
because she was more beautiful and accom-
plished and more generally beloved than her
own daughters, the princesses of France. At
any rate, she treated Mary in rather a stern
and haughty manner, and it was thought that
she would finally oppose her marriage to Fran-
cis her son.
And yet Mary was at first very much pleas-

ed with Queen Catharine, and was


to look up to her with great admiration, and to
feel for her a very sincere regard. She often
went into the queen's apartments, where they
sat together and talked, or worked upon their
embroidery, which was a famous amusement
for ladies of exalted rank in those days. Mary
herself at one time worked a large piece, which
she sent as a present to the nuns in the con-
vent where she had resided; and afterward, in
Scotland, she worked a great many things,
onome of which still remain, and may be seen in

Mary's admiration of Queen Catharine. The latter suspicious.
her ancient rooms in the palace. of Holyrood
House. She learned this art by working with
Queen Catharine in her apartments. When
she first became acquainted with Catharine on
these occasions, she used to love her society.
She admired her talents and her conversational
powers, and she liked very much to be in her
room. She listened to all she said, watched
her movements, and endeavored in aU things to
follow her example.
Catharine, however, thought that this was
all a pretense, and that Mary did not really
like her, but only wished to make her believe
that she did so in order to get favor, or to ac-
complish some other selfish end. One day she
asked her why she seemed to prefer her society
to that of her youthful and more suitable com-
panions. Mary replied, in substance, "The
reason was, that though with them she might
enjoy much, she could learn nothing; while she
always learned from Queen Catharine's conver-
sation something which would be of use to her
as a guide in future life." One would have
thought that this answer would have pleased
the queen, but it did not. She did not believe
that it was sincere.
On one occasion Mary seriously offended the

Unguarded remark. Catharine's mortification. The dauphin.
queen by a remark which she made, and which
was, at least, incautious. Kings and queens,
and, in fact, all great people in Europe, pride
themselves very much upon the antiquity of the
line frorn which they have descended. Now the
family of Queen Catharine had risen to rank
and distinction within a moderate period; and
though she was, as Queen of France, on the
very pinnacle of human greatness, she would
naturally be vexed at any remark which would
remind her of the recentness of her elevation.
Now Mary at one time said, in conversation in
the presence of Queen Catharine, that she her-
self was the descendant of a hundred kings.
This was perhaps true, but it brought her into
direct comparison with Catharine in a point in
which the latter was greatly her inferior, and it
vexed and mortified Catharine very much to
have such a thing said to her by such a child.
Mary associated thus during all this time,
not only with the queen and the princesses, but
also with the little prince whom she was des-
tined to marry. His name was Francis, but
he was commonly called the dauphin, which
was the name by which the oldest son of the
King of France was then, and has been since
designated T Ie origin of this custom was this,


Origin of the title.

Character of Francis.

About a hundred years before the time of which

we are
rank, w
ince of
and hei:
at the ]
states to
tion tha

speaking, a certain nobleman of high
ho possessed estates in an ancient prov-
France called Dauphiny, lost his son
r. He was overwhelmed with affliction
loss, and finally bequeathed all his es-
the king and his successors, on condi-
t the oldest son should bear the title of
n. The grant was accepted, and the

oldest son was according

gly so styled from that

time forward, from generation to generate
The dauphin, Francis, was a weak an
ble child, but he was amiable and gentle
manners, and Mary liked him. She me
often in their walks and rides, and she d
with him at the balls and parties given f
amusement. She knew that he was to 1
husband as soon as she was old enough
married, and he knew that she was to

wife. It was all decided,
either of them could say or
influence on the result. N
ever, seem to have had any
result. Mary pitied Franc
feeble health, and liked his

and nothing

d fee-
in his
:t him
or her
be her
to be
be his

do would have any
either of them, how-
desire to change the
is on account of his
amiable and gentle

disposition; and Francis could not help loving





Mary's beauty. Torch-light procession. An angeL
Mary, both on account of the traits of her char-
acter and her personal charms.
As Mary advanced in years, she grew very
beautiful. In some of the great processions and
ceremonies, the ladies were accustomed to walk,
magnificently dressed and carrying torches in
their hands. In one of these processions Mary
was moving along with the rest, through a

crowd of spectators, and the light from her
fell upon her features and upon her hair ir
a manner as to make her appear more b
ful than usual. A woman, standing -
pressed up nearer to her to view her more
ly, and, seeing how beautiful she was,
her if she was not an angel. In those
however, people believed in what is mirac

and supernatural more easily than
it was not very surprising that one
in such a case, that an angel from


now, so that
should think,
Heaven had

tome down to join in the procession.
Mary grew up a Catholic, of course: all were
Catholics around her. The king and all the
royal family were devoted to Catholic observ-
ances. The convent, the ceremonies, the daily
religious observances enjoined upon her, the
splendid churches which she frequented, all
tended in their influence to lead her mind away


Mary a Catholic. Her conscientiousness and fidelity.
from the Protestant religion which prevailed in
her native land, and to make her a Catholic:
she remained so throughout her life. There is
no doubt that she was conscientious in her at-
tachment to the forms and to the spirit of the
Roman Church. At any rate, she was faithful
to the ties which her early education imposed
upon her, and this fidelity became afterward
the source of some of her heaviest calamities
and woes.

Hastening the wedding. Reasons for it.

