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Group Title: Bulletin New Series
Title: The pecan
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003092/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pecan
Series Title: Bulletin New Series
Physical Description: 31 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1927
 Subjects
Subject: Pecan -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Supplement to Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of agriculture, February 1927."
General Note: Series no. changed by hand to 64.
General Note: "Reprint."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003092
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3684
ltuf - AKD9470
oclc - 28551873
alephbibnum - 001962793

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 28
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        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text
F b o



New Series, No. 64





SThe Pecan
S411
REPRINT 4
40



SUPPLEMENT TO
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
OF THE DEPARTMENT
SOF AGRICULTURE 4
February, 1927



40
D41


NATHAN MAYO
lI Commissioner of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida
&40









CONTENTS


Botany ... .... ...
Phytography .... ...
History of Pecan ...
Commercial Importance of the Pecan
Food Value of the Pecan.......
Soils Adapted to the Pecan-....
Preparation of Soil for Trees.-
Pecan Planting ..... ...
Cultivation .... .
Fertilizers ... -
Pruning .....
Harvesting and Marketing
Grading .
Polishing ......-
Pecan Propagation
Selecting and Planting Nuts-
Propagating Tools
Waxes, Cloth and Twine
Selecting Cions and Buds .
Grafting and Grafting Methods...
Budding and Methods .
The Nursery ..... ..............
Top-Working Pecan Trees ..........
Pecan Varieties for Growing in Florida:
Insect Pests ....
Pecan Diseases .. .......
Where Pecans are Grown in Florida


Page
3
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27
27
S29
31
31
32











THE PECAN



The pecan has been known since the discovery of
America, but the use of this nut as a commercial crop
is only of recent years. It has now become one of the
best known and valued nuts that is grown in the United
States.
BOTANY
The pecan is of the walnut family Juglandaceae,
Genus Hicoria. While it does not usually cross with the
hickory when growing together, it is so closely allied
with it that under some conditions cross pollination
takes place. The two may be grafted or budded to-
gether, in Florida the white hickory seeming to work
better than other varieties. One objection to this
practice being that the pecan grows faster than the
hickory, and thus the pecan wood is larger than the
hickory at the point of the graft contact.
The staminate flowers are borne on the one-year-
old wood, while the pistillate flowers are on the new
wood. While there is a great excess of pollen produced,
heavy rains or very dry weather at the blooming
period may cause a great shortage in the crop of nuts.
Some varieties bear less pollen than others, and for
this reason it is well, where these varieties are planted,
to mix in a few trees of some variety that is known
to be a heavy bearer of pollen.
"Pecan" is an American Indian word, originally
pacan, and was used by the Indians to designate all
nuts that were so hard as to require a stone to crack
them. This name was appropriated by the French set-
tlers of the Mississippi basin for one nut in particular.
Hicoria pecan. The word hickory, from which Hicoria
is derived, is also an Indian word, being derived from
powcohicora, the name applied to the liquid obtained
by pounding the kernels and throwing them into boil-
ing water. This liquid was used by the Indians with
their meats, and sometimes allowed to ferment for an
intoxicating drink. (Stucky & Kyle.)







4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

PHOTOGRAPHY
The pecan is indigenous to the central and southern
parts of the United States, one of the largest native
groves being along the banks of the Ohio in Hender-
son county, Kentucky. Some of the trees are 16 feet in
circumference and 150 feet high. Other large native
groves are found in Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas.
Outside of this natural belt the pecan is being grown
in many other sections of the United States, but in the
far north and west different varieties are used, the
nuts of which are smaller.
The greatest development has been in the States of
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and
Florida. Here the largest nuts with the thinnest shells
are grown. Here also the largest yields are obtained.
The Florida grower is fortunate in being able to grow
the very best varieties.
HISTORY
From fossil remains that have been found it is
thought that the pecan was growing in this country
during the Cretaceous period. It was mentioned by De
Soto and is said to have been a favorite nut of the In-
dians.
For many years it was thought that the pecan could
only be propagated by planting the seed. After many
failures to propagate, by budding or grafting, a slave
on a Louisiana farm was the first to succeed, and in
1846 grafted 16 trees. So hard did it seem to graft or
bud that little was done until about 1890.
By 1880 the nut had come into such favor that large
quantities were being gathered from the native groves
of Texas and shipped to all parts of the country. From
1880 to 1890 there were many large orchards set out
in Florida, Georgia. Alabama and Mississippi, but
these were all seedling stock, as the price of grafted
or budded stock was too high to use for such large
orchards. But due to the good work of Frotscher, Nel-
son, Pabst, Stuart, Bacon, Buckman and Girardeau,
the use of the propagated tree was made more popular
and today no orchard of any importance is set out to
seedling trees. It was now that the new varieties began
to appear, and it is of interest that the Stuart, Pabst,
Van Demon and San Saba, that were among the first-








THE PECAN 5

named varieties, are still regarded as among the best
of today.
When it was seen what could be done by grafting,
the idea of top-working the old seedling groves was
born, and it is a matter of record that between 1890
and 1900 many of these old groves were top-worked,
and they are today bearing excellent crops of stand-
ard varieties rather than the small seedlings that was
their natural product. So popular had the nut become
that large orchards were set out in many States, but
these were for the most part set in the cotton belt.
New varieties that are adapted to sections farther
north and west have been developed, and while the
nuts are smaller they are good enough to warrant
their being grown.
In 1901 the first pecan association was organiz'.dat
Albany, Ga., and thus began the first organized work
for the betterment of the pecan. The next twenty years
were very important ones for the pecan, because of
the large amount of work that was ae by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and the Stte Agricultural
Experiment Stations in working out Better methods
of propagation and methods of controlling the insects
and diseases that were causing great loss to the owners
of pecan orchards.

COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE PECAN
'The pecan does not rank very high in the United
States in commercial importance when contrasted with
some of the older and more important crops. But when
compared with other nuts its ranking is exceptional,
especially when one takes into consideration the limited
time it has been under cultivation. It is significant
that the native pecans are more valuable and require
less expense to growers to produce and harvest than
any other wild or uncultivated horticultural crop. In
addition, thousands of acres planted to improve vari-
eties, now coming into bearing, will within the next.
decade compete strongly with the native, even on a
basis of tonnage. The commercial status of the pecan
may be seen from a study of the following table, taken
from the U. S. census report for 1920:







6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Total Nut Production In United States


1909
Almonds ............................. 6,793,539
Pecans .................................. 9,890,769
W alnuts .................................22,026,524


1919
15,852,965
31,808,548
59,840,470


This table shows that the pecan easily ranks next
to the walnut in commercial importance and that it is
gaining on that important nut." (Stuckey & Kyle.)
Only in very recent years has this nut been put on
the market shelled, and nothing has increased the sales
so much as putting the meats in such a convenient
form for the consumer.
The makers of candy, cakes and ice cream are the
chief purchasers of pecan meats. Average seedlings
will shell about 50% meats. The meats dry very fast
when shelled and exposed to air.

