Front Cover
 Title Page
 Beekeeping in Florida
 Florida honey
 Honey cooery
 Honey bees and their products
 The mystery of sweets
 Tupelo honey

Group Title: Special series
Title: Florida honey and its hundred uses
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003095/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida honey and its hundred uses
Series Title: Special series
Alternate Title: Beekeeping and Florida honey and its hundred uses
Physical Description: 100 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Horton, Waldo
Thursby, Isabelle S
Wilder, J. J
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1948
Subject: Honey -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bee culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Waldo Horton and Isabelle S. Thursby.
General Note: Includes Beekeeping in Florida (formerly bulletin 5), by J.J. Wilder.
General Note: Includes indexes.
General Note: "November 1948".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003095
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3687
ltuf - AMT2627
oclc - 44575695
alephbibnum - 002566345

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Beekeeping in Florida
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Florida honey
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Honey cooery
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Honey bees and their products
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The mystery of sweets
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Tupelo honey
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text

'eekeefai4 and f l4cida ~oneyo





c. /

No. 66 Special Series November 1948





Combined With Bulletin 5


Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

In Florida
(Formerly Bulletin 5)



From the angle of its plant life, Florida is peculiarly
fitted as a honey producing state. The winters are short
with relatively high temperatures, the blooming season is
long and the flora is rich both in numbers and varieties.
Several plants, such as tupelo, mangrove, gallberry, saw-
palmetto and citrus (all naLive except citrus) yield honey
that rank in quality with the best.
The indiscriminate and at times wholesale burning of
woods and fields is the greatest single drawback to the
development of the honey producing industries of the
state. Manifestly, it is impossible for bees to secure sup-
plies of honey if the plants upon which they depend are
either destroyed or prevented from flowering by fire. The
apiarist finding himself in a fire devastated area may be
forced to move to other fields or abandon his undertaking
entirely. On the part of rural populations there is dire
need of a changed viewpoint as related to the handling of
fire throughout the state.
In the following pages, Miss Isabelle S. Thursby and
Dr. Waldo Horton have furnished information on the culi-
nary and dietary uses and values of honey that is most
important. It is hoped that this publication will assist in
bringing about a larger use of this wholesome sweet, and,
realizing the value of honey and the value of the plant life
upon which supplies depend, there may follow some change
in the attitude of the general public toward those native
sources of honey supplies upon which, both now and in
the future, the beekeeping industries of the state must
Assistant Director; Research.
University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station,
Gainesville. Florida, Jan. 1933.


The many requests for information received by the
State Department of Agriculture have shown that a
large number of people are interested in the possibilities
of beekeeping in Florida. Requests have been received
not only from people residing in Florida, but also from
people living in many other states. A number of the people
are interested in beekeeping in Florida merely as a pastime
-an activity at which they can enjoy their spare moments.
Others, however, are interested in beekeeping because of
financial returns, either as a sideline or on a large commer-
cial scale.
It is for such beginners in beekeeping that this bulletin
is written. The author, Mr. Wilder, has had many years'
experience with bees in practically all sections of Florida,
and at the present time he owns about 10,000 colonies of
bees. He is, therefore, unusually well qualified to inform
the prospective beekeeper in Florida as to the best pro-
cedure in beginning his apiary.

Beckeeping in FPorida
One of the first apiaries of any consequence in the State
was established on the Florida East Coast on the west side
of the Halifax River, where the city of Daytona now
stands. This apiary was established in 1872 by a New
York company which was in that section producing lemons
and oranges. The production of lemons, oranges and honey
made a very good combination. The company would come
southward during early fall in time to gather their fruit and
honey. After spending a few months in Florida, they would
sail back to New York City in the spring with a cargo of
Florida fruit and honey. This practice excited considerable
attention around New York as well as in certain Florida
Probably the next apiary of any importance was started
near the city of Wewahitchka in Gulf county by Mr. S. S.
Alderman, who also grew oranges along with the produc-
tion of honey. Just a little later Mr. W. S. Hart, located
at Hawks Park in Volusia county, began producing honey
and fruit in like manner.
This early development of beekeeping in Florida took
place between 1872 and 1888. There was not much to Flor-
ida at that time. The pioneer beekeepers had a hard time
of it. They obtained their bees from the forest, lived in
remote sections of the country which could be reached only
by small vessels, and were seldom visited by those from
other parts of the country.
The success of S. S. Alderman and W. S. Hart soon
caused reports to be widely circulated that an average of
one barrel, or four hundred pounds, of honey per colony was
being secured in Florida. This report meant much to Flor-
ida in beekeeping, for almost at once people began to estab-
lish apiaries all over the State and to put in modern equip-
ment. Progress has continued down to the present time.

It is generally known among beekeepers in the south-
east that Florida has a black bee which has thrived in the
forests of the State for many years. These bees still exist
in the State and can be found in the large cypress timber
of the Everglades, the Okeefenokee swamp, and the heavy
timbered sections in the western part of the State. Just
when or who brought the first bees to Florida is not known.
On this subject, Mr. Jas. I. Hambleton, apiculturist of the

Honey Facts

Honey is wholesome, natural food.
It keeps indefinitely, if stored in a warm, dry place.
It gives sweetness plus flavor.
It may wisely be substituted for sugar or molasses.
It is a highly energy giving food; especially easily assimi-
It contains small amounts of mineral matter and vitamins.
It possesses slight laxative properties and helps many with
For those OVER-WEIGHT, used moderately, it gives some
sweet without fear of the heavy fat production of cane
It is an ideal milk modifier (plus water) for infants.
It will not harbor bacteria and will actually kill them (by
hygroscopic action).
Most all pure honeys granulate in time, some hard,
some 'mush like'; beat or 'work' a granulated honey and
you make a delicious, fine-grain 'spread' of it. Any granu-
lated honey can be reduced to its original consistency and
flavor by heating in a waterbath at 125F. for a half hour
or more. Heating above 130F. removes some of its deli-
cate aroma and flavor.

The 1946 honey crop is estimated at 209,058,000 pounds-10
percent less than last year's crop, according to the Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics. This estimate is based on reports from about
6.000 producers including both farm and non-farm apiaries. The
estimated average production per colony of 36.4 pounds is well
below last year's production of 42.7 pounds and compares with 36.2
pounds in 194-4 and the 1940-44 average of 41-7 pounds. About
5.787.000 coliies are producing the 194(i crop-6 percent more
than in 1945 when a crop of 233.070,000 pounds was produced.
The larger number of colonies in 19-.i was mainly responsible for
pushing the crop over the 200 million mark. In mid-September,
producers had 42.i46,000 pounds of honey on hand for sale coin-
pared with 48,157,000 pounds a year earlier.
Honey production in the West, South Central and South At-
lantic areas was larger than a year ago, mainly because of good
crops in California, Texas and Florida. However, production in the
West North Central, East North Central and North Atlantic areas
was much smaller. In the West North Central area, sharp produc-
tion decreases of 44 percent in Iowa and 20 percent in Minnesota
were only partly offset by increases in Missouri and Kansas. De-
creases of 48 percent in Wisconsin, 38 percent in Michigan, and II
percent in Ohio were partly offset by a 46 percent increase in the
honey crop in Indiana. Honey production in all of the North At-
lantic States except New Hampshire and New Jersey was less than
in 1945. New York and Pennsylvania, the largest producing States
in the area, were down 57 and 27 percent respectively.
The leading honey producing States this year are California,
Minnesota. Florida. Iowa. Texas. Ohio and Indiana.
Florida honey produced in 1947 approximated 7,500.000
pounds from the 19.5,000 bee colonies in the State, the research
and industrial division of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce
stated yesterday in its weekly business review.
"Last year Florida was the eighth honey producing State in
the nation although down 50 percent from 1946. Unusual weather
conditions resulted in a Florida average last year of 38 pounds
per colony (national average was 36.9 pounds) as compared with
80 pounds per colony in Florida in 1946 (national average was
35.4 pounds).
"The leading honey producing States and production per year
are: Iowa 17.570,000 pounds, Minnesota 17,043,00, California
14.100.000. New York 13,140.000. Texas 13.140.000. Wisconsin
11.660.000. Ohio 7,460,000, Florida 7,410,000 and Michigan
"In addition to the crop of superior Florida honey, some
145,000 pounds of beeswax and several thousand packages of bees
and queens were produced in the State last year."


Florida Honey
By Dr. Waldo Horton

Natures Own Sweet-Nature's Oldest Sweet
Chemistry is now corroborating experience and proving
that our honey from sub-tropical and tropical plants con-
tains more minerals and is more health-giving. We have
more variety than almost any state, to please those who
like a change of flavor. For those who like it standard
and always the same a Florida blend is recommended.

In infancy milk is a balanced and sufficient food. As
we become more active a higher calorie addition becomes
necessary. But foolish and taste-tickled mankind have gone
too far with varieties and mixtures. Sane thinkers are
now reverting to the more simple. In this very generation
we are sure to see increasing thousands going back to the
more elemental, natural foods. The Biblical recommenda-
tion of milk and honey, (Num. 13-27; Gen. 43-11; Ps. 19-10;
Math. 3-4; Is. 7-15), should again be taken seriously.
Honey is a monosaccharide sugar, chiefly fruit sugar.
This sugar is the natural end-product of digestion, so that
honey is already digested and easily assimilable. It is
sweeter than cane sugar but also contains more water and
the amount varies in honeys from different flowers.
There are many kinds of honey, almost as many as
there are different flowers, though some flowers do not
produce nectar (honey). Bees gather the nectar, and in
the hive process it and store and condense it in the comb
as honey. Extracted honey is thrown out of the comb by
an extracting machine and strained, and is used on the
table and in cookery like syrup.
Honey adulterated with cheap syrup is not so common
as thought, on account of the rigid Pure Food Law, but if
there is real reason to suspect this adulteration, a sample
sent to Gainesville or Washington will disclose the truth.





Honey absorbs atmospheric moisture, granulates rapidly
if cold; hence keep it in a warm dry place where you would
keep salt.
Keep under tight cover; insects like it, too.
Do not keep in refrigerator! (Perhaps comb honey, a
short time.)
Granulated honey is not spoiled honey; in fact nature
does that to preserve it. Some people like granulated
honey. If you wish it liquid like new, heat in waterbath
at 125' or 130-F. for an hour.
Comb honey is hard to keep prime here for many weeks
outside of beehive. (650F. dry storage is needed.)
Remember good honey properly kept does not spoil and
is still delicious when a year or two old. (A few careless
drops of water or impurity may make it spoil.)
Before serving thick extracted honey, set container in
warm water a few minutes; this makes it pour more easily.
Honey, being imperishable, can be purchased in large
quantities and stored.


This is Florida's most universally produced and used
honey. It usually grades amber color, sometimes dark
amber and occasionally light amber; all becoming darker
with age. Its mild flavor and odor are characteristic and
pleasing. Medium body.
Because its source-plant is used somewhat in medicine,
it is thought by many to be unusually health-giving. It
granulates slowly. Use for both table and cooking. Much
Florida honey found in our stores has at least some of this
mixed in by the bees.

~iA\ ~'

kh%, ~.i

i '

Ji *I I

1Mial oiire FlorianI, bot dIriii at thisa Just I'Par lle 111 'f the bIec


A thin bodied, light amber honey of very mild flavor
and odor. Excellent for cookery and sweetening drinks
where mild flavor is desired.

This is produced from the tupelo gum tree (Nyssa)
which grows along the streams of West Florida. It is light
amber in color, of heavy body and mild flavor. It has
the most varied use of Florida honeys, having been tried
scores of ways and not found wanting. It does not granu-
late; hence is much sought for by packers to blend with
other honeys to keep down their granulation.

Makes us think of weddings and the perfume-laden air
of springtime. In all the kingdom of beedom what sweeter
words than Orange Blossom! To stand in an orange grove
and watch these little workers hustle from blossom to
blossom makes one realize that they too, regard it the
choicest of nature's golden sweets.
In cooking and candy-making few honeys carry over so
much distinct flavor. At the fountain, in the tea roam, as
well as the diet kitchen, its exquisite possibilities have yet
been scarcely thought of.
Because of its peculiar distinction it is much counter-
feited. As many as twenty different mixtures, colors, and
flavors have been called orange blossom honey. Genuine
orange blossom honey is light amber in color, heavy in
body, has the real aroma of the grove in bloom and does
not darken or change flavor much with age. In aging it
granulates readily.

This honey is produced from the gallberry bush (Ilex
glabra), which grows in flatwoods sections and blossoms
usually in May. It is almost a water white honey, with
a heavy body and very mild flavor and is considered one of
our finest honeys. Due to the damage done this plant by
burning the woods, very little gallberry honey has been
produced in recent years in Florida. It is almost too fancy
a honey to use in baking, but is wonderfully adapted for
icings, ice cream and for direct sweetening in other des-
serts where mild flavor is desired.


Walk lnar these blooms in July and you may think you have
discovered a swarm of bees. It is only normal industry working the
many thousands of tiny blossoms.


From the salt marshes of South Florida come large
quantities of another of our 'best' honeys. Black mangrove
(Avic. nitida) produces a delicious flavored honey almost
as light colored as gallberry, light in body but unusually
sweet, due to a large content of dextrose.
Holds an enviable place with many devotees and gain-
ing popularity fast.

These are Wild Sunflower from the Everglades region,
a delicious fall honey of amber or light amber color and
good body; Partridge Pea, which is a darker, stronger
product, excellent for cooking and baking; and Goldenrod,
a popular fall honey.
Besides these nine, Florida produces over a score of
others, but rarely distinct or in pure state enough to be
seen commercially.
Sub-tropical honeys are rich in minerals and vitamins!

Common Name

, Saw Palmetto

2, Black Mangrove

, White Tupelo Gum

SPartridge Pea

5, Gallberry

6, Wild Sun Flower

, The Summer Fair Well

8, The Wode r Honey
9, Black Tupelo Gum

Botanical Name

Seroa serrulata (Miehx,)
Avicenia nitida, Jacq,

Ny'sa apqutica L

Chamatcristu spp,

lex glabra (L) A. Gray

Helianthus spp.

Kuliistera pinnata
(Walt,) Kunte

Pentstemo Pentstemon
(L) Britton
Nyssa bilora Walt,

Months of Year in Bloom
--- I

May and June

June and July

April and May

June, July, Augst and
April and May

November and December

Septemer and October

April, Ma, Jne and July

March and April


Localitis Where Found

Prdtically all over the
Around ocean's edge from
New Smyrna to Tampa
Along river ndl overlow
land in western part of
Tlr'oubholt sanl ridgc sec.
Throughout hlntwoods sec.
Southern part of State,
principally around Lake
On light, s lndy, well
d(rined soil throughout
the State
Along the coast around
Apnlachicoln Bay
Along teams in the west.
ern part of the State

11, fenmoouyl

12 Cabhhu P lmeoO

13. T1 Peppor Ilush

PyCnohmus rigdus
(Burt)i Small

suh Pulmette fhlt.?
1? R S.

jlen a uo~oi oL

It 1e1i101 NOR 11 R1h1r1i1 scaoto St. Hil,

1], Goldenrod

1l, The Sou Inism

l1, Gopher Apple

Soliogo sp

willhuqheya scaiides (If

Chr~ysobslnuos obloogifuliu

RuNus spp

Cistarea spp.

Citrus spp.

cphll porifolia Rd.

betm6er, Jimu"r al


Julyi oud ,Augost

Jul Auigt od Seitem

(Mtoller 1ml Nowmber

Aplil y

April 1 1(lay

MrAh 00(1 April

II Iter puit of SLt
ukog smill 'eIuo amu

SouNtlir t of the' Slte'

Along the coo, thrugOh
ihe hamnmis od Bloog
th lu~ks

Throhught Otwoode H~c

lII uwony cultiouted Behlol
teog huut the Stall

Uesoro Puit Or thE Sbte

Thraghout swnd ridge seci.

All1 usei the S~tot

NO N u w ist Florihl

Thrughout Centroa Ne
South dlo'ido wi Sot
sumns in Iorth ood
Wes Mlorl4a


By Isabelle S. Thursby

Honey is one of the oldest known human foods and
was considered one of the choicest by the ancients. In
those days honey was the nectar of the gods. And even
today no food is more interesting than honey. The very
name of honey carries an appeal possessed by no other
food. There are many reasons why this delicious, natural
unrefined, unmanipulated sweet should be used abundantly
in the diet, not only in its natural state but as an ingredient
of cooked food.

