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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Grape culture in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003080/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grape culture in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: v, 27 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lord, E. L ( Earll Leslie ), b. 1881
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1950
 Subjects
Subject: Grapes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Viticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 23).
Statement of Responsibility: by E.L. Lord
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "(Reprint) September, 1950".
General Note: Includes Grapes for different regions, from Farmers' Bulletin No. 1936, U.S.D.A. on p. i-v.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003080
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3632
ltuf - AJP8920
oclc - 44575628
alephbibnum - 001824884
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Grapes for different regions
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
Full Text

Bulletin 63


GRAPE


Culture in Florida


(REPRINT)
September, 1950


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


NEW SERIES






Grapes for Different Regions*
B. C\.V. I.i.mO. senior pomologinst. and EL\IMe S \"DE I. ponwlogist. Division of
Fruit and Iegetable Crops and Diseases. Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering. Agricultural Research Adminiistration.

Grape growing is widely practiced in the United States.
Grapes are produced commercially in 44 States and on a
farm-home scale in every State in the Union. The yearly
production for the period 1919-39 averaged somewhat
more than 2,000,000 short tons, representing for the last
16 years of that period an annual farm value of approxi-
mately $49,000,000. California leads all other States in
gross tonnage, with about 90 percent of the total, while
New York, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania are the
heaviest producing States in the eastern and central parts
of the country. There are important production areas also
in Arkansas, Missouri, North Carolina, Illinois, and other
States. The location of the grape-growing centers and the
relative production of each are indicated in figure 1.
Three main types of grapes are grown: (1) The vini-
fera, European, or Old World, type-represented by the
table, raisin, and wine grape varieties, grown principally
in California but to some extent in other States; (2) the
native American bunch-grape type, grown primarily in
the regions east of the Rocky Mountains and in the Pacific
Northwest: and (3) the muscadine group, widely grown
in the South.
As great variations in climate, soil, and other natural
conditions exist in this country, marked differences in the
adaptation of grape types and varieties accordingly are
found. In the selection of varieties for planting in any par-
ticular locality, therefore, it is highly desirable to know not
merely what the character of the different grapes may be
when grown under favorable conditions, but particularly
which varieties are most likely to succeed there. The ob-
ject of this bulletin is to assist in this selection by making
clear some of the factors affecting varietal adaptation, by
giving some consideration to the characteristics of the dif-
ferent grapes themselves, and by showing on a carefully
prepared map the regions where definite varietal groups
have by experience been found best adapted.'

*The follhilsi is quoted frIm GRAPES FOR DIFFERENT REGIONS Farm-
ir.-" Itulltil No. 1936, U. S. Department of Agriculturc.
1 The writer. gratefully nekn,-wlt lez the generoilis cn.io liration ,f State andl
Federal hIi.cticlltural worker- throughout the country in making available thi
results (.f Thtier ,h'ervations and explerienct regardinil rg the a(dalptntion of grale
varieties and tyJ(I to, the various :'tr i.lt .





NATIVE GRAPE SPECIES
There are about 30 native species of wild grapes grow-
ing over more or less extensive areas, and a number of
these have played important roles in the grape industry
of the United States as well as in that of Europe. Repre-
sentatives of some of these have been grown extensively
as standard varieties, while cross breeding between native
species, hybridizing with different representatives of
Vitis vinifera L., and interbreeding with grapes thus de-
rived have given rise to many of the American grape varie-
ties. The wild species have also been important in grape
culture, either as pure species or as hybrids developed for
rootstock purposes. Because of their inherent resistance
to certain destructive insect pests and their adaptation to
specific regions they have often been found invaluable
where own-rooted vines have failed.
Among those native species that have proved most valu-
able may be mentioned six species of bunch grapes.
(1) Vitis labrusca L., the so-called fox grape. This occurs natural-
ly in the eastern part of the country from central New England south-
ward to Georgia and is especially found on the western slopes of the
Allegheny Mountains. It has also been reported as occurring in
limited districts in southern Indiana and central Tennessee. It has
been used more extensively than any other American species in the
development of standard varieties. The well-known Concord grape
is a representative of this species.
(2) Vitis riparia Mihx., the so-called riverbank grape. This is the
most widely distributed of the American species, its range extending
from the St. Lawrence River and Lake Superior on the north into
Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas on the south and from the
Rocky Mountains eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. The adaptation of
this species to such a wide range of natural conditions has made it
particularly valuable in the development of varieties suited to various
parts of the country, and representatives of this species and its hybrids
have been widely used for rootstock purposes. Its relatively high sugar
and acid content and the pure flavor of its fruit have given character
to varieties adapted to jam, jelly, and beverage manufacture. Bacchus,
Beta, Clinton, and other well-known varieties owe their character
largely to V. riparia parentage.
(3) Vitis aestivalis Michx., known commonly in the South as sum-
mer grape and in the North as pigeon grape and winter grape. This
species is native to the section of the country extending from the
Mississippi River eastward and from New York southward to the
Gulf. While it has not entered so extensively into the development
of American varieties as some of the other species, owing primarily
to its lack of hardiness and vigor in the northern parts of the country
and to the small size of the berries, the high sugar content, sprightli-
ness, spicy flavor, and deep color of the juice have made the varieties
derived from this species particularly suitable for wine making. Its
natural resistance to root ailments and its adaptation to regions where
grape diseases are prevalent account for its value for rootstock pur-
poses. The well-known varieties Norton and Cynthiana, thought by
some to be identical, are representatives of this species.





(4) Vitis rupestris Scheele, commonly known within its ranges as
the rock grape, July grape, and mountain grape. This species occurs
naturally in a relatively narrow area extending from southwestern and
central Texas in a northeastern direction through Oklahoma, the Ozark
sections of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, southern Indi-
ana and Kentucky, and central Tennessee. It has also been reported
as far east as southern Pennsylvania. Its principal use has been for
rootstocks, either in the pure species form or as hybrids with other
species. It has been widely used in Europe as well as in California
and other States in which the European type of grape is grown, where
it has been found valuable because of its resistance to phylloxera.
Rupestris St. George is one of the best known varieties to this species.
(5) Vitis lincecumi Buckl., the so-called post oak grape. This is
native to eastern Texas, western Louisiana, Arkansas, southern Mis-
souri, and Oklahoma and has been used in the development of varieties
adapted particularly to the southern parts of the country, where many
of the standard northern varieties do not thrive. Varieties having
pure V. lincecumi origin are now found rarely, if at all, but earlier
hybridization of this species with V. labrusca, V. bourquiniana Mun-
son, V. vinifera, and other species have given rise to a number of well-
known varieties, such as Bailey, Beacon, Ellen Scott, Extra, and
Marguerite.
(6) Vitis champini Planch. This species has a restricted natural
range, being confined principally to central Texas. While it has been
used in the development of such varieties as Champanel, Lomanto,
and Nitodal, it has found its greatest usefulness as the source of dis-
ease-resistant rootstocks; among these Barnes, DeGrassett, Dog
Ridge, Joly, Ramsey, and some unnamed stocks are included.
Several other species of American bunch grapes' used
more particularly in the development of valuable root-
stocks should be mentioned in this connection. These in-
clude Vitis berlandieri Planch., V. candicans Engelm., V.
cordifolia Lam., V. doaniana Munson, V. longii Prince,
and V. monticola Buckl. These are all native to southern
or southwestern parts of the country.
Two other species of American grapes call for special
mention: Vitis rotundifolia Michx. and V. munsoniana
Simpson. These belong to an entirely distinct botanical
group differing widely from the bunch-grape types men-
tioned above in character of vine and fruit. They do not
hybridize readily with the bunch-grape species and do not
form satisfactory graft unions with them. While not im-
mune to some of the diseases to which the bunch grapes
are subject, they do show considerable resistance to them;
this makes them particularly valuable in sections of the
South, where these diseases are prevalent.
(I) Vitis rotundifolia, known generally as muscadine and also as
bullace grape and southern fox grape. The range of this species in-
cludes the Coastal Plain section of the Southeastern States, extending
from Virginia to Florida, across the Gulf Coast States and down the
eastern coast of Texas. In the eastern section this species reaches
SOwing Io dlubt as to the original source of the important Vitis hourquiniana
species it ik n it included here.





