Front Cover
 Honey facts
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Florida honey
 Kinds of honey
 Honey cookery
 Honey recipes
 Honey bees and their products
 The mystery of sweets
 Honey and nutrition
 Classes of honey
 Marking honey
 Tupelo honey
 Beekeeping in Florida

Group Title: Special series
Title: Florida honey and its hundred uses
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003096/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida honey and its hundred uses
Series Title: Special series
Alternate Title: Beekeeping and Florida honey and its hundred uses
Physical Description: 115 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Horton, Waldo
Thursby, Isabelle S
Wilder, J. J
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1951
Subject: Honey -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bee culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Waldo Horton and Isabelle S. Thursby.
General Note: Includes Beekeeping in Florida (formerly bulletin 5), by J.J. Wilder.
General Note: Includes indexes.
General Note: "November 1951".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003096
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3688
ltuf - AMT2664
oclc - 44575746
alephbibnum - 002566382

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Honey facts
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
    Florida honey
        Page 10
    Kinds of honey
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Honey cookery
        Page 18
    Honey recipes
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Honey bees and their products
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The mystery of sweets
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Honey and nutrition
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Classes of honey
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Marking honey
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Tupelo honey
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Beekeeping in Florida
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
Full Text



Lte' I


Honey Facts

Honey is wholesome, natural food.
It keeps indefinitely, if stored in a warm, dry place.
It gives sweetness plus flavor.
It may wisely be substituted for sugar or molasses.
It is a highly energy giving food; especially easily assimilated.
It contains small amounts of mineral matter and vitamins.
It possesses slight laxative properties and helps many with
For those OVER-WEIGHT, used moderately, it gives some
sweet without fear of the heavy fat production of cane sugar.
It is an ideal milk modifier (plus water) for infants.
It will not harbor bacteria and will actually kill them (by
hygroscopic action).
Most all pure honeys granulate in time, some hard, some
'mush like'; heat or 'work' a granulated honey and you make a
delicious, fine-grain 'spread' of it. Any granulated honey can be
reduced to its original consistency and flavor by heating in a
waterbath at 1250F. for a half hour or more. Heating above
130F. removes some of its delicate aroma and flavor.

November 1951



Combined With Bulletin 5


Deportment of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

Special Series

No 66


From the angle of its plant life, Florida is peculiarly fitted as
a honey producing state. The winters are short with relatively
high temperatures, the blooming season is long and the flora is
rich both in numbers and varieties. Several plants, such as
tupelo. mangrove, gallberry, saw-palmetto and citrus (all native
except citrus) yield honey that rank in quality with the best.
The inmdisciminate and at tunes wholesale burning of woods
and fields is the greatest single drawback to the development of
the honey producing industries of the state. Manifestly, it is
impossible for bees to secure supplies of honey if the plants
upon which they depend are either destroyed or prevented from
flowering by fire. The apiarist finding himself in a fire devas-
tated area may be forced to move to other fields or abandon his
undertaking entirely. On the part of rural populations there is
dire need of a changed viewpoint as related to the handling of
fire throughout the state.
In the following pages, Miss Isabelle S. Thursby and Dr.
Waldo Horton have furnished information on the culinary and
dietary uses and values of honey that is most important. It is
hoped that this publication will assist in bringing about a larger
use of this wholesome sweet, and, realizing the value of honey
and the value of the plant life upon which supplies depend,
there may follow some change in the attitude of the general
public toward those native sources of honey supplies upon
which, both now and in the future, the beekeeping industries of
the state must depend.
Assistant Director: Research.
University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station,
Gainesville. Florida. Jan. 1933.

The power of honey to absorb and retain moisture gives it
many industrial uses, in addition to its dalue as food, studies by
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils show. This quality of honey,
called "hygroscopicity," will make for greater use of the honey
grades not adapted to home use.
Bureau studies included the behavior of honeys of different
flower origin-white clover, tupelo, buckwheat, tulip poplar, and
mesquite. All these honeys are found useful in commercial bak-
ing of bread, cake and cookies. When these products are made
with part honey in place of sugar, they lose less moisture after
being stored 7 days than bread, cake, and cookies made with
other sweetening agents. Buckwheat honey gives particularly
good results
Honey is also useful in candy making. It is suggested for
curing tobacco, in the same way that sugar and maple sugar are
used. Among other industries that offer outlets for comparatively
large quantities of honey are brewing, wine making, and vinegar



Applii. BHtlld wiIl eutm -
Appile Pie. Honey
Bhuknai.xi Mold, Hllwwy
Sekeepiaig In Florida
Beets, Honey Benerl
Baenits. Honey
Brad, Honey Nut
Bread, Honey OIatmeal -
Bread, H1.ner Ornngo Grahlm
BroWiaies, Honey Nut
Butter. Hn ney
Dulter Ioth.,Liss [01 --
linttrwacttcli, Honey

Cabbage Palan HMany
Cake, Florid- Hnn, Ftuil
Cuke, Hoiiney Citron Nul
Cake, Honoey S.it
Catke. Hoiney .'cini -- -
Cake, O-ane HIuney C'..n.t
Cakes Pec.an Honey
Cannua and Peaervmang
Cara--l, Pan, __
Ciarrot IHonLey Pnddlng--- -
Chocolate, Honey, [ed -
Chleken and Green Popper
Sandwichs, ,
Chill. Honey Way --
Cmnamon lonst .
Citran Steamed Pudding
Cneftil. H.on Orange
Cocktail, Vita!ity
CoC.OA, Hone, Iced. _
Cocoa. HWnpr
Conserve cer mand Gine
Coani Clhlel;s Rerat. r
Cnokies, D'e) No. 1.
Cnnkie Heo"y
Conkmes. HonPey O HmoneI
Cookies, Lemonn Nnt DrOp,
Crab ApIc Hon Jelly n
Credit ChfeeB Ud HoEIBy
Sandwiches ...... _
Cleur Cheee Paste, Homei-y
Cream DressinB, Hondoy--
Cream 2e, Hon "...-- -. -
Cuiohaw, Honey, en Catsierole
C ad. Froe. Honey--
Cstard, Honey (Baked)
Cuatpd, H ena (Boled)

p., Ginger, Honey, Sherlet
P ge aCiiger n.d PIn C nmerve --
52 GClldanrad f1 i --- --
88 Gnrapefrail SIheet
Ca-la Helnay Punch

'I Hamr Fe.i ve Hnm~yed
50 HIm. HonT BUaked
21 liam mad Pine.apple Ionyed
2- Htoll>wod Hlonel Punch -
S Honey Bting --- --
23 H.ney Bees 'tld Tlir products
o0 1lunseyb*-i in Florida's
44 P.~sure Dl UelpmnlnI
44 flan.-, CAl"bg.- r".
51 Honey, Clasa- Ifor
HMoney CoIn-l, il 111 rk --
Ileon II Hr.one, CFldi

SHo. ney Galdbery
4. Hollne, Manov,,,
Sa Hone>. New Uses for
15 Hna,.y anl Nultitin,
34 Honey, O Inxe ll.-saun
57 liit.n PaV k' Mrka -
53 Hoi.'r, P.artrdg Pri
45 Henry PhintH if liorhid 1'.,
"18 Humey Reglitration -
loney. Sanitary Ctndltions
47 Hnii*oo. haw Paubtitto -- -
e1 Honey. TU do 13
56 Honey Wil PIlower
44 Hot enone Inllionadp
18 I

iij Ic Cre.o. ..o.uy 5liocndate-
48 Illde Hony CHolae -

Icing- Ioneoy .Mlneue (Boled)
o Iog St ven M l. UtU - .
' [ c l o g, H o n ey --

40 K
KmiquHt Hnn iKy ProUrvMs
Kumquat H*Iony Saute

Dae Ba -
Hun.y RlL... -
Honey Banann Mold
D-nty, Hloney --
3mghlmuns, Honoy
Drinls 47
Faltl AbuFt Honey
FPut Cal Florida HoIey
F1uil Sta~d, Franz
F-IiE Sweet Pickle.
Fndge, Haney- -
ft.ldg Squre, H.oney

Gallbeny, Honey
Gingerbread. Honey

7. 48 49, 57

1.,n-oladn, llot HIney
Lenio Honey Jl
Lemon HNut Dpi o
1Lrnon HonryPv

t Mm;rove HIIol->
6 Man.aie HPanv
"4. Meas wth lloin- 51
45 Meringue, Hone9il> d--

so MIlk Shake, BB,, Haoney .
31 Milk Shake. Honey
Minerals n Dark Honey.
Moiisse Honey ,-
13 M Rains Honey and Nut Biaa
-- 2B Mufls, Honey Oaitmeeal --


(- Ile Ah.uut IIm o.,
SI.II on PelhinntlM., ii Som
Sulilroplea Fn.r. 'ljMl'.
N te tread. Hone..

Oabneal Hori Bread
Oatiel Honey Cookie-
O"neal Honey Mullinis
Orange Blossit Hou y,
Orange BIonsin Tllfy
Orange Honey Co aklal
Orange Honey Cu CCu ilk
Orange Honey Cocon at Cake
Orange Honery Griaham n rad
(range Moner Stn
Orange Yr'rvrs, Sonur

PItrldge Pta lHoney
"unnt Brittle, HfonIV
Peant Butter Heon, Spread
'ear ad Glmger Co, wnc
Plekle. Swee Fn.il
Pie, pplte Honen
Pi. none, Cream
Pi.. HlMaiey Lmano
PI'- Pecan Hone,
p*i, Punpkin Hone
PreIerI-, Hnonr KuLnlquat
Presers. Sounr Orank g
Pudding Citron SteImed Hnnry
tiddine. Date
Pid trig, Hone, Ttnkelo Tapioca
adding, Plum No. 1
Pudding Plum No- .
PuniEh, unav Hlnev
Pnnh. Hollwumd Hnara

R Haney. llant e Siiv
Refrigerra, Coi'. Chocolat
Inill. Hoane

Suted. Frozen Fnrut
Saladf Dresing. Honey Chene

pFaae Salmd DrU .i. HInYy ( riii
Salad Dr*s ing, Hnnry
Salad Dlruyu.a Mia)nilnaiM
07 Sindwvl-h-,O. Ch ltl, i ind
23 adGnici lionin ndu Cream
Sandwiched. Huon-y Ojilmneal or
2:3 Nul Breas nnd Cream Cheese
28 Sandmch SpT.hpre HIone, Peanut
21 Butter
1. Sandwich Spread, )Hn ty Creanm
54 Chease Paste
48 Sace, Honey um.qiuat
12 Sitnie, Honey Railsin
l3 Saw Palniiitto. oiiey
2S Sherbet, Grapi ifn t
55 ShIaIl. H.i.iy Gu.ir
60 Sherbet, Honey Strawober
Spice Cake, Honey

is Sponge Cake. HoneY
15 Sundae, MHlot Ice C ream
46 Sunflow-. Wi d. Hone,
6 z Ptiato Ii KI h nh Hone'

3 Seet Pti.st. Fri
;S Nt. et" 'IF

i ally, HBmiy
Tapioca, Ione', Tanmt.l
Ionat. Honey
r'as, Honey Cin Bamon
Toast, HOTiey Nom Braul
Tropiael Ceoltr
tnuren aoney


r letnhll wtth lfnnli

45 alliess, Honey Cream
46 W'dd Sunlowe Honle

- i6



Apples. Baed with Honel
Apple Pie. Honey
BisLinlt Honey
ITonny Gingerbreiid
lone Oameal .
Honey Orana Grahim _
Hone Nut

Hinie Citron Nut
Flora ~Honey Fruit
Orange Hl ne Coconut
Honey Spice
Honey Sponge
Spiced Jells Rolt
Pecan Honey
Honey Butt escotch
Honey Diviity
Honey Fudge
Honey Orange Strips
Honey Peanlu Brittle
Honey Tany -
Orange Blossom TifFy
CtUjling and Preserving
Chocolate Refngerator
Cookies I
Drop Cooes No. 1
Honey .- Sq-
Honey Fudge Square
Iemnn Nut Drop No. 2
Honey Nut Brownuici
Honey Oantmetl
Pear nnd Gmi*rT
Cup Cakes
Hone> Orange
Honoey (aked)
Honey (Boiled)
Dougbhuts. Honey .
Honey Banana Mold

Cocoa, Honey Iced -
Gutav Honey punch
Hollywood Honey Punch
Honey Cocoa -
HoIney Egg Milk Slike
Honey Ieed Chocolate
Floney Orange Cocktml
Hloney Milk Shakei
flot Hone Lenonade
Tropical Cooter
Vitality Cocktail
Gingerhrnad. Honey
Ice CreaoT--
Froen Honey Cstard
Honey Choeolate -
Honey -.-
Honey Coomnt Mermngue
Honey ------ ...----
Honey Meringue (Boded)
Seven Minute ... -

52 Cnih Apple HI ny

21m Hon

v II ti
2i Il Fhll.y Way Cl lll.
21 Hlnut Baked tinm

S Hin ll eyd '

lHonne, Ucnokrcd
16 Mnu.", -

of In
7 Hilotney Moussm
54 HIi ntld B ttlU BrI-,
SS lnuirtl Oafimi.il

34 P

574 1 kie5. S ineL l-l

Dae Pi'dding
S Honey Pumpkin
284 money utatel
54 [lrveny Kuinquill

l2 Ioey Cmon
0 HatKy Plum N0. 1
Piley P,,din t

0 S

30 outrr-
t Ilnies Kumnqut

L40 duiihe and Sandwch
.. l Chick, en an G Pper
Sandwiches mid Sandwich

S! ChIFk. n ad Green Pepper
1 Honey Cream Cheee pte .
4I lon, Oatileal Ot Nt1 Bread
4o nd9 Crean Ch-ee Sand
4 loney Peanut Buttlli Spreid
- 48 S frbet-
48 Crar
48 Honey ingrT
4Hi te- Strn,. her
,7 cl-ndle. H I -Ire. ce Crleen,
._ 49 T
48 Toat -
Hone Cuinnmun
2 IOn.t N.ut Bread
i onev

llTone Buttered BeetN
IHFi y Cushaw en Casserole
baked Sweet Potato with
loney and Marlhmallow
Frlel Sweet Potatoes
WafW. on Crm
w f,,. Ulonerr cnrl



Fol word

Honey Report

Honey Facts

Minerals in Dark Honey

Florida Honey

Kinds of Honey

Honey Cookery

Honey Recipes

Honey Bees and Their Products

The Mystery of Sweets

Honey and Nutrition

Classes of Honey

Marking Honey.......

Tupelo Honey



___. 6










__ 74

...... .. 77


1. Foreword

2. Beekeeping m Florida


Florida Honey

By Dr. Waldo Horton

Natures Own Sweet-Nature's Oldest Sweet
Chemistr% is now corroborating experience and pro[ ing
that our honey from sub-tropical and tropical plants contains
more minerals and is more health-giving. We have more
variety than almost any state, to please those who like a
change of flavor For those who like it standard and always
the same a Florida blend is recommended.

In infancy milk is a balanced and sufficient Food As we
become more active a higher calorie addition becomes neces-
sary. But foolish and taste-tickled mankind have gone too far
with varieties and mixtures. Sane thinkers are now reverting
to the more simple. In this very generation we are sure to see
increasing thousands going back to the more elemental, natural
foods. The Biblical recommendation ot milk and honey. (Num.
18-27; Gen. 43-11; Ps. 19-10: Math. 34: Is. 7-15). should again
be taken seriously.
Honey is a monosaccharide sugar, chiefly fruit sugar. This
sugar is the natural end-product of digestion- so that honey is
already digested and easily assimilable. It is sweeter than
cane sugar but also contains more water and the amount varies
in honeys from different flowers.
There are many kinds of honey, almost as many as there
are different flowers, though some flowers do not produce nectar
(honey). Bees gather the nectar, and in the hive process it and
store and condense it in the comb as honey. Extracted honey
is thrown out of the comb by an extracting machine and strained,
and is used on the table and in cookery like syrup.
Honey adulterated with cheap syrup is not so common as
thought, on account of the rigid Pure Food Law, but if there is
real reason to suspect this adulteration, a sample sent to Gaines-
ville or Washington will disclose the truth.




Honey absorbs atmospheric moisture. granulates rapidly
if cold; hence keep it in a warm dry place where you would
keep salt.
Keep under tight cover; insects like it. too.
Do not keep in refrigerator! (Perhaps comb honey, a short
Granulated honey is not spoiled honey; in fact nature does
that to preserve it. Some people like granulated honey. If you
wish it liquid like new. heat in waterbath at 12-5 or 130F. for
an hour.
Comb honey is hard to keep prime here for many weeks
outside of beehive (65'F. dry storage is needed.)
Remember good honey properly kept does not spoil and is
still delicious when a year or two old. (A few careless drops
of water or impurity may make it spoil.)
Before serving thick extracted honey, set container in warm
water a few minutes, this makes it pour more easily.
Honey, being imperishable, can be purchased in large
quantities and stored.