FOOD VALUE OF THE PECAN
The pecan meat, being high in fat and easily digested,
is being used to considerable extent as a meat substi-
tute. How it compares with other nuts is shown in the
following table:


Per Cent Per Cent
Kind ot Nut Protein Fat
Pecan ................................ 11.0 71.2
Peanuts ............................ 32.0 47.0
Brazil Nuts ..................... 17.0 66.8
Walnuts ........................... 27.6 56.3
Almonds ......... ............ 21.0 54.9


Calories
Per Pound
3633
2560
3329
3105
3030


One pound of pecan meat is equivalent, in calories,


2.3
2.3
2.4
3.7
12.3
10.25
15


pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds


of smoked ham
of flour bread
of dried beans
of porterhouse steak
of Irish potatoes
of apples
of oranges


and the different elements of food in the pecan are in
such proportion that it makes a balanced ration.







THE PECAN 7

SOILS ADAPTED TO THE PECAN
While the pecan will grow on quite a variety of
soils, that which seems best adapted is a well-drained
sandy loam with a clay subsoil. As with all crops, the
better the top soil the better growth the young trees
will make. Because of its long tap-root the water table
Should be low. As a rule, where a natural growth of
hickory and other hard woods is found, the land is
adapted to the growing of the pecan. New ground
should not be used if any other can be used.
PREPARATION OF SOIL FOR TREES
No better preparation can be given the soil, where
the young trees are to be set, than to prepare just as
if a crop of corn or cotton was to be planted. Not less
than sixty days before time to set the trees the land
should be broken deep and then well disked, so that
all vegetable matter will be well worked into the soil.
Old ground is best for the orchard, because there are
no stumps and roots to harbor insects and diseases,
there is less danger in cultivating and the cultivation
would cost less. Work spent in preparation will mean
very much to the growth of the young tree and will
repay many times for the labor spent. Many failures
of the young tree to make a good growth have been
due to the very bad practice of simply digging a hole
and setting the tree in it.
PECAN PLANTING
Buying Trees.-Florida has suffered as much from
fraudulent pecan tree agents as any other State. Seed-
ling trees have been "doctored" and sold to planters,
and varieties have been sold which were untrue to
name. Unfortunately, too few people are acquainted
with the characteristics of a budded or grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the wood,
twigs and branches of pecan trees are able to tell the
different varieties at a glance. The color of the bark,
the shape, size and arrangement of the lenticles, the
size and shape of the buds are always characteristic,
and by these marks varieties can be distinguished.
Every planter should acquaint himself with the wood
characteristics of the varieties. But, after all, the







8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

safest, by far the safest, plan is to deal directly with
honest nurserymen, men of unquestionable integrity,
men who give their business careful thought and at-
tention.
The best trees for general planting are well-grown
one-year-old trees, from three to five feet high.
Too often but slight attention is given to the plant-
ing of the trees. There is too frequently a disposition
on the part of the person setting trees of any kind to do
the work as rapidly as possible, without consideration
for the future welfare of the plants. Few realize
that time spent in careful, intelligent preparation of
the soil and in setting the trees is time well spent and
well paid for in the after-development of trunk and
branch. Better a month spent in preparing the future
home of the young tree than years of its life spent in
an unequal struggle for existence. More than that, the
tree may die outright, and a year must elapse before
it can be replaced. It is generally stated that the pecan
is a slow grower, and yet trees from twelve to four-
teen years old will sometimes measure from thirty-
five to fifty-seven inches in circumference at the base,
while under less favorable circumstances others will
stand still for a period of six or seven years, or until
they have accumulated sufficient energy to overcome
the untoward conditions of their environment.
Distance.-The distance apart at which the trees
should be set will depend in a measure upon the char-
acter of the soil. If rich and moist, the trees should
be set farther apart than on higher, drier soils. Forty
feet is generally believed to be about right for most
Florida lands. Two methods of setting may be fol-
lowed, rectangular and hexagonal. The number of
trees which may be set per acre by the rectangular
system is as follows:
40 x 40 .................................... 27 trees
40 x 45 .................................... 24 trees
40 x 50 .................................... 21 trees
40 x 60 ...................................... 18 trees
45 x 45 .................................... 21 trees
50 x 50 ...................................... 17 trees
50 x 60 .................................... 14 trees







THE PECAN 9

50 x 75 .................................... 11 trees
60 x 60 .................................... 12 trees
60 x 75 ..................................... 9 trees
70 x 70 ....................... .......... 8 trees
70 x 75 ..................................... 8 trees
75 x 75 ......................... ....... 7 trees

To find the number of trees for any distance not
given in the above table, multiply the distances to-
gether and divide 43,560, the number of square feet
in an acre, by the product. The result will give the
number of trees.
By the hexagonal system, about fifteen per cent
more trees may be set per acre than by the rectangular
system. If a double planting is contemplated, as
pecans and peaches, the rectangular system should be
used, and one or more peaches set out in each rec-
tangular formed by the pecans.
Staking the Ground.-If a good plowman can be se-
cured, the rows can be run off with a plow, running
both lengthwise and crosswise of the field. Ordinarily,
however, a true corner may be established with a
carpenter's square, the field staked out around the
outside. For the rectangular system the stakes can
then be set up in the center of the field by measuring
or by sighting, or by both. Ordinarily building laths
make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method,
commence on one side of the field and plant stakes at
the desired distance apart where the trees are to stand.
Using two chains or two pieces of wire with rings at
the ends (their length being the same as the tree dis-
tance), the position of the second row of trees may
be easily ascertained. Drop the rings over two ad-
joining stakes and stretch them out until they form
an equilateral triangle with the base line. Plant a
stake at the apex to indicate where the tree is to stand.
Set up all the stakes for this second row in the same
manner, then use it as a base line, and so on across the
field.
Planting.-Having set a stake where each tree is to
stand, the planting board should then be brought into






