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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Possibilities of the Everglades
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003085/00001
 Material Information
Title: Possibilities of the Everglades
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 91 p. : ill., 1 map (some col.) ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mayo, Nathan, 1876-1960
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1940
Edition: Rev.
 Subjects
Subject: Swamps -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Everglades (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Nathan Mayo.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July, 1940."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003085
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3637
ltuf - AHN2636
oclc - 23664032
alephbibnum - 001608312
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Table of Contents
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    Map of Everglades section of Florida
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Full Text
.n vx.ro a.

I


Bulletin No. 61 New Series July, 1940



POSSIBILITIES

OF THE


EVERGLADES

(REVISED)

















STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissiomer
TALLAHASSEE


I










Possibilities of the Everglades
(Not a State Project Since 1931)

By NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
There are, in the natural Everglades area, 2,862.000 acres;
in the Everglades drainage district, 4.370,000 acres; some
300,000 acres have been partially reclaimed, and about 100,-
000 are in actual cultivation.
About $11,000,000 have been spent on the drainage project
up to the present. The lateral drainage canals will cost as
much as the main arteries of drainage.

EVERGLADES NOT ALL ALIKE
The Everglades proper are not all alike. There are four
main classifications: (1) the muck soils, (2) the marl lands,
(3) sandy soils, (4) lime rock lands.
There are sub-classifications of each of these divisions, which
make the Everglades soils about as spotted as the rest of
Florida. The muck lands are subdivided as follows: Custard
apple land, elderberry land, willow land, dog fennel land. and
sawgrass land. There seems to be a general impression through-
out the north that the Everglades are all alike, and too little
discrimination has been made by investors because of this mis-
taken idea.
The immense drainage project has but one end in view;
that is that the millions of acres be reclaimed for agriculture.
Some of the crops successfully grown in the Everglades are
tomatoes. potatoes, peppers, beans, egg plant, onions, cabbage,
cucumbers, strawberries, beets, lettuce. celery, and other vege-
tables; sugarcane, corn, rice, alfalfa, Kaffir corn. millet. sorg.
hum, milo maize, peanuts, dasheen, many grasses and staple
crops. Cattle raising. dairying, hog raising and poultry rais-
ing have been successful in many instances.
The greatest need of most southern soils is humus. The
Everglades is one place where there is a super-abundance of
humus. In fact. to a great extent the soil is made up of humus.
For untold ages aquatic vegetation grew here and died, but as





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the land was covered by water the dead vegetation did not
decay. That is why it must be drained and aerated before
bacteria can get in their work of preparing the soil for plant
food. The marl land will grow tomatoes the first year. The
best grade of muck land will grow any crops fairly well the
first year. Corn and Irish potatoes have been grown with
some success the first year, even on the sawgrass lands. Some
of it requires several years to bring it under proper cultiva-
tion. However, the number of times it is plowed goes further
toward determining the rapidity of the reclamation than the
time element. Plowing hastens bacterial action.
There are thousands of acres of good truck and fruit lands
in the state on which an industrious and frugal family can
make a good living and in many cases a substantial profit, on
less than ten acres. There are cases where five acres will show
this result. But these exceptionally small farms do not offer
the means of proper rotation of crops or the support of live-
stock, and it is safer to have a horse, a cow, and hogs. The
fact that one crop follows another during the same year is
not crop rotation if the same crops are grown annually.
These exceptional tracts of land are not often found in large
bodies.
These lands are not always located where the owner can
market his crops to advantage.
There is no justification for the division of large tracts of
land into five and ten acre farms to be plotted by blue print
methods and sold at arbitrary and exorbitant prices without
regard to the relative value of the various subdivisions. Such
methods are an injustice to the buyer and injurious to the
state.
Truck farming and fruit growing require special training
and aptitude on the part of the farner, and people without
previous experience should not expect phenomenal results
from their efforts in this direction.
If a person wishes to retire from active life but wants some-
thing to amuse himself with, he may buy any size farm, how-
ever small, and occupy his time at miniature farming of any
kind that suits his whim.






POSSIBILITIES OF TIE EVERGLADES


It is with the man with a family who wants to farm for a
living. who must raise his family and aims to lay by a surplus
from his hard.carne.I savings. that 1 am concerned about. and
that I want to be a satisfied citizen instead of a disappointed
and unsatisfied citizen who feels that lie has not been treated
fairly.
The best quality of the Everglades slows wonderful possi-
bilities. Instances of astonishing results can be cited. This
fact has lent a halo of romance around the magic word Ever-
glades." and many who failed to investigate and who had no
previous experience thought they had a rainbow with its pro-
verbial pot of gold. and of course suffered disillusionment.
Men who are used to hard work on the farm and are not look-
ing for a soft snap, who exercise common sense in selecting
their land. and are willing to put the same amount of labor
and money into an investment in the Everglades that they do
into other lands. will do well in the Everglades. On the other
hand. if they expect to find their holdings a honey pond with
pan cakes hanging from the trees growing around the edge.
they are doomed to disappointment and failure. It means work.
and hard work to succeed in anything-an occupation. busi-
ness. or profession. Farming is no exception. and farming has
no exceptions in different parts of the world. The sooner the
public mind is disabused of this fallacy that Florida is an ex-
ception to the rule. the better for all concerned.
The Florida Everglades have been the enigma of the scien-
tist an:l the developer. The tests made of the agricultural.
horticultural, and livestock possibilities of the reclaimed lands
show that there are wonderful things in store when the whole
tillable area is finally mastered and brought to full produc-
ing capacity. Thousands of acres are now producing millions
of dollars worth of truck and other crops. However. I want
to drop the suggestion that you should not confine your farm-
ing to truck crops. It is possible to reach the point of dimin-
ishing returns and jeopardize that industry.
The canals, roads and the railroads furnish ample trans-
portation facilities for the outlet of the products of the farms.
Millions spent on the harbors of Miami. Fort liaderdale, and





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


other ports on the east coast furnish shipping accommodations
for ocean traffic.
Poultry raising and dairying have both been demonstrated
to be capable of large development. Avocados, mangoes, and
citrus fruits are grown commercially and promise large re-
turns in the future.
That part of the Everglades not brought under drainage has
great possibilities in the furnishing of fuel in the form of peat
bricks, as have been made of peat in Canada. The growing
of willows for the making of wicker furniture has been demon-
stated as practical in much of the Everglades. This may be
developed into a thriving industry.

LEGAL PHASES
The Everglades Drainage District was created by and op-
erates under laws passed by the Legislature of Florida. The
officers of the District, designated by law, consists of five per-
sons who are land owners in the District appointed by the
Governor. Money for carrying on the drainage work is raised
from the proceeds of drainage taxes levied upon the land within
the District by the Legislature. The drainage taxes are of
two kinds: The drainage tax proper being assessed by the acre
upon all the lands of the District; a second tax consists of a
levy of one mill on the dollar against all property in the Dis-
trict. State lands in the Everglades Drainage District pay
drainage taxes the same as any other land.
The total amount of bonds issued by Everglades Drainage
District is $11,250,000. The principal of bonds outstanding
in 1935 was $9,479,000. These bonds are supported by what
is termed a "DEBT SERVICE TAX" levied upon the lands
within the District. Additional bonds may be issued by sub-
divisions or "UNITS" of the District, which said bonds are
to be supported by "UNIT" District taxes. The earlier bonds
of the District bear interest at the rate of 6%. Later bonds
hear interest at the rate of 51/2%, while the last issue are 5%
bonds. Draining the Everglades is no longer a State project.
The estimated assessed valuation of land in the District in
1928 was $32.000,000, and the population in 1928 was 38,000.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 5

From the forgoing it will be noted that the bonded debt of
the District is very high in proportion to the assessed valua-
tion of property and population.
To May 31, 1926, there were 439.97 miles of main canals
open. The main canals thus far constructed or under con-
struction are:
Name of Canal Length In Miles
Caloosahatehee .................. ........................... ............ ...... 2 .00
Cypress Creek ................... ........................................................................ 12.20
D ania ........................................ ........................ ............................... 5.9
H urney's Pon l ............................................................. ...................... 3.05
N ine M ile ..................................................................... ....................... 9.73
Snake Creek .............................................................................................. 14.30
Tamuiam i ...................................... ............... ..................... 5.52
South New R iver ........ ......................................................................... 25.00
Snapper Creek ........................................... ............... .......... ............. 12.5
Snapper .'reek E xt. ................................................................ ........ 8.47
Indian Prairle ..................................................................................... 20.$3
H illsboro ........................ ..... .............................................................. 50.
North New River .......................................... ........... ................. 5 .20
M iam i ..................................................................................................... 78.70
St. Lucie ............ ....................................................... .. ...................... 25.00
W est Palm Bench ...................................................................................... 40.)
L ateral Canals ................................................................ ................... 3 .
Totals ..................................................... ...................................... 43 .97
The Miami Canal is the longest and is incomplete, twenty-
four miles are completed on the south end. and twelve miles
on the upper end, with some work done between these channels.
The area in the Everglades Drainage District within which
farming has been carried on is approximately 120.000 acres.
Probably not more than 20% to 25% of this area has been
under cultivation at any one time. The principal farming lo-
calities at present are along the Lake Shore and the following
canals: Miami Canal, West Palm Beach Canal. North New
River Canal, Hillsborough Canal. Caloosahatchee Canal. and
the St. Lucie Canal. The size and importance of the areas
from the standpoint of farm products are in the order men-
tioned above. In the above areas, general drainage work is
further advanced and local drainage districts have made greater
progress in the construction of secondary works of drainage
in the nature of lateral canals, farm ditches, and protective
levees. The main drainage work of the district has advanced
in many localities to a stage which permits making land ready





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


for settlement and cultivation as rapidly as the secondary
works can be provided by the local sub-drainage districts.
The Everglades Experiment Station has much valuable data
to guide the Everglades farmers. I emphasize the necessity of
an experiment station on each of the different types of soil
in Florida.
We might adopt the slogan. "A greater Florida through a
greater Everglades." Upon the development of the back coun-
try of Florida depends the future permanent greatness of the
state. This development must be done by hard labor. We
must make the inducement sufficient to draw capital for in-
vestment and sufficiently remunerative to draw immigrant
farmers. If we price our lands too high, we raise an impass-
able barrier to both capital and labor.
Miami is deeply concerne:l as to the outcome of this under-
taking. The one word "Drainage" spells the future fate of
this section of Florida.
I am constrained to think that we have not judged accur-
ately the relative value of our various sources of revenue. Our
sports have been presented adequately, but we have not looked
as closely into the more substantial support of land develop-
ment. If we will spend as much money in development as in
amusements, the results will be more substantial.
With the establishing of immense power stations on both the
cast and west coast, furnishing electric power commercially,
we should attract such industries as can secure raw material
for manufacture here in the state; with ample transportation
facilities by land and sea, opening up the markets of both the
Eastern and Southern Hemispheres, Florida should be able to
show such growth in the future as has not been shown in the
past.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville, Florida
(Annual Report, 1937)
EVERGLADES STATION
By WILMON NEWELL
Director
Additional acreage was utilized by the re-establishment of
fertility plots for truck crops on about seven acres of land in
the Southeast Sector. It was necessary to plow up about 20
acres from virgin sawgrass cover in Section 10 for planting
temporary pastures of winter rye, etc.. to supplement the
pasture areas during December, January and February.

PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
An extension was added to the machine shed to serve as a
machine shop and a roofed structure was built upon piling
to cover the four pens and feeding troughs for the steer feed-
ing experiment. Marl rock was used to complete the sur-
facing of the field road running from Iighway 25 past the
barns and machine shed. The area taken up by the feeding
pens within and around the feeding shed also was surfaced
with rock.
WATER CONTROL
Heavy rains totalling 8.26 inches fell early in November
and retarded truck crops to a considerable degree. A 4.68
inch rain late in March followed by one of 3.84 inches early
in April largely damaged spring truck crops. In some sec-
tions destruction of these crops was almost complete. especially
where pumping facilities were inadequate. Areas under better
water control suffered considerably less loss.

METEOROLOGICAL RECORDS
The year was marked by a mild winter season and by a
fairly normal rainfall except as noted. The heavy rain of late
March was accompanied by hail which damaged crops in the
Pahokee area.
Temperature.-The lowest temperature recorded was 34F.
on November 29. There was frost in some of the fields at the






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 9

TABLE 17.-MEAN MAXIMUM AND MI.NIMs M TEMPERATURES (FAHREN-
HEIT) FOR THE YEAR 1930-37 IN COMPARISON WITH THESE SAME VALUES
FOR THE YEAR 1935-36 AND THE AVERAGE OF THESE VALUES FOR THE
PERIOD 1924-1937.

1936-1937 1935-1936 Average
011 1924-1937*
MONTH-
M. ax. Min. Max. IMin. Max. Min.

July--...--.....-- 90.6 71.6 89.4 i 69.1 90.6 69.2
August....--...-- 80.5 71.7 91.7 1 68.6 91.0 1 70.2
September---...... 89.2 69.4 SS.3 69.9 SS.6 70.3
October..---....- 87.5 6S-7 S4.2 67.6 84.5 66.1
ovember.---....- 77.S 5S.3 79.4 5i.5 77.8 5S.0
December------....-- 77.3 56.7 6S.9 43.9 75.6 53.2
January--......- 81.2 60.5 76.6 53.5 76.0 52.6
February-........ 76.3 53.1 73.7 53.2 76.9 52.0
M.arch.-.......... 77.8 54.4 77.9 53.1 78.1 52.5
April..---.- ...-- 81.1 59.0 83.2 5S.1 82.2 57.3
8M......5.5 62.5 84.4 63.2 S5.7 62.6
June............. 88.9 67.S I 86.1 67.S 88.1 66.9
Averages do not include values for September through November of
192S, or February through April of 1929.

TABLE IS.-COMPARISON oF TOTAL MONTHLY RAINF.aLL AND Ev.PORA-
TION FROM OPEN PAN DURING THE YEAR WITH THE AVERAGES FOR THE
SAME PERIODS FOR THE PREVIOUS YEARS OF WHICH THERE Is RECORD
AT THE EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION.

S RAINFALL, INCHES EVAPORATION, INCHES
MO~xNTH ----- ; ----- ------- | ------- 1j------ ~------
1936-37 1935-36 1924-37 1936-37 1935-36 1924-37

July-..----....-- 6.09 6.37 6.9 7.372 7.377 6.702
August------..--- 5.33 6.54 S.62 6.539 7.016 6.300
September--...... 5.84 10.SS 9.36 4.924 5.53S 5.442
October----...... 1.65 5.71 4.56 5.146 5.374 5.117
November......--. 9.17 0.36 2.SO 4.277 4.320 3.920
December--...... 1.1 2.07 1.12 3.135 3.501 3.397
January-.. .... 2.97 1.91 1.75 4.445 4.176 3.669
February.......... 1.21 4.04 I 1.75 3.S60 3.S06 4.041
March........... 5.S7 2.40 3.43 5.301 6.215 5.731
April...----....-- 6.00 1.96 3.67 6.302 7.6S5 i 6.535
May.--.....-.... -3.38 6.39 4. t'3 7.774 7.404 7.261
June--..---....-- 7.74 18.61 10.23 1 6.697 5.944 6.144
Totals-...... 56.43 67.24 5; 5.90 65.772 68.356 64.259
Evaporation record poor from July to December, 1924, inclusive; not
included in these average values. In 1928-29 during the months of September
to January, inclusive, no evaporation record was taken and these months
are not included in average values.






10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Station on the morning of November 28 and February 6, and
scattering frosts occurred in the Glades at those times. Mean
monthly temperatures for all winter mouths were above those
of the 1924-37 averages.
Rainfall and Evaporation.-The total rainfall of 56.43 inch-
es was slightly below the average annual rainfall. November
was by far the wettest month of the year, which is unusual.
Three and two-tenths inches of the November rail fell in one
hour's time. An evaporation of 65.77 inches from a standard
evaporation pan was slightly above the average for 1924-37.
Wind Velocity and Barometric Pressure.-Highest wind
velocity recorded during the year was 21 miles per hour on
July 22 and March 31. Barometric pressures were quite uni-
form through the year.


FRUIT AND FOREST TREE TRIALS AND OTHER
INTRODUCTORY PLANTINGS
State Project 85 G. R. Townsend and R. N. Lobdell

Citrus.-The citrus grove has shown improvement during
the year. A large crop of fruit was harvested during the win-
ter. Grapefruit was of good quality; oranges, lemons and
tangerines were fair; limes were excellent.
There was less frenching in the grove, due probably to the
addition of zinc sulfate to the fertilizer. The grove is now in
the best condition it has ever been and has set a good crop of
fruit.
Ornamental Plantings.-In continuation of the experiment
on refrigeration of Florida-grown Easter lily bulbs (Lilium
longiflorum var. cximiumf) refrigerated bulbs and non-re-
frigerated bulbs were again planted on the same day and dug
the same day. The yield of one line of each lot will be treated
as before and at the end of several generations it should be
possible to determine whether under Florida conditions the
cold treatment impairs or improves the vitality of the strain.
The control of aphids to prevent damage to blooms and spread
of mosaic is of considerable economic importance to com-
mercial growers.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Ladybeetles have been observed during the summer feeding
on aphids found upon certain South Florida native trees and
shrubs. Small plants of such sorts are being introduced to
the campus plantings and later may be found suitable for use
in mixed windbreaks if the aphids feeding upon them are not
species that attack also vegetables, citrus or other orchard
fruits being grown in the Glades. A good population of lady-
beetles in the early fall at the beginning of the vegetable grow-
ing season would be of great help in holding down aphid out-
breaks.