This is Florida's most universally produced and used honey.
It usually grades amber color, sometimes dark amber and occa-
sionally light amber; all becoming darker with age. Its mild
flavor and odor are characteristic and pleasing Medium body.
Because its source-plant is used somewhat in medicine, it
is thought by many to be unusually health-giving. It granulates
slowly. Use for both table and cooking. Much Florida honey
found in our stores has at least some of this mixed in bv the bees.

What native Floridian. III, tlhills at this? Jli her the ihumn f lhe hees1


A thin bodied. light amber honey of very mild flavor and
odor. Excellent for cookery and sweetening drinks where mild
flavor is desired.
This is produced from the tnpelo gum tree (Nyssa) which
grows along the streams of West Florida, It is light amber in
color. ai heavy body and mild flavor. It has the most varied
use of Florida honeys, having been tried scores of ways and
not found wanting. It does not granulate; hence is much sought
for by packers to blend with other honeys to keep down their
Makes us think of weddings and the perfume-laden air of
springtime. In all the kingdom of beedom what sweeter words
than Orange Blossom! To stand in an orange grove and watch
these little workers hustle from blossom to blossom makes one
realize that they too, regard it the choicest of nature's golden
In cooking and candy-making few honeys carry over so
much distinct flavor. At the fountain, in the tea room. as well
as the diet kitchen, its exquisite possibilities have yet been
scarcely thought of.
Because of its peculiar distinction it is much counterfeited.
As many as twenty different mixtures, colors, and flavors have
been called orange blossom honey. Genuine orange blossom
honey is light amber in color, heavy in body, has the real aroma
of the glove in bloom and does not darken or change flavor
much with age. In aging it granulates readily.
This honey is produced from the gallberry bush (Ilex glabra),
which grows in flatwoods sections and blossoms usually in May.
It is almost a water white honey, with a heavy body and very
mild flavor and is considered one of our finest honeys, Due to
the damage done this plant by burning the woods, vcry little
gallberry honey has been produced in recent years in Florida.
It is almost too fancy a honey to use in baking, but is wonder-
fully adapted for icings, ice cream and for direct sweetening in
other desserts where mild flavor is desired.


XWalk near these blooms in July and you may think you have discovered
a swarm of bees. It is onlI normal industry working the many thousands
of tiny blossoms.


From the salt marshes of South Florida come large quanti-
ties of another of our 'best' honeys. Black mangrove (Avic.
nitala) produces a delicious flavored honey almost as light col-
ored as gallery, light in body but unusually sweet, due to a
large content of dextrose
Holds an enviable place with many devotees and gaining
popularity fast.

These are Wild Sunflower from the Everglades region, a
delicious fall honey of amber or light amber color and good
body; Partridge Pea, which is a darker. stronger product, excel-
lent for cooking and baking; and Goldenrod, a popular fall honey.
Besides these nine, Florida produces over a score of others,
but rarely distinct or in pure state enough to be seen commer-
Sub-tropical honeys are rich in minerals and vitamins!


's s s i- iii =F 5? I' ;
-s~~~ =s -h: S S^ '' .
S^. t I ih.|
E C -E 65-1 ^*= >i =- c

7 E; 5^.. ~s j ss
4 < "< Ei F r O ^ "

j I x i1 1 I


&i j i1

EI' = ?-

i -j | '1-
SB "^ *Z a-g^^ s

10. Spring Ti Ti

'n nyroya l

(Clhhaing Pdnihlcllo

iThe Ie'rppri Bush

M',ianli Clover


Thei Sniow Viie

Gopher Apple




Cyrillu parvlfolhn Raf..

Pyenoithlvim rigidlus
(B nIt,) Small

'ab nl ahllu.hW (WaRll,)
I. & S.

Chrli'a alnlfuha

Hiicunldia s.ala Si. lill.

Soliiiago spp.

Willugbaeya SclindeTn (i1.)

Chlysobaiaml.s oblongifoli:a

Hubus spp.

Castanea spp.

Citrus spp,

Feblila V ilanl Marcl

Dlcclmbrl', JilnnV 1nd(
Fi br iiuri

IIly d

Inly, Alig i t ILn Spl ah'ii 'l

Ocl]ber ,111d Novmbrllir



April and May

April and May

March and April

In Western parl of State iallo
small FtrmlT' itnd ay

Southern part il tlh Stail

Ahlolg the coasL, throillgh lthi
ihamiriLock .mrs d lonlig tlhe

Thlrougi.l.ho flatwoiid' M',tftiIn

Ili mIiny caliullvatld fliTi
throughout llhe SjiMe

Throu ]lout the State

Western palr ol tih Sl.at

Throughout sand rldge section

All over the Stat,

North and West Florida

Throughout Central and South
Florida with Sntsunlias il
North ,and West Florida


By Isabelle S. Thursby

Honey is one of the oldest known human foods and was
considered one of the choicest by the ancients. In those clays
honey was the nectar of the gods. And even today no food is
more interesting than honey, The very name of honey carries
an appeal possessed by no other food. There are many reasons
why this delicious, natural unrefined, unmanipulated sweet
should be used abundantly in the diet not only in its natural
state but as an ingredient of cooked food.
Many people think of honey primarily as a delicious spread
for bread-hot biscuits, waffles and griddle cakes. But when
included in cookery processes not only does it supply the sweet-
ening, but its distinctive, individual flavor combined with the
other ingredients, produces a delectable blend of flavor that
not only is different hut is intriguing as well.
The use of more honey in cookery is to be encouraged be-
cause of its superior flavor, food and health value and availability.
A new set of recipes is not necessary in order to use honey
for one can substitute by following a few basic principles.
First: Remember that one cup of honey contains V cup of
Second: Deduct N cup liquid from the recipe when using
1 cup honey.
Third: Florida honey is very sweet, so no alteration need
be made in the recipe regarding sweetening power, as one cup
of honey is equal to one cup in sweetening. Liquid or granu-
lated honey is equally satisfactory to use.
Fourth: Honey retains moisture to a greater extent in the
product than does sugar. In making frostings this fact should
be taken into account and the product should be cooked to a
higher density than is done when using sugar.
Fifth: In using honey as the sweetening agent in the place
of granulated sugar, the difference in composition and flavor
must be considered.


Different boune)s have definitely characteristic flavors and
aromas, hence the flt or of any product made by a given recipe
will vary with the kind of honey used. The milder honeys
should be used for salads. fruit sauces, meringues and beverages,
whereas the strougel honeys are perfect for gingerbread. spice
cake. and for combinations that contain chocolate.

Bread and honey for thousands of years have been recog-
nized as a most acceptable food. Breads, cakes, cookies and
waffles backed with a small I.mount of honey have a distinctive
flavor that is very pleasing li most palates. and for those cakes
and cookies where moist kep:;ng is desired. honey is desirable.
Honey has long been associated with crisp, tender golden
waffles. Now honey is often baked in them or. better and more
delicious still, honey may be served as a sauce or paste by cream-
ing together one part butter with 2 parts honry-heating smooth.
Appetizing and satisfying are hot honey muffins crisp and brown,
spread with honey butter or honey in the comb Honey pecan
muffins are delicious for Sunday supper with chicken salad and
honey. Whole wheat or oatmeal muffins are very popular with
children. Cakes and cookies made with honey, baked when
convenient- ready when needed, may be kept on hand constantly
for use on busy days, or for surprise guests.

1 egg beaten very lightly 2 cups milk
4 tsp. baking powder .v cup butter or butter silbsitule
2 cups flour melted
1 tsp. salt 3 tbsp. hunce

Mix shortening, honey and salt with beaten egg. Sift baking
powder and flour together. Stir in alternately with flour and
milk until full amount ias been added. By using uthi regulation
honey batter and adding nuts, candied or dried fruits, one may
obtain a delicious result Try also a honey pecan or a honey
date waffle.


GALLBERRY (bnkberry) (lex glabra)
Thle Irry itself ma) taste like gall and look like ink, but the bee takes
wondrous Nature while at her best and gathers for her human friends from
the chasteness of the bloom, one of the four finest honeys of Florida.






I cip ilk 3 tbl1, f.at
I16 cips f(iur i enI[i h!J c)
I" cups oltmeal i tsp salt
I egg 'isp. baking powder

Mix dry ingredients, add milk, beaten egg, honey and
melted Fat. (slightly cooled) \fi hbut do not heat. Place in
greased muflin irons. Bake in hot omen (400F ) 30 minutes.


cup onnev I cup bral
1 cup flour 1 tblp. imelttd butter
V to ' tp, sodia -1 i cups milk
% tlsp. ialtl cp fii R-1i lhu)pitd p.i....

Sift together the flour, soda and salt. adi mix them with
the bran. Add other ingredients. and bake foi 25 minutes in a
hot oven in gem tins.


1/ ncup fat tl'p salt
2 cups flour 4 tsp. baking powder
2/3 Ep milk

Sift flour, baking powder and salt, add milk gradually and
combine to a dough consistency. Pat out into a sheet inch
thick. Cream 4 cup butter with V4 cup shained honey. Use
part of this mixture for spreading on the dough Boll up and
cut off like cinnamon rolls Use the balance of the butter and
honey mixture and spread thickly over bottom of pan. Arrange
rolls, allowing 1 inch space around each Bake in a hot oven
(375 F.) 12 to 15 minutes Cinnamuon may be added to the
butter and honey mixture and raisins or candied fruit may be
chopped and sprinkled over the biscuit dough before rolling, if
desired, or nut meats may be used in the same way.




2 cups rolled oats % cup honey
2 cups scalded milk ,r % cup lukewarm water
boiling water 2 tbsp. shorteunng
I yeast cake (optional-1 cup chopped
4/5 eup Bour pecans or candied orange
I tsp. salt peel)
Pour scalded liquid over the oats and shortening. Cover
and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve yeast cake in the warm
water, add honey and stir into the oatmeal. Add 1' cups
flour, beat well, cover and allow to rise for 1 hour until light.
Then add the salt, the rest of the flour and the nuts or candied
peel and enough flour to make a dough and knead until smooth.
Place in a greased bowl, cover and let stand again in a warm
place until double in bulk. Shape into small loaves, put into
well greased pans, filling them a little more than one-half full.
Let rise to top of the pan and bake 50 minutes in a hot oven.

1 cup scalded milk I yeast cake
1 tsp salt 1 cups bread flour
1/3 cup lukewarm water cup candied orange peel
1 cups aorahlian four cup pecan nut meats
4 thsp hone,

Mix milk, honey and salt. When lukewarm add yeast cake
dissolved in lukewarm water, and flour. Mix and then add
orange peel and nuts, cut in small pieces. When thoroughly
mixed, let rise until double in bulk. Shape into loaves in bread
pan and let rise again until double its bulk. Bake in a 3500 to
380' F. oven from 40 to 60 minutes. This mixture can be baked
in muffin tins and served while hot.

a cup honey 3 tsp baking power
1 egg % tsp. salt
I cup milk I cup nut meats, chopped
3 cups Hour
Mix. put into a greased and floured loaf pan. Let stand
about one hour. Bake in a slow oven for about 40 minutes or
one hour.




Much Florida honey comes from the flowers of wild trees,
shrubs adl small plants. Among these are the tupelo tree, two
varieties of palmetto, mangrove, magnolia, ti ti, gallherry, gopher
apple, chinkapin, and a few less important.
Among the cultivated trees ad plants that yield nectar to
the honey bee are: citrus trees, clovers, pennyroyal, partridge
pea, watermelon, etc
The ti ti is a shrub or tree if swamp-s of North Florida with
an exquisite bloom much adored by the bees. The honey is
light and mild.

I c1,p .ak .four 5 egg yolks
z cup sugar 4 tsp. salt
cup strained honey tNp. vanilla
5 egg whites t tsp. eream of tartar
2 Lbtp boilmg water

Sift and measure flour and sugar. Beat egg yolks until thick
and lemon colored. Add sugar and beat well; add honey and
combine lightly. Add boiling water a tablespoon at a time.
Beat % minute. add flavoring and flour and lastly fold in the
beaten egg whites. Pour into a tube pan and bake for 50 minutes
in a very moderate oven (30O F.). When baked. invert on cake
cooler and allow to cool before removing from pan.


1 egg 1 cup sw,'t nmil
1 cup lonev 2 tbsp. shortening
2 tsp. baking powder 1 tP,. salt
Cream honey and shortening together, add the egg well
beaten and the other ingredients. Mix well and add flour
enough to roll out and cut easily. Fry in hot fat. The honey
will keep these delicious doughnuts moist much longer than

4 cup tft cup Illh1'
4 ct sugar (brtiwnl I egg
b cup sour milk tsp. suda
tsp. einniam'n tsp cloves
1 Isp. making pilowder tsp salt
19 cip ilour f isp. ginger
Sift dry ingredients Cream fat and honey. add brown
sugar. egg. sour milk and sifted dry ingredients. This will be a
thin hatter, but do not mind that. Bake in a well-greased pan
for 25 minutes in a moderate oen (350 to 3750 F.). This is a
delicious gingerbread and may be kept for several days. re-
heating before serving. Serve with or without Honey Meringue

HONEY MERINGUE (7 Minute Icing)
1 egg white t cup lhnw (strained or
Place honey mid unbeaten egg white in top of double boiler.
Cook seven minutes, heating with do\er egg beater while cook-
ing. Remove from double boiler, beat and spread as desired.

1 cup Ihon'v I 'up flor
3 eggs 1 tsp. htkini powder
I tp. sal I cup dates
t Isp vanilla I tnpi) nut mlLt
Beat the eggs well and add the honey, salt and vanilla.
M\L\ and sift the flour and baking powder, add the dates and
nuts (cut in small pieces), then combine with the egg mixture.


BLACK MANC(RO\E (Aicennia Nitida)
Another holanical paradox of Florida is this shrub-like tree wiueh grows
with its feet mi salt water (iarsIes) and prodneis large qui.lilies of one
of our rinot delicious sweets


Pour into a greased, shallow pal, spread one-fourth inch thick.
Bake in a moderately hot uven 80 to 40 minutes. Cut in strips
before removing from the pan. Store in a crock or cake box
for several days, as the date bars improve after standing. Roll
in powdered sugar before sending.
I cup honey 2 rlps Hour
2/3 cup fat tsp soud
tsp. salt 2 tsp. baking powder
2 eggs. bcain 1 tsp. cinnamon
2 cups rolled viat 1 Lup chopped raisins
Cream the fat and honey together, then add the eggs. Mix
and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, cinnamon, and salt, and
add to the wet mixture together with oatmeal. Dust the raisins
with some of the flour and add them to the dough, mixing well.
Drop by teaspoonfuls on a greased pan. Bake in a moderate
oven 10 to 12 minutes.
1 cup fat % tsp. soda
4 cup sugar 3 tsp. salt
t cup stained honey tsp. vanilla
2 ciup flour 2 drops almond extratm
2 eggs cup nut meats
2 tnp raisins
Cream fat and sugar thoroughly. Add honey, beaten eggs
and flavoring. Sift four, soda and salt together and add to first
mixture. Combine with lightly floured nuts and raisins. Drop
by dessert spoonfuls on oiled baking sheet. Bake in moderate
oven (550' to 375 F.).
H cup butter 2 egg whites whipped
2 egg yolkl, beaten V cup sugar
Grated rid one lemon 1 sp. salt
3 tbsp lemon jice u ho ney
3" cups pastry =mlo Shredded coconut if desired
Cream the butter, beat in the sugar and add the egg yolks
and lemon. Then stir in three cups of flour and the salt and
soda sifted together. alternately with the honey. Fold in the
beaten egg whites and stir in the nut meats, floured with the
remaining fourth cup of flour. Drop by teaspoons onto a but-
tered baking pan two inches apart Bake in a moderate oven
(350W F.) from 15 to 25 minutes. Sprinkle with shredded coco-
nut before baking, if desired.


CORAL VINE (Antigonuan
A distant couail of northern hucbnheaul-much liked by ihe LCee. In
larger plantings woIld help beautify our roadside fenlce, and produce
another distincI honet. The same can he said ,f seLranl other nrriinental
honey plant,: Asimia, Yuc.ca. \ iter.


t' Unip llNtt,-r 4 r"np sugar
2 o.uics. cth, l.i 1, cup flor, sifted itlh
I up .ho.i' .' t ji, baking powder
2 r; 1 "I 'p dClnppecd ilt ml Dii.
Butter aild chocolate should le inlted together. then add
hoIt). thei ilnm and making powder. theIn ints RBake 45 min-
utei in a slow ov\en For imlnediate use it is better to use z
suigai ad hone'. (:ut in strps one-half inch wide and 2
inches long. To pack away in a janr. se all honey instead of
part sugar and do not use notil after two weeks. R oll strips in
powdered sugar before packing.