Many people think of honey primarily as a delicious
spread for bread-hot biscuits, waffles and griddle cakes.
But when included in cookery processes not only does it
supply the sweetening, but its distinctive, individual flavor
combined with the other ingredients, produces a delectable
blend of flavor that not only is different but is intriguing
Sas well.

The use of more honey in cookery is to be encouraged
because of its superior flavor, food and health value and

A new set of recipes is not necessary in order to use
honey for one can substitute by following a few basic

First: Remember that one cup of honey contains 1.
cup of liquid.

Second: Deduct !4 cup liquid from the recipe when
using 1 cup honey.

Third: Florida honey is very sweet, so no alteration
need be made in the recipe regarding sweetening power,
as one cup of honey is equal to one cup in sweetening.
Liquid or granulated honey is equally satisfactory to use.

Fourth: Honey retains moisture to a greater extent
in the product than does sugar. In making frostings this
fact should be taken into account and the product should be
cooked to a higher density than is done when using sugar.

Fifth: In using honey as the sweetening agent in the
place of granulated sugar, the difference in composition
and flavor must be considered.


Different honeys have definitely characteristic flavors
and aromas, hence the flavor of any product made by a
given recipe will vary with the kind of honey used. The
milder honeys should be used for salads, fruit sauces, mer-
ingues and beverages, whereas the stronger honeys are
perfect for gingerbread, spice cake, and for combinations
that contain chocolate.

Bread and honey for thousands of years have been
recognized as a most acceptable food. Breads, cakes,
cookies and waffles backed with a small amount of honey
have a distinctive flavor that is very pleasing to most
palates, and for those cakes and cookies where moist keep-
ing is desired, honey is desirable.
Honey has long been associated with crisp, tender
golden waffles. Now honey is often baked in them or,
better and more delicious still, honey may be served as a
sauce or paste by creaming together one part butter with
2 parts honey-beating smooth. Appetizing and satisfying
are hot honey muffins, crisp and brown, spread with honey
butter or honey in the comb. Honey pecan muffins are de-
licious for Sunday supper with chicken salad and honey.
Whole wheat or oatmeal muffins are very popular with
children. Cakes and cookies made with honey, baked when
convenient, ready when needed, may be kept on hand con-
stantly for use on busy days, or for surprise guests.

1 egg beaten very lightly 2 cups milk
4 tsp. baking powder ':. cup butter or butter sub-
2 cups flour stitute melted
1 tsp. salt 3 tbsp. honey
Mix shortening, honey and ;alt with beaten egg. Sift
baking powder and flour together. Stir in alternately
with flour and milk until full amount has been added. By
using this regulation honey batter and adding nuts, candied
or dried fruits, one may obtain a delicious result. Try also
a honey pecan or a honey date waffle.



GALLBERRY l(nkberry) (Ilex glabra)
The berry itself may taste like gall and look like ink, but the
bee takes wondrous Nature while at her best and gathers for her
human friends from the chasteness of the bloom, one of the four
finest honeys of Florida.



1 cup milk 3 tbsp. fat
1 cups flour 1 cup honey
1 cups oatmeal 16 tsp. salt
1 egg 3 tsp. baking powder

Mix dry ingredients, add milk, beaten egg, honey and
melted fat, (slightly cooled). Mix but do not beat. Place
in greased muffin irons. Bake in hot oven (4000 F.) 30


I' cup honey 1 cup bran
1 cup flour 1 tbsp. melted butter
/' to % tsp. soda 11- cups milk
14 tsp. salt % cup finely chopped pecans

Sift together the flour, soda and salt, and mix them
with the bran. Add other ingredients, and bake for 25
minutes in a hot oven in gem tins.


2 cups flour 'i tsp. salt
*i cup fat 4 tsp. baking powder
% cup milk

Sift flour, baking powder and salt, add milk gradually
and combine to a dough consistency. Pat out into a sheet
1/2 inch thick. Cream 1/i cup butter with V1 cup strained
honey. Use part of this mixture for spreading on the
dough. Roll up and cut off like cinnamon rolls. Use the
balance of the butter and honey mixture and spread thickly
over bottom of pan. Arrange rolls, allowing 1/ inch space
around each. Bake in a hot oven (375 F.) 12 to 15 minutes.
Cinnamon may be added to the butter and honey mixture
and raisins or candied fruit may be chopped and sprinkled
over the biscuit dough before rolling, if desired, or nut
meats may be used in the same way.




2 cups rolled oats 1' cup honey
2 cups scalded milk or cup lukewarm water
boiling water 2 tbsp. shortening
1 yeast cake (optional-1 cup chopped
4/5 cup flour pecans or candied orange
1 tsp. salt peel)
Pour scalded liquid over the oats and shortening. Cover
and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve yeast cake in the
warm water, add honey and stir into the oatmeal. Add
11 '/ cups flour, beat well, cover and allow to rise for 1 hour
until light. Then add the salt, the rest of the flour and
the nuts or candied peel and enough flour to make a dough
and knead until smooth. Place in a greased bowl, cover
and let stand again in a warm place until double in bulk.
Shape into small loaves, put into well greased pans, filling
them a little more than one-half full. Let rise to top of
the pan and bake 50 minutes in a hot oven.

1 cup scalded milk I yeast cake
1 tsp. salt 1'/ cups bread flour
1i up lukewarm water I cup candied orange peel
I % cups graham flour 12 cup pecan nut meats
4 tbsp. honey
Mix milk, honey and salt. When lukewarm add yeast
cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and flour. Mix and then
add orange peel and nuts, cut in small pieces. When thor-
oughly mixed, let rise until double in bulk. Shape into
loaves in bread pan and let rise again until double its bulk.
Bake in a 350" to 3800 F. oven from 40 to 60 minutes. This
mixture can be baked in muffin tins and served while hot.

cup honey 3 tsp. baking powder
1 egg 1/ tsp. salt
1 cup milk I cup nut meats, chopped
3 cups flour
Mix, put into a greased and floured loaf pan. Let stand
about one hour. Bake in a slow oven for about 40 minutes
or one hour.




Much Florida honey comes from the flowers of wild
trees, shrubs and small plants. Among these are the tupelo
tree. two varieties of palmetto, mangrove, magnolia, ti ti,
gallberry, gopher apple. chinkapin, and a few less important.
Among the cultivated trees and plants that yield nectar
to the honey bee are: citrus trees, clovers, pennyroyal, part-
ridge pea. watermelon, etc.
The ti ti is a shrub or tree of swamps of North Florida
with an exquisite bloom much adored by the bees. The
honey is light and mild.


I cup cake flour 5 egg yolks
cup sugar 14 tsp. salt
cup strained honey It tsp. vanilla
5 egg whites tsp. cream of tartar
2 tbsp. boiling water

Sift and measure flour and sugar. Beat egg yolks until
thick and lemon colored. Add sugar and beat well; add
honey and combine lightly. Add boiling water a tablespoon
at a time. Beat I minute, add flavoring and flour and
lastly fold in the beaten egg whites. Pour into a tube pan
and bake for 50 minutes in a very moderate oven (3000 F.).
When baked, invert on cake cooler and allow to cool before
removing from pan.


I egg 1 cup sweet milk
1 cup honey 2 tbsp. shortening
2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt
Cream honey and shortening together, add the egg well
beaten and the other ingredients. Mix well and add flour
enough to roll out and cut easily. Fry in hot fat. The
honey will keep these delicious doughnuts moist much
longer -than usual.

cup fat N cup honey
14 cup sugar (brown) 1 egg
'i cup sour milk v tsp. soda
,1 tsp. cinnamon % tsp. cloves
I Lap. baking powder 14 tsp. salt
1 cups flour tsp. ginger
Sift dry ingredients. Cream fat and honey, add brown
sugar, egg, sour milk and sifted dry ingredients. This will
be a thin batter, but do not mind that. Bake in a well-
greased pan for 25 minutes in a moderate oven (3500 to
375' F.). This is a delicious gingerbread and may be kept
for several days, reheating before serving. Serve with or
without Honey Meringue icing.

HONEY MERINGUE (7 Minute Icing)
1 egg whiLt e- cup honey (strained or
Place honey and unbeaten egg white in top of double
boiler. Cook seven minutes, beating with dover egg beater
while cooking. Remove from double boiler, beat and spread
as desired.

1 cup honey 1 cup flour
3 eggs 1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt 1 cup dates
1 tsp. vanilla 1 cup nut meats
Beat the eggs well and add the honey, salt and vanilla.
Mix and sift the flour and baking powder, add the dates


ILACK MANGROVE (Avicennia Nitida)
Another botanical paradox of Florida is this shruh-like tree
which grows with its feet in sail water (marshes) and produces
large quantities of one of our most delicious sweets.


and nuts (cut in small pieces), then combine with the egg
mixture. Pour into a greased, shallow pan, spread one-
fourth inch thick. Bake in a moderately hot oven 30 to
40 minutes. Cut in strips before removing from the pan.
Store in a crock or cake box for several days, as the date
bars improve after standing. Roll in powdered sugar be-
fore serving.

1 cup honey 2 cups flour
% cup fat 4 tsp. soda
/ tsp. salt 2 tap. baking powder
2 eggs, beaten I tsp. cinnamon
2 cups rolled oats I cup chopped raisins
Cream the fat and honey together, then add the eggs.
Mix and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, cinnamon, and
salt. and add to the wet mixture together with oatmeal.
Dust the raisins with some of the flour and add them to
the dough, mixing well. Drop by teaspoonfuls on a greased
pan. Bake in a moderate oven 10 to 12 minutes.

1 cup fat / tsp. soda
cup sugar s tsp. salt
% cup strained honey tsp. vanilla
2 cups flour 2 drops almond extract
2 eggs cup nut meats
i cup raisins
Cream fat and sugar thoroughly. Add honey, beaten
eggs and flavoring. Sift flour, soda and salt together and
add to first mixture. Combine with lightly floured nuts and
raisins. Drop by dessert spoonfuls on oiled baking sheet.
Bake in moderate oven (350 to 3750 F.).

.2 cup butter 2 egg whites whipped
2 egg yolks, beaten 's cup sugar
Grated rind one lemon 1 tsp. salt
3 tbsp. lemon juice 1 cup honey
34 cups pastry flour Shredded cocoanut if desired
Cream the butter, beat in the sugar and add the egg
yolks and lemon. Then stir in three cups of flour and the
salt and soda sifted together, alternately with the honey.
Fold in the beaten egg whites and stir in the nut meats,
floured with the remaining fourth cup of flour. Drop by
teaspoons onto a buttered baking pan two inches apart.
Bake in a moderate oven (3500 F.) from 15 to 25 minutes.
Sprinkle with shredded cocoanut before baking, if desired.



-4- .

*f.5 ... '

('ORAL VINE (Antigonon)
A distant cousin of northern buckwheat-much liked by the
bees. In larger plantings would help heautify our roadside fences.
and produce another distinct honey. The same can he said of several
other ornamental honey plants: Assonia, Yucca. Vitex.


- 4

"----- r

~t~: S\i irl~



' cup butter
2 ounces chocolate
*l cup honey
2 eggs

t cup sugar
i cup flour, sifted with
1 tsp. baking powder
1 cup chopped nut meats

Butter and chocolate should be melted together, then
add honey, then flour and baking powder, then nuts. Bake
45 minutes in a slow oven. For immediate use it is better
to use 1/, sugar and /-, honey. Cut in strips one-half inch
wide and 2 inches long. To pack away in a jar, use all
honey instead of part sugar and do not use until after two
weeks. Roll strips in powdered sugar before packing.


cup brown sugar
cup shortening
tsp. salt
tsp. baking powder
cups flour
cup honey

I egg
i4 tsp. soda
'~ cup pecans
4 to 6 tbsp. cocoa, depending
upon degree of chocolate fla-
vor desired

Cream sugar, honey, shortening and egg. Add dry in-
gredients, then nuts, shape in a loaf or place in refrigerator
cookie mold. Chill several days to allow sufficient ripening
of dough. Slice off and bake in hot oven (4000 F.) for
about 12 minutes. After baking, if allowed to stand for
several days, the cookies will improve in flavor.


'i cup cocoa or 2 squares
bitter chocolate
'/ cup shortening
1, cup pecans, or black
k4 tsp. soda
Pinch salt
1 tsp. baking powder
'2 cup honey

li cup brown sugar
1 cup chopped dates, or
candied orange peel
I egg
2 cups flour
24 cup sour cream, or 'A cup
of evaporated milk to which
has been added % tsp.

Melt chocolate over hot water if squares of chocolate
are used. Blend the melted chocolate or cocoa with honey,
brown sugar and shortening. Add 1 egg, then sour cream.
Add sifted ingredients. Then add the nuts and dates or
peel. Spread batter to about '1/ inch depth in flat pan and
bake in moderate oven about 35 minutes. When cool, cut
in squares.




1 cup honey 'At tsp. ground cloves
't Ccup butter t. tsp. cardamon seed
':i cup pecans cut in pieces 2 tsp. baking powder
Grated rind of I lemon 2'. cups four
'. tsp. ground cinnamon
Heat the honey and butter together for about 5 minutes:
add all the other ingredients except the baking powder,
and mix thoroughly. When somewhat cooled, sift in the
baking powder and mix again. Let stand overnight. Roll
thin and cut into cakes of desired size and shape. Place
on greased baking sheet or in shallow pan; if desired deco-
rate with bits of citron and halves of almonds. Bake to
an amber color (about 8 to 10 minutes at 350 F.).


12 cup butter Grated rind of 1 lemon
% cup sugar 3 cups flour
1 egg and .1 tsp. baking powder
1 egg yolk I egg white
1 cup honey Pecans, chopped
Cream the butte: and sugar together and add the egg
and egg yolk beaten together, the honey, lemon rind, and
the flour sifted with the baking powder. More flour may
be required. The dough should be stiff enough to be easily
handled. Take a small portion of dough at a time, knead
slightly, roll into a thin sheet and cut into cookies of any
desired shape. Set the shapes on a greased pan. Beat the
white of the egg (left for the purpose) a little; use it to
brush over the top of the cookies in the pan, then at once
sprinkle on some finely chopped pecans and a little granu-
lated sugar. Bake in a moderate oven (about 10 minutes
at 350 F.).

'a cup butter '. cup sugar
1 orange juice and rind 2 eggs well beaten
2'- cups pastry flour ':1 tsp. salt
2 tsp. baking powder '14 cup broken walnut meats
': cup honey
Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat
in the orange juice and rind and the eggs. Mix together the
flour, salt and baking powder. Stir in the broken walnut
meats and mix well. Add alternately to the cake mixture
with the honey and bake in cup cakes 15 to 25 minutes at
350' F. If desired, ice with Honey Meringue Icing.

mul ltlorc i creut
) ~ / 1 '

j, I,> r~

~r .

muh inu lin isz th~ result



1 egg white
4 tbsp. water
Pinch of salt

1 cup honey
1 tsp. cream of tartar

Combine all ingredients and cook slowly over low heat
or in a double boiler, beating constantly until mixture stands
up in peaks. It may be beaten until creamy when removed
from heat. This is a delicious meringue topping. It does
not set on the outside, but is creamy and fluffy.


3 eggs
% cup sugar
i4 cup water minus 1 tbsp.
*% tsp. vanilla
% cup strained honey

1 cup flour
1 tsp. baking powder
%1 tsp. salt
% tsp. cloves
1 tsp. cinnamon
2 tbsp. melted butter

Beat yolks, add sugar, honey, water and vanilla. Sift
flour, baking powder, salt, and spices, and add to first
mixture. Add melted butter and fold in egg whites. Bake
in shallow pan lined with well oiled paper in a hot oven
(375' F.) for 20 minutes. When baked, invert on a cloth
dusted with powdered sugar. Remove paper, trim off
edges, spread with spiced roselle or blackberry jam. Roll
cloth around cake and allow to "set" for a short time.


cups flour
tsp. salt
tsp. soda
tsp. cinnamon
tsp. cloves
tsp. allspice
tbsp. cocoa
cup honey

1 cup strong coffee
% lb. sliced candied citron
% lb. sliced candied orange
or grapefruit peel
% Ib. sliced guava paste
/2 cup shortening
1 cup brown sugar
1% cups chopped pecans

Sift flour, salt, soda, spices and cocoa together. Mix
the chopped nuts and sliced fruit peel through the flour
with the finger tips. Cream the shortening; stir in the
sugar gradually. Add the beaten eggs and honey. Stir
in the fruit and flour mixture alternately with the coffee.
Spread the mixture on well-oiled baking sheets or shallow
pans, making a layer about V inch thick. If baking sheets
are used, leave a space about 11/2 inches wide at the open
end to allow for spreading. Bake in a moderate oven (3500
F.) for 20 to 30 minutes.