SOIL FERTILITY INVESTIGATIONS UNDER FIELD AND
GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
State Project 86 A. Daane. R. E. Robertson and F. D. Stevens
Truck Crops.-During the past year the several groups
of field fertility plots on which plantings had been in progress
since 1930 were discontinued. Throughout the six-year erop-
ping period, data have been obtained from nearly 40 plantings
giving much information relative to crop requirements for
the major plant foods. The effect of nitrogen applications
has been somewhat erratic front year to year. although an
average of results indicates slight positive responses on cab-
bage, snap beans, potatoes, and garden peas. With celery
however, this response has been decidedly more significant.
Beans and peas have demonstrated a moderately heavy re-
quirement for phosphorus. whereas cabbage has given highest
yields with lesser quantities. Crops of potatoes have indi-
cated even less response to this element and phosphate appli-
cations from any source have given but little or no yield in-
crease. On the other hand, celery has shown a far greater
requirement for phosphorus than all other crops tried. In
general, the more insoluble sources. in comparison with the
superphosphate, have given inferior results.
Response to potash has been heavy with all crops grown.
and particularly so with celery. Potatoes. cabbage and beans
have shown requirements for moderately large quantities while
maximum responses with garden peas have been attained with
somewhat smaller amounts. Muriate of potash. in comparison
with the sulfate form. has given better results with crops of







POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


celery, cabbage and peas, while with beans and potatoes slight
decreases in yields have been noted. On trials involving meth-
ods of fertilizer application, cabbage and potatoes have shown
moderately better yields where the material has been broad-
east. With beans, superior results were obtained in all cases
with drill applications while garden peas gave no definite in-
dication. More detailed information relative to the findings on
the earlier trials will be published later.
Following the abandonment of the older series of plots, two
new field lay-outs were made on new land. The north group
of plots involving 14 treatments was planted to snap beans
prior to fertilization. in an attempt to study natural soil varia-
tion. However, as a result of heavy rains during early April
the crop was lost before harvest. Treatments for the south
group of plots were designed primarily for celery plantings.
and a late crop was matured, although affected by flood con-
ditions. Only slight responses to nitrogen and phosporus were
obtained. Potash gave its greatest response between 120 and
240 pound per acre applications of K0O and the apparent su-
periority of the muriate source was again noted. Plantings
will be continued on these plots next fall. and at that time
the first treatments on the north group will be made.
Four co-operative fertilizer placement trials were made on
areas outside the Station grounds. With snap beans there was
no apparent benefit from side placements in comparison with
the usual practice of drill application.
However, with garden peas. percentage of germination was
materially increased as the fertilizer became farther removed
from the seed zone. There was no indication of difference
between single and double band applications. No definite
results were obtained with plantings of potatoes.
On the water table plots a fall planting of beans was lost by
frost. However, injury was noticeably less on the higher water
levels. The following crop of garden peas was somewhat in-
jured by a light frost and yields were further reduced by a
severe infestation of nematodes which were first noted on the
plots at this time. As closely as could be determined there was
no appreciable difference in nematode populations between plots






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


of varying water stage. Yields were greatest on the 18", 12"
and 24" water tables, in order, and plant injury by nematodes
was apparently reduced at these higher water levels. A spring
crop of snap beans gave highest yields at the 18" water stage,
dropping materially with water held at the 24" level. Further
reductions were apparent at even lower depths. At a 12" water
level, yields were very low and quality of the fruit was greatly
impaired.
Grasses.-From a series of plots involving treatments with
varying sources of phosphate, six cuttings of Dallis grass and
seven of carpet grass were made during the year. Average
results indicate an excellent phosphate response with but little
difference in yields between sources, although yields of Dallis
grass from the single superphosphate treatments were slightly
depressed as compared with those from triple phosphate plots.
In general, insoluble sources of phosphates gave slightly better
results for both grasses.
In another series of Dallis grass plots doubling the amounts
of potash and phosphorus almost doubled the yield, while
doubling the potash only was equally as good. Lack of re-
sponse to nitrogen continued to be manifest.
Corn.-Yields of grain and stover from the first planting
on the fertility plots were reduced by the high water of late
June, 1936, and there was no apparent effect of variation in
fertilizer treatment. The second crop of corn on these plots
has grown nicely. Yield records have not all been completed
but a general scoring of the plots shows that the outstanding
treatment effect is that where carriers of manganese, zinc and
boron were added in addition to those of phosphorus and potash.
Growth was more vigorous and the ears were filled better.

INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL
State Project 87 R. N. Lobdell
Insect damage to vegetable crops of the Everglades during
the past year was even less than during the preceding year,
when it was low. Rains destroyed some plantings but also
wiped out incipient outbreaks of onion thrips, red spiders, and





POSSIBILITIES OF TIE EVERGLADES


bean jassids. More spraying and dusting with insecticides
and better methods of application also have been of value in
control. Standardization and labeling of insecticides have
lagged behind methods of application.
Cutworms.-Work with baits using magnesium sulfate as
poison has been initiated. Individuals of Bufo marinus, the
large toad introduced from Porto Rico, have been observed
one and one-half miles from the point of release. The 12 re-
tained in captivity have fed voraciously on insects attracted
to a light and falling to the ground of their fenced area. So
far no young have been produced.
Bean Jassids.-These were not abundant on the entomo-
logical plots until the very end of the season when the presence
of a great deal of bean rust prevented contrasts between the
plots. Observations were made on a field dusted by autogyro.
Though this type of plane would seem to have its best use for
fields surrounded by woodlands the higher charges made for
the work would indicate that the present type of plane will
continue to be used in the open areas of the Everglades. The
effort to find bean plants resistant to jassid injury has been
continued.
Wireworms.-Further life history work awaits the man-
ufacture and delivery of soil containers. The wireworm popu-
lation of the Glades is on the increase and is expected to be of
still greater importance as more land is planted to pastures or
allowed to grow up to grass cover crops.
Aphids.-Control of pea aphids by building up early sea-
son population of ladybeetles was continued very successfully
this year. Collards to feed turnip lice were drilled in corn
windbreaks in September. October and November. A few rows
of peas were planted in October. and thereafter through the
season other small plots were planted at intervals of about two
weeks. Pea aphids appeared with the second planting and
continued present all season but never in enough numbers to
damage yields. The aphid numbers seldom increased to more
than 1 or 2 per linear foot of row. The ladybeetles also mi-
grated to the lilies (Liliuim longiflorum) growing nearby, and
held down but did not wipe out an outbreak of aphids on these






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


plants. No buds were distorted by aphid injury in these plots,
though this damage was observed on others growing elsewhere.
Corn Ear-Worm.-It was found that certain inbred strains
of corn are extremely susceptible to injury by this worm, also
that certain northern varieties are hurt worse than such south-
ern varieties as Tuxpan, Cuban Flint, and others. Spraying
the young silks with various magnesium sulfate solutions is
being tried as a possible protection.

SOILS INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 88 J. R. Neller and R. E. Robertson
Nitrification.-A systematic study was started of nitrate
accumulation in the soils of the water table plots. In January
nitrates were determined in surface and subsurface depths in
uneropped areas and in those where sugarcane was growing.
Nitrates were somewhat higher in the second six-inch layer with
little difference between the cropped and fallow areas. They
were somewhat lower in plots (Block 2) where water was held
at the highest level, viz. 12 inches below the surface.
In May nitrates were highest under corn in the milk stage on
the corn fertility plots where a grass cover crop had been
turned under, almost as high where either manure or a legume
cover crop had been turned under and measurably lower in
those plots that had been kept fallow.
In the surface 6-inch layer under a very heavy crop of corn
growing on the peanut mulch plots nitrate accumulation was
about half that in a nearby uncropped area. The nitrate con-
tent of the second six-inch layer was about the same in both
areas.
Nitrates under a crop of celery at time of cutting were be-
low 50 parts per million for each of the six-inch layers extend-
ing to a depth of two feet. This soil was unusually dry and
the occurrence of the celery root system was easily discernible
to the 18-inch depth. On May 22, six weeks after the celery was
harvested, nitrate accumulation had increased by 3 to 4 times
the amount present at harvest. These results together with
some laboratory culture work indicate a rapid nitrifying action
upon fresh plant residues.







POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Soil Moisture.-Moistnre records of the soil profile by six-
inch sections are taken in the water table plots each time the
nitrate accumulation is measured. Where the crop was lack-
ing or slight there was no great variation in the content of soil
moisture except that it was somewhat higher in Block 2 where
the water level is held 12 inches below the surface. Moisture
appeared to be ample in the root zones of all plots irrespective
of water level during the winter period of slight rainfall. In
areas where an unusually vigorous crop was growing the mois-
ture was considerably reduced in the surface layers during the
dry winter period. But crops with well established root systems
in sawgrass soil appear to be able to pass through a dry per-
iod by obtaining their necessary water requirement by rooting
deeper and because of the upward movement of moisture
through the soil from the water level below.
Loss of Soil by Oxidation.-Field measurements of soil
loss by oxidation have been continued on the water table plots.
Similar equipment has been installed in Section 10 where the
soil is still under native sawgrass cover and is more fibrous
than that of the water table plots. Experiments under labora-
tory conditions have been continued with emphasis placed
upon effect of moisture content upon rate of oxidation and
resultant composition of the peat.
Effect of Green Manuring Treatments.-These experiments
have been continued in the greenhouse and in the corn and
sorghum variety plots. In the corn fertility plots growth and
general appearance of corn is considerably better where a cover
crop of either a grass or a legume had been turned under as
against plots that had been kept free of vegetation. As dis-
cussed under Project 168, however, best growth of corn oc-
curred where carriers of manganese. zinc and boron had been
included in the inorganic fertilizer mixture where green ma-
nure materials had not been turned under. This finding ne-
cessitates a careful consideration of trace element requirement
on all areas given over to green manure experiments.
Soil Reaction.-Throughout the year much service work
has been extended to growers in several counties, in connec-
tion with the determination of soil reaction and the relation of
pH to conditions of manganese inavailabilitv.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


On a spring planting of snap beans on new land which had
been under drainage for several years, definite manganese de-
ficiency developed at reactions as low as pH 5.5.

WATER CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 89 B. S. Clayton and A. Daane
This is a co-operative project with the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Engineering, USDA. Records are being kept on rate
and amount of subsidence; effect of depth of water table on
various crops; effect of supplying additional water through
overhead spray, raising the water table at intervals of one week,
and surface irrigation. Total evaporation and transpiration
from several crops and rate and cost of pumping are also being
studied.
To determine the effect of depth of water table on crops, a
series of 8 plots is being used, each having a net size of 80 x 220
feet. During the past year the water tables were held at depth
of 13 to 38 inches by means of two 1,000-gallon pumps. One
plot is so arranged that the water can be raised and lowered
as desired and two are equipped with an overhead spray sys-
tem. Sugarcane, truck crops and grasses are grown on each
plot.
Four standard varieties of cane were planted on each plot
on January 1, 1936, and harvested a year later. For this first
season the results do not show significant differences in yield
between the shallow and the deep water table plots. The truck
and grass crops are discussed under Project 86.
Subsidence of these plots is roughly proportional to the depth
of water table. The loss for the year 1936 varied from 0.7"
for plot 2 with a 13" water table to 2.4" for plots 6, 7 and 8
with a 38" water table. A high water table reduced subsi-
dence and helped to conserve the soil.
Evaporation studies were continued. The evaporation tanks
are each 4 x 12 feet in area and 4 feet deep. They are filled
with soil to a depth of 3.5 feet and set in the ground to the
same depth. The water table is held to a depth of 18" in three
tanis and 12" in a fourth tank by adding or removing water
as needed.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Tank 1 was planted to sugarcane. Water loss by evapora-
tion and transpiration during the year 1936 was 43.2 inches.
Tank 2 was planted to sawgrass il February, 1936, and the
water held to a one foot depth. The evaporation and trans-
piration loss for a year ending June 1, 1937, was 70.5 inches.
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the amount of
evaporation from the sawgrass areas of the Everglades. The
data may be of value in formulating a plan for the conserva-
tion of the idle lands of the Glades.
Tank 3 contained bare soil shaded by cane planted around
the outside. The evaporation for the year 1936 was 35.1 inches.
As the surrounding cane made poor growth the shading was
not as complete as that in a cane field.
Tank 4 contained grass and some weeds. The evaporation
and transpiration for the year 1936 totaled 51.6 inches. The
water table in all tanks except the one with sawgrass was held
close to a 1.5 feet depth.
Pumping records were continued as two units each of the
Pelican Lake and East Pahokee drainage districts. A sub-
merged orifice and two automatic water stage recorders were
installed to secure a continuous record of the pump discharge.
To determine the effect of surface irrigation on the growth
of sugarcane 16 plots of 1/40 acre each were laid in the form
of a Latin square. The soil is the intermediate type of "willow
and elder" land. Water equivalent to 3 inches of rain was
added at each irrigation. Four plots received no irrigation
water; four were irrigated every two weeks; four every four
weeks, and four every six weeks. On two occasions the soil
was so wet from heavy rains that the scheduled irrigation was
omitted. When the cane is harvested next December the value
of surface irrigation will be determined. This experiment is
co-operative with the United States Sugar Corporation.
Automatic water level records were continued on five well
lines during the year. These lines are being used for subsi-
dence determinations. Two also show the effect of Lake Okee-
ehobee stages on the water table in adjacent lands. The water
table up to June 30 was only slightly above its minimum for






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


the year and was the lowest water table for so late a date ex-
perienced during the past five years.
Experiments to determine rate of seepage through peat soil
indicated that seepage through the top 18" of cultivated soil
was much slower than that through the undisturbed soil at a
depth of 18" to 36" below the surface. Comparisons of rate
of seepage through the brown fibrous peat in a horizontal di-
rection with that in a vertical direction showed the vertical
seepage rate to be many times as great as the horizontal, due
doubtless to the openings left in the vertical direction as the
old sawgrass roots partially decomposed.
Results indicate that by far the greater portion of the seep-
age movement is vertically downward through the peat and
thence in a horizontal direction through the underlying sand
or porous limestone.
Mole underdrainage greatly facilitates the removal of seep-
age water. Experience has shown that such drains in peat soil
should be placed 36" deep. as shallow drains may be closed by
the weight of heavy farm machinery. As far as possible the
moling should be done when the water table is below the depth
of the moles. Mole lines are commonly spaced 12' to 15' apart
but a closer spacing would be more effective.
To determine the total amount of water in both sawgrass
and "custard apple" soils, field samples were taken in vertical
sections from the ground surface to the water table in a very
dry period. These were weighed in their moist condition and
then oven-dried. Samples of sawgrass soil above a 3-foot water
table contained approximately 80 percent water. The top 18
inches o- soil from a plot with an 18" water table showed ap-
proximately 12 percent more water than the top 18" from two
plots with a :36" water table. In the driest of the three plots
the upper 12 inches of soil showed a moist weight of 49 pounds
per cubic foot; a dry weight of 15 pounds. and a water con-
tent of 34 pounds. The results indicate that peat soil with a
water table above the bottom of the peat doubtless always
contains an ample supply of moisture for plant growth after
the roots have penetrated the second 6-inch layer of soil. How-
ever. as the top few inches occasionally become very dry it may






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


be necessary to increase the moisture content for the early
growth.
Samples of plastic or "custard apple" muck taken from a
field with a heavy weed growth and a 4-foot water table showed
15.5 pounds of water per cubic food of soil in the top 6-inch
layer and 20.6 pounds in the top 12 inches. The oven-dry
weight of the top 6" of soil was 27 pounds per cubic foot and
that of the top 12 inches was 26 pounds. Apparently there is
a sufficient supply of moisture for plant growth after the roots
have penetrated the top 12 inches of muck above a 4-foot water
table.

STUDIES IN CROP ROTATION
State Project 90 A. Daane
Fall plantings of cowpeas and soybeans were made on areas
being subjected to summer culture treatments of fallow in one
case and of sorghum and legume green manure crops in others.
Seed production for both cowpeas and soybeans tended to be
lower from land that had been summer fallowed. Yield records
have not been completed of corn and sorghum varieties grown
on portions of these areas.
In the corn fertility plot series growth of corn was much bet-
ter where either legume summer crops or manure had been
plowed under. The effect of using a non-legume cover crop was
not so definite. Yield data of grain and stover are being secured
for these plots.

STUDIES UPON THE ROLE OF SPECIAL ELEMENTS IN PLANT
DEVELOPMENT UPON THE PEAT AND MUCK
SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES
State Project 168 J. R. Neller, R. E. Robertson
and W. T. Foresee
For the first time oranges were harvested from the fertilizer
and spray plots in the Valencia grove of the Davie area. Weight
records of fruit per plot were obtained and size and grade data
were secured for each of the 28 lots of fruit (replicates were
combined) by taking records on the fruit as it was put through
the packinghouse. The results indicate quite strongly that the
use of zinc sulfate in soil or spray treatments increased am-







POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


moniation and that the associated use of copper sulfate reduced
ammoniation over the untreated checks. Plots treated with
copper sulfate alone were the least ammoniated of all. But
since the results of the past three years have shown that zinc
sulfate is definitely needed to control the mottle leaf condition
and enhances the general vigor of the tree it follows that both
zinc and copper sulfates must be applied. Records of addi-
tional seasons are necessary to determine how often applica-
tions of zinc and copper need to be repeated.
Carriers of a few additional elements have been added to
those under study in greenhouse croppings. This is in particu-
lar reference to the trace elements that are necessary in animal
nutrition.
An outstanding increase in vigor of growth was obtained in
the corn fertility plots where manganese sulfate. zinc sulfate
and borax had been added as supplementary treatments. The
corn also matured earlier and the ears were filled better. The
heavy rains of June, 1936, prevented a normal development of
the first crop of corn. These plots arc located in a field of
sawgrass soil that has been under the water control unit of the
Station farm for the past nine years.

STUDIES UPON THE PREVALENCE AND CONTROL OF THE
SUGARCANE MOTH BORER, Diatraca scrchuarall Fab..
IN SOUTH FLORIDA
State Project 169 R. N. Lobdell
A most valuable phase of this project is the introduction of
natural enemies of the sugarcane moth borer. Laboratory rear-
ing of the two fly parasites. Lixophaga diatraca and Theresia
clarapalpe. has proven feasible here, but a technique for their
most rapid multiplication has not been worked out. One field
colony of Theresia clarapalpis now shows 40 percent of the
borer larvae to be parasitized by this fly.