1 clip brown s.l .ul
I cunp shortening
tsp. salt
1 tsp baking p.wl'l
2 cups flour
cup honey

1 reg
tsp. soda
c'up pecans
4 to 6 tbsp. cocna. delx.nding
pon degre cloliatc fla
var desired

Cream sugar, hone., shortening and egg. Add dry ingre-
dients. then nuts, shape in a loaf or place in refrigerator cookie
mold. Chill several dais to allows sufficient ripening of dough.
Slice off and bake in hot After baking, if allowed to stand for sc\eral d.,,. lIth cnokies
will impro c in flavor.


z ciip tO{ii hitter chocolait
t/S (lip shortening
1/3 nicup pecans r hli.aL
/4 tsp soda
Pinch salt
1 tsp. baking powdier
cup honey

Sclip brown ,sugar
1 n Ip hopped datCs, i
:and1id ....oi. pIeMl
1 gg2
2 cups flour
I ,lp "our cr.amn. or 14 rup of
iiaported milk to which has
rnt .ldded v tsp. nugar

\Melt chocolate over hot water if sqlares of chocolate are
used. Blend the melted chocolate or cocoa with honey. brown
sugai and shortening. Add I egg, then sour cream. Add
sifted ingredients. Then add the nuts and dates or peel.
Spread batter to about % inch depth in flat pan and bake in
moderate oven about 35 minutes. Whin cool, cut in squares.

I 4_

1.?. A



I cup honey tsp. ground cloves
V cup butter W tsp. cardamon seed
1/3 cup pecans cut in pieces 2 tsp. baking powder
Grated rind of 1 lemon 2% cups flour
tsp. ground cinnmnon
Heat the honey and butter together for about 5 minutes;
add all the other ingredients except the baking powder, and
mis thoroughly. When somewhat cooled, sift in the baking
powder and mix again. Let stand overnight. Roll thin and cut
into cakes of desired size and shape. Place on greased baking
sheet or in shallow pan; if desired decorate with bits of citron
and halves of almonds. Bake to an amber color (about 8 to 10
mninhtes at 350' F.).
1i cup butter 3 cups flour
%I cup sugar 4 tsp. baking powder
1 egg and I egg while
1 egg yolk Pecans, chopped
% cup honey
Grated rind of 1 klnmn
Cream the butter and sugar together and add the egg and
egg yolk beaten together. the honey, lemon rind, and the flour
sifted with the baking powder. More flour may be required.
The dough should be stiff enough to be easily handled. Take a
small portion of dough at a time, knead slightly, roll into a thin
sheet and cut into cookies of any desired shape. Set the shapes
on a greased pan. Beat the white of the egg (left for the purpose)
a little; use it to brush over the top of the cookies in the pan,
then at once sprinkle on some finely chopped pecans and a
little granulated sugar. Bake in a moderate oven (about 10
minutes at 3500 F.).
1/8 cup butter V, cup sugar
1 orange juice and rind 2 eggs well beaten
2 cups pastry flour tsp. salt
2 tsp. baking powder 4 cup broken walnut meats
3 cup honey
Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat in
the orange juice and in-d and the eggs. Mix together the flour,
salt and baking powder. Stir in the broken walnut meats and
mix well. Add alternately to the cake mixture with the honey
and bake in cup cakes 15 to 25 minutes at 350 F. If desired,
ice with Honey Meringue Icing.

ILORIDA SUNFLOWER (Heiainthus Iloridims)
Grw.. in Iminy prts nl It. Stale, Iul in EvrrglAcles Riegion. taet Ilhe seretion I ictlar stl riously anid m.h fin,
thonev is Ihc result.


1 egg white I cup honey
4 tbsp. water 1 tsp. cream of taara
Pmnch of salt
Combine all ingredients and cook slowly over low heat or
in a double boiler, beating constantly until mixture stands up in
peaks. It may be beaten until creamy when removed from heat.
This is a delicious meringue topping. It does not set on the
outside, but is creamy and fluffy.

3 eggs 1 cup flour
% cup sugar I tsp baking powder
3A cup water minus I tbsp. / tsp. salt
tsp. manila V tp. cloves
% cup strained honey 1 sp. cinnamon
2 tbsp. melted butter
Beat yolks, add sugar, honey, water and vanilla. Sift flour,
baking powder, salt, and spices, and add to firt mixture. Add
melted butter and fold in egg whites. Bake in shallow pan lined
with well oiled paper in a hot oven (3750 F.) for 20 minutes.
When baked, invert on a cloth dusted with powdered sugar.
Remove paper, trim off edges, spread with spiced roselle or
blackberry jam. Roll cloth around cake and allow to "set" for a
short time.

4% cups flour I cup strong coffee
1 Isp. salt Vi lb. sliced candied citron
I Isp. soda V lb. sliced candied orange
1 tsp. cinatmon or grapefruit peel
1 tsp. cloves V lb. sliced guava paste
1 tsp. allspice A cup shortening
2 tbsp. cocoa 1 cup brown sugar
I cup honey 1 cups chopped pecans
2 eggs
Sift flour, salt, soda, spices and cocoa together. Mix the
chopped nuts and sliced fruit peel through the flour with the
finger tips. Cream the shortening; stir in the sugar gradually.
Add the beaten eggs and honey. Stir in the fruit and flour mix-
ture alternately with the coffee. Spread the mixture on well-
oiled baking sheets or shallow pans, making a layer about h
inch thick. If baking sheets are used, leave a space about 1
inches wide at the open end to allow for spreading. Bake in a
moderate oven (3500 F.) for 20 to 80 minutes


The hot cake may be spread with thin layer of icing made
by stirring lemon puce into confectioners sugar (3 to 4 tbsp.
lemon juice For 2 clps sugar). Cut in 2-inch squares when cool.
Store in a tightly covered box for at least one week. Yields
about 120 squares.

h cup ihortenimg 3 tsp. baking powder
cup sugar V, tsp. salt
cup orange hony % cup milk
5 egg yolks I tbsp, grated orange rind
1% cups all-purpose Hour I tbsp. orange iirce
Cream shortening; add sugar gradually and cream well.
Add honey and mix well; add the very well beaten egg yolks.
Sift flour once before measuring. Sift flour, baking powder and
salt together. Add to creamed mixture alternately with the milk.
Add orange rind and juice. Bake in well greased and floured
pan for 40 minutes in moderate oven (350 F.). Ice with Honey
Coconut Meringue.

1/8 cup honey 2 egg whites
1/16 tsp. salt % cup toasted coconut
Heat honey to 2400 F., or until it spins an 8-inch thread.
Pour slowly into stiffly beaten egg whites and beat with egg
beater constantly. Add salt and continue beating until mixture
is fluffy and will hold its shape.
Spread on warm cake and sprinkle top with the coconut,
lightly toasted. Place pan of cake on board or in another pan
to prevent further browning and return cake to oven to set
meringue. Bake 10 minutes in very slow oven.
To toast coconut: Place 1 package coconut and 2 tsp. butter
in pan and toast very slowly in oven, stirring frequently to pre-
vent burning.



cup shortening 4 cup honey (mIildly
-4 egg writers favored)
% cup water rt milk s cup Isgar (wIite)
1 tsp. baking po>wdc- I cup iliced iltron
2% cups flour lifted twinl I culp tl ppeld pec'.
before measuring)
Blend shortening, honey and sugar to a cream. add liquid
and flour in which baking powder and salt have been sifted. Stir
only until mixed and then add nuts and citron, folding in lastly
the stiffly beaten egg whites Pour into layer cake tins or flat
oblong pan lined with waxed paper. Baker in moderate oven
(350= F.) for 45 minutes to 1 hour, depending on depth of cake.
Other fruits or nuts may be used such as preserved water-
melon rind or candied orange peel. Ice with Honey Icing.

2 cups powdered sugar N cup hione
4 tbsp. heavy cream 2 tbsp. melted butter
Enough milk to give good Citron licea to decorate cake
spreading ot onistency
Blend butter and honey; add heavy cream and salt. Blend
with powdered sugar and add just enough milk to gi ae spreading
consistency. Ice cake and decorate with citron slices. Put iced
cake in cake box for two or three days before using. This cake
may be kept from two to four weeks before using, as the honey
keeps it moist and fresh and improves the flavor.

1 lup shlirtrning cup strained hoIny
1/3 cup sugar tsp. cloves
1 tsp. cinnamon 4 tsp, baidng powder
3 cps pastry flour i cup mit meats (broken
1 cup samr milk tsp. soda
1 tsp. vanilla flavoring 2 eggs
I Isp. sat
Cream shortening and add the sugar. Beat in the honey.
Beat the yolks oE eggs and add. Sift dry ingredients. Add /
cup to il ts and add these to the mixture. Add the remaining
dry ingredients alternately with sour milk and vanilla. Fold m
the beaten whites. Bake in a well greased loaf pan in a moderate
oven (350W F.) for 45 minutes.


1 cup shortening 2 cup coffee
Seggs 1% cups pecian
cup citron 2 cups honey
M cup candied ginlered 3 cups flour
watermelon rind V tsp. each cloves, salt.
lb. figs nutmeg and allspice
Ai cup honeyed orange strps tsp. soda
or honey orange marna- 1 tsp. cream of tartar
lade W, tsp. cinnamon
4 cup prtne- %' cup cadhed pmniapp'l
% lb. datcs 1 lb. raisins
Riu figs. prunes, dates through food chopper. Add candied
orange peel and raisins. Over this pour the honey and let stand
from four days to a week.
Shred pineapple and citron. Sift dry ingredients, reserving
1 cup flour to mix with nuts. watermelon rind and pineapple.
After the fruit and honey mixture has stood long enough, cream
shortening and add to honey fruit mixture. Add the beaten eggs.
then sifted dry ingredients. coffee and the floured nuts, pineapple,
citron and gingered watermelon rind shreds
Bake slowly (225" F) for three hours if in one-pound tins.
If the entire mixture is baked in one cake (fi\e pounds) hake
from four to five hours, depending on the depth of the cake.
Brush top of cake with warm honey, wrap in heavy waxed paper.
pack away in covered crock for at least a month. Before wrap-
ping in cellophane for gift mailing or before serving, decorate
top with honeyed orange peel, pecans, citron or pineapple
Yields five pounds fruit cake.

Pies have never lacked in popularity and made the honey
way are of especially fine flavor and are good hot or cold,

2 tbp butter 1 cup pecans broken, depend
3 eggs nag on sweetness and rich-
% to 1 cup hone nesa desired
A tsp salt
Beat eggs slightly. Add honey and butter warmed and salt.
Mix well, put in partly baked pie shell and bake in a moderate
oven about 3.5 minutes.


1/ cups steamed and 1 cup honey
strained pumpkin I tsp, cinnamon
1 cup cream 3 eggs. well beaten
1 cup milk

Mix ingredients in order given and hake in one crust. To]
with honey meringue Or garnish each piece with a mound o
whipped cream with honey in its center.

Make an apple pie as usual, but do not use any sugar afte
the apples-just the butter and cinnamon, and do not use
top crust. After it is baked. drizzle 1/2 to 1/3 cup hone3
over the apple filling and sprinkle one-half cup pecan pieces anm
let stand until apples become soft and absorb all the honey
Pears, peaches. loquats are all delicious used in the same way.

4 cup honey 1% cups milk
4 tbsp. flour 2 egg yolks
V tsp. salt 1% tbsp. butter
Blend flour with a part of the liquid (cold) until it is smooth
Add salt, honey and remainder of the liquid. Cook in a double
boiler until thick, stirring frequently. Slowly pour a part ol
this cooked mixture over the beaten egg yolks, stirring con-
stantly. Return to the double boiler and beat until the egg iL
cooked. Lastly add the butter. Pour this filling into a previously
baked pastry shell. Cover with a meringue made from the two
egg whites slightly sweetened with honey. Brown the meringue
m the oven.



% cup honce 1 lemon. juice .and grated rirn
8 tbsp. flour 2 egg yolks
% cup cold water V to 1 tbsp. butter
1 cup boiling water

Blend the flour and cold water until smooth; add the honey
and grated lemon rind; slowly add the boiling water, stirring
constauth. Cook in a double boiler until thick. Stir in the
lemon juice. Slowly add part of this cooked mixture to the
beaten yolks, stirring constantly. Return to the double boiler
and heat until the egg is cooked- Lastly. add the butter.
Pour this filling into a previously baked pie crust and cover
with a meringue made from the two egg whites slightly sweet-
ened with honey and flavored with a drop or two of lemon
extract. Brown meringue in the oven
The flavor of the honey and lemon blend well in this pie


[ts flavor and sweetness are such that honey combines well
with fruits, both raw and cooked, so that it is an excellent addi-
tion to desserts.
A honey of delicate flavor, like orange, gallberry, or man-
grove, should be used. It makes a delectable sweetening for
whipped cream and for desserts. It supplies both sweetening
and flavor for salad dressings when prepared with fruit salads.
If granulated, the honey should be liquefied over hot water
before it is combined with other ingredients.


1 cup hiuny 2 tbsp. sugar
Pinch salt 1 cup riredded coconut
cup quick cooking tapmia 2 cups tagclo sechtons
3 cups boiling water Whipped cream
Heat honey and water in double boiler, add pinch of salt,
sugar and tapioca. Cook for 15 minutes, stirring frequently.
Add shredded coconut and cook until it thickens. Cool and
pour over tangelo sections, stirring lightly with a fork to mix
through the tapioca. Put in refrigerator to chill very thoroughly.
Serve with whipped cream or honey meringue. Sliced peaches,
pineapple, mango, banana, guava, tangerine, or Temple orange
sections, or a combination of fruits all provide delicious varia-
NOTE: The tangelo is a citrus fruit resulting from a cross
between the tangerine and grapefruit-a combination of delight-
ful flavor.

4 cups called milk 8 tbsp. strained honey
5 eggs V tsp. salt
Beat eggs sufficiently to unite whites and yolks but not to
make them foamy. Add other ingredients, mix thoroughly and
pour into individual custard cups. Sprinkle lightly with nutmeg.
Set cups in a pan of warm water, place in oven. Bake in mod-
erate oven until when a knife is inserted into custard it comes
out clean. Remove cups from water immediately. Serve hot or

2 cups milk 2 tbsp. strained honey
3 egg yolks tsp. vanilla
Salt-fcw grains
Heat milk and honey in a double boiler. Beat egg yolks,
add to yolks the hot milk mixture and return to boiler to finish
cooking. When the mixture coats a silver spoon, remove from
fire Cbhll, add flavoring.


V nup powdered 'unar i cup candied orange peel
'i cup shredded pineapple or kumniqual
(drained) I cup cream-whipped
2 egg whites 1 tsp. vanilla extrct
% cup honey (warmed) cup pecans
Mix pineapple, honey, chopped nuts, peel and flavoring.
Cool. Beat the egg whites until stiff and add powdered sugar.
Beat cream until Fairly stiff. Fold all ingredients together and
freeze either in paper mousse cups or in freezing trays of the

2 cups rice or corn flakes 1 cup holney
1 cup nuts-chopped 16 marshmallows-cut in
1 cup dates-cut in small mall pieces
Roll flakes fine and combine carefully with other ingredients
and make into a roll. Then cover with more rolled flakes and
place in refrigerator until thoroughly chilled-8 to 10 hours.
Serve with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with honey.
Easy to make and very delicious.

2 tbsp. gelahtme cup honey
% cup cold water ibnanas (mashed through
1 cups milk sieve)
1 lemon L cup whipped cream
Soak gelatine in cold water until soft. Heat milk, remove
from fire and stir in gelatine. Add honey, mashed bananas, and
lemon juice. Set in a cool place and when it begins to thicken
fold in the whipped cream. Chill thoroughly.

One quart thin cream; % cup delicately flavored honey.
Mix and freeze in the usual way.

3 eiup itlk 2 'un;res of lhocollat
Seggs % tsp. salt
1 qt. cream 1 cups mild honey
Make a boiled custard of the milk, melted chocolate, hone),
eggs and a little vanilla. When cool add the cream and freeze.


4 egg yolks Pinch of salt
2 cups water 1 cup honey
2 cups rich milk
Beat the egg yolks, add the salt and water. Cook over
boiling water two minutes, stirring constantly. Cool. Add milk
and honey. Freeze with 1-8 salt-iced mixture. Yield. 14

2 quarts water 3 cups honey
& lemons I tbsp. gelatin
Cold water A cup syrup from preserved
4 eup pnrserved ginger, ginger
cut ine 2 egg whites
Boil water and sugar together for five minutes. Add lemon
juice, gelatine softened in a little cold water, the syrup and pre-
served ginger. Freeze to a mush, then stir in the beaten egg
whites, and continue freezing

I p. boiling water 2 cups honey
4 cups graplfruit juice Juice I lemon
2 tsp. gelatin Shredded or candled
2 tlsp. cold water orange peel
Soften gelatine in cold water. Add boiling water and honey.
Stir until dissolved, cool and add fruit juices. Cool and freeze
in three parts of ice to one part of salt. Garnish each serving
with shredded candied cherries or strips of candied orange peel.