W ] HEN Mary was about fifteen years of
v age, the King of France began to think
that it was time for her to be married. It is
true that she was still very young, but there
were strong reasons for having the marriage
take place at the earliest possible period, for
fear that something might occur to prevent its
consummation at all. In fact, there were very
strong parties opposed to it altogether. The
whole Protestant interest in Scotland were op-
posed to it, and were continually contriving
plans to defeat it. They thought that if Mary
married a French prince, who was, of course, a
Catholic, she would become wedded to the Cath-
olic interest hopelessly and forever. This made
them feel a most bitter and determined oppo-
sition to the plan.
In fact, so bitter and relentless were the an-
imosities that grew out of this question, that
an attempt was actually made to poison Mary.
The man who committed this crime was an
archer in the king's guard: he was a Scotch-





Attempt to poison Mary. The Guises. Catharine's jealousy.
man, and his name was Stewart. His attempt
was discovered in time to prevent the accom-
plishment of his purpose. He was tried and
condemned. They made every effort to induce
him to explain the reason which led him to such
an act, or, if he was employed by others, to re-
veal their names ; but he would reveal nothing.
He was executed for his crime, leaving man-
kind to conjecture that his motive, or that of
the persons who instigated him to the deed, was
a desperate determination to save Scotland, at
all hazards, from falling under the influence of
papal power.
Mary's mother, the queen dowager of Scot-
land, was of a celebrated French family, called
the family of Guise. She is often, herself, called
in history, Mary of Guise. There were other
great families in France who were very jealous
of the Guises, and envious of their influence
and power. They opposed Queen Mary's mar-
riage to the dauphin, and were ready to do all
in their power to thwart and defeat it. Queen
Catharine, too, who seemed to feel a greater and
greater degree of envy and jealousy against
Mary as she saw her increasing in grace, beau-
ty, and influence with her advancing years,
was supposed to be averse to the marriage.


Commissioners from Scotland.




Mary was, in some sense, her rival, and she
could not bear to have her become the wife of
her son.
King Henry, finding all these opposing influ-

ences at
would be
feet at t

work, thought that the safest plan
to have the marriage carried into ef-
he earliest possible period. When,

therefore, Mary was about fift
which was in 1557, he sent to
the government there to appoi

;een years of age,
Scotland, asking
nt some commis-

sioners to come to France to assent to the mar-
riage contracts, and to witness the ceremonies
of the betrothment and the wedding. The mar-
riage contracts, in the case of the union of a
queen of one country with a prince of another,
are documents of very high importance. It is
considered necessary not only to make very
formal provision for the personal welfare and
comfort of the wife during her married life,
and during her widowhood in case of the death
of her husband, but also to settle beforehand
the questions of succession which might arise
out of the marriage, and to define precisely the
rights and powers both of the husband and the
wife, in the two countries to which they re-
spectively belong.
The Parliament of Scotland appointed a num-






Plan of Henry to evade them.

ber of commissioners, of the highest rank and
station, to proceed to France, and to act there
as the representatives of Scotland in every thing
which pertained to the marriage. They charged
them to guard well the rights and powers of
Mary, to see that these rights and all the inter-
ests of Scotland were well protected in the mar-
riage contracts, and to secure proper provision
for the personal comfort and happiness of the
queen. The number of these commissioners
was eight. Their departure from Scotland was
an event of great public importance. They
were accompanied by a large number of at-
tendants and followers, who were eager to be
present in Paris at the marriage festivities.
The whole company arrived safely at Paris,
and were received with every possible mark of

distinction and honor.
The marriage contracts were drawn up, and
executed with great formality. King Henry
made no objection to any of the stipulations and
provisions which the commissioners required,
for he had a secret plan for evading them all
Very ample provision was made for Mary herself.
She was to have a very large income. In case
the dauphin died while he was dauphin, leaving
Mary a widow, she was still to have a large in-





Marriage settlement.

Secret paper

come paid to her by the French
as long as she lived, whether she
France or went back to Scotland.
band outlived his father, so as to

of Fr
ow, h
be do

remained in
If her hus-
become King

nce, and then died, leaving Mary his wid-
er income for the rest of her life was to
uble what it would have been if he had
vhile dauphin. Francis was, in the mean
to share with her the government of Scot-
If they had a son, he was to be, after
deaths, King of France and of Scotland
Thus the two crowns would have been
d. If, on the other hand, they had only

daughters, the oldes
Scotland only, as the
low a female to inher
had no children, the
to come into the F
descend regularly to
Henry was not s
for he wanted to sec
and French crowns
had children or not;
sign some papers wi
thought would sect

t one was to be Queen of
laws of France did not al-
it the throne. In case they
crown of Scotland was not
rench family at all, but to
the next Scotch heir.
satisfied with this entirely,
ure the union of the Scotch
at all events, whether Mary
and he persuaded Mary to
th him privately, which he
ire his purposes, charging

her not to let the commissioners know that she
had signed them. He thought it possible that





Their contents.


he should never have occasion to produce them.
One of these papers conveyed the crown of Scot-
land to the King of France absolutely and for-

ever, mI
should r
for her,

case Ma
epay hin
d upon
for her
ions and
and all

sions, and parad
pense had been
to that of Franc4

Lry should die without children.
d that the Scotch government
a for the enormous sums he had
Mary during her residence in
education, her attendants, the
I galas which he had provided
the splendid journeys, proces-
Les. His motive in all this ex-
to unite the crown of Scotland
e, and he wished to provide that

if any thing should occur to prevent the execu-
tion of his plan, he could have all this money
reimbursed to him again. He estimated the
amount at a million of pieces of gold. This was
an enormous sum: it shows on how magnifi
cent a scale Mary's reception and entertain
ment in France were managed.
These preliminary proceedings being settled,
all Paris, and, in fact, all France, began to pre-
pare for the marriage celebrations. There were
to be two great ceremonies connected with the
occasion. The first was the betrothment, the
second was the marriage. At the betrothment
Francis and Mary were to meet in a great pub-





The betrothal.