STUDIES OF THE PREVALENCE AND CONTROL OF RODENTS
UNDER FIELD AND VILLAGE CONDITIONS
State Project 170 R. N. Lobdell
In an effort to find a poison harmless to birds and domestic
animals an experiment was carried out with powdered squill







a.


;


: i~~u~
F


Unu..~L. ~lll.rn.. I. ~C. L,..ll..






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


furnished by the Research Department of the United States
Sugar Corporation and made from bulbs grown at Clewiston,
Florida. A chain of poison stations was supplied with corn
meal baits in sets of four per station, one unpoisoned, one with
thallium sulfate, one with barium carbonate and one with pow-
dered squill, all at strengths sufficient to kill a grown rat. The
baits were taken in the order listed, the squill being rarely
touched at all or if so just tasted. After several months the
experiment was repeated using ripe tomatoes cut in quarters
for bait. The results were similar.

CANE BREEDING EXPERIMENTS
State Project 171 Thomas Bregger
Seedlings of 1935.36.-Fourteen seedlings were selected
from the 2.777 planted in Section 10. Preliminary selections
were made in November on the basis of freedom from leaf dis-
eases, vigor, diameter of cane, tillering, and trashing ability.
Refractometer readings of three canes from each stool were
made at this time and again in February. Only those which
showed increase in refractometer Brix over the November read-
ings were considered. Several other selections of November
were eliminated because of development of Helminithosporium in
the interim. In addition, four seedlings which had bloomed
and were found to produce fertile pollen were planted at Krae-
mer Island for testing and their breeding possibilities.
Crossing Work 1936-37.-All breeding plots planted in
February, 1936, at Kraemer Island. Azucar and Homestead
grew well and produced arrows in some varieties. All crossing
work was carried out at Kraemer Island. The breeding season
extended from November 19, 1936. to January 27, 1937. A total
of 108 crosses were set up during this period from which 180
arrows were harvested and planted. representing 37 combina-
tions of 11 varieties as females and 15 varieties as males. The
unusually warm weather of December and January was very
favorable to seed setting and about 90,000 seedings were ger-
minated and transplanted to nursery seedbeds. About 60.000
were set out in the field.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PHASES OF SUGARCANE
INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 172 Thomas Bregger
Physiology of the Blooming of Sugarcane.-Low pressure
and low temperature treatments of sprouting cane cuttings,
higher temperatures during the entire growth cycle, and re-
duction of daily photo-period did not cause arrowing of non-
arrowing tropical varieties. On sandy land one variety bloomed
to a slight extent at 12 months from planting on Kraemer
Island. It is suspected that this variety, EK. 28, requires a
longer growth period preceding the blooming season. Some of
this cane is being carried over to test this point. This variety
behaved similarly at Homestead on the stony Redland soil.
Counts on the arrowing of F. 30-16 on the phosphate source
plots indicate that the arrowing parallels the cane production.
Where highly available phosphate forms were used or where
availability was increased by the use of gypsum or sulfur there
was a definite reduction in arrowing as well as millable cane.
In these latter cases there was also a delaying effect in arrow-
ing as indicated by an increase in the percentage in the boot.

PASTURE INVESTIGATIONS ON THE PEAT AND MUCK
SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES
State Project 195 A. Daane
Temporary pastures planted in October served very well in
supplementing the permanent pastures from December to April.
When the areas were first grazed (December 14) the Italian
rye grass growth amounted to 15 tons of green matter per acre.
Winter oats and winter wheat grew almost as well while winter
rye measured 5.3 tons per acre. The rye was injured by the
heavy rains of early November but recovered to a considerable
extent. A pasture of Carib grass planted September 14 by
disking in vegetative stems produced higher tonnages of grass
than any of the above. In another trial with these forages
Brome grass from home-grown seed produced a growth second
only to Italian rye grass.
Grazing Preference experiments were continued for the
various grasses, using a herd of about 20 Devon cattle. A total






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


of 9,412 placement counts were made during the year. The
location of animals is recorded every 21/ minutes of the time
they are grazed on the area. Molasses grass was replaced by
Para and Red Top by St. Lucie.

AGRONOMIC STUDIES WITH SUGARCANE
State Project 202 F. D. Stevens
Operating 132 days on cane, commercial aereages of which
are Co. 281. P.O.J. 2725. and C.P. 27-139. with smaller acreages
of F. 29.7. F. 30-20, F. 30-35. the Clewiston mill ground 529,-
207 tons of cane from 14.112 acres averaging 37.5 tons per acre.
From this. 960 sugar totaled 96.315.674 pounds. or 182 pounds
per ton of cane, made at a published estimated cost of $0.022
per pound in the bag.
It is believed that canes may be found or bred which (1)
will give even greater average tonnage yield. (2) will average
at least 200 pounds recoverable sugar per ton, (3) will add at
least 30 days to the grinding season; either or all factors tend-
ing to decrease production costs. Tonnage and sugar yield
figures secured from Florida seedlings for the 1936 crop lend
encouragement to the endeavor. Thus the early maturing cane
F. 31-962 as an average of eight trials on sawgrass peat gave
44.15 tons per acre. The mid-season cane F. 31.253 averaged
55.7 tons per acre. The former averaged at 12 months growth
235. the latter 206 pounds recoverable 960 sugar per ton.
A few analytical figures pointing to the early characters of
F. 31-962 are given, especially to show the fitness of this cane
as a medium of adding some 30 days to the milling season. It
should be born in mind that analyses quoted are from canes
grown on sawgrass peat.
Ifri. Sucroec $lugar Ton
10- 8-3;. Stubble ............................ 17.03 14.41 190
10- 836. Plant .............................. 1.20 12.94 170
10- 8-30. Plant ............................. 15.0t 13.0 173
11-22-35. Stubble ............................ 1.2 16.99 241
11-23-34. Plant ............................. 10.15 14.15 1U4
1- 2-37. Stubble ......................... 2.26 1.57 2114
1- 3-34. Plant ............................ 20.00 17.27 244
2- -34. Stubble ..... ...................... 22.44 20.31 2-4i






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


A number of the F. 33 seedlings have shown satisfactory
growth with high sugar yields. These are now planted in
replicated plots at this station and Fellsmere.
Studies of the effect of potash on cane yields, sugar recovery,
and juice tempering have been continued. On land longest in
cultivation at this station a series of fertilizer trials has been
completed with harvest of the second stubble of 1936. This
series showed slight wireworm damage upon harvest of the
1934 plant crop. This damage increased considerably so that
yields of the second stubble in many cases was below a point
of economic production. As closely as can be ascertained Co.
281 shows a cut of 5.09 tons per acre below that of the plant
crop, it thus being the most resistant to wireworm troubles of
the nine canes in the test. F. 31.962 shows a decrease of 60.27
percent in tonnage between plant and second stubble; P.O.J.
2725 shows a drop in yield of 59.52 percent. This on land
where cane normally goes to fifth stubble shows the damage to
be expected on those fields in which wireworms have gained a
foothold. Data secured from this series still confirm the conclu-
sion published in the 1936 Report, "there is little or no signifi-
cant difference in cane yield due to the addition of phosphoric
acid to the fertilizer. Some depression in sugar yield is re-
corded which is more pronounced in the stubble than in the
plant cane."

FORAGE CROPS INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 203 A. Daane
Nine grasses have been cut at three stages of growth for a
period extending back to April, 1935. The relative order of
production is as follows:
Grass stage Early hay stage Late hay stage
Bahia (Plaspalum notatum) Paspalum Paspalum
DIallis tPuspmlum dilatatumn) paniculatum puficulatum
Carpet (A.oniopu compresses) Bahia Carib
Vasey ('aspalum urvlllei) Carpet Dallis
Carib (Eriochloa subglabra) Vasey Vasey
St. Augustine (Stenotaphrun Dallis Babia
sccundatum) Carib St. Augustine
Iaspulum paniculatum Centipede Carpet
Centipede (Ercmochloa St. Augustine Centipede
ophluroides) Paspalum liirdum Paspalum lividum
I'aspaluim lividu"m






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


A good stand of Dallis grass has established itself on the
water table plots with the exception of Plots 1 and 8 which
were reseeded in November. Excellent cuttings of grass have
been removed from the other six plots. Yields were poorest
on the high water level Plot 2 and about the same on the
other plots except that the last two cuttings (March and May)
have been somewhat higher from Plot 7.
Plantings of six varieties of peanuts were made October 31
and again on January 1. All were dug on June 3, Virginia
Runner, Virginia Bunch and Jumbo of the early planting yield-
ing highest, while large Spanish was high in the late planting.
Yields of Tennessee Red and Valencia were about the same
and were low for both dates of planting. There were no kill-
ing frosts during the growth periods of these plantings.
High water levels following the rain of November 7 and 8
materially checked the growth of alfalfa. Six cuttings have
been removed since last June, giving a total yield of about
4.53 tons of cured hay per acre.
Teosinte planted February 1 was harvested August 6 with
a yield of about 23 tons per acre of green growth.
Plantings of vetch in November and December showed that
the smooth variety made best growth, followed by Oregon
Common and Hungarian varieties.
Of 10 soybean varieties planted in March, April, May and
June of 1936 only the Otootan and Biloxi were able to with-
stand an attack of velvet bean caterpillars and the high water
of June. These two varieties planted in November and in
March and April yielded ripe seed to the extent of about 400
pounds per acre of Otootan and about 116 pounds per acre for
Biloxi.
Of the cowpea varieties Suwannee produced the highest
yields both of forage and seed followed by Brabham, Whip-
poorwill and Groit. Yields were also obtained of November
and December plantings of Austrian and Tangier peas. The
peas are susceptible to vine decay in warm weather.
The number of sorghum varieties has been reduced this year
by eliminating those that have not done well in other seasons.

















I .. .. , .






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Honey produced heaviest tonnage followed by Red X. Sugar
Drip, Sapling. Denton and Seeded Ribbon Cane. Plantings of
January, February and March produced highest yields. Spring
plantings of 1936 were injured by the high water of late
June.

GRAIN CROP INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 204 A. Danne
Most corn varieties planted October 1 were almost a total
failure due to the temporary flooding caused by the heavy rain
of early November. Nassau produced a fair crop of stalks
and ears. The spring planted corn grew very well and ripened
quite normally.
No plantings were made of wheat, oats. barley or rye. as
results of previous years have shown that these crops will not
produce grain in this region.
Soybeans planted in November produced ripe seed by March,
the yield from the Otootan variety far exceeding that of Biloxi.
Yields of Otootan were lower from land that had been kept
fallow the previous summer than from land where a legume
cover crop had been grown and turned under.
Of eight cowpea varieties planted at monthly intervals in
October, November and December the Suwannee and Brabliam
varieties produced considerably the most seed. Next in order
were the Iron and Clay varieties followed by the Groit. New
Era. Whipporwill and Blodseye.

SEED STORAGE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 205 A. Daaue
Germination tests were made of seeds of many varieties of
soybeans, cowpeas. sorghum and corn that were used in the
experimental plantings. In general. seed produced on the
Station farm germinated fully as well as that purchased from
seed houses. Almost invariably seed held over from the 1935
crop germinated very poorly.
Of the soybean varieties. Otootan, Mammoth Yellow and
Laredo germinated well. All corn and cowpea varieties gave





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


good germination, while with the exception of the Seeded Rib-
bon Cane the sorghums were uniformly poorer.

FIBER CROP INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 206 A. Daane
Cuttings of ramie made at different stages of growth indi-
cate that the best tonnage is obtained when the plants are
harvested before or shortly after blooming. The ultimate an-
swer to the question of time of cutting as well as to other fac-
tors of production wait upon the development of a satisfactory
method of processing the crop to obtain the fiber. Various
groups are working upon the development of such a process.
Root-stock material has been furnished to several individuals.
Fiber flax has been planted each month in a study of effect
of season upon growth. Each of the plantings tended to lodge
badly and to spoil before the crop appeared to be ready for
cutting. Some seed that was collected from the plants gave a
very good germination count.

COVER CROP INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 207 A. Daane
Of cowpeas planted as cover crops early last summer the
Suwannee variety appeared to be able to best withstand the
unfavorable growing conditions brought about by the high
water in June. Brabham came next, followed by Iron, Clay,
Groit and New Era. Suwannee cowpeas also produced the
heaviest tonnage from the October plantings.
In another field a crop of Otootan soybeans produced less
than one-half the tonnage obtained from Iron cowpeas and
less than one-quarter that of a crop of shallu.
Several sorghums grew well through the summer but do not
appear to be as desirable as the legumes for summer cover
crops because of the unfavorable nature of the material for
decomposition after it has been plowed under.






POSSIBILITIES OF TIE EVERGLADES


AGRONOMIC STUDIES UPON THE GROWTH OF SYRUP AND
FORAGE CANE IN FLORIDA
State Project 20S F. D. Stevens
Work on syrup canes has made normal progress at both
Gainesville and Quincy. Replicated plots at these stations
have shown Co. 290 to lead all other canes in tonnage pro-
duced. Equalling tonnages produced by Co. 290 are F. 31-951
and F. 31-762 at Quincy. Both of these produce a 73 degree
syrup which remains clear alter nine months in glass, while
that from Co. 290 is somewhat cloudy. Seventy-three degree
syrup means 27' or 3.08 pounds of water per gallon, which
amount of water will hold double its weight of sucrose or 6.16
pounds in solution at normal temperatures. F. 31-762 gave a
juice of Brix 15.84. and sucrose of 11.28 percent. Reducing
from 15.84 to 73 Brix. 1.200 pounds of juice, from 2.000 pounds
cane at 60'; extraction, would give 23.66 gallons per ton cane.
At 11.28,' sucrose, 1.200 pounds juice would contain 135.36
pounds of sugar. Thus the sugar per gallon would be 5.72
pounds which is less than could be held in solution and even
with no treatment there should be little or no sugaring of the
syrup.
On Norfolk sand at Gainesville this same cane gave a juice
of 16.44 Brix and 13.81 Sucrose. It would thus give 6.99
pounds sugar per gallon or 0.83 pounds (13.28 ozs) in excess
of the amount which would stay in solution. In this case pre-
caution would need to be taken to prevent sugaring providing
a marketable syrup were demanded.
Because of its ability to produce successive stubble, upright-
ness. freedom from disease, and ease of handling and milling,
F. 31-1107 is interesting. Due to its relatively low juice qua-
lity this cane has until now been carried as a forage cane.
Data indicate that it will materially outfield Cayana. Very
attractive. clear syrup requiring very little skimming in the
making has been obtained from it. On the basis of 60% juice
extraction it compares ton for ton as follows with Cayana.
Ccouana F. 31-110
(Ihs.i (Ihs.
Julice ton at 6i% extraction ..................................... 12M 1200
Pounds water evaporatedo ri t bring t 73 brix ...... 947 953
73 degree syrup from 124) lbs. jice .................... 253 247
Gallons 11.41 lis,. syrup from 1 ton ......... ............... 22.17 21.6
Sugar pounds inl 1 gallon syr p ................................ 4.8 8 5..t





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


It will be observed that neither syrup should sugar, and that
each gallon from F. 31-1107 would contain practically one
pound more sugar than found in Cayana syrup. This cane
being on the border line should receive great consideration and
probably be moved from the forage to the syrup class.
The exceedingly early cane P. 31-962 having failed in orig-
inal trials in North Florida, because of its earliness has again
been planted at Gainesville and Quincy. It is thought that
this cane may be milled for syrup considerably in advance of
varieties now being planted.
Syrups were made on 10-gallon juice samples from 12 canes
in test at State Farm No. 2; two runs of each under standard
methods of juice tempering. Some 37 boiling were made using
juice from C.P. 139 in which juice tempering methods were
varied.
Syrup cane investigations are being continued and added to
at the points mentioned as desirable new seedlings become
available.