1 pint strawberries 2 cups water
2 lemons 1 egg white
% cup honey
Mix the strawberries (which have been put through a sieve),
lemon juice, water and honey and let stand several hours to
blend. Put into a freezer and when it begins to freeze add a
beaten egg white. Freeze with 8 parts ice to 1 part salt and
pack with 3 parts ice to 1 part salt. Makes 1 quart.


cup grated r.nw carrots
cup grated row sweet
cup chopped dates
cup candied orange peel.
citron or pineapple
cup honey
t'p. salt
tsp. cinnaimiotn

V tsp. nutmre
tsp. allspice
V tsp, cloves
tsp. soda
V cup flour
1 cup ratsins
2/3 cup suet (chopped or

Comnine ingredients in order given. Stir until mixture is

well blended. Pour into well greased Pyrex refrigerator dish (1

qt. size) or Pyrex casserole; put cover on and bake in oven at

250' F. for 21, hours. remove from oven, cool without removing

cover. Serve with Honey Butter.

The above pluh pudding recipe is an easy one to make, is

inexpensive and when served with a small topping of Honey

Butter instead of tie proverbial powdered sugar hard sauce, is

everything taste satisfaction requires. Make up a dozen or

more and use the extra ones as Christmas remembrances.


A cup oatmeal (measured
after cooked)
i cup allbran
1 cup seedless raisins
1 cup pecans
cup citron
4 cap dates
Scup Hour

'A tsp soda
I tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp allspice
1 tsp. nutmeg
1 cup honey
I egg
t cup jelly (lliniy guava
jelly is recommended)

Combine ilngtedients in order given. Bake in a covered

greased pudding mold or in a covered Pyrex dish for 21 hours

at about 250' F.


% cup chopped suet 1% cup flour
% cup finely sliced criron Reserve 4 cup of this four
% cup nut meats for dredging
cup honey cup sweet milk
Juice and rind of lemon tsp. soda dissolved in a little
hot water
Stsp. salt
Steam 21 hours in well greased pudding mold with horn.
Steam in a deep vessel which has a tight cover and a rack in
order that the water may circulate freely under mold. If neces-
sary to add more water during steaming process, be sure water
is boiling.
Remove from mold while still hot and serse with hard
sauce or honey.

% cup hone, %4 tsp. salt
2 eggs cup whole wheat bread
% cup chopped dates crumbs
cup chopped nut meats cup flour
1 tsp. baking powder
Dust the dates and nuts with a portion of the flour. Sift
the remaining flour with the salt and baking powder. Add the
beaten eggs to the honey. then the crumbs, the sifted dry ma-
terials, and the dates and nuts. Mix well, pour into a greased
baking dish and bake 20 minutes in a moderately hot oven.
Serve with cream hard sauce or Honey Butter.

2 parts honey I part butter
Let butter stand in room temperature until it is soft. Add
honey and stir until perfectly blended. Place in glass jar which
can be tightly covered and stand in refrigerator.

Uses for Honey Butter
Blend with chopped nuts as simple topping for sponge
As a service for hot biscuits, griddle cakes, waffles, instead
of serving honey and butter separately.
Delicious on nut bread for tea service.




1 cup grated carrots
I cup raisins
I cup honey
1 tsp soda
I egg

I cup grated potatoes
I tbsp mred spices
1 cup flour
I tsp. %alt
I cup smet

Steam for three hours. Serve with Honey Butter or Honey
Kumquat Sance.

1 cup honey Istp. salt
i to % cup fin-el chirpped 1 thsp. butter i(may be
fresh kumquats, serded omitted)
I cup orange juice
Combine the ingredients and let stand o out cooking, for aihout 30 iniutes to Iblend the flavors. Serve
.is a sauce on ice cream



a cuip honey nimringut
cup Honey Salad

2 cups prepared fruit, pine-
apple. orange hearts and
loquats. or guava, mango
and papaya

Add fruit to the salad dressing and fold in whipped cream.
Turn into freezing tray of automatic refrigerator and freeze.

2 egg yolks cup lione
Pinch of salt Juice of lemon
cup cream, sweet or 21 tbsp. oalad oil
slightly sour tsp. Imprika
Beat egg yolks, then pour in the hot honey. Cook for a
moment, beating continually, then fold in the salad oil, lemon
juice, the cream beaten stiff and the seasonings.



1 egg 6 Isp. lemon Juice
1 tsp. salt 1 cupfuls salad oil
2 tbsp. honey Paprika
I tsp. mustard Few grains cayenne
6 tsp. honey vinegar
Into a conical shaped bowl break an egg and add the salt.
honey, mustard, dash paprika, the cayenne and 1 tbsp, honey
vinegar. Beat thoroughly with a good egg beater and add the
oil, 1 tbsp at a time, beating thoroughly after each addition
until cupful is added and the dressing is thick. Then the oil
can be added in larger quantities at a time. When one cupful
has been added, dilute will the rest of the oil. Use altogether
1% cupfuls of oil, beat vigorously all the time during the making.
When finished, dressing should be smooth and thick.

2 tbsp. honey I tsp. prepared mustard
1 cup whipped cream
Mix the mustard and honey together and stir in cup of
whipped cream. Adds a piquancy to pineapple salad combina-

2 oz. Ameican cheese tbsp. wlupped cream
2 tbsp. honey I cupful honey mayonnaise
Mash cheese, add whipped cream, then honey. Stir in
honey mayonnaise. This dressing is nice for peas, tomatoes,
or asparagus salad.

cupful honey cupful peanut butter
Blend peanut butter and honey. More honey may be added
if a sweeter paste is desired. Excellent on hot buttered toast
or as a dressing for sweet sandwiches.


Spread thin slices ot honey oatmeal or nut bread (at least
three clays old) with honey cream cheese paste. Place buttered
slices with cheese spread slices together, cut crosswise and
allow three triangles to each serving.

1 cake cream cht'ec 3 tbsp. (hopped sillrd
:1 thp honey pecans
Mix into paste

Spread 20 thin slices of bread with butter; then on 10 of
them place thin slices of white meat of cooked chicken; on
other 10 spread a mixture of chopped green pepper and honey
salad dressing. Place crisp white lettuce on the latter; press
together with chicken covered slices, cut and serve with chilled
olives and sliced tomato as garnish.

Mix honey with cream cheese and use as filling For sand-
wiches. Chopped nuts, dried or crystallized fruit or peanut
butter may he added to the cheese.

"A land flowing with milk and honey." was the description
of Canaan, hence, honey and milk even in Biblical times were
recognized as valuable foods. Honey sweetened fruit-ades,
iced tea and coffee are given all added flavor that is very delici-
ous. The amount to use depends on personal taste. Honey is
convenient to use in hot tea, jnst a teaspoonful or more from
the honey jar as desired, but for cold drinks the honey should
be blended with a little warm water, before adding the iced

Mix one dip of ice cream with /A cup honey. Add 1 cup
milk and shake well in malted milk mixer.



2 6 la tbsp. honey
Thin creamI Chipped ice
14 cups ice wLiItr
Beat eggs well and pour into glass fruit ]ar or shaker. Add
remaining ingredients and shake. Yield. 3 servings. May top
each glass with whipped cream.

Mix juice of 6 oranges, 6 tbps. honey and few grains of salt.
When ready to serve. shake up with ice cubes and add shreds
of yellow orange nnd. Decorate with sprig of mint.

Juice of two oranges. juice of 'i lemon, yolk of I egg, warm
honey. Beat the ingredients together and drink every morning.

4 lirp iocoa 1 cup old water
2 to 4 tbsp. Iomnv .3 cups niilk
Dash of salt
Mix cocoa, sugar. salt, and watei in upper part of double
boiler and place over direct heat. Stir until smooth, boil 2
minutes. Place over hot water, add milk and heat. Beat well.
using rotary egg heater, and serve at once

Blend 2 tsp. cocoa with 3 tsp. honey. Let I cup milk iconi
to boiling point. Remove scalded milk from fire, add honey and
cocoa mixture and pinch of salt. Stir well. Pour this mixture
in iced tea glass filled with cracked ice. Top with whipped
cream. For hot chocolate, omit ice and add V4 cupful of scalded
Jniee 12 liiiio.ns I pt. gnava juice
Juice 12 oranges 1 pt. shredded pineapple
3 quarts water Honey to sweeten
I pt. tanarnd juice
Warm honey nnd add to water. Blend and add fruit juices
and shredded pineapple and chill. When ready to serve, garnish
with thin slices of lemon and orange and pour over ice.


I elip honey cupe lemon juire
2 cups pared and seed l d cup orange juice
gutinas and juiceu linral or ice water
2 CUpS water
Simner the honey and ,nter together until blended, set
aside to cool. Force the guavas through fruit press and com-
bine the pulp with the orange and lemon juice. Add to the
cold syrup and let chill thoroughly. Just before serving, strain
and dilute to taste with mineral or ice water. Peaches. plums.
mangoes, may be used the same way as guavas.

Guava jukt Cracked aer
IJlice fresh lines. ilanmon- Honey to taste
dlns or i ta I'glo
Ilclul will and sel. with ltlin slices of frilt

Over a serving of ice cream-usually vanilla or chocolate
is preferred-pour a generous stream of gallberry, orange or
mangrove honey.

Carrots, green or wax beans. beets, squash, turnips, sweet
potatoes. and other vegetables-important in the diet-are better
flavored through the addition of a small amount of honey.
Use a teaspoonful of mild honey to each cup of vegetables
when adding other seasonings.



2% cups beets, cooked and 4 tbsp. vinegar or lenon jiice
sliced 2 tbsp. butter
si cup boihng water 4 tbsp. honey
1 thsp. flour
Blend butter and flour, add hot water and stir until smooth.
Add other ingredients and pour over the beets that have been
placed in a buttered baking dish. Cook 20 minutes in moderate

2 cups cushaw, pared and 8 tbsp. butter
thinly sliced 1 tsp salt
I cup apples pared and t4 to % cup honey, warmed
thinly sliced
Place a layer of cushaw in buttered baking dish, then a
layer of sliced apples. Add salt, dot with butter, and cover
with honey. Add another layer of cushaw and apples and dress
as before with seasonings.
Top with a layer of cushaw, brush with butter and bake in
a hot oven for 45 minutes, covering the first half of the time.
Sweet potatoes may be baked in the same way as ctshaw or
other winter squash.
Delicious to serve with broiled chicken or honeyed ham.

Scrub sweet potatoes as for ordinary baking. Bake until
soft. Then with sharp knife cut across on top. In this opening
drop first 1 tsp. honey. then press in half a marshmallow. Return
to oven and heat for just a few seconds. The honey is absorbed
almost immediately by the hot sweet potato and marshmallow
is toasted just enough by the few seconds of reheating. Serve
at once. Especially nice for crown roast of pork, roast chicken,
or turkey.

Boil 10 medium large sweet potatoes with skins on, When
about two-thirds cooked, remove from fire, run cold water over
them. Pare, slice in -inch slices and put in frying pan well
greased. Fry until browned, then add a mixture of cup honey
and 4 cup brown sugar. Stir through sweet potatoes, let remain
over low flame for three minutes. Serve at once. (27 servings.)


I cup dw-rd Lclcrn 1 qI red beans (cooked or
I cuip choppIed onion' ..a nni d)
4 cups ground beef I pt. water
I tsp. chili powder 1 tbsp. salt
1 pt. tomato plure tbsp, honey
Fry beef. onions, and celery slowly for about one hour
Should be thoroughly browned-being careful not to burn onions
or celery. Place one quart of red beans either cooked or canned.
1 pint tomato puree. I pint water, and 1 tbsp. salt in kettle. Let
come to a hail, then add fried meat and vegetables. Simmer
slowly for two hours. Then add chili powder, and just before
serving stir in honey. Serve piping hot.


For a delicious ham which requires a minimum amount of
holiday preparation, the ham should be given its preliminary
cooking the day before. The whole or half ham is brought to a
boil. then simmered, allowing 20 minutes to the pound. Use
from 1 to 2 cups of pineapple juice in the water in which the
ham is boiled.
Remove hamn rom liquid, skim and pour over the skinned
ham 2 cups of honey (for ham weighing 9 to 10 lbs.). Let stand
over night. In the morning add enough liquid which has been
reserved from the boiling liquor for casting purposes. Rub the
skinned surface with bread crumbs, then baste frequently with
honey liquid to which has been added a cup of raisins or 1 cup
spiced roselle.


Brown a rather thick slice of cured ham in a baking dish,
pour 4 tbsp. honey over ham and stick 3 or 4 cloves in the ham.
Place pineapple rings on ham and bake in moderate oven, cov-
ered for the first 10 minutes. In place of pineapple, apples,
sweet potatoes. or carrots may be used and pork chops may be
substituted for the cured ham.


Bake apples with a bit of water until tender. Butter may be
added if desired. Remove from oven. drizzle honey over hot
apples. The hot apples will readily absorb the honey and by
the time of serving, the honey will ha\e permeated the apple
tissue and blended to form a perfectly delightful dish.

1 lean ham (weighing from 1 tsp. cinnamon
7 to 9 lbs.) 1 qt. honey ,ineiar or pille
15 cloves juice
Celery leaves from one Honev raisin sauce
bunch of celery Soda
cup honey Boiling water
2 eggs, beaten
Thoroughly wash the ham. rub soda over the surface; rinse
in cold water. Celery leaves. cloves, cinnamon, honey vinegar
and 'A cup honey should be placed in a kettle full of boiling
water In this place the ham and simmer until perfectly tender
about five hours. Remove the' skin after taking ham from
kettle, and brush with beaten egg and honey (2 eggs beaten
blended with 4 cup honey). Stick in about 80 cloves at even
intervals and brown in very hot oven.

Serve with Honey Raisin Sauce.

1 cup raisins cup water
1 cup honey
Cook very slowly until raisins are soft but not mushy. Add
honey and a teaspoonful of lemon juice and serve over ham

Home made candies are always a special treat but when
honey is used in their making, they are doubly delicious. In
candy making, honey imparts its own individuality to the
product and opens up a wide range of interesting opportunities
in the candy way.



2 cups white sugar 2 inch square chocolate
1 cup mdlk 1 tsp 'anilll
A cup honey
Allow to cook to soft ball stage Cool Beat 20 minutes
after cool.

2 cups granulated sugar 2 cups nch milk
2 cups hone) 1 tp. vanilla
% cup butter
Choose a heavy iron, aluminum or copper kettle for cook-
ing. Stirring occasionally, boil sugar, salt and honey to 2450 F.
Add butter and milk gradually, so that the mixture does not
stop at any time. Cook rapidly to firm ball stage (256" F.) Stir
constantly because the mixture becomes very thick and sticks
easily at the last. Add vanilla and pour into a buttered pan.

Cool thoroughly before cutting. Cut wth a heavy sharp
knife, using a saw-like motion. Yield. 2 Ibs. or 45 caramels
%xl' inches

2 cups sugar 1 cup water
1 cup honey % tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter 2 cups roasted peanuts
Put sugar, honey, salt and water in saucepan. Stir until
sugar is dissolved. Cook to 300 F. Remove from fire. Add
butter and peanuts. Stir just enough to mix thoroughly. Pour
out on a well greased marble slab or baking sheet into very thin
sheets. Allow to cool and break into irregular pieces

2 cups honey 1 cup butter
2 cups sugar 1 tbsp. cinnamon
Boil ten minutes or to crack stage, 290 F., and then pour
into a buttered pan and when cold cut in squares.


2 1/3 cups sugar tsp. salt
I cup honey I cup water
V tsp. vanilla % cup coconut or nut
2 egg whites meats
Put sugar, honey, salt and water into a sauce pan and cook,
stirring until the sugar is completely dissolved. Continue cook-
ing, without stirring, until a firm ball is formed in cold water, or
until 268 F. is reached. Wash down any sugar crystals that
may form. Remove from fire and slowly pour the syrup over
the egg whites which have been beaten until stiff during the
latter part of the cooking of the syrup. Beat during this addi-
tion. Continue beating until the candy will hold its shape when
dropped from the spoon. Add vanilla and outs or coconut; mix
thoroughly. Drop from teaspoon onto waxed paper.
If taken off when temperature of 2620 F. has been reached,
it can be used for the following:
Stuffing dates-lMaking coconut balls-Shaping in balls and
dipping in chocolate.
This may be varied by the addition of candied fruits or
nuts, These chocolates thus made are delicious.

