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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Possibilities of the Everglades
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 Material Information
Title: Possibilities of the Everglades
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 46 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mayo, Nathan, 1876-1960
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subject: Swamps -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Everglades (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: Nathan Mayo.
General Note: "Dec., 1932."
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Letters on inside margin mising from this copy.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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alephbibnum - 002442194
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Full Text


S Bulletin No. 61 New Series Dec., 1932


Possibilities


of the


Everglades


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE


THE HUNTER PRESS. TALLAHASSEE










possibilities of the Everglades

By NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agricdlture

HERE are, in the natural Everglades area, 2,-
862,000 acres; in the Everglades drainage dis-
trict, 4,370,000 acres; some 300,000 acres have
:n partially reclaimed, and about 100,000 are in actual
tivation.
bout $11,000,000 have been spent on the drainage pro-
t up to the present. The lateral drainage canals will
t as much as the main arteries of drainage.
Everglades Not All Alike
Che Everglades proper are not all alike. There are four
in classifications: (1) the muck soils, (2) the marl
ds, (3) sandy soils, (4) lime rock lands.
here are sub-classifications of each of these divisions,
ich make the Everglades soils about as spotted as the
.t of Florida. The pmuck.lads are subdivided as follows:
stard apple land, elderberry land, willow land, dog fen-
land, and sawgrass land. There seems to be a general
pression throughout the north that the Everglades are
alike, and too little discrimination has been made by
-estors because of this mistaken idea.
rhe immense drainage project has but one end in view;
tt is that the millions of acres be reclaimed for agricul-
e. Some of the crops successfully grown in the Ever-
:des are tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, beans, egg plant,
ions, cabbage, cucumbers, strawberries, beets, lettuce,
ery, and other vegetables; sugar cane, corn, rice, alfal-
Kaffir corn, millet, sorghum, milo maize, peanuts,
sheen, many grasses and staple crops. Cattle raising,
irying, hog raising and poultry raising have been suc-
tsful in many instances.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The greatest need of most southern soils is humus. TI
Everglades is one place where there is a super-abundant
of humus. In fact, to a great extent the soil is made up (
humus. For untold ages aquatic vegetation grew here an
died, but as the land was covered by water the dead verg
station did not decay. That is why it must be drained an
aerated before bacteria can get in their work of preparing
the soil for plant food. The marl land will grow tomato
the first year. The best grade of muck land will grow an
crops fairly well the first year. Corn and Irish potato
have been grown with some success the first year, even o
the sawgrass lands. Some of it requires several years t
bring it under proper cultivation. However, the number o
times it is plowed goes further toward determining th
rapidity of the reclamation than the time element Plowin:
hastens bacterial action.
There are thousands of acres of good truck and frui
lands in the state on which an industrious and frugal fami
ly can make a good living, and in many cases a substantial.
profit, on less than ten acres. There are cases where finv
acres will show this result. But these exceptionally small /
farms do not offer the means of proper rotation of crops
or the support of livestock, and it is safer to have a horse
a cow, and hogs. The fact that one crop follows another.
during the same year is not crop rotation if the samc
crops are grown annually.
These exceptional tracts of land are not often found in
large bodies.
These lands are not always located where the owner
can market his crops to advantage.
There is no justification for the division of large tracts
of land into five and ten acre farms to be plotted by blue
print methods and sold at arbitrary and exorbitant prices
without regard to the relative value of the various sub-
divisions. Such methods are an injustice tb the buyer and
injurious to the state.
Truck farming and fruit growing require special train-
ing and aptitude on the part of the farmer, and people
without previous experience should not expect phenomenal
results from their efforts in this direction.
If a person wishes to retire from active life but wants
something to amuse himself with, he may buy any size






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 5

irm, however small, and occupy his time at miniature
arming of any kind that suits his whim. With these I am
ot concerned. But it is with the man with a family who
-ants to farm for a living, who must raise his family and
ims to lay by.a surplus from his hard-earned savings, that
am concerned about, and that I want to be a satisfied
itizen instead of a disappointed and unsatisfied citizen
-ho feels that he has not been treated fairly.
The best quality of the Everglades shows wonderful pos-
ibilties. Instances of astonishing results can be cited. This
act has lent a halo of romance around the magic word
Everglades," and many who failed to investigate and who
ad no previous experience thought they had a rainbow
-ith its proverbial pot of gold, and of course suffered dis-
lusionment. Men who are used to hard work on the farm
ad are not looking for a soft snap, who exercise common
sense in selecting their land, and are willing to put the
ame amount of labor and money into an investment in the
:verglades that they do into other lands, will do well in
he Everglades. On the other hand, if they expect to find
heir holdings a honey pond with pan cakes hanging from
/ e trees growing around the edge, they are doomed to.dis-
ppointment and failure. It means work, and hard work
, succeed in anything-an occupation, business, or pro-
ession. Farming is no exception, and farming has no ex-
eptions in different parts of the world. The sooner the
publicc mind is disabused of this fallacy that Florida is an
exception to the rule, the better for all concerned.
The Florida Everglades have been the enigma of the
scientist and the developer. The tests made of the agricul-
ural, horticultural, and live stock possibilities of the re-
!aimed lands show that there are wonderful things in
tore when the whole tillable area is finally mastered and
broughtt to full producing capacity. Thousands of acres are
tow producing millions of dollars worth of truck and other
rops. However, I want to drop the suggestion that you
shouldd not confine your farming to truck crops. It is pos-
-ible to reach the point of diminishing returns and jeopar-
lize that industry.
The canals and the proposed railroads if built will fur-
iish ample transportation facilities for the outlet of the
productss of the farms. Millions are being spent on the har-
)ors of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and other ports on the
:ast coast which will furnish shipping accommodations for
,cean traffic.






6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Poultry raising and dairying have both been demonstrat-
ed to be capable of large development Avocados, mangoes,
and citrus fruits are grown commercially and promise
large returns in the future.
That part of the Everglades not brought under drain-
.age has great possibilities in the furnishing of fuel in the
form of peat bricks, as have been made of peat in Canada.
The growing of willows for the making of wicker furni-
ture has been demonstrated as practical in much of the
Everglades. This may be developed into a thriving in-
dustry.

Legal Phases

The Everglades Drainage District was created by and
operates under laws passed by the Legislature of Florida.
The officers of the District, designated by law, are: Gov-
ernor, Comptroller, State Treasurer, Attorney General and
Commissioner of Agriculture, and their successors in of-
fice. The board is therefore made up of the highest public
officers of the state. Money for carrying on the drainage
work is raised from the proceeds of drainage taxes levied
upon the land within the District by the Legislature. The
drainage taxes are of two kinds: The drainage tax proper
being assessed by the acre upon all the lands of the Dis-
trict; a second tax consists in a levy of one mill on the
dollar against all property in the District. State lands in
the Everglades Drainage District pay drainage taxes the
same as any other land.
Based upon the tax, bonds are authorized to be issued
and so much of the proceeds from taxes are pledged for
the support of bonds as is necessary. To January 1, 1926,
the bonded debt of the District authorized by the Legisla-
ture is $14,250,000. Of the above, $11,238,500 in bonds
have been issued. To December 31, 1925, $1,200,000 had
been retired, leaving the present outstanding debt of $10,-
038,800 with an unissued reserve of $3,011,600. The earlier
bonds of the District bear interest at the rate of 6%. Later
bonds bear interest at the rate of 5 o%, while the last is-
sue are 5% bonds. For the purpose of taking up and calling
the earlier 6% and 51/% bonds, the District issued $8,-
950,000 of 5% refunding bonds. The reducing of the bor-
rowing basis of the District from 6% to 59 is an indica-
tion of the improved financial condition of the District.





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 7

The estimated assessed valuation of land in the District
$17,000,000, and the population is estimated at between
:enty-five and thirty thousand persons. From the fore-
)ing it will be noted that the bonded debt of the District
very high in proportion to the assessed valuation of
-operty and population.
To May 31, 1926, there were 486.9 miles of main canals
)en. The main canals thus far constructed or under con-
:ruction are:
St. Lucie Canal, which is the principal control canal for
ake Okeechobee.
Hillsboro Canal.
West Palm Beach Canal.
North New River Canal.
South New River Canal.
Caloosahatchee Canal.
Indian Prairie Canal.
Miami Canal.
In addition to the canals above mentioned, seven more
lew canals are planned within the area between the Miami
,anal and the St. Lucie Canal. The total estimated miles
)f new canals required for this area are 237. The total
estimatedd quantity of excavation is 49,000,000 cubic yards,
and the total estimated cost of excavating the above new
:anals is $11,177,000. Thus it is seen that in point of ex-
cavation the work required for draining the area between
the Miami Canal and the St. Lucie Canal representing an
area of approximately 2,000,000 acres, is 60% completed,
and on a cost basis, considering all work heretofore done,
is 55% completed. The prospects are that a railroad track
will be laid along the banks of the main canals, as the In-
ternal Improvement Board has had this proposal presented
to it and contracts to that effect are under way. If carried
out, these roads would furnish unusual transportation fa-
cilities.
I shall submit a few facts furnished by the Chief Drain-
age Engineer, Fred S. Elliott:
Th-.: Miami Canal is the longest and is incomplete, twenty-
four miles are completed on the south end, and twelve miles
on the upper end, with some work done between these
channels.