SEED AND SOIL-BORNE DISEASES OF VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 209 G. R. Townsend
Potato Seed.Piece Decay (Fusaritum sp. and bacteria):
Further studies of the action of ethylene chlorhydrin solutions
and supplementary fungicidal treatments on the stand of po-
tatoes have been conducted. Bliss Triumph potatoes of greater
dormancy than have been used in former experiments were
employed as a test crop in fall and spring plantings.
Best results were obtained with much more concentrated so-
lutions than have been found safe in former experiments (1935,
1936 Reports). The 1:15 ethylene chlorhydrin solution was
best, but cannot be recommended except for very dormant
stock because it has been shown (1936 Report) to be unsafe
in other cases.
The data show that not only the optimum concentration but
also the optimum time intervening between cutting and treat-
ing the seed varies with the dormancy of the seed tubers. Tu-
bers which are extremely dormant give the best results when






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


treated with strong solutions immediately after cutting. A
delay of 24 hours in treating increases the difficulty of secur-
ing good results. On the other hand, tubers which are near-
ing the end of their dormant period cannot be treated safely
with as strong solutions and it is better to delay the treatment
for 24 hours after cutting the seed.
The hot formaldehyde treatment of seed potatoes before cut-
ting, followed by the ethylene chlorhydrin treatment had little
effect on the stand obtained. Mercurial seed treatments prior
to the dormancy treatment were generally very detrimental.
Seed pieces so treated showed considerable pitting and bacterial
slime before planting and very poor germination as compared
with the better ethylene chlorhydrin treatments alone. One
organic mercury treatment showed distinct promise of value as
a supplement to the dormancy treatment. Dusting the seed
pieces with sulfur. lime or copper-lime dust was detrimental
to the stand. The lime treatment resulted in an almost total
loss of stand. Mixing hot formaldehyde and ethylene chlor-
hydrin solutions was found to be distinctly unsafe at the con-
centrations employed. Treatment of seed pieces with the 1:120
hot formaldehyde solution both before and after cutting was
found to be safe.
Sesd Decay and Seedling Blight of Lima Beans (FIu.s'ri-
um sp. and Rhizoctonia sp.): Although the decay of lima
bean seed and the blighting of young seedlings while the leaves
are still folded within the cotyledons is usually caused by a
Fusarium sp.. it was found that a Rhizoctonia sp. is sometimes
associated with the trouble. When such is the case the red
copper oxide seed treatment (1935 and 1936 Reports) may be
relatively less effective than where a Fusarium sp. is the only
pathogen.
Experiments were conducted in the fall and spring testing
fungicides as to kinds and amounts necessary for the control
of this disease. Red copper oxide dust applied to the seed at
the rate of five ounces per bushel gave best results. Stands
and yields were increased more than 100 percent by this treat-
ment. Decreasing thie amount of cuprous oxide to one and a
quarter ounces per bushell of seed reduced the stand and yield




















































(.6 I n V,.O AIP Al Clh-;- (w.Al





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


only slightly from the higher treatment. Ethyl mercury tar-
trate dusts applied at the same rates were less effective in the
fall, but nearly equal to the red copper oxide treatments il.
the spring when a Rhizoctonia sp. was associated with the
trouble. The addition of a trace of semesan to the copper oxide
dust had no detrimental effects.
It was observed that the cuprous oxide treatment hardened
the seed coats of treated seed, making it difficult for the coty-
ledons and leaves to emerge. This was a temporary difficulty,
as the cotyledons eventually did emerge and strong plants
were formed. The organic mercury treatments did not cause
the seed coat to harden and generally produced strong plants
sooner than the copper oxide treatments.
Seed and Seedling Rot of Peas (Rhizoctonia sp.): Two
experiments were conducted testing fungicides as seed treat-
ments for the control of seed and seedling rots. These tests
were similar to the one reported last year. Hydroxymercuri-
chlorophenol and cuprous oxide were found to be the best ma-
terials for treating pea seed. Stands and yields were consid-
erably increased by treating the seed with either 2.4 or 4.8
ounces of these fungicides to the bushel of seed. The results
were appreciably poorer with smaller amounts of the fungi-
cides. Other materials tested were less satisfactory. The only
essential difference from the 1936 results was that cuprous
oxide was relatively more effective. This may have been due
to the greater prevalence this year of other organisms than
Rhizoctonia which is considered the principal pathogen. Yield
increases this year were not in the same proportion as the in-
creases in stand of seedlings. This is thought to have been due
to a very favorable growing season so that plants in the better
treatments were crowded, while with some failures in the
checks the plants had better conditions for growth. Reducing
the rate of sowing would probably have been economical in
this case.
Black Rot of Cabbage (Bacterium campestre): Experi-
ments were conducted for the first time this year with this im-
portant disease of crucilerous crops. Four more or less com-
mon seed treatments were used on seed of the Copenhagen and





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Winingstadt varieties. The treatments were hot water at 50
C. for 18 minutes, 1:1,000 mercuric chloride solution for 15
minutes, semesan dust, and cuprocide dust. The seedlings
were grown in a seedbed and transplanted to field plots.
Black rot was present in marginal lesions on the leaves of all
plants towards the end of the growing season. There were no
differences in amount of black rot detected. This observation
suggests that the inoculum was soil-borne. Black leg (Phoni
lingam) also appeared in a localized area of the field.
Although the treatments did not affect the amount of black
rot developing in the field, there were differences in yield due
to them. The hot water treatment hastened growth of both
varieties and increased yield by 9 percent. Results with the
other treatments were irregular and of no significance.
Damping-off in Celery Seedbeds (Rhizoctonia sp.): Ex-
periments were conducted for the purpose of determining what
treatments would effectively and economically control the damp.
ing-off of celery seedlings. The seedbeds are sown at a season
when temperatures and humidity are high. Consequently on
non-sterile beds the loss of seedlings is rather high. Seeds may
be rotted as they sprout or the loss may not occur until the
seedlings are crowded in the bed. The principal organism found
in the decaying plants is a Rhizoctonia sp.
The seedbed treatments tested were simplified formaldehyde
applications, formaldehyde dusts, organic mercury dusts, and
copper dusts. Liquid formaldehyde was applied at 1/8 and
1/16 of the standard quantity and was found to give excellent
results as shown by the control of damping-off and yield of
seedlings. The formaldehyde dusts were not satisfactory. Or-
ganie mercury dusts caused some injury to the seedlings, but
did effect some control of damping-off. Cuprous oxide and
basic copper sulfate dusts appeared to stimulate damping-off.
Bacterial Blight of Peppers (Phytomonas versicatorium):
A small test of the bichloride of mercury seed treatment for
the control of bacterial blight of peppers was conducted. Seed
soaked in 1:1,000 mercuric chloride solution for 8 minutes and
washed in tap water produced disease-free seedlings. Seed not






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


so treated produced seedlings which blighted badly in the
seedbed. Seedlings from treated seed were somewhat smaller
than the check plants. After transplanting to the field bac-
terial blight spread to plants from treated seed.
Bean Seed Treatments: Four materials were tested as
fungicides on bean seed. These were applied to the seed as
dusts at the rate of one-half percent by weight of the seed.
Duplicate rows were planted with each treatment. Semesan
increased the stand by about 5 percent. Cuprous oxide and
ethyl mercury tartrate dusts showed smaller gains. A treat-
ment composed of copper sulfate and alum reduced the stand
by 5 percent.

LEAF BLIGHTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 210 G. R. Townsend
Bean Rust (Uromyees phaseoli typical : Another season
in which bean rust has been severe throughout Southern Flor-
ida has given further opportunities to study this disease and
measures for controlling it. Bean rust was not observed from
the latter part of May until December. The fall crop thus es-
caped the disease. It was first seen this season in early De-
cember, and appeared on the East Coast and in the Ever-
glades simultaneously. Losses from bean rust have been diffi-
cult to estimate. A saving of 20 percent of the crop in dusting
experiments was obtained. Presumably the total loss was
greater than this; possibly as much as 35 or 40 percent. Fif-
teen to 20 thousand acres of beans were affected.
Data concerning methods of inoculation, length of the inocu-
lation, incubation periods, effects of temperature and humidity
upon inoculation, and deterioration of uredospores were ob-
tained in a series of 42 experiments with potted bean plants
in the greenhouse. The most effective method of inoculation
was found to be shaking dry spores from rusted plants onto
plants to be inoculated. Atomizing spore suspensions was ef-
fective if less than 10 pounds pressure was employed. Both
leaf surfaces can be inoculated, but inoculation is more ef-
fective on the lower epidermis. A saturated atmosphere is a
prerequisite to successful inoculation. The most successful





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


experiments were those in which the minimum temperature
during the inoculation period was under 600 F. Infection has
followed an inoculation period of only one hour, but for most
of the spores to germinate and enter the leaf, a period of 8 to
10 hours is necessary. Small yellow spots appearing on the
lower epidermis five or six days after inoculation are the first
symptoms of infection. Mature uredosori rupture the epi-
dermis in these spots after seven to 10 days. The uredospores
are capable of infecting plants when they first appear but de-
teriorate rapidly. Two weeks after their maturity the uredo-
spores are not satisfactory inoculum for experimental purposes.
No infection resulted when spores stored for three months were
used.
Phaseolns sinuatus, Vigna sine sis and Tiga repens have
been inoculated with the uredospores of fromyces phaseoli
typical with entirely negative results. Similarly, beans have
been inoculated with the teleutospores and uredospores of
Uromyces vignae with negative results.
Twelve varieties of beans have been inoculated with this
rust. Five bush varieties, Bountiful, Tendergreen, Stringless
Black Valentine, Giant Stringless and Bountiful Wax, are ex-
tremely susceptible. Five strains of Kentucky Wonder pole
beans have shown moderate to high resistance. Two other
strains of Kentucky Wonder appeared to be inmunne to this
form of Uromyces phaseoli typical.
A moderately resistant hybrid was found in a field of Boun-
tiful beans. Seeds were obtained from this plant and will be
grown for the purpose of selecting desirable progenies.
Cross-pollination of one of the immune Kentucky Wonder
beans with Bountiful has been attempted, unsuccessfully. Fur-
ther crossing experiments are planned.
Control of bean rust by the application of sulfur fungicide
has been obtained. In greenhouse tests with inoculated plants
88 to 99 percent control was secured with several brands of
sulfur dusts and sprays. Copper fungicides were of almost no
value in the prevention of rust on inoculated plants. It was
determined that to be effective the sulfur fungicide must be






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


applied before or within two hours after inoculation. A delay of
eight hours in applying the fungicide made the application to-
tally ineffective.
Field experiments gave substantially similar results to those
obtained with potted plants. Good control of rust was obtained
when sulfur dusts were applied preceding periods of rust de-
velopment. The number of necessary applications would seem
to vary with circumstances. In this experiment four applica-
tions properly timed gave as good results as seven applications
made at regular intervals. The increase in yield due to dust-
ing with sulfur was 20 percent. Several brands were used,
but these did not show significant differences. Wettable sul-
fur sprays failed to give good control in our experiments, but
were used effectively by growers. The method of application
is thought to have been a factor. Copper sprays not only were
not effective as fungicides, but reduced the yield of plots
sprayed with Bordeaux. basic copper sulfate. copper hydroxide
and copper zeolite.
Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii): :The prospects
for breeding resistant celery in Southern Florida are consid-
ered poor. This year none of the plants saved for seed produc-
tion produced seed. Seed saved from 54 plants which bloomed
in the spring of 1936 failed to germinate.
The work with fungicides has continued. Fifteen materials
have been tested for blight control during the year. Bordeaux
mixture continued to hold the lead it has always maintained
over other copper fungicides. The 5-5-50 formula prepared
with hydrated lime was best, although the 5-21,4-50 formula
was good. The 5-3/4-50 Bordeaux prepared with stone lime
was also good. Copper-lime dust was slightly less effective.
Cuprous oxide and copper hydroxide sprays of equivalent cop-
per content were not quite as good as the Bordeaux sprays.
Basic copper sulfate, copper silicate and ammoniacal copper
carbonate sprays were inferior, and produced results only
slightly better than no treatment.
Tomato Spraying and Dusting: Experiments in other years
have indicated that spraying tomatoes has reduced the yields.
This was clearly indicated in 1936 when a variety resistant to





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


nailhead (Alternaria solani) was grown in a dry season. This
year's experiment has been with a nailhead susceptible variety,
Globe, and the season has been more humid than last year. The
experimental data show gains for six pickings where the cop-
per sprays were applied, but the yields for single pickings did
not always show gains over the checks. A wettable sulfur
spray failed to benefit the plants. Copper-lime dusts of 20-80,
50-50 and 65-35 formulas were used. The 20-80 and 65-35
dusts benefited the plants about as much as the copper sprays.
The highest yields were obtained with a 2-50 basic copper sul-
fate spray and a 20-80 copper-lime dust. Control of the nail-
head leaf spot was not good with any materials tested.
Lima Bean Spraying and Dusting: Yield of Fordhook bush
lima beans was lowered by the application of all fungicides
tested this year. There was no disease of importance on the
vines. The materials which depressed the yield were Bordeaux
mixture, Basic copper sulfate, copper hydroxide. copper zeolite.
wettable sulfur and copper-lime dusts.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PHASES OF PLANT NUTRITION
State Project 211 J. R. Neller
Composition of the Soil Air.-Field equipment described
in last year's report continues to serve for the periodical samp-
ling of the soil atmosphere. In most cases the sum of the
oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration fails to account for
all of the atmospheric oxygen. This is especially noticeable in
the atmosphere of the soil cylinders that are aerated in a con-
trolled manner for the measurement of soil oxidation as shown
by carbon dioxide production. The disappearance of oxygen.
not accounted for by the carbon dioxide produced. points to a
type of oxidation occurring in this peat that results in the fix-
ation of oxygen by unsaturated or reduced organic compounds.
These changes seem to be taking place in the drained portion
of the peat profile where the water is held continually at a deep
level below the soil surface.
Data continue to be collected relative to the effect upon soil
aeration of alternately raising and lowering the water level





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


as compared with holding it constant in one case and with a
periodical overhead irrigation in another.
Work is under way in the greenhouse as to the effect of re-
duced and of increased aeration and of different soil moisture
contents upon the growth of crops in sawgrass peat medium.
Nature of Subsurface Waters.-The experiments were termi-
nated and the results were embodied in a paper for the Pro-
ceedings of the International Society of Soil Science (Abstract
on P. 31-32; Vol. 12, 1937, entitled "Effect of rainfall and
substrata upon composition and reaction of soil waters of
Everglades peat land").
Phosphorus.-Work has been continued to show the rela-
tionship between availability of various carriers of phosphorus
and the yield response of crops, especially grass and forage
crops. Growth of one variety of sugarcane (F. 30-16) was dis-
tinctly retarded where soluble phosphates had been used in
soil treatments while growth of P.O.J. 2725 was but slightly
affected. Phosphates were increased in the stem juices of F.
30-16 but there was no significant effect on the percentage
content of sucrose.
Chlorides.-The chloride content of potatoes from plots
where muriate of potash and kainit had been used was consid-
erably increased whereas sulfates were about the same. irre-
spective of whether the potassium was associated with the chlo-
ride or the sulfate ion. In cold storage potatoes from plots
fertilized with muriate or kainit lost weight more rapidly.
Analyses showed that the percentage of sugar was higher and
that the amount of starch was lower. Yield from check plots
was very much reduced and respiration rates of the tubers
were distinctly lower.

RELATION OF ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF AGRICULTURAL
PLANTS TO THE PROGRESS OF VEGETATIVE DEVELOP-
MENT AND THE OCCURRENCE OF MATURITY
State Project 212 J. R. Neller and W. T. Foresee
In co-operation with the agronomist samples of four prom-
ising grasses continue to be taken for analysis as cut at three
stages of growth.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Sugarcane was replante.l on the phosphate source plots and
a study was made of vegetative development and maturity on
one variety. Growth was greatly retarded on those plots where
soluble phosphates had been used. It was best on plots which
received no phosphate or where a carrier of fairly insoluble
phosphate such as rock phosphate had been added. Organic
analyses made in October and again in January revealed no
essential differences with respect to phosphate treatment. But
analyses of samples from plots showing potash starvation re-
vealed a condition of low sucrose and of increased amounts of
invert sugar and hemicellulose.
Analyses in connection with a study of the contrasting use
of murate and sulfate of potash in a fertilizer for potatoes
showed that the potatoes respired faster in cold storage where
the muriate had been the source of potash.

BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 219 R. W. Kidder
Additional problems in mineral nutrition have developed
with cattle that have had access to pastures and mineral boxes
but not to concentrates. This condition is manifested mostly
by the development of a rachitic condition in nursing calves
from one to six months old. and is also shown in mature cows
by extreme nervousness, impaired vision, a rough and bleached
condition of the hair and low hemoglobin readings. Cattle so
affected seem to have lowered resistance to complicating influ-
ences such as anaplasmosis and infestation with internal para-
sites, and this undoubtedly has been a factor in parasitic con-
trol formerly considered to be of major importance. Studies
of several phases of this problem have been started as a part
of Purnell Project 133.
Although the size of the herd has fluctuated considerably dur-
ing the year the total number on June 30 is 105. practically
the same as at the beginning of the fiscal year. The calf crop
for the year was as follows:
A rerargc Iirth
Class. Number Wcight
Purebred Devon hulls ................ S 41.25
Purebred Devon heifers ............ 11 5S.4
Grade bulls ................................. 6 61.0
Grade l h if'rs ................................ 753.7
32 59.1






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The decrease in size of calves at birth appears to be a result
of the mineral problem mentioned above.
Thirty-five animals have been removed from the herd during
the year. as follows:
2 mature bulls-loaned to cattlemen for cross-breeding
13 young bulls sold to cattlemen of 6 different ccuntles
5 purebred females sold to a breeder
7 animals butchered for beef
5 animals butchered for analytical purposes
3 animals died
The continuing demand from cattlemen for Devon bulls in-
dicates a widespread interest in improved sires in Florida.
Ten Devon cows completed yearly milk records during the
year making an average production of 3.954.48 pounds of milk
and 177.81 pounds of butterfat. These were nearly the same
group of cows that averaged 3,600 pounds of milk the preced-
ing year. One native cow was milked for 217 days and pro-
duced 2.053.6 pounds of milk and 100.83 pounds of butterfat,
an average test of 4.9 percent.
The use of temporary silos made with snow fence and a
heavy paper lining provided most of the supplementary forage
used by the herd during the winter months when the grasses
grew too slowly to provide sufficient pasture. Temporary
pastures of oats. rye. barley and Italian rye grass also helped
furnish necessary winter forage.
The steer feeding experiment for the season extended from
December 16 to April 16. Forty steers carrying varying de-
grees of Shorthorn, Hereford, Red Polled and Devon blood
were divided as evenly as possible into four lots of 10 steers
each. Lot I was fed a ration of fresh sugarcane. ground
snapped corn and cottonseed meal; Lot II was fed sugareane
silage with ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal; Lot III
received sugarcane silage, cottonseed meal, ground snapped
corn and molasses; Lot IV received fresh sugarenne with cot-
tonseed meal, ground snapped corn and molasses. In Lots III
and IV equal parts of molasses and ground snapped corn were
fed, the total being equal in amount to the ground snapped
corn used in Lots I and II. Cottonseed meal was fed uniformly
to each lot.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


The steers in Lot I finished with the highest rate of gain and
the lowest feed cost per 100 pounds gain. This compares fav-
orably with the results of the preliminary trial completed last
year. Lots II. III and IV made approximately the same rate
of gain but the feed cost per 100 pounds gain was lowest for Lot
IV and highest for Lot II.
Individual steers were graded before slaughter and slaughter
data were secured, including dressing percentage, shrinkage
in transit, shrinkage in chilling and carcass grade.