well up into the Blue Ridge Mountains, and in the Mississippi Valley
it extends northward into southeastern Missouri and sections of Ten-
nessee and Arkansas. In this species the fruit is borne in small clusters
the individual berries of which ripen at different times over a consider-
able period. Most fruiting varieties now grown are self-sterile because
their flowers are imperfect and must be pollinated by separate stam-
inate, or male vines. To assure a set of fruit, therefore, a certain
proportion of male vines must be provided in the vineyard. Since the
fruit must be harvested as single barriers rather than in clusters and
is subject to spoilage during handling and shipment, these grapes are
better adapted to farm-home or small-scale growing than to large
commercial planting. The high dessert quality of selected varieties
in the fresh condition, as well as their suitability for the production
of many culinary and beverage products, however, makes the musca-
dine grape an important fruit crop in the South. Many of the named
varieties represent selections from vines originally growing wild, but
considerable breeding work has been done, and desirable new varieties
have been and are being developed. The standard muscadine varieties
Scuppernong, Thomas, Hunt, James, and others represent this species.
(2) Vitis munsoniana, the so-called bird grape, or everbearing
grape, of the Gulf region, to which it is native. The importance of this
species in the present connection is derived not from its inherent
value as a fruit, but from the fact that through cross breeding of
selected varieties of V. rotundifolia with representatives of this spe-
cies, perfect-flowered, self-fruitful hybrids have been produced; these
show much promise for the development of muscadine varieties having
not only superior vine and fruit characters, but also the ability to
produce abundant crops without the use of unproductive male vines.
There are no named varieties of V. munsoniana.

THE VINIFERA, OR OLD WORLD, GRAPE

The vinifera, European, or Old World, grape, the vari-
ous forms of which have been grouped under the species
Vitis vinifera, is of somewhat doubtful lineage. It is be-
lieved to have originated in the region south of the Caspian
Sea in Asia Minor, and thence it has been disseminated.
Varieties derived from it are grown commercially between
20* and 51' N. latitude and between 20' and 40' S. latitude.
Vinifera grapes not only furnish the major world produc-
tion, but, as previously mentioned, they have also played a
vital part in the improvement of native American types.
The cultural range of vinifera grapes is limited mainly by
climatic factors. They require a long growing season,
relatively high summer temperatures, low atmospheric
humidity, a ripening season free from rain, and mild win-
ter temperatures. The numerous varieties furnish fruit
types ranging from the small-berried currant grapes and
the medium sized fruit of the wine varieties to the large-
berried table types.
The more important commercial and special types of
vinifera grapes grown in the United States are described
briefly on pages 31 to 38.





Vinifera varieties may be divided into three main types
(raisin, table, and wine), but some varieties may be used
for all three products.

RAISIN VARIETIES
Over 99 percent of the acreage of grapes grown in the
United States for the production of raisins consists of the
following varieties, named in the order of their import-
ance: Sultanina (Thompson Seedless), Muscat of Alex-
andria, Sultana, and Corinthe Noir (Zante Currant).

TABLE VARIETIES
The following varieties constitute over 95 percent of the
vinifera table grape acreage in this country: Sultanina
(Thompson Seedless), Flame Tokay, Emperor, Malaga.
Olivette Noire (Cornichon), Castiza (Red Malaga; Moli-
nera), Ohanez (Almeria), Alphonse Lavallee (Ribier),
and Muscat of Alexandria. In addition, many other varie-
ties are grown on small acreages or for local home use.
Some of these are included in the following list: Agadia,
Black Hamburg, Black Monukka, Black Morocco, Da-
nugue (Gros Guillaume), Dattier de Beyrouth (Rosaki),
Dizmar, Gros Colman (I)odrelabi; Fresno Beauty), Ka-
hallillee, Kandahar, Muscat Hamburg, Olivette Blanche,
Olivette de Vendemian, Perle de Csaba, Prune de Cazouls,
Rish Babla, and Verdal (Aspiran Blanc; Servan Blanc).

WINE VARIETIES
The wine varieties grown are more numerous than the
varieties in either of the other groups. More than 90 per-
cent of the acreage is made up of the following varieties:
Zinfandel, Carignane, Alicante Bouschet, Mission, Muscat
of Alexandria, Petite Syrah (Duriff: Serine), Palomino,
Feher Szagos, Grenache, Cinsaut (Black Malvoisie), Bur-
ger, Colombar (erroneously known as Sauvignon Vert),
Semillon. Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sylvaner. In addition,
the following varieties are less extensively grown: Aleati-
co, Alicante Ganzin, Aramon (Burkhardt), Barbera, Be-
clan. Chasselas Dore (Gutedel: Golden Chasselas), Grand
Noir, Green Hungarian, Grignolino, Lenoir (Vitis hour-
quiniana), Mondeuse (Gros Syrah), Muscadelle du Borde-
lais, Muscat de Frontignan (Muscateller). Pedro Ximines,
Petit Bouschet, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir (Black Pinot),
Refosco (Crabb Black Burgundy), Salvador (direct pro-
ducer), Sangioveto, Saint Macaire, Sauvignon Blanc, Tan-
nat, Trousseau, and Valdepenas ....