lie hall, and there, in the presence

The Louvre.
of a small

and select assemblage of the lords and ladies of
the court, and persons of distinction connected
with the royal family, they were formally and
solemnly to engage themselves to each other.
Then, in about a week afterward, they were to
be married, in the most public manner, in the
great Cathedral Church of Notre Dame.
The ceremony of the betrothal was celebrated
in the palace. The palace then occupied by
the royal family was the Louvre. It still
stands, but is no longer a royal dwelling. An-
other palace, more modern in its structure, and
called the Tuilleries, has since been built, a lit-
tle farther from the heart of the city, and in a

the s
and i

an open
or area

s in the
There is
n this hall

situation. The Louvre is square,
court in the center. This open

s very large4
L fact, two g
;, crossing e
center, and
in the four
a large hall
the ceremo.

place. Francis and

, and is paved like
great carriage ways
ach other at right
passing out under
sides of the build-
within the palace,
ny of the betrothal
Vary pledged their

to each other with appropriate ceremonies.
a select circle of relations and intimate






NMtre Dame. View of the interior.
friends were present on this occasion. The cere-
mony was concluded in the evening with a ball.
In the mean time, all Paris was busy with
preparations for the marriage. The Louvre is
upon one side of the River Seine, its principal
front being toward the river, with a broad street
between. There are no buildings, but only a
parapet wall on the river side of the street, so
that there is a fine view of the river and of the
bridges which cross it, from the palace windows.
Nearly opposite the Louvre is an island, cover-
ed with edifices, and connected, by, means of
bridges, with either shore. The great church
of Notre Dame, where the marriage ceremony

was to be performed, is
has two enormous square


upon this island.


be seen, rising above all
at a great distance in
re the church is a large o]
crowds assemble on any
interior of the church imp
the sublimest emotions.

s in front, which
the roofs of the
every direction.
pen area, where
great occasion.
resses the mind
Two rows of

enormous columns rise to a great height on
either hand, supporting the lofty arches of the
roof. The floor is paved with great flat stones,
and resounds continually with the footsteps of
visitors, who walk to and fro, up and down the





Amphitheater. Covered gallery.
aisles, looking at the chapels, the monuments,

the sculptures
and grotesque
light streams
enormous win

s, the paintings, and the antique
images and carvings. Colored
through the stained glass of the
dows, and the tones of the organ,

and the voices of the priests, chanting the
vice of the mass, are almost always resound
and echoing from the vaulted roof above.
The words Notre Dame mean Our Lady,
expression by which the Roman Catholics


note Mary, the mother of Jesus. The church
of Notre Dame had been for many centuries the
vast cathedral church of Paris, where all great
ceremonies of state were performed. On this
occasion they erected a great amphitheater in
the area before the church, which would accom-
modate many thousands of the spectators who
were to assemble, and enable them to see the
procession. The bride and bridegroom, and
their friends, were to assemble in the bishop's
palace, which was near the Cathedral, and a

covered gallery was
palace to the church,
party were to enter.

erected, leading from this
through which the bridal
They lined this gallery

throughout with purple velvet, and ornamented
it in other ways, so as to make the approach to
the church through it inconceivably splendid.





The procession.

Mary's dress.

Crowds began to
theater early in the
ing to Notre Dame
dow in all the lofty
balcony, was full.
itary bands began

collect ir
were thro
From ten
to arrive,

the great amphi-
The streets lead-
nged. Every win-
around, and every
to twelve the mil-
and the long pro-

cession was formed, the different parties
dressed in various picturesque costumes.
ambassadors of various foreign potentates
present, each bearing their appropriate
nia. The legate of the pope, magnifi
dressed, had an attendant bearing before
cross of massive gold. The bridegroom,

cis the dauphin, followed this legate,
afterward came Mary, accompanied by
She was dressed in white. Her robe

broidered with the
tered with diarion
As was the custo:
formed a long trai:
young girls who wa
a diamond neckla

value suspended
was a golden co
and gems of ines
But the dress
wore were not ti


him a

and soon
the king
was em-

figure of the lily, and it glit-
ds and ornaments of silver
m in those days, her dress
n, which was borne by two
ilked behind her. She wore
ce, with a ring of immense
rom it, and upon her head
ect, enriched with diamonds

and the
he chief

diamonds which Mary
points of attraction to

Appearance of Mary. Wedding ring.
the spectators. All who were present on the
occasion agree in saying that she looked inex
pressibly beautiful, and that there was an in-
describable grace and charm in all her move-
ments and manner, which filled all who saw her
with an intoxication of delight. She was art-
less and unaffected in her manners, and her
countenance, the expression of which was gen-
erally placid and calm, was lighted up with the
animation and interest of the occasion, so as to
make every body envy the dauphin the posses-
sion of so beautiful a bride. Queen Catharine,
and a long train of the ladies of the court, fol-
lowed in the procession after Mary. Every
body thought that she felt envious and ill at
The essential thing in the marriage ceremony
was to be the putting of the wedding ring upon
Mary's finger, and the pronouncing of the nup-
tial benediction which was immediately to fol-
low it. This ceremony was to be performed by
the Archbishop of Rouen, who was at that time
the greatest ecclesiastical dignitary in France.
In order that as many persons as possible might
witness this, it was arranged that it should be
performed at the great door of the church, so as
to be in view of the immense throng which had





Movement of the procession.