The hot cake may be spread with thin layer of icing
made by stirring lemon juice into confectioners sugar (3 to
4 tbsp. lemon juice for 2 cups sugar). Cut in 2-inch squares
when cool.
Store in a tightly covered box for at least one week.
Yields about 120 squares.


1/ cup shortening 3 tsp. baking powder
'- cup sugar 1: tsp. salt
% cup orange honey % cup milk
5 egg yolks 1 tbsp. grated orange rind
1% cups all-purpose flour 1 tbsp. orange juice

Cream shortening: add sugar gradually and cream well.
Add honey and mix well; add the very well beaten egg yolks.
Sift flour once before measuring. Sift flour, baking pow-
der and salt together. Add to creamed mixture alternately
with the milk. Add orange rind and juice. Bake in well
greased and floured pan for 40 minutes in moderate oven
(350 F.). Ice with Honey Cocoanut Meringue.


'3 cup honey 2 egg whites
~ tsp. salt V cup toasted cocoanut

Heat honey to 240' F., or until it spins an 8-inch thread.
Pour slowly into stiffly beaten egg whites and beat with
egg beater constantly. Add salt and continue beating until
mixture is fluffy and will hold its shape.
Spread on warm cake and sprinkle top with the cocoa-
nut, lightly toasted. Place pan of cake on board or in an-
other pan to prevent further browning and return cake to
oven to set meringue. Bake 10 minutes in very slow oven.
To toast cocoanut: Place 1 package cocoanut and 2
tsp. butter in pan and toast very slowly in oven, stirring
frequently to prevent burning.



cup shortening
egg whi ',
cup water or milk
tsp. baking powder
cups flour (.ifted twice

before measuring)
5 cup honey (mildly
4 cup sugar (white)
1 cup sliced citron
1 cup chopped pecans

Blend shortening, honey and sugar to a cream: add
liquid and Hour in which baking powder and salt have been
sifted. Stir only until mixed and then add nuts and citron.
folding in lastly the stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into
layer cake tins or flat oblong pan lined with waxed paper.
Bake in moderate oven (350 F.) for 45 minutes to 1 hour.
depending on depth of cake.
Other fruits or nuts may be used such as preserved
watermelon rind or candied orange peel. Ice with Honey

2 cups powdered sugar
4 tbsp. heavy cream
Enough milk to give good
spreading consistency

1' cup honey
2 tbsp. melted butter
Citron slices to decorate

Blend butter and honey; add heavy cream and salt.
Blend with powdered sugar and add just enough milk to
give spreading consistency. Ice cake and decorate with
citron slices. Put iced cake in cake box for two or three
days before using. This cake may be kept from two to
four weeks before using, as the honey keeps it moist and
fresh and improves the flavor.


cup shortening
1s cup sugar
12 tspJ. Ctillliiil la n
cups pastry flour
cup sour milk
lsp. vanilla flavoring
12 tsp. salt

4.i cup strained honey
, tsp. cloves
4 tsp. baking powder
-1 cup nut meats (broken)
1' tsp. soda
2 eggs

Cream shortening and add the sugar. Beat in the
honey. Beat the yolks of eggs and add. Sift dry ingredi-
ents. Add tI. cup to nuts and add these to the mixture.
Add the remaining dry ingredients alternately with sour
milk and vanilla. Fold in the beaten whites. Bake in a
well greased loaf pan in a moderate oven (350" F.) for 45




1 cup shortening
3 eggs
'. cup citron
', cup candied gingered
watermelon rind
M lb. figs
' cup honeyed orange strips
or honey orange marma-
i cup prunes
1, lb. dates

'1 cup coffee
11 cups pecans
2 cups honey
3 cups flour
% tsp. each cloves, salt,
nutmeg and allspice
2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. cream of tartar
'a tsp. cinnamon
'4 cup candied pineapple
1 lb. raisins

Run figs, prunes, dates through food chopper. Add
candied orange peel and raisins. Over this pour the honey
and let stand from four days to a week.
Shred pineapple and citron. Sift dry ingredients, re-
serving l 'i cup flour to mix with nuts, watermelon rind
and pineapple. After the fruit and honey mixture has
stood long enough, cream shortening and add to honey fruit
mixture. Add the beaten eggs, then sifted dry ingredients,
coffee and the floured nuts, pineapple, citron and gingered
watermelon rind shreds.
Bake slowly (225: F.) for three hours if in one-pound
tins. If the entire mixture is baked in one cake (five
pounds) bake from four to five hours, depending on the
depth of the cake. Brush top of cake with warm honey,
wrap in heavy waxed paper, pack away in covered crock
for at least a month. Before wrapping in cellophane for
gift mailing or before serving, decorate top with honeyed
orange peel, pecans, citron or pineapple. Yields five pounds
fruit cake.

Pies have never lacked in popularity and made the
honey way are of especially fine flavor and are good hot
or cold.


2 tbsp. butter
3 eggs
% to 1 cup honey
% tsp. salt

1 cup pecans, broken, de-
pending on sweetness and
richness desired

Beat eggs slightly. Add honey and butter warmed and
salt. Mix well, put in partly baked pie shell and bake in a
moderate oven about 35 minutes.



1V- cups steamed and 1 cup honey
strained pumpkin 1 tsp. cinnamon
1 cup cream 3 eggs, well beaten
1 cup milk

Mix ingredients in order given and bake in one crust.
Top with honey meringue. Or garnish each piece with a
mound of whipped cream with honey in its center.


Make an apple pie as usual, but do not use any sugar
after the apples-just the butter and cinnamon, and do
not use a top crust. After it is baked, drizzle I/A to 1/ cup
honey over the apple filling and sprinkle one-half cup pecan
pieces and let stand until apples become soft and absorb
all the honey. Pears, peaches, loquats are all delicious
used in the same way.


'i cup honey 1 '2 cups milk
4 tbsp. flour 2 .egg yolks
V tsp. salt 1% tbsp. butter

Blend flour with a part of the liquid (cold) until it is
smooth. Add salt, honey and remainder of the liquid.
Cook in a double boiler until thick, stirring frequently.
Slowly pour a part of this cooked mixture over the beaten
egg yolks, stirring constantly. Return to the double boiler
and beat until the egg is cooked. Lastly add the butter.
Pour this filling into a previously baked pastry shell. Cover
with a meringue made from the two egg whites slightly
sweetened with honey. Brown the meringue in the oven.



a4 cup honey 1 lemon, juice and grated
8 tbsp. flour rind
%' cup cold water 2 egg yolks
1 cup boiling water 1/ to I tbsp. butter

Blend the flour and cold water until smooth; add the
honey and grated lemon rind; slowly add the boiling water,
stirring constantly. Cook in a double boiler until thick.
Stir in the lemon juice. Slowly add part of this cooked
mixture to the beaten yolks, stirring constantly. Return
to the double Loiler and heat until the egg is cooked. Lastly,
add the butter.

Pour this filling into a previously baked pie crust and
cover with a meringue made from the two egg whites
slightly sweetened with honey and flavored with a drop or
two of lemon extract. Brown meringue in the oven.
The flavor of the honey and lemon blend well in this
pie filling.


Its flavor and sweetness are such that honey combines
well with fruits, both raw and cooked, so that it is an ex-
cellent addition to desserts.

A honey of delicate flavor, like orange, gallberry, or
mangrove, should be used. It makes a delectable sweeten-
ing for whipped cream and for desserts. It supplies both
sweetening and flavor for salad dressings when prepared
with fruit salads. If granulated, the honey should be
liquefied over hot water before it is combined with other


1 cup honey 2 tbsp. sugar
inch salt I cup shredded cocoanut
cup quick cooking tapioca 2 cups tangelo sections
3 cups boiling-water Whipped cream

Heat honey and water in double boiler, add pinch of
salt, sugar and tapioca. Cook for 15 minutes, stirring
frequently. Add shredded cocoanut and cook until it
thickens. Cool and pour over tangelo sections, stirring
lightly with a fork to mix through the tapioca. Put in
refrigerator to chill very thoroughly. Serve with whipped
cream or honey meringue. Sliced peaches, pineapple, man-
go, banana, guava, tangerine, or Temple orange sections,
or a combination of fruits all provide delicious variations.
NOTE: The tangelo is a citrus fruit resulting from
a cross between the tangerine and grapefruit-a combine.
tion of delightful flavor.


4 cups scalded milk 8 tbsp. strained honey
5 eggs '4 tsp. salt
Beat eggs sufficiently to unite whites and yolks but
not to make them foamy. Add other ingredients, mix thor-
oughly and pour into individual custard cups. Sprinkle
lightly with nutmeg. Set cups in a pan of warm water,
place in oven. Bake in moderate oven until when a knife
is inserted into custard it comes out clean. Remove cups
from water immediately. Serve hot or cold.

2 cups milk 2% tbsp. strained honey
3 egg yolks 1 tsp. vanilla
Salt-few grains
Heat milk and honey in a double boiler. Beat egg
yolks, add to yolks the hot milk mixture and return to
boiler to finish cooking. When the mixture coats a silver
spoon, remove from fire. Chill, add flavoring.


1' cup powdered sugar % cup candied orange peel
% cup shredded pineapple or kumquat
(drained) 1 cup cream-whipped
2 egg whites 1 tsp. vanilla extract
% cup honey (warmed) % cup pecans
Mix pineapple, honey, chopped nuts, peel and flavor-
ing. Cool. Beat the egg whites until stiff and add pow-
dered sugar. Beat cream until fairly stiff. Fold all in-
gredients together and freeze either in paper mousse cups
or in freezing trays of the refrigerator.

2 cups rice or corn flakes I cup honey
1 cup nuts-chopped 16 marshmallows-cut in
1 cup dates-cut in small small pieces
Roll flakes fine and combine carefully with other in-
gredients and make into a roll. Then cover with more
rolled flakes and place in refrigerator until thoroughly
chilled-8 to 10 hours. Serve with whipped cream sweet-
ened and flavored with honey. Easy to make and very

2 tbsp. gelatine '% cup honey
% cup cold water 3 bananas (mashed through
11 cups milk sieve)
1 lemon 1 cup whipped cream
Soak gelatine in cold water until soft. Heat milk, re-
move from fire and stir in gelatine. Add honey, mashed
bananas, and lemon juice. Set in a cool place and when
it begins to thicken fold in the whipped cream. Chill

One quart thin cream; 3/. cup delicately flavored honey.
Mix and freeze in the usual way.

3 cups milk 2 squares of chocolate
3 eggs % tsp. salt
1 qt. cream 1% cups mild honey
Make a boiled custard of the milk, melted chocolate,
honey, eggs and a little vanilla. When cool add the cream
and freeze.


4 egg yolks Pinch of salt
2 cups water 1 cup honey
2 cups rich milk
Beat the egg yolks; add the salt and water. Cook over
boiling water two minutes, stirring constantly. Cool. Add
milk and honey. Freeze with 1-8 salt-iced mixture. Yield,
13/4 quarts.


2 quarts water
6 lemons
Cold water
% cup preserved ginger,
cut fine

A cups honey
1 tbsp. gelatine
% cup syrup from preserved
2 egg whites

Boil water and sugar together for five minutes. Add
lemon juice, gelatine softened in a little cold water, the
syrup and preserved ginger. Freeze to a mush, then stir
in the beaten egg whites, and continue freezing.


1 pt. boiling water
4 cups grapefruit juice
2 tsp. gelatine
2 tbsp. cold water

2 cups honey
Juice 1 lemon
Shredded or candied
orange peel

Soften gelatine in cold water. Add boiling water and
honey. Stir until dissolved, cool and add fruit juices. Cool
and freeze in three parts of ice to one part of salt. Garnish
each serving with shredded candied cherries or strips of
candied orange peel.

1 pint strawberries 2 cups water
2 lemons 1 egg white
V cup honey
Mix the strawberries (which have been put through
a sieve), lemon juice, water and honey and let stand sev-
eral hours to blend. Put into a freezer and when it begins
to freeze add beaten egg white. Freeze with 8 parts ice to
I part salt and pack with 3 parts ice to 1 part salt. Makes
1 quart.



1 cup grated raw carrots
1 cup grated raw sweet
cup chopped dates
cup candied orange peel,
citron or pineapple
1 cup honey
Y tsp. salt
2 tsp. cinnamon

% tsp. nutmeg
% tsp. allspice
14 tsp. cloves
% tsp. soda
'1 cup flour
1 cup raisins
% cup suet 'chopped or

Combine ingredients in order given. Stir until mix-
ture is well blended. Pour into well greased Pyrex refrig-
erator dish (1 qt. size) or Pyrex casserole; put cover on
and bake in oven at 2500 F. for 212i hours. Remove
from oven, cool without removing cover. Serve with Honey

The above plum pudding recipe is an easy one to make,
is inexpensive and when served with a small topping of
Honey Butter instead of the proverbial powdered sugar
hard sauce, is everything taste satisfaction requires. Make
up a dozen or more and use the extra ones as Christmas


% cup oatmeal (measured
after cooked)
Vs cup allbran
1 cup seedless raisins
1 cup pecans
M cup citron
1 cup dates
% cup flour

% tsp. soda
2 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. allspice
I tsp. nutmeg
1 cup honey
1 egg
'/ cup jelly (Honey guava
jelly is recommended)

Combine ingredients in order given. Bake in a cov-
ered greased pudding mold or in a covered Pyrex dish for
21/ hours at about 250' F.


A cup chopped suet 1% cup flour
cup finely sliced citron Reserve 14 cup of this
4 cup nut meats flour for dredging
cup honey % cup sweet milk
Juice and rind of '1 lemon i tsp. soda dissolved in a
little hot water
V tsp. salt
Steam 21', hours in well greased pudding mold with
horn. Steam in a deep vessel which has a tight cover and
a rack in order that the water may circulate freely under
mold. If necessary to add more water during steaming
process, be sure water is boiling.
Remove from mold while still hot and serve with hard
sauce or honey.

% cup honey % tsp. salt
2 eggs 1/ cup whole wheat bread
'1 cup chopped dates crumbs
cup chopped nut meats % cup flour
1 tsp. baking powder
Dust the dates and nuts with a portion of the flour.
Sift the remaining flour with the salt and baking powder.
Add the beaten eggs to the honey, then the crumbs, the
sifted dry materials, and the dates and nuts. Mix well,
pour into a greased baking dish and bake 20 minutes in a
moderately hot oven.
Serve with cream hard sauce or Honey Butter.

2 parts honey 1 part butter
Let butter stand in room temperature until it is soft.
Add honey and stir until perfectly blended. Place in glass
jar which can be tightly covered and stand in refrigerator.

Uses for Honey Butter
Blend with chopped nuts as simple topping for sponge
As a service for hot biscuits, griddle cakes, waffles, in-
stead of serving honey and butter separately.
Delicious on nut bread for tea service.




1 cup grated carrots
I cup raisins
1 cup honey
1 tsp. soda
I egg

Steam for three hours.
Honey Kumquat Sauce.

I cup grated potatoes
1 tbsp. mixed spices
1 cup flour
1 tsp. salt
1 cup suet

Serve with Honey Butter or


1 cup honey
'. to % cup finely chopped
fresh kumquats, seeded
1 cup orange juice

% tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter (may be

Combine the ingredients and let stand over hot water,
without cooking, for about 30 minutes to blend the flavors.
Serve as a sauce on ice cream.



., cup honey meringue
'A cup Honey Salad

21 cups prepared fruit, pine-
apple, orange hearts and
loquats, or guava, mango
and papaya

Add fruit to the salad dressing and fold in whipped
cream. Turn into freezing tray of automatic refrigerator
and freeze.


2 egg yolks
Pinch of salt
' cup cream, sweet or
slightly sour

'i cup honey
Juice of % lemon
2'. tbsp. salad oil
' tsp. paprika

Beat egg yolks, then pour in the hot honey. Cook for
a moment, beating continually, then fold in the salad oil,
lemon juice, the cream beaten stiff and the seasonings.