NEMATODE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 249 J. R. Neller and A. Daane
This project was inactive during the year.
71sT (OG.'. Ess ENATE: )o 'Ut:ST
2.d ~scfiut "No. 8.
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE FLORIDA
EVERGLADES
MR. FLETCHER presented the following

LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF WAR. TRANSMITTING A
REPORT MADE TO THE DIVISION ENGINEER AT NEW
ORLEANS. BY MR. E. R. LLOYD ON THE AGRICULTURAL
POSSIBILITIES OF THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES
J.AXUARV 41 i 'alendar day. Fl R'.ARY t1. 19.0o.-Ordered to be priltedl.
with :man illustration
WAR DEPARTMENT,
Wlashington. Febriary 11. f190.
Hox. Dr.scA.x U. FLETCHER.
United States Senate. Washington. D. C.
M3 DEAR SENATOR: In reference to our recent conversation
on the situation in the Everglades and the report of Mr. E. R.
Lloyd made to Col. Mark Brooke. C. E., the division engineer
at New Orleans. on the agricultural possibilities of the Florida
Everglades. I thank you very much for calling this subject to
my attention.
The report was made to this department in connection with
proposed river and harbor and flood control improvements in
the State of Florida.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


In reference to your request for my acquiescence in your
proposal to publish that portion of the report embraced in
Mr. Lloyd's report to the division engineer, I wish to assure
you that I see no objection to such publication, and that I am
greatly pleased to be able to furnish something that is of in-
terest to you.
If the report is to be published, it is believed to be desirable
to publish with it the accompanying copy of a memorandum
from the Chief of Engineers.
Very sincerely,
PATRICK J. HURLEY,
Secretary of War.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,
Washington, October 21, 1929.
Subject: Report on agricultural possibilities of the Florida
Everglades.
MNemorandum to the Secretary of War.
1. There is inclosed herewith, as a matter of interest in
connection with the proposed flood-control projects and river
and harbor improvements in Florida, a special report by Mr.
E. R. Lloyd, agronomist, on the utilization and value of Flor-
ida Everglade lands south of Lake Okeechobee.
2. The area covered by the report amounts to 1,635,000
acres south of Lake Okeechobee and the West Palm Beach Canal,
extending east of Lake Okeechobee about 18 miles and north of
the Tamiami Trail Of this area about 870,000 acres is classed
as the best and most favorably located. It is fairly well
equipped with large main drainage canals and secondary drain-
age. A larger percentage of this land is in cultivation than in
other parts of the Everglades. A small belt of land, from a
few rods to 2 or 3 miles wide, along the southern and eastern
shores of Lake Okeechobee has a muck soil of excellent quality.
The greater part of the Everglades area has a peat soil, devel-
oped by many years' growth and decomposition of saw grass.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


It contains large amounts of latent plant food, which is easily
made available. The soil is particularly adapted to the grow-
ing of sugarcane. peanuts, and corn, in addition to practically
all vegetable crops. There are some 485,000 acres of land west
and south of the Miami Canal which seem to have little agricul-
tural importance, owing to the shallow depth of the soil. In
most of that area the rock is at the surface and the land is
under water most of the time.
3. During the first two years of the operation of the agri-
cultural experiment station at Belle Glade consistent and prac-
tically complete failure of all essential plants tested resulted
from treatment with regular fertilizer materials. Only by
breaking the soils and allowing them to weather and oxidize for
long periods could crops be grown. In 1927 it was discovered
that small applications of sulphate of copper, zine. manganese,
and other salts to freshly broken peat soils gave immediate
profitable results. This treatment is now used extensively.
4. In the development of the Everglades. drainage is of
primary importance. Peat soils shrink from loss of water and
from compression, and it is essential that the water table be
kept as near the surface as is commensurate with crop produc-
tion. In some parts of the area reported upon there has been
a total subsidence in 10 years of 3 to 31 feet. Conditions are
such that complete drainage by gravity is not feasible. The
general drainage plan adopted by the Everglades drainage
district for main drainage provides for outlet canals serving
all the area north and east of the Miami Canal. East and west
canals emptying into the Atlantic Ocean are contemplated to
be placed every 8 miles. These drainage canals would have
continuous levees along both sides to retain the water in the
Everglades and prevent subsidence from excessive drainage.
Subdrainage districts are to be drained by pumping into these
main canals. The control of Lake Okeechobee is held to be of
first importance on account of the immense amount of water
which overflows the Everglades, in addition to the heavy rain-
fall of the Everglades area. The construction of the St. Lucie
Canal practically provides for control of the lake. but enlarge-
ment of that outlet from a capacity of 5.000 cubic feet to





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


7.500 cubic feet per second, or the enlargement of the Caloosa-
hatchee Canal to 2.500 cubic feet per second, would give more
adequate and complete control of the lake.
5. The report states that with proper treatment the peat
lands will be valuable for agricultural purposes for many years.
Particular importance is attached by Mr. Lloyd to the positive
and proper control of ground water in the Everglades. Ex-
perience with peat lands in Louisiana and elsewhere has shown
the necessity of maintaining the ground water level as high
as consistent with the requirements of the crop being grown,
to minimize both fire hazard and subsidence. Subsidence, if
not checked. may bring the land surface so close to the water
table or to the underlying rock as to make cultivation imprac-
ticable.
LYTLE BROWN,
Major General, Chief of Engineers.


MISSISSIPPI AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
A. & M. COLLEGE, MISS.,
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE.
Starkville, Miss.. August 2S, 1929.
COL. MARK BROOKE.
New Orleans. La.
DEAR SIR: I herewith transmit my report on the agricul-
tural possibilities of the Florida Everglades.

Very truly yours.
E. R. LLOYD.


REPORT ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT IN THE EVERGLADES
DISTRICT OF FLORIDA
SECTION 1. OBJECTS AND SCOPE OP TIE INVESTIGATION
For use in connection with projects under consideration by
the Engineer office. United States Army. complete and accur-
ate information is desired with regard to the agricultural de-





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


velopments that might reasonably be expected to follow flood
control and the construction of an adequate system of drain-
age and irrigation for the Everglades district of the State of
Florida. The large area involved, the immense accumulation
of organic plant residues, and favorable climatic conditions
attracted early attention to the Everglades, but systematic ag-
ricultural experimentation and development have been delayed
until recent years.
The hazards of floods having their origin in Lake Okeechobee
and the large outlay required in subsidiary drainage to the
canals are the principal factors which have delayed large-scale
development of the potential resources of this unique region.
But in recent years scientific soil and crop experiments have
been carried out by the Everglades experiment station, as
well as by several industrial enterprises.
It was sought to collect and to review critically all informa-
tion now available with a view of estimating the agricultural
value of the Everglades lands when drained and protected
from recurrent floods.
The major part of the three weeks spent in the field involved
personal observations of crops growing, the large variety of
crops grown on sawgrass soils, conferences with experiment
station works, with farmers, and with those in charge of cor-
porations operating large holdings devoted to special crops.
Studies were made of the general character of the soils, es-
pecially those classified as sawgrass. Little time was spent in
investigating the so-called "custard-apple" belt that occupies
a position along the southern and eastern shores of Lake Okee-
chobee, varying from a few rods to 2 or 3 miles in width. This
small belt is represented by a true mudk soil of excellent quali-
ty that is well known for its value for truck as well as for other
crops. This muck soil has grown crops for many years without
any particular fertilizer treatment. The muck represents well-
weathered soil and copper sulphate has not been found to give
particular response, as in the case of sawgrass peat soils.
Numerous soundings for depths were made, and a sufficient
number of representative samples were drawn for chemical






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


analysis to confirm the data already available concerning the
plant food and crop possibilities of the lands in this district.
The investigation included also studies of drainage systems,
irrigation. subsidence, and other factors involving profitable
crop production. The information collected will be arranged
and discussed under the subject heads which follow, and ex-
hibits will be appended in support of the general conclusions
reached.

SECTION 2. GENERAL DESCRIPTIONx OF EVERGLADES AREA. SOILS,
AND CLIMATE
1. The area covered in this report consists in that part of
the Everglades south of Lake Okeechobee and the West Palm
Beach Canal, extending east of Lake Okeechoiee about IS miles
and north of the Tamiami Trail.
The east and west boundary of the Everglades is defined by
low ridges of higher land. confining the flat peat lands between,
known as Everglades. Underlying the entire area of the Ever-
glades is to be found a limestone formation. varying from a
hard crystalline texture to a soft. partially disintegrated coral.
In the vicinity of Clewiston along the lake shore. marl and
shell rock are encountered. On the east and west sides of the
Everglades this rock formation gradually rises to low ridges
and is covered with sand.
2. Soil Types.-While there are several types of soil in the
Everglades. only two occupy sufficient area to make them eco-
nomically important: (1) The "custard-apple" or muck soils
and (2) the sawgrass or true peat soil.
The "custard-apple" soil is found within 1 or 2 miles around
the south rim of Lake Okeechobee. quickly merging into the
true peat soil farther away from the lake shore.
About the only distinction to be made between the two types
of soil is that the muck or "custard-apple" soils contain more
sand and mineral matter and shrink less under cultivation than
the peat soils. The muck soils have been cultivated longer and
have been subjected to greater oxidation and have become































The Stt Former' Marke t f omplno, Florido, 100 I, wide nd 1018 If lng, Claimed to be the
Largest Singlebofed Farmea' Market Platform in the Worl






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


more dense and compact and intermixed with varying amounts
of silt and mineral matter.
The sawgrass soil is a brown fibrous sedge peat. It derives
it; name from the vegetation, sawgrass. which has been grow-
ing on it for unknown centuries, and now grows. and has formed
and continues to form this soil in layers by its death and de-
posit in recurrent floods.
These soils contain large stores of potential plant food in
the organic residues, as shown by the chemical analysis and
the crops grown on them. The content of organic matter of
the peat soils is frequently as much as 95 percent of the dry
weight. It is highly nitrogenous. Numerous analyses on rec-
ord indicate that the typical sawgrass peat can be depended
upon to show an equivalent of 4 per cent ammonia (NHai).
Notwithstanding the fact that the sawgrass soils are rich in
organic nitrogen and contain sufficient mineral plant food for
hundreds of crops, it was impossible to realize profitable re-
turns except with potatoes, cotton, and a few unimportant
crops until after the soil had been broken and allowed to oxi-
dize for several months.
During the first two years of the operation of the experiment
station at Bell Glade when test plantings with hundreds of
different plants were made with no soil treatment other than
that involving regular fertilizer materials, consistent and prac-
tically complete failure resulted.
Less than two years ago a line of research involving soil
treatment with a number of special chemicals was started upon
a broad basis and from it extraordinary results have developed,
which promise to exert a permanent and important influence,
from the agricultural standpoint, upon the reclamation of the
Everglades.
It was found that by the use of small amounts of copper
sulphate, zinc, manganese, and other salts profitable crops of
practically every variety of plants adapted to the climate could
be grown on freshly broken peat soils. It is an established fact
that these peat soils when freshly broken proved disastrously
toxic to practically all plants that have been tried upon them






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


with the exception of the potato. The recent discovery that
this toxic effect upon plants is immediately corrected by ap-
plications of small amounts of copper sulphate and other chem-
ical salts makes agriculture profitable and safe on these soils.
3. Climate.-The mean monthly temperature for the Ever-
glades area ranges from 630 to 820, with mean around 72.
The lowest winter temperature on the south rim of Lake Okee-
chobee is 290. At Davie the lowest temperature is 210 and
at Miami 270.
The humidity ranges from 71 to 83 per cent, the mean annual
being about 76 per cent. Sunshine varies from 58 to 69 per
cent of the time. with an average of 64 per cent. Light winds
from 6 to 8 miles per hour prevail as an average.
The climate as a whole is very healthful. The heat during
the day is about the same as that of Palm Beach. Miami, Fort
Myers. and Tampa, but the nights are generally cooler, due
to the low absorption of heat by the soil and the extensive
water and swamp areas.
The annual rainfall varies from 40 to 65 inches, the average
being about 56 inches. In the dry season, November to May,
inclusive, the monthly rainfall varies from less than 1 inch to
4 inches, with an average of about 2 inches. During the rainy
season, June to October. inclusive, the monthly rainfall varies
from less than 2 inches to as much as 20 inches, with an aver-
age of about 81, inches.

SECTION 3. TOPOGRAPHY
The topography of the Everglades may be summed up as a
flat surface, sloping south to southeast at the rate of about 1
foot every 5 miles, or two-tenths of a foot per mile. The only
thing to break the flat continuity of this vast area is now and
then a local burned area where the peat has burned down to
the water table during the dry season. These burned areas
are not extensive.

SECTIoN 4. DRAINAGE
Secondary Drainage.-The methods of water control in the
Everglades consist largely of secondary drainage supplemen-






POSSIBILITIES OF TIE EVERGLADES


tary to the general district drainage. This secondary drainage
method consists of:
411 The u se of tdep unrrw ditches of 3 miles'" length. siKtcetd one-
eighlh mile apart.
412 Tlhe lnllividulal r'intlllictiol of two of rltese 3-mtilr ditches'
tllrolluag hellmiers to eliTtrihh;llly opleratll driiainlge pllmllll whihhll tri'llis
fer \waterO to inlllin (drll'lnni e c:ltails.
Inl practice two 240-acre fields. or a total of 480 acres, are
pumped or ignored at will. according as thie local crop situa-
tion requires. The use of weirs at these pumps assures a con-
stant water table in the field and ditch, either when pinuping
out for drainage or in pumping in for irrigation. This weir
guarantees preservation of land levels against rapid subsidence.
The vast benefits of these secondary drainage systems are
based onl the provision of an Everglades main water control
system which keeps Lake Okeechobee in bounds and which
keeps the water surfaces of the district canals below their bank
tops.
Movement of Soil Water.-In connection with effective
water control which is so important in the sawgrass soils. any-
thing that caR be t'one to aid the movement of water into and
out of tile soil will be of real assistance. The application of
tlhe "mole" principle is illustrated in the three series of pic-
tures that follow. as 3, 44.and 5, explanations heiing given in
tihe legends of each.
The mole implement is very similar to a large subsoil plow,
and can be set for any depth so as to keep a constant level.
These "mole holes" are found to be surprisingly permanent,
that shown in Figure 4 being excavated and photographed
more than a year after its preparation and after having gone
through the 1928 hurricane and the long exlisure to flood water
that was attendant thereto. It is believed that tile procedure
will be of effective value in the proper and effective handling
of water in these soils. It is already in use under practical
working conditions on a field scale inl tie celery areas, near
Sarasota. where the soil is of essentially the same type as is
found in the Everglades. The mole implement is now in gen-
erel use on the property of the Southern Sugar Co. at Canal
Point and at Clewiston. The operation of snuliraining land





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


by the use of the mole is not expensive. Two men and a trac-
tor can drain from 10 to 15 acres per day.

SECTION 4. AGRICULTURE
Clearing and Preparation of Land.-The native growth on
the Everglades land is sawgrass, an extremely coarse, harsh
sedge that has strong silicious teeth or "saws" upon either
margin of its blade along its entire length. After these lands
are drained the sawgrass practically disappears and in its place
comes a soft pulpy weed known as "pigweed" or "careless
weed." These weeds are easily destroyed with a disk harrow.
The level, reckless, treeless area is well adapted to the use
of large power-driven machinery. And by the use of machin-
cry these lands can be cleared and made ready for crops at a
very small cost. The average cost of clearing the land is about
$3.50 to $4 per acre and the preparation for crops about the
same.
The general plan followed is to disk the land three times, at
the rate of 20 acres per day. It is then dragged, rolled, and
the copper sulphate or other chemical applied.
There seems to be little difference between the cultivated
land and the raw soils, except that the land under cultivation
settles or subsides more rapidly. The general characteristics
of the cultivated and raw lands are about the same and contain
about the same amount of plant food. The oxidation is nat-
urally more rapid in the cultivated lands.
The Value of These Lands as Shown by Chemical Analysis.
-While the chemical examination of the peat and muck soils
of the Everglades has been delayed until comparatively recent
years, sufficient data have now accumulated to justify con-
clusions regarding the composition of these lands. A late and
valuable contribution to the literature of the subject has been
made by Hammar (Soil Science, Vol. XXVIII (1929), p. 1).
Rose (Annual Report of the State Chemist of Florida, 1912,
1914, 1919, 1921) has also published a number of analyses of
representative samples.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


The area involved in this investigation is confined to the
sawgrass peat soils. The analyses by Hanmmar appeared while
this work was in progress. In outlining the survey it was be-
lieved important to take by approved methods a sufficient num-
ber of samples of soil to illustrate the chemical composition of
the soils in the special district studies.
The location of the areas represented by samples is shown
in the statement which follows:
Methods of Analysis.-After ignition the ash was submit-
ted to sodium carbonate fusion and SiO2. Fe.Oa. Al.O:. CaO,
and MgO were estimated in the usual way. The PlO.-, was de-
termined volumetrically after fusion with magnesium nitrate.
Results.-The results of these analyses show in a very
emphatic way the large amounts of plant foods which have
accumulated in these sawgrass lands. This applies especially
to the stores of lime, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen forms of
plant requirements which are frequently found in insufficient
amounts in soils of other regions-i. e.. in the so-called mineral
soils-as distinguished from -peat -formations. The "custard-
apple' soil, which is found nearer the lake. contains much less
organic matter, and. as a consequence, a smaller proportion of
nitrogen than the sawgrass land farther to the south and east.
Stated on a percentage basis, these soils contain approximately
twenty times as much nitrogen and two to three timers as much
phosphoric acid as that shown by good types of mineral soils.
The large content of nitrogenous organic residues, plentiful
supplies of lime and phosphoric acid, together with favorable
conditions of climate and water supply. are factors which con-
tribute to the adaptability of this region to the profitable pro-
duction of special crol:s such as sugar and a wide variety of
vegetables.
It is of value to point out that Hannmar (loc. cit.) found
sawgrass soil to be almost neutral in reaction. the average pH
value being 6.70. In view of the large amount of organic
matter present, the low degree of acidity is of especial interest
and of great practical importance in crop production. The
lower layers were found to be even less acid than the surface.