8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Of the seven new canals planned within this area betwe
the Miami and St. Lucie canals, four are to be laterals e
tending from the Miami Canal to the ocean. It is estimate
that it will cost $4,500,000 to build these seven canals at
complete the Miami Canal. This amount is over a millic
in excess of the funds now available and one-third of i
the funds expended to date.
The completed schedule for providing the main drain:
outlets for the portion of'the Everglades described will r
quire a total expenditure of approximately $24,000,00
The raising of money for carrying on the work of the Di
trict has, from the beginning, been the most importai
problem with which the officers of the District have hi
to deal, and will continue to be until the work has be(
finally completed. The borrowing capacity of the Distri
depends largely upon two factors, population-and assess
valuation. It has been shown that the .population is qui
small and the present assessed valuation in the Distri,
only $17,000,000. It is clear that to obtain the addition
$11,000,000 required, population and valuations must I
increased. The acreage tax is the principal tax supportir
the bonds of the District. In the case of the acreage ta
even in the- event of non-payment of taxes on the part (
of some of the lands, the Eveiglades Drainage District La
requires that all lands defaulting in payment of taxes she
be put up at tax sale and struck off to the highest bidder
for an amount not less than the total drainage taxes again
the land, and in the event of no bidder, lands are automa
Ically struck off to the Trustees of the Internal Improvi
ment Fund, who are required by law to thereupon pay tl
delinquent taxes on the same. Hence the lands owned b
the state stand behind tax delinquencies and also the poe
sibility of default in interest and bond principal payment
It is up to the next Legislature to devise some means c
re-financing this drainage project. The whole purpose <
this gigantic undertaking fails if the work is allowed i
lapse and be incomplete.
The area in the Everglades Drainage District with
which farming has been carried on is approximately 120
000 acres. Probably not more than 20% to 25% of thi
area has been under cultivation at any one time. The prir
cipal farming localities st present are along the Lake Shor
and the following canals: Miami Canal, West Palm Beac
Canal, North New River Canal, Hillsboro Canal, Calooss
hatchee Canal, and the St. Lucie Canal. The size and irr





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 9

tance of the areas from the standpoint of farm products
in the order mentioned above. In the above areas,
.eral drainage work is further advanced and local drain-
districts have made greater progress in the construc-
i of secondary works of drainage in the nature of lat-
I canals, farm ditches, and protective levees. The main
inage work of the district has advanced in many locali-
;to a stage which permits making land ready for settle-
at and cultivation as rapidly as the secondary works can
provided by the local sub-drainage districts.
.he Everglades Experiment Station has much valuable
a to guide the Everglades farmers. I emphasize the
essity of an experiment station on each of the different
es of soil in Florida. It might be well for the next Legis-
ire to pass a bill providing for an experiment station
are deemed advisable throughout the state on terms
.ilar to that provided by the Act making it possible for
county and the state to build cold storage plants on a
y-fifty basis.
Ve might adopt the slogan, "A greater Florida through
Greater Everglades." Upon the development of the back
ntry of Florida depends the future permanent great-
s of the state. This development must be done by hard
)r. We must make the inducement sufficient to draw
ital for investment and sufficiently remunerative to
w immigrant farmers. If we price our lands too high,
raise an impassable barrier to both capital and labor.
'liami is deeply concerned as to the outcome of this
lertaking.- The one word "Drainage" spells the future
3 of this section of Florida.
.he is also much concerned about adequate highways
ling out through the drained areas of the Everglades-
h as the one now under consideration-the super-high-
r leading from Miami to Lake Okeechobee.
am constrained to think that you have not judged ac-
ately the relative value of your various sources of reve-
. Your sports have been presented adequately, but you
e not looked as closely into the more substantial support
and development. If you will spend as much money in
elopment as in amusements, the results will be more
stantial.





10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

With the establishing of immense power stations on b.
the east and .west coasts, furnishing electric power cc
mercially, we should attract such industries as can seci
raw material for manufacture here in the state; with am
transportation facilities by land and sea, opening up 1
markets of both the .Eastern and Southern Hemispher
Florida should be able to show such growth in the futA
as has not been shown in the past





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 11

oil Chemistry and Bacteriology W ith

Special reference to the Everglades

By DR. R. V. ALLISON
Read at the Farmers' Congress, Miami, July 31, 1928.

In undertaking the discussion of a subject of the nature
f the one that has been assigned to me by your chairman,
.oil Chemistry and Bacteriloogy, one is tempted promptly
o delve into the interesting experiences and experiments
f those earlier workers who, with so little, did so much in
establishing the basis for these important sciences in the
service of agriculture. When one refers to this foundation
.ork as early, however, examination indicates that in terms
f actual years elapsed since its actual accomplishment it
a comparatively recent.
Thus, as late as 1731, Jethro Tull, an Englishman, pub-
ished a work entitled "The Horse Hoeing Husbandry," in
vhich his opinion was firmly expressed in regard to the
greatt benefits that were found to follow the use of the drill
.nd horse hoe, which he was then introducing for the first
ime. He presented his arguments, derived from his own
personal observations and studies in a most picturesque
language and stoutly maintained that the benefits from
cultivating the soil followed from the fact that the soil ma-
erial was more finely divided or pulverized and thereby
tnd naturally the plant could take more of it into its sys-
em when in this form. In this he was pitting his judgment
ind argument that the plant derived its sustenance from
he soil by actually taking into its system the finer particles
,f the mass against the earlier view of Lord Bacon and
/an Helmont to the effect that water constituted the sole
nutrient for plants. The work of Lord Bacon was published
n 1627.
The history of the development of our present under-
;tanding of plant nutrition and the role of the soil therein
ias been most interesting. A number of unique discoveries
mnd observations in relation to the place and effect of natu-
:al and artificial manures in plant growth prefaced the
seal beginning of systematic study in the field of plant
growth and its relation to the soil. This is usually regarded





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


as beginning with the practically contemporaneous wor.
of Lawes and Gilbert at what is now the renowned Roth
amsted Experimental Station in England, of Baron Liebi
in Germany and of Boussingault in France. Witness th
fact that as the result of this very early work at Rothani
sted there are still being continued systematic series o
plot experiments that have been scarcely interrupted either
in cropping or fertilizer treatment for eighty years o
more. These have been for the most part upon soil that i
known as "Flints in Clay" locally, and, due to the great
number of years that the soil-plant relations have bee-
maintained uninterrupted in them, they have developed .
great mass of data that is practically unique in the history.
of agriculture. These studies, furthermore, were so care
fully conceived and carried-out that the results are no\
being analyzed by able mathematicians and important de
ductions arrived at from them in respect to plant nutrition
and the relation of the plant to the soiL This work in Eng
land, France and Germany referred to was begun shortly;
prior to the middle of the last century. Many years prio
to the prominent work of these men, the Frenchman, d
Saussure, had established in a very precise way, the im
portant role of oxygen (air) in the growth and develop
ment of the plant. How important this consideration iL
especially in the relation of this element to the growing:
roots of plants as they develop in the soil environment
Too frequently it is not sufficiently, appreciated, even a
this time.
Later we have the systematic work of such physiologist
as Pfeiffer, Knop and others whose findings, through th
growing of plants in solution cultures, more definitely es
tablished the fact that the mineral constituents of the plan
alone were derived from the soil and that in order for thes
materials to enter the plant from the soil through the liv
ing roots it was necessary for them to be in a state of tru.
solution. These studies have led to our present day invest
gations in plant nutrition that have ramified into a great
many other fields of science and are really responsible, ii
a large way, for our present understanding of the chemi
cal and biological character of the relation of the plant t
the soil. In passing it might be noted that during thes
early times a great amount of effort was spent upon th
analysis of plant materials and of soils with the idea o
learning how much of certain definite elements each con
trained in order that applications might be made to the soi
in such a way as to systematically correct its deficiencies





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 13

the growing of plants. It is found that this phase of the
-blem has carried down well through the years and much
ort was also expended by our earlier workers in the ex-
-iment stations of this country along this same line. As
esult of the progressively intensive work upon this im-
tant problem, we now know that it is neither practical
possible to undertake to do this. Rather, our conclusions
regard to the fertilizer needs of plants growing upon
particular soil type are drawn from definite and sys-
natic studies with these plants, preferably in the field.
*t infrequently, however, field studies are necessarily ac-
npanied by analytical work in the laboratory both upon
soils involved and upon the plants grown.
As in the case of the development of our understanding of
3 chemical aspects.of the soil we might trace the develop-
mnt of soil bacteriology from those:early studies of Hell-
3gel and Willfarth upon the fixation of nitrogen from
e air by bacterial forms living in specialized tissues which
ey themselves develop upon the roots of legumes, or of
inogradsky and of Beijerinck upon the fixation of nitro-
*n in the soil by free living forms quite independent of
ant growth. These and other remarkable discoveries of
similar nature were first made in. the late eighties and
irly nineties of the last century. How tremendously im-
)rtant they have been in the development of our scien-
fic agriculture and yet how recent! These studies have
wveloped rapidly and large volumes are now written upon
ie manifold ways in which the activities of these minute
plants and animals of the soil and air enter into the great
natural cycle that carries the natural vegetation of the
earth through the periods of germination, development,
eath and disintegration throughout the ages of time. Yet
iese organisms are so small that millions of them, most
iverse in type, could be demonstrated in the small amount
f muck that might lodge under the nail of the finger if
ne were to dig with the hands into the soil.
Associated with the early workers in either fields, chem-
stry or bacteriology, were a great many others and as their
successive discoveries ramified and opened up new fields
-f investigation, the number of workers who have dedicated
heir lives to the development of this interesting and im-
)ortant work steadily increased. At the present time many
thousands throughout the world are devoting'their entire
ime and energy to the solution of these important prob-
ems that have evolved and continue to evolve daily in the
agricultural sciences.





