Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Growing annual flowers
 Annual flowering plants for special...
 Varieties and species
 Planting guide for annuals
 Herbaceous perennials
 Roses for Florida homes
 Plant name index

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003076/00001
 Material Information
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 121 p. : ill., col. plates ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Parvin, Philip Eugene
Publisher: State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1961
Subject: Flowers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins and Philip E. Parvin.
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003076
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3581
ltuf - AKD9459
oclc - 01492810
alephbibnum - 001962782

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Growing annual flowers
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Annual flowering plants for special uses
        Page 13
    Varieties and species
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 32b
        Page 32c
        Page 32d
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Planting guide for annuals
        Page 53
    Herbaceous perennials
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 64c
        Page 64d
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
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        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Roses for Florida homes
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 96c
        Page 96d
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Plant name index
        Page 120
        Page 121
Full Text

for Florida Homes
.. HI'.








for Florida Homes


DOYLE CONNER, Commissioner

R JULY, 1961






Introduction ...-................. -------------------. 3

Growing Annual Flowers .-...--.............-------------------- 4
Obtaining Seeds --.. --....-...-....------------------- 5
Sowing the Seeds ......................-------.--...... -- 6
Annuals from Cuttings ................----..........-----------............. 10
Culture of Annuals .------.................----------------. 10
Cultivation -------- --....-----........... -----------......................------ 11
Spraying ...-----........---------.....---.. -----------. 11

Annual Flowering Plants for Special Uses ................................ 13

Varieties and Species for Florida Homes .........................--------...... 14

Planting Guide for Annuals -- ----................-... .............----- ... 53

Herbaceous Perennials -----............-.....- --..............-------.. 54
How to Use Them ......................-- ... .....-----..-............ 54
How to Propagate Them ...................----- ....-....-..--......---- 54
Culture of Perennials ................--.... -.. .-- ..- ..---..........- ... 57
Species and Varieties of Perennials for Florida Homes ... 57
Herbaceous Perennials for Special Situations .--......-....-... 90

Roses for Florida Homes --------.......................................... 92
Roses for Cutting ------. -----..........----................................. 92
Disease Control -----------.......- .-....-.. -.......................-...--104
Insect Control ------............ -....--- .. .................107
Climbing Roses --------------......... ...-- .-------..--..108
Watering ..........------...........--- .... ......................111
Pruning .-----......... ..-- .... .. ...... --- ...............-........ 112
Floribunda Roses .......-------...........------.............113
Tree Roses -------- -------------... ..... ............113
Miniature Roses .---- -.---------......... ........................ 113

Orchids ...---------.-...................................... 114

Index ....------- ----------------............. ........... ..--..118
Plant Name Index (Common and Scientific) ----..............----.... ....120

COVER: Natural color photograph courtesy of The Orchid Jungle,
Homestead, Florida.

Florida fiha the' largest and most varied plant life of any state
in the nation. Many beautiful exotic plants thrive in our oceanic
climate, which is characterized by heavy rainfall, high humidity,
comparatively mild winters and predominantly acid soil. From
foreign lands the world around, plant hunters have introduced
some of the most beautiful plants known to horticulture and
many of these became dependable components of our home ground
plantings. In Florida, gardening is a twelve months' job, and
we are fortunate that a long list of native and exotic plants
may be grouped together to assure satisfying, though changing,
compositions every month in the year.

Science has contributed much to the art of gardening through
plant breeding.. Annuals, perennials and roses available today
are a far cry from those of grandmother's garden. Size has been
increased, new bright, clear colors have been introduced, the plants
are more vigorous and resistant to disease and, apparently, their
ability to tolerate adverse conditions has been much .improved.

Many aids have been developed that make gardening less
laborious and much 'more of a certainty. New lethal chemicals
are effective in reducing the ravages of insects and losses by
disease. Soil fumigants, efficacious in controlling the root-knot
nematode, weeds and disease will undoubtedly be much less ex-
pensive in the future. Hormone-like and chemical weed killers
are great aids in lawn making and power mowers have taken
much of the drudgery out of lawn maintenance.

The fact that it is possible to establish gardens quickly and
maintain them in attractive condition the year around makes a
lasting impression upon first-time visitors. Permanent residents
are conscious of the value of beautiful settings for their homes and
they consider well spent, the time and effort that they expend in
gardening. Many expert hobby-gardeners in all sections of our
state have developed skill in growing specialized groups of plants.

Trees for framing and background, a lawn for foreground, base
plantings to relate the house harmoniously with the ground, and
annuals, perennials and roses for seasonal color and for cutting
all contribute immeasurably to the attractiveness of our homes.


Annuals are especially valuable in Florida, as many of them
are in bloom during winter months, contributing splendidly toward
a colorful garden and producing endless blossoms for cutting.
Other more tender annual species are depended upon to give
us flowers during the trying months of June, July, August and
September, persistently blooming through the heat and heavy rains
that come during summertime.
One may have a colorful garden and cut flowers every month
in the year by judiciously selecting varieties and planting seeds
at proper intervals to give a succession of plants for bedding.
Annual plants may be roughly divided into two groups as to
seasonal adaptation. First, and possibly most important, are those
hardy, frost resisting, cool-weather plants, the seeds of which are
sown in autumn, that they may take advantage of the temperate
climate of the months from November to May.
Second are those tender, heat-tolerant, pest-resistant plants that
defy the high temperatures, heavy rains and numberless garden
pests of summer. Seeds of this second tender group are best
planted in the months of February through August in those por-
tions of the state that experience freezing temperatures, but in
the frost-free areas they are planted at any time of the year.
The uses of annuals are endless. The variety of colors, the
differences in height and habit of growth, the ways in which they
lend themselves to effective flower arrangements, account in part
for the tremendous popularity of this group of blooming plants.
Indeed it is a drab garden that does not display annuals as edgings,
as bold but incidental color masses in shrubbery bays or in the
bright striking borders that are so essential in our modern gardens.
Although the permanent woody shrubs are always to be pre-
ferred for foundation plantings about buildings, and to enclose the
garden, sometimes a temporary planting is desirable and then
the annuals, especially the tall growing sorts, will serve the
purpose admirably.
As window box materials and porch plants, annuals are indis-
pensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a sunny
piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy, pest-resist-


ant annuals whose seeds may be sown broadcast and forgotten.
Many of our flowers such as annual phlox, annual blanket flower,
periwinkle, coreopsis, and, petunia can be used in this manner;
they will volunteer each year, supplying endless numbers of color-
ful blossoms with the least possible care.

It is an established fact among successful growers that the
best seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of
course :there-is no best source, or seed house, but an old reliable
concern that has a big turn-over,, that buys large quantities of
seeds from established producers, can be depended upon to dis-
tribute fresh seeds of excellent quality. In many cases, experienced
flower growers buy seeds direct from the specialist who produces
them and who has spent years of careful work and study develop-
ing good strains. Fresh seeds from true-to-name, robust parents
contribute in a large way toward a successful garden of annuals.
Most novice gardeners think that they will get the widest range
of colors and most interesting forms if they plant packets of mixed
seeds, those bargain mixtures that appear at the end of each
listing in their seed catalog. It is true that there is a color range,
but these colors are often inferior, and the plants may not be
robust growers. More pleasing results can be obtained by group-
ing plants of- one color together which is not possible when using
mixed seed. After long experience, it is the firm conviction of
these gardeners that the most expensive seeds sold by separate
colors will produce the best flowers.
Seedsmen publish impressive descriptions of their .novelties
each year, and as some of these annuals have won places in the
All America Selection Trials they deserve the prominence that
they are given in seed catalogs. Some new varieties are produced
by chemical treatments to induce internal changes. Tetraploid
snapdragons and gaillardias are examples. The most exciting
development perhaps is the application of Fl hybridization to
annual flowering plants. True F 1 hybrids, when compared with
the older varieties, are bigger, more rapid growing plants with
many flowers in bloom at a time and on plants alike as "peas
in a pod." Hybrid seed is more expensive because it is all
hand pollinated; from parents especially selected for outstanding
characteristics. Although the resulting plant is far superior to


either parent it is useless' fpr the home gardener to save ahy seed
that might be produced since they will not reproduce true to type
in the second generation. Instead, fresh'seed must be purchased
annually that is produced from the same original parent varieties.
You are urged to try a packet or so of new varieties that seem
especially attractive. It should be borne in mind that perhaps
these new annuals have not been tried in your section, and they
may not be adapted to your local conditions. On the other hand,
almost aniy annual 'will grow in Florida if it is fitted into the
seasbn'that fills its'needs, and therefore, success should attend your
trial- of:msf novelties. Our gardefis wbvldd;erAainly be common-
plade if no one ever tried the newer annuals and it can be said
that the standbys of today were the novelties of yesterday.
When you buy started seedlings from your florist or nursery-
man they are usually from mixe4 packets of bulk seeds, so you
cannot expect to grow the choicest prize winning annuals unless
you sow top quality seeds yourself.