4, MI


S * I*
'A\\


lBon Hornv Noar Rll. AlnA






POSSIBILITIES OF TIE EVERGLADES


The specific gravity, like that of all peat soils, is low. Ham-
mar's results show an average of 1.27. This means, of course.
a lower weight per cubic foot as compared with mineral soils.
Effect of Special Chemicals on Crop Production.-During
the first two years of the operation of the experiment station
at Belle Glade tests with hundreds of different plants were
made with no soil treatment other than that involving regular
fertilizer materials. The consistent and practically complete
failure of essentially all plants tested was the result. The
Brown Co., the Southern Sugar Co., and other large planters
had the same experience with crop failures on the freshly
broken peat soils. It was only by breaking the soils and allow-
ing them to weather and oxidize for long periods of time that
crops could be grown. Less than two years ago it was discov-
ered that by the use of small applications of sulphate of cop-
per. zinc. manganese, and other salts to freshly broken peat
soils the toxic element in the soil was inlnediately rendered
inactive. and profitable crops could be grown without the weath-
ering process. This toxic poison in the soil produced a dwarf-
ing. or killing effect, which was described as "muck sickness."
When the "sickness" was cured by the additions of sulphate of
copper to the soil. profitable crops of all varieties adapted to
the climate were grown.
Through the courtesy of Dr. R. V. Allison. director of the
Everglades Experiment Station. a number of carefully pre-
pared photographs were obtained. They show unequivocally
the responses that have been obtained with a few of the several
scores of plants that have been studied. all of which have given
practically the same results. The photographs leave no doubt
in mind as to the extraordinary character of the responses of
practically all plants tested to the soil treatment with copper,
manganese, and zinc sulphates.
In this work it has been found that the most notable effect
has been observed through the use of copper sulphate. Man-
ganese sulphate has also given exceptional results in tlte case
of some plants. In any case, 50 to 75 pounds of the chemical
per acre is the common application in practice. treatment of





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the soil with them being accomplished in much the same way
as in the use of ordinary fertilizer materials.
In some instances it has been found that there is particular
need for the application of both of these compounds for the
attainment of best results. Likewise. in the case of zinc sul-
phate, it has been found that this salt applied at the rate of
12 to 15 pounds per acre, when used with copper sulphate, gives
extraordinary returns in some crops, particularly when applied
to the soil immediately before the planting of the seed.
This combination has been particularly emphasized in stud-
ies with the peanut plant. Applied alone, zinc has not been
observed to give evidence of a permanent improvement. In
combination with copper under the conditions of application
noted, it has been found to advance the maturity of the pea-
nut plant from three to five weeks and to increase the yield
of mature peas in a very material way in comparison with the
use of copper alone.
The important bearing of these studies upon the agriculture
of the Everglades is seen in the fact that already many car-
loads of these unusual soil amendments have been used upon
commercial plantings since the discovery of their importance
less than two years ago.
The following brief references to the results that have been
obtained with two or three of the most important crops will
serve to indicate the prolific character of their development
upon the sawgrass land when given proper treatment and
attention.
Sugarcane.-One of the principal responses of sugarcane
to treatment of the sawgrass land is shown in Figures 11-a and
11-b (Dr. Allison's report) where copper sulphate was used
alone. This work was duplicated in co-operation with the
Southern Sugar Co. on their holdings at Canal Point and at
Clewiston, with the same results. The Southern Sugar Co.
has now 11,000 acres of sugarcane growing, and practically
all of the land on which cane is growing has been treated with
copper sulphate. Much of this cane will yield from 30 to 40
tons per acre.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 63

Beans.-In the test with beans the soil treatment involved
the four chemicals, copper and manganese sulphates. sulphate
of potash, and superphosphate. The yields on the untreated
or cheek plots varied front nothing to 13 hampers per acre. The
plot receiving all four of the compounds indicated varied from
149 to 190 hampers per acre. The beans harvested were of ex-
cellent quality, grading as fancy stock.

Peanuts.-Peanut yields upon sawgrass peat lands treat-
ed with chemicals vary from 1,500 to 1,800 pounds of nuts per
acre. Those on untreated lands produce nothing and the vines
die before much growth is made. The response of this plant to
treatment of the soil with copper and zinc soils is well illus-
trated in Figure 11-d (Dr. Allison's report).
When copper is used alone on peanuts a fair yield is secured
with late maturity and a smaller percentage of sound nuts.
When zinc is used alone there seems to be no effect and the
crop is a practical failure, but when the two are used in com-
bination the yield is increased, the plants mature earlier. and
there is a much larger percentage of sound nuts.

Sample No. 1
Orginic and volatile matter ............................ ............................. .. .0.2S5
Silicon dlo ide. SiO ....................... .... ................................. 1.S5.
Iron oxide, Fe ............. .......................................................... .. .373
Calcium oxide (lime.) ClO .............. ................... 4.247
M agnesiumu oxide. M gO ........................... ................... .......... ..... 5
Potash. K .. ................ ......................... ............................................... 20
Phosphoric nalci. Pl,0 .....................................................097
T total ........................................................................................................... 9.0337
itrogen .......................................................................... ........ ................ 3.340
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: At Brown Co. Laboratory. -43 feet west of Hillsiboro
Canal (sec. 14. T. 45. R. 38. Palmn ench County. Fla.: waterr-title
elevation. 13.93: land elevation. 15.20).
Depth of pent to rock: 6 feet 7 inches.
Typical. Brown Co. land. First cultivated. 1925.

Simple No. 2
Organic and volatile matter ........... ................................ .... 85.
Silicon dioxide. SiO .................................... .............. ....................... 2 2
Iron oxide. Fe .................................... .......................... ............ 537
Alum inum oxide. A ........................ ................. ............. 1. 7
Calcium oxide (limel. CaoO ............... .. ...... ........ ............ 5.170
M Iagneslmui oxide. M gO ... ...................................................................... .170
Potash. K ....................... ....... ........ ........... ...... ............. .223





64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Phosphoric acid. ,0 ............................................................................... .108
Total ..................................................................................................... 9S.S47
Nitrogen .................................................................................................. 3.375
Description: Everglades raw peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Loentloi: 150 feet west of Hillsboro Canal on Brown Co. land (sec.
10. T. 45, R. 3S).
Depth of peat to rock: 7 feet 10 inches.
Typical ieat land.
Sample No. 3
Organic and volatile matter .................................................................... 81.513
Silicon dioxide. 810, ........................................................................ 3.12
Iron oxide, FeO ................................................................................ 00
Aluminum oxide. A ......................................................................... .8.23
Calcium oxide (lime). CaO ....................... ........................................... 11.435
Magnesium oxide. MgO ................................... ..................................... 1.654
Potash. KO ................................................................................................ 207
Phosphoric acid. PO ........................................................................ .209
Total ...................................................................................................... 99.072
Nitrogen ........................................................... ....................................... 3.723
Description: Everglades raw pent soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: 150 feet west of Hillsloro Canal north of Brown Co. land
(see. 32, T. 44. R. 38).
Depth of peat to rock: 7 feet 10 inches.
Typical peat land.
Sample No. 4
Organic and volatile matter ................................................................. S4.097
Silicon dioxide. 10, ............................................................................ 9
Iron oxide, FeO, ........................................................................ ..... 92
Aluiminun oxide. A,0, ....................................... 1.587
Calcium oxide (lime). CaO .................................................................... 3.792
Magnesium oxide. gO ......................................................................... .751
Potash. K .................................................................................................. .244
Phosphoric acid. P,O, .-...................................................................... .219
Total ........................................................................................................ 7.611
N nitrogen ................................................................................................... 3.533
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
location : At Okulante, 150 feet west of North New Iliver Canal
and 350 feet north of Boles Canal (sec. 35, T. 44. R. 36).
DeI th of peat to rock: 6 feet 0 inches.
Typical peat soil. cultivated for 10 years.
SaImple No. 5 taken. compared with samples Nos. 4 and 6,, and
lntitttel. Sounding made for depth of soil.

Sample No. 6
Organic and volatile matter ........................................... ................ 72.253
Silicon dioxide. S0 ............................................................................. 11.S3
Iron oxide. Fe:O, ................................................................................. 3.359
Alumilnm oxide. Al;O ...................................................................... 3..550
Calcium oxide liIme), CaO .................................... .......................... 5.083
Maguesium oxide. MIgO ..................... ........ ..... .......... 1.157
Potash. K ................................................................................................. Z 1
Phosphoric acid. O ......................................................................... .343






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 65

T total ....................................................................................................... 98.759
Nitrogen ........................................................................ ............................ 3.34
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 niches.
Location: 150 feet west of North New River Cantal (sec. 24. T. 44,
R. 30).
Depth of peat to rock: 8 feet 2 inches.
Typical peat soil.
.ampnie No. 7
Organic and volatile matter ............... ........................... .............. 89.857
Silicon dioxide. SIO .............................................................................. 1.304
Iron oxide. Fe, .................................... ............................................ 1.040
Aluminum oxide. A .................. ................................................... 834
('nlcilum oxide HIame) CO ....................................... ............ ........... .12
Magnesii um xide. MgO ........................................ ................... .451
Potash. K ............................................... .189
Phosphoric acid.. P 0 ............................................................................. 148
T total ........................................................................................................... 99.042
N itro en .................................................................................................... 3.756
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 Inches.
Location: At Belle Glade Experiment Station (see. 3. T. 44. R. 37).
Depth of pent to rock: 7 feet 3 inches.
Typical penat soil.
Sunmple No. 8
Organic and volatile matter .............................................................. 9.
Silicon dioxide. 10, ............................................................................... 1.878
Iron oxide. FPe ..................................................................................... .903
Alnn oxide. A O ...................................................................... ....... 39
Calcium oxide (lime). CO ................................................................. 5.433
Maignesinnl oxide. MO .......................................................................................... .182
Potash. K O .............. ........................ .................................................... .188
Phosphoric aid. P ........................................................................... 180
Total ....................................................... ....................................
N nitrogen ......................................... ................ .................. ................. 3.7
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: 150 feet west of Palm Beach Canal (see. 19. T. 32 R. 38).
Depth of peat to rock: 9 feet 9 inches.
Typical peat soil.
Samples Nos. 9 and 10 taken. compared with samples Nos. 8 and 11.
Iand omitted. Soundings made for depth of soil.
Sam, ple No. 11
Organic and volatile matter ........... ..... .................... .................................. 37.410
Silicon dioxide. Si ...................................................
Iron oxide. Fe,O, ...................................................................................... 13
Alulminum oxide. Al/, .................................................................... 78
Calcium oxide (limet. CaO ......... ........................................................ 1.20
Magnesium oxide. MgO ...................................................................... 703
Potash. KO ................................................................... ........................... .459
Phosphoric a d. P, ......................................................... ................. .203
Total ................................................. ............ .. ......................... .. 4
N nitrogen ..................................................................................... ............. 7
Description: **'ustard-apple muck soil.
Depth of samplle: 0)-1S Inches.





66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Location: 100 feet west of Pahokee. Belle Glade Road (sec. 8. T.
43, R. 37).
Depth of peat to rock: 9 feet 11 Inches.
Typical "custard-apple" soil. just cleared but not cultivated.
Sample No. 12
Organic and volatile matter .................................................................... 91.544
Silicon dioxide. SiO, ............................................................................... 1.920
Iron oxide. FeO, ................................................................................... .148
Aluminum oxide. Al 0, .................................................................... .124
Calcium oxide (lime). ('O .................................................................... 3.929
Magnesium oxide. MgO ................................................................ ...... 85
Potash. K ,O ........................................................................................... .186
Phosphoric acid. P.O, ............................................................................ 088
T otal ........................................................................................................... 98.324
N itrogen ...................................................................................................... 3 10
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: 60 feet south of south boundary levee, Sugarland drain-
age district (sec. 9, T. 44. R. 37).
Depth of peat to rock: 8 feet.
Typical I'.nt soil, cleared about six months but not cultivated.

Sample No. 13
Organic and volatile matter ................................................................. 02.039
Silicon dioxide. SiO, ........................................ 899
Iron oxide, Fe ............................................................................... 172
Aluminum oxide. AL. O, ........................................................................ .097
Calcium oxide (lime). CaO .................................................................. 5.038
Magnesium oxide. MgO ....................................................................... .400
Potash. K O0 ........................................................................................... .139
Phosphoric acid. PO, ........................................................................ .154
Total ................................................ .................................................... 98.938
Nitrogen ................................................................................................ 3.480
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: 125 feet west of North New River Canal (sec. 14, T. 45,
R. 36).
Depth of peat to rock: 6 feet 6 inches.
Uncleared raw sawgrass land.

Sample Xo. 14
Organic and volatile matter ............................................ ..................... 90.079
Silicon dioxide. SiO ............................................................................. 1.22
Iron oxide, FeO, ................................................ .................................... 8
Aluminum oxide. A.10 ......................................................................... .3
Calcium oxide (lime), O ................................................................... 5.391
Magnesium oxide. MgO ................................................ ..................... .633
Potash. KO ................................................................................. 140
Phosphoric acid. P.O, ............................................... ............ ............ .207
Total ..................................................... ........................................... 99.306
Nitrogen ...................................................... .............................. 3.961
Description: Everglades peat soil.
Depth of sample: 0-18 inches.
Location: 150 feet west of North New River Canal (sec. 36. T. 45,
R. 30).
Depth of pent to rock: 7 feet 8 inches.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Uncleared raw sawgrass hand.
Sample No. 15 taken, compared with sample No. 14. and omitted.
Sounding inmade for depth of soil.
Corn.-Corn shows the same response to copper sulphate
as do other crops. Its application means the difference be-
tween failure and a yield from 40 to 60 bushels per acre. The
favorable action of copper may be seen from three to five years.
The residual effect is plainly shown in Figure 11-1 (Doctor
Allison's report).
Soil Treatment and Cost of Chemicals.-The addition of
the above-mentioned chemical amendments to the sawgrass
Everglades soil to correct toxicity and to thus permit the use
of the latent fertility has a significant economic value in that
the compounds, as shown by the records of the Brown Co.,
maintain almost their full potency as long as the fourth year
from application, even when two or three crops per year have
been taken off the land.
The materials are applied uniformly and rapidly by the use
of a lime spreader. The applications are at the rate per acre
of 50 pounds of granular copper sulphate. 12 pounds of pul-
verized zinc sulphate. 62 pounds of dry sand to insure even
distribution.
The initial cost of the chemicals is $5.10 per acre. but on
the basis of an enduring effect of the metalic salts toward crop
production, for five years. there is incurred an acre-year cost
for chemicals of only $1.02. The returns are all out of pro-
portion to the cost and anlply justify one's conviction in the
great fertility of the sawgrass Everglades.

SECTION 5. EcoXo.MIC
The Florida sawgrass Everglades have practical economic
merits. These merits justify legislation for early improved
flood control of Lake Okeechobee and for prompt improved
land drainage. The present conditions are sufficient to jeop-
ardize permanent agriculture.
The completion of proposed system for water control in the
Everglades is for the conservation rather than for the reela-





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


nation of Everglades agriculture, as evidenced by the follow-
ing:
1. The fact that four industries are already using vast
acreages:
(a) The sugarcane industry uses 11,000 to 15.000 acres
and an expansion to 30,000 acres by 1930 is expected.
(b) The peanut industry, now using 1.800 to 2.000 acres,
will be increased as rapidly as possible to 30.000 acres.
(c) The truck industry involves 11.000 acres, and it is in-
creasing annually.
(d) The animal industry includes many solid 640-acre sec-
tions for both beef and dairy cattle.
2. The fact that harbors exist at the adjacent Florida At-
lantic seaboard, and that some of the large planters own ware-
house sites at the harbors, to collect for ocean freighters the
tonnage brought down from the Everglades by barge lines
navigating in the Everglades canals.
3. The fact that the Everglades lands are almost entirely
in private ownership. awaiting the opportunity to use the
areas for crop production.
4. The fact that the physical developments of the large
companies have been along sound lines, as shown by the de-
sign and construction of the buildings and the machinery and
agricultural equipment in use.
5. The fact that flood problems, while they have hindered,
they have not prevented the use of the Everglades by large
operators.
6. The fact that private research work on soils, climate
and crops which is being prosecuted by industrial operators
is developing improved plans of soil management under the
incentive of business pressure.
7. The fact that extensive industrial and municipal con-
struction is taking place in the Everglades, such as sugar mills,
corn warehouses, railroads, dairy plants, and civic works.
Farming on a Large Scale.-Under this head there will be
mentioned a few of the more important companies engaged in
agriculture in the Everglades. Large-scale farming is more





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


economical than small-scale farming. The large companies
have well-trained men, the latest and best farm machinery,
and they make a careful study of the best methods of treating
and conserving the soil.