14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Rather than narrate the interesting story of the develop
ment of either of these sciences in relation to the soil, how
ever, though interesting and entertaining it might be,
shall rather undertake to indicate how particular agricul
tural problems that immediately confront us here in thi
state and in this section of the state are firmly bound ui
with the ways and means of our general agriculture
science as it has developed to date. What I have told yoi
should be sufficient to indicate from what modest begin
ning the work has sprung, how recently it has had its be
ginning and with what vehemence it has developed. Like
wise what a source of inspiration to modern workers is ti
be found in the examination of these early works. I tak.
it, however, that the session is more vitally interested i:
hearing of something that may more particularly concern
the immediate development of Miami's agricultural re
sources, her back country, so-called, or, perhaps more defi
nitely, the Everglades.
Since the speaker is from the Everglades Experimen
Station east of Belle Glade, perhaps it would not be amis:
to. discuss briefly what.we are trying to do there in tht
service of the Everglades along the. lines of the present
discussion. In this it will not be convenient to deal too spe
cifically with soil chemistry and soil bacteriology as such
Indeed, some of our most important problems are quite &:
much concerned with certain physical aspects of chemistry.
Likewise in reference to bacteriology, perhaps you will per
mit me to refer to it more as soil biology and then, with tht
use of proper elasticity in our thinking we can include ii
it our studies with the higher plants as well as the lowec
forms which are particularly embraced by bacteriology
Certainly, so far as all aspects of soil conditions that hav,
effect upon plant growth are concerned, those that favor
the development of the higher plants, such as abundant
aeration and moisture and the availability of a balance
supply of plant food are equally necessary for the greal
majority of beneficial micro-organisms in the soil. In this
respect, then, the so-called higher plants and the lower
forms have considerable in common and we may associate.
somewhat the needs of cabbages or sugar cane with those.
of the tiny bacteria that break down the coarse organs
matter of the soil to simpler chemical forms with conse-
quence that certain of the elements it contains again be-
come available for assimilation by the higher order of
plants. Since the working force at the Experiment Station
is decidedly limited at the present time, our work to date





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 15

ias been more largely with the higher plants-largely the
Atudy of a considerable variety of plants to chemical and
theirr treatments under field conditions. The station was
established particularly for the study of the prospective
utility, from every standpoint, of the raw, sawgrass soils
that characterize the main body of the Everglades.
If you will permit me, then, to discuss somewhat briefly
the work at the Experiment Station, the experience and
study to which I would first call your attention is the very
striking failure of practically all types of agricultural
plants when their culture in our raw, freshly broken peat
is undertaken. Repeated experiences indicate that the po-
tato is almost a unique exception to this rule of failure
among agricultural plants. All others, practically without
exception, fail completely without making anything of nor-
mal growth whatsoever. In connection with this rather
common experience, doubtless most of you know of the
development of the treatment of the raw soil with copper
sulfate (bluestone) as a corrective for this condition. Other
elements of a special nature, other than copper, have also
been studied in this same way and an outstanding response
has been obtained with the use of manganese sulfate as
well. This is commonly applied as the sulfate, as in the case
of copper, particularly on account of its ready availa-
bility upon the market and consequently its cheapness in
this form. An unusual response has been obtained to zinc,
particularly in the case of peanuts, when used in combina-
tion with copper and under the condition of primary appli-
cations made shortly previous to the time of seeding. The
zinc was also applied in the form of sulfate. When used
alone, it gave no response of performance or value.
More recent tests with these special elements in combi-
nation have given even more remarkable responses in the
case of a large number of plants thafi where they are used
singly. This is notably true of the combined application of
copper and manganese where, in the case of rape, sun-
flowers, cowpeas, peanuts, beans and a considerable num-
ber of other plants the development that follows has been
notably better than that with the use of either element
alone. This has been especially true of the copper-zinc com-
bination upon peanuts as referred to above when the plants
upon the plots receiving this combination of the special
elements were as much as a month to six weeks ahead of
the plants receiving the copper treatment alone, whereas
those receiving no treatment. with copper did not develop





16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

at all, and in fact, died after attaining an average height
of two and one-half to three inches. This in contrast with
the normal plants developed as a result of the special treat.
ments given the soil where the tops establish a complete
cover over a three-foot row and the yield of nuts has bee?,
nearly double that of the average for mineral soils else.
where.
In regard to the manner and quantity of application of
these special elements, good response has been obtained
with the use of fifty pounds each of copper sulfate and
manganese sulfate per acre, though seventy-five or one
hundred pounds per acre upon very raw soils that have.
been freshly broken would be much safer, especially in
view of the irregular distribution that will ordinarily re-
sult with the use of ordinary labor. A very sound practice
would be the application of a part of the material a few
weeks in advance of the planting and working it into the
soil thoroughly with the fitting of the seedbed. This appli-
cation should be made broadcast, if possible. If other fer-
tilizers are to be applied, it will be a considerable saving
of time and effort to mix such special materials as copper
or manganese sulfate with them in such quantity as it is
desired to apply. In the use of zinc sulfate, however, much
smaller quantities of this material will be found necessary.
This element has been found much more readily toxic than
the other salts referred to and good results have been ob-
tained with it, in combination with copper, at the rate of
twelve to fifteen pounds per acre, when applied in the
planting row. Even this small quantity, however, has been
found distinctly toxic to beans.
In connection with the use of stimulants in this way upon
*a fibrous peat soil of this type, however, a point that should
most importantly, be kept in mind is that of maintaining
the. supply of. ordinary fertilizer elements, notably phos-
phoric acid and potash. For it is a fact of almost universal
recognition that.pure organic soils of the type we have to
.deal with in the Everglades are notably weak in these e!e-
ments in particular. Even in the case of nitrogen, while
we know from analysis that such soils are notably high in
content of total. ammonia, it might be possible to bring
about such circumstances in the soil environment as to de-
velop a real need for applications of nitrogen. This might
be true under, such conditions .as an extremely heavy and
dense growth of. vegetation or other conditions which would
not only use up the available nitrogen supply .in.the.soil





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 17

rapidly but would bring about physical conditions conduc-
ive to poor aeration which would slow up the ammonifica-
tion and nitrification processes in the soil that are neces-
sary in the furnishment of an available supply of nitrogen
in the form of the soluble and readily assimilable nitrate
to the growing plants. In other words, if the special ele-
ments be used to force response in this way and attention
be not given to the maintenance of an adequate supply of
the common inorganic nutrients, plant failure will be en-
countered that will be quite as complete as that experienced
in the original absence of the special element in question.
In other words, no soil is stronger or more fertile than the
content and availability of the weakest of the necessary
elements.
This matter of response of plants to special elements
when applied to raw, sawgrass peat is mentioned and em-
phasized in this way since the whole vast Everglades area
back of Miami is constituted of peats quite identical in
general type with that upon which these results have been
obtained, and I do not doubt, that any grower, contemplat-
ing the breaking of fresh areas in this section, could con-
sider these practices with great profit. The matter of at-
tention to the supply of the ordinary mineral elements is
mentioned since, in the case of certain plants in particular,
we have obtained response to phosphoric acid and to potash
immediately upon freshly broken land. From this it is ap-
parent that soil color is not necessarily a safe criterion in
regard to its fertility. Even in the case of nitrogen, which
is present in such a soil in large quantities, its availability
may become a serious question since we know that even
under optimum conditions, much of this organic nitrogen
will break down very slowly.
It is seen that with the establishment of satisfactory
crop response upon freshly broken peat through the use
of special chemicals in this way a considerable amount of
agronomic work shall be required to gather information
upon a large number of crops in regard to the time, quan-
tity and proportions of the fertilizer elements to apply to
a given crop. Similar information must be obtained for
horticultural and other plantings.
All of these general problems are attended, of course, by
an almost innumerable number of associated problems. In
the matter of maintenance of the fertility of a soil of this
type which, by virute of its natural exposure, as well as





18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

its physical characteristics is practically certain, annual
to receive a series of washings out by the heavy rains th
characterize the summer season. The question is, h(
stable will the fertilizer materials that are supplied
against the tendency to wash away with the drain.
waters under such conditions. Is there sufficient absorbil
surface of a proper kind in a soil of this character to. reta
appreciable quantities'of these fertilizer salts against lo
in this way as is known to occur in mineral soils? Or wi
this absorbing complex, if not present in the soil in its ra
state, develop with the weathering of the material that-fc
lows cultivation? This problem makes the study of tl
quality and movement of drainage waters of particuh
importance, independent of their need from the drainaj
standpoint. So much for the brief reference to the gener.
chemical features of plant response in the raw, sawgra:
peat.
Though I believe that the Chairman is desirous that a
much time as possible be left for discussion of particular
problems that may arise in connection with the various
subjects, I should like to bring to your attention one further
general problem that, in the opinion of the speaker, is on
of the most serious, if not the most serious, that confront
the agricultural development of the organic soils of th
Everglades. Reference is to the matter of excessive shrink
age .or subsidence that is so commonly to be observed.
There can be no doubt in the minds of any one who ha
studied the problem of peat land reclamation with any de
gree of care, whether here or elsewhere, that such soil:
experience definite surface subsidence following drainage
and that this subsidence is necessarily in more or less direc
proportion to the extent. of the drainage. The first anc
most rapid settling is largely accountable to the loss ol
water from the spongy mass and its consequent settling
together. Cultivation practices further accentuate the set-
tling both by simple compression and through the stirring
which it effects in the soil that produces a more rapid de-
composition of the coarser fiber to a finely granulated
mass which consequently occupies less space. During this
exposure there is also a small but appreciable loss through
natural oxidation, particularly in consequence of the ex-
posure of materials of this type to such high temperatures
as a dark brown to almost black material will develop under
a tropical sun if not protected in some way. Finally there
is the very serious loss that has come to thousands of acres