.To get a good stand of seedlings and to protect them from the'
dread,,disease, damping-off, requires planningand careful man-
agement. During August, September and October when most
annuals are planted, the warm weather is very favorable to the
growth of damping-off organisms and one may lose a considerable
portion of his seedlings.
Sowing seeds in flats is preferable to open ground planting
because conditions may be more easily controlled. A flat is a
shallow box of any convenient size that has plenty of drainage holes
or cracks in the bottom to allow water to pass freely out of the
compost. Thorough drainage is important as young garden plants
can not grow in a water-logged soil. In the bottom of the flat
should be placed a layer of pine straw, fallen leaves, dead grass
clippings or other coarse material so that soil will not wash
through.the drainage holes.
The earth used in seed flats may be any fertile mixture that
has a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such as cow
manure, oak leaves, or peat. If a compost pile can be laid up with
alternating layers of hammock soil, and one o above, an excellent compost should be the 'result.


s Pasteurization of soil for seedling flats is highly recommended.
Moist soil cooked at about 160 degrees for a couple of hours
should be free of damping-off, nematodes and most weed seeds. If
pasteurization by heat is not feasible,; the soil may be treated with
formalin or one of the soil-fumigants obtainable at your seed store.
Formalin (40 percent formaldehyde), is used at ,the rate of 21/2
tablespoonfuls to each bushel- of soil. The formalin.,is diluted
with,5 parts of water and sprinkled over thesoil and mixe, in.
Aliow the treated soil to stand for a day before -ow\.ing seed or
air out until no odor is detected before using, for tender little
Several organic materials prescribed for the control ,o~- dfN-
ing-off are also for sale at your seed store. Semesan, lyg t tmR
Fermate, Karbam and others, when mixed in water, and jgEr
exactly as directed, should prevent damping-off, or arrests)fr
development if it has started in your seedlings. .
Novel substances are used as media for germinating' seeds.'
With these, chemical damping-off controls should not be needed,
Sphagnum moss is one of the best of these because of its high
water-holding capacity, excellent aeration and freedom from damp'
ing-off. The usual soil mixture is filled in to about half the
depth of the flat; over this is screened a one-inch blanket of
sphagnum moss. After this is soaked, the seeds are sown and
then they are covered with an additional half-inch of the screened
moss. Because harmful fungi do not grow well in this spongy
medium, garden seedlings will usually be quite free of damping-off.
Supplementary feeding is necessary if seedlings are left in the
sphagnum moss medium for several weeks. Simply mix an ounce
or so of your favorite balanced fertilizer in a gallon of water
and. sprinkle this between the rows just as the seedlings begin
to look yellow and stunted.
As sphagnum moss is native to Florida it may be gathered
along drainage ditches in flatwoods areas and on the low mucky
shores of cypress ponds.
Another useful medium for germinating seeds is yermiculite.
This is a form of mica that is expanded at very high temperatures
to make a flaky, granular substance that is sterile, retentive of
moisture yet well aerated and very pleasant to handle. Vermicu-
lite may be used in the method described above for sphagnum


moss, but it must be allowed to remain loose and fluffy. If
vermiculite is packed, good aeration is sacrificed and proper
drainage is impaired.
Vermiculite may be purchased from your seedsman or hard-
ware dealer.
Firm the soil within half an inch of the top with a block of
wood and flood with water. After the liquid has drained through,
sift the seeds on the wet surface. Some growers broadcast the
seeds, others like to drill them in neat rows. Cover lightly by
sifting sand, sandy-loam or peat through a screen over the seeds.
Covering seeds too deeply is a common error. Generally speaking,
if the seeds be just barely hidden, good results may be expected.
The final operation is to cover the flat with a pane of glass or a
moist newspaper. The latter is preferred by many growers because
water flooded in on top of the paper will seep through gently
and evenly to soak all of the soil in the flat yet the seeds cannot
be washed out. In any case, the wet newspaper or the pane of
glass must be removed as soon as the seeds commence to germinate
or the seedlings will be leggy and misshapen. Place the flats
on boxes or benches that are protected from ants, and during
the warm weather of early autumn select the coolest possible
location. The north side of a building, under a tree or an open
shed should do nicely.
The "wick method" of watering seed flats or pots has merit
for the home gardener when properly used. This system has the
advantage of supplying a uniform supply of moisture at all times
without constant supervision and attention. The bottom of the
flat is covered with a newspaper and a hole approximately /2
inch in diameter is bored if there are no cracks in the bottom.
A wick is inserted through this hole and when properly prepared
provides a path up which water is drawn to replace the moisture
lost by the soil. The wick should be about 5 inches long and
loosened at one end a distance of about 12 inches. Glass wicks
may be obtained from garden supply stores and used for many
years. Cloth wicks, lasting but one year, are easily made by
rolling a piece of clean burlap 5 inches long by 3 inches wide
or a piece of clean cheesecloth 5 inches wide by 15 inches long
into a roll approximately 5 inches long and 1/ inch in diameter.
The top of the roll is slit in several places so that the end can
be laid back at right angles to the body of the roll. When


correctly inserted the frayed end of the wick forms a circle about
3 inches in diameter in the bottom of the flat with the wick
hanging down into a container of water. The soil is then pressed
firmly into all corners and around the sides so that close contact
is established between the wick and the soil. Water thoroughly
before sowing the seeds, then rest the flat on a support so that
the wick hangs down in a container of water.
After germination, the flats must be placed where the seedlings
can get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade, the
seedlings will grow into wedk, leggy plants. A muslifn shide, such
as is used for celery or tobacco seedbeds, allows sufficient light
to penetrate to the young plants. Shortly after germination, the
flats may receive an application of a compound for the control of
damping-off. Water should be carefully applied through a fine
When the seedlings show about four true leaves, they may be
transplanted to well prepared beds where they are to bloom.
Choose a cool, cloudy afternoon for transplanting if it is at all
possible, and set the plants about 12 to 18 inches apart. Close
planting is desirable to assure bold color masses. Experienced
gardeners often use a starter solution at transplanting time. The
use of a weak fertilizer solution to water in the new plants is
beneficial as long as the concentration of fertilizer is not high
enough to burn the tender roots. Great care should be exercised
in watering the young plants until they are well established. Over-
watering can be as harmful as under-watering.
Annuals which have very large seeds and those which do not
transplant readily are planted in the open ground where they are
to bloom, much the same as vegetables are handled. Sow the
seeds thinly in shallow drills or trenches. Cover lightly with soil
and sprinkle with a damping-off control. The drills or rows may
be covered with wet strips of burlap. If this material is used,
water will not wash the seeds out of the soil, and the earth stays
uniformly moist. If ants are abundant, DDT, rotenone or chlor-
dane dust should be sprinkled liberally along the rows. As soon
as the seeds germinate, the burlap must be removed, and a
second application of the damping-off control may be made if
necessary. When the plants are well established, thin so that
they stand about 12 to 18 inches apart.


SAlthough the (majority of annuals is grown from seeds, it is.
sometimes desirabn to propa2ate a particularly, fine individual by
cuttings. Tip cuttings about 3 inches gong inseted in clefn, coarse
sand.should root in two or .tree weeks. A box rwith- plenty of
drainage holes may be used to contain the sand., The sand should
be kept moist, the cuttings protected from sun, wind or cold.
When the r6ots are an inch or so in length the cuttings may be
potted up or planted whete they are to bloom. Some annuals thit
will grow readily from cuttings ari crirnat.ions, chrysanthemums
(annual), petunias, pinks, snapdragons, 'tlrenias and verbenas.

Special preparation of the soil is usually necessary if thrifty
plants which produce large numbers of flowers of good substance
are expected. If the native soil be light, sandy and low in organic
matter, it should be built up 'by using good quantities of rotted
manure, rotted leaves, hammock soil, or peat. If the soil, on the
other hand, is low and subject to flooding, adequate drainage
should be provided. Beds raised about 12 inches:'with ditches
between'them should be satisfactory for annuals. Much evidence'
points to the value of mulching and after the plants are set where
they are to bloom, a blanket of peat, rotted nianure or oak leaves
will preserve the moisture, keep the 'roots' 'ol; and discourage
weed growth. ::
After the plants have been growing in their permanent positions
for about six weeks and are well established, 'a schedule of regular
feeding may be started. A balanced vegetable or lawn and garden
fertilizer which contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potash together'
with traces of the minor elements should be used to insure robust
plants and an abundance of blooms. A light sprinkling of' this
balanced fertilizer every two or three weeks is much preferred:
ove, heavier feedings at great intervals. If annuals 'are growing
under a mulch of leaves, the fertilizer can be sprinkled on top
and watered in; if you are using a hoe for clean cultivation the
fertilizer should be lightly hoed in, followed by ample irrigation.
In small gardens, liquid fertilizers are frequently used to advantage.
Ordinarily annuals are not fed in punch-bar holes as are trees
and large shrubs.