10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

use. This is simply a light board, cut five or six inches
wide and six feet long, with a notch cut in the center
of one side and an inch hole bored in each end. In dig-
ging the holes for the trees this board is laid down
on the ground with the notch against the tree stake.
Two small wooden stakes are then shoved into the
ground through the holes in the ends, and the board
and tree stake both taken away.
In preparing the tree for planting, all broken or
bruised roots should be cut off immediately behind
the injuries. This is usually done before packing for
shipment if trees are purchased from a nurseryman,
but possibly may be neglected or the ends of roots
become rubbed or ragged in transit. The cuts should
be made with a sharp knife from the underside of the
roots and outward, leaving a smooth, sloping cut. To
trim the roots to the best advantage they should be
held upside down while trimming.
In setting out a pecan tree, a hole 24 inches in
diameter and 30 inches deep is usually large enough,
although wider holes may be dug with advantage,
thereby enabling more pulverized and richer soil to
be put around the roots, which is beneficial to the new
feeding roots as they form. When setting out the trees,
carefully fill in among the roots with pulverized top
soil or woods earth. Well-rotted manure or not exceed-
ing one and one-half pounds of commercial fertilizer
may be put in the outer sides of hole, as far as prac-
ticable beyond outer ends of lateral roots, while hole
is being filled, but by no means to come in contact
with the roots or trunk of tree. No fertilizer should be
put at bottom of hole. Work and firmly press the dirt
among the roots, laying each root in a natural position.
No holes or cavities in the soil should be left, and soil
must be in close contact with all roots, especially the
tap-root. The bottom of the hole should be firm, to
avoid further settling of the tree. The tree should be
set at such a depth that after a copious watering and
the permanent settling of the earth it will be perhaps
a little deeper than it stood in the nursery row. It is
very important that no part of the crown or root be
left uncovered when planted or afterward, and if at
any time it is found that the earth has settled and left








THE PECAN


any brownish-red part of the crown or root exposed,
it must again be covered with soil.
The point where the root and crown leave off and
the trunk begins is a very vital portion of the newly-
set tree and must always be underground. Trees
should be carefully examined after the first heavy
rain after planting, and earth thrown to tree if soil
has settled. It is better to plant them an inch or two
deeper than they stood in the nursery row than to run
the risk of having the crown root exposed. If tap-roots
are inconveniently long, say over 30 inches, they must
be cut off by a sloping cut with a sharp knife. In the
larger size trees it is better to sink a hole deep enough
to receive the root without cutting shorter than is done
before packing. The foolish theory about a pecan tree
not bearing if its tap-root has been cut has been so
thoroughly disproved that it is not worth discussion.
If the tap-root is cut when the tree is dug, as is often
necessary, the cut quickly heals and a new tap-root
(sometimes several) will form. After planting is com-
pleted, loose soil should be lightly thrown around the
tree to check evaporation, or it may be mulched with
leaves, straw, etc., in lawns and other places where no
crops are to be planted. The mulching of newly-set
trees is highly recommended. The ground is thereby
kept moist, a slow decaying supply of natural plant
food is provided, and grass and weeds are not so
troublesome, thus avoiding the necessity of so fre-
quently stirring the soil immediately around the trees.
The ground around fruit or nut trees should never be
allowed to bake or crust, and it is the more important
with newly set trees, particularly the first season.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become dried
out. It is best that the necessary root pruning be done
in the shade and the trees carried to the field wrapped
in a damp blanket, from which they are removed one
by one as required for planting. The tops should be
pruned back slightly to restore the balance between
the roots and the tops which has been disturbed in the
process of transplanting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere be-
tween the first of December or the latter part of No-
vember and the first of February. Preference must
be given to the earlier part of this period, as the







12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ground will have a chance to become fairly packed and
the root wounds will have partially calloused before
the growing season begins. Besides, the early spring
season in Florida is usually dry and recently planted
trees do not stand nearly so good a show as those
planted in December and January.

CULTIVATION
Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some
parts of the country, many people suppose that it can
be left without care and cultivation, left as any other
tree in the fields and woods is left to shift for itself.
But if fruit is required from Lhe tree, no matter
whether planted in the garden or the orchard, it should
be given good care. Too many of our practices are
based upon ideas taken from the native trees of the
woods and fields. But all these trees do from year to
year is bear a few fruits, many of which are imperfect,
in the attempt to reproduce themselves. If that is all
that is desired of the pecan tree, well and good; a sys-
tem of neglect will secure the result and the insects
and fungi will be the chief beneficiaries of the practice.
One lesson can be learned from the woods. The ideal
soil conditions for the pecan grove is that found in
the forest. The soil there is filled with vegetable mat-
ter and humus; it holds water and plant food. The
aim in the cultivation of the trees should be to pro-
vide and maintain a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anyone would have the temerity to advo-
cate the cultivation of a pecan orchard along the lines
applied to peach orchards and citrus groves is seriously
doubted. A pecan plantation will begin to bear in
from six to eight years after planting, and should
produce a very fair crop at ten years, after which it
rapidly increases in productivity. But during the period
when the trees are growing and no fruit is being pro-
duced, cultivation must be given. This is best done by
planting the land between the tree rows in cotton,
peanuts or other field crops, in vegetables, cowpeas,
beggarweed or velvet beans. The last mentioned crops
may be used in making hay. These are the ideal crops
for the pecan orchard. It would be best to follow a
systematic rotation of these crops, as, for instance,






THE PECAN


first year peanuts, second year cotton, or first year
crab-grass and beggarweed, second year cotton, and
third year velvet beans or cowpeas.
The area grown in these crops should by no means
equal the total area of the field. The tree rows for a
width of four or five feet on each side should not be
planted in crops during the first year. This strip
should, however, be cultivated during the first part
of the season and about the beginning of the rainy
season sowed to beggarweed. The cultivated area will
necessarily become more restricted each year, and
eventually the ground will have to be given up to the
trees.
Then the plan frequently advised is to put the land
in grass and use it for a pasture. But grass is gener-
ally an important item in the cultivation of neglected
pecan orchard. It is synonymous with neglect and bad
treatment. It interferes with the growth, development
and fruiting of the trees, and this plan is no longer
advised by growers.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in
spring, continuing the cultivation well up to the rainy
season. Later, in August, a crop of crab-grass and
beggarweed may be removed for hay. By autumn a
considerable additional growth will be formed to
cover the ground in winter and turn back into the soil
to restore and maintain the necessary humus content
of the soil.
FERTILIZERS
On nearly all Florida soils pecan trees are benefited
by the application of fertilizers in some form or other.
Large quantities of food materials are taken from the
soil in the growth of the trees and the development of
the crop.
SThe greatest demand made on the soil by the tree
is for nitrogen, and this can be met by applying stable
manure, or by growing leguminous crops and turning
them under, as already directed. In the fertilizing of
the pecan this is by all means the best policy. The
potash in the form of sulphate or muriate of potash
and the phosphoric acid in the form of acid phosphate
can be supplied separately.