assembled in the amphitheater erected in the
area, and of the multitudes which had taken
their positions at the windows and balconies,
and on the house-tops around. The procession,
accordingly, having entered the church through
the covered gallery, moved along the aisles and
came to the great door. Here a royal pavilion
had been erected, where the bridal party could
stand in view of the whole assembled multi-
tude. King Henry had the ring. He gave it to
the archbishop. The archbishop placed it upon
Mary's finger, and pronounced the benediction
in a loud voice. The usual congratulations fol-

lowed, and Mary greeted her
name of his majesty the King
the whole mighty crowd rent
and acclamations.
It was the custom in th
great public occasions as thi

husband under the
of Scotland. Then
the air with shouts

ose days, on such
s, to scatter money

among the crowd, that they might scramble
for it. This was called the king's largess; and
the largess was pompously proclaimed by her
aids before the money was thrown. The throw-
ing of the money among this immense throng
produced a scene of indescribable confusion.
The people precipitated themselves upon each
other in their eagerness to seize the silver and

Confusion. The choir. Mass.
the gold. Some were trampled under foot.
Some were stripped of their hats and cloaks, or
had their clothes torn from them. Some faint-
ed, and were borne out of the scene with infi-
nite difficulty and danger. At last the people
clamorously begged the officers to desist from
throwing any more money, for fear that the

most serious a
In the mean
turned into the
center between
a place called t

nd fatal



time, the bridal procession re-
church, and, advancing up the
the lofty columns, they came to
he choir, which is in the heart

of the church, and is inclosed by screens of
carved and sculptured work. It is in the choir
that congregations assemble to be present at
mass and other religious ceremonies. Mova-
ble seats are placed here on ordinary occasions,
but at the time of this wedding the place war
fitted up with great splendor. Here mass was
performed in the presence of the bridal party.
Mass is a solemn ceremony conducted by the
priests, in which they renew, or think they re-
new, the sacrifice of Christ, accompanied with
offerings of incense, and other acts of adoration,
and the chanting of solemn hymns of praise.
At the close of these services the procession






Return of the procession. Collation. Ball
moved again down the church, and, issuing forth
at the great entrance, it passed around upon a
spacious platform, where it could be'seen to ad-
vantage by all the spectators. Mary was the
center to which all eyes were turned. She
moved along, the very picture of grace and beau-
ty, the two young girls who followed her bear-
ing her train. The procession, after completing

its circuit, returned
through the covered
the bishop's palace.
of a grand collation.
was a ball, but the

to the church, and thence,
gallery, it moved back to
Here the company partook
After the collation there
ladies were too much em-

barrassed with their magnificent dresses to be
able to dance, and at five o'clock the royal fam-
ily returned to their home. Mary and Queen
Catharine went together in a sort of palanquin,
borne by men, high officers of state walking on
each side. The king and the dauphin followed
on horseback, with a large company in their
train; but the streets were every where so
crowded with eager spectators that it was with
extreme difficulty that they were able to make
their way.
The palace to which the party went to spend
the evening was fitted up and illuminated in the
most splendid manner, and a variety of most






Evening's entertainments.

A tournament.

curious entertainments had been contrived for
the amusement of the company. There were
twelve artificial horses, made to move by in-
ternal mechanism, and splendidly caparisoned.
The children of the company, the little princes
and dukes, mounted these horses and rode
around the arena. Then came in a company
of men dressed like pilgrims, each of whom re-
cited a poem written in honor of the occasion.
After this was an exhibition of galleys, or boats,
upon a little sea. These boats were large enough
to bear up two persons. There were two seats
in each, one of which was occupied by a young
gentleman. As the boats advanced, one by one,
each gentleman leaped to the shore, or to what
represented the shore, and, going among the com-
pany, selected a lady and bore her off to his
boat, and then, seating her in the vacant chair,
took his place by her side, and continued his
voyage. Francis was in one of the boats, and
he, on coming to the shore, took Mary for his
The celebrations and festivities of this famous
wedding continued for fifteen days. They closed
with a grand tournament. A tournament was
a very magnificent spectacle in those days. A
field was inclosed, in which kings, and princes,


Rank of the combatants. Lances.
and knights, fully armed, and mounted on war-
horses, tilted against each other with lances and
blunted swords. Ladies of high rank were pres-
ent as spectators and judges, and one was ap-
pointed at each tournament to preside, and to dis-
tribute the honors and rewards to those who
were most successful in the contests. The great-
est possible degree of deference and honor was
paid to the ladies by all the knights on these
occasions. Once, at a tournament in London,
arranged by a king of England, the knights and
noblemen rode in a long procession to the field,
each led by a lady by means of a silver chain.
It was a great honor to be admitted to a share
in these contests, as none but persons of the high-
est rank were allowed to take a part in them.
Whenever one was to be held, invitations were
sent to all the courts of Europe, and kings,
queens, and sovereign princes came to witness
the spectacle.
The horsemen who contended on these occa-
sions carried long lances, blunt, indeed, at the
end, so that they could not penetrate the armor
of the antagonist at which they were aimed,
but yet of such weight that the momentum of
the blow was sometimes sufficient to unhorso
him. The great object of every combatant was,





Rapid evolutions.


Francis's feebleness

accordingly, to protect himself
He must turn his horse sud
the lance of his antagonist; or

from this
denly, an
he must

with his own, and thus parry the blow;
must encounter it, he was to brace hims
ly in his saddle, and resist its impulse
the strength that he could command.
quired, therefore, great strength and gr
terity to excel in a tournament. In fact

Ld avoid
strike it
or if he
elf firm-
with all
It re-
eat dex-
, the ra-

pidity of the evolutions which it required gave
origin to the name, the word tournament being
formed from a French word* which signifies to
The princes and noblemen who were present
at the wedding all joined in the tournament
except the poor bridegroom, who was too weak
and feeble in body, and too timid in mind, for
any such rough and warlike exercises. Fran-
cis was very plain and unprepossessing in coun-
tenance, and shy and awkward in his manners.
His health had always been very infirm, and
though his rank was very high, as he was the
heir apparent to what was then the greatest
throne in Europe, every body thought that in
all other respects he was unfit to be the hus-

* Tourner





Mary's love for him.