While most authorities insist that annuals will grow best
under a mulch of leaves or .compost, some gardeners prefer clean
cultivation for this group of plants. Annuals grown in drifts in
front of shrubbery for garden decoration are usually set quitq
close together so ,that an over-all effect of solid color results. A
long handled scuffle hoe is. the best tool for stirring the ground
between the closely set plants. When annuals are grown in straight
rows,, the middles may be kept free of weeds and grass most
efficiently with a garden plow. However, if the garden is not
large enough to justify this implement, a scuffle hoe will do
an excellent job. The old-fashioned gooseneck garden hoe is a
poor .third choice, yet many. gardeners still employ this ancient
chopping tool. A blade that cuts no deeper than an inch or so
will not injure root systems to any great extent.
Frequent cultivation is indicated while the plants are small
and during the warm weather of springtime. When the plants
touch to shade the ground, cultivation is discontinued.
Choose a clear afternoon to work in your garden of annuals so
that the bright sun and the wind will assure prompt desiccation
of the weeds as they are turned out of the earth.

It has been said that it is possible to grow almost any garden
annual in Florida provided that it is fitted into the season that
fulfills its needs. While we are fortunate ii being able to grow
many annuals to perfection, our climate is favorable to the rapid
development of many virulent diseases and noxious insects. Be-
cause of the prevalence of garden ills it is necessary for Florida
gardeners to protect their charges constantly with effective fungi-
cides and lethal insecticides.
Fermate and Captan are highly effective against leaf spotting
diseases when used exactly according to directions. Dithane and
Phygon have many uses, too. The compounds are frequently
combined with other fungicides such as wettable sulphur and
with insecticides like DDT, roteone, or pyrethrum to be sold as
one-shot, all-purpose sprays.
Insofar as insecticides are concerned, DDT, widely publicized,


is quite widely employed. As noted above, it is frequently mixed
with other chemicals. It must be remembered that DDT is not
recommended for aphids. For these and some other sucking insects,
malathion is recommended. For chewers, chlordane is good. Para-
thion, because of its extreme toxicity to humans, is not recom-
mended for the home gardener. Instead, malathion is much to
be preferred. This chemical controls a wide variety of insects
and according to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, is much
safer to handle. Research now in progress will undoubtedly
bring._to _thefore. many new and. extremely_.patentainsecticides.-
For controlling red spider mites, Kelthane used according to
printed directions, is highly recommended.
If your garden is a large one, you will want, to invest in a
wheelbarrow sprayer. These efficient implements are available in
single or double-wheeled models, with or without rubber tires.
Wheelbarrow sprayers operated by hand are simple machines, easy
to clean, easy to repair. Those with pumps driven by little
gasoline engines or electric motors are capable of producing very
high pressure and they do an excellent job of atomizing the liquid.
If your place is of medium size and you have a regular yard-
man, perhaps a five gallon brass, knapsack sprayer would be a
good type to own but if you must do the work yourself, much less
messy to use are the stirrup pumps that pull the liquid out of
a water bucket that stands nearby on the ground. These pumps
are simple, inexpensive and they give very good coverage. The
small compressed air sprayers are effective for the home gardener.
These sprayers are available in a range of capacities from one
gallon up. The tire pump type of mechanism in the center of the
sprayer permits the operator to pump up the air pressure within
the tank so that when the spray is released, the materials come
out in a fine mist giving good coverage.
Small inexpensive dusters are an abomination. All-aluminum
knapsack jobs with plastic bellows should be satisfactory for a
large garden, while a very small plot of flowers can be dusted
with one of the little cardboard expendable tubes that are for
sale ready-packed with a shot-gun mixture.
Cartridges that are screwed on the end of your hose to dispense
a chemical in the water that rushes past are used by some with
success. These attractive little gadgets have fair killing power.



Annuals for Cutting
Aster, baby's breath, bells of Ireland, blanket flower, blue-
eyed African daisy, blue lace-flower, browallia, butterfly flower,
calendula, California-poppy, calliopsis, candytuft, cape-marigold,
carnation, chrysanthemum (annual), clarkia, cone-flower, corn-
flower, cosmos (both species), crotalaria, cup-flower, cuphea,
dahlia, delphinium, Flora's paintbrush, floss flower, gilia, godetia,
globe amaranth, hollyhock, hunnemannia, larkspur, lupine, mari-
gold, mignonette, Moroccan toadflax, mourning bride, nasturtium,
painted-tongue, pansy, phlox, pinks, poppy, strawflower, scarlet
flax, snapdragon, spider-flower, stock, statice, sunflower, Swan
River daisy, sweet pea, tithonia, zinnia.

Annuals That Readily Re-seed Themselves
Alyssum, blanket-flower, blue-eyed African daisy, California-
poppy, calliopsis, Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos, (sulphureus),
crotalaria, floss-flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroc-
can toadflax, rose moss, nicotiana, petunia, phlox, poppies, spider-
flower, sunflower, tithonia, wish-bone flower, zinnia.

Annuals for Window Boxes or Porches
Alyssum, balsam, begonia, carnation, cuphea, cup-flower, double
English daisy, floss flower, lobelia, mignonette, rose moss, nastur-
tium, pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, verbena, wish-bone flower.

Annuals for Rock Gardens
Alyssum, begonia, butterfly flower, California-poppy, candy-
tuft, cape-marigold, cuphea, cup flower, double English daisy,
Flora's paintbrush, floss flower (dwarf), lobelia, mignonette, Mo-
roccan toadflax, rose moss, pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, pinks,
snapdragon (dwarf), stock, verbena, viola, wish-bone flower.

Annual Vines
Cypress-vine, gourd, morning glory, nasturtium (climbers),
sweet pea.


Annuals for Edgings
Alyssum, begonia, calendula, cone flower, cuphea, double English
daisy, floss flower ,(dwarf), phlox, snapdragon (dwarf), tagetes,
lobelia, marigold (dwarf), Moroccan toadflax, rose moss, pansy,
viola, wish-bone flower, zinnia (lilliputs and Mexican hybrids).

Plant These Annuals in the Fall for Winter
and Spring Bloom
Alyssum, bab)"; breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
browallia, butterfly flower, calendula, California-poppy, calliopsis,
candytuft, 'cpe-marigold, carnation, Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia,
cornflower,; cone-flower, cuphea, cup-flower, delphinium, double
English daisy, Flora's paintbrush, gilia, godetia, hollyhock, hunne-
mannia, larkspur, lobelia, lupine, mignonette, Moroccan toadflax,
mourning bride, nicotiana, painted-tongue, pansy, petunia, phlox,
pinks, poppy, scarlet flax, snapdragon, stock, statice, Swan River
daisy, sweet pea, viola.

Plant These Annuals in the Early Spring
for Summer Bloom
Aster, balsam, begonia, bells of Ireland, blue lace-flower, celosia,
chrysanthemum (annual), cosmos (both species), crotalaria, cypress-
vine, dahlia, floss flower, globe amaranth, gourd, marigold, morning
glory, rose moss, nasturtium, spiderflower, strawflower, sunflower,
tagetes, tithonia, verbena, wish-bone flower, zinnia.

Alyssum (Lobularia maritima)*
The several varieties of sweet alyssum, with white or lilac
flowers, are among the best annuals for edging. Low-growing,
seldom exceeding a height of 12 inches, this plant should have a
place in every garden and window box.
Colorful purple Royal Carpet has an extremely dwarf carpet-
like habit of growth, seldom getting more than 3-4 inches tall.
In some localities it has not done well in conditions of extreme
heat and full sun so its culture should be restricted to the cooler
*..The: nomenclature in this .bulletin.follo.ws that .of .Manual of. Cultivated
Plants, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan, New York, 1949.


Of easiest culture, extremely hardy, sweet alyssum may be
sown every. month in the year, except during mid-summer, and
will bloom in four to six weeks. Volunteer seedlings are usually
abundant about older plants.
The scuffle hoe will be needed often to keep alyssum edgings
neat and trim. As a window box plant it will benefit from a
light mulch of peat. Annual alyssum in Florida is usually free
of insect pests and diseases.

Aster-China Aster (Callistephus chinensis)
The annual aster as we know it today is a highly developed
horticultural plant. This annual is not to be confused with the
smaller flowered perennial aster native to America.