1 egg 6 tsp. lemon juice
1 tsp. salt 1 2. cupfuls salad oil
2 tbsp. honey Paprika
1 tsp. mustard Few grains cayenne
6 tsp. honey vinegar

Into a conical shaped bowl break an egg and add the
salt, honey, mustard, dash paprika, the cayenne and 1 tbsp.
honey vinegar. Beat thoroughly with a good egg beater
and add the oil, 1 tbsp. at a time, beating thoroughly after
each addition until '. cupful is added and the dressing is
thick. Then the oil can be added in larger quantities at a
time. When one cupful has been added, dilute with the
rest of the oil. Use altogether 11'-. cupfuls of oil, beat vigor-
ously all the time during the making. When finished,
dressing should be smooth and thick.


2 tbsp. honey 1 tsp. prepared mustard
1 cup whipped cream

Mix the mustard and honey together and stir in cup
of whipped cream. Adds a piquancy to pineapple salad


2 oz. American cheese 3 tbsp. whipped cream
2 tbsp. honey 1 cupful honey mayonnaise

Mash cheese, add whipped cream, then honey. Stir in
honey mayonnaise. This dressing is nice for peas, toma-
toes, or asparagus salad.


% cupful honey cupful peanut butter

Blend peanut butter and honey. More honey may be
added if a sweeter paste is desired. Excellent on hot
buttered toast or as a dressing for sweet sandwiches.


Spread thin slices of honey oatmeal or nut bread (at
least three days old) with honey cream cheese paste. Place
buttered slices with cheese spread slices together, cut cross-
wise and allow three triangles to each serving.

1 cake cream cheese 3 tbsp. chopped salted
3 tbsp. honey pecans
Mix into paste

Spread 20 thin slices of bread with butter; then on 10
of them place thin slices of white meat of cooked chicken;
on other 10 spread a mixture of chopped green pepper and
honey salad dressing. Place crisp white lettuce on the lat-
ter; press together with chicken covered slices, cut and
serve with chilled olives and sliced tomato as garnish.

Mix honey with cream cheese and use as filling for
sandwiches. Chopped nuts, dried or crystallized fruit or
peanut butter may be added to the cheese.

"A land flowing with milk and honey," was the de-
scription of Canaan, hence, honey and milk even in Biblical
times were recognized as valuable foods. Honey sweetened
fruit-ades, iced tea and coffee are given an added flavor
that is very delicious. The amount to use depends on per-
sonal taste. Honey is convenient to use in hot tea, just a
teaspoonful or more from the honey jar as desired, but for
cold drinks the honey should be blended with a little warm
water, before adding the iced beverage.

Mix one dip of ice cream with Vi. cup honey. Add 1
cup milk and shake well in malted milk mixer.


2 eggs 6 tbsp. honey
Thin cream Chipped ice
11' cups ice water
Beat eggs well and pour into glass fruit jar or shaker.
Add remaining ingredients and shake. Yield, 3 servings.
May top each glass with whipped cream.

Mix juice of 6 oranges, 6 tbps. honey and few grains
of salt. When ready to serve, shake up with ice cubes and
add shreds of yellow orange rind. Decorate with sprig
of mint.

Juice of two oranges, juice of I.2 lemon, yolk of 1 egg,
warm honey. Beat the ingredients together and drink
every morning.

4 tbsp. cocoa 1 cup cold water
2 to 4 tbsp. honey 3 cups milk
Dash of salt
Mix cocoa, sugar, salt, and water in upper part of double
boiler and place over direct heat. Stir until smooth; boil
2 minutes. Place over hot water, add milk and heat. Beat
well, using rotary egg beater, and serve at once.

Blend 2 tsp. cocoa with 3 tsp. honey. Let 1 cup milk
come to boiling point. Remove scalded milk from fire, add
honey and cocoa mixture and pinch of salt. Stir well. Pour
this mixture in iced tea glass filled with cracked ice. Top
with whipped cream. For hot chocolate, omit ice and add
'i. cupful of scalded milk.

Juice 12 lemons 1 pt. guava juice
Juice 12 oranges 1 pt. shredded pineapple
3 quarts water Honey to sweeten
1 pt. tamarind juice
Warm honey and add to water. Blend and add fruit
juices and shredded pineapple and chill. When ready to
serve, garnish with thin slices of lemon and orange and
pour over ice.



1 cup honey % cup lemon juice
2 cups pared and seeded / cup orange juice
guavas and juice Mineral or ice water
2 cups water

Simmer the honey and water together until blended,
set aside to cool. Force the guavas through fruit press
and combine the pulp with the orange and lemon juice. Add
to the cold syrup and let chill thoroughly. Just before
serving, strain and dilute to taste with mineral or ice water.
Peaches, plums, mangoes, may be used the same way as


Guava juice Cracked ice
Juice fresh limes, calamon- Honey to taste
dins or tangelos

Blend well and serve with thin slices of fruit.


Over a serving of ice cream-usually vanilla or choco-
late is preferred pour a generous stream of gallberry,
orange or mangrove honey.


Carrots, green or wax beans, beets, squash, turnips,
sweet potatoes, and other vegetables-important in the diet
-are better flavored through the addition of a small amount
of honey.
Use a teaspoonful of mild honey to each cup of vege-
tables when adding other seasonings.


21/ cups beets, cooked and 4 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice
sliced 2 tbsp. butter
% cup boiling water 4 tbsp. honey
1 tbsp. flour
Blend butter and flour, add hot water and stir until
smooth. Add other ingredients and pour over the beets
that have been placed in a buttered baking dish. Cook 20
minutes in moderate oven.

2 cups cushaw, pared and 3 tbsp. butter
thinly sliced 1 tsp. salt
1 cup apples pared and 31 to % cup honey, warmed
thinly sliced
Place a layer of cushaw in buttered baking dish, then
a layer of sliced apples. Add salt, dot with butter, and
cover with honey. Add another layer of cushaw and apples
and dress as before with seasonings.
Top with a layer of cushaw, brush with butter and bake
in a hot oven for 45 minutes, covering the first half of
the time. Sweet potatoes may be baked in the same way as
cushaw or other winter squash.
Delicious to serve with broiled chicken or honeyed ham.

Scrub sweet potatoes as for ordinary baking. Bake
until soft. Then with sharp knife cut across on top. In
this opening drop first 1 tsp. honey, then press in half a
marshmallow. Return to oven and heat for just a few
seconds. The honey is absorbed almost immediately by the
hot sweet potato and marshmallow is toasted just enough
by the few seconds of reheating. Serve at once. Espe-
cially nice for crown roast of pork, roast chicken, or turkey.

Boil 10 medium large sweet potatoes with skins on.
When about two-thirds cooked, remove from fire, run cold
water over them. Pare, slice in I/8-inch slices and put in
frying pan well greased. Fry until browned, then add a
mixture of 1/4 cup honey and 1/. cup brown sugar. Stir
through sweet potatoes, let remain over low flame for three
minutes. Serve at once. (27 servings.)



1 cup diced celery 1 qt. red beans (cooked or
1 cup hopped onions canned)
4 cups ground beef 1 pt. water
1 tsp. chili powder 1 tbsp. salt
1 pt. tomato puree 6 tbsp. honey

Fry beef, onions, and celery slowly for about one hour.
Should be thoroughly browned-being careful not to burn
onions or celery. Place one quart of red beans either cooked
or canned, 1 pint tomato puree, 1 pint water, and 1 tbsp.
salt in kettle. Let come to a boil. then add fried meat and
vegetables. Simmer slowly for two hours. Then add chili
powder, and just before serving stir in honey. Serve piping


For a delicious ham which requires a minimum amount
of holiday preparation, the ham should be given its pre-
liminary cooking the day before. The whole or half ham
is brought to a boil, then simmered, allowing 20 minutes to
the pound. Use from 1 to 2 cups of pineapple juice in the
water in which the ham is boiled.
Remove ham from liquid, skim and pour over the
skinned ham 2 cups of honey (for ham weighing 9 to 10
Ibs.). Let stand over night. In the morning add enough
liquid which has been reserved from the boiling liquor for
basting purposes. Rub the skinned surface with bread
crumbs, then baste frequently with the honey liquid to
which has been added a cup of raisins or 1 cup spiced roselle.

Brown a rather thick slice of cured ham in a baking
dish, pour 4 tbsp. honey over ham and stick 3 or 4 cloves
in the ham. Place pineapple rings on ham and bake in
moderate oven, covered for the first 10 minutes. In place
of pineapple, apples, sweet potatoes, or carrots may be used
and pork chops may be substituted for the cured ham.


Bake apples with a bit of water until tender. Butter
may be added if desired. Remove from oven, drizzle honey
over hot apples. The hot apples will readily absorb the
honey and by the time of serving, the honey will have per-
meated the apple tissue and blended to form a perfectly
delightful dish.

I lean ham (weighing from I tsp. cinnamon
7 to 9 Ibs.) 1 qt. honey vinegar or pickle
15 cloves juice
Celery leaves from one Honey raisin sauce
bunch of celery Soda
% cup honey Boiling water
2 eggs, beaten
Thoroughly wash the ham, rub soda over the surface;
rinse in cold water. Celery leaves, cloves, cinnamon, honey
vinegar and 1t cup honey should be placed in a kettle full
of boiling water. In this place the ham and simmer until
perfectly tender-about five hours. Remove the skin after
taking ham from kettle, and brush with beaten egg and
honey (2 eggs beaten blended with 1/ cup honey). Stick
in about 30 cloves at even intervals and brown in very hot
Serve with Honey Raisin Sauce.

1 cup raisins % cup water
1 cup honey
Cook very slowly until raisins are soft but not mushy.
Add honey and a teaspoonful of lemon juice and serve over
ham slices.

Home made candies are always a special treat, but
when honey is used in their making, they are doubly de-
licious. In candy making, honey imparts its own individu-
ality to the product and opens up a wide range of interest-
ing opportunities in the candy way.


2 cups white sugar 2 inch square chocolate
1 cup milk 1 tsp. vanilla
'1 cup honey
Allow to cook to soft ball stage. Cool. Beat 20 min-
utes after cool.

2 cups granulated sugar 2 cups rich milk
2 cups honey 1 tsp. vanilla
44 cup butter
Choose a heavy iron, aluminum or copper kettle for
cooking. Stirring occasionally, boil sugar. salt and honey
to 245 F. Add butter and milk gradually, so that the
mixture does not stop at any time. Cook rapidly to firm
ball stage (256c F.). Stir constantly because the mixture
becomes very thick and sticks easily at the last. Add
vanilla and pour into a buttered pan.
Cool thoroughly before cutting. Cut with a heavy
sharp knife, using a saw-like motion. Yield, 2 lbs., or 45
caramels '1.x'11/ inches.

2 cups sugar 1 cup water
1 cup honey % tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter 2 cups roasted peanuts
Put sugar, honey, salt and water in saucepan. Stir
until sugar is dissolved. Cook to 3000 F. Remove from
fire. Add butter and peanuts. Stir just enough to mix
thoroughly. Pour out on a well greased marble slab or
baking sheet into very thin sheets. Allow to cool and
break into irregular pieces.

2 cups honey 1 cup butter
2 cups sugar 1 tbsp. cinnamon
Boil ten minutes or to crack stage, 2900 F., and then
pour into a buttered pan and when cold cut in squares.


2%3 cups sugar % tsp. salt
% cup honey 1 cup water
'4 tsp. vanilla % cup cocoanut or nut
2 egg whites meats
Put sugar, honey, salt and water into a sauce pan and
cook, stirring until the sugar is completely dissolved. Con-
tinue cooking, without stirring, until a firm ball is formed
in cold water, or until 2680 F. is reached. Wash down any
sugar crystals that may form. Remove from fire and
slowly pour the syrup over the egg whites which have been
beaten until stiff during the latter part of the cooking of
the syrup. Beat during this addition. Continue beating
until the candy will hold its shape when dropped from the
spoon. Add vanilla and nuts or cocoanut; mix thoroughly.
Drop from teaspoon onto waxed paper.
If taken off when temperature of 262- F. has been
reached, it can be used for the following:
Stuffing dates-Making cocoanut balls-Shaping in balls
and dipping in chocolate.
This may be varied by the addition of candied fruits or
nuts. These chocolates thus made are delicious.

2 cups orange blossom honey 2 cups sugar
1 cup boiling water 1 tsp. vanilla
Put honey, sugar and water into sauce pan; stir until
sugar is well dissolved. Place on fire and cook to 2700 F.
Remove from fire; add vanilla. Pour out on a well-buttered
dish. When cool enough to handle, pull until creamy and
stiff like other taffies.

2 cups sugar % cup water
!4 cup strained honey 1 tsp. vanilla
Put all of the ingredients except the vanilla into a
sauce pan and cook, stirring only until sugar is dissolved.
Continue cooking until a hard ball forms in cold water or
the temperature 2630 F. is reached. Remove from fire
and pour into buttered pan. When cool enough to handle,
pour vanilla into center of the mass, gather the corners


and remove from the pan and pull. When candy is white
and rather firm, stretch out into a long rope and cut into
pieces of desired size, using scissors for the cutting. Nut
meats may be added just before the taffy is ready to cut,
which must be worked in during the pulling.
Remove the peel from 3 oranges in quarter sections,
then cut into strips with scissors. Cover the rind with
salt water in the proportion of 1 tbsp. of salt to 1 quart of
water and let stand over night. Drain and cover with cold
water, then bring to the bailing point: repeat this process
three times. Then if tender, rinse in cold water, drain,
then simmer very slowly in 1 cup of honey from 45 to 60
minutes. Remove the rind with a fork, drain and lay on
waxed paper. Allow to dry for a day or two. The strips
may then be coated with chocolate, if desired.
Grapefruit may be prepared in a similar way but grate
rind carefully before cooking tender in an abundance of
water. Drain, then cook the peel in a syrup made with 2
cupfuls of honey, 2 tbsp. lemon juice or grapefruit juice.
Cook the grapefruit strips one hour or more, then allow
them to stand all night in the honey syrup. Remove with
a fork and lay on waxed paper for a day or two. These
may be coated with milk chocolate or bitter chocolate.



Electrical Beater: Use one egg white to one-half cup
honey, placing in bowl of electrical mixer and turning to
speed 2, allowing mixture to whip until it peaks.
Hand Beating: Place one-fourth or one-third cup
honey in bowl with one egg white and beat with double
Dover or Ladd improved (ball bearing type) beater until
This mixture keeps indefinitely when kept uncovered
in refrigerator. Honey meringue made with granulated
honey keeps just as well and in some cases has been found
to whip up more easily by hand than when strained honey
is used.
Honey meringue may be used as a topping just as
whipped cream or marshmallow is used, on top of pie; for
toasting as ordinary meringue; on sweet potatoes: mix with
rice crispies and use as a paste to spread on butter wafers
for tea; as a dressing for fruit salad; delightful for date
tortes. The amount of honey used depends entirely upon
the individual preference for the honey flavor.
Add 2 tbsp. melted butter to 1 cup meringue for a good
gingerbread topping.

Trim slices of bread (slices should be about 3/8-inch
thick). Toast properly, then butter and brush with honey.
Reheat enough to have toast absorb honey and serve piping

Spread slices of fresh toast with butter, brush with
honey (about 1 tbsp. honey for each slice), sprinkle with
cinnamon and oven toast enough to blend cinnamon and


Place thin slices of honey nut brown bread on thin pan,
oven toast both sides, spread with butter and honey. Cut
in triangles and serve open face.
These breads must be oven toasted and very carefully
turned over on flat tin with spatula so that the slices will
remain intact. Hot honey nut bread is delicious when
spread with orange marmalade immediately when removed
from oven.
Any of these toasts must be served piping hot to be good.

Hot honey lemonade is particularly valuable in reliev-
ing the grippe. When suffering from a cold, take a hot
honey lemonade just before retiring.
Four tbsp. lemon juice mixed with 4 tbsp. honey. Add
1 cup boiling water. Drink hot.

Honey may be substituted for part, or in many cases
where fruits are of high flavor, for all of the sugar needed
in canning and in making jelly, jam, preserves, fruit pickles
and conserves. Of course, where all honey is used it tends
to mask the more delicate flavor of the fruits, and color
and texture of the product too is darkened somewhat. It
is necessary, therefore, to use the mildest flavored honeys
in order that the individual, distinctive fruity flavors may
not be too much overshadowed by that of the honey.
Flavors of honey also vary with age and storage, so it
is always desirable to use a new honey for canning pur-
poses when available. The honey flavor combines better
with some fruits than with others. A combination of fruits
for making conserves or jams and butters in which spices
are used, for instance, is usually more pleasing than that
made with one fruit alone.
In using the honey, two precautions should be observed:
1. Since honey has a tendency to foam considerably
when heated, there is some danger of the products "cook-
ing over" at the beginning of the cooking period, if not
watched carefully.