14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Formulas.-The requirements of the trees will differ
at different stages of their growth. The needs of the
young trees differ from those of fruiting ones. For
young trees, nitrogen in considerable amounts is re-
quired, while for bearing trees more potash and phos-
phoric acid and less nitrogen, relatively, are required.
If complete fertilizers are used, those given the young
trees should analyze about five per cent phosphoric
acid, six per cent potash and four per cent nitrogen;
while one containing six per cent phosphoric acid, eight
per cent potash and four per cent nitrogen is about
right for bearing trees.
If we assume that acid phosphate analyzes 14 per
cent phosphoric acid, high-grade sulphate of potash
50 per cent potash, cotton seed meal 6.5 per cent ni-
trogen, and dried blood 14 per cent nitrogen, the
following amounts of these materials, which may be
mixed at home, will give approximately the above
analysis:
For Young Trees-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent goods) ........ 700 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash................................ 225 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ...................................... 1,150 pounds

If dried blood is used in place of cotton seed meal,
one-half of the amount, or 575 pounds, will give as
much or slightly more nitrogen than the 1,150 pounds
of cotton seed meal.
For Young Trees--
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent).................... 850 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash................................ 300 pounds
Dried Blood ................................. ........ 250 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ................................ 600 pounds

2,000 pounds

Applying the Fertilizer.-The whole of the fer-
tilizer may be applied in spring, just before the
growth starts. On the whole, this is one of the best
times to apply it. In some cases it may be advisable
to apply only half the material at that time, leaving
the other half for application about the first of June.








THE PECAN 15

So far as the nitrogen part of the fertilizer is con-
cerned, this would be good practice, but the potash
and phosphoric acid may well be applied at the begin-
ning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should
be put on in a circular band about the tree (closer or
farther away, depending on the size of the tree), and
spreading it around on a strip four or five feet wide.
As the trees increase in size, the fertilizer should be
applied over a larger area until, in the case of old
trees, the whole surface should receive an applica-
tion.
PRUNING
For such pruning as is necessary for pecan trees,
a few tools should be provided. These will consist of
a pair of good pruning shears, German solid steel
pruning shears being the best, a pair of Walter's tree
pruners for cutting back long branches, and a good
pruning saw. One of the best pruning saws is what
is known as a Climax pruning saw, or a Pacific Coast
saw is equally as good.
It is not advisable to prune the trees during the
time when growth has just started in spring and the
sap is in active motion. At this time it will be well-
nigh impossible to properly protect the wounds. The
necessary coat of paint will not stick to the wound
when wet with sap from the tree.
While pruning may be done during the summer
months, when the tree is in full leaf, all things con-
sidered, the best time to prune is in early spring be-
fore growth starts. There is usually less to be done
on the farm at this season and more time is available
for the work. Wounds made at this time usually
heal quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held
parallel to the part which is to remain, and the branch
should be cut off smoothly close up to the trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound should
be painted to protect it from decay. For a protective
covering, nothing is better than white lead paint. A
small amount of coloring matter may be added to
it, if desired.
As a general rule, the pecan requires compara-







16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tively little pruning. At the time of planting, the
young trees should be cut back some distance, par-
ticularly if they are very tall. It is well to have the
main branches from within four or five feet of the
ground. After this, about all the pruning necessary
is to remove dead or injured branches and cut back
those which have a tendency to run up beyond their
neighbors. For this work, as well as in procuring
grafts or bud-wood from the top of the tree, the tree-
pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable
pruning to get them started so that they will develop
into symmetrical trees.

HARVESTING AND MARKETING
The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and
prepare for marketing as a crop of oranges or
peaches for instance, and yet some care must be taken
to put the nuts on the market in inviting shape.
Field Equipment.-The equipment necessary for
harvesting consists of an extension ladder, a step-
ladder, a number of bamboo fishing poles and pick-
ing sacks. The best kind of step-ladder is one having
three legs instead of four. Picking sacks should be
made from ordinary hemp or jute sacks. The sack
should be spread open with a piece of stick, sharp-
pointed at both ends, placed in one side of the mouth,
thus making the opening triangular. Place a pecan
nut in the lower corner of the sack, tie one end of a
piece of stout twine about it as it lies in the corner,
and then tie the other end of the twine to the center
of the stick opposite the mouth. The twine should
be short enough to draw the bottom and top of the
sack close together, leaving an opening through which
the arm may be thrust and the sack slung over the
shoulder.
Picking.-As soon as the greater percentage of
the burrs have opened the crop should be gathered.
It will not do to wait until all have opened, neither
is it advisable to pick the trees over a number of
times. Pick them clean at one picking. The burrs
of those nuts which are fully matured will open; the
burrs of immature ones may not. The latter should
be discarded.








THE PECAN 17

The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts
by hand, using the bamboo poles only for those en-
tirely out of reach. Even this should be done care-
fully, so as not to injure the bearing wood of the
trees. Care in picking good nuts by hand will amply
pay the grower, because the beating and shaking of
the trees will cause a considerable quantity of fruit
to be lost, and a few pounds saved will repay all the
time and trouble. Of course, in very high trees there
is frequently nothing to do but shake and thrash the
crop off the trees. The plan of covering the ground
beneath the trees with a large sheet would work well
and assist in reducing losses. As soon as taken from
the trees the nuts should be spread out under a shed
or in a building to dry. A very convenient plan,
and one which will save space, is to provide a suffi-
cient number of trays, three feet by four feet, and
three inches deep, with half-inch mesh wire bottoms,
and place the nuts in these, two or two and a half
inches deep. Racks can be provided around the
room in which to place these. In from ten days to
two weeks from the time of picking, the nuts should
be cured.
Grading.-The variety should be made the basis of
the grade; that is, each variety should be picked,
packed and marketed by itself. This gives an excellent
opportunity to compare the commercial value of dif-
ferent kinds of seedling nuts. They may be graded by
passing them through screens.
Polishing.-At the present time practically all of
the common market nuts are both polished and col-
ored. Coloring should not be resorted to, and in the
case of good varieties of nuts polishing should not be
done. In the case of small or mixed lots, however,
polishing is useful in making the nuts more uniform.
It can be accomplished by putting the nuts, with a
little dry sand, in a barrel fixed so that it can be rotated
like a revolving churn and turning over until the
nuts receive the desired polish. The better nuts, how-
ever, should be put on the market just as they come
from the trees. The markings, dots and streaks on
the outside are their trademark and should not be
interfered with.