The annual China aster is an old favorite, prized as a cut
flower on account of its variety of color and form and its grace
in a cut flower arrangement. The American branching group and
some of the new earliest blooming varieties appear to do well in
Florida. Unfortunately, a host of insects and diseases prey upon
the China aster and for this reason great care should be taken to
grow the plants in new soil each year, to give the plants a bit of
shade and to keep them in a vigorous growing condition at all
times. Even the most careful grower frequently experiences
difficulty with his asters. Leaf hoppers and aphids carry yellows
and other diseases and consequently aster plants should receive
applications of sptays or dusts that will keep the plants clean.

Baby's Breath (Gypsophila elegans)
The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three varieties of
annual baby's breath are handy to have for fill-in-material. The
tiny flowers-on- wiry stems add a daintiness to an arrangement
that might be lacking in grace.
Baby's breath blooms quickly from the time of sowing and

Baby's Breath


unfortunately passes quickly into seed production so several plant-
ings at monthly intervals are to be recommended if the blossoms
are wanted over a long period.

Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)

Of easy culture, the quick-growing, cheerful balsam is well
worth using as a window-box subject, porch plant or as a border
in a shady place. The newer kinds of this old favorite are striking
in form and color. The seedlings should be pinched several times
so as to assure stocky, well-shaped plants, the tips of the finest
ones stuck in sand as cuttings.

Begonia (Begonia semperflorens)

Of great value for winter gardening in tourist sections of ex-
treme southern Florida are the fibrous-rooted, brilliant flowered
begonias of the semperflorens class. In other sections, these tender
annuals should not be bedded out until danger of frost has passed.
There are excellent standard varieties in your seed catalog,
and, in addition, novelties appear intermittently. Seeds may be
sown in flats of pasteurized, coarse, leafy compost in the autumn.
If you prefer, the dust-like seeds can be sown in sphagnum or
vermiculite as described on page 7. The seedlings should be
potted as soon as they are large enough to handle . which is
usually within 8 to 10 weeks and then bedded out from the
earthen containers before they become potbound.
Subject to attack by the root-knot nematode, bedding begonias
are not recommended for soils which are known to be infested
with these parasites and so they are frequently grown in beds of
specially prepared soil.

Bells of Ireland (Molucella laevis)

This unusual annual flowering plant branches from the base
with stems up to two feet long, closely set with large, bell-like
sheaths of translucent green surrounding small white flowers.
Seeds germinate best at low temperatures (around 40F.), and
so poor stands are the general rule. After about four months


when blooms appear, the stems may be cut, and the foliage
carefully removed before arranging. Transplant seedlings in early
springtime to stand about 14 inches apart.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pulchella picta)

Annual blanket flowers, single, semi-double and full double,
are of great value in any garden. The tetraploid variety is also
quite worthwhile. The red and yellow daisy-like blossoms are
desirable for cutting on account of their cheerful colors, long
stiff stems and excellent keeping quality. The blanket flower
is cosmopolitan, volunteering annually and producing abundant
flowers persistently, even on the light sands of the seashore.

Frequent hoeing of the soil and liberal applications of ferti-
lizer are helpful in getting the maximum number of large, full-
double blossoms from your blanket flowers. Keep the flowers
coming by removing the heads as soon as the petals fade.

Blue-Eyed African Daisy (Arctotis stoechadifolia)
Graceful, light blue, daisy-like flowers about 21/2 inches across
with steel blue centers are profusely borne by the plants of
Arctotis. One of the most easily grown of the hardy annuals, it
succeeds in trying situations, volunteering year after year. The
flowers close in the afternoon, so it is best not to use blue-eyed
African daisies in flower arrangements for the evening. Hybrids
involving A breviscapa have cheerful blossoms in tones of buff.

Blue Lace-Flower (Trachymene caerulea)
The globular blossoms of the lace-flower are composed of
many tiny light blue florets and resemble a sky blue scabiosa
flower. As the plants are not attractive as garden subjects, the
merit of this annual lies solely in the blossoms as cut flowers
which are rather out of the ordinary and lend themselves to attrac-
tive arrangements. Apparently sometimes difficult to grow, the
blue lace-flower is not at all widely planted. Variety "Lace Veil"
is identical to "Blue Lace" except for its pure white flower.
A mulch of oak leaves around the plants is recommended and


insects must be forestalled by the applications of the proper
chemicals at the very first sign. Frequent syringing should keep
the foliage free of red spider mites.

Browallia (Browallia in several species)
This tropical American genus contains several species that
have long been popular with professional gardeners. Of easier
culture, browallias grow from seeds or cuttings to blossom in a
very short while. Usually grown as pot plants and for massing
for color effect, the plants should be kept stocky by pinching and
staking as necessary. Volunteers often occur about old plants.
Singularly free of insect pests and diseases, the browallias are
a pleasure to grow as a change from those plants which require
constant coddling.

Butterfly Flower (Schizanthus pinnatus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is covered
with tiny, orchid-like blooms and always attracts a great deal of
attention. Perhaps because it requires constant care and the most
favorable conditions, the butterfly flower is not often seen in
Florida gardens. Pot culture is preferable to open field planting,
and constant protection against parasites is needed to bring but-
terfly flower into bloom satisfactorily.

Calendula (Calendula officinalis)
A universal favorite, the calendula is one of our most impor-
tant winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers in
shades of orange and yellow are not only excellent as part of the
garden picture but they are unsurpassed as cut flowers. If the
seeds are sown in August-September and the seedlings are pro-
tected from the direct sun for a month or so before bedding out,
blossoms may be cut in December and throughout the winter into
the early spring. The plants will stand considerable cold; even
though the blossoms are blasted by the heavy frost, others will
quickly open with the advent of warmer weather. When low
temperatures are expected, the plants may be protected with piles
of Spanish moss.


Caterpillars which chew the leaves in early autumn are liqui-
dated with a dusting of a ready-made 3% DDT dust which is
available at your feed store. Aphids must be eliminated in winter
time with a malathion spray.

California-Poppy (Eschscholzia californica)
The California-poppy is especially effective when grown in
large groups in a sunny garden. Varieties in creams, white
and red are striking deviations from the typical yellows. Very
hardy, easily grown from broadcast seeds, the California-poppy
should have a place in every garden. The blooms are excellent
as cut flowers when arranged in low containers with their own
foliage. Unfortunately, the flowers close in the evening.

Calliopsis (Coreopsis-several species)
The calliopsis or coreopsis is another type of the numerous
daisy-like flowers that play an important part in Florida garden-
ing. The flowers in shades of yellow, some varieties with maroon




or terra cotta, are borne in profusion on stiff, wiry stems, and
are valuable both in the garden and in bouquets. Of easy culture,
growing in difficult places and often naturalizing in large colonies,
the calliopsis can be most highly recommended to beginning
This annual grows to perfection when the scuffle hoe is used
frequently to keep the earth well stirred. Adequate fertilizer
must be furnished yet little or no attention in the matter of
spraying or dusting is required.

Candytuft (Iberis in two species)
Candytuft in its varieties with white, lilac, crimson umbels of
flowers, is a good subject for edging, for the rock garden or for
cutting. It is similar to sweet alyssum, but is a taller plant and



the flowers are larger. Hardy and not difficult to grow, candytuft
can fill the need, as does sweet alyssum, for a hardy, dwarf, much
branched flowering annual.
An occasional attack of aphids will be noted, and these insects
must then be dispatched with a contact insecticide.

Cape-marigold (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca)
Daisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in.shades of yellow,
buff, orange and salmon, are produced in abundance by the dwarf
spreading plants of Dimorphotheca. The plants do not always
succeed and the flowers close in the evening.

Carnation (Dianthus in several species)
The hybrid annual carnations, highly developed by plant
breeders, will supply everything save size, for which the perfect
florist carnations are prized. The delightful spicy fragrance, the
charming variety of colors, the way in which the flowers lend
themselves to arrangements certainly makes the annual carnation
worth growing. Crown rot should be combatted by watering the
rows with a solution of Spergon, Fermate or Karbam as soon as
the first infected plant is discovered.

Celosia (Celosia in several species)
The red or yellow plumes of the celosias or cockscombs, borne
on robust, quick growing plants, are often seen in summer gardens
and occasionally as -dried bouquets. There are two types: the
plumosa or feathery and the cristata or cockscomb. Tender, but
of easiest culture, celosias succeed during the summer months.
Root-knot nematode is a serious pest and will sometimes take a
heavy toll of seedlings growing in infested soil.

Chinese Forget-Me-Not (Cynoglossum amabile)
For blue flowers in the late spring garden, one should cer-
tainly consider the Chinese forget-me-not. Although it is injured
by frost, it is easy to grow, volunteers readily and blooms in a
comparatively short time. This charming annual deserves a place
in everyone's garden. Possibly its greatest use is for blue color


masses in the spring border, because the flower spikes may wilt
when they are used as cut flowers. The variety, Pink Delight,
has pale orchid-pink flowers.