He retires to the country.

band of such a beautiful and accomplished prin-
cess as Mary. He was timid, shy, and anxious
and unhappy in disposition. He knew that the

gay and warlike. spirits around him c
look upon him with respect, and he felt
ful sense of his inferiority.
Mary, however, loved him. It was
perhaps, mingled with pity. She did
sume an air of superiority over him,
deavored to encourage him, to lead t
ward, to inspire him with confidence a

would not
a pain-

a love,
not as-
but en.
him for-
nd hope,

and to make him feel his own strength and val-
ne. She was' herself of a sedate and thought-
ful character, and with all her intellectual su-
periority, she was characterized by that femi-
nine gentleness of spirit, that disposition to fol-
low and to yield father than to govern, that de-
sire to be led and to be loved rather than to
lead and be admired, which constitute the high-
est charm of woman.
Francis was glad when the celebrations,
tournament and all, were well over. He set
off from Paris with his young bride to one of
his country residences, where he could live, for
a while, in peace and quietness. Mary was re-
leased, in some degree, from the restraints, and
formalities, and rules of etiquette of King Hen-





Rejoicings in Scotland.

Mons Meg.

Large ball.

ry's court, and was, to some extent, her own
mistress, though still surrounded with many
attendants, and much parade and splendor.
The young couple thus commenced the short
period of their married life. They were cer-
tainly a very young couple, being both of them
under sixteen.
The rejoicings on account of the marriage
were not confined to Paris. All Scotland cele-

brated the event with much parade
olic party there were pleased with

summation of the event,
in fact, joined, more or 1
ting the marriage of their
the Castle of Edinburgh,
which overlooks a broad
gun, several centuries old

and al
ess, in
on a lo
, which

of bars of iron secured by great

. The Cath-
the final con-
the people,
There is in
fty platform
a monstrous
was formed
iron hoops.

The b
a foot

halls which this gun carried
in diameter. The name of
of ordnance is Mons Meg.
having been burst, many
d beyond the possibility of r

are more than
this enormous
It is now dis-
rears ago, and
repair. There

were great rejoicings in Edinburgh at the time
of Mary's marriage, and from some old accounts
which still remain at the castle, it appears that
ten shillings were paid to some men for moving


Celebration of Mary's marriage.
up Mons Meg to the embrasure of the battery,
and for finding and bringing back her shot after
she was discharged; by which it appears that
firing Mons Meg was a part of the celebration
by which the people of Edinburgh honored the
marriage of their queen.

Mary's love for Francis. How to cherish the passion.

IT was said in the last chapter that Mary
loved her husband, infirm and feeble as he
was both in body and in mind. This love was
probably the effect, quite as much as it was the
cause, of the kindness which she showed him.
As we are very apt to hate those whom we have
injured, so we almost instinctively love those
who have in any way become the objects of our
kindness and care. If any wife, therefore, wish-
es for the pleasure of loving her husband, or
which is, perhaps, a better supposition, if any
husband desires the happiness of loving his wife,
conscious that it is a pleasure which he does
not now enjoy, let him commence by making
her the object of his kind attentions and care,
and love will spring up in the heart as a con-
sequence of the kind of action of which it is
more commonly the cause.
About a year passed away, when at length
another great celebration took place in Paris, to
honor the marriages of some other members of



Grand tournament.
King Henry's family.
cis's oldest sister. A
arranged on this occasi
this tournament was w
St. Antoine now lies, a
on any map of Paris.

Henry's pride.
One of them was Fran-


nd tournament was
too. The place for
e the great street of
which may be found
very large concourse

of kings and nobles from all the courts of Eu-
rope were present. King Henry, magnificently
dressed, and mounted on a superb war-horse,
was a very prominent figure in all the parades
of the occasion, though the actual contests and
trials of skill which took place were between
younger princes and knights, King Henry and
the ladies being generally only spectators and
judges. He, however, took a part himself on
one or two occasions, and received great ap-

At last, at the end of the third
the tournament was to be closed,
was riding around the field, greatly

day, just as
King Henry
excited with

the pride and pleasure which so magnificent a
spectacle was calculated to awaken, when he
saw two lances still remaining which had not
been broken. The idea immediately seized him
of making one more exhibition of his own power
and dexterity in such contests. He took one of
the lances, and, directing a high officer who was

&n encounter. The helmet. The vizor
riding near him to take the other, he challenged
him to a trial of skill. The name of this offi-
cer was Montgomery. Montgomery at first deo.
lined, being unwilling to contend with his king.
The king insisted. Queen Catharine begged
that he would not contend again. Accidents
sometimes happened, she knew, in these rough
encounters ; and, at any rate, it terrified her to
see her husband exposed to such dangers. The
other lords and ladies, and Francis and Queen
Mary particularly, joined in these expostula-
tions. But Henry was inflexible. There was
no danger, and, smiling at their fears, he com-
manded Montgomery to arm himself with his
lance and take his position.
The spectators looked on in breathless si-
lence. The two horsemen rode toward each
other, each pressing his horse forward to his
utmost speed, and as they passed, each aimed
his lance at the head and breast of the other.
It was customary on such occasions to wear a
helmet, with a part called a vizor in front, which
could be raised on ordinary occasions, or let down
in moments of danger like this, to cover and
protect the eyes. Of course this part of the
armor was weaker than the rest, and it hap-
pened that Montgomery's lance struck here-