2 cups orange blossom honey 2 cups sugar
1 cup boiling water 1 tsp. vanilla
Put honey, sugar and water into sauce pan: stir until sugar
is well dissolved. Place on fire and cook to 2700 F. Remove
from fire; add vanilla. Pour out on a well-buttered dish. When
cool enough to handle, pull until cream) and stiff like other

2 cups sugar 2/3 cup waler
' cup strained honey 1 tsp. vanilla
Put all of the ingredients except the vanilla into a sauce
pan and cook, stirring only until sugar is dissolved. Continue
cooking until a hard ball forms in cold water or the temperature
263 F. is reached. Remove from fire and pour into buttered
pan. When cool enough to handle, pour vanilla into center of
the mass, gather the corners and remove from the pan and pull.


When candy is white and rather firm, stretch out into a long
rope and cut into pieces of desired size, using scissors for the
cutting. Not meats may be added just before the taffy is ready
to cut. which must he worked in during the pulling.

Remove the peel from 3 oranges in quarter sections, then
cut into strips with scissors. Cover the rind with salt water in
the proportion of 1 tbsp. of salt to 1 quart uo waLti and let
stand over night. Drain and cover with cold water, then bring
to the boiling point; repeat this process three times. Then if
tender, rinse in cold water, drain, then simmer very slowly in
1 cup of honey from 45 to 60 minutes. Remove the rind with a
fork, drain and lay on waxed paper. Allow to dry for a day or
two. The strips mvay then be coated with chocolate, if desired.
Grapefruit may be prepared in a similar way but grate rind
carefully before cooking tender il an abundance of water.
Drain, then cook the peel in a syrup made with 2 cupfuls of
honey, 2 tbsp. lemon juice oa grapefruit juice.
Cook the grapefruit strips one hour or more, then allow
them to stand all night in the honey syrup. Remove with a
fork and lay on waxed paper for a day or two. These may be
coated with milk chocolate or bitter chocolate.



Electrical Beater: Use one egg white to one-half cup
honey, placing in bowl or electrical mixer and turning to speed
2 allowing mixture to whip until it peaks.
Hand Beating: Place one-fourth or one-third cup honey in
howl with one egg white and beat with double Dover or Ladd
improved (ball bearing type) beater until stiff.
This mixture keeps indefinitely when kept uncovered in
refrigerator. Honey meringue made with granulated honey
keeps just as well and in some cases has been found to whip up
more easily by hand than when strained honey is used.
Honey meringue may be used as a topping just as whipped
cream or marshmallow is used, on top of pie; for toasting as
ordinary meringue; on sweet potatoes; mix with rice crispies
and use as a paste to spread on butter wafers for tea; as a
dressing for fruit salad; delightful for date tortes. The amount
of honey used depends entirely upon the individual preference
for the honey flavor.
Add 2 tbsp. melted butter to I cup meringue for a good
gingerbread topping.

Trim slices of bread (slices should be about %-inch thick).
Toast properly, then butter and brush with honey. Reheat
enough to have toast absorb honey and serve piping hot.

Spread slices of fresh toast with butter, brush with honey
(about I tbsp. honey for each slice), sprinkle with cinnamon and
oven toast enough to blend cinnamon and honey.


Place thin slices of honey nut brown bread on thin pan,
oven toast both sides, spread with butter and honey. Cut in
triangles and serve open face.
These breads must be oven toasted and very carefully
turned over on flat tin with spatula so that tie slices will remain
intact. Hot honey unt bread is delicious when spread with
-orange marmalade ihlnlediately when removed from oven.
Any ot these toasts must he seed ipping hot to be good.

Hot honey lemonade is particularly valuable in relieving
the grippe Wheun offering from a cold, take a hot honey
lemonade just before retiring.
Four tbsp. lemon juice mixed with 4 thsp. honey. Add
I cup boiling water. Drink hot.

Honey may be substituted for part. or in many cases where
Irnits are of high flavor, for all of the sugar needed in canning
and in making jelly. jam, preserves, fruit pickles and conserves.
Of course, where all honey is used it tends to mask the more
delicate flavor of the fruits, and color and texture of the product
too is darkened somewhat. It is necessary, therefore, to use the
mildest flavored honeys in order that the individual, distinctive
fruity flavors may not ie tol much overshadowed by that of
the honey.
Flavors of houney also vary with age and storage, so it is
always desirable to ust a newv honey for canning purposes when
available. The honey flavor combines better with some fruits
than with others. A combination of fruits for making conserves
or jams and butters in which spices are used, for instance, is
usually more pleasing than that made with one fruit alone.
In using the honey, two precautions should be observed:
1. Since honey has a tendency to foam considerably when
heated, there is some danger of the products "cooking over" at
the beginning o the cooking period, if not watched earefuly.


2. Since honey is part water, in order to obtain the desired
consistency, it is necessary to cook the product in which it is
used slightly longer.

Basic recipes for honey syrups call for either an all-honey
symrp, one cup honey and three cups water, or preferably a
honey and sugar syrup, cup sugar and 3 cups water. This
syrup is recommended for use with mild flavored fruits, like
figs, grapes, loquats, mangoes, peaches, pears, pineapple, culti-
vated plums.

For fruits with more tartness, like the sour guavas and
many of the wild plums, a heavier syrup may be desirable. The
amount of dilution required for the syrup will vary with the
quality of the honey and the degree of sweetness preferred.
Use less rather than more sweetening. When all honey is used
sometimes lemon juice is added to the all-honey syrups to
counteract sweetness and to give an interesting blend of flavors.

To prepare an all-honey syrup, bring water to boil, add
honey, let boil again, skim and strain and it is ready for use.
For the honey and sugar syrup. bring water and sugar to boil-
ing point, add honey, let boil again, strain and use. Prepare
fruit or berries, pack into hot containers, add hot syrup in the
same way as a sugar syrup; seal and process product accord-
ing to the standard time table for canned fruits. Berry juice,
grapejuice or other fruit juice may be used to advantage in
place of water for these canning syrups.

Jelly of one's favorite honey is easily made when the re-
quired pectin, liquid fruit pectin, or a powdered citrus pectin,
is provided Honey jelly takes very little time and makes a
clear, amber product of the pronounced flavor of the honey
used. In making jelly without using an added pectin. strong
flavored juices, high in both pectin and acid, are essential or
a jelly of a gummy texture will result. Crab-apple, mayhaw,
wild plum, sour guava juices that give a high pectin test, are
good jelly juices to use with honey, particularly when % the
honey is replaced with sugar for the fruit juice combination.


2 Cip lun.yr V clup liquid [Xpctin or
.' cIup w.atr I tespuon n powdered
Iemon ptictill
Combine water with honey and heat very gently to avoid
scorching at] the development of off flavor. Stir constantly
until boiling, then add /4 cup liquid fruit pectin, bring just to
boiling and immediately remove from heat. Pour into hot.
sterilized glasses, The yield will be about 4 small glasses.

Scnp l Irnn tim puc 2i clps mild flavored
'A cup liquid fruit pectint honey
Combine lemon juice and honey. Bring carefully to a full
rolling boil. Add liquid pectin, stir constantly and bring just to
a boil. Pour into small glasses and seal.

2 cups frilt juice r rup honey
2 tablespoons lemon juice %Y cup sugar
Mix juices and boil 5 minutes. Add sugar and bring to
boiling point. Add honey and cook to jelly test (2200 F.) or
until the jelly stage is reached, as indicated by the flaking or
sheeting from inside of spoon. Make pectin test before starting
jelly making preparations to be sure a good textured jelly can
be made from the fruit juice on hand. Guava juice, mayhaw,
or other juice high in pectin may be used the same way as crab-
apple juice.

*When powdered lcunn pectin is unsd, heat the ioniy tl gntlv l aout 1i5sF.
lin another pan or kell heicnt the walte to albou simmnner. Remove a smnll part
of the warmed horey snto r 1 cup and shr the dry pectin into 1, malkig a mrooth
pteiste, Ven the pettin and honey arr wlil llmied p nr Inil the hit water. Jinse
the cup with the pectn solution untri all the initure eha been trnolrrd to the water
solution. Stir and heat un'l the pectin as .ompletely d'osnlved. Be ue there nre
no lumps remaining. Add the pectin solution at once to the honey which should bo
alourt M5 F. Brng to a temperature nof lbout 170 F or lightly hlithr. Pour
into smal containers and seal at once. Ihe high temperature required m the usual
Jelly making prunitlure almtuld tl avoldthl i.n making honey Jelly. partlitlrly wln-
powdcred lemon paect is used, as toughne, a darker color and a rallier stong flavor
would result .ifter a few weeks of slrunle.
tlanufactnrers of citrus fruit petin i Culifornia and of npple peclm in New
York. Missmori and eLtswhere, fhrnnih ful nd detaied dilolreclIan o the se of their
respectve product,. I pect (cotmmercnlly speaking) l s Ied rie u. coniet.on with the
firut juice, it must be dielard on the Inliel.


The fruit of the native vsor orange, so generally used for
root stock over many portions of the citrus area, is used for
making delightful preserves that are always popular.
For best flavor use the fruit when well matured and highly
colored. Grate off all oil cells .leaving the rich. yellow colored
skin exposed. Cut into quarters and remote from pulp. Soak
the peel in salt water (1 cup salt to I gallon water) overnight
Squeeze juice from pulp and save to add to preserves during
the last cook. Drain peel from salt water. Cover well with
clear water and boil for 10 minutes. Drain and cover with
fresh water and cook until peel is tender IF no bitter flavor
is desired, it may be necessary to change the water several
times, However, if the fruit used is fully ripe the slightly
bitter flavor is agreeable to most palates.
Drain peel and drop into a hot syrup made of three cups
honey and two cups water for each 2 pounds of peel. Cook
until peel is clear and syrup somewhat thickened. Remove
from heat and let stand overnight. The next day, take from
syrup, add 3/ cup honey and ]' cup sour orange juice and bring
to boil. After boiling 10 minutes ol until thickened, replace
fruit. Boil another 10 minutes or until syrup is thick. Pack
into hot jars immediately and process pints for 10 minutes at
boiling. Grapefruit. tangelo and shaddock peel may le pre-
served in the same manner as the sour orange.

Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into slightly
salted water and soak overnight; next day pour off salted water,
cover well with fresh and bring to a boil. Drain and cover
again with fresh water and cook until tender. Drain.
To one pint of fruit add 2 pint of sugar, /4 pint orange
honey and one pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit in the
boiling syrup and simmer until clear and syrup is slightly
thickened. Plump overnight in the same \essel. covering tightly
while still boiling and removing from fire. The second or third
day place back on fire and cook until syrup is heavy. Pack in
jars as any preserve, or if candied kumquats are desired for
immediate consumption, drain, put on wire rack to dry and,
while still sticky, roll in granulated sugar.


(Peach, Pear, Pineapple)

cups mild flavored honry
cup cider vinegar
cup water
piece ginger rootu

A lemon slid, or 3 Sdla-
m.nindins or kumquats, ut
in thick slices and seeded
3 inches stick cinln;tmon
12 whole loves

Combine honey. vinegar, iad citrus fruit and spices. Heat
to boiling aid boil gently about 5 minutes. Have ready 4 to 6
cups of the quartered pears, peach halves or pineapple chunks.
Add to spiced solution. Cook until just tender. Pack Fruit in
hot jais, cover with the boiling syrnp and seal at once.


% b. gren ginger scraped
and chopped
6 lbs. honey
8 lbs. pears weighed after
parmig and coring
1 pint water

4 oranges
3 lemons, juice and thinly
shredded peel
2 cups pecans or black
walnut meats

Cook the ginger, orange and lemon peel with a pint of
water until tender, then add honey, orange and lemon juice;
cook, put in the pears chopped coarsely and cook until pears
are tender. Add nut meats. Cook five minutes longer. Pour
in small hot jars and seal, boiling hot.

Ginger. Zmnmbir. i"iinale, uofthn ifused with Ihe common ornamental giger
lily aaws well in Floida and produce hoire roots t given rich soit. sff-ucnt moitur
and semi-shade. It is an ere herb, 12 In 4 inches. higl, canna like in appearance
and grows from thickeed rizomes whic h hbanh sngerlihk and se d new shoot
am the tips near tdhe rface of the toil. If diird for prsnvwl ad eandying. the
rools should be dug while t end1 n. n a cctlent, rather duin when old, toug.i ald
ibhics. Giger is one of the worlds mott poiular qsices. It is an ialpe sablt part
of chutneys, giing them much of their .picline. and pungent flavor.


Honey Bees and Their Products


It would seem that as old a subject as Honey Bees and
their products would have long since been exhausted and noth-
ing new could be said on the theme. But it seems that no subject
is really ever "worn out" as we never know all about anything.
The bee industry has been revolutionized during the last fifty
Honey is the oldest of all the sweets used by man. There
seems to be no country that can claim to be original home of
the honey bee Different species were found in practically all
the inhabitable parts of the world. The aborigines of Peru sacri-
ficed honey to the sun. Stingless honey bees of Brazil produced
every variety of honey from good edible kind to black and sour.
No one knows who first tasted honey and pronounced it good.
Samson, the strong man, made a riddle on honey he found in
the skull of a lion which be had slain. That riddle got him in
trouble. John the Baptist's food, we are told. was locusts and
wild honey.
The honey bee is quite a useful animal. He does no damage
to the plant from which he gets his product-he is beneficial in
his visits to flowers by carrying pollen and aiding in fertilization
of the seed germs-and he brings a valuable product to the
service of man. He is one creature that seems to be miserable
unless he is at work. His industry is his life.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture reports that the average
analysis of honey shows the following percentages of elements:
Water_ 17.7
Laevulose ___ 40.5
Dextrose __..._ 34.02
Sucrose 1.9
Dextrin and gums_. 1.51
Ash ..15

This leaves 4.22 percent unaccounted for. These percent-
ages differ largely in different specimens analyzed. Extraneous


matter gets into some honeys, such as pollen or peculiar sub-
stances that may he in the nectar as extracted from the flower.

All edible honeys are thought to containi vitamins A, B and
C--nether of which can he found in cane or beet sugars, accord-
ing to authorities on the subject. The proportions of laevulose
and dextrose vary greatly in different flowers from which honey
is obtained. A high percentage of laevulose prevents crystalliza-
tion. The tupelo of the southeastern states and the sages of
California produce this kind of honey. The high percentage of
dextrose causes honey to crystallize quickly and is therefore less
desirable for keeping indefinitely and for shipping long distances.

It remains for the physicians and dietitians of this generation
to discriminate between the different sweets used for food and
classify them according to their food values and dietetic qualities.
Even honeys are not all alike in content. flavor or appearance.
The world today is so completely commercialized that one may
look for a flare-up if he says that one kind of sweet is better for
the human anatomy than another.

The general keeping of bees is a good thing economically,
in spreading pollen and in furnishing honey for the household.
But the fact remains that the production of a certain variety
and quality in large amounts is the only way to open up a sure
market at a good price. Buyers of large quantities of anything
want to know if they can depend on the source of supply to be
ready when they want it and in the quantities they want. This
is the only way they can build up a trade that continues from
year to year. The human taste is subject to cultivation and
when customers of dealers in honey ask for a certain honey or
syrup they have cultivated their taste to that particular kind and
do not want to hI put off with "something just as good." If the or-
ange boney producers wcrc to advertise their honey through some
central office it would vastly increase the market. The same
is true of the tupelo honey or any other good variety, Melilotus
honey is of a kind and appearance that appeals to hundreds of
thousands, but it takes advertising to create and hold buyers.
The State Department of Agriculture has nothing to do
with the supervising or inspection of bees or honey. That comes


under the jurisdiction of the State Plant Board. As the extermi-
nation of plant pests is a Plant Board function it has been
construed that bee pests should come under the same head.
I have no comparative figures of the value of honey and
molasses but the time was at the turn of the century when
honey exceeded in value the molasses in the United States.
Moden methods of refining and advertising artificial sweets
have placed them far in the lead as food products.
Many physicians and dietitians are recommending honey
for arthritis and neuritis. It has proven to be efficacious in many
cases where all other remedies had failed.
There should be established a clinic i some institution
equipped for scientific experimentation as to the value of different
kinds of honey both as a food and as a remedial agent for human
It would be a signal service to humanity if some medical
school or hospital would establish with certainty the facts con-
nected with this subject.
Florida is a honey-producing state, largely because we
have an abundance of different nectar-producing flowers and
also because of the long season duinig which honey can be gath-
ered. I am of the opinion that the greatest thing the honey-
producers could do for their marketing advantage would be to
organize and place a fund for the judicious advertising of the
distinct types, giving emphasis to the distinguishing qualities
of each.