Chrysanthemum-Annual (Chrysanthemum
in several species)
The perennial chrysanthemums are among the most impor-
tant of the flowers for cutting, yet for daisy-like blossoms that
come earlier than the perennial sorts, we might take advantage
of the annual varieties. These are tender and must be sown after
danger of frost has passed. The plants, which attain a height of
2 or 3 feet, should furnish abundant yellow, white or banded,
small daisy-like flowers during summer time. As the plants are
robust growers, they should stand about two feet apart.

Clarkia (Clarkia in several species)
Native to the western United States, hardy and comparatively
easy to grow during the cool weather of the winter and early
spring, clarkia, although seldom seen in Florida gardens,;is worthy
of trial. The plants, attaining a height of about two feet, produce
spikes of single or double flowers in shades of white, pink,
salmon or red that are worthwhile additions to the annual border
and to flower arrangements.

Coneflower (Rudbeckia spp.)
These attractive native American members of the daisy family,
also called black-eyed Susans, will grow well on fertile soils in
full sun. Seeds may be sown in flats in January or February or
in the open ground in March. The plants may stand about two
feet apart. New varieties display improved colors, form and size.

Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
The cornflower or bachelor's button has long been a favorite
and somehow seems characteristic of the old-fashioned garden.
The single and double flowers of white, pink, red, blue and purple,
borne in profusion in early spring, contribute beautiful clear
colors to the border and are excellent for cutting. Especially
pleasing color combinations may be obtained by planting good


seeds in separate colors. Soil-borne diseases in the late spring
sometimes are fatal to the plants and for this reason it is well to
sow the seeds early and thus have plants that bloom before the
advent of hot weather. Except for this trouble, and for red spider
mites in late spring, the plants are of easy culture, germinating
promptly, transplanting well, and withstanding considerable frost.

Cosmos-Early (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Single, crested or double daisy-like flowers in white, pink or
red that are particularly good for cutting, may be had during
June and July if the seeds of the early cosmos are planted in
March. Tall growing, tender and seldom very attractive as a

Early Cosmos


garden plant in Florida, the chief value of the cosmos lies in the
excellence of its blossoms for summer flower arrangements. The
seeds germinate easily, especially in the single varieties, the plants
grow rapidly and bloom quickly. Staking and careful tying are
recommended to prevent the wind from blowing the plants over
or breaking off the heavy branches.

Cosmos, Late or Klondyke (Cosmos sulphureus)
Yellow flowers are produced in summer and fall by many
members of the composite or daisy family, and with us, one of
the most dependable of the class is the late or Klondyke cosmos
which blooms in autumn. This cosmos succeeds without any care
whatsoever, thriving in abandoned dooryards or very often escaping
from cultivation. Varieties with anemone-type flowers and color
variations are popular.

Crotalaria (Crotalaria spp.)
Principally used as a green manure crop for agricultural lands,
several species of crotalaria bear very attractive golden flowers in
the autumn and are often used in flower arrangements. The hard,
pea-like seeds are sown in the open ground in March and the
seedlings thinned to stand about a foot and a half apart each way.
Volunteer seedlings which appear in great numbers may be fertilized
when they are a few inches tall.

Cup-flower (Nierembergia caerulea)
Though a perennial in some sections, it is listed as an annual
in your seed catalog and so grown in Florida gardens. The
diminutive plants, to one-foot in height, bear showy pale lavender,
cup-shaped flowers that have purple centers. The small leaves,
wiry stems and closely-packed blossoms combine to make this
an annual of fine texture that makes a superior edging, facing
down plant, pot plant or window box subject. Seeds should be
planted in flats in the autumn, desirable forms perpetuated by
tip cuttings. The lovely Purple Robe is worth growing.

Cuphea (Cuphea spp.)
If you are attracted by the seed catalog description of the
cuphea Firefly, be assured that it will grow quite well in Florida.


The compact plants of neat habit which freely produce attractive
red flowers make an excellent edging to follow pansies. Seeds
germinate well and tips taken as cuttings will root quickly in
white sand.

Cypress-Vine (Quamoclit pennata)

*. This is a graceful vine whose finely cut foliage and attractive
.Itiny blossoms of white, red or salmon make it a good subject for
"temporary small screens or trellises. It is said that the seeds are
so hard they do not germinate readily unless they are scarified,
but given fair conditions, volunteers often grow where the vine has
seeded. Ordinarily, the best and most heavily flowered cypress-
vines are those that are mulched with cow manure or oak leaves
and frequently watered.

Dahlia (Dahlia spp.)

Almost as easy to grow as zinnias, the dwarf annual cutting
dahlias listed in your seed catalog as Unwin Hybrids, should
succeed on rich organic soils that are well supplied with moisture.
Seeds may be planted in flats or in the open just as danger of
frost has passed, the plants transplanted to stand 2 feet apart, then
heavily mulched with leaves. Blossoms should be produced in
mid-summer. As with all dahlias, root-knot, red spider mites,
aphids and flower-thrips are to be contended with.

Delphinium (Delphinium in several species)

Several species of delphinium are widely grown as annuals in
Florida. Fresh seeds, comparatively cool weather, a constant
moisture supply, and a soil that is free from disease seem to be
essential to a good stand of healthy seedlings. If sown in early
autumn, delphinium should be blooming in March and April.
Always popular in flower arrangements and as subjects for the
spring border, annual delphiniums are certainly worth growing.
A serious crown-rot disease, Sclerotium rolfsii, may be held in
check by drenching the delphinium rows with a solution of New
Improved Ceresan.



Double English Daisy (Bellis perennis)
Although the English daisy or bellis is really a perennial, in
Florida usually it will not thrive after advent of warm weather
in May and is grown as a winter annual so that it may enjoy the
cool growing season. The charming double flowers of white, pink
or red are borne singly on stems about four inches above the flat,
tight rosettes of shining green leaves. If plants are properly
grown and set in close masses, the effect is particularly delightful.

Flora's Paintbrush (Emilia sagittata)
Clusters of gay scarlet, tassel-like or brush-like flowers on
stiff stems about 18 inches long are produced by Flora's paintbrush
in the spring. Of easiest culture and ordinarily quite free of pests,
this annual is commended to beginning gardeners. Numerous
light hoeings together with the usual applications of fertilizer
and generous watering will make for success.


Flora's Paintbrush

Floss Flower (Ageratum in several species)

For blue flowers during the summer, nothing surpasses the
floss flower or ageratum. Equally desirable as garden material or
for cutting, the soft lacy flowers are an adjunct to every garden
and lend themselves very well to color combinations and special
effects. There are dwarf sorts as well as tall varieties in white,
pink, or shades of blue. The plants are of easiest culture, seedlings
usually volunteering in abundance about old plants. Ageratum
is injured by frost so bedding out should not be done until danger
has passed. Tip cuttings root readily in' early summer.
Pests (excepting for red spider mites) and diseases are usually
not of great moment, though liberal watering during periods of


Floss Flower

drought will result in best growth by these shallow-rooted, warm
weather annuals from south of the border.

Gilia (Gilia spp.)
Another blue flower of merit that blooms in the late spring is
gilia. The foliage, lacy and fern-like, is an attractive feature in
itself. The flowers are rough, globular heads, about an inch in
diameter, and are borne in profusion all over the plant. Blue-
flowered hybrid gilia has proved its ability to thrive here and
should be more widely grown. Standing cypress (gilia rubra),
is a tall red-flowered, spire-like perennial that is native to Florida.

Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa)
As this plant is sometimes called bachelor's button, it should
not be confused with the cornflower (Centurea) which also goes
by that common name. The globe amaranth thrives during hot



weather, producing myriads of white or red, globular flowers that
resemble clover heads. In texture they are harsh, woody, like
strawflowers or statice and are used for permanent or dried
bouquets. Tender, but of easy culture, volunteering in great pro-
fusion, the globe amaranth can be depended upon to succeed
under almost any conditions during the summer.

Godetia (Godetia spp.)
Although the godetia or satin flower, like the gilia and clarkia,
is not often seen, it will succeed in Florida, especially in a partially
shaded situation, and it undoubtedly deserves consideration as
a spring flowering annual. The open, primrose-like flowers of
white, rose or red are borne on spikes about 18 inches long. The
seeds germinate well in the, autumn and the young seedlings,


which closely resemble snapdragon plants, grow off quickly and
the losses from transplanting are negligible.
Shiny black beetles that attack godetia plants may be held in
check by dusting with 3% DDT.


Gourds in their many varieties bear interesting, unusual fruits
of multitudinous shapes. For temporary screens during the summer
or to cover stumps or small buildings, they serve. Seeds should
be sown in well-drained, sunny locations when danger of frost
has passed.
Many times aphids will congregate on the undersides of the
leaves in great numbers, and for this reason the vines must be
sprayed at regular intervals with an approved contact insecticide.
As gourd vines are attacked by root-knot nematodes, they should
be grown on new ground, heavy land or in earth that has been
treated with one of the soil fumigants available at your seed house.