2. Since honey is part water, in order to obtain the
desired consistency, it is necessary to cook the product in
which it is used slightly longer.
Basic recipes for honey syrups call for either an all-
honey syrup, one cup honey and three cups water, or pref-
erably a honey and sugar syrup, Vj cup sugar and 3 cups
water. This syrup is recommended for use with mild fla-
vored fruits, like figs, grapes, loquats, mangoes, peaches,
pears, pineapple, cultivated plums.
For fruits with more tartness, like the sour guavas and
many of the wild plums, a heavier syrup may be desirable.
The amount of dilution required for the syrup will vary
with the quality of the honey and the degree of sweetness
preferred. Use less rather than more sweetening. When
all honey is used sometimes lemon juice is added to the
all-honey syrups to counteract sweetness and to give an
interesting blend of flavors.
To prepare an all-honey syrup, bring water to boil, add
honey, let boil again, skim and strain and it is ready for
use. For the honey and sugar syrup, bring water and
sugar to boiling point, add honey, let boil again, strain and
use. Prepare fruit or berries, pack into hot containers,
add hot syrup in the same way as a sugar syrup; seal and
process product according to the standard time table for
canned fruits. Berry juice, grapejuice or other fruit juice
may be used to advantage in place of water for these can-
ning syrups.

Jelly of one's favorite honey is easily made when the
required pectin, liquid fruit pectin, or a powdered citrus
pectin, is provided. Honey jelly takes very little time and
makes a clear, amber product of the pronounced flavor of
the honey used. In making jelly without using an added
pectin, strong flavored juices, high in both pectin and acid,
are essential or a jelly of a gummy texture will result.
Crab-apple. mayhaw, wild plum, sour guava juices that
give a high pectin test, are good jelly juices to use with
honey, particularly when !2 the honey is replaced with
sugar for the fruit juice combination.


2 cups honey 4 cup liquid pectin or
% cup water 1 teaspoon powdered
lemon pectin*
Combine water with honey and heat very gently to
avoid scorching and the development of off flavor. Stir
constantly until boiling, then add 1./ cup liquid fruit pectin,
bring just to boiling and immediately remove from heat.
Pour into hot, sterilized glasses. The yield will be about
4 small glasses.

4 cup lemon juice 214 rups mild flavored
e cup liquid fruit pectint honey

Combine lemon juice and honey. Bring carefully to a full
rolling boil. Add liquid pectin, stir constantly and bring
just to a boil. Pour into small glasses and seal.

2 cups fruit juice a cup honey
2 tablespoons lemon juice 4a cup sugar

Mix juices and boil 5 minutes. Add sugar and bring
to boiling point. Add honey and cook to jelly test (2200 F.)
or until the jelly stage is reached, as indicated by the flak-
ing or sheeting from inside of spoon. Make pectin test be-
fore starting jelly making preparations to be sure a good
textured jelly can be made from the fruit juice on hand.
Guava juice, mayhaw, or other juice high in pectin may
be used the same way as crab-apple juice.

When powdered lemon pectin 61 uedl, heat the honey rently to about 15I6 F.
In another pan or kettle heat the water to about simmering. Remove a small part
of the warmnd honey into a cup and stir the dry pectin into it, making a smooth
paste. When the -lectin and honey aret wril mixed pour into the hot water. Rinse
the cut with the peelin solution until all the mixture has been transferred to the
water solution. Stir and heat until the peelin Is completely dissolved. Be sure
there are no lumps remaining. Add the pectin solution at once to the honey, which
should be about Iri' F. Bring to a temperature of about 170' F. or lightly higher.
Pour into mall containers and seal at once. The high temperature required in the
usual jelly making procedures should be avoided in making honey jelly, particularly
when powdered lemon iectin i. ustdl. as toughnesa a dnrker color and n. rather strong
flavor would result after a few wteks of strtonCv.
SManufacturers of citrus fruit pecti n n Californin andl of unple pectin in New
York. Missouri. and elsewhere. Furnish full and ldetaildtl directions for the use of their
respective product.. If pectin (commercially spleakingl Is used, in connection with the
fruit juice. it munt le dclnaro on the label.


The fruit of the native sour orange, so generally used
for root stock over many portions of the citrus area, is
used for making delightful preserves that are always
For best flavor use the fruit when well matured and
highly colored. Grate off all oil cells leaving the rich,
yellow colored skin exposed. Cut into quarters and remove
from pulp. Soak the peel in salt water (1 cup salt to 1
gallon water) overnight. Squeeze juice from pulp and
save to add to preserves during the last cook. Drain peel
from salt water. Cover well with clear water and boil for
10 minutes. Drain and cover with fresh water and cook
until peel is tender. If no bitter flavor is desired, it may
be necessary to change the water several times. However,
if the fruit used is fully ripe the slightly bitter flavor is
agreeable to most palates.
Drain peel and drop into a hot syrup made of three
cups honey and two cups water for each 2 pounds of peel.
Cook until peel is clear and syrup somewhat thickened.
Remove from heal and let stand overnight. The next day,
take from syrup, add : i. cup honey and I cup sour orange
juice and bring to boil. After boiling 10 minutes or until
thickened, replace fruit. Boil another 10 minutes or until
syrup is thick. Pack into hot jars immediately and process
pints for 10 minutes at boiling. Grapefruit. tangelo and
shaddock peel may be preserved in the same manner as
the sour orange.

Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into
slightly salted water and soak overnight; next day pour
off salted water, cover well with fresh and bring to a boil.
Drain and cover again with fresh water and cook until
tender. Drain.
To one pint of fruit add i'. pint of sugar, 14 pint orange
honey and one pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit
in the boiling syrup and simmer until clear and syrup is
slightly thickened. Plump over night in the same vessel,
covering tightly while still boiling and removing from fire.
The second or third day place back on fire and cook until
syrup is heavy. Pack in jars as any preserve, or if candied
kumquats are desired for immediate consumption, drain,
put on wire rack to dry and, while still sticky, roll in granu-
lated sugar.


(Peach, Pear, Pineapple)

2 cups mild flavored honey
1 cup cider vinegar
1 cup water
% piece ginger root*

lemon sliced, or 3 cala-
mondins or kumquats, cut
in thick slices and seeded
3 inches stick cinnamon
12 whole cloves

Combine honey, vinegar, and citrus fruit and spices.
Heat to boiling and boil gently about 5 minutes. Have
ready 4 to 6 cups of the quartered pears, peach halves or
pineapple chunks. Add to spiced solution. Cook until just
tender. Pack fruit in hot jars, cover with the boiling syrup
and seal at once.


J lb. green ginger scraped
and hopped
6 Ibs. honey
8 lbs. pears weighed after
paring and coring
1 pint water

4 oranges
3 lemons, juice and thinly
shredded peel
2 cups pecans or black wal-
nut meats

Cook the ginger, orange and lemon peel with a pint of
water until tender, then add honey, orange and lemon juice;
cook, put in the pears chopped coarsely and cook until pears
are tender. Add nut meats. Cook five minutes longer.
Pour in small hot jars and seal, boiling hot.

SGinger, Zinalber nficinale, often confused with the common ornuamr ntal ginger
lily. grows well in 'lorida and produces choice roots if given rich soil. sufficient
moisture and semi-shade. It i6 an e.ect herb. 12 to 24 inches high. canna like In
anipearncre aUndl urew frum thickened rhizomes which branch finterliko and send up
new shoots from the tipm near the surface of the soil. If desired for ipr .esrving and
cnndyih.g, thr ro ,l, should he dug while tender and, succulent, rather than when old.
touzh and fibrouu. Ginger Is one ~l' the world's most popular splees. It is an in-
dispecnable Iart of chutneys, giving them much of their sliicinc s and pungent flavor.


Honey Bees and Their Products

It would seem that as old a subject as Honey Bees and
their products would have long since been exhausted and
nothing new could be said on the theme. But it seems that
no subject is really ever "worn out" as we never know all
about anything. The bee industry has been revolutionized
during the last fifty years.
Honey is the oldest of all the sweets used by man.
There seems to be no country that can claim to be the origi-
nal home of the honey bee. Different species were found
in practically all the inhabitable parts of the world. The
aborigines of Peru sacrificed honey to the sun. Stingless
honey bees of Brazil produced every variety of honey from
good edible kind to black and sour. No one knows who first
tasted honey and pronounced it good. Samson, the strong
man, made a riddle on honey he found in the skull of a
lion which he had slain. That riddle got him in trouble.
John the Baptist's food, we are told, was locusts and wild
The honey bee is quite a useful animal. He does no
damage to the plant from which he gets his product-he is
beneficial in his visits to flowers by carrying pollen and
aiding in fertilization of the seed germs--and he brings a
valuable product to the service of man. He is one creature
that seems to be miserable unless he is at work. His in-
dustry is his life.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture reports that the
average analysis of honey shows the following percentages
of elements:

Water 17.7
Laevulose ....... 40.5
Dextrose . .- ..... 34.02
Sucrose 1.9
Dextrin and gums ...... 1.51
Ash ..... ... .......... .15

This leaves 21.92 percent unaccounted for. These per-
centages differ largely in different specimens analyzed.


Extraneous matter gets into some honeys, such as pollen
or peculiar substances that may be in the nectar as ex-
tracted from the flower.
All edible honeys are thought to contain vitamins A,
B and C-neither of which can be found in cane or beet
sugars, according to authorities on the subject. The pro-
portions of laevulose and dextrose vary greatly in differ-
ent flowers from which honey is obtained. A high per-
centage of laevulose prevents crystallization. The tupelo
of the southeastern states and the sages of California pro-
duce this kind of honey. The high percentage of dextrose
causes honey to crystallize quickly and is therefore less
desirable for keeping indefinitely and for shipping long
It remains for the physicians and dietitians of this
generation to discriminate between the different sweets
used for food and classify them according to their food
values and dietetic qualities. Even honeys are not all alike
in content, flavor or appearance. The world today is so
completely commercialized that one may look for a flare-up
if he says that one kind of sweet is better for the human
anatomy than another.
The general keeping of bees is a good thing economi-
cally, in spreading pollen and in furnishing honey for the
household. But the fact remains that the production of a
certain variety and quality in large amounts is the only
way to open up a sure market at a good price. Buyers of
large quantities of anything want to know if they can
depend on the source of supply to be ready when they want
it and in the quantities they want. This is the only way
they can build up a trade that continues from year to year.
The human taste is subject to cultivation and when cus-
tomers of dealers in honey ask for a certain honey or
syrup they have cultivated their taste to that particular
kind and do not want to be put off with "something just
as good." If the orange honey producers were to advertise
their honey through some central office it would vastly in-
crease the market. The same is true of the tupelo honey or
any other good variety. Melilotus honey is of a kind and
appearance that appeals to hundreds of thousands, but it
takes advertising to create and hold buyers.


The State Department of Agriculture has nothing to
do with the supervising or inspection of bees or honey.
That comes under the jurisdiction of the State Plant Board.
As the extermination of plant pests is a Plant Board func-
tion it has been construed that bee pests should come under
the same head.
I have no comparative figures of the value of honey
and molasses but the time was at the turn of the century
when honey exceeded in value the molasses in the United
States. Modern methods of refining and advertising arti-
ficial sweets have placed them far in the lead as food
Many physicians and dietitians are recommending honey
for arthritis and neuritis. It has proven to be efficacious
in many cases where all other remedies had failed.
There should be established a clinic in some institution
equipped for scientific experimentation as to the value of
different kinds of honey both as a food and as a remedial
agent for human ills.
It would be a signal service to humanity if some medi-
cal school or hospital would establish with certainty the
facts connected with this subject.
Florida is a honey-producing state, largely because we
have an abundance of different nectar-producing flowers
and also because of the long season during which honey
can be gathered. I am of the opinion that the greatest
thing the honey-producers could do for their marketing
advantage would be to organize and place a fund for the
judicious advertising of the distinct types, giving emphasis
to the distinguishing qualities of each.


By T. J. Brooks

The word sweet has a multiplicity of meanings.
There are sixty English words that begin with "sweet,"
and as many that begin with honey.
It applies to taste, smell, looks, acts characteristics-if
pleasant. Sucrose, Dextrose, Lactose, Maltrose, sacharose,
levulose, glucose, are sweets. The last named is often given
directly into the bloodstream.
The antonyms are sour, bitter. offensive, ugly, contemp-
There is a universal demand or sweets. Those of taste
call for sugar, honey, syrup of varying kinds and flavor.
The oldest sweet known is honey. Man cannot manufacture
it. Nature has provided a little worker in the form of a
honey-producing insect which gathers nectar from flowers
that furnish this particular form of sweet.
An important thing to be remembered is that no other
sweet has the food value that honey has. Why do you men
who are in the honey-producing business not emphasize this
and advertise it to the public. Are you afraid that you will
make a claim that you cannot substantiate? Well, I know
of no more dependable authority on scientific questions
than the Encyclopedia Britannica. Listen to what it says:
"In most countries at present. the amount of cane and
beet sugar exceeds the honey used by fifty times, whereas
in ancient times honey was the most important source of
sweetness. There is, of course, .much evidence that the pres-
ent excessive use of artificially manufactured sugars and
syrups is DETRIMENTAL. All such sugars and syrups are
wholly DEFICIENT in vitamins and have had EXTRACTED
manufacturing processes; just as occurs in the highly de-
veloped manufacture of other modern food-stuffs. The re-
cent protest against artificially manufactured foods is re-
sulting in an increase in the advice that honey be used as
a natural food product, in place of such large quantities of
manufactured sweets. Various new and important uses
are now being found for honey, in which other syrups can-
not be employed satisfactorily."
The Encyclopedia Americana has this to say:
"Honey is highly nutritive, especially as a fuel for ener-
gizing the body, as four-fifths of its components are carbo-


hydrates. It has well recognized medicinal properties."
It is a subject of common discussion that white, bleached,
starchy flour makes non-nutritious bread. It is also well es-
tablished that white, refined sugar is not the food that un-
bleached sugar is. Another thing known is that all syrups
partake of the soils from they grow and if the soil is defi-
cient in the minerals that food should have the syrup is
also deficient. What other foods than honey have a "hun-
dred uses?"
This is true of all crops. So much so it is with honey
that the same flower will produce honey in some states and
will not in others. Take alfalfa, it will make good honey
in the irrigated West and will not in the section east of the
Missouri River. Buckwheat will produce honey in some
states and not in others.
Pity that all food products could not be labeled with the
statement giving the mineral content of the soils from which
it grew. Big canning concerns that have their fruits and
vegetables grown under contract could begin the practice
and make the custom almost universal. Then the buying
public would know whether they were getting a balanced
food or not.
If honey is a more wholesome and nutritious food than
any other sweet food the public is due to loow it. As yet,
so far as I know, the honey producers have never had a
nation-wide advertising campaign. Why not quote the thing
I have just quoted from the Encyclopedia and paste a label
on each container giving the buyer the advantage of the
information? That would be just common business practice
and be perfectly honorable.
All honeys are not alike. There are black honeys in
South America that are poisonous. There are honeys that
are mixed with bitter elements. There are honeys from
noxious weeds, from grass, from trees, from shrlbs
and even from leaves where certain creatures have left a
deposit. Most honeys will finally turn to sugar. That which
comes from the Tupelo tree blossoms will not because it is
low in dextrose and has plenty of levulose.
Glucose can be introduced directly into the blood stream.
It is one of the sweets, When eaten the sugars are quickest
to furnish nourishment of all foods. The mineral contents
of honey depend on the flower from which it came and the
contents of the flower are determined by the soil from which
it grew. Of course one flower will obtain its nectar from
the soil and another flower will get a different assortment
from the same soil.