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES


trough active burning. The extent and character of this
ss in the Everglades has been a matter of rather common
)servation and experiences to many if not all of you. Most
oyou are also doubtless conversant with the effect of such
.rning upon the response of many crops. Only recently,
certain regions of the Upper Glades, I have seen wretch-
1 failure in plantings of corn upon what, prior to deep
liningg, were fairly well matured soils. The fire had
mply destroyed the material to a depth of ten to fifteen
iches and completely removed the weathered material to
te pure raw fiber below, and besides the loss of elevation,
.ars of time in the weathering process and hundreds or
lousands of years of time in the processes of accumula-
on whereby these soils were originally formed, were also
.st in the destructive progress of the fires of a single
*ason.
Independent of open conflagration, I should like to em-
hasize the matter of excessive shrinkage due to excessive
rainage or lowering of the water table as a really grave
latter that should receive much more attention than it is
!ceiving at the present. This is true not only upon its own
terit but also because it accentuates the fire hazard, es-
/ ecially in so far as depth burning is concerned.
In the matter of the extreme conditions of shrinkage
iat follow the excessive lowering of the water table, most
f you are familiar with the great network of cracks twelve
Eighteen inches in width at the top that open with end-
:ss ramifications through the mass to a depth of three
r four feet. Here, again, is involved a physical as well as
chemical problem for, as peaty material of this type dries
nd actual volume is lost in a vertical as well as a lateral
direction to such an extent that it tears apart into great
zolated blocks we have developed in the material a defi-
ite condition so far as the relation of the new and old
volumes occupied by the mass is concerned. In other words,
ie prospect of the partially dried and shrunken mass re-
irning to its original volume is going to be contingent,
trgely, upon the extent to which it takes up again the
:ater it has lost. However, we know that the reversible
process of rewetting and swelling of material of this type
nee it has dried out is very slow and hence it is practically
certain that there will not be a complete return to the
original volume once. such material has shrunken due to
excessive loss of water, even under most favorable con-
itions. That extreme conditions of this type are serious





20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

need scarcely be pointed out when it is realized that in
section with careful and judicious cultivation and hand
soils of this type in regular practice with the mainten;
of a constant water table at maximum height permit
by the requirements of a particular crop we shall still
perience a certain minimum but definite annual subside
This problem of the effect of overdrainage upon the
istence of organic soils is referred to as outstanding
consideration at the present time since many hundred
thousands of acres of Everglades land now lay expo
seasonally, to these losses referred to. In view of the
that under such conditions, even in the absence of fire,
loss is of a very definite, character, we can fully ex]
that great areas of the exposed expanses referred to:
have become worthless for the agricultural purposes
which they were originally dedicated in the installation
the drainage program long before they shall be needed
cultivation if this type of exposure continues.
In closing, I beg to say that these latter remarks u
the physical aspects of our great reclamation project
in no wise to be interpreted as purely critical of the dr;
age works that have been accomplished to date in
Everglades. On the contrary, they present a brief
simple statement of facts as the speaker sees them, u
the most vital problem that confronts us at the press
time. If the matter is as serious as I believe it is and
serious as I have undertaken to point it out to you in 1
brief way, then these remarks should rather indicate
pressing necessity for the working into the drainage I
gram of the immediate future, measures looking tow
conservation that are active and vigorous; and it is
seen how this can be done except through the establi
ment of undrained reserves that represent great secti
of our receding marshland -which will receive every i
sible attention in the way of maintaining a high wa
table that will approximate, as nearly as possible, the
tive conditions that existed over this great plain of gr
prior to the inauguration of drainage operations. Un
such conditions we might even expect a resumption of
processes of accumulation and this, indeed, would bE
most happy state of affairs not only for that section
for the whole Everglades and for the whole State.
Everglades Experiment Station,
July 31, 1928.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 21

MUCK SOIL ANALYSES


By R. E. Rose, State Chemist

Frequently samples of soil are sent to the Chemical Di-
ision for analysis, with a request to advise as to the best
methods of fertilizing. There is but little information to
e derived from a soil analysis that would be of benefit
) farmers. So much depends on tilth, drainage, culture
nd other physical conditions, that chemical analysis made
nder laboratory conditions is of little value.
A chemical analysis of soil may indicate a very fertile
)il, rich in plant food, while the facts are the soils are
ot productive. This is instanced by the rich Sawgrass
luck lands and river bottoms of the state, that are fertile
hemically, but not productive until properly drained; also,
y the arid lands of the West, rich in the elements of plant
ood, but not productive until irrigated. Other soils, with
;ss plant food, but on account of proper physical condit-
ms, culture and tilth, are exceedingly productive.

R. E. Rose, Florida State Chemist, 1908

The average of thousands of analyses of Florida soils
.ade by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
he State Laboratory is as follows:

Nitrogen (per cent) --........-.....---.. ---- 0.0413
Potash (per cent) -- --.-- ..... 0.0091
Phosphoric Acid (per cent) ....--- .... 0.1635

This is a fair average of all the Norfolk and Portsmouth
oil series of the State, which comprise by far the greater
portionn of the State.
The following conclusions as to the value of chemical
:nalyses of soils, alone, without considering other factors
-drainage, culture, physical and biological conditions of
he soil under consideration, as to its productiveness, are
hose now generally accepted by experiment stations, prac-
ical and scientific agriculturists, chemists and biologists:





22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

"*** Hence, for a chemist to have stated that
a given soil was necessarily productive because
he had found present in it all of the elements
that plants required- in growth, would have been
a great mistake, for a practical test would have
often proved his statements false."
"There is probably no one subject in connec-
tion with their profession, that is so little under-
stood by farmers generally, as that of the real
value to be attached to a chemical analysis of a
soil. Indeed, I may say, that there is scarcely a
question that is the subject of so much discussion
and disagreement, even among the agricultural
chemists of the country, as that of the real im-
portance to be attached to such an analysis."
"It will be seen that the weak point in an analy-
sis is that, while it reveals what a soil actually
contains and in what proportions the several con-
stituents are present, it does not state with abso-
lute accuracy just how much of the palnt-food is
in an available form, i. e., in a form suited for
plant assimilation."
"While a. chemical analysis cannot definitely
answer everything in connection with the above
queries, still it can aid very much in solving all
such problems, and, together with a physical an-
alysis, can contribute much valuable information
along such lines."
(A. A. Persons, Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, 1897)
"It is generally admitted that the productive-
ness of a soil cannot be determined by a mere
chemical analysis alone. True, the analysis will
show what elements are present and in what
quantities but it does not show what is abso-
lutely available for the immediate use of the
plant. Of two soils showing great similarity in
chemical composition, the one may be highly pro-
ductive and the other very unproductive. The
reasons for this may possibly be found in differ-
ent moisture conditions, or a difference in physical
texture, or in the difference in the amount. of





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 23

available plant food, or in a combination of all
these differences. The chemical analysis may,
however, be of value in showing what the possi-
bilities of the soil are under the proper treatment."
"This subject has been studied by the agricul-
tural chemist, the soil physicist, and the practical
farmer, and all have contributed to the fund of
knowledge."
(A. W. Blair, Florido Agricultural Experiment
Station, 1906.) ....
"The Experiment Station does not analyze
samples of soil to determine the fertilizer re-
quirements. There is no chemical method known
that will show reliably the availability of plant
food elements present in the soil, as this is a vari-
able factor, influenced by the kind of crop, the
type of soil, the climate and biological conditions;
hence we do not recommend this method of test-
ing soil."
(Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue Uni-
versity, 1908.)
The foregoing facts and opinions are drawn from prac-
tical experience, and scientific deduction, after careful
investigation by competent scientific observers, establishes
the fact that a chemical analysis of soil is of little value
to the practical farmer, and that correct deduction can not
be drawn without a personal knowledge of all the physical
and biological conditions-drainage, tilth, culture, season,
and other local factors, necessary to be considered in pass-
ing upon the fertility or productiveness of a soil.
Tallahassee, Fla., June, 1915.
MUCK SOIL ANALYSES
Numerous inquiries for the analyses of muck soils, par-
ticularly of Everglade and other saw grass mucks, having
exhausted the reports of the State Chemist for 1912 and
1914, while Bulletin No. 43 of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, A Chemical Study of Some Typical
Soils of the Florida Peninsular, by Prof. A. A. Persons,
is also out of print, I have compiled a number of analyses
of Florida muck soils as reported in these publications.





24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

It will be noted that there is little difference in the Ni-
trogen (Ammonia) content in pure mucks, that is, mucks
not mixed with sand. Where the Insoluble Matter (sand)
is considerable, the Nitrogen (Ammonia) is proportionate-
ly less. Sand is therefore the principal adulterant found
in Florida muck soils. Sandy subsoils contain notably less
Nitrogen than the pure mucks found in deep beds-three
to ten feet. Shallow muck beds-one to two feet-neccs.
sarily contain more sand and less Nitrogen.
Beds of muck deposited in still water, not affected by
drains or runs of sandy water during freshets, sand bars,
or ridges, have a uniform high Nitrogen content. The uni.
formity of the Nitrogen content is notable and is naturally
greatest in those specimens having but a small percentage
of sand.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist
Tallahassee, Fla., September, 1917.




ANALYSES OF FLORIDA MUCK SOILS


By R. E. Rose, State Chemist


Hundreds of analyses of muck soil from all parts of the
State have been made-saw grass muck, pond muck, bay
head muck, etc. The physical characteristics vary consider-
ably, depending entirely on the state of decay or decom-
position.
Muck constantly covered with water does not decay or
rot.
Muck occasionally exposed to the air (partial drainage)
decomposes and becomes a fine-grained soil.
Perfect drainage will cause any muck bed to decay, rot,
or decompose and become a fine-grained garden mould.
Imperfect drainage will not.