18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Packages.-For shipping small quantities of pecans
by express, nothing is better than a box. Barrels are
best for large shipments. For mail shipments stout
pasteboard, wooden or tin boxes or tin cans make good
packages. Frequently shipments are made in sacks,
but the sack does not afford sufficient protection to
the contents and should not be used. As a rule, the box
should be made so that a given weight will fill it, but
this difficulty may be overcome to a certain extent by
putting in a pad of paper or excelsior-paper being
preferable. Fill the packages on a solid floor, shaking
them down well and putting in all they will hold, plac-
ing the pad, if one has to be used, in the bottom.
On the outside of the packages, before shipping,
should be placed the name of the grower, the variety,
the number of pounds, and the shipping directions.
Small boxes to be shipped by express for the holiday
trade should be wrapped in good quality wrapping
paper before shipping.
Marketing.-The best plan for marketing good pecan
nuts is to build up a private trade. As a matter of
fact, at the present time but very few of the large,
full-meated pecans find their way into the general
market. They are either taken by seedsmen or con-
sumed by private customers. In building up a private
trade, advertising has its place, of course. Advertise-
ments inserted in a magazine or papers, particularly
in those which are published in the tourist towns of the
State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private
customer a package, bright, neat, attractive, and con-
taining the best quality of nuts. If a certain price per
pound is fixed for a given quantity, then this should
not be varied under any circumstances. Each year the
same quality of nuts should be given to each customer.
It will not do to give large ones one year and smaller
ones the next; this tends to create dissatisfaction. In
some of the larger cities there are high-class fruit
dealers who handle nothing but fruits, nuts, etc., of the
very highest quality. It is well to enter into negotia-
tions with such firms.








THE PECAN 19

PECAN PROPAGATION
The pecan may be propagated from seed, by budding
and by grafting.
Formerly they were grown almost entirely from
seed and seedling trees were planted. But now seed-
lings have given place to budded or grafted trees. Why
so? It was announced as a fact not so many years ago,
and there are some who may still maintain it, that 50
per cent, or some other per cent, of pecans would come
true to seed. But it must be stated as a fact that neither
50, nor any other per cent, will come true to seed. We
have yet to find a single instance where the nut of a
seedling tree was identical with that borne by its parent
plant. Occasionally they are better, but the rule is that
they generally are vastly inferior to the fruit produced
by the parent plant. Hence, if an orchard of trees of
the same habit of growth, prolificness, regularity in
bearing, uniform throughout, trees which will produce
a crop of nuts uniform in size, shape, color and quality
is desired, do not plant seedling trees. Scores of these
seedling trees produce nuts but little larger than chin-
quapins, and it is a fact which cannot be gainsaid,
that the seedling pecan, up to the time of fruiting, is
an unknown quantity, after which it is too frequently
a disappointment.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown
the stocks upon which to work desirable varieties.
From seeds may be originated new and desirable vari-
eties, for it sometimes happens that the seedling is bet-
ter than the parent. Seedling trees may be grown and
set out in orchard form, to be top-worked afterward.
This plan has something to recommend it. It is less
expensive, provided time is not an object, for it takes
a longer time to get bearing trees by this plan, and it
is open to the further objection that it is more diffi-
cult to secure uniformity in size and shape of the trees
than it is by setting out budded or grafted trees at
first. The objection in the way of expense, if that be
an objection, is best overcome by planting nuts in
nursery rows, grafting the trees there, and then set-
ting them in the field. By no means should the nuts
be planted where the trees are to remain. It is too







20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

difficult to give them the necessary care. Besides, they
are likely to be destroyed by squirrels or other ani-
mals, or the seedlings injured through carelessness in
cultivation.
Selecting and' Planting Nuts.-Nuts to be used in
growing stocks should be fully matured before gath-
ering. Some care should be taken in their selection.
They should be of good size for the variety, and should
be gathered only from healthy, vigorous trees. Fre-
quently the only object held in view is to get as many
nuts as possible in a pound, without regard to the tree
on which they grew. We believe that this is in a large
degree responsible for the unsatisfactory growth made
by many grafted trees. Those nuts which mature first
are best for planting.
The nuts may be planted in Florida as soon as they
are taken from the trees, placing them in drills three
and a half feet apart and covering them two and a half
or three inches deep. In many cases it may be necessary
and more convenient to stratify the nuts in damp sand
in boxes, first an inch layer of sand, then a layer of
nuts, until the boxes are filled. These boxes should be
placed in a cool, shady place, under a building, in a
cellar, or buried in the earth. It is a good plan to cover
them with wire net to prevent mice, rats or squirrels
from attacking them. In early spring the boxes should
be emptied out and the nuts planted as directed above.
The seed-bed should be thoroughly prepared, plowed
deeply or subsoiled, well supplied with organic matter,
either from stable manure or from beggarweed, velvet
beans, cowpeas, or some other leguminous crop on the
soil, and turned under.
During the growing season the seed-bed should be
kept well cultivated and free from weeds and grass.
A fertilizer rich in nitrogen should be used. Its com-
position will have to be governed very largely by the
character of the soil and the care and cultivation given
it previously; but for good nursery soils a fertilizer
analyzing three per cent nitrogen will give good results.
In favorable seasons the tops of the young trees will
be a foot or somewhat more in height, with a tap-root
two feet and a half or so in length. The following
spring and summer many of the young trees can be
worked by grafting or budding.








THE PECAN


Propagating Tools.-The tools necessary for prop-
agating pecans-nursery work and top-working-are
a common budding knife, a budding tool, a grafting
iron, a grafting mallet and a fine-toothed saw.
The budding knife should have a thin blade of good
steel, capable of retaining a keen, sharp edge. The
whetstone must be used frequently to keep the blade
sharp to insure the making of smooth, clean cuts.
At least three budding tools have been invented.
These are known as White's, Galbreath's and Nelson's
budding tools, respectively. The principle in each one
is that two sharp cutting blades are fixed parallel to
each other to insure uniformity in cutting annular and
veneer-shield or patch buds. White's budding imple-
ment is especially recommended for use in top-work-
ing. The holes along the sides are used as a gauge for
measuring the stock and bud-stick. In the writer's
opinion, the one best adapted for veneer-shield bud-
ding, but the blades are just a little too close together.
A very satisfactory knife for this work may be made
from two ordinary budding knives and a piece of wood
three-quarters of an inch square and four inches long.
To opposite sides of this the blades can be firmly
attached with rivets and by binding with fine wire and
twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting.
These can be purchased at small cost, or a blacksmith
can make an excellent one from an old flat file. Three
or four inches of the file should be flattened and sharp-
ened for a blade. In the remainder drill two holes and
attach two pieces of wood to form a handle.
A small-sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely for
a grafting mallet, or a very good one can be made from
a piece of tough wood or a piece of an old wagon spoke.
A leather thong should be attached to the handle,
through which the wrist can be slipped to carry it
when top-working.
The best saw for use in top-working is a carpenter's
back-saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth, and leaves
a smooth, clean cut.
Waxes, Cloth and Twine.-Good grafting wax may
be made according to either of the following formulas:







22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

1. Resin 6 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil
1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1 pound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow
fire, stirring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When
melted, pour into a bucket of cold water. Grease the
hands, remove the wax from the water as soon as it
can be handled and pull until it is a light yellow in
color. Wax not needed for immediate use may be rolled
up in balls, wrapped in oiled, stiff, brown paper, and
put away for further use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax in
a kettle and dropping into it sheets or wide strips of
old calico or cotton cloth. As soon as saturated with the
wax, remove them from the kettle and stretch on a
board. For use tear into strips, one-quarter or one-half
of an inch wide.
Waxed twine is prepared by dropping balls of No.
18 knitting cotton into the melted wax and stirring
them about for four or five minutes, or until the wax
has penetrated them.
Selecting Cions and Buds.-Cions and bud sticks
should be taken from healthy, vigorous trees. Select
the cions from well-matured wood of one year's growth,
though a piece of two-year-old wood at the base will
not matter. The wood is angular, small, and the inter-
nodes long, and the pith large in proportion to the
diameter. Either terminal portions of twigs may be
used or portions back of the tip, but the buds should
always be well developed, full and plump. For this
reason grafts should not be cut from wood far back
from the tip of the branch. As stated already, twigs
of the previous season's growth are generally used,
provided the growth is not too large. Grafts are gener-
ally cut about five or six inches long and should be
from one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch in thick-
ness.
It is best that the grafts be cut while still in a dor-
mant state, and inserted in the stock just before growth
starts. The cions may be kept for a considerable length
of time by placing them loosely packed in damp moss
or sawdust, in a box. The box should be covered over
with earth and the cions kept sufficiently moist to








THE PECAN


prevent drying out. The difference in the condition of
the stock and cion, it should be understood, is not abso-
lutely necessary, as good results are frequently obtained
without these precautions, but in grafting the pecan
a difference in dormancy is extremely desirable, and
it is an important factor in securing good results.
For bud-sticks, well-developed one-year-old branches.
one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, and
on which the buds are well formed, or older wood, with
plump, full buds, are selected. Such sticks frequently
show three buds at a node, and if some misfortune
should overtake one or two of these, there is still a
chance of success, though the upper one, being the
strongest, is generally the one which starts, provided
it is uninjured and the bud takes. The degree of ma-
turity of the bud is important, and care should be ex-
ercised that only those which are plump, full and well-
developed are used. It is easy to distinguish between
desirable and undesirable buds.

GRAFTING AND GRAFTING METHODS
Top-working by grafting, or the grafting of nursery
stock above ground, should be done in spring just be-
fore growth starts. The preference is for the latter
part of the season, provided there is not too much
work to be done, as the cions have less time to dry out
before the process of uniting with the stock begins.
The work of whip-grafting nursery stock under
ground, just as the crown roots of the seedlings, can
be started in the latter part of December and continued
until February. For this work the earth is thrown back
from the seedlings, leaving them standing in a narrow
trench. After the cions are inserted, the ground is
placed back about them, covering them up, leaving
only the top bud exposed. The seedling trees cannot be
dug up and bench-grafted satisfactorily in winter, as
is the practice with apples, pears and other fruits. It
can be done, but the percentage of unions secured is
too small to make it an economical method to follow.
The only satisfactory plan is to graft the seedlings in
the nursery row, as described above.
Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting for
top-working and whin-grafting for working both nur-
sery seedlings and old trees.







24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Cleft-Grafting.-Having selected the place on the
branch or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be
inserted, the part should be sawed off with a smooth,
clean cut. The end of the stub can then be cut squarely
off at the point desired.
The trunk or branch is then split with the grafting
iron. The cleft should be carefully made, and should be
about one and a half inches in length. In preparing
the cion, a sloping cut is made at the lower end, about
one and a half inches long, cutting into the pith from
a point one-half way up the cut, down to the lower end.
On the opposite side the cut should not touch the pith,
but should be made through the wood throughout. The
cion should be left wider on the outer side than on the
inner side to make a tight fit when inserted. Start the
cuts on each side of and just at the bud.
Having made the cleft, open it with the wedge end
of the grafting iron and place the cion in position in
the cleft-stock. The cambium layers should be in contact
and the cion should be shoved well down until the
whole of the wedge is within the stock. In large stocks
two cions may be inserted, the weaker of which should
be removed if both live. Large stocks will exert suf-
ficient pressure against the cions to render tieing un-
necessary, but if the stocks are small the union should
be firmly tied with waxed twine or cloth, and in case
the ends of the cut stock and the union should be cov-
ered smoothly with grafting-wax. Should there be
danger of the stock exerting too much pressure (as in
the case of large stocks), the cleft should be made well
out to one side of the center.
Whip-Grafting.-Stocks, whether seedling trees or
branches in the tops of old trees, should be less than
an inch in diameter, one-half or five-eighths inch being
a nice size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long,
is made at the end of the cion, a corresponding cut is
made on the stock, a small tongue of wood is raised on
each by making a cut with a knife-blade parallel to
the grain of the wood. The tongue is raised a little on
both stock and cion and the two are then shoved to-








THE PECAN


gether, with the cambium layers on one or both sides
in contact. They must then be firmly bound together
with twine or cloth, the whole of the cut surfaces being
covered over to the exclusion of water, air and the
germs of decay.
The cion and stocks are preferably chosen of nearly
the same size, but a cion somewhat smaller than the
stock may be used, in which case the cambium layers
along one side of the surfaces in contact must be placed
opposite, as already indicated. In working nursery
seedlings by whip-grafting, the cions should be inserted
so that the point of union will be under the surface of
the ground. The earth should be placed back around
the union as soon as the work is completed. This plan
of propagation will not give satisfactory results except
on well-drained lands.

BUDDING AND METHODS
Budding is preferred to grafting by some propa-
gators, as they are able to secure a larger percentage
of unions than by grafting. Much, however, depends
upon the locality, soil and drainage. By either method
from fifty to seventy-five per cent of successful unions
must be considered satisfactory. The amateur may
well be satisfied with 10 per cent.
The season for budding is when the bark will slip
well during the months of July and August. The sea-
son is, however, often extended into September. Many
of the buds inserted late in the season remain dormant
until the following spring.
During the season, from the first of July until Sep-
tember, the atmosphere is moist, the buds are in good
condition, the sap flows freely, and better results are
secured than at any other time. The buds commonly
used are those which have been formed just previously.
They should be carefully selected and only those fully
matured should be used. Oliver (Bulletin 30, Bureau
of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.) recommends the use
of dormant buds of last season, but the method has
not met with favor because of the large amount of
wood which must be sacrificed to secure a few buds.