You have a honey in this part of the country that has
levulose but little dextrose. For that reason it never crys-
tallizes. Doctors prescribe it in some places for diabetes,
arthritis, neuritis, etc. If the people generally were con-
vinced that honey was the healthiest sweet possible there
would be no surplus on the market. You should advertise
as others do. Why not cultivate a honey appetite?
The honey bee is a remarkably useful animal. He not
only collects a splendid article of diet but he also benefits
the crops from which he secures his honey. The pollen that
sticks to him as he crawls in and out of each bloom helps to
fertilize the flower that it may bear fruit. It is necessary
that there be a mixing of the male and female parts of dif-
ferent flowers for there to be a full crop of fruit. The bee
also builds a sanitary container of wax for his honey from
the materials that result from his work in gathering his
sweets. Citrus fruit is very dependent on this pollenization
process. Other crops are largely dependent on insect pollen-
In years past, Florida was a "happy hunting ground"
for beekeepers from other states, There was no prejudice
against them until they began to abuse the privilege and
brought foul brood into the state. It is hard enough to keep
this bee pest down when the best of precautions are used,
but when no regard for the welfare of our honey producers
is manifest it naturally brings resentment. The legislature
of 1947 passed amendments to our law on apiaries prohibit-
ing the importation of hives into the state and offered the
only safeguard for our home beekeepers.
There are ten thousand beekeepers in Florida and they
have some eighty-eight thousand stands.


Classes for Honey
1. The following shall be the classes for honey for ship-
ment out of Canada:-
(a) Extra White-When in liquid form the honey shall
be no darker in colour than a reading of 13 mm.
on the Pfund Honey Grader.
(b) White-When in liquid form the honey shall be
no darker in colour than a reading of 30 mm. on
the Pfund Honey Grader.
(c) Golden-When in liquid form the honey shall be
no darker in colour than a reading of 47 mm. on
the Pfund Honey Grader.
(d) Light Amber--When in liquid form the honey
shall be no darker in colour than a reading of 81
mm. on the Pfund Honey Grader.
(e) Dark Amber-When in liquid form the honey shall
be no darker in colour than a reading of 109 mm.
on the Pfund Honey Grader.
(f) Dark-When in liquid form the honey shall be
darker in colour than a reading of 109 mm. on the
Pfund Honey Grader.
(g) Unclassified-Shall only include honey in retail
or consumer containers and not marked with a
specific colour classification.

(2) The following shall be the classes for honey other than
for shipment out of Canada:-
(a) White-When in liquid form the honey shall be no
darker in colour than a reading of 30 mm. on the
Pfund Honey Grader.
(b) Golden-When in liquid form the honey shall be
no darker in color than a reading of 47 mm. on
the Pfund Honey Grader.
(c) Amber-When in liquid form the honey shall be
no darker in color than a reading of 81 mm. on
the Pfund Honey Grader.
(d) Dark-When in liquid form the honey shall be
darker in colour than a reading of 81 mm. on the
Pfund Honey Grader.


2. The following shall be the grades for honey:-

No. 1 Grade
(a) (i) "No. 1" which shall be free from damage and
practically free of foreign material;
(ii) of moisture content not exceeding 17.8 per
cent: or with a minimum specific gravity
reading of 1.4184 at 68 degrees Fahrenheit
referred to water at the same temperature, in
the domestic classes of "White," "Golden,"
"Amber" and "Dark" and in the export
classes of "Extra White." "White," and
"Golden" and
(iii) of moisture content not exceeding 18.6 per
cent, or with a minimum specific gravity read-
ing of 1.4129 at 68 degrees Fahrenheit referred
to water at the same temperature, in the ex-
port classes of "Light Amber," "Dark Amber"
and "Dark."

No. 2 Grade
(b) (i) "No. 2" which shall be free from damage and
fairly free of foreign material;
(ii) of moisture content not exceeding 18.6 per
cent, or with a minimum specific gravity read-
ing of 1.4129 at 68 degrees Fahrenheit referred
to water at the same temperature.

No. 3 Grade
(c) (i) "No. 3" consisting of honey which does not
meet the requirements of the foregoing grades
but is free from serious damage and fairly
free of foreign material and of moisture content
not exceeding 20 per cent, or with a minimum
specific gravity reading of 1.0433 at 68 degrees
Fahrenheit referred to water at the same
(d) When honey is granulated, it may, at the
option of the packer, be further graded as
being of fine, medium or coarse texture, but
no honey shall be so marked until it is granu-


Definition of Terms:

(i) "Damage" means injury caused by turbidity,
overheating or any objectionable flavour or
aroma from floral source, honey-dew, smoke
taint or other flavour or aroma foreign to

(ii) "fairly free" means that honey or its surface
is as clear as if strained at temperature of not
more than 130" F. through a standard bolting
cloth of 23 meshes to the inch;

Note.-Honey which at ordinary extracting room tem-
perature has been strained without pressure through a dou-
ble thickness of ordinary fine cheesecloth and thereupon
allowed to settle usually will be practically free of foreign

(iii) "practically free" means that the honey or
its surface is as clear as if strained at tem-
perature of not more than 130" F. through a
standard bolting cloth of 86 meshes to the

Note.-Honey which at ordinary extracting room tem-
perature has been strained without pressure through a dou-
ble thickness of ordinary fine cheesecloth and thereupon
allowed to settle usually will be practically free of foreign

(iv) "serious damage" means any injury, defect or
deterioration seriously affecting the edibility
or shipping quality of the honey;

(v) "turbidity" means cloudiness caused by pollen
grains, minute air bubbles, finely divided wax
particles, or other substances that detract from
the clearness of the honey.

In order to allow for variations incident to proper classi-
fication, grading and packing, not more than 10 per cent
by count of containers in any lot graded as No. 1 or No. 2
shall contain honey that differs from the class or grade
as marked on the containers, but no tolerance shall be
allowed for any honey that is below the next lower class
or grade. No tolerance shall be allowed for serious damage
in honey graded as No. 3.


Package Marks
3. Every person who packs, sells, offers for sale, or has
in his possession any honey intended for sale, shall be
responsible that each package is plainly and indelibly
marked as follows:-
(a) For shipment out of Canada-
(i) The words "Canada" or "Canadian" and
(ii) The class and grade.
(iii) The mark (B) directly following the grade
where the aroma or flavour of buckwheat
honey can be detected.
(iv) The registration number or registered trade
name identifying the shipper.
(v) The lot numbers as required in subclause (1)
of clause 11 of the regulations.
(vi) The net weight of the honey contained.
(vii) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey
has been treated to preserve its original liquid
(b) For shipment other than out of Canada-
(i) The name of the province of origin and the
word "Honey." (Note.-The words "Can-
ada" or "Canadian" may also appear if de-
(ii) The class and grade.
(iii) The mark (B) directly following the grade
where the aroma or flavour of buckwheat
honey can be detected.
(iv) The registration number or registered trade
name identifying the shipper.
(v) The net weight of the honey contained.
(vi) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey
has been treated to preserve its original liquid
(2) With the exception of lot numbers all marks re-
quired shall be distinctly legible block letters of
size reasonably in proportion to the size of the
package and not less than 48 of an inch in length
and except in the case of barrels, half-barrels and
casks shall be placed on a single face or side of the
package which surface shall bear no additional
mark or stamp other than those placed thereon by
an inspector.



Marking Honey
4. Other than for shipment out of Canada, every person
who packs. ships, sells, offers for sale, or has in his
possession any honey intended for sale, shall be re-
sponsible that each container is plainly and indelibly
marked as follows:
(a) Glass containers-
Name and address of the packer or of the first
dealer and the word "Honey." The letters shall be
of size reasonably in proportion to the size and
design of the label.
(b) All other containers-
(i) Name and address of the packer or of the first
(ii) The name of the province of origin and the
word "Honey."
NOTE.-Where applicable the province of origin may
be included in the address.
(iii) The class and grade.
(iv) The mark (B) directly following the grade
where the aroma or flavour of buckwheat
honey can be detected.
(v) The words "Liquid Honey" provided the honey
has been treated to preserve its original liquid
(2) All marks required by the preceding subclause
shall appear on a single face or side of the con-
tainer and be in distinctly legible block letters of
minimum size as follows:
(i) On containers up to, and including, ten pounds
capacity, one-eighth inch in length.
(ii) On containers of more than ten pounds capaci-
ty, one-quarter inch in length.
(3) Any person who ships honey other than his own
pack may use a number to designate the packer
provided a list of the names and addresses of all
packers with corresponding numbers allotted is
filed annually with the Department. In such cases
the name and address of the shipper as well as the
packer's allotted number shall be marked on the
5. In the case of granulated honey only, the words "Fine"
or "Medium" or "Coarse" may be added after the class
and grade designation on containers and packages, to


indicate the texture of the honey, e.g., "Golden No. 1
(oarse." Where such indication of' texture is made it
shall be in letters of the same size as the class and
grade marks.
Containers and Packages
6. lHoney shall be packed in clean, sound and strongly con-
tructed containers.
(2) Containers of honey shall be packed in clean, well
constructed packages in good condition and which
arc not defaced by old markings.
(3) Containers of extracted honey shall be securely
closed by means of "screw caps," "friction top lids,"
"bungs" or otherwise as may be approved by the
7. Every person who assembles or ships honey for export
or interprovincial trade shall register thereto by mak-
ing application to the Department. The fee for regis-
tration shall be One Dollar ($1.).
(2) Upon receipt of application for registration to-
gether with the fee of $1, a numbered registration
certificate shall be issued to the applicant.
(3) All registration certificates issued shall expire on
June 30 of each year, but in the case of any person
shipping only honey of his own production shall be
renewable without fee.
Sanitary Conditions
8. The following sanitary conditions shall be observed and
(a) All buildings or rooms in which honey is extracted,
packed or stored shall be maintained in a clean and
.anitary condition.
(b) All appliances including extractors, pumps, tanks,
uncapping machines or other equipment used in
the handling of honey from the apiary to the final
containers shall be kept clean and sanitary.
(c) All operations in connection with the preparation
and packing of honey shall be carried on carefully
and with strict cleanliness.
(d) All persons engaged in the preparation, handling
and packing of honey shall be free from any cam-
municable disease, and the covering used by them
to protect their clothing or persons shall be of ma-
terial easily cleaned and shall be kept reasonably


(e) No lavatory, sink, cesspool or building in which
animals are housed shall be so situated or main-
tained as to permit any odours or fumes therefrom,
to pervade any room or building in which honey
is being extracted, packed, handled or stored.
(f) All honey intended to be used for food found by
an inspector in an apiary, packing plant or ware-
house, to be in any way unfit for food purposes
shall be placed under detention and held for dis-
posal as the Minister may direct.
(g) All vehicles used for the transportation of honey
shall be clean and sanitary to the satisfaction of
the inspector.

9. The applicant for inspection shall be responsible that
notification is given the inspector, in sufficient time
prior to date of shipment, to allow him to take samples
for determination of moisture and other grade require-
10. No person shall use for packing honey any container
or package that has been previously .marked without
first completely obliterating such markings when same
are inconsistent with the marks required by the regu-
11. When there is any noticeable difference in the colour
or quality of the honey or when honey from different
packers or producers is included in one shipment the
person submitting the honey for inspection shall sub-
mit each variation of each class, grade or pack in
separate lots, each lot bearing a distinguishing mark.
(2) Where any shipment of honey is submitted for in-
spection in a place considered unsuitable by the
inspector or not sorted into separate lots or not
bearing the distinguishing marks or where there
is any irregularity in the distinguishing marks the
inspector may refuse to inspect such honey until
it has been arranged, sorted and marked as re-
quired by the regulations.
12. Every person contravening any of the provisions of
these regulations shall be liable upon summary con-
viction to a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars and
not less than ten dollars and in default of payment of
the fine to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one
month unless the fine is sooner paid.


By J. A. Whitfield
It is not difficult to speak of Nature to a friendly and
understanding audience. Both you and I turn to her in her
primitive glory, when we seek rest, inspiration and strength
to carry on. Perhaps we have been cruising on the Gulf and
suddenly became filled with the urge for "fresh woods and
pastures new." If we set our course up the historic Apa-
lachicola River to the Chipola and the famous Dead Lakes
and feasted our eyes on the inspiring verdure of virgin for-
est; if, in desire to prolong the vision, we had shut off the
motor and held momentarily to some overhanging bough,
our ears would have joined our eyes in ecstatic appreciation.
The busy hum of myriad bees would reach us, soothe us and
comfort us. An upward glance would disclose above and
all around us thousands of fuzzy blooms, giving of their
sweetness to the greatest workers in the world. You would
have chanced upon industry in its pristine glory,-TUPELO
HONEY TIME-latter part of April.
Most of this bee keeping country is as wild as in the days
of the Conquistadores. If we pursue our investigation fur-
ther, we find that the only evidences of man or civilization
are the apiaries, elevated upon high platforms up and down
the banks of the river. These are from five to twenty-five
feet in height, from fifteen to twenty-five feet wide and from
three to five hundred feet long. The hives are placed upon
either side of the platform with the bee entrances pointing
outward, leaving a walkway of between six and eight feet
between the hives.
Aside from its mild and delicious flavor, this Tupelo
Honey has distinct and peculiar characteristics that make
it a preeminent product in certain fields. By analysis, it
contains about twice as much levulose as dextrose, or a pro-
portion of 23'; dextrose, 46'" levulose with the usual four
or five percent of sucrose. The average American honey
contains about 39%' of levulose and 34;' of dextrose. The
higher percentage of levulose in Tupelo Honey makes it a
product that DOES NOT GRANULATE. Samples have
been kept for twenty-five years without granulation.
A number of physicians have discovered that sugar,
levulose is more readily tolerated by diabetics than any
other sugar and Tupelo has been recommended to many thus
affected with wonderful results. It should not be used, how-
ever, without the attending physician's investigation and


Another problem of the Tupelo Honey producer is one of
early pollen. Many of the keepers find it profitable to move
their hives to points in South Georgia, where plenty of nat-
ural pollen is available. In fact for months the bees are
subjected to an unconscious process of preparation for the
brief period of tupelo flow, which in normal seasons is at its
height from the middle of April to the middle of May. The
flow lasts between three and four weeks according to cli-
matic conditions and the hives are robbed two or three times,
practically all of the honey being removed the last time.
Usually during the first part of January, the bees are
brought back from their winter quarters in Georgia and
they begin to feed almost at once on titi, maple, ironwood
and a variety of other early blooming plants. Having been
practically dormant for the past three months they are in
their weakest condition at this time. During the remainder
of January and all of February they are carefully built up
and nurtured in preparation for the real work of the spring.
In unusually cold seasons it is necessary to feed the bees,
but normally they find sufficient sustenance among native
In March the black tupelo gum, oak and other trees begin
to bloom and the bees, which are now in good condition,
begin to work in earnest. The colonies are encouraged to
continue building up and the foundation is placed for the
top boxes. At the end of the black tupelo flow and just be-
fore the white tupelo blooms, the hives are completely
cleaned out, so that the white and dark tupelo may not be
mixed. Black tupelo is known to the trade as amber and is
sold to manufacturers of candy and confections.
About April the 20th, the white tupelo flow is at its
height and the bees have reached their best condition of
the year and they need all their strength, for within three
or four weeks many hundred thousand pounds of honey
are gathered. The bees work so frantically that the average
life during this flow is twenty-one days. They wear out
their wings in that time and die.
At the conclusion of the white tupelo flow, some of the
producers leave their hives to be filled during June and July
with honey and pollen from the wild grape vine and snow
vines for the winter months, as all of this is dark honey and
not profitable commercially. The most profitably operated
apiaries follow a different plan. They screen over and
close their hives and transport them into the farming sec-
tions of extreme North Florida and South Georgia where
they are allowed to pass the rest of the summer in gather-


ing honey and pollen for the winter months. With the ar-
rival of cold weather they become dormant and as stated,
in January are brought back to the home apiary to begin
the operation all over again.
From the foregoing it is readily ascertainable that the
production of tupelo honey does not follow the same smooth
roads as that of other varieties. The problems of transporta-
tion north and return, the location of the apiaries with ref-
erence to owners' homes, as well as the ordinary expenses
and replacements incidental thereto, all these make neces-
sary a price slightly higher than for other grades. When
one considers the merit of the product, the difference is en-
tirely negligible. The beekeepers who produce Tupelo Hon-
ey, during the quarter of a century of its existence, have
never striven for riches, but have been, and still are, per-
fectly satisfied with a fair return for their labor. Their
excess profits are in the associations incidental to their
work, the beauty and soul's satisfactionn of the woods and
It will be remembered that Tupelo Honey is never sold
in the comb, but always in liquid form. This gives an es-
sentially purer product as every drop is strained. The honey
men have always been proud of their product and taken
keen interest in preserving its reputation. To this end a
little over a year ago, a Cooperative Association was formed
among the most progressive of the beekeepers to perpetuate
the progress and purity of Tupelo Honey, as well as to take
charge of the marketing of the product.