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 25
The average of all muck soil analyses shows as follows:
Nitrogen (as ammonia) .....---..--............3.10%
Phosphoric Acid ...............-..-- ..................0.18%
Potash .....---....- --................................. 0.089
It will be noted that there is sixty times as much Nitro-
gen (Ammonia), with practically the same percentage of
Phosphoric Acid, and nearly nine times as much Potash
as found in the average sandy soils of the State.
This great excess of nitrogen, when made available by
proper drainage, deep plowing and proper culture, as-
sisted by phosphoric acid and potash, thus providing the
necessary media for the growth of the nitrogenous ferments
(nitrogen-forming bacteria), insures large crops on prop-
erly drained and cultivated muck soils, wherein the nitri-
fying agencies of the air, together with properly encourag-
ed bacteria, have made the enormous supply of nitrogen
available to plant growth.
Nitrogen induces foliage development, hence is largely
necessary for such crops as cabbage, lettuce and celery,
while potash and phosphate tend to produce starch, sugar,
and seed, and to make firm, heavy fruit, that will bear
shipment, with less danger of decay. Hence the economy
of adding phosphate and potash to muck soils, which re-
quire-
First.-Perfect drainage, to get rid of stagnant, acid
water, and allow the air to enter the soil to oxidize, or rot
it.
Second.-An addition of phosphoric acid and potash to
form a media to aid in developing the nitrogenous bacteria,
necessary to make the nitrogen available, and to aid in form-
ing starch, sugar and seeds. While properly drained, deep-
ly plowed muck soil will produce large crops without add-
ing phosphate or potash, the great excess of nitrogen and,
comparatively, small amount of potash and phosphate,
necessarily makes the addition of these two elements eco-
nomical and profitable, by the increase in yield and better
shipping quality of the vegetables and fruits. Hence the
application of 500 to 1000 pounds of 16% acid phosphate
and 100 to 200 pounds of 50% Sulfate (or Muriate) of
Potash, or 1000 to 2000 pounds of unleached ashes, carry-
ing 6% of potash, and 40% Carbonate of Lime, is an eco-
nomical addition.





26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Muck As A Fertilizer

The application of sour, freshly-dug, undecompose.
muck, or peat, to sandy soils as a fertilizer or amendment.
or to add humus to a sandy soil, is of little or no value.
As said by a noted Florida grower, "It is a harmless
though costly amusement" Such raw, undecomposed, acid
muck, applied to sandy soil, simply dries out carbonizess).
its nitrogen dissipates, leaving nothing but carbon (char-
coal) in the soil. Hence, the application of raw, sour, un-
decomposed muck .to ordinary sandy soils is not advisable.
as it is not economical.

Muck Composts-Manure

If newly-dug, raw, acid, undecomposed muck be com-
posted, using 600 pounds of 16% acid phosphate and 100
pounds of 60% sulfate (or muriate) of potash to each cord
of wet muck (128 cubic feet), well distributed throughout
the heap, the heap kept moist, (not wet), broken down '
and turned several times, in two months a cord (some three
tons) bf excellent manure, will be obtained. Where prac-
tical, a few barrow loads of fresh stable manure added to
this heap, will hasten decomposition, add nitrifying bac-.
teria, and aid largely in making available the inert nitro-
gen in the raw muck.
The heap should be kept moist at all times (not wet).
Never allow it to overheat or "fire fang," nor to dry out.
If necessary, turn the heap, dampen it (to cool it off). and
again heap it up.
The "compost heap" is the "Bank" from which the
French, German, Belgian, Dutch and Swedish farmers-
the best farmers in the world-draw their supplies of plant
food. On the size and quality of the compost heap. the
credit of these farmers is based.
When the dairy cow, the pig, the silo, and the compost
heap, which can be greatly enhanced in size by the muck
pond, become more in evidence in the south, and particu-
larly in Florida, the problem of rural credits, commercial
fertilizer, and crop mortgages, will naturally be settled
by the farmer becoming the lender, and not the borrower.
the financial master, not the slave.





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 27

Muck in Stables and Barn Lots
An economical method of utilizing muck is to employ it
as a bedding in horse and cow stalls, to absorb the liquids,
the most valuable portion of the manure.
Place six to twelve inches of raw muck (fairly dry) in
each stall, in which mix acid phosphate and potash in the
proportions given for the compost heap. By this means
ten tons of first-class stable manure may be obtained,
where one would be, under ordinary conditions.
The secret of a good compost heap (or manure heap),
particularly in Florida, is to keep the heap moist (not wet),
and avoid over-heating-"fire fang."
This can readily be accomplished by breaking down the
heap, dampening, and again heaping up. The sulfate of
Lime (Gypsum) which composes some sixty per cent of
acid phosphate (which, by the way, is not acid) will pre-
vent the escape of nitrogen as ammonia, but will absorb
it as Sulfate of Ammonia; soluble, but not volatile.
: The contrary effect is had by the use of Lime Carbonate,
or Oxide (burnt lime), or wood ashes, which have a ten-
dency to decompose the nitrogenous matter and allow it
to escape as ammonia. Hence the application of lime car-
bonate, or oxide, or wood ashes, to a manure pile is a blun-
der, while the application of acid phosphate-Gypsum
(Lime Sulfate), and phosphate-is advisable.

Imperfectly Drained Muck Soils

There are many instances, particularly in Florida, of
imperfectly drained muck soils-tracts adjacent to canals
or drains, in which insufficient lateral or field ditches
have been cut. The surface water has been to a greater or
less degree removed by the canals or drains, while the sour,
acid water in the soil still remains.
Frequently this land becomes dry from evaporation,
though the acids are not removed. On the contrary, the
acids are concentrated by this evaporation. Such soils
naturally fail to produce cultivated crops.
Often an attempt to correct this acid condition by the
application of lime is made. Such an application to such





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


soils, not provided with the necessary field ditches, is but
an expedient, and of no permanent benefit The acids
naturally continue to form, and in a comparatively short
time neutralize the lime.
There is but one reliable method of removing acid from
muck soils (slowly decomposing vegetable matter), and
that is by thorough drainage, allowing the rains to fall
upon, pass down and through the soil, into the drains,
which must be kept open (even in the dryest weather),
by this means washing out (draining away) the constantly
accumulating acids.
There are a large number of such imperfectly drained
tracts of muck soil in the State, unproductive and dis-
appointing, partially drained, and generally dried by evap-
oration to a considerable extent, still for the want of drain-
age, sour, undecomposed, and unfit for cultivated crops.
These .same soils, properly drained by the necessary field
ditches, at intervals of say 105 feet (one-half acre) at
least three feet deep, with fall or slope sufficient to drain
the soils not less than three feet below the surface, will in
a short time (after one or more rainy seasons), be freed
of their superabundance of acid and.become productive.
The application of phosphate and potash, after- thor-
ough drainage, together with an application of ground
lime stone, will materially hasten the process of decom-
posing the vegetable matter, forming a rich, productive
mould, or soil, a condition impossible on partly (shallow)
drained muck, in which there are no field drains to re-
move the sour, acid waters from the zone which should
be occupied by living bacteria, and the roots of healthy
plants.
Such thoroughly drained soils, deeply plowed and thor-
oughly decomposed (rotted), changed from a peat or muck
into soil, will not suffer for moisture, even in the dryest
seasons in Florida, though crops on imperfectly drained
land do suffer by the concentration of acid in the soil, by
evaporation, during dry weather, thus bringing the acids
of the lower soils to the surface (acids which should be
removed by drainage).
This problem now confronts the farmer on much of the
irrigated soils of the West, where drainage has been ne-
glected-in this case the alkali, dissolved by the irrigation





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 29

waters, not being provided with drainage, is brought to the
surface by evaporation, where the alkali remains, soon
changing the fields into alkaline bogs, of no agricultural
value. When provided with drains, this condition is cor-
rected, and the irrigated land becomes wonderfully pro-
ductive.
The same thing occurs in Florida, except that acid-
not alkali-is the substance that must be gotten rid of.
Fortunately, with our humid climate, with some 60 inches
of rainfall, the acids of our muck soils can be rapidly got-
ten rid of by washing them out, through properly con-
structed drains, with sufficient fall or slope.
Tallahassee, Fla., June 18, 1915.


EXTRACT FROM STATE CHEMIST'S REPORT, 1912


ANALYSES OF EVERGLADES SOILS
The following analyses of Everglades soils, 34 samples
taken at various points in the Everglades, from Lake Okee-
chobee to the Miami River, near the banks of the State
Canals, are located on the accompanying map.
The samples were taken in duplicate by representatives
of the United States Agricultural Department, and the
Drainage Commissioners of the State of Florida.
The surface soils samples are taken from the surface
to 12 inches deep, the subsoils from 12 inches to 36 inches
deep.
The average of the series shows:
Ammonia (NH)) ---...........-------------------.... 3.10%
Phosphoric Acid (P"OS) ---......----......--........-- 0.18%
Potash (KO0) -.........----.-----------------------------0.08%
All samples are on an air dry basis.
The Ammonia (Nitrogen) determinations are made by
the official modified Gunning Method for fertilizer. The
Potash and Phosphoric Acid determinations by the offi-
cial method for fertilizers.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


M. 1784-Maximum Ammonia .................... 4.41
Soil Sample No. 29
M.- 1793-Minimum Ammonia .............. 0.44 c
Sandy Sub-soil No. 38.
M. 1792-Maximum Phosphoric Acid ......... 0.58 ri
(Evidently added phosphates on cul-
tivated soil.)
Soil No. 87.
M. 1795-Minimum Phosphoric Acid .....-. 0.04 ;
Sub-soil No. 42.
M. 1770-Maximum Potash -- --.. 0.175 %
Sub-soil No. 14.
M. 1790-Minimum Potash .-................ 0.03 '
Soil No. 35
M. 1793-Minimum Potash ................. 0.03 %
Sub-soil No. 37.
EVERGLADES SOILS
Samples taken from Lake Okeechobee to Miami, near
Banks of State Canals.
M. 1765-Everglades Soil No. 9.
Surface soils, S. New River Canal, NE. 14 Sec.
4, T. 46, R. 85.
Moisture ... ... .................. 12.06 %
Ammonia 3.35
Phosphoric Acid .... .. 0.26
Potash ..-.....-................... 0.115 %
M. 1766-Everglades Soil No. 10.
Sub-soil No. 9.
Moisture ..................... 12.22 %
Ammonia --............. ...... 3.52
Phosphoric Acid .... ............. 0.10 %
Potash ......................... 0.085 %
M. 1767-Everglades Soil No. 11.
Surface soil, shores of Lake Okeechobee.
Demonstration Farm, West of S. New River
Canal. Cultivated field.
Moisture ........._. .......-..-.. 13.81 o
Ammonia -- ..3.72 %