By T. 1. Brooks
The word sweet has a multiphlicity of meinaniigs.
There ale sixty English words that begin with "sweet," and
as many that begin with honey.
It applies to taste, smell, looks- acts, characteristics-if pleas-
ant. Sucrose. Dextrose. Lactose, Maltose. sacharose, levulose.
glucose, are sweets. The last named is often given directly into
the bloodstream,
The antonyms are sour, bitter, oftensive, ugly. contemptible.
There is a universal demand for sweets. Those of taste
call for sugar. honey. syrup of varying kinds and flavor. The
oldest sweet known is honey. Man cannot manufacture it.
Nature has provided a little worker in the form of a honey-
producing insect which gathers nectar lnom flowers that furnish
this particular form of sweet.
An important thing to be remembered is that no other
sweet has the food value that honey has, Why do you men
who are in the honey-producing business not emphasize this
and advertise it to the public. Are yon afraid that you will
make a claim that you cannot substantiate? Well, I know of
no more dependable authority on scientific questions than the
Encyclopedia Britannica. Listen to what it says:
"In most countries at present, the amount of cane and
beet sugar exceeds the honey used by fifty times, whereas in
ancient times honey was the most important source of sweetness.
There is, of course, much evidence that the present excessive
use of artificially manufactured sugars and syrups is DETRI-
MENTAL. All such sugars and syrups are wholly DEFICIENT
in vitamins and have had EXTRACTED from them MANY
OTHER FOOD CONSTITUENTS in the manufacturing proc-
esses; just as occurs in the highly developed manufacture of
other modern food-stnffs. The recent protest against artificially
manufactured foods is resulting in au increase in the advice
that honey be used as a natural Food product. in place If such
large quantities of manufactured sw~eets. Various new and
inportan t uses are now being found for ho.. v. in which other
syrups cannot be employed satisfactorily,
The Encyclopedia Ame icana has thiis tn say
"Hones is highly nutritive, especially aqs a fuel hnr energizing


tihe body. as four-fifths of its components are carbohydrates. It
has well recognized medicinal properties."
It is a subject of common discussion that white, bleached,
starchy flour makes non-nutritious bread. It is also well estab-
lished that white, refined sugar is not the food that unbleached
sugar is. Another thing known is that all syrups partake of the
soils from which they grow and if the soil is deficient in the
minerals that food should have the syrup is also deficient. What
other foods than honey have a "hundred uses?"
This is true of all crops. So much so it is with honey that
the same flower will produce honey in some states and will not
in others. Take alfalfa, it will make good honey in the irrigated
West and will not m1 the section east of the Missouri River.
Buckwheat will produce honey in some states and not in others,
Pit- that all food products could not be labeled with the
statement giving the mineral content of the soils from which
it grew. Big canning concerns that have their fruits and vege-
tables grown under contract could begin the practice and make
the custom almost universal. Then the buying public would
know whether they were getting a balanced food or not.
If honey is a more wholesome and nutritious food than any
other sweet food the public is due to know it. As yet, so far
as I know, the honey producers have never had a nation-wide
advertising campaign. Why not quote the thing I have just
lquted from the Encyclopedia and paste a label on each con-
tainer giving the buyer the advantage of the information? That
would be just common business practice and be perfectly honor-
All honeys are not alike. There are black honeys in South
America that are poisonous. There are honeys that are mixed
with bile elemeints. There are honey from noxious weeds,
from grass, from trees, from shrubs and even from leaves where
certain creatures have left a deposit. Most honey will finally
turn to sugar. Thai which comes from the Tupelo tree blossoms
will not because it is low in dextrose and has plenty of levulose.
Glucose can be introduced directly into the blood stream.
It is one of the sweets. When eaten the sugars are quickest to
furnish nourishment of all foods. The mineral contents of holne
depend on the flower from which it came and the contents of the
flower are determined by the soil from which it giew. Of
course one flower will obtain its nectar from the soil and another
flower will get a different assortment from the same soil.


You have a honey in this part of the county that has levulose
but little dextrose. For that reason it never crystallizes. Doctors
prescribe it in some places for diabetes, althrihs, neuritis, etc.
It the people generally were convinced that honey was the
healthiest sweet possible there would be no surplus on the market.
You should advertise as others do. Why not cultivate a honey
The honev bee is a remarkable useful animal. He not only
collects a splendid article of (diet int he also benefits the crops
From which he secures his honey The pollen that sticks to him
as he crawls in and out of each bloom helps to fertilize the
flower that it may bear fruit. It is necessary that there be a
mixing of the male and female parts of different flowers for
there to be a full caop of fruit. The bee also builds a sanitary
container of wax for his honey From the materials that result
from his work in gathering his sweets. Citrus fruit is very de-
pendent on this pollenization process. Other crops are largely
dependent on insect pollenization,
In years past, Florida was a "happy hunting ground" for
beekeepers from other states. There was no prejudice against
them until they began to abuse the privilege and brought foul
brood into the state. It is hard enough to keep this bee pest
down when the best of precautions are used, but when no regard
for the welfare of our honey producers is manifest it naturally
brings resentment. The legislature of 1947 passed amendments
to our law ou apiaries prohibiting the importation of hives into
the state and offered the only safeguard for our home beekeepers.
There are ten thousand beekeepers in Florida and they
have some eighty-eight thousand stands.


Honey and Nutrition

Every person is prided with a canal. the inside of which
is provided with absorbent ducts called villi. that extract the
nutritive elements hfrom the food and pour them into the blood-
stream. The blood carries these elements to the millions of
cells in the body Different parts of the body demand different
elements which can be bad only if the bloodstream has them:
The bones need different minerals from fats. the nir\ es different
Irom the glands, the all different front the brain, etc

Now if the materials needed are not to be had at an\ one
point, what happens', It is "passed up" and the bloodstream
flows on. What becomes oF a cell if it is continually passed up?
It starvesl Suppose it happens that the deficient element applies
to the cells of the brain Well, why are there so many in
hospitals with mental disorders? Ill health can cause worries,
troubles, anxieties, despondency. forebodings and ailments galore.
When we get old aud begin to "slip" it might be lack of brain
cell nourishment. Heart trouble Yes, we speak of a person
having a "Heart Attack" eh! A heart does not attack. It suc-
cumbs to overwork because it is weak and cannot stand the
strain that it could if properly nourished. Food thai produces
muscle is needed. The heart is a faitliful muscle. It works
whether we are awake or asleep. If it stops to rest-goodbye.
People imay eat plenty of good food, well cooked and still
starve-literally stare, and never know it. So much greater
variety of food elements are needed than is obtainable by regular
channels. The fifth biggest business in the United States is
canning foods. Most of the materials canned are contracted
for by the canners before they are planted. Some day a far-
seeing canner will see his opportunity and have it in his contracts
that the grower must mineralize his soils as per directions and
require at least a dozen minerals in certain proportions for each
trop-accordiig to the soil's original content.
When these crops are canned a label will be placed on each
container with the guarantee that "THE CONTENTS OF THIS
FOLLOWS"-followed by a list of tile minerals.


Believe it or not the housewife and the restaurant man will
fall for this and try it at any reasonable cost Other canners
will be forced to do likewise. The result will ie better health
for the cuuntr' anud longer life.
There is more mterest being taken in these problems than
ever Iefore. I find the greatest demand for bulletins on these
subjects comes from educators, dietitians, physicians and experi-
ment station operators and journaUlist. Honey should feature
largely in all these discussions.
The following is from the latest edition of the Encyclopedia
"In most countries at present, the amount of cane and beet
sugar consumed exceeds the honey used by fifty times, whereas
in ancient times honey was the nmst important source of sweet-
"There is of course much evidence that the present excessive
use of artificially mauufachtred sugars and syrups is detrimental.
All such sugars and syrups are wholly deficient in vitamins and
have had extracted from them main other important food con-
stituents in the manufacturing processes: just as occurs in the
highly developed manufacture! of other modern foodstuffs.
"The recent protest against artificially manufactured foods
is resulting in an increase in the advice that honey be used as a
natural food product, in place of such large quantities of manm-
factured sweets. Various new and important uses are also being
found for honey, in which other syrups cannot he employed
The Encyclopedia Americana has this to say:
"Honey is highly nutritive, especially as a fuel for energizing
the body, as four-fifths of its components are carbohydrates. It
has well recognized medicinal properties."


Classes for Honey
1. The following shall be the classes for honey For shipments
ment out of Canada:-
(a) Extra White-When in liquid form the honey shall be no
darker in colour than a reading of 1i3 tin. on the Pfund
Houne Grader.
(b) White-When in liquid form the honey shall be no darker
in colour than a reading of 30 mm. on the Pfund IIoney
(c) Golden-When in liquid form the hone) shall be no
darker in colour than a reading of 47 mm. on the Pfund
Honey Grader.
(d) Light Amber-When in liquid form the honey shall be
no darker in colour than a reading of 81 mm. on the
Pfund Honey Grader.
(e) Dark Amber-When in liquid form the honey shall be no
darker in colour than a reading of 10%) mm. on the Pfund
Honey Grader.
(f) Dark-When in liquid form the honey shall be darker in
colour than a reading of 109 mm. on the Pfund Honey
(g) Unclassified-Shall only include honey in retail or con-
sumer containers and not marked with a specific colour
(2) The following shall be the classes for honey other than for
shipment out of Canada:-
(a) White-When in liquid form the honey shall be no darker
in colour than a reading of 30 mm on the Pfind Honey
(b) Golden-When in liquid form the honey shall be no
darker in color than a reading of 47 nmm. on the Pfund
Honey Grader.
(c) Amber-When in liquid form the honey shall be no darker
in color than a reading of 81 mm. on the Pfund Honey
(d) Dark-When in liquid form the honey shall be darker in
colour than a reading of 81 mm. on the Pfund Honey


2. The following shall be the grades for hone :

No. 1 Grade

(a) (i) "No. 1" which shall be free from damage and prac-
tically free of foreign material;
(ii) of moisture content not exceeding 17.8 per cent; or
with a minimum specific gravity reading of 1.4184 at
68 degrees Fahrenheit referred to water at the same
temperature. in the domestic classes of "White."
"Golden." "Amber" and "Dark- and in the export
classes of "Extra White." "White." and "Golden" and
(iii) of moisture content not exceeding 18.6 per cent. or
with a minimum specific gravity reading of 1.4129 at
68 degrees Fahrenheit referred to water at the same
temperature, in the export classes of "Light Amber,"
"Dark Amber" and "Dark."

No. 2 Grade

(b) (i) "No. 2" which shall be free fiom damage and fairly
free of foreign material;
(ii) of moisture content not exceeding 18.6 per cent. or
with a minimum specific gravity reading of 1.4129
at 68 degrees Fahrenheit referred to water at the
same temperature.

No. 3 Grade

(c) (i) "No. 3" consisting of honey which does not meet the
requirements of the foregoing grades but is free from
serious damage and fairly free of foreign material and
of moisture content not exceeding 20 per cent. or with
a minimum specific gravity reading of L.0i438 at 68
degrees Fahrenheit referred to water at the same
(d) When honey is granulated it may, at the option of the
packer, be further graded as being of fine. medium or
coarse texture, but no honey shall be so marked until
it is ganulated.


Definition of Terms:

(i) "Damage" Ieans injury caused by turbidity, over-
heating or any objectionable flavour or aroma from
floral source, honey-dew, smoke taint or other flavour
or aroma foreign to honey;

(ii) "fairly free" means that hoineyv or its surface is as
clear as if strained at temperature of not more than
130' F. through a standard bolting cloth of 23 meshes
to the inch:

Not.--Honey hinch .at irdinatny itliaFg nkorii imll feature has bIen
Itrained without pirtsuri thrl.luh II doult Lhwkns fc ordIinary fne l tef -
clolh and th upon llwnd ettle uall wil he practically free of
foreign miatri*l

(iii) "practically free" neans that the honey or its surface
is as clear as if strained at temperature of not more
than 130" F through a standard bolting cloth of 86
meshes to the inch;

Noti l llie ,i ih, l a mii rdtlnarit, .trIaL.Iin rifol t4'I, e 1ure has, hi.
.tt, lla d willlh ,l ire-. re tharoli i da1i 1ti l linFlO, Is of ord i fine. icheede-
elith and thelrrn poi nllwi d 1o ttlo nnal will be pri ticaii free of
Ir i.ll ttit br.ll.

(iv) "serious damage" means any injury, defect or de-
terioration seriously affecting the edibility or shipping
quality of the honey;

(v) "turbidity" means cloudiness caused by pollen grains,
minute an- bubbles, finely divided wax particles, or
other substances that detract from the clearness of
the honey.

Iu order to allow for variations incident to proper classifica-
tion. grading and packing, not more than 10 per cent by count
of containers in any lot graded as No. 1 or No. 2 shall contain
hone, that differs from the class or grade as marked on the
containers, but no tolerance shall he allowed for any honey that
is below the next lower class or grade. No tolerance shall be
allowed for serious damage in honey graded as No. 3.


Package Marks
3. Every person who packs, sells, offers for 'ale, or has in
Ins possession any honey intended lor sale, shall he respon-
sible that each package is plainly and ildelihtl marked as
(a) For shipment out of Canada-
(i) The words "Canada" or "Canadian" and "Honey."
(ii) The class and grade.
(in) The mark (B) directly following the grade where the
aroma or flavour of buckwheat honey can he detected.
(ih) The registration number or registered trade name
identifying the shipper
(v) The lot numbers as required in suhelause (1) of
clause 11 of the regulations.
(vi) The net weight of the honey contained.
(\ii) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey has
been treated to preserve its original liquid form,
(b) For shipment other than out of Canada-
(i) The name of the province of origin and the word
"Honey." (Note.-The words of "Canada" or "Cana-
dian" may also appear if desired.)
(n) The class and grade.
(iii) The mark (B) directly following the grade where the
aroma or flavour of buckwheat honey can he detected.
(n) The registration number or registered trade name
identifying the shipper.
(v) The net weight of the honey contained.
(vi) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey has
been treated to preserve its original liquid form.
(2) With the exception of lot numbers all marks required
shall he distinctly legible block letters of size reasonably
In proportion to the size of the packages and not less than
-% of an inch in length and except in the case of barrels,
half-barrels and casks shall be placed on a single face or
side of the package which surface shall bear no additional
mark or stamp other than those placed thereon by an



Marking Honey
4. Other than for shipment out of Canada, every person who
packs. ships. sells, offers for sale, or has in his possession any
honey intended for sale. shall be responsible that each con-
tainer is plainly and indelibly marked as follows:
(a) Class containers-
Name and address of the packer or of the first dealer and
the word "Honey." The letters shall be of size reasonably
in proportion to the size and design of the label
(b) All other containers-
(i) Name and address of the packer or of the first dealer.
(ii) The name of the province of origin and the word
NOTE.-Where applicable the province of origill ma lie in-
cluded in the address.
(iii) The class and grade
(ix) The mark (B) directly following the grade where the
aroma or flavour of buckwheat honey can be detected
(\) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey has
been treated to pieservo its original liquid form,
(2) All marks required by the preceding subclaise shall ap-
peal on a single lace or side of tile container and he in
distinctly) legible block letters of minimum size as follows:
(i) On containers up to, and including. ten pounds ca-
pacity, one-eighth inch in length.
(n) On containers of more than ten pounds capacity. one-
quarter inch in length.
(3) Any poison who ships honey other than his own pack may
use a number to designate the packer provided a list of
the names and addresses of all packers with correspond
ing numbers allotted is filed annually with the Depart-
ment. In such cases the name and address of the shipper
as well as the packer's allotted number shall be marked
on the container.
5 In the case of granulated honey only, the words "Fine" or
"Medium" or "Coarse" may be added after the class and
grade designation on containers and packages, to indicate
the texture of the honey, e.g., "Golden No. 1 Coarse." Where
such indication of texture is made it shall be in letters of
the same size as the class and grade marks.


Containers and Packages
i Hontrv shall he packed in clean, sonnd and strongly con-
structed containers.

(2) Containers of honey shall he packed in clean, well con-
structed packages in good condition and which are not
defaced by old makings.
(3) Containers of extracted honey shall be securely closed by
means of "screw caps," "friction top lids." "bungs" or
otherwise as nma be approved by the Department.
7. Every person who assembles or ships honey for export or
interpro\ Incial trade shall register thereto by making applica-
tion to the Department. The fee For registration shall be
One Dollar ($1.).

(2) Upon receipt of application for registration together with
the fee of $1. a numbered registration certificate shall be
issued to the applicant.
(3) All registration certificates issued shall expire on June 30
of each year, but in the case of any person shipping only
honey of his own production shall be renewable without
Sanitary Conditions
S. The following sanitary conditions shall be observed and
(a) All buildings or rooms in which honey is extracted,
packed or stored shall be maintained in a clean and sani-
tary condition.
(b) All appliances including extractors, pumps. tanks, uncap-
ping machines or other e of honey from the apiary to the final containers shall be
kept clean and sanitary.
(c) All operations in connection with the preparation and
packing of honey shall be calnied on carefully and with
strict cleanliness.
(d) All persons engaged in the preparation. handling and
packing of honey shall be free from any communicable
disease, and the covering used by them to protect their
clothing or persons shall be of material easily cleaned
and shall be kept reasonably clean.