Grape Culture in Florida

By E. L. LORD, Professor of Horticulture,
University of Florida

R ECENT developments in grape culture in Florida have
resulted in such changes in methods and varieties that
anything published before 1925 cannot give a complete
picture of present conditions. The Commissioner of Agri-
culture has therefore thought it desirable that the writer
prepare this bulletin, giving a resume of the present situa-
tion and recommendations that might possibly be of value
in the extension of this promising industry. New develop-
ments in grape growing will no doubt in time produce
many changes, and consequently this publication can ex-
pect to be superseded at a later date. A careful survey
made by the writer during the summer of 1927 showed
that under certain conditions grape culture returned rea-
sonable profits, so that some extension of the area devoted
to grape planting may be expected.
STANDING OF THE GRAPE INDUSTRY
Early experimenting with grapes in Florida was largely
unsuccessful as the varieties were of northern or European
origin. Vines of these types have root systems that are
poorly suited to the soils and climatic conditions of the
state, and in order to grow such varieties successfully for
any length of time one must graft them on resistant stocks.
There are several vineyards in the state which consist of
northern varieties, such as the Niagara and Concord, but
even when these varieties are grafted they have not been
generally profitable. Only two types of varieties have
been found satisfactory on their own roots in most of the
state, the Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) which
include such varieties as the Scuppernong, Thomas, and
others, and the varieties which have been derived from
the Summer grape (Vitis aestivalis) and the closely re-
lated Post Oak or Piney Woods grape (Vitis linsecumi).
These grapes are found growing wild over a large por-
tion of the Gulf Coastal Plain, where the soils and climatic
conditions are markedly different from those of the major
grape areas of the world. The Summer grape is found
wild over the Southeastern states as far west as Louisiana,
where it is replaced by the Post Oak grape, a form which
is considered by many horticulturists as a subspecies, but




2 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

is usually represented as a separate species by botanists.
At any rate there is little difference in the soil and climatic
requirements of the two species, and they both are of
great value to Florida. Of the two types of grapes men-
tioned, Muscadine and bunch grapes, the Muscadine is
severely handicapped for commercial purposes, because
of the small bunches and poor attachment of the berries,
so that it is only of value when eaten fresh from the vine
or when made in various grape products. The other
type, known in Florida as bunch grapes, take practically
the same position in the local markets as the Concord in
the Northern United States, and some of the varieties (hy-
brids between the wild species, V. aestivalis and V. linse-
cumi, and the European and northern grapes) are of dis-
tinct promise as table grapes for markets out of the state.
Not only are these hybrids important as direct producers,
but experimental evidence shows that it is possible to
grow some of the northern and California varieties by
using hybrids from the native species as rootstocks.

LOCATION
While grapes may be grown successfully in most parts
of Florida, the site for a commercial vineyard should be
chosen carefully, as the vine in some locations is much
more subject to disease than in others. The soil should be
well-drained and as rich in plant food as possible. Soils
capable of supporting the growth of hardwoods (high
hammock) are more desirable than high pine land. Good
air drainage is desirable for best results, and a slope to-
wards the southeast is a distinct advantage. Flatwoods
lands are not satisfactory because of the tendency towards
poor drainage; even when well drained, the fruit ripens
later on flatwoods soil than on upland. Another point
against the use of such lands is their lack of air drainage.
A more or less compact subsoil is desirable, but not im-
perative. No opportunity should be overlooked to add
humus to the soil because of its waterholding capacity.
The prospective grower should keep in mind that not
all areas possessing the soils and conditions mentioned
will be found suitable for commercial grape growing; an
examination should also be made concerning transporta-
tion facilities, amount of commercial acreage near at hand
which will make carlot shipments possible, and the fa-
cilities for reaching early markets before grapes from
other producing areas are offered. Conditions in the state,
especially in Central Florida, are so much different from






GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 3

those in other grape producing sections that the prospec-
tive grower will be wise in leaving the grape proposition
severely alone unless he is willing to give the subject thor-
ough study and to adapt his practices to the conditions
met here.
While the question of soil is important and lack of plant
food or humus in the soil may be a serious drawback, still
the main causes of unprofitable vineyards in Florida have
been, not infertility as found in our upland soils, but rather
poor air and water drainage, improper cultural practices,
lack of cultivation, wrong methods of pruning and train-
ing, and injudicious choice of varieties. It should be ac-
cepted as a rule that no extensive commercial planting of
grapes should be made except in localities that have been
proven suitable. There is no doubt, however, that grape
growing may be successful in other regions than where
it is now a major project, but experimental plantings for
local markets should precede any planting on a large
scale.
PREPARATION OF SOIL
Not only is it desirable to clear the land of stumps and
roots previous to planting a vineyard, but after this is
done the land should be plowed as deeply as, possible,
preferably using a tractor, and if there is sufficient time
remaining a cover crop of cowpeas should be grown. The
land should be disced thoroughly in late November so
that it will be ready for planting by the first of December.
PLANTING STOCK
Good healthy one-year-old plants are much better than
older ones. They start off more vigorously, and, if planted
properly make a more uniform vineyard. It is usually
preferable to buy them from a nursery, as it saves a year's
time and they can be grown better by a nurseryman than
by a planter in most cases. A vigorous one-year-old grape
vine should have two or three canes 3 to 6 feet long and
a heavy root system. Before planting the canes should be
cut back to two or three buds and the root system trimmed.
They should never be allowed to dry out; as soon as re-
ceived they should be heeled in, in moist well-drained soil
until time for planting. They should never be left in the
package in which they were shipped longer than abso-
lutely necessary.
PROPAGATION
Grapes are usually propagated by cuttings. The varie-
ties most commonly used in Florida root better, as a rule,





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


from fairly long cuttings (12 to 15 inches). The lower end
of the cutting should be made just below the bud and the
upper cut should be an inch or two above the node in order
to prevent injury to the bud from drying out. These cut-
tings should be made as soon after the first of December
as practicable. After cutting, tie into bundles of 25 with
the butts even and bury them, butts up, in moist, well-
drained soil until the first of February. At that time they
should be lined out in the nursery. A good friable garden
soil should be chosen for this nursery and the cuttings
planted four to six inches apart in 31/2 to 4-foot rows.
They should be inserted with the upper bud level with
the top of the soil, in a furrow made by a turning plow.
After planting the ground should be thoroughly packed
around them, tramping it down or rolling with a heavy
roller. They should be fertilized rather heavily; on most
soils a good trucking fertilizer analyzing 5-8-3 may be
used at the rate of a thousand pounds per acre. The next
December they may be planted in the vineyard.
In many vineyards of the state varieties have been
planted that have not proven to be satisfactory. In such
cases the vineyard may be made over into one of the right
variety by grafting and only one year's crop lost. If the
root system of the old vine is vigorous and long-lived, saw
it off two or three inches above the surface of the soil, split
the stock, insert a cion of the desired variety, and cover
stock, union and cion with soil until they have united.
If the old vine does not promise to be long-lived and
healthy, graft in the same way, but make the union two
or three inches below the soil level. In the first case re-
move all roots from the cion and sprouts from the stock,
but, in the second case allow the cion to form its own roots,
using the old root system to nurse the top for a year or so.
Train the growth from the cion to a stake and over the
trellis, and a complete framework can be produced in that
season so that a full crop may be borne the following
season.
Some growers have found it profitable to grow certain
varieties, such as Niagara, President, Ellen Scott and oth-
ers on the more vigorous root systems of such varieties as
R. W. Munson, Carman, Herbemont, etc. Some very fine
table grapes have been produced in this way, but we need
more experimental work before recommendations can be
made. We need to know much more concerning the re-
sistance of many stocks and their congeniality with the
different varieties as cions.