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 31

Phosphoric Acid .............................. 0.13 %
Potash .................................................. 0.105 7'
M. 1768-Everglades Soil No. 12.
Sub-soil No. 11.
Moisture .......................................... 11.46 7%
Ammonia .............................. ....... 2.94 %
Phosphoric Acid ............................... 0.098 %
Potash ............................................ 0.115
M. 1769-Everglades Soil No. 13.
West side of S. New River Canal, near Lake
Okeechobec.
Virgin soil.
Moisture ............................ -........ 11.29 %
Ammonia .---.....---..................-- .. -----. 2.86 %
Phosphoric Acid --...........-..--.....----...- 0.28 %
Potash ................................ ........... 0.165 9
M. 1770-Everglades Soil No. 14.
Sub-soil of No. 13.
Moisture ............................-............ 10.38 %
Ammonia ............................ ..... ... 2.36
Phosphoric Acid ............................. 0.37
Potash (Maximum) .......................... 0.175 7
M. 1771-Everglades Soil No. 15.
South New River Canal, near Lake Okeecho-
bee. Cultivated land.
Moisture .............--...........-----.... 13.04 %
Ammonia ...................... --...............3.37 9o
Phosphoric Acid ....-.........-........ 0.30 7
Potash ..............-- .. ........................ 0.105 9o
M. 1772-Everglades Soil No. 16.
Sub-soil No. 15.
Moisture .....-...---................---------:... 11.06 56
Ammonia ........----............ ......... 2.56 76
Phosphoric Acid -...-....~........----........... 0.21 7o
Potash ............................-................ 0.115 %o
M. 1773-Everglades Soil No. 17.
Sec. 11, T. 45, R. 38, East of Hillsboro Canal.
Moisture ..........---........................- 13.43 o
Ammonia .......................... .. .......... 4.37 %
Phosphoric Acid ............................. 0.20 7o
Potalh ...............-.-........-...-. ...... 0.07 56





32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

M. 1774--Everglades Soil No. 18.
Sub-soil of No. 17.
Moisture .----- --. 13.17 ,
Ammonia -- 3.64
Phosphoric Acid -............... 0.05 i
Potash ..--_.- 0.06
M. 1775-Everglades Soil No. 19.
Sec. 14, T. 46, R. 39, 25 miles from Lak
Okeechobee; East of Hillsboro Canal.
Moisture 12.09 c
Ammonia 4.05
Phosphoric Acid -- 0.11
Potash __0.095 5
M. 1776-Everglades Soil No. 20.
Sub-soil of No. 19.
Moisture __ __ 12.82
Ammonia .- ...... 2.82 9.
Phosphoric Acid 0.05
Potash._ 0.07 9
M. 1777-Everglades Soil No. 21.
Sec. 9, T. 47, R. 40, 32 miles from Lake Okee
chobee, North of Canal.
Moisture 12.12 %
Phosphoric Acid .- .. 0.15 W
Potash 0.04 5
M. 1778-Everglades Soil No. 22.
Sub-soil of No. 21.
Moisture -. 11.16
Ammonia 8.71 %
Phosphoric Acid -0.06
Potash _.. 0.04 q
M. 1779-Everglades Soil No. 28.
Sec. 29, T. 47, R. 41, North of Canal.
Moisture 11.88
Ammonia 8.06 %
Phosphoric Acid ..........-...... 0.09 %
Potash -- ... ...- 0.07 %
M. 1780-Everglades Soil No. 24.
Sub-soil of No. 23.
Moisture ___.... 12.74
Ammonia -.............. ---. ..-...- 3.00 %
Phosphoric Acid ... ...- 0.06
Potash _..._ 0.06 %





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 33

AI. 1781-Everglades Soil No. 25.
Cleared land on border of Lake Okeechobee,
West of N. New River Canal. Virgin soil.
Moisture -.......---.......------..-------..... 10.84 %
Ammonia .. ...........................--..-- 2.89 %
Phosphoric Acid .........--.-..---............ 0.32 o
Potash ---......-......----.......---.......----- ... 0.105 o
1. 1782-Everglades Soil No. 27.
11/1 mile S. of Lake Okeechobee, on West side
of N. New River Canal.
Moisture .....---..............----- --------------. 10.19
Ammonia -.....-.....--..-.-.---------.... 2.97 %
Phosphoric Acid .........................---.. 0.46 %
Potash ......-...... ...........-... ......--..- 0.085 %
I. 1783-Everglades Soil No. 28.
Sub-soil of No. 27.
Moisture --................--...........---.. ..-- 11.65 %
Ammonia ....-...... ...--.......---... --.................. 3.32 %
Phosphoric Acid ....-...........-- ... 0.20 %
Potash .....--...........-- ......--..---------..-- 0.115
1. 1784-Everglades Soil No. 29.
East side of N. New River Canal, 10 miles S.
of Lake Okeechobee.
Moisture ..--......... ................ .. ...... 12.54 %
Ammonia (Maximum) ..-------......---.. 4.41 o
Phosphoric Acid -..---........--.........--- 0.29 %
Potash ......-.... ...-----.........-- -... ...-- ....... 0.05
I. 1785-Everglades Soil No. 30.
Sub-soil of No. 29.
Moisture -.........--.........---........-. 14.06 %
Ammonia -....-..--..-.................-.......... 4.32 %
Phosphoric Acid -.....----.......-....- ... 0.20 %
Potash --....--........--......--....-.... ......... 0.05 %
[. 1786-Everglades Soil No. 31.
Center of Sec. 29, T. 48, R. 39, West of N.
New River Canal.
Moisture ........ ---.......................... 14.09 %
Ammonia -.....-. ................................ 3.72 %
Phosphoric Acid -. ....-........... ~ : 0.14 o
Potash .....-......................... --...--- .... 0.07 %





34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

M. 1787-Everglades Soil No. 32.
Sub-soil of No. 31.
Moisture ......................... 11.08 .
Ammonia ._.. _.... ..... 8.12
Phosphoric Acid -............ ........ 0.06
Potash ....--......-........ ... ........ 0.06
M. 1788-Everglades Soil No. 83.
SE. 1/ Sec. 34, T. 49, R. 39, South of Cana
Moisture .----- .13.41 c
Ammonia 3.51
Phosphoric Acid -._ .. 0.18
Potash ..- 0.08
M. 1789-Everglades Soil No. 34.
Sub-soil of No. 33.
Moisture -........-... -....... 13.28 ;
Ammonia 2.98
Phosphoric Acid ..------ ..... 0.06
Potash ........ - 0.05
M. 1790-Everglades Soil No. 35.
Center of Sec. 3, T. 50, R. 40, North of Canal
Moisture .... 18.04 %
Ammonia .- ....... 3.12 %
Phosphoric Acid 0.17 %
Potash (Minimum) _.. 0.03 '
M. 1791-Everglades Soil No. 36.
Sub-soil of No. 85.
Moisture ...........-.-.......... 11.04 %
Ammonia 3.42
Phosphoric Acid ... .__..._ ._ 0.11 %
Potash .. 0.07 ?
M. 1792-Everglades Soil No. 37.
"Musa Isle" Grove, South of Miami Canal.
Cultivated soil-evidently added phosphate.
Moisture .......................... -.......- 9.02 %
Ammonia .... .__ .... 2.33 %
Phosphoric Acid (Maximum) .. 0.53
Potash ....-..........-....-............... 0.05
M. 1793-Everglades Soil No. 88.
Sub-soil of No. 37. Sandy sub-soil.
Moisture ----.- 1.52
Ammonia (Minimum) ..... ........ 0.44 %
Phosphoric Acid ..-..- ...- ... 0.24 %
Potash (Minimum) -- .. 0.03 %





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 35

M. 1794-Everglades Soil No. 41.
Center of Sec. 11, T. 53, R. 40.
Moisture --....-----............................... 14.86
Ammonia .......--------------------................. 3.47 %
Phosphoric Acid -----------......-................ 0.11 %
Potash --- ---------. --... -----........... 0.085 %
M. 1795-Everglades Soil No. 42.
Sub-soil No. 41.
Moisture ---............--------................ 13.14 %
Ammonia ---------... ---.. --..... -----............. 3.60 %
Phosphoric Acid (Minimum) .......... 0.04
Potash .-------....- -------- --...................... 0.06
M. 1796-Everglades Soil No. 43.
NE. 14 Sec. 31, T. 52, R. 40.
Moisture .........---.....----... ----.............. 11.63 %
Ammonia .-----..----..--....----............ 3.44 %
Phosphoric Acid ---......-................. 0.15 %
Potash ---......... -------------------................. 0.06 %
M. 1798-Everglades Soil No. 45.
E. 1/ Sec. 9, T. 52, R. 39.
Moisture ----...........-..-..--------.....-...-...... 12.32 %
Ammonia --------------........................ 4.07 %
Phosphoric Acid -----------------.............. 0.13 %
Potash ------ ---....................-- ................. 0.07 %
M. 1799-Everglades Soil No. 46.
Sub-soil No. 45.
Moisture -----------.------.. ................. ...... 12.38
Ammonia -..--............ .....-----............. 3.67 %
Phosphoric Acid ---......---................_ 0.25...-o
Potash ....----........ ----................ 0.07 %
Note.-Number 1792 and 1793-Soil No. 37 and sub-
soil No. 38-taken from "Musa Isle Grove"-a cultivated
orange grove, have evidently been fertilized with com-
mercial fertilizers, particularly phosphates.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