Hollyhock (Althea rosea)

For many years it was thought that hollyhocks would not grow
in Florida, but the introduction of an annual strain in the thirties
made it possible for us to have hollyhocks with single or double
blossoms that are the equal of those found in northern gardens.
Seeds of an annual strain should be sown in September. Holly-
hocks will be benefited by positions near buildings so that the
roots may be protected by the structure. Occasionally hollyhocks
will live over and sometimes volunteer seedlings will appear,
but generally speaking, fresh seeds should be sown each autumn.
Red spider mites may put in their appearance during spring
dry spells, so syringe your hollyhocks frequently, yet if the mites
become established, dust the plants thoroughly with fine dusting
sulphur or spray with Aramite or Kelthane for a sure control.

Hunnemannia (Hunnemannia fumariaefolia)
The hunnemannia, sometimes called tulip poppy, resembles a
sulphur-yellow California-poppy of .giant .size, coarser and of



greater substance. The plants, about two feet in height, are very
prolific, hardy and easy of culture after germination. Difficulty
in getting a good stand is the general rule. Like the poppies, the
seedlings do not transplant readily and for this reason the seeds
should be sown where the plants are to bloom. Hunnemannia is
an excellent source of sulphur yellow color in the late spring border
and as a cut flower it excels because of its attractive tulip form.

Larkspur (Delphinium spp.)
The well-known larkspur is so popular, so widely grown, that
it seems hardly necessary to describe this valuable annual. Single
and double flowers of white, buff, rose, blue, lavender and purple
are borne on tall spikes during the early spring. Some of the
named varieties having very double flowers of clear colors, are
very charming, and should find places in every garden. These
are specially desirable if color combinations are to be worked out.
Frequently larkspur seeds fail to germinate if they are planted

Dahlias from seeds grown in sterilized soil are sprightly, cheerful little
annuals that are sure to please.

v-ln-o rc rlrl honltYv nd C- lnr to Florida homes.

Petunias are favorites with everyone, and plants from seeds sown in the
autumn, should give a riot of color in early springtime. Rich, new colors
are available in named varieties.

The color range in isl
makes these very p( pi

Since mid-century, asters have
been improved to a notable de-


early in the fall. Because this is a distinctly cool-weather plant,
it is probably best to wait until November, then sow the seeds
thinly in shallow drills, firm them into the ground and water
with a fine spray without covering. Volunteer seedlings often
appear in late fall where plants bloomed the previous season.
These seedlings, however, usually produce single flowers in colors
that are not so clear nor so attractive as are those from fresh
seeds. The young plants are hardy, transplant very readily and
react very favorably to good care. Drench the rows with a solution
of New Improved Ceresan as soon as you discover the first plant
dying from infection by the crown rot known as Sclerotium rolfsii.

Lobelia (Lobelia erinus)
Lobelias, in their beautiful shades of blue, may be had in
dwarf compact forms, which are desirable for edging and also in
trailing or hanging forms which are used in pots, boxes and
baskets. The charming dwarf plants, under six inches in height, of
many tiny branches, are covered with tiny blue flowers through-
out the blooming season. Unfortunately, they demand cool weather,
but cannot stand freezing, so they must be grown during the
winter and receive protection on cold nights. The seeds germinate
well and quickly produce good stands of robust plants. For good
color effects the plants should be set no farther than 4 to 6
inches apart.

Lupine (Lupinus spp.)

As subjects for a tall border, the annual lupines are very
effective, and they are no less striking as cut flowers. Spikes of
white, pink and shades of blue are numerous in the spring. Sow
the seeds where the plants are to stand and thin the seedlings to
12-inch intervals in the row. Usually the plants grown from
Florida-grown seeds are entirely satisfactory.
While it is the consensus that most annual flowers will grow
best with a mulch instead of mechanical cultivation, the lupines
will grow and bloom very satisfactorily when they are lightly hoed
enough to keep the rows free of weeds and grass. These hardy
annuals need little attention in the matter of spraying.


- "" "" I,* '-- I'. .
'," . '. -

Annual Lupine

Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
The so-called African marigold is tall, erect, attaining a height
of three feet and bears large globular flowers that range in color
from palest yellow to deepest orange. This type is valuable at
the back of borders where height is desired. The blossoms are
among the best for cutting during summer and fall. There are
also varieties with odorless foliage.
The catalog-named French and Mexican marigolds are compact
and dwarf, ranging from 9 to 16 inches in height, and are good
subjects for edging and for positions in front of other, taller plants.
In late September through October, when most annuals are
out of season, the marigolds, in their many forms and varieties,
contribute their striking yellow and orange flowers to our gardens
whose brightness has begun to wane. Withstanding heat and
drought, thriving where many plants would perish, free from
pests, the marigolds are exceedingly useful in the garden and in
the home. Annually, new sorts are introduced by the seedsmen
and these are all worthy of wide trial. Seeds germinate well and
quickly, and the seedlings are easy to handle.


Mignonette (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for mignonette a place in
everyone's heart. The dwarf plant which bears the odd flower
trusses of this old favorite grows well during cool weather. Of no
particular beauty so far as color or design is concerned, the chief
value of mignonette is its use in bouquets of flowers which have
no odor of their own. Difficulty is often encountered in getting
the seeds to germinate and hot weather is fatal to the plants.
Possibly this old-fashioned annual will succeed best in our
state if it is grown in containers that do not stand in direct sun-
light. A mulch of peat on the surface of the soil is superior to
mechanical stirring.
Aphids can be kept in check by spraying with a suitable
contact insecticide such as malathion.

Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea)
As an annual vine, nothing can surpass the morning glory, a
vigorous rapid grower which is covered with glorious flowers



throughout the summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds offered
by the seedsmen will produce plants that bear large flowers of
beautiful clear colors. Volunteer seedlings usually have flowers
of inferior quality. The morning glory will make a good screen
or covering for the summer if seeds are sown in February.
A gross feeder, this vine must be provided with liberal quan-
tities of fertilizer, a thick mulch should protect its roots to dis-
courage root-knot nematodes and frequent watering should keep
the soil moist to assure robust growth.

Moroccan Toadflax (Linaria maroccana)
In Florida gardens this little toadflax from Morocco has gained
the popularity it so rightfully deserves. It is a dwarf grower of
exceeding hardiness that bears its spikes of tiny snapdragon-like
flowers throughout the winter and early spring. The small, dark
green leaves are narrow, delicate in texture; the flowers are white,
lemon, pink, blue and purple. The plant self-sows and volunteers
can be used as planting stock year after year.
Blooming profusely, even during frosts, in poor sandy soil,
the toadflax is very much at home with us and can be most
highly recommended for edging, borders, and for rock gardens.
Most seed houses offer strains with delicate pastel shades.
Looking best when grown on clean soil that is frequently
stirred, this diminutive annual succeeds when it is repeatedly
worked with a scuffle hoe.
Uncommonly free of pests, the sprayer is seldom needed for
toadflax edgings.

Mourning Bride (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the mourning bride or pin-
cushion flower furnish a range of color found in no other annual.
From white, through yellow, blue, rose, red, maroon, to an almost
black purple, the colors are most charming, and are, of course,
always harmonious. The plants, which attain a height of about
three feet when well grown, are prolific, thrifty and hardy. The
keeping quality of the blossoms is good, the long stiff stems
make for artistic flower arrangements.


V _
r '-


Nasturtium (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums, if planted after the danger of frost has passed in
northern Florida will furnish an abundance of delightful color and
fragrance for a period of about two months. In southern Florida,
September sowing will provide blooms in winter and spring. The
September sowing will provide blooms in winter and spring. The


many flowers of yellow, orange and maroon make an attractive
addition to the garden and are good for cutting.
The double gleam types are vigorous growers and spread out
in all directions. The gleam hybrids are well adapted to window
boxes as well as for trellises. The dwarf globe or gem types
do well as border plants. Nasturtiums transplant with difficulty
and should be sown where they are to bloom. Old flowers
should be removed to prevent seed formation and to insure
maximum blooming period. Free from pests, and enjoying light
soils, and frequent stirring, the nasturtium well deserve its popu-

Nicotiana (Nicotiana spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of ornamental tobacco
remainclosed and are of little beauty during the day, the principal
value of this plant is for its perfume which is delightful when
the flowers open in the evening. Very much like commercial
tobaccos, the ornamental forms are large, coarse annuals, to three
feet, that succeed during the late spring and summer. Several
different flower colors are available in ornamental tobacco.