_ -- -A-1




6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

LAYING OUT THE VINEYARD
Under the climatic conditions found in Florida it should
be emphasized that the vineyard should be laid out so
that the rows run north and south. In a large vineyard
where machinery is used the rows should be ten feet apart,
although in a small vineyard eight or nine feet may be
enough. This distance applies to all varieties, and is based
on requirements for harvesting, cultivating, and spraying.
In large vineyards cross alleys should be left. If the rows
run up and down a rather steep slope, the cross alleys
should be terraces so that excessive erosion is prevented.
The distance apart that vines should be planted in the
row depends upon many factors, the variety, the soil, type
of pruning, etc. In general, weaker growing vines should
be planted closely (6 to 8 feet), while vigorous varieties
should be planted 10 or 12 feet apart. Certain varieties,
which are quite vigorous, only bear well when pruned to
short canes, and these may be planted more closely.
PLANTING
As above mentioned, grape vines for planting should
not be allowed to dry out either before or after planting.
If they are planted in the winter, preferably in December
or January, very little further attention is necessary.
Simply make a hole by removing one or two shovelfuls of
earth, place the vine in the hole so that the buds will be
above the surface, and tramp the earth thoroughly about
the roots. Watering is not necessary. Most vines are lost
because of drying out before planting or insufficient pack-
ing of the soil.
CARE AFTER PLANTING
Before the vine begins to grow in the spring it should
be cut back to two live buds. These will usually start off
vigorously. The strongest one should be left, but the other
should be topped above the second leaf and kept as a
reserve shoot in case the first should be injured. The one
allowed to grow should be carefully trained along an up-
right five-foot stake which has been driven into the ground
beside it. This is important, as.if the trunk is upright and
straight it will be much help in supporting the weight of
heavy crops. Under ordinary conditions this shoot will
grow very fast and should reach a length of five feet by
the last of June. Before it reaches this point the trellis
should be erected so that the vine will be able to make
sufficient growth upon it to produce a satisfactory crop
the following season.






GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA


PRUNING, TRAINING, AND TRELLISING
The Munson system is the only one that the author
recommends for the bunch grape in Florida, as it is the
one best suited to our conditions. This system of training
requires for best results a three-wire trellis called the
Munson three-wire canopy trellis. The posts should be
of heart pine or cypress, preferably split, and not less
than four inches in diameter at any point. The end posts
should be much heavier. They should be long enough so
that five and a half or six feet of the post may be above
the ground. and spaced sixteen or twenty feet apart, ac-
cording to the distance between the vines. The end posts
should be well braced and equipped with wire stretchers.
Metal ratchets will be found very satisfactory.
The best wire for trellising is No. 10 or No. 12 galvan-
ized smooth wire. It will require about 600 pounds of No.
10 or 400 pounds of No. 12 to trellis an acre. The lower
wire should be stapled to or run through the post about
four inches from the top or six inches from the top of the
finished trellis. The top of the post should be sawn off
square and a 24 to 28-inch section of 2x4-in. firmly spiked
across the top, with the four-inch side down. The outer
and upper wires should be run across the tops of the cross-
arm about an inch from each end. At the end posts this
cross arm should be spiked to the outer side of the post
rather than to the top for greater stability. While it is
important that the first or lower wire of the trellis should
be up by the middle of June it is not necessary to put up
the cross-arm and the other two wires until the following
winter.
ITHE FRUITING HABITS OF THE GRAPE
Before the grower can prune and train effectively he
must understand thoroughly the fruiting habit of the
grape.
1. Fruit is borne only on wood of the current season
(shoots). Not all shoots will bear. Bearing shoots usually
come from wood of the previous season (canes); shoots
from older wood are usually barren. In some varieties the
buds at the base of the cane are often barren; these varie-
ties should be pruned to long arms, that is, the rods or
canes should have 3 to 8 eyes. Most of the American vines
belong to this class, and pruning these varieties to spurs
(canes with two buds) reduces production heavily and
increases the number of imperfect bunches. Some vini-
feras have fertile buds at the base of the canes, and these




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


may safely be pruned to spurs. Even on the American
varieties it is rarely profitable to leave more than eight
buds, as the buds beyond this are usually much less pro-
ductive; furthermore, it requires much more vigor to force
out such long canes and carry a crop upon them. Conse-
quently the bearing wood is divided into a number of
canes (2 to 4) containing 4, 6 or 8 buds, according to age,
vigor and variety.
2. The number of buds left is the measure of the future
crop; as most varieties bear two or three bunches to the
shoot, if one knows the average weight of bunch and av-
erage number of bunches per shoot (both characters very
uniform with the variety) it is a simple matter, when the
grower is sufficiently experienced, to regulate the crop
according to the bearing capacity of the vine. In this
connection it is wiser to err on the side of conservatism, in
order not to weaken the vine by too heavy bearing.
3. The productiveness of the buds (eyes) depends upon
the condition of the vine the previous summer. The leaf
which subtends the bud should be healthy during the
period when the inflorescence is forming, and the vine
should have adequate supplies of potash without an over-
dose of nitrogen at this time. If the foliage of the cane
selected has been lost early in the season the cane will
usually be unproductive.
4. All pruning, except the shaping of the young vine,
the pinching out of the tips of the terminal shoots, and the
rubbing off of unnecessary buds from the trunk should
be done when the vine is dormant, preferably in Decem-
ber, if early crops are desired. Late pruning gives late
grapes and early pruning early grapes, other factors be-
ing equal.
5. It is safer to wait until a good rain has fallen in
autumn or early winter, before pruning the vine, as other-
wise the pruning wounds do not heal well and are easily
infected by disease which may destroy the vines.
6. Unless the vines are too vigorous, do not prune until
most of the leaves have fallen.
7. The removal of active developed leaves lessens
vigor. Consequently, in shaping the vine the laterals and
other undesirable shoots should be pinched out at the
growing tips, allowing all leaves that have unfolded and
developed a green color to remain.





GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 9

8. The more nearly vertical a shoot is trained the more
vigorous it will be. For this reason the young vine should
be trained and tied in a vertical position until it reaches
the trellis. The aim should be to get it upon the trellis as
soon as possible, and this may be done in a short time if it
is kept vertical and if the laterals are pinched out before
they develop.
9. While many viniferas may bear well when the canes
are trained upright, most of the varieties having a high
percentage of native blood bear best when the canes are
kept in a horizontal position or allowed to droop.
10. In varieties that tend to set poorly, or if extra fancy
bunches are desired, better sized bunches may be obtained
if the shoot is pinched just before the first flowers begin
to open. This tends to divert an extra amount of food into
the inflorescence, thereby favoring fruit setting.
11. The best canes to select for bearers should be well-
ripened (browned nearly to the tip). Preference should
be given to canes that have borne well the previous season,
as they usually carry more fertile eyes than non-bearers.