EXTRACT FROM STATE CHEMIST'S REPORT, 1914


ANALYSES OF MUCK SOILS FROM THE UPPER
ST. JOHNS VALLEY

M. 2005-Muck Soil No. 1 (12-inch surface). Sec. 1.
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture .~1--. ...._.-. = 17.87 ;
Nitrogen ---- 2.35
Volatile matter .... .... ...-... .... = 91.76 5
Involatile matter (ash) ... --= 8.24 q
Insoluble matter (sand) -= 4.46
Phosphoric Acid ........ = 0.024 9;
Potash 0.041 %
Lime .....................................= 0.83 %
Iron and alumina --..= 1.92 "r
M. 2006-Subsoil No. 1 (12 to 36 in.) Secs. 2 and 3,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture -.-- 14.70 %
Nitrogen = 1.76 6
Volatile matter ._..-. .- = 72.91 9
Involatile matter (ash) .--. .= 27.09 %
Insoluble matter (sand) ........= 21.81 .
Phosphoric acid -.................=... 0.050
Potash -- 0.058 %
Lime ..... ...... .......... .. .......= 1.62
Iron and alumina .. ... .. = 2.80
M. 2007-Muck Soil No. 2 (12-inch surface). Myrtle
hammock on ditch N. 12, near lateral canal
N. Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ...18.04 %
Nitrogen ...........................= 2.88
Volatile matter ....-- ...=87.88
Involatile matter (ash) .. = 12.12
Insoluble matter (sand) ..........= 7.35 %
Phosphoric acid .................= 0.148 %
Potash ...... ...........................=.= 0.0738
Lime 2.55
Iron and alumina --..... = 1.38 %





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 37

2008-Muck Soil No. 3 (18-inch surface). Sec. 1,
corner of lateral canal Q and railroad ditch,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ---..... ....-..----..-------------.... 16.35 %
Nitrogen ---................--- ..---.....-..---- --= 3.39 %
Volatile matter .. ................ ..-...... 95.70 %
Involatile matter (ash) -.....----..-- = 4.30 %
Insoluble matter (sand) ..-........-- = 1.72 %
Phosphoric acid -...--..-------------= 0.10 %
Potash -.......---........ --.................--- 0.052 %
Lime ---.. -......-...-......-.......--.-------.------- 1.29 %
Iron and alumina ----....-----... ....----= 0.52 %
2009-Subsoil No. 3 (18 to 36 inches). Sec. 2, corner
of lateral canal Q and railroad ditch, Fells-
mere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ---.... ---------....--= 16.75 %
Nitrogen .--------.................-......--- ... 2.76 %
Volatile matter ...----- ..------.----..= 95.32 %
Involatile matter (ash) ...........-..--= 4.68 %
Insoluble matter (sand) ....-------.-..-= 0.71 %
Phosphoric acid --.---.---------- 0.058 %
Potash .-......--.--..------.....-.....---- 0.028 %
Lime ..---..........................-- -- ---------...= 1.52 9
Iron and alumina ...............-------..-- 1.78 %
2010-Soil No. 4 (18-inch surface). Sec. 1, corner of
lateral M and railroad ditch, Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture -----.----...--...---------= 17.18 %
Nitrogen --...---.... .........-------= 2.99 %
Volatile matter .......--..-......-------..--= 95.74 %
Involatile matter (ash) ......---...----= 4.26 %-
Insoluble matter (sand) ...-----.-- 1.55 %
Phosphoric acid .........----......-..-..= 0.180 %
Potash ....-..------ ---------..------.= 0.043 9
Lime ..---......-..-........-- -------.----------- 1.68 %
Iron and alumina -. ............---...--.... 0.71 %
2011-Subsoil No. 4 (18 to 39 inches). Sec. 2 and 3,
corner of lateral M and railroad ditch, Fells-
mere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ....-...--..---..-----------------------=- 16.55 %
Nitrogen ----...--..-....-......-----.. .----.....= 2.52





38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Volatile matter 92.84
Involatile matter (ash) ............ 7.16 .
Insoluble matter (sand) 1.55 5
Phosphoric acid -= 0.072 5
Potash ...... = 0.030 .
Lime 2.95 %
Iron and alumina ...............= 1.71 %




EXTRACT FROM BULLETIN NO. 48 OF THE AGRI-
CULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION-1897


By A. A. Persons

/
No. 16-Dade County Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C - -...-... 8.9300%
Nitrogen 1.2300%
Insoluble matter (sand) 59.8085%
Phosphoric acid (P2O3) .. 0.1472%
Potash (K2O) 0.0260%
Lime (CaO) --- 8.9850%
Iron and alumina --.- 2.5803%
No. 8--Dade County Reclaimed Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C 7.2350%
Nitrogen 1.4560%
Insoluble matter (sand) -.-... 48.0630%
Phosphoric acid (P.O) 0.1120%
Potash (K2O) Trace
Lime (CaO) -- 0.1500%
Iron and alumina -- 8.8470%
No. 54-Dade County Reclaimed Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C 7.1750%
Nitrogen .-... ......-.... 1.8300%
Insolube matter (sand) 48.7350%
Phosphoric acid (P20) 0.0480%
Potash (KMO) 0.0038%
Lime (CaO) 0.1000%
Iron and alumina ...........-.. 8.3470%






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 39

90-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 100 C ---.................-......--- 0.0000%
Nitrogen ..........-- --.-...... ...-------- 2.4400%
Insoluble matter (sand) ....--.....------ 7.9700%
Phosphoric acid (P 5) .............----......... 0.1600%
Potash (K"O) --....-...........------..-....--- ..- 0.0800%
Lime (CaO) ..............--------..-...--..--.....--- Trace
Iron and alumina _--....-.............---- ..---.-- 0.8000%

91-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 100 C ........---- ........--..... .... 0.0000%
Nitrogen .........................---------......- 1.7000%
Insoluble matter (sand) ---........--...----. 33.3900%
Phosphoric acid (P20O") ..........------.... Trace
Potash (K )O) .....--..-.............-- ..---....--- .... 0.0600%1
Lime (CaO) ------------------- Trace
Iron and alumina ......-- -----............ .......... 2.4210%

92-Osceola County Government Station Muck, sub-
soil.
Moisture at 100" C -----. .---------.--.. 0.0000%
Nitrogen ..-.......-.............----- ............... 0.3100%7
Insoluble matter (sand) ------.-.------. 84.9100%
Phosphoric acid (P"OQ) -----..--------..- Trace
Potash (K1O) ......-.....-............------.......... 0.0700
Lime (CaO) ..........-........-------............--- Trace
Iron and alumina ....------..........-----.--..--.. 2.2890 %

S93-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 100" C ------..........----......--..-- 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......--- --........ -..~...-.........-.....-...-- 2.7400
Insoluble matter (sand) ...--....--.--.......... 7.3900%
Phosphoric acid (P-O") ----------.------- Trace
Potash (K2O) ---.....--........-....-...-..........-.. 0.0900 %
Lime (CaO) ---.............--......-----... ... Trace
Iron and alumina --..---.....---....-...---...---. 1.7600%
S94-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 100 C --...-..----..................- 0.0000%
Nitrogen ........... .............--------...........--. 3.0000 %
Insoluble matter (sand) ....-----...-........ 2.2500%
Phosphoric acid (PQO0) ...---....._-......- Trace
Potash (K20) .-..------...-----------------------. 0.0400 %
Lime (CaO) -...............---....-----.. --.. Trace
Iron and alumina ...--.....-...---..--...........---. 1.2600%





40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

No. 95-Osceola County Government Station Muck.


Moisture at 1000 C .. -- ----
Nitrogen -
Insoluble matter (sand) ...
Phosphoric acid (P2aO) -
Potash (K*O) -- -
Lime (CaO) ---.. ..
Iron and alumina


0.0000
2.7600
2.1300
Trace
0.1000
Trace
1.8900


No. 96-Osceola County Government Station Muck, su
soil.
Moisture at 100 C .0.00005,
Nitrogen 1.01005
Insoluble matter (sand) ... 65.86005
Phosphoric acid (P205) Trace
Potash (K20) 0.0300
Lime (CaO) .. Trace
Iron and alumina 1-.3000
No. 97-Osceola County St. Cloud Orchard Muck, sand:
ridge.
Moisture at 100* C --0.0000-.
Nitrogen 1.5000 5
Insoluble matter (sand) 53.590075
Phosphoric acid (P203) Trace
Potash (K20) 0.1500%
Lime (CaO) .. Trace
Iron and alumina 10.0100
No. 98-Osceola County Sugar Cane Muck Land, sandy
ridge.


Moisture at 1000 C
Nitrogen
Insoluble matter (sand) .
Phosphoric acid (P20z )
Potash (K-2O)
Lime (CaO)
Iron and alumina ..
No. 35-Polk County Bay Muck.
Moisture at 100* C .. ....
Nitrogen -_____.
Insoluble matter (sand) .