26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Annular Budding.-By this method branches or
seedling trees three-quarters of an inch or less in diam-
eter may be worked. It is preferable that the stock
and bud-stick be of the same size, though the stock
may be somewhat smaller. From the stock remove a
ring of bark an inch or so in length. On the bud-
stick select a good bud and remove it by taking out a
ring of bark the same in size as the one removed from
the stock. Place this ring in the place on the stock
prepared for it and bandage securely in place, using
a piece of waxed cloth. The wrapper should be brought
around the stock, so as to cover the cut ends. The bud
may be covered over or left exposed.
In ten days or two weeks remove the bandage, and
examine the bud. A plump, full bud at this time is an
indication that the union has taken place.
Veneer-Shield or Patch-Budding.-If this method is
used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be
of the same size, so far as size alone goes almost any
stock can be used. A rectangular or triangular piece
of bark is removed from the side of the stock. From
the bud-stick cut a similar piece of bark with a bud
in its center. Place the bud in place on the stock and
wrap as in annular budding. If the stock is consid-
erably larger than the bud-stick, the piece of bark bud
attached will have to be flattened out somewhat before
inserting.
Lopping.-Frequently buds, particularly those in-
serted late in the season, act as dormant buds and do
not begin growth until the following spring. The
top of stocks budded during June, July and August
should be lopped up to September first. It is always
well to start the buds out before growth ceases for
the season, but stocks budded after the first of Sep-
tember should not be lopped until the following spring,
just before growth begins.
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to
within five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later,
after the bud has grown to some size, it should be
cut right back to the bud and painted over to prevent
rotting. Lopping may also be performed by cutting
the stock half off two or three inches above the bud








THE PECAN


and bending it over. After growth starts in the bud,
it should be removed entirely, thus throwing the full
flow of sap into the bud.

THE NURSERY
The best soil for the pecan industry is a well-drained,
loamy soil, with a clay or sandy-clay sub-soil. The
land should be put in good condition before the trees
or nuts are planted in it. Crops of beggarweed, velvet
beans plowed under, or a good dressing of well-rotted
stable manure will go a long way toward putting the
ground in good shape. The ground should be plowed
deeply and put in the very best tilth.
Throughout the growing season the ground should
be cultivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to con-
serve moisture and destroy weeds is all that is neces-
sary. It is not possible to grow good trees without
thorough, frequent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should
be used at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre. One
analyzing 3 per cent phosphoric acid, 3 per cent potash
and 6 per cent nitrogen is about right for nurseries on
most Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed, it is an excel-
lent plan to sow the ground in one of the leguminous
crops mentioned above, to help to recuperate. The
frequent cultivations, so necessary for the growth of
the trees, wear out the humus in the soil. The legumes
will replace this if grown, and plowed back into the
soil, after they are dead and dry.

TOP-WORKING PECAN TREES
By far the greater number of seedling trees in the
State have not fulfilled the expectations of their
planters. The trees are not prolific, or the fruit which
they bear is small and inferior. Such trees, if in good
health and vigor, may be top-worked to advantage.
Seedlings may be planted with the expectation of top-
working them, but this is not recommended.
If the trunks are small, an inch or inch and a half
in diameter, the whole top may be removed at once.
If the trees are medium size the main branches may







28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

be worked close to the trunk; and if large, grafts may
be inserted farther up from the trunk. Buds may
be inserted in vigorous branches. The growth of such
branches may be induced by cutting back the original
branch of the tree in late winter. Lateral buds will
then be forced into growth and by mid-summer the
branches formed from them will be large enough to
bud. The attempt should not be made to bud or graft
over the whole top of a large tree in one season. Only
a few branches should be worked each year, and in
the course bf two, three or four years, depending upon
the size of the trees, the old top can be entirely removed
and replaced by a new one of a good variety.
Both cleft and whip-graft may be used, but the
latter can, of course, only be used on small stocks.
The objection to working very large branches is that
they do not heal readily; two and a half inches is
about the maximum in size. Large wounds should
be painted over with white lead paint to prevent
decay.
For several months after the new top has com-
menced to grow the cions or buds have but a slight
hold upon the stock, and as the growth is usually
very vigorous and the leaf surface great, consider-
able damage is frequently done by strong winds, or
by wind and rain together. To prevent this, the
young shoots may be tied together or fastened to
other portions of the stock. If this is done, care
should be taken that the twine used does not do injury
by cutting into the wood. To obviate this, a piece of
burlap should be placed around the branch beneath
the twine, and the twine should be removed as soon
as it has served its purpose. In some cases the top
may be supported by lashing a pole against the side
of the trunk and fastening the grafts to the upper
part of this, or a pole may be driven into the ground
at some distance from the trunk, fastened against a
branch or stub of a branch above and used in the
same way. After the top has grown sufficiently to
take care of itself, these posts can, of course, be
removed. Sometimes, after the top has made con-
siderable growth, and particularly if large branches
are allowed to develop opposite each other, they are








THE PECAN


split apart and the whole top ruined. If this unde-
sirable conformation exists it is best to take steps
to prevent splitting. A bolt having a stout washer
against the head should be placed through two
branches, a second washer placed on and the nut
screwed up. The bolt will, in the course of a few
years, be entirely covered. By this means the tree
trunks are held firmly together. This same plan
may be used to save branches which have partially
split apart. Sometimes a branch may be inarched
from one large branch to another to serve as a living
brace.
Necessarily, a considerable number of wounds are
made in top-working. Branches are removed entirely,
others are cut back to within a foot or so of the trunk
and grafted. Often these fail to unite. Such stubs
should not be left. If branches are formed on them
they should be cut back to the point where these buds
start; if no branches come out from them they should
be cut back to the trunk or large branch on which they
are borne. If left, they prevent the healing of the
wound, rot back, and the rot is carried into and down
the trunk of the tree, resulting in a hollow and weak-
ening the trunk. Smooth cuts should be made, and
these should be covered with white lead paint to pre-
vent decay. A little lamp black may be added, if
desired, to make the paint nearly the color of pecan
bark.