THE MUNSON SYSTEM OF PRUNING AND TRAINING

The Munson System of Pruning is a cane system where
the canes are all on one level and are renewed each year
from the head. The only wood permitted in the Munson
system consists of the trunk. Rearing canes are trained
along the lower wire, and the shoots are supported by the
two upper wires. The fruit, which is usually borne on the
third, fourth and fifth or sixth nodes of the shoots, accord-
ing to variety, is supported by the cane and shoot attach-
ment to the lower wire and the shoot attachment to the
lateral wires. In consequence, the fruit hangs below the
trellis, free from tangling with shoot or cane, and pro-
tected by the foliage from sun scald. It can be easily
reached for spraying and harvesting, and is sufficiently
free from the remainder of the vine so that it dries out
easily in the morning (especially if the row runs north
and south). This system is in every way so much better
suited to the needs of the Florida grower that the use of
any other is a severe handicap in commercial grape grow-
ing. One of the most serious mistakes which the beginner
in Florida is likely to make is the copying of systems used
generally in the north and west. These systems are suited
neither to our vines nor our climate.





10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The number of canes to be left depends upon the vigor
and fruit-bearing habits of the variety. Very vigorous
vines ordinarily will carry four canes of six or eight eyes
each; those of medium vigor may carry best two canes of
five or six eyes, while those of a weaker tendency may re-
quire close pruning (three or four eyes to each cane).
Not only is it important to estimate correctly the number
of canes and eyes to leave, but it is very necessary that
the grower realize the necessity of leaving two or three
short two-bud spurs as near the head as possible, so that
there will be a sufficient number of renewal canes close to
the head available for next year's pruning. All old wood,
with the exception of the amount in the trunk, should be
removed as soon as possible.

PRUNING AND TRAINING MUSCADINES
Muscadines, because the bunches are small, require a
large amount of cane in order to produce satisfactory
crops. Usually they are trained on arbors, and if atten-
tion is paid to developing sufficient renewal wood, this
method is very well suited to the man who wishes this valu-
able fruit for home use. They will also succeed very well
when grown on a three-wire vertical trellis. By using six
arms, three trained each way, renewing these arms every
three or four years, and pruning the previous year's wood
back to five or six-eye spurs each winter, heavy crops may
be produced. While it is a generally believed fallacy that
pruning muscadines is injurious, it is a fact that regular
and heavy crops can only be produced on muscadines by
the aid of pruning. Contrary to the general idea, also,
bleeding of these vines causes no appreciable injury, al-
though tender-hearted persons may prune them in late
November just after leaf-fall if they wish to reduce bleed-
ing to a minimum.

CULTIVATION
The first year in the life of a vineyard it is very neces-
sary to keep up frequent cultivation, in order that the vines
may make even and vigorous growth. All cultivation
should be very shallow, not more than two or three inches
deep. An Oliver grape hoe is very satisfactory for this
purpose, because it enables the grower to keep most of
the soil under the trellis clean without injuring the vines;
furthermore, soil may be thrown toward or away from the
vine. A one-horse Acme harrow is very useful when the





GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 11

soil is free from weeds. After the vineyard is well estab-
lished cultivation should be frequent during the dry
months of spring and early summer, but a cover crop
should be sown in the middles before the summer rains
begin.
COVER CROPS
The higher rolling lands which are best suited to grape
culture lack the plant foods found in most grape soils, and
it is not only necessary to fertilize them but it is essential
to grow cover crops in order to supply the decaying vege-
table matter which keeps the vine healthy and vigorous.
Cover crops not only add plant food to the soil, but also
make it more easily handled. They increase waterholding
capacity, aeration, and bacterial activity. On the amount
of humus and its character the life of a vineyard often de-
pends. While stable manure is exceptionally desirable
for grapes, it is almost impossible to obtain. This forces
the vineyardist to rely on commercial fertilizers and cover
crops. The frequent cultivation that the grape requires
when combined with hot sunshine and almost daily rains
oxidizes the humus of the soil very rapidly, and, if ar-
rangements are not made for its replacement, soon makes
the soil of the vineyard sterile.
The best crops to use for adding plant food and humus
to the soil are legumes. Crotalaria, Brabham cowpeas,
bush velvet beans and beggarweed are very satisfactory.
Crotalaria will probably be the most useful legume in cen-
tral and southern Florida; it adds a larger tonnage of
material with a higher nitrogen content than any other
plant available. It should be planted in every vineyard in
central Florida. Even if it should not reseed itself, the
cost of seed for planting is a small item when compared
to the results gained.
Not only should a summer cover crop be planted, but a
winter one as well. Rustproof oats or Abruzzi rye will
help turn the soluble plant food in the soil into humus and
save it for the following year's crop.
In turning under a cover crop in the vineyard do not
attempt to cover it all at once by deep plowing. This would
be wasted effort and is based upon a mistaken idea. Rath-
er cut it in by using a spooled disc harrow, as it is only
necessary to kill the crop and break up the stalks so that
cultivation may be continued. Even in the spring, if there
is a large amount of trash on the surface, it is a great ad-
vantage in that it helps to keep the upper few inches of
soil in a moist condition.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FERTILIZATION
While the grape vine is usually classed as a poor land
crop, and flourishes well on light soils more or less defi-
cient in plant food, yet it is undoubtedly true that in Flor-
ida vineyards will not be successful unless fertilized.
While frequent and regular cultivation, as well as an even
supply of moisture, favor the growth of the vine, proper
feeding beyond what is already contained in the soil will
give rich returns. It is not out of place here to emphasize
the fact that it is much easier to keep up vigor and pro-
ductiveness by proper feeding than to restore wornout
vines.
The elements most needed by the vine are nitrogen,
phosphoric acid, and potash. The nitrogen affects growth,
and a vine receiving sufficient of this element will be vigor-
ous with leaves of a dark green color. If the fertilization
is one-sided, that is, contains large amounts of this ele-
ment with an insufficient amount of potash and phosphoric
acid, the bunches and berries will be large, but will tend
to ripen late, and the vine itself will be much more subject
to disease injury. Nitrogen is the most essential substance
in wood and leaf production, and consequently it is im-
portant that an increased supply be present in the soil of
a young vineyard, or of an old one which tends to produce
insufficient wood.
Phosphoric acid helps the vine to take up nitrogen and
other plant foods, assists in the setting of the berries and
the ripening of wood and fruit, favors root development,
and is invaluable in stimulating the growth of the legumes
used for cover crops.
Potash is very necessary to the vine; it increases the
sugar content of the fruit and total yield of the vine, pro-
motes the ripening of the canes, increases the resistance
of the foliage and the canes to disease, and regulates the
rate at which the vine can take up nitrogen, giving a more
even and firmer type of growth.
If the grower has it available, no doubt the best ferti-
lizer for the vine is barnyard manure with enough super-
phosphate added to bring up the phosphoric acid content.
For vines bearing about four tons per acre, 15 pounds per
vine should be applied before growth begins, and one or
two pounds of superphosphate or bone meal should have
been applied to the vine the previous November. Unfor-
tunately barnyard manure is not usually obtainable, and
commercial fertilizer must be used. A commercial ferti-
lizer analyzing 5 to 6% nitrogen, 8% phosphoric acid and








-1


BEAlUTFI!LISTPI auh CS IRHjM IjUUI U


r - -


,I
I\


Le .