1559.] MISFORTUNES. 79
King Henry wounded. His death. The mournful marriage.
was shivered-and a splinter of it penetrated
the vizor and inflicted a wound upon Henry, on
the head, just over the eye. Henry's horse
went on. The spectators observed that the
rider reeled and trembled in his seat. The
whole assembly were in consternation. The ex-
citement of pride and pleasure was every where
turned into extreme anxiety and alarm.
They flocked about Henry's horse, and helped
the king to dismount. He said it was nothing.
They took off his helmet, and found large drops
of blood issuing from the wound. They bore
him to his palace. He had the magnanimity to
say that Montgomery must not be blamed for
this result, as he was himself responsible for it
entirely. He lingered eleven days, and then
died. This was in July, 1559.
One of the marriages which this unfortunate
tournament had been intended to celebrate, that
of Elizabeth, the king's daughter, had already
taken place, having been performed a day or two
before the king was wounded; and it was de-
cided, after Henry was wounded, that the oth-
er must proceed, as there were great reasons of
state against any postponement of it. This sec-
ond marriage was that of Margaret, his sister.
The ceremony in her case was performed in a

The daupLin becomes king. Catharine superseded.
silent and private manner, at night, by torch-
light, in the chapel of the palace, while her broth-
er was dying. The services were interrupted
by her sobs and tears.
Notwithstanding the mental and bodily fee-
bleness which seemed to characterize the dau-
phin, Mary's husband, who now, by the death
of his father, became King of France, the event
of his accession to the throne seemed to awaken
his energies, and arouse him to animation and
effort. He was sick himself, and in his bed, in
a palace called the Tournelles, when some offi-
cers of state were ushered into his apartment,
and, kneeling before him, saluted him as king.
This was the first announcement of his father's
death. He sprang from his bed, exclaiming at
once that he was well. It is one of the sad con-
sequences of hereditary greatness and power
that a son must sometimes rejoice at the death
of his father.
It was Francis's duty to repair at once to the
royal palace of the Louvre, with Mary, who
was now Queen of France as well as of Scot-
land, to receive the homage of the various estates
of the realm. Catharine was, of course, now
queen dowager. Mary, the child whom she
had so long looked upon with feelings of jeal-

1559.] MISFORTUNES. 81
Mary's gentleness. Coronation of Francis.
ousy and envy was, from this time, to take
her place as queen. It was very humiliating
to Catharine to assume the position of a second
and an inferior in the presence of one whom she
had so long been accustomed to direct and to
command. She yielded, however, with a good
grace, though she seemed dejected and sad.
A-s they were leaving the Tournelles, she stop-
ped to let Mary go before her, saying, "Pass
on, madame; it is your turn to take precedence
now." Mary went before her, but she stopped
in her turn, with a sweetness of disposition so
characteristic of her, to let Queen Catharine
enter first into the carriage which awaited them
at the door.
Francis, though only sixteen, was entitled to
assume the government himself. He went to
Rheims, a town northeast of Paris, where is an
abbey, which is the ancient place of coronation
for the kings of France. Here he was crowned.
He appointed his ministers, and evinced, in his
management and in his measures, more energy
and decision than it was supposed he possessed.
He himself and Mary were now, together, on
the summit of earthly grandeur. They had
many political troubles and cares which can
not be related here, but Mary's life was com-





Francis's health declines.

Superstition of the people

paratively peaceful and happy, t
which she enjoyed being greatly
the mutual affection which existed
self and her husband.
Though he was small in stati

;he pleasures
enhanced by
between her-

ire, and very

unprepossessing in appearance and manners,
Francis still evinced in his government a con-
siderable degree of good judgment and of ener-
gy. His health, however, gradually declined.
He spent much of his time in traveling, and
was often dejected and depressed. One circum-
stance made him feel very unhappy. The peo-

pie of mai
passed, bei

ly of the villages through which
ing in those days very ignorant

superstitious, got a rumor into circulation that
the king's malady was such that he could only
be cured by being bathed in the blood of young
children. They imagined that he was travel-
ing to obtain such a bath; and, wherever he
came, the people fled, mothers eagerly carry-
ing off their children from this impending dan-
ger. The king did not understand the cause
of his being thus shunned. They concealed it
from him, knowing that it would give him pain.
He knew only the fact, and it made him very
sad to find himself the object of this mysterious
and unaccountable aversion.



Commotions in Scotland. Sickness of the queen regent,
In the mean time, while these occurrences
had been taking place in France, Mary's moth-
er, the queen dowager of Scotland, had been
made queen regent of Scotland after her re-
turn from France; but she experienced infinite
trouble and difficulty in managing the affairs
of the country. The Protestant party became
very strong, and took up arms against her gov-
ernment. The English sent them aid. She,
on the other hand, with the Catholic interest to
support her, defended her power as well as she
could, and called for help from France to sus-
tain her. And thus the country which she was
so ambitious to govern, was involved by her

management in the calamities
civil war.
In the midst of this contest
ing her last sickness she sent
leaders of the Pintestant party,

she could to soothe
She mourned the
which the civil wi
country, and urged
their power, after h
sensions and restore
them to remember

and sorrows of

she died. Dur-
for some of the
and did all that

and conciliate their minds.
calamities and sufferings
ar had brought upon the
the Protestants to do all in
er death, to heal these dis-
peace. She also exhorted
their obligations of loyalty

and obedience to their absent queen, and to sus-

Death of Mary's mother.