The Brown Co.-This company is located on the Hillsboro
Canal, 15 miles south of Lake Okeechobee. in the interior of
the Everglades on typical sawgrass soil. The company owns
70,000 acres of land, and their special crop is peanuts. This
year they have under cultivation 1,800 acres of peanuts, be-
sides truck crops. The average yield of peanuts and peanut
hay at the Brown Co.'s Shawano plantation is 1.500 pounds.
or 125 bushels of nuts and 3.000 pounds of hay. as against the
average yield in the United States of 675 pounds of nuts and
1,200 pounds of hay. The peanut hay grown in the Ever-
glades contains a very high percentage of protein.
In determining cost and profits of the peanut crop per acre,
the following basis of calculation was used:
Per hour
Tractor. Including oil. gas. repi irs. etc. ....................... .................. $1.00
Tractor driver. Including board ........................................ .......... 52
Common labor ............................................................ ......................... 42
The cost of land preparation, cultivation, seed and seeding,
soil treatment with special chemicals, harvesting, drying nuts
and hay, grinding hay, freight, etc., was $78.15 per acre.
Yield of nuts. 1.500 pounds, at 5 cents per pound ................................ $75
Yield of dried and ground hay. 3.000 pounds, at $30 per ton ............ 45
T otal .............................. ... ............. ...........................$120
This gives a per acre profit of $41.85.
In order to cure the hay and nuts during the period of rains
and retain for the hay an attractive green color, there has been
provided by the Brown Co. a specialized crop-curing machine
for peanuts. This machine turns out 15 tons of hay and 500
bushels of nuts every 24 hours. The Brown Co.. since 1924.
has successfully grown 32 different crops.
These crops are: Peanuts. cabbage, celery, peppers, squash,
okra, spinach, peas, cauliflower, sugarcane, mint. buckwheat.
Chinese cabbage. onions, broccoli, parsnips, potatoes, carrots,
tomatoes, beans, beets, lettuce, tobacco, corn. sorghum, sun-





12


Uniltd Stant Suoar CnmMinn tI kn






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


flowers, eggplant, dasheens, rye, sweet potatoes, cotton and
velvet beans.
The above crops are mentioned to prove that by the use of
inexpensive chemicals and proper soil treatment practically
any crop that is adapted to the climate can be successfully
grown on sawgrass soils.
Southern Sugar Co.-This company owns and controls about
130,000 acres of land. Their principal crop is sugarcane. They
have now growing on their properties at Canal Point and
Clewiston 11,000 acres of cane, and additional plantings are
being made with a view to increasing the acreage in cane to
25.000 as rapidly as possible. The value of the peat lands for
growing sugarcane is amply proven by the vigorous, healthy
growth and the large yields per acre. Much of the cane at
Canal Point and at Clewiston is from 10 to 12 feet tall and will
easily produce from 20 to 30 tons per acre, with a high content
of sucrose.
Besides the large acreage used for sugarcane production, a
substantial acreage is devoted to the raising of winter vege-
tables and fruits. Up to the present time, due to transporta-
tion difficulties, the farming operations have been limited in
extent. Nevertheless. some astonishing productions of vege-
tables have been made. Beans, peas, peppers,. eggplants, cab-
bage, tomatoes, and other varieties of winter vegetables grow
luxuriantly. The soil and climate in this section seem to pe-
culiarly favor the maturity of plants, and two or three crops.
per year are possible on the same land. Some of .these crops
may be placed on the market in the height of the winter sea-
son, making the potential profits large. In the Clewiston dis-
trict, during the shipping season of 1926-27. over 700 carloads
of vegetables were sent to the northern and eastern markets.
The company's sugar mill at Canal Point has been operated
one season and has a'capacity of 1,500 tons per day. There is
under construction a second mill at Clewiston witl a capacity
of 3.000 tons per day. The Celotex Co., in order to take care
of the constant increase in demand for this product. is build-
ing a manufacturing plant, at Clewiston, adjoining the sugar





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


mill of the Southern Sugar Co., and manufactures Celotex from
the bagasse produced by the sugar mill. It is estimated that
the sugar mill when operated at full capacity will furnish suf-
ficient bagasse to keep a Celotex plant in operation for a full
year. producing approximately 1,200,000 square feet of Celo-
tex per day.
It has been proven conclusively by this company and others
that sugarcane can be produced on the peat soils satisfactorily
and profitably. The large operators as well as the small with
whom I had conferences have an abiding faith in the future
development of the Everglades. This faith is abundantly pro-
ven by the permanent improvements, machinery, and equip-
ment found on the farms. The low cost of preparing and cul-
tivating these lands, the plentiful latent plant food contained
in them, and the large yields per acre make these lands very
valuable for agricultural purposes.
The Pennsylvania Sugar Co.-This company owns and con-
trols 212,000 acres of land west of Miami and Hialeah. An at-
tempt was made to grow sugarcane, which proved a financial
failure. This trial was made before the discovery of the effect
of copper sulphate. It was attempted to drain this land by
gravity, resulting in inadequate water control.
The soil in all this area is rather shallow, the peat ranging
from a few inches to 2 or 3 feet thick. Since discontinuing
the growing of sugarcane, the company is raising vegetables
successfully. They now have about 1,800 acres in potatoes,
beans, and other truck. They have several hundred cattle and
operate a dairy to supply milk to Miami. This shallow soil
produces excellent grasses. Bermuda, Dallas grass, Maiden
cane, and St. Lucie grass grow abundantly and furnish feed
the year around.
Land Prices and Labor Costs.-ln attempting to place a
fair and conservative estimate on the value of the Everglades
land, one must remember that it is possible to grow 2 or 3 and
even 4 crops per year on the same land. Winter vegetables
bring high prices, since they reach the market when vegetables
from other sections are not available.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


The land can be cleared and put into cultivation at a very
moderate cost. The soils contain large amounts of latent plant
food. as shown by the chemical analysis and by the crop yields.
Transportation facilities are being improved by the building
of good highways and new railroad construction.
The average price of uncleared sawgrass lands ranges from
$50 to $75 per acre, depending on drainage and location. The
cultivated lands are priced at from $100 to $300 per acre.
It is very difficult to place a fair price on these lands unless
the price be based on the average yield and value of certain
special crops. If the price is based on winter vegetables mar-
keted at the proper time. the above prices of land would not
seem too high. If the price is based on the yild and value of
staple crops, such as sugarcane. corn. and peanuts. which sell
at moderate prices on a competitive market, then the prices
seem too high. Everything considered, it seems that the raw
land should be worth from $30 to $50 per acre and the culti-
vated lands from $75 to $200 per acre, depending on drainage
and improvements on the land.
Trained laborers who handle improved machinery receive
from $3 to $5 per day. Common laborers receive from $2 to
$3 per day.
Crop Production and Cost.-Included here are statements
from both large and small farmers as to the yields per acre
and production cost for several standard crops.

THE SOtTHERN SUGAR CO., CrLEWISTOX, FLA.
SCGARCANE
The following figures represent average costs for the Clewiston and
Canal Point divisions, being the total cost involved in bringing open
Everglades land under crop of cane and carrying it to harvesting
stage.
Preparation of land. per acre .................................... ........ ..... $ 860
Planting. Including fertilization ............................................ 3425
Cultivation expense .................. ...... ..................................... 1 50
General exp se .......................... ............................ 2.25
Total expense to stage indicated .......................................57.60
In the matter of distributing the cost of initial operations ulmn a
crop like cante that Is to carry through a series of years without re-
plmanting It is seen that the fertilizer cost. as well. is not sill chargenble






74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

to the first crop. Imrticularly in the case of treatments involving cop-
per surphate since the benefits derived from the application of this
material are found to carry over in a very considerable way.
J31LY, 1929.

KRllSE BROS., SECTION 19. NORTH OF ]tEI.I.E (LADE
POTATOES
Preparation of land. per acre ........................................... .......... $ .00
Seed .............................................. .................. ...................................... 35.00
Planting ...................................................................................................... 5.00
Cultivating and spraying ...................................................................... 10.00
Harvesting and crates ............................................................................ 40.00
Rent per acre. one-third of $10 ............................................................ 3.33

Total expense ...............................................................................$9 .33
NOTm.-This yield. in the neighborhood of 125 bushels per acre. is
also considered without the use of fertilizer. With proper fertiliza-
tion 175 to 250 bushels is rather readily realizable. Yields of 300 to
325 bushels have been produced in this region on this type of soil and
on "Custard-apple." Doctor Tatom reported up to 375 bushels of tub-
ers of excellent quality per acre. It is to be remembered that the
record yield of the country. more than 1,100 bushels per acre. has been
made in California upon a generally similar type (f soil.
CORN
reparation of land. per acre ................................................................ $ .00
Seeding and planting ................................................................................ 2.50
Cultivation .................................................................................................. 2.00
Harvesting and marketing ...................................................................... 14.0
Rental of land. one-third of $10 ............................................................ 3.3

Total expense ................................................................................. $27.83
Value of O5-bushel crop, at 90 cents Ipr hundredweight .............. 32.50

Net returns per acre cultivated ....................................................$ 5.73
NOe.-Can plant with fair degree of safety mid-February, and crop
thus becomes available late June. Here again gains through increased
yields with the use of fertilizer are not considered. Most of the farm-
ing up to the last year in the general region has been done without
fertilization though at the present time there is a rapid increase in
the use of soil amendments. particularly in the case of beans.
JULY, 1029.

MR. EGcI.ESTON, SECTION 5. IIELLE GLADE
PEAUTS (VARIETY, LITTLE SPA.ISH)
Preilration of land (plowing and harrowing) per acre .............. $ 0.00
Seed. planting 10 by 0 inches In row. 70 pounds, at 8 cents .......... 5.60
Plan ting ...................................................................................................... 2.00
Cultivation. four times ...................................................................... 10.00
Pulling .......................... ................................................................ .0
Staclking ...................... ......................................... ..................................... 6.00
Stack poles one-fifth of $10 ......................................................... .. 2.00
Picking, 30 cents per 100, with 2.000 pounds per crere ................ 6.00






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


Sacking. 18 cents per 1K) pounds ............................................... 3.160
Rent of land, one-third of $20 ................................. ............................
TotaI ex sense .................................................................... ............ 3.86
Vallle of ".MNl.-p unnd crop at 4.5 cents ........................................... 00
Net return per acre cultivated .................................................$.... .14
COHX (VARIETY, C('BA. FLINT
Preparation of land and planting. Including seed. per acre ........ $ S.00)
Cultivation ................................................ ...... .............................. 4.00
Harvesting one-fourth. 10 cents per bushel ...................................... .00
Rental of land. one-third of $20 per anlu tun .................................... 6.(
Tro al expense ................................................................................. $ 3.6 i
Value of 50-bushel crop. at 00 cents per hundredweight ................ 32.)
Net return per acre cultivated ....................................................$ S.4
NoTE.-Thiss s a deciledly conservative yield for this I:ind 1and does
not take Into consideration the use of fertilizer. With proper fertillza-
tion 75 Iblshlels could l e Ipr'a -ledl rei'tilly at t greater profit. It is to lie
noted. however, that the item for rent provides a goi l incoLme to the
owner of the ladl after deducting taxes.
JCLY. 1I2M.

Existing and Proposed Measures for Drainage and Irrigation.
-The general plan of drainage of the Everglades is based on
two distinct requirements: (1) The control of Lake Okeecho-
bee and (2) the direct drainage of the Everglades.
The control of Lake Okeechobee is of first importance because
of the fact that the overflow of Lake Okeechobee adds an im-
mense amount of water to the Everglades in addition to the
water naturally collected from its own heavy rainfall during
the rainy season: and also to the fact that the distance from
Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean is less than any other
route through the Everglades. The control of the lake has been
practically brought about by the completion of the St. Lucie
Canal. tapping the lake on the east shore about nine miles north
of the town of Canal Point. and emptying into the Stuart River
near Stuart. on the east coast of Florida.
The St. Lucie Canal is rated at 5.000 cubic feet per second
capacity at lake stage of 17 feet above sea level. At other lake
stages the capacity is correspondingly more or less than 5,000
cubic feet per second.
The existing drainage canals furnishing partial drainage are
as follows:





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


(a) West Palm Beach Canal. tapping the lake at Canal
Point and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean just south of West
Palm Beach.
(b) Hillsboro Canal. tapping the lake near Belle Glade
and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at Deerfield.
(c) North New River Canal, tapping the lake at South Bay
and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at Fort Lauderdale.
(d) Miami Canal, tapping the lake near Retta and empty-
ing into the Atlantic Ocean at Miami.
(e) Caloosahatehee Canal, tapping the lake at Moore Hav-
en and emptying into the Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thomp-
son about 8 miles east of the town of La Belle.
(f) South New River Canal, tapping the Miami Canal 26
miles west of the town of Dania and emptying into the Atlan-
tic Ocean at Dania.
(g) Cross Canal. between Hillsboro Canal and 8 miles east
of Belle Glade and the West Palm Beach Canal at 20-mile bend
18 miles east of Belle Glade.
(h) Boles Canal, connecting the Miami, North New River,
and Hillsboro Canals about 6 miles south of Lake Okeechobee.
All of the above named canals form the main outlet canals
built by the Everglades drainage district.
During low stages of the lake the water flows toward the
lake in the St. Lucie, West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, North New
River, Miami, and Caloosahatehee Canals. When the lake
stage reaches a higher level the flow of these canals is reversed
and they flow outward away from the lake. The direction of
flow near the lake depends upon the water level in tie Ever.
glades and the lake. Some distance away from the lake a point
is reached where the water flows toward the ocean at all times.
This is only mentioned to show the extreme flatness of the ter-
ritory drained and the slight available grade for drainage
purposes. Complete drainage of the Everglades by gravity is
impossible.
These canals only partially serve the purpose for main out-
lets for smaller units, the drainage of which can only be ef-
fected by pumping into them. This condition has limited the





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


complete drainage to comparatively small areas around the
edge of Lake Okeechobee and the eastern edge of the Ever-
glades where main outlet canals are available. The purpose
of the Everglades drainage district is to control Lake Okee-
chobee and furnish main outlet canals for existing and future
subdrainage districts. Most of the drainage operations along
the east border of the Everglades have been confined to the area
lying between Miami and Fort Lauderdale.
The proposed measures for future drainage and irrigation are
those adopted by the Everglades drainage district and embod-
ied in the report of the Engineering Board of Review of May,
1927. In that report it is proposed to build the main drainage
outlet canals to serve all the area lying east and north of the
Miami Canal. The general plan provides east and west canals
every 8 miles emptying into the Atlantic Ocean, together with
the enlargement of the St. Lucie Canal to 7.500 cubic feet per
second, or, in lieu of that the enlargement of the Caloosahatchee
Canal to 2,500 cubic feet per second in conjunction with a navi-
gation canal from Lake Okeechobee to Fort Myers. This en-
largement would give ample and complete control of Lake
Okeechobee. while the drainage canals would furnish ample
outlet for all subdrainage districts that may be developed in
the future. These drainage canals are planned to have con-
tinuous levees along both sides of each canal to retain the water
in the Everglades and prevent subsidence from excessive drain-
age. Subdrainage districts are to be drained by pumping into
these main drainage canals.
The construction of the main canals will be goverened by
the requirements of the subdrainage district development.
Land Subsidence.-The following tabulation compiled from
information gathered by the United States Department of Ag-
riculture shows the rate and amount of settlement in certain
sections of the Everglades.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SETrLEMET IX INCHES (AVERAGE)
ITabulation od mot of settleme (1) Lndulatig murbace: (2) irrmegir iur: (3) i r surfsae due
to drau; *4) more uadulatlig due to cultnvatio: (6) mrbee iesuhlr. due to Ue md drms.
(0) inefur, due to cultivation and drained: (7) uniform surface.
LOCATION 1916-16 191647 1917.18 1918-21 192124 Total Ye M Aver

1 mile from Lake Okee-
cbobee- ............... (I) 12 (1) 7 (t) 4 C21 10 (5) 1 a 10 S.
Okeis ................ (7) 20 (7) 7 (1) I (3) 10 (5) 6 t 10 4.2
South Shore o Lake
Okecobee ........... XX (1)2 (1)3 XX () 7 12 9 1.3
STo well broken: black. lreasing reddish brown and undecomposed bers with depth. 9 to 10 feet
ek. airkle of sample ov oren dryin 50 per cet top, 64 per eeat at 1 inabeL
i Typical mwgrau land. Little decomposition except in top 3 inches. igh fiber content; little decompo-
sition.
j Topoil entains considerble uprcnae rse. Subail well deeompoed 10 feet pha to roek. Shrikag
38 per cent top. 48 per ent 21 ine deep. Typical "Custard-Apple."
The fact of the rapid slowing down of subsidence following
the early shrinkage is well known. The rate of subsidence
following the initial shrinkage, due particularly to loss of water
and compression, will be determined very largely by the man-
ner in which such soils are handled. Injudicious treatment in
respect to the control of the water table is always productive
of excessive subsidence in soils of this character. In cultivat-
ing peat soils tihe water table should be kept as near the sur-
face as is commensurate with crop production; this to some
extent would prevent excessive shrinkage. This might be pos-
sible with short growing crops, such as truck crops that occupy
the land only a few months in the winter and following the
truck crops with summer cover crops. The plan would not be
practical with such crops as sugarcane, which occupies the
land the entire year and for several years. Sugarcane has
some advantages over other crops in that the leaves, or blades,
are returned to the soil each year and these help to keep up
the organic content. The sugarcane also keeps the land shaded
during the hot summer month which to some extent lessens
oxidation. The two main factors in preventing a too rapid
subsidence is the proper control of the water table and irri-
gation. With proper treatment the peat lands will be valuable
for agricultural purposes for many years.

SECTION 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The total area of the Everglades covered in this report
amounts to about 1,635,000 acres. Of this area about 870,000






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


acres lying south of Lake Okeechobee and the West Palm Beach
Canal and east of the Miami Canal is designated as the best
and most favorably located for the comprehensive and progres-
sive drainage plan by tle Everglades Engineering Board of
Review in its report to the board of commissioners of tile
Everglades drainage district, dated May. 1927. The land just
described is valuable agricultural land, as shown by the large
varieties of crops now growing and the splendid yields obtained.
There are some 485.000 acres of land west and south of the
Miami Canal that seem to be of no agricultural importance.
The soil depth is from I to 3 feet to nothing. Tile rock is at the
surface on most of this area and the land is under water most
of the time.
The 870.000 acres mentioned as good agricultural land is
fairly well supplie:l with large main drainage canals. and sec-
ondary drainage is well developed. A larger percentage of this
land is in cultivation than in other parts of the Everglades.
Most of the large farming operations are in this area. This
section of the Everglades is crossed by a splendid highway and
fairly good secondary roads. The railroad facilities have been
greatly increased by recent construction. Factories. ware-
houses, and sugar mills have been built on a permanent basis.
The land contains large amounts of latent plant food. which
is easily made available. The soil is splendidly adapted to the
growing of sugarcane. peanuts. and corn. in addition to prac-
tically all vegetable crops. Winter vegetables can be marketed
with little competition from other sections of the country. The
few dairies in this section are profitable since abundant forage
can be grown throughout the year.
The benefits to be derived from the construction of canals
and other drainage and water control will greatly exceed the
cost.