0.0000
1.3900%
50.3800%
Trace
0.5100%
Trace
12.6900%


14.7050
2.4500%
3.2750%





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 41

Phosphoric acid (P205) .................---....- 0.0544%
Potash (K O) ........................................ 0.0482%
Lime (CaO) ................................... .... 3.4600 %
Iron and alumina ..........-...... ............0.5106%

R-Orange County Reclaimed Apopka Saw Grass Muck.
SMoisture at 100 C ..--............--...... ----- 0.0000%
Nitrogen ..-..----------........... ....-- ..... .-- ..-- 2.8000%
Insoluble matter (sand) -..-----...........-- 4.2000%
Phosphoric acid (Pa20) ...................... 0.2100%
Potash (K20) ...-.-...--.......---............- ..... 0.0780%
Lime (CaO) --..........--....-.....--........--..... -2.0920%
Iron and alumina ........... .. ....--...... 1.6500%

S-Orange County Reclaimed Apopka Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C .--.....---.........--.......-. 0.00000%
Nitrogen --.......-- ........--.....------..-........ 2.8500%
Insoluble matter (sand) ....----.... ..-- ..- 4.5500%
Phosphoric acid (P25O) ..-...-............ 0.1810%
Potash (K20) ........................................ 0.0700%
Lime (CaO) ...--.................................... 1.9670%
Iron and alumina -.....-----...----.......--........ 3.0200%

T-Orange County Average Saw Grass Muck.

Moisture at 1000 C .................--.. 0.0000%
Nitrogen -.......-.....-.-......-...-..--... ....... 2.2800%
Insoluble matter (sand) --............-. 10.1500%
Phosphoric acid (P205) ---............... 0.2800%
Potash (KXO) ....--------------.-....---. .- 0.0600 7
Lime (CaO) -.- .....--... ... ..... ..... ....... 1.8300
Iron and alumina .....---.....---..........--........ 5.7000%

No. 23-Lake County Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C .--.....---................ 13.9500%
Nitrogen .--...--... -----..............-........--..-. 1.3832%9
Insoluble matter (sand) ---...--..---.... .....-- 5.0480%
Phosphoric acid (P205) ....----------.. 0.40327o
Potash (K20) .........-- ........................ .... 0.0386%c
Lime (CaO) ..--..........-- ......................... 3.1950%
Iron and alumina ........... ........... 0.6768%





42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

No. 24-Lake County Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 100 C ............. .......... 12.22001
Nitrogen .. -- -.--- ..- 2.6460%
Insoluble matter (sand) ...... ..... 4.2770%-
Phosphoric acid (P0) ................... 0.11527%
Potash (K0O) ----- 0.01167
Lime (CaO) -- ........ 1.7500 %
Iron and alumina ...--....... .-..... 0.5748%





EXTRACT FROM STATE CHEMIST'S REPORT, 1920


ANALYSES OF EVERGLADE SOILS


2681-Soil, cultivated. Pennsylvania Sugar Company,
Miami, Fla.
Moisture in sample as received ..--.-. 79.42 9o
Water in prepared sample ..... ... 12.00 %
Ash .. -- -. 7.70 76
Ammonia (total) ..----.-. 4.19 IV
Ammonia (insoluble) ..0.91 %
Ammonia (available) -.--.. 3.28 %
Phosphoric acid .... ...-. ..- 0.16 0o
Potash 0.019 %
Calcium carbonate -- .---- ..- 6.99 %
2632-Soil, virgin. Pennsylvania Sugar Company, Miami,
Fla.
Moisture in sample as received- 79.53 %
Moisture on prepared sample ...... 12.00 %
Phosphoric acid .. ... -- 0.066 %
Ammonia (total) -. -- .. 4.35
Ammonia (insoluble) ......................... 1.68 5o
Ammonia (available) -...... -........ 2.67
Calcium carbonate ................---. 6.99
Ash ...............-...._.... ....... 8.80 o
Potash ......... .._._......-- 0.042 o





POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 43

2677-Soil No. 1. Surface from roots of fungus-infected
cane. Surface to five inches. Field No. 2, NE 14
Sec. 24. Pennsylvania Sugar Co., Miami, Fla.
Moisture as received ..----.--.....-.......... -.... 50.00 %
Moisture on prepared sample ---..........--. 4.25 %
Potash -...- ...-........-..--..... ---..... ......-.--- 0.06
Phosphoric acid --...-..---....-- ..............-----... 0.05 %
Calcium carbonate --.....-...---........---...- 10.00 %
Total ammonia --....................--.....--- ....--. 4.30
Available ammonia ...--.........--- ....... --......---- 1.40 %
Very slightly acid.
Iron present.
2678-No. 2. Sub-soil under No. 2677, 6" to 18" deep.
Pennsylvania Sugar Co., Miami, Fla.
Moisture as received ---.......--...----..-.. ....... 85.00
Moisture on prepared sample ....----......-- 6.37 %
Potash --...--.....-....~_--- ....-..----------.-------. 0.02 %
Phosphoric acid .... ---.............. ---................. 0.04 %
Total ammonia --....---......----.--......-----.... ... 4.40 %
Available ammonia ....--.-..----.....---....--.... 1.10 %
Calcium carbonate ----... .....--................---. 6.91 %
Highly acid.
Iron present.
2679-Subsoil No. 2, Field No. 2, 300 ft. E. of ditch, 12"
to 18" below surface. Pennsylvania Sugar Co.
Miami, Fla.
Moisture as received ...--.........-....---......--- 80.00 %
Moisture on prepared sample -.........----.. 10.00 %
Potash ---......--..----.......-...---- -...--..-.... 0.004 %
Phosphoric acid --.-..........----...-----..-----....-. 0.15 %
Calcium carbonate .----..............--...--..--...-- 7.27 %
Total ammonia ..---....-....-......---............--- 4.50 %
Available ammonia ......---...........-...---- .... 1.05
Iron present.
Highly acid.
2680-Subsoil No. 1, Field No. 2. Pennsylvania Sugar
Company, Miami, Fla.
Moisture as received -......----..........---....... 87.50 %
Moisture on prepared sample ---.............9.22 %
Potash -..-..-....- ......-........-..-- ...............-- .... 0.04 %
Phosphoric acid .---.. ..---.........-- .......... .----... 0.025 %





44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Calcium carbonate -...... ...... 6.99
Total ammonia ............ ..-.-...... 4.40 '
Available ammonia ....-..-.... 1.10
Iron present
Highly acid.

2684-Soil Sample No. 1. Pennsylvania Sugar Compan'
Miami, Fla.

Moisture as received -.. 80.00 "
Moisture on prepared sample ... 4.72 5
Calcium carbonate -.....- .. 6.93 i;
Phosphoric acid ............. .. .. 0.05
Total ammonia -..... ... .... .... 4.15
Available ammonia .-.... .. 1.55 3
Potash .... 0.065 %
Iron (as iron oxide) ........--........ 1.92
Slightly acid.

2685-Soil Sample No. 2. Pennsylvania Sugar Company,
Miami, Fla.

Moisture as received _.. .. 88.00 %
Moisture on prepared sample 3.62
Calcium carbonate ..- 6.60 r
Phosphoric acid -.-... 0.025 '
Ammonia (total) _. ...._.. ..... 4.50 5
Ammonia (available) .............- 1.60
Potash' 0......-...... .0.4 %
Iron (as iron oxide) ............. 5.80
Slightly acid.

2686-Soil Sample No. 3. Pennsylvania Sugar Company.
Miami, Fla.

Moisture as received 82.66 '
Moisture on prepared sample .. 0.82 ,
Calcium carbonate ..-. .. 6.33 59
Phosphoric acid .- 0.05 %
Total ammonia -......--..... 4.12
Available ammonia .... .. 1.57
Potash .. .._ 0.04 %
Iron (as iron oxide) ..............-. 2.40
Slightly acid.






POSSIBILITIES OF THE EVERGLADES 45

2687-Soil Sample No. 4. Pennsylvania Sugar Company,
Miami, Fla.

Moisture as received ................--------.-----. 85.33 %
Moisture on prepared sample ............... 1.17 %
Calcium carbonate ..----.. --...-.........---------.. 7.67 %
Phosphoric acid --..--...........-...- ...---- ----..---- 0.025 %
Total ammonia .................--- ..-- ....----------.-. 4.15 %
Available ammonia -...--....-........-.......- ------- 1.55 %
Potash -....----.~..- ---..... ...- ---..... ..-- ------.. 0.045 %
Iron (as iron oxide) .-..--..............--- -------- 2.00 -
Slightly acid.

2688-Soil sample sent in by Pennsylvania Sugar Company
from land cultivated three or four years. Sample..
marked = 1 = with red pencil.

Moisture as received -.......---------------- 62.66 %
Moisture on prepared sample .-------- 3.85 %
Phosphoric acid --..-......-.......------------ ------- 0.06 %
Ammonia (total) ----...... ..--. ..----.--.....------ 2.10 %
Ammonia (available) .-------...... ......------- 1.50 %
Potash ---..-...-........------..........-..------ .....-- 0.19 %
Calcium carbonate --..-........................ ------- 6.07 %
Iron (as iron oxide) -................---..---...... 12.85 %
Slightly acid.

2689-Soil sample sent in by Pennsylvania Sugar Company
from a field of plant cane. Sample marked
= 2 = with red pencil.

Moisture as received ------------ 84.00 %
Moisture on prepared sample .. ------ 11.82
Calcium carbonate ...-------...................... ---- 4.72 %
Phosphoric acid ....................---............... 0.038 C/
Total ammonia -.......-.......................--------.. 3.40 %
Available ammonia ................-...--............ 1.70 %
Potash ---...........-....-...................---- ..------...-- 0.085 %
Iron (as iron oxide) .....................--------- 1.92 %
Strongly acid.






46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

2690-Soil sample sent in by Pennsylvania Sugar Corr
pany. New soil, near water level. Marked = 3 =
with red pencil.
Moisture as received 77.33 r
Moisture on prepared sample .-..- 11.45 9
Calcium carbonate .------ 4.00 9.
Phosphoric acid _-.---- _--.-- 0.038 9.
Total ammonia 3.00 9.
Available ammonia -...... 1.90
Potash .. 0.11 9
Iron (as.iron oxide) -- .....- 8.00 -
Strongly acid.




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