OF SCOTS. [1560
Illness of Francis.

tain and strengthen her government by every
means in their power. She died, and after her
death the war was brought to a close by a
treaty of peace, in which the French and En-
glish governments joined with the government

of Scotland to settle the po
immediately afterward the
nations were withdrawn.
queen regent was supposed
by the pressure of anxiety
her government imposed.

ints in dispute, and
troops of both these
The death of the
to have been caused
which the cares of
Her body was car-

ried home to France, and interred in the royal
abbey at Rheims.
The death of Mary's mother took place in the
summer of 1560. The next December Mary
was destined to meet with a much heavier af-
fliction. Her husband, King Francis, in addi-
tion to other complaints, had been suffering for
some time from pain and disease in the ear
One day, when he was preparing to go out hunt
ing, he was suddenly seized with a fainting fit,
and was soon found to be in great danger. He
continued some days very ill. He was con-

vinced himself that he could not recover, and
began to make arrangements for his approach-
ing end.- As he drew near to the close of his
life, he was more and more deeply impressed



His last moments and death.

Mary a young widow.

with a sense of Mary's kindness and love. He
mourned very much his approaching separation
from her. He sent for his mother, Queen Cath-
arine, to come to his bedside, and begged that
she would treat Mary kindly, for his sake, after
he was gone.
Mary was overwhelmed with grief at the ap-
proaching death of her husband. She knew at
once what a great change it would make in her

She would lose


rank and station. Queen Ca
again come into power, as queen
the minority of the next heir.
of the family of Guise, would be
office, and she herself would b
guest and stranger in the land

Lmediately her
tharine would
regent, during
.ll her friends,
removed from
become a mere
of which she

had been the queen. But nothing could arrest
the progress of the disease under which her hus-
band was sinking. He died, leaving Mary a
disconsolate widow of seventeen.
The historians of those days say that Queen
Catharine was much pleased at the death of
Francis her son. It restored her to rank and
power. Mary was again beneath her, and in
some degree subject to her will. All Mary's
friends were removed from their high stations,
and others, hostile to her family, were put into


Embassadors from Scotland. Mary's unwillingness to leave France.
Their places. Mary soon found herself unhappy
at court, and she accordingly removed to a cas-
tle at a considerable distance from Paris to the
west, near the city of Orleans. The people of
Scotland wished her to return to her native
land. Both the great parties sent embassadors
to her to ask her to return, each of them urging
her to adopt such measures on her arrival in
Scotland as should favor their cause. Queen
Catharine, too, who was still jealous of Mary's
influence, and of the admiration and love which
her beauty and the loveliness of her character
inspired, intimated to her that perhaps it would
be better for her now to leave France and return
to her own land.
Mary was very unwilling to go. She loved
France. She knew very little of Scotland. She
was very young when she left it, and the few
recollections which she had of the country were
confined to the lonely island of Inchmahome
and the Castle of Stirling. Scotland was in a
cold and inhospitable climate, accessible only
through stormy and dangerous seas, and it seem-
ed to her that going there was going into exile.
Besides, she dreaded to undertake personally to
administer a government whose cares and anx-
ieties had been so great as to carry her mother
to the graves



Mary in mourning.

She is called the White Queen.

Mary, however, found that it was in vain for
her to resist the influences which pressed upon
her the necessity of returning to her native land.
She wandered about during the spring and sum-
mer after her husband's death, spending her
time in various palaces and abbeys, and at
length she began to.prepare for her return to
Scotland, The same gentleness and loveliness
of character which she had exhibited in her
prosperous fortunes, shone still more conspicu-
ously now in her hours of sorrow. Sometimes

she appeared in public,
of state. She was then
in white-according to th
ilies in those days, her c
delicate crape veil. Her
chastened by her sorrow
pression upon all who sa

She appeared

in certain
Dressed in
e custom i
lark hair c
* beauty, s

n royal fam-
overed by a
oftened and

s, made a strong im-
w her.

so frequently, and attracted so*

much attention in her white mourning, that she
began to be known among the people as the
White Queen. Every body wanted to see her.
They admired her beauty; they were impress-
ed with the romantic interest of her history;
they pitied her sorrows. She mourned her hus-
band's death with deep and unaffected grief.
She invented a device and motto for a seal, ap-

88 MARY QUEEN OP ScOTS. [1560.
A device. Mary's employment Her beautiful hand.
propriate to the occasion: it was a figure of the
liquorice-tree, every part of which is useless ex-
cept the root, which, of course, lies beneath the
surface of the earth. Underneath was the
inscription, in Latin, My treasure is in the
ground. The expression is much- more beau-
tiful in the Latin than can be expressed in any
English words.*
Mary did not, however, give herself up to
sullen. and idle grief, but employed herself in
various studies and pursuits, in order to soothe
and solace her grief by useful occupation. She
read Latin authors; she studied poetry; she
composed. She paid much attention to music,
and charmed those who were in her company
by the sweet tones of her voice and her skillful
performance upon an instrument. The histo-
rians even record a description of the fascina-
ting effect produced by the graceful movements
of her beautiful hand. Whatever she did or
said seemed to carry with it an inexpressible
Before she set out on her return to Scotland,
she went to pay a visit to her grandmother, the
same lady whom her mother had gone to see
in her castle, ten years before, on her return to
Dulce meun terra tegit.


Melancholy viLt.

Mary returns to Paris.


Scotland after her visit to Mary. During this
ten years the unhappy mourner had made no
change in respect to her symbols of grief. The

apartments of her I
black. Her count
pression of austerity
were trained to pay
most profound defer
to her. No sounds
to be heard, but a p
nity reigned contin

Not lo1
pleted for
ited Pari
marks of
of her be
many of
aspire to

)alace were still hung with
enance wore the same ex-
r and woe. Her attendants
-to her every mark of the
ence in all their approaches
of gayety or pleasure were
rofound stillness and solem-
ually throughout the gloomy

ag before the arrangements were com-
Mary's return to Scotland, she revis-
s, where she was received with great
attention and honor. She was now
or nineteen years of age, in the bloom
auty, and the monarch of a powerful
to which she was about to return, and
the young princes of Europe began to


honor of her hand.