PECAN VARIETIES FOR GROWING IN FLORIDA
Among the larger varieties of pecans, Schley, Stuart,
Success, Frotscher and Pabst are probably the most
suitable for Florida conditions. Of the smaller ones,
Curtis, Moore, Kennedy, Randall and Moneymaker are
recommended ahead of others.
These varieties according to G. H. Blackmon, pecan
culturist of the Florida Experiment Station, are grown
more in this state and promise better and more profit-
able crops of* nuts than others. His selections are
based on years of experience and observations and
study, both by himself and successful growers of the
State.
Schley is said to be favored by most people, although
it is susceptible to scab, the most destructive disease







30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

of the pecan in Florida. If the Schley is grown, pre-
cautions must be taken to control scab, which includes
systematic spraying with Bordeaux mixture and the
destruction or early plowing under of foliage. It is
a paper-shell nut.
Stuart, which is not attacked by scab, is popular
and widely grown. The nut is medium to large with
moderately thick shell. The tree produces fair crops
and bears regularly. It is most common in northern
and western counties of the pecan belt.
Success has not proved a complete success in all
areas of the Florida pecan belt. In places it does not
fill out well, while in others it does exceptionally
well. It has not developed scab to any extent. It
doubtless should be planted on the heavier and more
fertile soils of northern and western counties of the
State.
Frotscher has proved a good producer in certain
vicinities, shell is fairly thin, kernel plump, flavor is
fair, moderately productive, has not developed scab
to any extent.
Pabst has proved quite successful in many com-
munities in Florida. Nut is large and rather thick-
shelled, kernel is plump, flavor good. It tends to scab.
Tree is a good producer.
Among the smaller nuts, Curtis has proved successful
in many areas. Nut is small to medium, thin-shelled,
cracks well, kernel plump, quality high, flavor excel-
lent; very little scab as yet.
Moore is very popular with many growers. It is a
heavy producer; nuts crack out well, kernel plump,
quality and flavor are good; trees bear early; shows
a tendency to scab.
Kennedy has proved popular and productive in
eastern counties of the pecan belt of Florida. Nut is
medium sized, shell fairly thick but cracks well, ker-
nel plump, flavor and quality are good; scabs but
little.
Randall is profitable in central and northern coun-
ties. It is prolific, nut medium sized, shell fairly thick,
kernels plump and come out whole, quality and flavor
are good, scabs but little.
Moneymaker is popular with many growers. It is
medium in size, shell is rather thick, kernel moderately








THE PECAN 31

plump, flavor and quality are good, good producer, free
of scab at present.
The variety one selects depends upon local conditions
and his or her own personal preference. One should
study soil and climatic conditions and the character-
istics of the trees to be selected from.

INSECT PESTS
While it is true that the pecan has fewer insect pests
than many other trees, there are a number of insects
that, unless controlled, will cause a great loss to the
owner of the grove.
In the early life of the tree the bud moth and twig
girdler are the most serious pests. Unless controlled,
the young tree will make no growth. Later these in-
sects do not trouble so much, for the proportion of
buds and twigs destroyed is much smaller. Later, the
worst insects are the leaf case bearer, shuck-worm,
pecan weevil, fall web worm and walnut caterpillar.
All of these can be controlled by the use of poison
sprays. As soon as any damage is noticed, specimens
should be sent to the State Agricultural Experiment
Station and the proper spray will be advised.

PECAN DISEASES
The pecan is subject to a number of diseases and
some have caused great damage. The diseases do not
attack all of the varieties nor are they as bad in all
sections. For this reason, before planting a new or-
chard, the State Agricultural Experiment Station or
some good, reliable nurseryman should be consulted
as to the varieties best adapted to the section to be
planted.
Of the several diseases, pecan scab, pecan rosette,
pecan dieback, nursery blight and leaf spot are the
most common. These can be controlled by growing
immune varieties, cultural methods, or spraying if
taken in time and worked in the right way. The great
size of the mature tree makes the job of spraying a
much harder one than for other orchard trees. Only
power driven pumps can be relied on to do the work
in the proper manner.









WHERE PECANS ARE GROWN IN FLORIDA

The following table was taken from the Eighteenth Biennial
Report of the Florida Agricultural Department and gives the record
for the years 1924-25:
Non- Value Value
Bearing Bearing Dollars Bushels Dollars
AInchu -- 24.166 7,406 12.314 19,584 137,088
Baker 107,241 3:130 348.900 2,2R78 15.946
nrxdford ..... 2.595 :38 058, 2.559 17,913
Jrevard ..---.. .-- 216 1 1001 2 14
Proward .--.. [ ., -
Cslhun ---- 3,4864 543 11,035 r8* 32976
C(harlotte .- - ------ -86
Citrus -- 610 67 390 118 26
Clay .. 1.735 7.004 44.720 671 4.697
Columbia -12221 3.20 14.5 7 209
Dade "17 14 690 30 210
DeSoto -- 40 6 878' 166 1162
Dixie --- .. ---- I
Duva l 5.937 11.523 144.73S| 9.2S4 64.988
Escambla - 22,498 7.348 31.189 .50 24,710
Frnklrn --- S2 1S 4.9681 314 2,198
Gadsden -- 2.061 1,741 8,00 5.595 39.,165
Hamilton .... 5 0i 40R --:~~-
Glades 9.... 4 0... I .... ...-- 4-
Hardee 248 92 1.281 68 406
Hcndry --- ...-- -----
Hernando --...-- ---- ------ ---
Highiands---- -- -
JjlIinrough ----. 8.051 1,33S 22,059 523 3.661
Holms ---- 2.203 10.166 5.296 714 4,998
JefferP'sn 66.,642 2325i3 2f4.R2 3,12 2"5.284
,uflaye'ttv 1.2001 6741 1,4791 447: 3,129
Ike -... 3751 175 1,425! 9n 630
I.ce ... 401 141 3131 211 147
Leon... 3.096 6,033 8,391 5.1127 35.189
Levy .- ----I --
Liberty- .. ..--. --.... --- ...-
Madison -.... -- ---- -- --. -.
Manat.... ....4 26 G4 20 140
Marion ...58 2.5SS 24,880 4,152 29,064
Monroe .... ---3-10
Nasa .... 1,860 1310 3,503 00 4,200
Okaloosa .-.... 6,903 3,730 31,948 2,30 16,310
Okeechobee --...--. ------ ----...--- ----
Oranwe ..... .. 2481 3471. 382 2.674
Oseola .... 900' 101 59 413
Palm Beach _.. .-. I ---- 3 .....---
Pasw. -. 996! 242 1707 2,674
Pin..llus 45 96 4(1 1571 1,099
Polk 2. 44 141 1221 18 116
Putnam .. I 213' 1201 120 840
Saruaota .I---. I 371 ... I 3| 21
St. Jnhns I 1.509 777 13.957 S20' 5.740
St. L.ucie .. -- ...- ---.- -
Santa Rosa ...8,22 5,472 26.023 2.42 16.954
Semlnol .... .. | -" s _T --9 I---
Sum tr ..- 3431 124 858 594 4,1.58
Suwannee ... 2.4571 922 6.161 1.179 8,253
Taylor 47 ...... 402
Union ..... .... 2,934 1.574 345 710 4.970
Volusla ... .. 3,674 1,312 26,240 2.008 14,056
Wakunll ..... f -, ---- _--..
Walton ....... 1.727 951 14.896
Washlngton 9.083 3.997 32.623 1.041, 7.287
Total -__ ...... 304.0357 115.766: 1.1lS.662! 75.3951 526.123




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