14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

8 to 10% potash will give good results if applied at the
rate of 1 to 3 pounds per vine to a bearing vineyard. Either
the stable manure or the commercial fertilizer should be
applied in the spring before growth begins in order to
affect the current season's crop, as the required nitrogen
and phosphorus are almost entirely absorbed during the
spring flush. If the leaves begin to show a tendency to
lose color in the late summer they will respond well to a
moderate application of nitrate of soda or sulphate of
ammonia.
The fertilizing of young vines should be radically dif-
ferent from that of bearing vines. Here the demand is for
nitrogen with a comparatively small amount of phosphoric
acid and potash. A fertilizer analyzing 5 to 6% nitrogen,
8% phosphoric acid and 2 to 3% potash will give good
results. It should be applied before growth begins and
again at the beginning of the rainy season. Light applica-
tion of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia in early
April and again in late July will also be found advan-
tageous, helping to keep the young vine in vigorous
growth.
As to the source of fertilizer materials, part of the nitro-
gen should be derived from inorganic and part from or-
ganic sources; the phosphoric acid from bone meal or
superphosphate; and the potash from either the sulphate
or the muriate. Any good trucking fertilizer of the analy-
sis mentioned above can be used with satisfactory results.
In all fertilization it should be kept in mind that with the
grape vine no amount of fertilizer will be of value if til-
lage, green manuring, pruning, or disease control are in
any way neglected.
DISEASES
There are a number of fungous diseases which attack
the grape in Florida, but fortunately they can be con-
trolled by thorough spraying. Spraying is absolutely es-
sential to successful grape growing in this state as in the
other grape producing districts of eastern North America.
The most important diseases of the grape in Florida are
anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum), black rot (Guig-
nardia bidwellii), and downy mildew (Plasmopara viti-
cola).
Anthracnose.-This disease attacks the young shoots,
leaves and fruit. On the leaves and young shoots it pro-
duces brown spots with a reddish margin, and on the
fruit the spots are similar, and this phase of the disease has





GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 15

received the name "bird's eye rot." On the fruit these
spots gradually enlarge until the berry hardens and wrin-
kles. This disease is especially dangerous to certain varie-
ties, such as Ellen Scott and Armalaga, and is very serious
when it once gains a foothold. It may be prevented by
thorough spraying with Bordeaux mixture. Winter treat-
ment of the vines with a solution of bluestone is also valu-
able.
Black Rot.-This disease is not as serious in Florida as
in the more northern states. Niagara and Concord are
more susceptible to it than are the Munson hybrids. Its
cause is a fungus which produces summer and winter
spores. The winter spores are carried over in the diseased
wrinkled berries and infect the leaves, shoots and young
fruit. Small reddish-brown circular spots about a quarter
of an inch in diameter appear on the upper surface of the
leaves. A ring of black pustules can be seen near the mar-
gin of each spot. The summer spores are produced in these
pustules. Whitish soft spots appear on the fruit: these
turn brown, then black, and the berry dries, shrivels, and
becomes hard. Minute black pustules now develop over
the surface, producing in their turn the so-called winter
spores. In controlling this disease all old "mummies" and
infected shoots should be removed and burned. The vine-
yard should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, which
will give good control if used before the disease develops
to any extent.
Downy Mildew.-This disease attacks the foliage and
the fruit. Certain varieties, such as Delaware and many
containing a high percentage of vinifera blood are quite
susceptible to it. It usually first appears as yellowish spots
on the leaves; these change to a brownish color, and a
downy, whitish growth appears on the undersurface. This
growth consists largely of white cigar-shaped spores,
which ripen rapidly and are scattered throughout the
vineyard, infecting all vines which are not immune to it.
The same fungus attacks the young fruit, forming a
brownish spot, which later becomes gray and downy. In
this stage it is called gray rot. On older fruit it produces
a soft rot. causing the fruit to fall off at the slightest touch.
This disease can be controlled by Bordeaux mixture, al-
though most of the varieties at present grown in the state
are highly resistant to it.
Ripe Rot (Glomerella cingulata) and Bitter Rot (Mel-
anconium fuligineum) are serious diseases that attack the
berry during ripening and after harvesting. They may




16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

both be controlled by spraying the bunches just as they
begin to color with a non-staining fungicide such as cop-
per acetate. This treatment will also help to control the
other rots mentioned.

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE GRAPE
The Grape Phylloxera (Phylloxera vitifoliae) is per-
haps the most important of the insects with which we have
to deal, as it often is the limiting factor in a vineyard of
viniferas or of certain labrusca varieties such as Concord
or Niagara. Native varieties are rarely injured by it, ro-
tundifolia and aestivalis being almost immune, while hy-
brids between aestivalis and vinifera or labrusca show
varying degrees of resistance. On this account the best
method of control is naturally to grow only resistant varie-
ties. However, susceptible varieties are being successfully
grown by grafting on resistant stock, as the insects are in
the soil and usually limit their activities to the root sys-
tem, although galls sometimes appear on the leaves. A
very sandy soil may make it possible to grow susceptible
varieties for a few years, while in a clay soil the same vines
would be killed in a very short time.
The larva of the Grape Berry-Moth (Polychrosis vite-
ana) attacks both the flower cluster and the young fruit.
The early brood destroys the buds and flowers of the open-
ing cluster and weaves a characteristic web about the little
stems which support the fruit. The later brood feed upon
the pulp of the berries, often ruining the whole bunch.
The addition of arsenate of lead to the Bordeaux mixture
used for disease control will cut short the damage due to
this insect.
Another destructive larva is the Grape Leaf-Skeletoniz-
er (Harrisina americana). The eggs are laid by the moth
on the under surface of the leaves. The small yellow cat-
erpillars marked by rows of black tubercles, ranged in
ranks like soldiers, eat voraciously until they have de-
voured all the soft part of the leaf and only the veins are
left. Arsenate of lead is also the remedy for this insect or
hand picking may suffice if only a few vines are attacked.
Still another larva, the Grape Leaf-Folder (Desmia
funeralis), destroys the leaves. This one first folds the two
halves of the leaf together by means of a weblike secretion
and feeds from the inside of the fold. Leaves without a
hairy or downy surface are rarely attacked. The same
treatment as for other larvae is used.