Painted-Tongue (Salpiglosis sinuata)
The striking, highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers
of the painted-tongue resemble ornate petunias. A wide range of
bright, bizarre colors is exhibited by the funnel-shaped blossoms.
Germination of the seeds is satisfactory in cool weather, but even
under good cultural conditions, the small plants perish in such
large numbers that continual replacement is necessary. Painted-
tongue is probably most successful in the northern and western
parts of the state on the heavier soils. In peninsular Florida the
plants should be given a northern exposure, the best possible soil
and the protection of a heavy mulch over the roots.
Aphids must be combated upon occasion, and for this purpose
a contact insecticide is indicated.

Pansy (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach pansies for edging or for bedding in
the late winter and early spring. Highly-developed strains are


characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking brilliance
and endless variety of design. The pansy is distinctly a cool
weather plant, seeds will not germinate well in the warmth of late
summer, the young plants that are produced are sickly and slow-
growing. However, if fresh seeds are planted in a cool, shaded
place in late autumn, no difficulty should be experienced. Set
the plants 6 to 8 inches apart so as to obtain a continuous border
without breaks. A stock of plants should be kept on hand for a
while so that dead or unthrifty individuals in the edging may be
replaced. The loss from moving, when properly done, is negligible.
Pansies will stand considerable cold without injury.
As neatness of an edging is of paramount importance, the
ribbons of pansy plants are usually hoed clean. A scuffle hoe is the
best tool to run down both sides, but, to get between the plants, a
finger weeder may be needed. During warm autumn weather
pansy plants occasionally succumb to attacks by Rhizoctonia. A
solution of wettable Spergon, Fermate or Karbam applied through
a sprinkling can should halt the spread of the soil-borne disease.

S- A

Pansies probably are the best annuals for winter edgings
and borders.



Petunia (Petunia hybrida)
No garden would be complete without petunias. In addition
to the tried and proved older bedding varieties which do so well
and provide masses of color in the flower border, there are now
on the market ever increasing numbers of the new F 1 hybrid
petunias which promise to change materially the old conception
about faded washed out colors and weak spindly growth charac-
teristics. These hybrids vastly outproduce the older varieties in
both bloom and vegetation and are characterized by interesting
colors and forms. Some have frilled and ruffled petals while
others are plain petaled. All are superior varieties that deserve
a trial in your garden. Single and double fringed and veined
giants always attract a great deal of attention because of their
unusual texture, size and colors.
The single bedding varieties are very easily grown from seeds,
if the flats are protected from ants. Seeds of the giant ruffled types
are rare and expensive, especially in the double flowered varieties,
because they are the result of hand pollination. Not only are the


seeds expensive, but germination is often slow and uncertain.
Poor stands of small weak plants may result from the sowing of
the seeds of the giant fringed petunias unless the greatest care is
observed in planting, watering and transplanting. The smaller
single sorts are more frost-hardy than are the giants, which should
be protected when sub-freezing weather is expected. The full,
double-fringed varieties can be propagated by placing tip cuttings
in coarse sand in order to perpetuate your best plants.
Either clean cultivation or a mulch of rotted manure will
make for success with these easy-to-grow, hardy annuals. Pests
and diseases are not likely to be troublesome, but the occasional
plant that shows the yellow mottling that is a manifestation of
mosaic disease, must be destroyed.

Phlox. (Phlox drummondi)
Annual phlox is, one.of the easiest of all plants to grow from
seeds. As an edging for ribbon beds, as a ground cover for a
sunny expanse, and for naturalizing, annual phlox is widely ap-
preciated. Self-sown volunteers are numerous in the vicinity of
old plantings and even in places where discarded plants have been



piled. If true, rich, clear colors are wanted, it is best to plant
seeds because the colors deteriorate after about two years.
Annual phlox is relatively free from pests, transplants most
easily, and succeeds in dry, light, sandy soils. The star phlox, with
its irregular, pointed petals, giant flowered types and special dwarf
types are novelties that should be more widely grown.

Pinks (Dianthus in several species)
Pinks are very much at home with us, numerous kinds thriving
as annuals, very often producing a second period of bloom if they
are cut back and fertilized. No attempt will be made to distin-
guish the species or hybrids of Dianthus, but it is suggested that

Annual Pinks


different kinds be tried, so that the gardener can select those
which are best suited to his conditions. There are singles, semi-
doubles and doubles in plain and mixed colors. The hardiness of
the plant, the old-fashioned quaintness of the fragrant blossoms,
the many clear colors, the ease with which the seeds sprout and
grow, commend the annual pinks to everyone who has a garden.
New Improved Ceresan and wettable Spergon may be needed,
upon occasion, to stop the onslaught of soil-borne diseases.

Poppy (Papaver in several species)

Poppies have long been garden favorites, and certainly they
can never lose the universal popularity they have always enjoyed.
The bold, bright colors of the opium poppy and the fragile, fine-
textured, delicately tinted flowers of the Shirley group, offer us
variety in substance, color and design. Poppies do not transplant
well, the seeds do not sprout in hot weather; hence, it is best to
sow the seeds in November, where the plants are to grow. As ants
are very fond of poppy seeds, DDT, rotenone, or chlordane should
be sprinkled along the rows, as protection. Thin the seedlings to
stand a foot or a foot and a half apart. Some varieties of opium
poppy volunteer readily to occupy the same garden spot year
after year.

Rose Moss (Portulacca grandiflora)

For the summer edging or rock garden plant, probably nothing
else equals the rose moss. The leaves are narrow, thick, succulent,
and are completely hidden in a blanket of gay colors in the
mornings when the flowers are open. Shades of buff, salmon,
pink and red are characteristic of the double and single flowers.
The rose moss flourishes under the most trying conditions of
heat, drought and poor soil. The seeds germinate best during
warm weather. The young plants can be moved with very little
loss. Volunteer seedlings should not be used because of the
poorer quality of their flowers. Seeds of the best double strains
will give the most satisfactory color effect. Flowers close in late
afternoon. As the blooming season is short, it is well to have
small plants available by sowing seeds at intervals of six weeks
during the summer.


Rose Moss

Scarlet Flax (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered species of flax is a hardy, bushy annual, of
about two feet in height. Of graceful habit, it is covered with
charming red open flowers throughout the spring. The clear
scarlet is good in the border or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings
are easy to grow, they can be moved with little or no loss, and
they are quite free of pests and diseases. Clean cultivation is
usually the rule for the annual scarlet flax.

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the snapdragon is really a perennial, in Florida it
is treated as an annual because it rarely survives the high tem-
peratures and heavy rains of our summers. Like the pansy and


the larkspur, it is distinctly a cool weather plant and is really
successful only when it is grown through the winter and early
spring months.
The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place which
is protected from ants. After germination, culture is easy, as the
seedlings transplant readily and grow off quickly, producing their
spikes of delightful blossoms in the early spring. Invaluable
as a cut flower, as well as a border subject, the snapdragon is
indispensable in Florida.
There are several newer types that might be of interest. The
tetraploid types with larger ruffled petals, a double variety and
the little dwarf snapdragons to be used as edging material all
should be tried.
Pinching out the top 11/2 inches of the plant after it reaches
a height of 6 to 8 inches will induce bottom branching and will
result in many more bloom spikes per plant. Be sure to leave
at least three sets of leaves on the plant.
In order that the spikes will be straight and of first quality,
snapdragons should be staked and tied after they reach about
eight inches in height. Frequent shallow stirring with a scuffle
hoe is recommended.
As snapdragons are subject to nematode invasion and crown
rot caused by Rhizoctonia, fumigated soil is recommended. Lack-
ing facilities for fumigation, new sites are urged. It will be
recalled that Karbam, Fermate and wettable Spergon will halt the
ravages of Rhizoctonia.

Spider-Flower (Cleome spinosa)
This is a tall garden annual, tropical American in origin,
which finds conditions in Florida much to its liking. As a back-
ground in a flower border where height is needed, spider-flower is
very satisfactory. Seeds may be sown in the open ground during
autumn in southern Florida, in February in the northern part.
Volunteer seedlings are usually numerous where old plants have
When it is grown in front of shrubs as a landscape plant,
spider-flower will succeed with a generous mulch of leaves or
rotted manure. Pests are ordinarily of little concern.


Statice (Limonium in several species)
The annual kinds of statice are well adapted to our gardens,
thriving, if necessary, under difficulties. Limonium sinuatum has
tall spikes of blue or white flowers arising from dwarf, tight



rosettes of lobed, spatulate leaves. L. bonduelli is very similar in
habit, but produces yellow flowers, while L. suworowii, the rat-tail
statice, bears tall graceful spikes of delicate pink flowers. This
last-named species deserves wider trial as it is especially good,
and receives favorable comment wherever seen. All of these kinds
are desirable garden plants, excellent for fresh bouquets or as ever-
lastings. Like straw-flowers-they may be hung in bundles, blossom
end down, to dry. Germination is slow, but the plants are easily
handled, once they become established. Clean cultivation is gen-
eral, care being exercised to make sure that soil is not pulled in
to cover the growing point in the center of the very flat rosette
of foliage. Insects and diseases are usually of little concern.