(e) No lavatory, sink, cesspool or building in which animals
are housed shall be so sihlated or maintained as to permit
any odours or fumes therefrom, to pervade any room or
building in which honey is being extracted, packed, han-
dled or stored.
(f) All hmoey intended to be used for food found by an
inspector in an apiary, packing plant or warehouse, to
be in any way unfit for food purposes shall be placed
under detention and held for disposal as the Minister
may direct.
(g) All vehicles used for the transportation of honey shall he
clean and sanitary to the satisfaction of the inspector.
9. The applicant for inspection shall he responsible that notifica-
tion is given the inspector, in sufficient time prior to date
of shipment, to allow him to take samples for determination
of moisture and other grade requirements.
10. No person shall use for packing honey any container or
package that has been previously marked without first com-
pletely obliterating such markings when same are inconsis-
tent with the marks required by the regulations.
11 When there is any noticeable difference in the colour or
quality of the honey or when honey from different packers
or producers is included in one shipnmenL the person submit-
ting the honey for inspection shall submit each variation of
each class, gaade or pack in separate lots, each lot bearing
a distinguishing mark.
(2) Where any shipment of honey is submitted for inspection
in a place considered unsuitable by the inspector or not
sorted into separate lots or not bearing the distinguishing
marks or where there is any irregularity in the distinguish-
ing marks the inspector may refuse to inspect such honey
until it has been arranged, sorted and marked as required
by the regulations.
12. Every person contravening any of the provisions of these
regulations shall be liable upon summary conviction to a fine
not exceeding two hundred dollars and not less than ten
dollars and in default of payment of the fine to imprisonment
for a term not exceeding one month unless the fine is sooner


By J. A. Whitfield
It is not difficult to speak of Nature Lo a lr iendly and under-
standing audience. Both you and I turn to hei in her primitive
glory. when we seek rest. inspiration adl strength to carry on.
Perhaps we have been cruising on the Gulf and suddenly be-
came filled with the urge for "fresh woods and pastures iew."
If we set our course up the historic \palachicola River to the
Chipola and the fianous Dead Lakes and feasted our eyes on
the inspiring verdure of virgin forest: if. in desire to prolong
the vision, we had shut off the motor and held momentarily to
some overhanging hough our ears would have joined our eyes
in ecstatic appreciation. The busy hunl of myriad bees would
reach us. soothe uts and comfort us An upward glance would
disclose above and all around us thousands of fuzzy blooms,
giving of their sweetness to the greatest workers in the world.
You would have chanced upon industry in its pristine glory,-
TUPELO HONEY TIME-latter part of April.
Most of this bee keeping country) is as wild as in the days
of the Conquistadores. If we pursue our investigation further,
we ind that the only evidences of man or civilization are the
apiaries, elevated upon high platforms up and down the banks
of the river. These are from five to twenty-five feet in height,
from fifteen to twenty-five feet wide and from three to five hun-
dred feet long. The hives are placed upon either side ot the
platform with the bee entrances pointing outward, leaving a
walkway of between six and eight feet between the hives.
Aside horn its mild and delicious flavor, this Tupelo Honey
has distinct and peculiar characteristics that make it a preeminent
product in certain fields. Ily analysis. it contains about twice as
much levulose as dextrose, or a proportion of 23% dextrose. 46%
levulose with the usual four or fi\e percent of sucrose. The
average American honey contains about 39% of levn ose and 84%
of dextrose. The higher percentage of levulose in Tupelo Honey
makes it a product that DOES NOT C(ANUI.ATE. Samples
have been kept for twenty-five years without granulation.
A number of physicians have discoieled that sugar. levulose
is more readily tolerated by diabetics than any other sugar and


Tupelo hai been reconuneuded to many thus affected with
wonderful results. It should not be used, however, without the
attending physician's investigation and approval.
Another problem of the Tupelo Honey producer is one of
early pollen Many of the keepers find it profitable to move
their hives to points in South Georgia, where plenty of natural
pollen is available. In fact for months the bees are subjected to
an unconscious process of preparation for the brief period of
tupelo flow, which in normal seasons is at its height from the
middle of April to the middle of May. The flow lasts between
three and four weeks according to climatic conditions and the
hives are robbed two or three times, practically all of the honey
being removed the last time.
Usually during the first part of January. the bees are brought
back from their winter quarters in Georgia and they begin to
feed almost at once on titi, maple, ironwood and a variety of
other early blooming plants. Having been practically dormant
for the past three months they are in their weakest condition at
this time. During the remainder of January and all of February
they are carefully built up and nurtured in preparation for the
real work of the spring. In unusually cold seasons it is necessary
to feed the bees. but normally they find sufficient sustenance
among native growths.
In March the black tupelo gum, oak and other trees begin
to bloom and the bees, which are now in good condition, begin
to work in earnest. The colonies are encouraged to continue
building up and the foundation is placed for the top boxes. At
the end of the black tupelo flow and just before the white tupelo
blooms. the hives are completely cleaned out, so that the white
and dark tupelo may not be mixed. Black tupelo is known to
the trade as amber and is sold to manufacturers of candy and
About April the 20th, the white tupelo flow is at its height
and the bees have reached their best condition of the year and
the% need all their strength, for within three or four weeks many
hundred thousand pounds of honey are gathered. The bees
work so frantically that the average life during this flow is
twenty-one days. They wear out their wings in that time and



At the conclusion of the white tupelo flow, some of the
producers leave their hives to be filled during June and July
with honey and pollen from the wild grape vine anmil snow vines
for the winter months, as all of this is dark honey and not
profitable commercially. The most profitably operated apiaries
follow a different plan They screen over and close their hives
and transport them into the farming sections of extreme North
Florida and South Georgia where they are allowed to pass the
rest of the summer in gathering honey and pollen for the winter
months. With the arrival of cold weather they become dormant
and as stated, in January are brought back to the home apiary
to begin the operation all over again.
From the foregoing it is readily ascertainable that the
production of tupelo honey does not follow the same smooth
roads as that of other varieties The problems of transportation
north and return. the location of the apiaries with reference to
owners' homes, as well as the ordinary expenses and replacements
incidental thereto, all these make necessary a price slightly higher
than for other grades. When one considers the merit of the
product, the difference is entirely negligible, The beekeepers
who produce Tupelo Honey. during the pqarter of a century
of its existence, have never striven for riches, but have been, and
still are. perfectly satisfied with a fair return for their labor.
Their excess profits are in the associations incidental to their
work. the beauty and soul's satisfaction of the woods and waters.
It will be remembered that Tupelo Honey is never sold in
the comb, but always in liquid form. This gives an essentially
purer product as every drop is strained. The honey men have
always been proud of their product and taken keen interest in
preserving its reputation. To this end a little over a year ago.
a Cooperative Association was formed among the most progres-
sive of the beekeepers to perpetuate the progress and purity of
Tupolo Honey. as well as to take charge of the marketing of
the product.



A GCHAI April mornmg-cold and dreary even on a palatial
extra fare train rushing across the continent. Travel-weary
passengers drift into the dining car. scowl at the menu and stare
gloomily at the cloud veiled landscape. The waiter deferenltillv
suggests to one. "And will you have honey with your waffle, sir?
It is tie very finest honey mnade-pure white tupelo. Yes. sir!
f'in sure you will like it."

The breakfast i served. and in due tine a small. squat far
of crystal clear, pale yellow fluid appears before the weary
guest. Its contents are revealed as a delicately flavored, in-
finitely smooth, slow-pouring liqmd. which becomes sublely
itself on the palate, perfect in flavo, and consistency. The guesl.
suddenly hungry, consumes the last drop with satisfaction

Two thousand miles from tlhe chance diner and his pleas-
antly. though expensively gratified appetite, there lies a hcavihi
timbered, sparsely settled region of which he never heard, and
through it runs a cal., purposeful river with a long Indian name
that would he only a jumble ot the alphabet to him. it is a
friendly river, but it is businesslike and as it rounds a deep
curve in the shoreline it neither repulses nor urges one to follow.
Yet if one descends the gentle slope of the shore to a boat waiting
among graceful. gray tree trunks that stand in the shallow back-
waters, there would be no delay in paddling out into the bayou.
clear of the clustering trees, past the steamboat landing and out
into the current. For those who listen to rivers know that this
one has something to say.

Rapidly. happily the miles flow past. Evenly, unhurriedly
the river swings on between banks massed with the glorious
green of a virgin forest- rich in realization of a southern April.
Cypress, cottonwood, water elm. sycamore, laurel oak, cedar.
hickory, live oak. chinquapin, water ash, sweet bay. box elder-
all these and more crowd its banks and form a background for
thickets of willow, button bush, black haw, titi and hackherry
Darkly massed behind them loom giant magnolias dotted with
early bloom that trails its exquisite fragrance on the morning
air. Wild Wisteria scrambling advcntutously over shrubs and
trees, swings its first purple tassels in the river breeze, and


feathery cottonwood and fluffy willow blooms drift lightly down
through the soft air.
I'Fr oitae inumieros than anl of these, however, are thickly
branched trees with sturdy gray brown trunks and dark, glossy
leaves. They seem to be everywhere-tender slips at the water's
edge, thick bushy younglings mingled with the forest growth on
the low shore, mature trees standing in the still backwaters and
lagoons. Tlns is the tupelo giii tree of the southern lowlands.
From its branches at this season depend thousands upon thou-
sands of small fuzzy bolls or bloom on long stems and in thick
clusters. And upon those has been Founded. casually and gradu-
ally, an industry that offers to discriminating world markets a
valuable commodity in the form of a choice type of the most
wholesome sweet known.
For miles down the river there is no sign of human habita-
tion, but hidden in the edge of the leafy screen along the banks
one unwittingly passes many well tenanted homes of tireless.
eager workers. Though the air be heavy with the scent of spring
bloss.ons. these busy swarms of Italian bees pay no attention to
any but the white tupelo blooms, and the riverfront and swamp
in all directions are astir with them through the daylight hours.
The "flow" is on: It is tupelo time.
For those who think of Florida only as a tropical winter
playground where a fortunate few may loll in summer attire on
white sand beaches, theie is a revelation in a trip to the little
known northwest section of the state. Here four counties dip
down to form the last descending point of land before the Gulf
Stream sweeps up to hollow out the great curve of the peninsula's
western shore Here is a land undeveloped drowsing happily
among its riches, covetous of no one, desirous of nothing, un-
selfish to a fault. Endless acres of cutover pine land. worked
out years ago bh the great lumber companies. are abandoned
to pasturage and casual tlupeutining of the younger growth
timber. Deep swamps, thickly crowded with hardwood trees as
yet spared the timberman's axe and saw. shelter birds and game
in great numbers
Centrally located in thif undeveloped region and fronting
on the Gulf of Mexico is Gulf County, created from the southern
part of Calhoun County in 1925. It is sparsely settled, there
being perhaps no more than 5.000 people in the entire county.


Wewahitchka, a small village located in the north central section,
is the county seat and is the nucleus of the tupelo honey industry
of northwest Florida, with an annual production of 535,000
pounds of fancy white tupelo honey, which brings the producers
about 860,000.
Fancy white tupelo honey is considered the choicest kind
and grade offered to the trade, as it is delicately flavored. crystal
clear, light in color, smooth in consistency. high in density and
is not variable in any way. In addition to these advantages the
pure white tupelo honey has the remarkable qualities of never
granulating and never becoming rancid. One producer at We-
walitchka has a sample of honey which he has kept for nineteen
years. It is kept in an ordinary glass jar with a cork and retains
the same flavor, color and consistency which it had in the begin-
ning. Despite these exceptional qualities, white tupelo honey
rarely reaches the consumer in an unadulterated state, because
the producers for the most part sell direct to canners and com-
mission men who have utilized it to build up and improve
blended honey from other sections. The advantage to the
concern which bottles honey is obvious; the addition of a small
quantity of white tupelo honey to that of other flavors and
grades improves the taste and lengthens the time during which
it will keep without granulation or deterioration. The disadvan-
tage to the producer who has so carefully handled his apiaries
throughout tile year in order to guarantee the purity of his
tupelo honey is also obvious, since few consumers ever obtain
his produce in an unadulterated state or know its source. The
remedy, apparently, lies in a movement now on foot to revolu-
tionize the prevailing system of marketing.
The tupelo gum tree, both white and black, is native to
the swamps and river bottoms of northwest Florida and grows
profusely in them. It also grows in Louisiana, Mississippi and
other southern states, but Gulf County apiarists state that the
production of pure white tupelo honey has not been reduced
to an exact science except in their locality. The black tupelo
makes a darker and less desirable honey than the white, and
mixing of the two is carefully avoided in the Wewalutchka sec-
tion where beekeepers have learned to manage their hives in
such a way as to accomplish this.
The Chattahoochee River, rising in central Georgia, flows



south to the Gulf of Memco. and is joined near the Florida line
by the Flint River from Alabama. From this point the stream
is called the Apalacicola until it reaches the Gulf at the town
and hav of the same name For about si\ty miles of its lower
course the banks and backwaters of the stream are heavily
wooded with the tupelo gilll, and the river swamps in which this
tree thrives vary front one to twenty miles in width Learning
early of the superior quality of honey produced by the tupelo
gum and the preference of the bees for it, local apiaries placed
their colonies of bees on the river bank or deep in the swamps,
often locating from ten, twenty or more miles from any human
habitation. There are few roads in this section and many apiaries
ale inaccessible except by boat. Most of the tupelo acreage
is leased from its owners by apiarists, though some own the
land on which they operate. There are twenty-eight of the larger
apiary sites, averaging twenty-five acres to the site, and covering
more than twenty thousand acres in all, Scientists have stated
that bees will fly three miles for honey, but practical apiarists
in the Wewahitchka section believe that two miles is an average
distance of flight, and they locate their colonies with this in view.
The Italian bee predominates in this district, though some of
the wild black bees which abound in Florida forests have mingled
with hives in a few apiaries. The wild bees are difficult to handle
and are not desirable for commercial use.
Honey producers were alarmed and distressed about a year
ago because of the entrance of cigar box manufacturers into the
white tupelo section and the purchase of tupelo gum timber by
them. It was found, much to the relief of the apiarists, that the
wood of the tupelo gum is too light and brittle for use in box
making and other hardwoods were substituted,
The tupelo gum. or cotton gum tree, is usually fifty to
seventy-five feet in height and two or three feet in diameter, and
it Irequents swamps and inundated areas. The base is often
enlarged. and the tree has a fairly straight trunk covered with
thin. gray brown bark, deeply furrowed. The branches are
smooth and light brown, and the slender, pointed leaves are
thick, their uppei surface being dark green and lustrous and the
lower pale and downy. The blossoms are usually borne on
separate trees, the male in dense round clusters and the female
alone on long slender stems. The bloom appears before the


leaves on the black tupelo gumn. but the opposite is true of the
white tupelo The male tupelo bloom resembles a black clove
and is said to contain more honey than the female bloom, which
is a small fuzzy hall. Each of them secretes nectar constantly
and profusely from twenty t ttwenty-fi\ days, and hers return
again and again to the same blossoms For honey, which often
gathers so thickly that it could be scraped off with a knife. It
is believed that twelve days elapse from the bud to the fill
bloom of the tupelo. and after the period of secretion the pod
turns brown and drops off.
The present State apiary inspector for that district has
resided near W ewahitchka since 1885. and he has records of
carefully conducted tests in which single colonies of bees have
been known to gather twenty pounds of honey in one day In
a favorable season one apiary containing ninety colonies produced
thirty-eight barrels of honey in three weeks, each barrel con-
taining thirty gallons. The average production of one hundred
colonies during the brief period in which they gather white
tupelo honey is twenty, thirty gallon barrels, but records of
twenty-five and even twenty-seven barrels are common. The
confinement of the bees" activities to the short space of three or
four weeks inales possible the production of unadulterated white
tupelo honey, and the insects "on vacation" during the remainder
of the year.
In March the black tupelo gum, oak and other trees begin
to bloom, and the bees which are now in good condition begin
work in earnest. The colonies are encouraged to continue build-
ing up and the foundation is placed for the top boxes. At the
end of the black tupelo flow, and just before the white tupelo
blooms, the hives are completely cleaned out, so that the white
and black tupelo honey may not be mixed. The black tupelo
honey is known to the trade as "amber" and is sold to manufac-
turers of candy and acofections.
About April the 20th the white tupelo "flow" is at its height
and the bees have reached their best condition of the year.
Within a period of about three weeks, more than 500,000 pounds
of white tupelo honey are gathered in this vicinity and the bees
work so frantically that the average life of a working hbee during
the "How" is estimated to be twenty-one days. He wears his
wings out in that length of time and dies.