A GRAY, April morning-cold and dreary even on a
palatial extra fare train rushing across the continent. Trav-
el-weary passengers drift into the dining car. scowl at the
menu and stare gloomily at the cloud veiled landscape. The
waiter deferentially suggests to one, "And will you have
honey with your waffle, sir? It is the very finest honey made
-pure white tupelo. Yes, sir! I'm sure you will like it."

The breakfast is served, and in due time a small, squat
jar of crystal clear, pale yellow fluid appears before the
weary guest. Its contents are revealed as a delicately fla-
vored, infinitely smooth, slow-pouring liquid, which becomes
sublety itself on the palate, perfect in flavor and consistency.
The guest, suddenly hungry, consumes the last drop with
Two thousand miles from the chance diner and his pleas-
antly. though expensively gratified appetite, there lies a
heavily timbered, sparsely settled region of which he never
heard, and through it runs a calm, purposeful river with a
long Indian name that would be only a jumble of the alpha-
bet to him. It is a friendly river, but it is businesslike and
as it rounds a deep curve in the shoreline it neither repulses
nor urges one to follow. Yet if one descends the gentle slope
of the shore to a boat waiting among graceful, gray tree
trunks that stand in the shallow backwaters, there would
be no delay in paddling out into the bayou, clear of the
clustering trees, past the steamboat landing and out into
the current. For those who listen to rivers know that this
one has something to say.
Rapidly, happily the miles flow past. Evenly, unhurried-
ly the river swings on between banks massed with the glori-
ous green of a virgin forest, rich in realization of a southern
April. Cypress, cottonwood, water elm, sycamore, laurel
oak, cedar, hickory, live oak, chinquapin, water ash, sweet
bay, box elder-all these and more crowd its banks and form
a background for thickets of willow, button bush, black
haw, titi and hackberry. Iarkly mased behind them loom
giant magnolias dotted with early bloom that trails its ex-
quisite fragrance on the morning air. Wild Wisteria scram-
bling adventurously over shrubs and trees, swings its first
purple tassels in the river breeze, and feathery cottonwood
and fluffy willow blooms drift lightly down through the soft
Far more numerous than any of these, however, are


thickly branched trees with sturdy gray brown trunks and
dark, glossy leaves. They seem to be everywhere-tender
slips at the water's edge. thick bushy younglings mingled
with the forest growth on the low shore, mature trees
standing in the still backwaters and lagoons. This is the
tupelo gum tree of the southern lowlands. From its branches
at this season depend thousands upon thousands of small
fuzzy bolls or blooms, oil long stems and in thick clusters.
And upon those has been founded, casually and gradually,
an industry that offers to discriminating world markets a
valuable commodity in the form of a choice type of the most
wholesome sweet known.
For miles down the river there is no sign of human habi-
tation, but hidden in the edge of the leafy screen along the
banks one unwittingly passes many well tenanted homes of
tireless, eager workers. Though the air be heavy with the
scent of spring blossoms, these busy swarms of Italian bees
pay not attention to any but the white tupelo blooms, and
the riverfront and swamp in all directions are astir with
them through the daylight hours. The "flow" is on: It is
tupelo time.
For those who think of Florida only as a tropical winter
playground where a fortunate few may loll in summer at-
tire on white sand beaches, there is a revelation in a trip to
the little known northwest section of the state. Here four
counties dip down to form the last descending point of land
before the Gulf Stream sweeps up to hollow out the great
curve of the peninsula's western shore. Here is a land un-
developed drowsing happily among its riches, covetous of
no one, desirous of nothing, unselfish to a fault. Endless
acres of cutover pine land, worked out years ago by the
great lumber companies, are abandoned to pasturage and
casual turpentining of the younger growth timber. Deep
swamps, thickly crowded with hardwood trees as yet spared
the timberman's axe and saw, shelter birds and game in
great numbers.
Centrally located in this undeveloped region and front-
ing on the Gulf of Mexico is Gulf County, created from the
southern part of Calhoun County in 1925. It is sparsely
settled, there being perhaps no more than 5,000 people in
the entire county. Wewahitchka, a small village located in
the north central section, is the county seat and is the nu-
cleus of the tupelo honey industry of northwest Florida,
with an annual production of 535,000 pounds of fancy white
tupelo honey, which brings the producers about $60.000.
Fancy white tupelo honey is considered the choicest kind
and grade offered to the trade, as it is delicately flavored,


crystal clear, light in color, smooth in consistency, high in
density and is not variable in any way. In addition to these
advantages the pure white tupelo honey has the remarkable
qualities of never granulating and never becoming rancid.
One producer at Wewahitchka has a sample of honey which
he has kept for nineteen years. It is kept in an ordinary
glass jar with a cork, and retains the same flavor, color and
consistency which it had in the beginning. Despite these
exceptional qualities, white tupelo honey rarely reaches the
consumer in an unadulterated state, because the producers
for the most part sell direct to canners and commission men
who have utilized it to build up and improve blended honey
from other sections. The advantage to the concern which
bottles honey is obvious; the addition of a small quantity of
white tupelo honey to that of other flavors and grades im-
proves the taste and lengthens the time during which it will
keep without granulation or deterioration. The disadvan-
tage to the producer who has so carefully handled his api-
aries throughout the year in order to guarantee the purity
of his tupelo honey is also obvious, since few consumers ever
obtain his produce in an unadulterated state or know its
source. The remedy, apparently, lies in a movement now on
foot to revolutionize the prevailing system of marketing.
The tupelo gum tree, both white and black, is native
to the swamps and river bottoms of northwest Florida and
grows profusely in them. It also grows in Louisiana, Mis-
sissippi and other southern states, but Gulf County apiarists
state that the production of pure white tupelo honey has not
been reduced to an exact science except in their locality.
The black tupelo makes a darker and less desirable honey
than the white, and mixing of the two is carefully avoided
in the Wewahitchka section where beekeepers have learned
to manage their hives in such a way as to accomplish this.
The Chattahoochee River, rising in central Georgia,
flows south to the Gulf of Mexico, and is joined near the
Florida line by the Flint River from Alabama. From this
point the stream is called the Apalachicola until it reaches
the Gulf at the town and bay of the same name. For ahout
sixty miles of its lower course the banks and backwaters of
the stream are heavily wooded with the tupelo gum, and
the river swamps in which this tree thrives vary from one
to twenty miles in width. Learning early of the superior
quality of honey produced by the tupelo gum and the prefer-
ence of the bees for it, local apiaries placed their colonies
of bees on the river bank or deep in the swamps, often locat-
ing from ten, twenty or more miles from any human habita-
tion. There are few roads in this section and many apiaries
are inaccessible except by boat. Most of the tupelo acreage


is leased from its owners by apiarists, though some own the
land on which they operate. There are twenty-eight of the
larger apiary sites, averaging twenty-five acres to the site,
and covering more than twenty thousand acres in all. Scien-
tists have stated that bees will fly three miles for honey,
but practical apiarists in the Wewahitchka section believe
that two miles is an average distance of flight, and they
locale their colonies with this in view. The Italian bee pre-
dominiaes in this district, though some of the wild black
bees which abound in Florida forests have mingled with
hives in a few apiaries. The wild bees are difficult to handle
and are not desirable for commercial use.
Honey producers were alarmed and distressed about a
year ago because of the entrance of cigar box manufacturers
into the white tupelo section and the purchase of tupelo gum
timber by them. It was found, much to the relief of the
apiarists, that the wood of the tupelo gum is too light and
brittle for use in box making and other hardwoods were sub-
The tupelo gum, or cotton gum tree, is usually fifty to
seventy-five feet in height and two or three feet in diameter,
and it frequents swamps and inundated areas. The base is
often enlarged, and the tree has a fairly straight trunk
covered with thin, gray-brown bark, deeply furrowed. The
branches are smooth and light brown, and the slender,
pointed leaves are thick, their upper surface being dark
green and lustrous and the lower pale and downy. The blos-
soms are usually borne on separate trees, the male in dense
round clusters and the female alone on long slender stems.
The bloom appears before the leaves on the black tupelo
gum, but the opposite is true of the white tupelo. The male
tupelo bloom resembles a black clove and is said to contain
more honey than the female bloom, which is a small fuzzy
ball. Each of them secretes nectar constantly and profusely
fromi twenty to twenty-five days, and bees return again and
again to the same blossoms for honey, which often gathers
so thickly that it could be scraped off with a knife. It is be-
lieved that twelve days elapse from the bud to the full bloom
of the tupelo, and after the period of secretion the pod turns
brown and drops off.
The present State apiary inspector for that district has
resided near Wewahitchka since 1885, and he has records of
carefully conducted tests in which single colonies of bees
have been known to gather twenty pounds of honey in one
day. In a favorable season one apiary containing ninety
colonies produced thirty-eight barrels of honey in three
weeks, each barrel containing thirty gallons. The average


production of one hundred colonies during the brief period
in which they gather white tupelo honey is twenty, thirty
gallon barrels, but records of twenty-five and even twenty-
seven barrels are common. The confinement of the bees'
activities to the short space of three or four weeks makes
possible the production of unadulterated white tupelo honey,
and the insects "on vacation" during the remainder of the
In March the black tupelo gum, oak and other trees be-
gin to bloom, and the bees which are now in good condition
begin work in earnest. The colonies are encouraged to con-
tinue building up and the foundation is placed for the top
boxes. At the end of the black tupelo flow, and just before
the white tupelo blooms, the hives are completely cleaned
out, so that the white and black tupelo honey may not be
mixed. The black tupelo honey is known to the trade as
"amber" and is sold to manufacturers of candy and confec-
About April the 20th the white tupelo "flow" is at its
height and the bees have reached their best condition of the
year. Within a period of about three weeks, more than 500,-
000 pounds of white tupelo honey are gathered in this vicini-
ty and the bees work so frantically that the average life of
a working bee during the "flow" is estimated to be twenty-
one days. He wears his wings out in that length of time
and dies.
At the conclusion of the white tupelo flow some produc-
ers leave their bees to fill up the hives during June and July
with honey and pollen from the wild grape vine and snow
vine for the winter months, as all of this is dark honey and
is not of high value commercially. The most profitably op-
erated apiaries, however, follow a different plan. Immediate-
ly after the white tupelo season the hives are screened over
and closed, and a river steamer collects them from the
small landings which are built at intervals. They are shipped
from sixty to one hundred miles up the river and its tribu-
taries into farming sections of Georgia and Alabama, where
they are scattered in small groups of several colonies each
and allowed to pass the rest of the summer in gathering
honey and pollen for the winter months. With the arrival
of cold weather they become dormant, and in early January,
they are again shipped down the river to begin their work
of hive building and preparation for the brief period of
honey flow. This practice gives the bees access through the
summer to pollen and honey from cotton, corn and other cul-
tivated crops in addition to that from other wild growths.
Very little farming is done in the white tupelo section where


the bees do their most important work, and they must be
nourished and maintained in good condition throughout the
remainder of the year. The largest individual producer in
this section has an apiary thirteen miles from Wewahitchka
where 326 colonies of bees average 40,000 pounds of pure
white tupelo honey each season. The presence of high water
in the tupelo swamps during several months of each year
renders it necessary to build many of the apiaries on plat-
forms fourteen to sixteen feet in height and three hundred
to seven hundred feet long. The honey house, containing two
stories, is built immediately behind the platform at its
center and an inclined runway leads from each story to a
small wharf or steamboat landing.
The hives are placed in double rows along the platform,
with a passageway between, and the entire work of harvest-
ing the honey and packing it for shipment is handled in the
honey house at each apiary. All white tupelo honey is sold in
the extracted form. When the hives are robbed the combs
are brought into the upper story of the honey house and
placed in a large vat, where a slicer removes the caps. It is
then placed in frames in a revolving drum and the honey
is extracted by centrifugal force, after which it runs
through a pipe into a large tank of very tight construction
on the lower floor of the honey house. Here the small amount
of sediment and foreign matter contained in the honey set-
tles and the finished product is drawn off into barrels con-
structed for this particular purpose. Because of its weight,
honey is particularly subject to leakage, and it is difficult
to handle in bulk. The barrels used are specially coopered of
choice cypress, carefully washed, dried and paraffined in-
side. They are used only once, each season's shipments
going out in new barrels. River steamboats run twice a week
and the barreled honey is delivered to them direct from the
dock at the front of each apiary, or from regular landings.
Prices received by the producers are very low in com-
parison with the high price finally paid by the few consum-
ers who obtain this choice product in its unadulterated form.
The average for the past four years has been ten cents a
For many years the honey was bid in by representatives
of large commission houses who came to Wewahitchka for
that purpose at the close of the honey harvesting season each
spring. Eventually the monopoly which a few of these held
forced the price so low that local producers refused to sell
and formed a cooperative association which has successfully
handled the crop in recent seasons.
The advantages and possibilities of the industry are ob-


vious. The apiaries require comparatively little attention,
though practical operators are constantly studying the needs
of the industry. The net returns on each producer's invest-
ment are good, even at present low market prices. It is, how-
ever, a seasonal business, involving very heavy work during
the harvesting season and slack periods of employment at
other times. Because of the isolated location of the apiaries,
losses from forest fires and similar sources are considerable.
Ill-timed rains sometimes prove very costly to honey pro-
ducers, and a single hard shower in the height of the white
tupelo flow is estimated to cost the producers $25,000 or
more. Apiaries have been carefully spaced with regard to
the probable number of bees operating on each tract, and
as yet the white tupelo is plentiful and there has been no
shortage of honey material.
The industry was established in this section more than
fifty years ago, apparently in an accidental manner, and it
has grown to proportions which are admittedly beyond the
capacity of local producers to handle satisfactorily. It re-
mains only for business to recognize the possibilities of the
industry and to exploit them through practical channels, in
order that the public at large may come to know by name a
delicious American product now enjoyed by only a few-
fancy white tupelo honey.





United States Department of Agriculture, writes: "The
most authentic record states that the black or German bees
were introduced into West Florida not later than 1763. In
all probability the honey bee occurred in East Florida be-
fore that, as black bees were introduced in New England
as early as 1638. William Bartram, describing a journey
taken in 1773, says that honey bees were numerous all
along the Eastern Continent from Nova Scotia to East Flor-
ida. He further states that honey bees were common enough
in forests so as to be thought by the inhabitants to be
natives of this continent."
The movements of this wild bee in Florida are quiet,
and no bee is as busy on flowers as it is. The activity of
these bees is far beyond the common bees, and they are very
cross and quick as lightning to sting. When a tree contain-
ing these bees is cut, they act about like hornets disturbed
from their nest. They produce a large amount of honey per
colony, yet they do not seem to adhere at all to the idea
of being domesticated. They are not contented to live in
hives and will desert them time and time again for the
forest. Only in a small measure do they adhere to our
modern methods of handling bees. The bees are also so
furious that they are not desirable to have around a farm.
The very presence of a human being seems to completely
demoralize them. In many cases the comb they build has
irregular cells, yet they cap their honey beautifully white,
and it is of good flavor like that produced by other bees.
The Italian and Caucasian are the more domesticated
bees, and these two races predominate in the commercial
apiaries of Florida. The Italian is particularly desirable
for the production of extracted honey, while the Caucasian
excels in the production of comb in shallow frames or sec-
tions. Many small beekeepers in the State still keep the
black or German bee, but the two races just mentioned are
much more prolific and desirable for the many different
honey flows.

This question can readily be answered. "Bees may be
kept in Florida anywhere you live, or are moving to."
There are no barren spots in Florida so far as beekeeping
and honey production are concerned. This does not mean
that all sections of Florida afford good bee pasture at all
seasons of the year. It does mean that there is no large
area in the State but what at some time during the year
will furnish bee pasture. One must be careful, though, to



Showing PIart of a Lre Apiiry in I'ilmiell, anr Tanpa, Iloridn

yCr '4~qJ~B
IJr~~ :Di,


see that the hives are placed in some thinly shaded place
where they can be properly watched and taken care of.
Should one be going into beekeeping on a commercial scale,
it is necessary, of course, to consider transportation, the
kind of honey plants that are available, etc.