Through these

and other influences, she was the object of much
attention; while, on the other hand, Queen
Catharine, and the party in power at the French
court, were envious and jealous of her popular-
ity, and did a great deal to mortify and vex her.
The enemy, however, whom Mary had most



Queen Elizabeth.


Her character.


Henry VIIL

to fear, was her cousin, Queen Elizabeth of En-

gland. Queen Elizabeth
now nearly thirty years of
respects extremely differe
was a zealous Protestant,
and watchful in respect to
her Catholic connections

was a maiden lady,
age. She was in all
nt from Mary. She
and very suspicious
Mary, on account of
and faith. She was

very plain in person, and unprepossessing in

manners. She was, however,
shrewd, and was governed by
policy in all that she did. The
she was surrounded admired

, intelligent
people by w
her talents

feared her power, but nobody loved her. She
had many good qualities as a monarch, but none
considered as a woman.
Elizabeth was somewhat envious of her cous-
in Mary's beauty, and of her being such an ob-
ject of interest and affection to all who knew
her. But she had a far more serious and per-
manent cause of alienation from her than per-
sonal envy. It was this: Elizabeth's father,
King Henry VIII., had, in succession, several
wives, and there had been a question raised
about the legality of his marriage with Eliza-
beth's mother. Parliament decided at one time
that this marriage was not valid; at another
time. subsequently, they decided that it was




Elizabeth's claim t
This differe;
owing so mi
persons who
ency of the
Elizabeth w
If it were n

o the throne.

Mary's claim.

The coat of arm&

nace in the two decisions was not
ich to a change of sentiment in the
voted, as to a change in the ascend-
parties by which the decision was
If the marriage were valid, then
'as entitled to the English crown.
ot valid, then she was not entitled

to it: it belonged to the next
happened that Mary Queen of
next heir. Her grandmother

heir. Now it
Scots was the
on the father's

side was an English princess, and through her
Mary had a just title to the crown, if Queen
Elizabeth's title was annulled.
Now, while Mary was in France, during the
lifetime of King Henry, Francis's father, he
and the members of the family of Guise ad-
vanced Mary's claim to the British crown, and
denied that of Elizabeth. They made a coat
of arms, in which the arms of France, and Scot-
land, and England were combined, and had it
engraved on Mary's silver plate. On one great
occasion, they had this symbol displayed con-
spicuously over the gateway of a town where
Mary was making a public entry. The En-
glish embassador, who was present, made this,
and the other acts of the same kind, known to
Elizabeth, and she was greatly incensed at

Elizabeth offended and alarmed. The Catholic party
them. She considered Mary as plotting trea-
sonably against her power, and began to con-
trive plans to circumvent and thwart her.
Nor was Elizabeth wholly unreasonable in
this. Mary, though personally a gentle and
peaceful woman, yet in her teens, was very
formidable to Elizabeth as an opposing claim-
ant of the crown. All the Catholics in France
and in Scotland would naturally take Mary's
side. Then, besides this, there was a large
Catholic party in England, who would be strong-
ly disposed to favor any plan which should give
them a Catholic monarch. Elizabeth was
therefore, very justly alarmed at such a claim
on the part of her cousin. It threatened not
only to expose her to the aggressions of foreign
foes, but also to internal commotions and dan-
gers, in her own dominions.
The chief responsibility for bringing forward
this claim must rest undoubtedly, not on Mary
herself, but on King Henry of France and the
other French princes, who first put it forward.
Mary, however, herself, was not entirely pass-
ive in the affair. She liked to consider her-
self as entitled to the English crown. She had
a device for a seal, a very favorite one with her,
which expressed this claim. It contained two

1560.] MISFORTUNES. 95
A device. Treaty of Edinburgh. The safe-conduct
crowns, with a motto in Latin below which
meant, A third awaits me." Elizabeth knew
all these things, and she held' Mary accounta-
ble for all the anxiety and alarm which this
dangerous claim occasioned her.
At the peace which was made in Scotland
between the French and English forces and the
Scotch, by the great treaty of Edinburgh which
has been already described, it was agreed that
Mary should relinquish all claim to the crown
of England. This treaty was brought to France
for Mary to ratify it, but she declined. What-
ever rights she might have to the English
crown, she refused to surrender them. Things
remained in this state until the time arrived for
her return to her native land, and then, fearing
that perhaps Elizabeth might do something to
intercept her passage, she applied to her for a
safe-conduct; that is, a writing authorizing her
to pass safely and without hinderance through
the English dominions, whether land or sea.
Queen Elizabeth returned word through her
embassador in Paris, whose name was Throck-
morton, that she could not give her any such
safe-conduct, because she had refused to ratify
the treaty of Edinburgh.
When this answer was communicated te

Elizabeth refuses the safe-conduct. Mary's speech.
Mary, she felt deeply wounded by it. She sent
all the attendants away, that she might express
herself to Throckmorton without reserve. She
told him that it seemed to her very hard that
her cousin was disposed to prevent her return
to her native land. As to her claim upon the
English crown, she said that advancing it was
not her plan, but that of her husband and his
father ; and that now she could not properly
renounce it, whatever its validity might be, till
she could have opportunity to return to Scot-
land and consult with her government there,
since it affected not her personally alone, but
the public interests of Scotland. And now,"
she continued, in substance, "I amn sorry that
I asked such a favor of her. I have no need to
ask it, for I am sure I have a right to return
from France to my own country without ask-
ing permission of any one. You have often
told me that the queen wished to be on friendly
terms with me, and that it was your opinion
that to be friends would be best for us both
But now I see that she is not of your mind,
but is disposed to treat me in an unkind and
unfriendly manner, while she knows that I am
her equal in rank, though I do not pretend to
be her equal in abilities and experience.. Well,

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