1'I

%:i~irl 'I,,:
n!Is


A 9*I.(I






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


THE EVERGLADES
The rich peat and muck soil of the Everglades is one of
Florida's greatest natural resources. Of 4,500.000 acres in tile
Everglades Drainage District fully 2.000,000 are, or rather
were, capable of supporting an intensive and profitable agri-
culture. The term "were" is used advisedly, for already areas
amounting in some instances to over two hundred square miles
in a single body, have been denuded of all peat and muck by
fires and have been rendered totally worthless for agriculture.
The acreage of the areas thus ruined cannot be accurately de-
termined but estimates have placed it as high as 20% to 25%
of the 2,000.000 acres mentioned.
On the basis of actual crop production of the Everglades
soil now in cultivation a valuation of $100.00 an acre on the
former 2,000,000 acres of "deep muck" is conservative. The
20%. or 400.000 acres on which the soil has already been de-
stroyed by fire, therefore, represents a loss of $40.000.000.
A large part of the remaining 1.600.000 acres. worth con-
servatively $160,000, will shortly go the same way unless de-
cisive steps are taken to prevent the recurring fires. These
fires, sweeping over the vast expanses of the Glades during the
dry seasons, burn not only the vegetation but also the soil it-
self. The dry peat burns as readily as does Cry sawdust and
once started the fire burns downward until a moisture-charged
stratum is reached. Some fires destroy from two to four inches
of the peat soil; others have been known to destroy from three
to four feet during a single burning.
As a result of its study of this situation, your Commission
presents for your consideration a program consisting of three
essential features, viz., (1) prevention of incendiarism; (2)
reduction of fire hazards; and (3) increased facilities for ex-
tinguishing fires.

1. PREVENTION OF INCENDIARISM

The great majority of Everglades fires are purposely started
by hunters and trappers. Alligator hunters in particular burn
off the Glades in order to locate swales frequented by alligators





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and also to deprive the latter of protective vegetation in order
that they may be readly killed. The self-evident remedy is to
prohibit by law the killing of alligators and to see that such
law is enforced. It is obvious that a law prohibiting the kill-
ing of alligators, to be effective in the Glades, would have to be
state-wide in application and necessary features of such a law
would include prohibition of the sale or shipment of alligators
(alive or dead) and the sale in, or exportation from, the State
of Florida of alligator hides or articles made wholly or in part
therefrom. Penalties for violation should be severe.
It naturally follows that such laws require for their enforce-
ment an able and efficient, though not necessarily large, body
of enforcement officers whose duty it shall be to apprehend
violators. This requisite could perhaps be provided by in-
crease in the number of wardens employed by the Everglades
Fire Control District and vesting them with proper authority.

2. REDUCING FIRE HAZARDS
(a) Inundation
Much can be accomplished by reducing the inflammability
of the Glades land. Heretofore the plan of reclaiming the
Everglades has been essentially an effort to get rid of water
rather than a plan to use the water intelligently. Excess water
from the Kissimmee watershed and Lake Okeechobee has been
hurried through canals to the ocean and the Gulf, while large
areas of unused land have been allowed to dry out and burn up
for lack of that water.
Large areas in the Glades will not be placed in cultivation
for several decades, if not longer. Unless protected from fire,
the soil on them will in the meantime be destroyed. It is,
therefore, recommended that excess water from Lake Okeeeho-
bee be conveyed to unoccupied portions of the Glades for the
purpose of raising the water table in the soil, or even flooding
the surface, in order that it cannot burn.
Such a plan would also have incidental advantages. It would
raise the level of underground waters in certain adjacent areas,
such as along the lower east coast, which have been severely






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


overdrained as a result of past Everglades drainage operations,
and thereby in large measures restore their productivity. It
is also believed that restoring expanses of water in the central
and lower Glades would have a beneficial effect in reducing frost
damage to crops on both the lower east and west coasts of the
peninsula.
Pending the development of such a program and as an ex-
pedient which will afford partial protection to some areas, we
endorse the suggestion that there be provided a distributing
and retaining system for both excess waters from Lake Okee-
chobee and rain waters falling on the land in order that, dur-
ing the dry season, water in these canals can be diverted to the
adjoining land surface yet permitted to drain off during the
rainy period for protection of farming areas further "up
stream."
In such a program present and future levees and highway
grades could be utilized. Preparation of plans would call for
the assembly of data on grade levels, water volumes, etc.-
much of which is to be had from existing state and federal rec-
ords-upon which a plan could be formulated. It is the sug-
gestion of your Commission that an appropriation of a few
thousand dollars be made for the purpose of assembling this
information and the formulation of a definite plan for the pro-
posed water diversion.

(b) Cultivation
Another method of preventing soil destruction by fire is to
bring the land under cultivation. Cultivated lands are under
constant supervision, crop values are an incentive to the own-
ers to prevent fires and roads, ditch-banks and drainage ditch-
es afford facilities for readily extinguishing any fires which
may develop.
The principal cultivated crops in the Everglades at present
are vegetables and sugarcane. There does not appear to be,
on the basis of market demand, any economic reason for marked
expansion at this time of the vegetable acreage.
With sugarcane the situation is exactly the reverse. Con-
tinental United States is today producing only 25% of its





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


sugar requirements, the balance being imported. In fact. pro-
duction of sugar by American producers is severely restricted
by quotas placed by the Federal government on their output.
Development, by the Everglades Experiment Station of the
University of Florida, of new types of sugarcane particularly
adapted to the Everglades soil and the Station's discoveries as
to suitable methods of fertilization have made available for
sugarcane planting many thousands of acres heretofore con-
sidered as unsuitable for this purpose.
Last season sugar production in the Florida Everglades from
some 18,000 acres of sugarcane amounted to about 40,000 tons
of sugar. Its production gave employment to 4.000 persons-
on an American scale of living. The Everglades acreage in
sugar production can be expanded annually, to reach more
than 300,000 additional acres within the next six to ten years,
producing over 1,200,000 tons of sugar annually, and giving
profitable employment to some 200,000 or more persons. pro-
vided the sugar quota is removed. Land thus brought under
cultivation will not be destroyed by fire.
It is, therefore, our recommendation that, inasmuch as ex-
pansion of sugar production in the Everglades is justified for
other reasons and would also result in conserving and prevent-
ing the destruction of the soil by fire on a large area of Ever-
glades land, the Florida legislature memorialize Congress to
remove the sugar quota insofar as it applies to Florida.

3. EXTINGUISHING FIRES

Machinery and equipment for extinguishing soil fires in the
Everglades are as imperative as is a fire department in a mod-
ern city. The Everglades Fire Control District was created
by act of the 1935 legislature (Chapter 16994) with an appro-
priation of $50,000. The Chief Fire Warden of the District,
with fire fighting equipment located at Belle Glade and Davie,
has done most excellent work. His records show that to Feb-
ruary 22, 1937, 617 Everglades fires had been extinguished.
However, the facilities have been too limited as to personnel
and equipment to deal successfully with more than a small





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


portion of the extensive and disastrous fires in the unoccupied
Glades areas, where fires gain headway and get beyond con-
trol because they cannot be reached in time by travel with fire
fighting equipment through virgin Glades where there are no
roads or trails. Additional fire fighting units located at stra-
tegic points are badly needed, as is also an aerial patrol dur-
ing the dry seasons for locating fires in their incipiency. In
view of the ownership by the State itself of some 800,000 acres
of land in the Everglades and the State's interest in the wel-
fare of its citizens in that region, there appears to be state in-
terest and justification for a state appropriation for supple-
menting other funds to be applied to a broad and comprehen-
sive program of soil conservation and fire protection.
It is the feeling of your Commission that support for the fire
control program in the Everglades will be strengthened and
better cooperation secured if the Chief Fire Warden has the
backing of a group, officially recognized, of leading residents
of the Everglades. It is our recommendation that there be
created and established, by legislative action, an Everglades
Fire Control Board, this Board to be composed of five mem-
bers who shall be the same persons who constitute the Board of
Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District created and
authorized by the provisions of Chapter 16993, Laws of 1935,
and who, acting as the Everglades Fire Control Board shall
exercise and perform all authority and duties delegated by
Chapter 16994, Laws of 1935, to the Everglades Fire Control
District; including the employment of a chief fire warden, as-
sistant fire wardens, and other necessary employees, all of
whom shall be responsible to said Everglades Fire Control
Board; such members of the Everglades Fire Control Board
to serve without compensation.
It is our further recommendation that. as the hunting of game
and alligators is a prolific source of destructive Everglades
fires, the chief fire warden and his assistant fire wardens be in-
vested with power and authority of deputy sheriffs and that it
be made their duty to apprehend and arrest, with or without
warrant, any and all violators of both game and fire control





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


laws and of the herein-recommended law prohibiting the kill-
ing of alligators.
It will be observed that the foregoing program is in no way
at variance with plans for the projected Everglades National
Park nor in any way prejudicial to farming operations at pres-
ent under way in the Glades. Nor will it militate against de-
sirable future additions to areas in cultivation.
The conservation of the Everglades soil is well worthwhile
from the standpoint of the entire state. It is impossible to even
approximate the taxable values which will result from its pres-
ent conservation and future utilization.

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Enactment of a law prohibiting the killing of alligators
and the sale and shipment of alligators or their hides or arti-
cles manufactured therefrom, this Act to be state-wide in its
application.
2. That. as a means of reducing fire hazards, excess water
from the Kissimmee watershed and Lake Okeechobee be uti-
lized for raising the water table in the soil or even inundating
these portions of the Everglades not being used for agricul-
tural purpose; instead of wasting this water by allowing it to
run off to the ocean and Gulf; that funds be provided for as-
sembling data and formulating a plan therefore.
3. That, as cultivated land is automatically protected from
destruction by fire through its utilization for crops, a rapid ex-
pansion of the areas devoted to sugar production be encour-
aged; this at present being impossible on account of federal
quotas on sugar production in Florida. It is recommended
that the legislature memorialize Congress to remove such quotas.
4. That by legislative act there be created an Everglades
Fire Control Board, to consist of the same persons who con-
stitute the Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District, serving without pay, and having responsibility for
all matters at present delegated to the Everglades Fire Con-
trol District.
5. That wardens employed by the Everglades Fire Control
District be vested with police power and that it be made their





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 87

duty to apprehend and arrest violators of fire control laws,
game laws and of the recommended law prohibiting the killing
of alligators.
6. That additional funds for the Everglades Fire Control
District should be provided in order that additional units of
fire fighting equipment may be placed at strategic points and
that an aerial patrol may be maintained during the dry sea-
son of the year for early detection of fires.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


EVERGLADES FIRE CONTROL

HEADQUARTERS: BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA
GUY J. BENDER. Chief
Upon my appointment to the office of Everglades Fire Con.
trol. I immediately undertook the construction of two fire
fighting units, each consisting of truck equipped with pump, a
tractor mounted on trailer, also equipped with pump, plow,
disc harrow, four thousand feet hose and other necessary equip-
ment for extinguishing muck fires. One of these units is sta-
tioned on the lower east coast to be used for all fires in Broward,
Dade and Monroe counties. The other unit is stationed at head-
quarters in Belle Glade, Florida, and so far has taken care of
all fires in the balance of the District.
These units have been very successful in extinguishing all
muck fires and we have never found it necessary to return to a
fire that had rekindled after once extinguished by the unit.
Upon the completion of our Unit Number One (1) we were
called upon to extinguish old muck fires of long duration, some
reported to have been burning over a period of two years and
some under old abandoned rock roads, making it necessary to
wash through these rocks before reaching the smoldering muck
underneath. Each of these units carry a pump which has a suf-
ficient capacity to deliver 500 gallons of water per minute
under a two hundred and fifty pound pressure. So you can
readily see, with this pressure, it is an easy matter to wash
down two or three feet into the muck and extinguish all the
smoldering embers which heretofore was impossible to reach
with the ordinary equipment owned by individuals in the
Glades area.
At the present time, as you know, prisoners are being used
from the Florida State Farm Number Two, located at Belle
Glade, for the operation of our fire fighting unit stationed here.
The County Commissioners of Dade and Broward Counties
have been kind enough to offer the use of county prisoners to
assist in the operation of our Unit Number Two stationed at
Fort Lauderdale. So far Dade County prisoners have been






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


used in several instances and the warden, with one or two as-
sistants, has been able to control the fires in Broward County.
The unusual amount of rain fall has doubtless served the
good purpose of reducing the amount of top fires, which in a
number of cases is the real cause of muck fires, especially in
the wild and uninhabited sections. However. I attribute the
real lack of muck fires, in 1937, to the fine spirit of co-opera-
tion rendered by the residents of the Glades area and to the
honest and faithful performance of the Fire Wardens in issu-
ing permits for all fires and to the extinguishing of all fires
found burning without the necessary permit.
While we have had splendid co-operation from the residents
of the Glades area, we have encountered considerable trouble
with the cattlemen in the northern end of the District where
there is little muck land, but thousands of acres of valuable
young timber. We have found it very difficult to convince
them that the burning over of range land at their own discre-
tion is a violation of the law and the burning over of this land
may be done only with the approval and consent of the Fire
Warden in their District. It is our duty to conserve as many
of the plants and young trees as possible, which are so abun-
dant and which some day will be a great asset to the State,
especially on the thousands of acres of State owned land which
is now being used for cattle grazing, and our efforts along this
line are beginning to bear fruit, as a great many of the cattle
owners have promised us their co-operation and I feel sure that
in the very near future all promiscuous fires will cease in that
District.
Even with the rigid enforcement of the permit system, you
will note from the accompanying list of fires extinguished, that
the fire fighting units have been kept busy extinguishing fires,
especially in Palm Beach County. The reason for a greater
number of fires in this county can be attributed to the greater
number of acres lying within the District and the larger num-
ber of acres under cultivation, necessitating the clearing of
weeds, grass and etc. at the beginning of each farming season.
A great number of muck fires originate from lighted cig-
arettes discarded by crews while harvesting crops. We have






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


found as many as fifteen separate muck fires burning in one
field after cabbage cutters had finished work in one particular
field and each fire started from a discarded cigarette. I issued
several warning notices to land owners and tenants to warn all
employes against discarding lighted cigarettes in the field dur-
ing the present dry season, as the lack of rainfall in the last
few weeks has made the muck almost as dry as powder and it
catches fire very easily. However, if a fire is extinguished in
a short time after starting very little damage to land will re-
sult and it is only when the fire is allowed to burn for several
weeks and burn down two or three feet that the land is totally
lost and becomes waste land on which no one cares to pay
taxes.
In my opinion, this is the first time in a number of years
that the east coast has been entirely free of the annoying and
discomforting odor of burning muck and the residents of the
Glades area have, for the first time, received from the State
the long hoped for help and assistance in extinguishing burn-
ing muck, which has been costly to themselves, as well as to the
county and State in destroying thousands of dollars worth of
valuable farm land each year.
You will find enclosed with this letter a list showing the num-
ber of fire permits issued to March 1, 1937, along with the num-
ber of fires extinguished in each of the Districts, the approxi-
mate number of square miles comprising the District and the
approximate number of square miles of muck land lying with-
in the District.
If there is any further information you desire please do not
hesitate to call upon me, as I will be only too glad to furnish
you with any data we may have in our files regarding fire con-
trol.

Yours very truly,

EVERGLADES FIRE CONTROL DISTRICT,
GUY J. BENDER, Chief.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 91

The Everglades Fire Control District is divided into six (6)
small districts as follows:
District No. One (1)-Comprises Palm Beach County and has ap-
proximately 1.700 square miles lying within the District, of which
1.2(00 square miles is muck land.
District No. Two (2)-Comprises Broward County and has approxi-
mately 1,008 square miles lying within the District of which 754)
square miles is muck land.
District No. Three (3)-Comprises Dade and Monroe Counties and
has approximately 1.90S square miles lying within the district,
of which 1,230 square miles is muck land.
District No. Four (4)-Comprises Hendry and Collier Counties and
has approximately 1.224 square miles lying within the District.
of which 310 square miles is muck land.
District No. Five (5G-Comprises Glades and Highlands Counties and
has approximately 662 square miles lying within the District. of
which 344 square miles is muck land.
District No. Six (6>-Comprises Okeechobee. Martin and St. I.ucie
Counties and has approximately 540 square miles lying within the
District. of which 49 square miles is muck land.
DISTRICT NO. 1
P..LM BEACH COUNTY
Number of fires extinguished in Palm Beach County from Janu-
ary 1. 1936 to March 1, 1937 ...................................................... 248
DISTRICT NO. 2
BROWARD COUNTY
Number of fires extinguished In Broward County from January
1. 1936 to M arch 1, 1937 ...................................... ..................... 52
DISTRICT NO 3
DADE AND MONROE COUNTIES
Number of fires extinguished in Dade and Monroe Counties from
January 1. 1936 to March 1. 1937 .......................................... 97
DISTRICT NO. 4
HENRY AND COLLIER COUNTIES
Number of tires extinguished in Hendry and Collier Counties from
January 1. 1936 to March 1. 1937 ............................................ 3
DISTRICT NO. 5
GLADES AND HIGHLANDS COUNTIES
Number of fires extinguished in Glades and Highlands Counties
from January 1. 1936 to March 1, 1937 ........................................ 27
DISTRICT NO. 6
OKEEICHOEE, ST. LUCIE AND MARTIN COUNTIES
Number of fires extinguished in Okeechobee. St. Lucie and Martin
Counties from January 1. 1931 to March 1, 1937 .................... 175

Number of permits issued in the entire District from January 1,
10:36 to M arch 1. 1937 ....................................................................2.441
Number cf fires extinguished in the entire District from January 1.
9!33C to March 1. 1937 ...................................... .... ............... 37







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MAP of
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Cultivated Areas . . . . .
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Limits of Everglades Drainage District
Limits of Everglades . . . . ...
Limits of Everglades National Park . .......
Canals ...............
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