At the conclusion of the white tupelo flow some producers
leave their bees to fill up the hives during June and July with
honey and pollen from the wild grape \ine and snow vine for
the winter months, as all of this is dark honey and is not of high
value commercially. The most profitably operated apiaries,
however, follow a different plan. Immediately after the white
tupelo season the hives are screened over and closed, and a river
steamer collects them from ther small landings which are iuilt at
intervals They are shipped from sixty to one hundred miles
tip the river and its tributaries into farming sections of Georgia
and Alabama. where they are scattered in small groups of several
colonies each and allowed to pass the rest of the summer in
gathering honey and pollen for the winter months. With the
arrival of cold weather they become dormant. and in early
January, they are again shipped down the river to begin their
work of hive building and preparation for the brief period of
honey flow. This practice gives the bees access through the
summer to pollen and honey from cotton, corn and other culti-
vated crops in addition to that from other wild growths. Very
little farming is done in the white tupelo section where the bees
do their most important work. and they must be nourished and
maintained in good condition throughout the remainder of the
year. The largest individual producer in this section has an
apiary thirteen miles from Wewahitchka where 326 colonies
of bees average 40.000 pounds of pure white tupelo honey each
season. The presence of high water in the tupelo swamps during
several months of each year renders it necessary to build many
of the apiaries on platforms fourteen to sixteen feet in height
and three hundred to seven hundred feet long. The honey house.
containing two stories, is built immediately behind the platform
at its center and an inclined runway leads from each story to a
small wharf or steamboat landing.

The hives are placed in double rows along the platform.
with a passageway between, and the entire work of harvesting
the honey and packing it for shipment is handled in the honey
house at each apiary. All white tupelo honey is sold in the ex-
tracted form. When the hives are robbed the combs are brought
into the upper story of the honey house and placed in a large
vat, where a slicer removes the caps. It is then placed in frames
in a revolving drum and the honey is extracted by centrifugal



force, after which it runs through a pipe into a large tank of
very tight construction on the lower floor of the honey house.
Here the small amount of sediment and foreign matter contained
in the honey settles and the finished product is drawn off into
barrels constructed for this particular purpose. Because of its
weight, honey is particularly subject to leakage, and it is difficult
to handle in bulk. The barrels used are specially coopered of
choice cypress, carefully washed, dried and pariffined inside.
They are used only once. each season's shipments going out in
new barrels. River steamboats run twice a week and the bar-
reled honey is delivered to them direct from the dock at the
front of each apiary, or from regular landings.
Prices received by the producers are very low in comparison
with the high price finally paid by the few consumers who obtain
this choice product in its unadulterated form. The average for
the past four years has been ten cents a pound.
For many years the honey was bid in by representatives of
large commission houses who came to Wewahitchka for that
purpose at the close of the honey harvesting season each spring.
Eventually the monopoly which a few of these held forced the
price so low that local producers refused to sell and formed a
cooperative association which has successfully handled the crop
in recent seasons.
The advantages and possibilities of the industry are obvious.
The apiaries require comparatively little attention, though prac-
tical operators are constantly studying the needs of the industry.
The net returns on each produce's invesiuent are good. even
at present low market prices. It is, however, a seasonal business,
involving very heavy work during the harvesting season and
slack periods of employment at other times. Because of the
isolated location of the apiaries losses from forest fires and
similar sources are considerable. Ill-timed rains sometimes
prove very costly to honey producers, and a single hard shower
in the height of the white tupelo flow is estimated to cost the
producers $25,000 or more. Apiaries have been carefully spaced
with regard to the probable number of bees operating on each
tract, and as yet the white tupelo is plentiful and there has been
no shortage of honey material.
The industry was established in this section more than fifty
years ago, apparently in an accidental manner, and it has grown


to proportions which are admittedly beyond the capacity of local
producers to handle satisfactorily. It remains only for business
to recognize the possibilities of the industry and exploit them
through practical channels, in order that the public at large may
come to know by name a delicious American product now en-
joyed by only a few-fancy white tupelo honey.


In Florida
(Formerly Bulletin ;)



The many requests for information received by the State
Department of Agriculture have shown that a large number of
people are interested in the possibilities of beekeeping in Florida.
Requests have been received not only from people residing in
Florida, but also from people living in many other states. A num-
ber of the people are interested in beekeeping in Florida merely
as a pastime-an activity at which they can enjoy their spare mo-
ments. Others, however, are interested in beekeeping because
of financial returns, either as a sideline or on a large commercial
It is for such beginners m beekeeping that this bulletin is
written. The author, Mr. Wilder, has had many years' experience
with bees in practically all sections of Florida, and at the present
time lie owns about 10,000 colonies of bees. lie is, therefore,
unusually well qualified to inform the prospective beekeeper in
Florida as to the best procedile in beginning his apiary.

Bkekeeping in Florida

(Ou of the eirst apiai~is iof any col.ciquence in the State
was established on tile Florida East Coast on the est side of
the lHlifax Hiber. where the city ft Daytona now stands. This
apiary was established in 1872 by a New oork company which
was in that section producing lemons and oranges. The produc-
lion of lemons. oranges and honuty made a very good combina-
tion. The company would conic southwad during early fall in
time to gatlhe their fruit and honey- afterr spending a few
months in Florida they would sail back to New York City in
the spring with a cargo of Florida Irnit and honey. Tins practice
excited considerable attention around New York as well as in
certain Florida towns.
Probably the next apiary of ain importance was started
near the city of Vewahitchka in Gulf county by Mr. S. S. Alder-
man, who also grew oranges along with the production of honey.
Just a little later Mr. W. S. Hart, located at Tlawks Park in
Volusia county, began producing honey and fruit in like manner.
This early development of beekeeping in Florida took place
between 1872 and 1888. Theic was not much to Florida at that
time. The pioneer beekeepeis had a hard time of it. They
obtained their bees from the forest, lived in remote sections of
the country which could be miached only by small vessels, and
were seldom visited by those from other parts of the country.
The success of S. S. Alderman and W. S. Hart soon caused
reports to be widely circulated that an a\ erage of one barrel, or
four hundred pounds, of hon ey per colony was being secured
in Florida. This report meant much to Florida in beekeeping.
for almost at once people began to establish apiaries all over
the State and to put il modern equipment. Progress has con-
tinued down to the present time.
It is generally known among beekeepers in the southeast
that Florida has a black bee which has thrived in the forests of
the State for many years. These bees still exist in the State and
can he found in the large cypress timber of the Everglades, the
Okeefenokee swamp, and the heavy timbered sections in the
western part ol the State. Just when or who brought the first


bees to Florida is not known. On this subject, Mr. Jas. I. Ham-
bleton. apiculturit of the United States Department of Agricul-
ture, writes: "The most authentic record states that the black or
German bees were mtrodued into West Florida not later than
1763 In all probability the honey bee occurred in East Florida
before that. as black bees were introduced in New England as
early as 16S3. Williamt Bartram. describing a journey taken in
1778, says that honey bees were numerous all along the Eastern
Continent from Nova Scotia to East Florida. He further states
that honey bees were common enough in forests so as to be
thought by the inhabitants to he natives of this continent."
The movements of this wild bee in Florida are quiet, and
no bee is as busy on flowers as it is. The activity of these bees
is far beyond the common bee, and they are very cross and
quick as lightning to sting When a tree containing, these bees
is cut they act about like hornets disturbed from their nest.
They produce a large amount of honey per colony, yet they
do not seem to adhere at all to the idea of being domesticated.
They are not contented to live in hive, and will desert them
time and time again for the forest. Only in a small measure do
they adhere to our niodern methods of handling bees. The bees
are also so furious that the) are not desirable to have around a
farm. The very presence of a human being seems to completely
demoralize them. In many cases the comb they build has irregu-
lar cells, yet they cap their honey beautifully white, and it is
of good flavor like that produced by other bees.
The Italian and Caucasian are the more domesticated bees,
and these two races predominate in the commercial apiaries of
Florida. The Italian is particularly desirable For the production
of extracted honey while the Caucasian excels in the production
of comb in shallow frames or sections. Many small beekeepers
in the State still keep the black or German bee, but the two races
just mentioned are much more prolific and desirable for the many
different hiney flows.
This question can readily be answered. "Bees may be kept
in Florida anywhere you li\e. or are moving to." There are no
barren spots in Florida so far as beekeeping and honey produe-
tion are concerned. This does not mean that all sections of
Florida afford good bee pasture at all seasons of the year. It


does mean that there is no laige area in the State but what at
some time during the year will furnsh bee pasture. One must
he careful, though. to see that the hives are placed in some
thinly shaded place where they can be pioperl watched and
taken care of. Should one he going into beekeeping on a com-
mercial scale, it is necessary, of course, to consider transportation.
the kind of honey plants that are available. etc

The right start in beekeepiiig neanls lmuch toward success.
At the very beginning the apiary site should be selected. and this
done with great care nld consideration.
Bees should never be kept near stock where there would
be danger of horses, cattle, hogs. etc, being stung by them. As
a rule. all animals understand to stay away i-om h1ees, and they
will usually do this if they have their freedom The apiary
should be far enough away so that there will be no danger of
either man or animals being stung. yet it should be near enough
to the house so that it can be closely watched. It is advisable
for someone to visit the bees rather often, for bees will soon
become familiar with people who pass by. After the bees
become familiar with people, there is no danger of a volunteer
attack of the bees or any stings from just passing among the
The location should be thinly shaded, but never should
there be a dense shade overhead. A dense shade will cause the
hives to be more or less damp, especially during rainy weather.
and this is detrimental to the bees. The dampness also causes
the hives to decay more rapidly. No shade at all would be pref-
erable to a dense one.
The first colony of bees should be placed in the site selected.
As fast as an increase is made, the hives should be lined up
about four feet apart so as to give sufficient room to work around
each. The rows of hives should be at least ten feet apart so
that if necessary a truck may pass betvtwee the rows. It is best
to let the hives face southward, although southwest or southeast
will do. It is necessai to place the hives mi stands some twelve
or eighteen inches high so that the ground about them can be
kept free of litter and vegetation.
As soon as there are a few hives in the apiarny a sMitable.


Shii. I'ar* of lg Apiry m airu'crls. Near Tampa. Fllo.ria


neat, small honey Luuse or room should he elected close by the
side of the apiary. It is preferable to locate the honey house
on the side of the apiary nearest the residence so that it may he
visited without passing among the bees. The hone) house may
serve as a workshop as well as a packing and extracting room
when the honey crop is ready. Honey is to be kept in this room
and only enough carried to the residence lor a meal or so at a
time. Honey tends to toll in bees and other insects and often
makes a rather messy job to keep clean. The honey house is
the place for it and it can be readily removed when needed for
the market or table. An extractor, uncapping tank, storing tank.
and a lIrge work table on which to pack the honey are needed
in the honey house.

There are bees i every nook uald corner of Florida, and one
should have no double in obtaining a start almost at his very
door. It is not necessary to send nurllt ior west for bees. as they
can lie obtained in Florida. Bees ini Florida are inspected as to
disease by authorized State inspectors, and they will see to it
that the bees are free trom disease. When bees are secured from
outside the State. it is impossible to know just what one is ob-
taining, and it may later he discovered that the bees are diseased.
As already stated, it is advisable to obtain pure Italian or
Caucasian stock, and possibly better than either is the Caucasian-
Italian stock crossed. The bees purchased should be in either
eight- or ten-frame modern standard size hives. If one expects
to produce extracted honey, the ten-frame hives and pure Italian
bees are recommended. If one expects to produce chunk honey
or comb honey in one-pound sections, bees in eight-frame hives
should he secured. It is preferable to get either Caucasian-
Italian or Caucasian stock lor producing chmnk or comb honey.
as these two varieties are about the best comb builders and they
cap their honey beautifully white.
For each hive, three regular shallow extracting supers
should he purchased if one is going to produce either extracted
or cthuk honey. If comb honey in sections is to be produced.
then two supers are all that one needs. The best equipment
obtainable with full sheets of foundation in all frames and sec-
tions should be used by all means. One niLmt ee that all hives

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found most suitable for the best grades of both chunk and ex-
tracted honey. The two and one-half-pound cans are best for
guides just a little off it color. The next size is the regular five-
pound hone) pail. Syrup pails will not do as they are ton thin
and Irail. and the friction top does not drive in sufficiently tight
to remain and not leak. The off-grade extracted or comb hone)
can be put up in regular honey pail1 or in two and one-half-
pound glass jars.
Extracted honey should be well strained before it goes into
the storage tank. It should be allowed to remain there for
several days so that giavitation will clear all matter from the
honey, then it can be drawn off into the containers and sealed
up at once All packages can be neatly labeled under your own
signature, together with the guarantee and net weight,
it is generally advisable to put up some of the honey with
comb, and some without comb. One can often sell ten times as
much packed comb and extracted honey together as straight
extracted honey alone. Man) people want comb in their honey
ii spite of whatever they may think best In packing comb
from the regular shallow Irames along with extracted honey,
one must be careful to put m as large pieces as possible and
never chip up or put up little trimmings. [t is desirable to let
tile honey appear in as large pieces as possible. These pieces
should be suspended so that they will stand up, they should not
li put in flat, for honey naturally looks better from .a end vi u
than from a side view Onr must remember to cut out only
tender young white comb and to place the fancy crop in glass
It is a well known fact that practically all the extracted
on'ey on the market is blended (not compounded) froi several
sources. Blending is done for several reasons, First it makes
a better table article because the flavor of blended honey is a
combination of the flavors of several different kinds of hone\
\s most people are aware, the flavor of honey is governed bh
the plant from which it is made. so that blended honey coin-
blnes the different flavor., All real honey lovers will agree on
this point. The honey may be blended just as it comes from
the extractor. or on the table when cutting the comb.


Blending honey has reference only to the very best honey
and not to any of inferior quality. A poor grade should never
be in a blend. or it will ruin all. It is better to put the cheap
honey up separately and sell as such. This applies to both the
color and flavor oi honey. Some poor honey has a fine color.
and some very fine honey has poor color. It is seldom if ever
advisable to blend dark honey with light. or honey of poor flavor
with that of good flavor hut a blend should always he with
honey of similar color and quality of flavor
The blending of honey is particularly important m Florida
because there are a great many kinds of honey coming alone
during the season. Often one honey flow comes in very close
behind another flow and this happens so frequently that there
is very little honey piodIued in Florida which is pure as to
source. It is all blended mow or less by the hees themselves.
for sometimes a single comb will contain three or four different
kinds of honey.
Blending honey not only makes it a better table article, but
the greatest advantage is that it stays granulation Much of the
Florida honey, especially that produced in the southern part of
the State. will granulate. The honey in the western part of the
State. particularly in the great White Tupelo Gum region. does
not granulate easily. If a large percent of non-granulating
honey is blended with the honey that granulates, then granu-
lation is stayed, often indefinitely even on the northern markets
There is enough non-granulating honey produced in Florida- if
properly blended with the granulating hone.- to keep all in a
liquid condition.
Florida therefore has the opportunity to put np honey in
its natural state that will keep without granulating, which
eliminates the necessity of heating the honey to make it keep
Hone\ that is sold with the guarantee that it will not granulate
is more in demand, for no honey buyer outside of a bottler
wants table honey to turn to sugar or candy
To those less informed, the winter care of bees in an almost
tropical country like Florida seems of little importance, and per
haps is far less important than in other parts of the country
Some special care. howeveli is needed by bees during the
winter months even in Florida.


During the first part of the winter, the bees should he
looked over carefully and even the queens and their work of
egg-latinri noted. Some honey is generally coming in at this
time. as the weather is usually still warm enough to allow the
bees to work The first part of December is the most opportune
time to make the examination because old and failing queens
may be easily detected at such time by the strength of the
colones and size of the brood nest. A good queen at the be-
ginning of the winter season should he laying well with plenty
of young bees in the colony: if this is not the case, then the
bees should be re-queened.
While the cover is off and the queens progress being
noted, it is advisable to see about the stores in the super just
above the brood nest. This super should be full or nearly so
of sealed stores. The bees may not draw very heavily on the
honey the first part of the winter, but the latter part they will
because they are rearing so many young. The cover to the
hive should be a good one that does not leak. and the bottom
hoard must be sound It iP also important to see that the hive
is on a good foundation.
The colony with a good queen and plenty of stores is ready
for the "lnter and will need no further care or attention until
spring. Plenty of stores above a good queen is highly impor-
tant. otherwise, losses from starvation are almost certain, or
the colony will be too weakened from lack of honey to keep
up the raising of young bees. One must not forget that bees
will perish during cold weather exen in Florida where winters
are short aid generally mild. unless they are given sufficient
The question is often asked. "Can [ keep bees in Florida
and have a honey flow the year around?" The idea is to have
a honey flow twelve months in the year taking honey off, pack
ing. raising bees and queens. etc. the year round As a general
rule, however, nowhere in Florida can one depend upon such
a condition year after year. All of Florida is subject to cold
snaps. light frost and once in a while freezes, which to a large
extent play havoc with vegetation. This would mean disap-
pointment to the beekeeper who is expecting to rnm his honec

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