Lb
.. t
I& 2". i0


A TYPICAL FLORIDA VINEYARD





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The Grape Leaf-Hopper (Typhlocybe comes) appears
on the under surface of the leaves in early summer, suck-
ing out the juices and causing them to turn yellow and die.
As this is a sucking insect, arsenate of lead would have no
effect, but a spray containing a contact poison should be
used before the first brood can lay eggs. One-half pint of
nicotine sulphate (nicotine 40 per cent) added to 50 gal-
lons of Bordeaux mixture and sprayed on the under sur-
face of the leaves very early in the summer will usually
give good control.
The Grape Curculio (Craponius inaequalis) feeds upon
the leaves for about two weeks during the blooming sea-
son, laying its eggs in the berries as soon as they are large
enough. When the larvae hatch out they attack both pulp
and seed. This insect is also killed by arsenicals if they
are applied to the leaves at the proper time.
The tender shoots are often attacked by a small brown-
ish insect, the Brown Grape Aphis (Illinoia viticola). Pre-
daceous and parasitic insects usually keep these pests from
becoming too numerous, but if they threaten to become a
serious menace, the vines should be sprayed with nicotine
sulphate.
Rabbits may be discouraged from eating the tender new
growth by the use of dried blood about the vine as a ferti-
lizer or by traps or guns, which must also be used for rac-
coons which are very fond of the fruit. Cutworms are best
controlled by planting on cleared land or by poisoned
baits. Traps and guns are used to check the damage due
to birds, although in the smaller vineyards the fruit may
be bagged after the third or fourth spraying.
DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL
The most efficient method available for the control of
grape diseases and insects is that of spraying with fungi-
cides and insecticides. However, spraying must not be
considered in any way a method of curing these troubles,
but rather a method of preventing them by covering the
surface of the vine with substances which prevent the de-
velopment of the casual organism.
Other means are also of value if consistently carried
out. The vineyard and packing shed should be kept free
of rotten berries, mummied fruit, infected prunings, etc.
Such material should be burned or buried as soon as pos-
sible. Tillage aids in covering any such material that is
too small to pick up easily. Proper fertilization and culti-











I)ISEAE OR INSECT

S Anthraenose, I
No 1 Black lPot,

Anthraenose,
Plack lot,
No, 2 Down Mildew,
Grape Berry Moth,
Various Insects.



No, 3 Same as No. for curculio
and leaf hopper,



No, Same as No, 3


o Fungous diseases, non-stain-
No, 5 i,


SI'IAY MATERIAL


luestone, 4 lbs.; water, 50 gals.


Bordeaux mixture, 4450 formula,
to which is added I1 Ibs, of dlry
lead arsenate,


Bordeaux mixture, 43.5 formula,
to which is added l1 Ihs, of dry
lead arsenate, l pint of 40i
nicotine sulphate and 1 lb, rosin
fishoil (or 2 ls, yellow laundry)
soap,

Same as No, 3,


TIME OF APl'ICA

When vines are dorm
Cover vines, posts an


A week before the fl
buds open


As soon as blossoms


When fruit is half


Copper acetate, 2 Ibs,; water, 419
als, W'hen thoroughly mixed add
a"sticker (4 oz, gelatine and 1gal, Just before the Ir
warm water),


A SPRAY SCHEDULE


TION

nant
dwires,









s fall,



glrown,



uit colors,




20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

vation aid also in keeping the vine in a healthy condition
so that it is more resistant to disease.
Covering the vines, trellis, and wires immediately after
pruning, while the vines are still dormant, with a solution
of bluestone (copper sulphate) of a fairly high strength
(4 Ibs. to 50 gals. of water) is a very valuable agency in
preventing the vineyard from carrying injurious fungi
over the winter and thus avoids the infection of the new
shoots.
FUNGICIDES
The most common and most valuable fungicide for the
use of the grape grower is 4-3-50 Bordeaux mixture. This
is the standard material for applying to the vine through-
out the season. It should be used as soon as possible after
mixing, as it is then more active. As Bordeaux leaves a
staining residue on all parts of the vine, it is important to
substitute some other chemical on the ripening fruit. Prob-
ably the best spray to use under these conditions is cop-
per acetate (verdigris). A solution of two pounds of basic
copper acetate to 50 gallons of water gives the grape
grower very valuable aid, as bunches that have been
sprayed thoroughly with this solution carry well to mar-
ket, because they are not as subject to the various rots
which are liable to attack the fruit after it has been har-
vested.
INSECTICIDES
In controlling the insects that are liable to attack the
grape, arsenate of lead should be added to the Bordeaux
at the rate of 11/ Ibs. to 50 gals. of Bordeaux for chewing
insects, and I pint of nicotine sulphate to 50 gals. of Bor-
deaux for sucking insects. The grape grower is fortunate
in that he can control all three troubles by the same spray
when it is properly mixed. Of course phylloxera should
be excepted, but it is of slight importance unless northern
or European varieties are grown. In this case the desired
varieties must be grafted on resistant stock.*
SPRAYING AND SPRAYING EQUIPMENT
While the grower with a few vines will be able to con-
trol diseases and insects by using a knapsack or barrel
sprayer, the commercial grower requires a power spray-
ing outfit for satisfactory results. Unless the vine is com-
pletely covered with a fine spray it is only partially pro-
tected.
Complete discussion of the method of preparing these sprays, use, etc., will
be found in Bulletin 178, of the Florida Experiment Station.





GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 21

VARIETIES
The question of varieties is still unsettled. In the Penin-
sula the only varieties which have been found satisfactory
for market, especially if they are to be grown without
grafting, are the Florida Beacon and the Carman. These
will succeed on their own roots wherever commercial
planting is profitable. For local markets earlier varieties
may be grown, but they must be grafted on resistant stock.
Such varieties as Niagara, Ellen Scott, Edna, Matilda, and
Csaba have been successful when grafted on such vigorous
stocks as Beacon, R. W. Munson, Herbemont, or Lenoir.
Several viniferas appear to be promising when grown on
the proper stock, but sufficient experimental work has not
been done to justify commercial planting.
In West Florida, Carman has been more widely planted
than any other variety. Others that appear to be profit-
able for local market are the Armalaga and Muench on
their own roots, and Brilliant, President, and Niagara
when grafted on resistant stock. Concord, Moore Early,
and Worden have been tried in North Florida, but ripen
very unevenly and the vines are short-lived unless grafted,
so that they cannot be recommended.

HARVESTING
Because of the unfamiliarity of the growers with grape
market requirements, many of our grapes have been
placed on the market in bad shape. This condition was
much improved this season (1927) with the result that
satisfactory prices were received, especially on local mar-
kets, where the grapes have become known. There is no
doubt, however, that harvesting methods can be improved.
For table grapes, it is important that the grapes be suffi-
ciently ripened, and that the bunches be full, with the
bloom undisturbed. This result can only be obtained when
the grapes are handled as little as possible as well as
carefully.
In picking, the bunch must be held by the stem without
touching the berries themselves. The stem should be
clipped with a pair of shears, never pulled from the vine.
Grapes should not be picked when wet, neither should the
harvested fruit be allowed to stand in the sun. As soon as
possible they should be carried to the packing shed.
Most table grapes should be sent to market in the stan-
dard four basket carrier similar to that used for Califor-





22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

nia table grapes. While some markets will take lugs or
climax baskets, it is not to the advantage of the grower to
ship in either at the present time, as this fruit goes on the
market as fancy, early table grapes, and the consumer is
accustomed to buying such grapes in the four basket car-
rier. If they are presented in any other form they are
heavily discounted and go into competition with other
grapes and are associated in price with them. The culls
and varieties that are sold as juice grapes or for local mar-
ket may be very well handled from lugs if there is no dis-
crimination against this package.