The right start in beekeeping means much toward suc-
cess. At the very beginning the apiary site should be se-
lected, and this done with great care and consideration.
Bees should never be kept near stock where there
would be danger of horses, cattle, hogs, etc., being stung
by them. As a rule, all animals understand to stay away
from bees, and they will usually do this if they have their
freedom. The apiary should be far enough away so that
there will be no danger of either man or animals being
stung, yet it should be near enough to the house so that
it can be closely watched. It is advisable for someone to
visit the bees rather often, for bees will soon become famil-
iar with people who pass by. After the bees become famil-
liar with people, there is no danger of a volunteer attack of
the bees or any stings from just passing among the hives.
The location should be thinly shaded, but never should
there be a dense shade overhead. A dense shade will cause
the hives to be more or less damp, especially during rainy
weather, and this is detrimental to the bees. The damp-
ness also causes the hives to decay more rapidly. No shade
at all would be preferable to a dense one.
The first colony of bees should be placed in the site
selected. As fast as an increase is made, the hives should
be lined up about four feet apart so as to give sufficient
room to work around each. The rows of hives should be
at least ten feet apart so that if necessary a truck may
pass between the rows. It is best to let the hives face
southward, although southwest or southeast will do. It
is necessary to place the hives on stands some twelve or
eighteen inches high so that the ground about them can
be kept free of litter and vegetation.
As soon as there are a few hives in the apiary, a suit-
able, neat, small honey house or room should be erected
close by the side of the apiary. It is preferable to locate
the honey house on the side of the apiary nearest the resi-
dence so that it may be visited without passing among the
bees. The honey house may serve as a workshop as well
as a packing and extracting room when the honey crop is
ready. Honey is to be kept in this room and only enough


carried to the residence for a meal or so at a time. Honey
tends to toll in bees and other insects and often makes a
rather messy job to keep clean. The honey house is the
place for it and it can be readily removed when needed for
the market or table. An extractor, uncapping tank, storing
tank, and a large work table on which to pack the honey
are needed in the honey house.

There are bees in every nook and corner of Florida, and
one should have no trouble in obtaining a start almost at
his very door. It is not necessary to send north or west
for bees, as they can be obtained in Florida. Bees in Flori-
ida are inspected as to disease by authorized State inspec-
tors, and they will see to it that the bees are free from
disease. When bees are secured from outside the State, it
is impossible to know just what one is obtaining, and it
may later be discovered that the bees are diseased.
As already stated, it is advisable to obtain pure Italian
or Caucasion stock, and possibly better than either is the
Caucasian-Italian stock crossed. The bees purchased should
be in either eight- or ten-frame modern standard size hives.
If one expects to produce extracted honey, the ten-frame
hives and pure Italian bees are recommended. If one ex-
pects to produce chunk honey or comb honey in one-pound
sections, bees in eight-frame hives should be secured. It
is preferable to get either Caucasian-Italian or Caucasian
stock for producing chunk or comb honey, as these two
varieties are about the best comb builders and they cap
their honey beautifully white.
For each hive, three regular shallow extracting supers
should be purchased if one is going to produce either ex-
tracted or chunk honey. If comb honey in sections is to
be produced, then two supers are all that one needs. The
best equipment obtainable with full sheets of foundation
in all frames and sections should be used by all means.
One must see that all hives and hive parts are properly
set up according to instructions given in the bee supply
catalog. If this is not done, it will be found out later, much
to one's sorrow.
The yield of honey per colony will vary for different
sections of the State. The variations will depend almost
entirely upon the supply of honey plants in each section.
The State as a whole will probably average from 50 to 70
pounds of extracted honey, although there are a number of

Showing IPort of a ylrge Aipara in Orange Grove


localities that will average up to 100 pounds of extracted
honey per colony. A few exceptional areas may be found
where the average is as high as 200 pounds of extracted
honey per colony.
To express it in another way, it may be said that in
the Tupelo Gum region of West Florida, the average per
colony is about 100 pounds of extracted honey; in the part-
ridge pea region, about 60 pounds per colony; and in the
saw palmetto region, about 50 pounds per colony. The sun-
flower region as a rule gives the best yields, sometimes
averaging as much as 200 pounds of extracted honey per
colony. Then in the Black Mangrove region the average is
often around 150 pounds per colony, while in the gallberry
region the average may be as low as 40 pounds of extracted
honey per colony.

Whether an apiary has one colony or fifty colonies, the
beekeeper should know how to properly grade and pack
honey even for his own table, and especially all he expects
to put on the market. The surplus honey should never be
put up in just any kind of container, but it must be correctly
put up in good honey containers.
Honey produced in Florida, as a rule, has a good flavor
and good color. Sometimes, however, it is a little thin in
body even after it has been left in the care of the bees
until it is well capped over. The bees cap the honey when
it is finished, but as a rule they do not do this until they
have given it the body they intend it to have. One should
remember that honey, when first gathered, is nothing but
sweet sap of the honey plants, thin, devoid of flavor, and
quick to ferment until well evaporated.
At the present time the demand is greatest for honey
put up in retail containers. The one-pound square jars
have been found most suitable for the best grades of both
chunk and extracted honey. The two and one-half-pound
cans are best for grades just a little off in color. The next
size is the regular five-pound honey pail. Syrup pails will
not do as they are too thin and frail, and the friction top
does not drive in sufficiently tight to remain and not leak.
The off-grade extracted or comb honey can be put up in
regular honey pails or in two and one-half-pound glass jars.
Extracted honey should be well strained before it goes
into the storage tank. It should be allowed to remain there
for several days so that gravitation will clear all matter


from the honey, then it can be drawn off into the containers
and sealed up at once. All packages can be neatly labeled
under your own signature, together with the guarantee
and net weight.
It is generally advisable to put up some of the honey
with comb and some without comb. One can often sell ten
times as much packed comb and extracted honey together
as straight extracted honey alone. Many people want comb
in their honey in spite of whatever they may think best.
In packing comb from the regular shallow frames along
with extracted honey, one must be careful to put in as
large pieces as possible and never chip up or put up little
trimmings. It is desirable to let the honey appear in as
large pieces as possible. These pieces should be suspended
so that they will stand up; they should not be put in flat,
for honey naturally looks better from an end view than
from a side view. One must remember to cut out only
tender young white comb and to place the fancy crop in
glass containers.

It is a well known fact that practically all the extracted
honey on the market is blended (not compounded) from
several sources. Blending is done for several reasons. First
it makes a better table article because the flavor of blended
honey is a combination of the flavors of several different
kinds of honey. As most people are aware, the flavor of
honey is governed by the plant from which it is made, so
that blended honey combines the different flavors. All
real honey lovers will agree on this point. The honey may
be blended just as it comes from the extractor, or on the
table when cutting the comb.
Blending honey has reference only to the very best
honey and not to any of inferior quality. A poor grade
should never be in a blend, or it will ruin all. It is better
to put the cheap honey up separately and sell as such. This
applies to both the color and flavor of honey. Some poor
honey has a fine color, and some very fine honey has poor
color. It is seldom if ever advisable to blend dark honey
with light, or honey of poor flavor with that of good fla-
vor, but a blend should always be with honey of similar
color and quality of flavor.
The blending of honey is particularly important in
Florida because there are a great .many kinds of honey
coming along during the season. Often one honey flow
comes in very close behind another flow, and this happens


so frequently that there is very little honey produced in
Florida which is pure as to source. It is all blended more
or less by the bees themselves, for sometimes a single comb
will contain three or four different kinds of honey.
Blending honey not only makes it a better table article,
but the greatest advantage is that it stays granulation.
Much of the Florida honey, especially that produced in the
southern part of the State, will granulate. The honey in
the western part of the State, particularly in the great
White Tupelo Gum region, does not granulate easily. If a
large percent of non-granulating honey is blended with the
honey that granulates, then granulation is stayed, often
indefinitely even on the northern markets. There is enough
non-granulating honey produced in Florida, if properly
blended with the granulating honey, to keep all in a liquid
Florida therefore has the opportunity to put up honey
in its natural state that will keep without granulating,
which eliminates the necessity of heating the honey to
make it keep. Honey that is sold with the guarantee that
it will not granulate is more in demand, for no honey
buyer outside of a bottler wants table honey to turn to
sugar or candy.
To those less informed, the winter care of bees in an
almost tropical country like Florida seems of little im-
portance, and perhaps is far less important than in other
parts of the country. Some special care, however, is needed
by bees during the winter months even in Florida.
During the first part of the winter, the bees should be
looked over carefully and even the queens and their work
of egg-laying noted. Some honey is generally coming in at
this time, as the weather is usually still warm enough to
allow the bees to work. The first part of December is the
most opportune time to make the examination because old
and failing queens may be easily detected at such time by
the strength of the colonies and size of the brood nest. A
good queen at the beginning of the winter season should be
laying well with plenty of young bees in the colony; if this
is not the case, then the bees should be re-queened.
While the cover is off and the queen's progress being
noted, it is advisable to see about the stores in the super
just above the brood nest. This super should be full or
nearly so of sealed stores. The bees may not draw very
heavily on the honey the first part of the winter, but the


latter part they will because they are rearing so many
young. The cover to the hive should be a good one that
does not leak, and the bottom board must be sound. It is
also important to see that the hive is on a good foundation.
The colony with a good queen and plenty of stores is
ready for the winter and will need no further care or atten-
tior until spring. Plenty of stores above a good queen is
highly important; otherwise, losses from starvation are
almo:;t certain, or the colony will be too weakened from lack
of honey to keep up the raising of young bees. One must
not forget that bees will perish during cold weather even in
Florida where winters are short and generally mild, unless
they are given sufficient care.

The question is often asked, "Can I keep bees in Florida
and have a honey flow the year around?" The idea is to
have a honey flow twelve months in the year, taking honey
off, packing, raising bees and queens, etc., the year round.
As a general rule, however, nowhere in Florida can one
depend upon such a condition year after year. All of Flor-
ida is subject to cold snaps, light frost, and once in a while
freezes, which to a large extent play havoc with vegetation.
This would mean disappointment to the beekeeper who is
expecting to run his honey extractor or pack honey every
month in the year. Some years this can be done, but years
when light frost and freezes come around this cannot be
From coast to coast across the peninsula for about one
hundred miles, taking in the section where Lake Okeecho-
bee lies. there are large areas of pennyroyal, a winter-
blooming nectar plant that gives a good and reliable flow
of nectar from the time the goldenrod ceases to bloom on
through the winter months until citrus begins to bloom.
This is ideal for honey production, bee and queen raising,
but even here this is interfered with by sharp cold snaps.
Through the section just mentioned, the average per
colony is far greater than elsewhere in the State. This is
simply because there are more honey plants and a nearer
perpetual honey flow with only a few days intermission
from one to another. This section embraces, of course, a
large area in the extreme southern part of the State. Honey
extractors can be seen running in various places through
this section during November, December, January and Feb-
ruary. Often the number of bees will increase during these
months, and queen bees reared and mated.


This is perhaps the most favored area in Florida for
beekeeping in all its branches. Pennyroyal is the greatest
yielder during these months, yet there are other honey
plants that come along and bloom during the same period
which add greatly to the flow of honey and abundance of

The surplus honey of any colony can be removed at any
time, but beyond this no honey should be taken. Because
one sees blooming flowers almost twelve months in the year
around over Florida is no reason why they are real honey
plants and the bees can gather honey from them. There-
fore, sufficient honey should always be left for the bees to
live on.
It is important to keep a close watch on the bees so
that they will not have any more storing room than needed.
The bee moth will actually eat up the comb in a normal
colony of bees if there is "o much storing room that the
bees cannot properly care for the hive by crawling over it
and removing the eggs or tiny lavra of the miller that lays
the eggs. It is a common sight, and not a good one, to see
a hive of hees with the combs all destroyed in the top by
the moth. Bees should have only the proper amount of
room at all times, but most particularly at times when
there is no honey flow and breeding may be at a low ebb.
A close watch must be kept on the bee moth or it is apt
to cause great loss of comb.
When a honey flow starts, it is necessary to look out
for super room and keep just enough storing room ahead
of the bees so that they can fill up all supers by the end
of the honey flow. Too much would be detrimental and
not enough would be a loss. To this end every colony should
be closely watched and visited every week to see that all
are kept supplied with storing room. When the honey flow
goes off, then all the surplus honey can be removed, packed,
and placed on the market. One super, however, must be
left full or nearly full of stores for the use of the bees.

All modern hives have loose hanging frames in which
the bees build the comb, live and rear their young. Every
colony should be examined carefully each week, or at least
every few weeks. Each comb in the bottom story of a
hive should be examined to see whether there are enough
brood eggs of the queen and a sufficient amount of honey.


If there is no honey in the super, it is necessary to
supply a frame of honey from some heavy hive. If there
are not as many bees in some colonies as in others, one may
take a frame of capped brood from one of the strongest
and best colonies and place it in the weaker colony. In this
way the weaker colonies can be built up. If no brood is
seen or the colony is growing very weak, the hive may have
a poor queen or none at all. Such colonies should occasion-
ally be given a frame of brood in all stages of development,
which will enable them to grow stronger and raise a queen
from the brood given them. Or, in the meantime, one may
order a queen and introduce her into the colony, which may
often save a colony from a downward drift or perhaps a
total loss.
Frame manipulation is of the greatest importance in
beekeeping, for right here the wheel of fortune in beekeep-
ing may turn. This is particularly outstanding in changing
combs as just mentioned above.

It is not customary even among beginners and small
oeekeepers to allow the bees to swarm naturally, as much
better results are obtained when the swarming is controlled
by the beekeeper. The operations of increasing colonies
and controlling swarming are both done with one stroke.
When a very strong, heavily populated colony of bees is
properly swarmed once each season, that colony and the
one made from it are both cured of the swarming fever for
the year.
The strongest colonies should be divided up into equal
parts, in the early part of the year, some three or four
weeks before natural swarming time. This means taking
from the old hive one-half the bees, one-half the brood, one-
half the comb, and one-half the honey. As the hive is being
divided, one should look for the queen. The frame of comb
on which the queen is found should be put with the half
that is to make a new hive. The bees in the old hive can
raise themselves a new queen, although it is often prefer-
able to buy a queen for the queenless half.
The operation is not a success unless the queen is put
with the new stand, because if the bees that are carried
away to a new stand find themselves queenless, they will
boil out of the hive, pry about looking for the queen, and
invariably go back to the old stand in an effort to find
their mother. This depopulates the newly made hive, but
if the queen is there the bees will not leave her. The old

h I t~


.z2it .

9 .i


A Frienll' eman



half of the hive will have no idea where their mother has
departed to and will at once set out to raise another, or will
readily accept a new queen if one is introduced.
This is simple and easy when everything is in readi-
ness, and it can best be done late in the afternoon by those
inexperienced in the operation. The bees will thus be given
over night to satisfy and content themselves, while if done
in early morning there will be turmoil all day among the
two divisions, the bees on the old stand looking for their
mother and the bees on the new stand making their new
home. Before this is done, a new empty hive for each
colony must be properly prepared, and the frames should
contain full sheets of foundation or ready built comb.
When the division is made, there should be four or five
frames in each hive of ready built comb containing brood
and honey. This is supplied when the division is made,
but a space should be left without any comb on one side of
each of the hives. The frames containing full sheets of
foundation from the newly prepared hive should be inserted
in these spaces. One frame containing foundation can be
placed right in the middle of the ready built combs in each
of the divisions. This will give the bees some comb to build
and they will start at once to draw out the foundation. As
fast as they draw it out, the queen will fill it with brood
and one will soon have solid slabs of brood.
On every visit, a frame of foundation should be inserted
in like manner until a full set of combs are drawn out, then
all one has to do is to keep the bees properly supered and
two hives rather than one will be making the honey.
Increases during any time of the year can be made in
like manner, but only with strong, heavy colonies. The
weak colonies and those of medium strength naturally have
a struggle to exist, and to divide them would mean disaster
and great loss.
To become successful in beekeeping, one must study
the nature and habits of the honey bee in order to learn
the best methods of bee culture. An effort should be made
to learn about the plants upon which the bees feed. A
number of good books are available on bee culture, which
can be obtained at a reasonable price. There are also a
few monthly publications on bees that contain valuable in-
formation. Whenever possible, the prospective beekeeper
should visit one or more progressive beekeepers in the lo-
cality in which he intends locating and watch the methods
of handling bees. The more information one can secure,
and the better it is applied, the greater will be the chances
for success.

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