MARKETING AND PRICES
Most of the grapes in Florida are sold on the local mar-
kets as table grapes, but many of them have been con-
verted into juice and other grape products, such as jelly,
marmalade, etc. Over fifteen carloads of grapes were
shipped out of the state during the past season (1927),
and while there are no complete figures as to production,
it has been estimated that about 700 tons were produced
the past season, most of it being sold locally. A large per-
centage was disposed of at roadside stands, which saved
the retailer's profit for the producer.
The price received for No. 1 table grapes in the Penin-
sula varied from 10 to 20 cents a pound, according to the
variety and season, average price received by the pro-
ducer for this grade being about 12 cents. As the cost of
production is well below this figure, profits have been very
satisfactory, with the demand much greater than the sup-
ply. In West Florida the situation is somewhat similar,
although both the price received and the cost of produc-
tion are as a rule lower in this section. Prices received
there by the producer ranged from 5 to 15 cents a pound,
averaging about 8 cents. If future prices hold anywhere
near the level of the past season, it would even pay to plant
such varieties as Niagara on their own roots with the ex-
pectation that they would die out in five years, and still
the industry would be profitable. However, such a prac-
tice is not recommended, as there are other varieties which
are at the same time long lived and satisfactory for the
production of table grapes. As the demand for Florida
table grapes has been steadily increasing for several years,
there is no doubt that enlargement of the industry may be
expected, although it will be much more satisfactory to
let the demand remain ahead of production.





GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA 23

PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST TO THE FLORIDA
GRAPE GROWER
Munson, T. V., Foundations of American Grape Cul-
ture. New York, 1909.
Hedrick, U. P., Manual of American Grape Growing.
New York, 1925.
Perold, A. I., A. Treatise on Viticulture. London, 1927.
Rhoads, A. S., Diseases of Grapes in Florida. Bulletin
No. 178 of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Husmann, G. C., Grape Propagation, Pruning and
Training. Farmers' Bulletin No. 471, U. S. D. A.
Quaintance, A. L., and Shear, C. L., Insect and Fungous
Enemies of the Grape. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1220, U. S.
D.A.
Dearing, Charles, Muscadine Grapes. Farmers' Bulle-
tin No. 709, U. S. D. A.
This list of publications is given for the benefit of those
readers who desire more information about grapes than
can be condensed in a bulletin of this size.





A LIST OF THE GRAPES MOST COMMONLY GROWN IN FLORIDA, GIVEN IN THE ORDER OF
RIPENING


Variety Origin Race Vigor Si ofBunch Size of Brry Color Use

Csaba Europe Vinifera Medium Large Mdium White market
-- Astivalis Dessert and
Headlight Texas hybrid Medium Small Small Red market
Aestivalis Dessert and
Brilliant Texas hybrid Medium Large Larg Red market
-estivalis Very Dessert and
Lomanto Texas hybrid vigorous Medium Medium Black market H
Labrusca Dessert and O
President Texas hybrid Medium Medium Large Black market
New Aestivalis Dessert and
Delaware Jersey hybrid Weak Small Small Red market
Aestivalis Very Dessert, juice
R W, Munson Texas hybrid rigorous Large Medium Black andmarket
Aestivalis Dessert and
Mathilda Texas hybrid Medium Large Medium Violet market
Labrusca Dessert and
Niagra NewYor hybrid Medium Large Large White market
Aestivalis Very Dessert and
Beacon (Fla.) Texas hybrid vigorous Large Large Black market
Labrusca Dessert, juice
Concord Mass, hybrid Medium Mdium Large Black andmarket
SL rusca Very Bright Dessert and
Goethe Mass, hbrid vigorous Medium argue Red market











Armalaga

Edna

Carman

Ellen Scott

Herlomont

Munch

Fern

Eden

Thomas

Scuppernong

James

Mish

Flowers


Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Large
Aestiralis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Large
Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous large
Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Verylarge
Aestivalis Very
Georgia hybrid vigorous Large
Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Large
Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Medium
Rotundifolia Very
(eorgia hybrid vigorous )ledium
South lVery
Carolina Rotuntli'olia vigorous Small
North Very
Carolina Rotundifolia vigorous Small
North Very
Carolina Rotundifolia vigorous Small
North Very
Carolina Rtundiolia vigorous Small
North
Carolina Rotundifolia Mlediuml Small


Dessert and
Large White market
Dessert and
Medium White market
l)essert and
Medium Black market
Dessert and
Large Violet market
Juice and d
Small Violet market
Dessert andt
Medium Black market
Dessert and
Medium Black market
Iessert and
Medium Black market
IDessert, juice
Large Red and market r
Dessert and 0
Large Bronze juice
Dessert and e
Very large Black juice
I Desert, juice
Large Black and market
Dessert and
Medium Black juice





A LIST OF THE GRAPES MOST COMMONLY GROWN IN FLORIDA, GIVEN IN THE ORDER OF
RIPENING-Continued
variety i nlity Puista n gg Remarks
'ariety to plant Systm of ne

Csaba Excellent 8 feet Munson 12 feet Must be grafted on resistant stock

delight Excellent feet Mnson 2 feet Selfsterile A very early Delaware

Brilliant Good 8 fet Mnson 2. feet Desirable for local market

Lomanto Fair 121 feet Munson feet Yery healthy and vigorous

President Good feet Munson 2 feet Early and satisfactory if grafted
Upright
Delaware Excellent 8 ft or Fan 2 feet Fine quality

R Munson Good 1216 feet Munson 24 feet Selfsterile, Requires interplanting

Mathilda Excellent 8l feet M ison 24 ft Satisfactory if grafted

Niagara Fair 8 feet Munson 2 ft Short-lived in Florida
Becon (Fla Good feet Munson 2 feet Good shipping variety
Ripens unevenly and is shortlived
Concord Fair 8 feet Munson 2 feet in Florida

Goethe Excellent 10 feet Munson ft Shortlived unless grafted
,-------- -.-----------------










Armalaga Excellent 10 feet Mlnson 2 feet Local market, A good shipper

Edna Excellent 10-12 feet Munson 24 feet Self-sterile, Good for local market 0

Carman Fair 12 feet son 4 feet A ood shipper

Ellen Sott Excellent 8.10 feet Munson 1.2 feet A od shipper

Herbmont Good 1216 feet Munson 3.4 feet Fine for juice and as a stock

Munch Good 1216 feet Munson 3.4 feet Good for late market

Fern Good 12 feet lunson 3- feet Selfsterile.Latet good bunch grap
Six.arm Selfsterile, Does well on clay; very
Eden Good 1 feet renewal 6 feet early
SSix.arm Slf-sterile, Best for muscadine
Thomas Good 20 feet renewal feet products
o Arbor r-
Scuppernong Good 20 feet six-arm 8 feet Selfsterile -
Upright
James Fair 6 feet or Fan 6 feet Selfsterile, The largest muscadine
Six-arm Self-sterile, The best muscadine in
Mih Excellent feet renewal 6 feet quality _
Six-arm
Flowers Poor 16 feet renewal 6 feet Self-sterile. The latest muscadine




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