Stock (Mathiola incana annua)
Stocks are old favorites that have developed wonderfully at
the hands of flower breeders. Full double varieties in many
delightful colors are offered by the seed houses.
The seeds give a good stand and transplanting is easily accom-
plished. The plants should stand 8 to 12 inches apart. Aphids or
plant lice are fond of stock and are sometimes very troublesome.
Malathion is used in controlling these pests. Several soil-borne
diseases that are prevalent during warm weather in old garden
sites, may be reduced by the use of soil-sterilizing compounds.
Warm weather, typical of the usual Florida autumn, may prevent
flower bud formation and thus create a barrier to the successful
flowering. Therefore stock is not recommended for southern Flor-
ida, is often a disappointment in the northern counties.



Strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust annuals which attain a height of some three feet,
and produce many blossoms for dried bouquets, the strawflowers
grow well in Florida. When the buds are about half open, cut
them, strip off the leaves and hang in bundles, blossom end down,
in a shady, well ventilated place until dry. A range of gay colors
is available. Though the plants will stand some cold, it is best
to grow strawflowers after danger of frost has passed.
Clean cultivation is the rule for growing these large annuals
which ordinarily are quite free of insect pests.

Sunflower (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is avail-
able in this group of heat-tolerant annuals. They are good
material for screens, boundaries and for cutting during the months
of May through September if successive sowings of seeds are made.
These should be sown where the plants are to stand, and the seed-
lings should be thinned to two or three foot intervals, depending
upon the habit of the variety. Mildew attacks some varieties but
does little harm, apparently. It can be controlled by dusting with
sulphur or spraying with Mildex at very first signs. Insect pests
create no problem in growing small-flowered sunflowers for cutting.
Clean cultivation is the general rule and abundant plant food
and water are needed to supply the needs of these gigantic annuals.

Swan River Daisy (Brachycome iberidifolia)
An annual of very fine texture whose blossoms are admirably
adapted to use in miniature arrangements is the Swan River daisy.
The plants grow about a foot in height and bear daisy-like blos-
soms that are blue, white or rose in color. The plant may be used
as an edging subject. but it is probably best adapted to cutting.
It is suggested that Swan River daisy be grown in a protected
place and that the roots be insulated by a fertile organic mulch.

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus)
Sweet peas are, without doubt, among the most important of
our winter and spring blooming annuals. Their fragrance, delicacy


of texture and design have won for them a place in everyone's
heart, but at the same time it must be conceded that the host of
pests which prey upon them are most alarming and often most
difficult to control.

The most popular group of sweet peas for Florida was, for
long years, that great class known as the winter-flowering Spencers.
Seeds of these, sown in September, should produce plants that
come into production in time for Christmas. In Florida, Spencer
sweet peas oftentimes produce but one or two blossoms on the
rather short stems.

Now, more vigorous sweet peas that bloom later in the season
are available from your seedsman. Variously known as early
spring flowering-and Cuthbertson sweet peas, these floriferous
annuals are sure to please. Vines growing in fertile trenches
become very tall and thick and produce four perfect blossoms to
each long stem.
There are many ways, often at variance, of planting sweet
peas, and so the method described herewith is not necessarily
the only way to start these beautiful, fragrant annual vines.

Dig a trench 16 inches deep, place six inches of rotted cow
manure in the bottom, and fill to the ground level with good
compost that is made slightly alkaline by sprinkling lime while
the trench is being filled. Moisten the soil and treat the area
with Dowfume MC 2 exactly according to directions. Vapam
or another drench applied by watering can may be used instead.

After the proper lapse of time, plant seeds in a double, staggered
row so that the trellis can be erected between the two rows of
plants. After the seedlings emerge, thin them to stand a foot
apart. When the plants are six inches high apply a balanced
fertilizer and wet it in. A mulch of oak leaves should be applied
at this stage, and some support must be provided when tendrils
appear. This may be poultry netting stretched between posts, a
trellis of cotton cord, or a line of brush stuck firmly into the
ground between rows.
Frequent cutting of the blooms is essential to prevent formation
of seedpods which will materially reduce the period of flowering.


When the stems begin to get short, apply nitrate of soda in a
water solution at the rate of one tablespoon to the gallon.
Aphids, frequent visitors to sweet peas, must be controlled by
malathion or other suitable spray, red spider mites by Kelthane,
dusting sulphur or by frequently syringing the vines with strong
pressure from the hose.. Powdery mildew should be prevented
from becoming established by using Mildex (Karathane) spray
at very first sign of the powder-like growth.
The vines will stand considerable cold, but the flower buds
are so easily injured that protection on cold nights is suggested.

Tithonia (Tithonia sp.)

Of the many excellent garden flowers that Mexico has con-
tributed, certainly not the least important for Florida is this
"Golden Flower of the Incas." Large sunflower-like seeds may be
sown in the open garden in March, then seedlings thinned, later
to stand three feet apart from their neighbors. In full sun and
a fertile soil the plants will surpass six feet in height during the
rainy season. Deep orange-yellow, daisy-like flowers on long
stiff stems are available for cutting through most of the long, hot
summer, into the autumn until the plants are cut to the ground
by frost. Little troubled by pests, an occasional infestation of
red spider can be halted by dust or spray.

Like the cutting-type sunflowers, these huge annuals thrive
when they are supplied with liberal amount of plant food and
water and given repeated cultivation during the summertime.

Wish-bone Flower (Torenia fournieri)
As an edging or rock garden subject that will withstand heat
and succeed with little attention, the torenia deserves consideration.
The plants, about a foot tall, are covered throughout the summer
with masses of unusual white or lavender, yellow blotched flowers.
The habit of this sun-tolerant annual is creeping, the runners or
stems rooting where they come into contact with the ground.
The rooted tips, of course, may be separated and used as new
plants. Chance seedlings are present under favorable conditions.


Verbena (Verbena hortensis)
The modern verbena, with its globular heads of large individual
flowers, is a particularly desirable garden subject. Although
ordinarily a perennial in Florida, it may be treated as an annual.
Strong, clear colors are characteristic of this hardy, low growing
herb. If no particular color is wanted, the plants may be grown
from seeds, however, propagation of choice kinds should be by
Because verbenas root where they touch the ground, perhaps
a mulch of rotted manure would be the best treatment for the
bed where they grow. Cultivation, obviously, should not be
resorted to.

Viola (Viola cornuta)
As a change from mixed pansies for edgings, the smaller-
flowered, self colored violas can be employed with striking effect.
You may sow your own seed in September, or buy plants of a
wanted variety in November. The diminutive plants should stand
about eight inches apart so that a continuous ribbon of a single
solid color results. The best effect is attained when there are
enough plants to set a staggered double row.

Zinnia (Zinnia in several species)
When one considers the remarkable thriftiness, the heat toler-
ance of the zinnia, the facility with which it grows in adverse
conditions, it must be awarded a place of importance on our list
of summer blossoming annuals. Our gardens, from July to
November, would be much less colorful if it were not for this
most admirable of flowers.
Plant breeders have worked long and patiently with the zinnia
and now we may have many charming clear colors, in blossoms
that range in size from tiny Mexican hybrids to giant dahlia-
flowered kinds that are, perhaps, eight inches across. There are
pom-pom sorts, curled and crested, picotees, auilled and others
that contribute variety to the flower arrangcn-.nI. The newest
group is the cactus type, that has giant sized blooms composed
of graceful ruffled petals that help to overcome the stiff heavy
effect of a large bloom. New pastel shades have Ipen introduced



as well as the most vivid combinations such as mandarin and
orange found in the All America Selection, Blaze. Smaller zinnias
are available in candy stripes, novel two-tone combinations as
well as solid colors.
The seeds may be planted either in flats or in the garden after
danger of frost has passed. Sowing should be repeated every eight
weeks so as to have a succession of new plants to replace those
which have ceased blooming. The lilliput kinds should stand a foot
apart, while dahlia-flower giants should not be closer than two feet,
if they are to receive proper care. Abundant plant food and water
should be available to these gross feeders. Shallow cultivation is
recommended. As garden subjects, as well as for cutting, the zinnias
cannot be excelled during the summer and early fall months. The
Mexican hybrids and lilliputs are especially good as edging plants.
Powdery mildew which looks like a frost coating on the leaves,
is controlled by dusting at first signs with 300 mesh sulphur, or
by spraying with Mildex (Karathane).



When to Sow Approximate
Name Seeds Time in Bloom

Alyssum* .......... ..... Aug.-Jan. Oct.-June
Aster ...................... Feb.-April July-Aug.
Baby's Breath ............. Aug.-Lec. Jan.-June
Balsam .................... Feb.-April April-Nov.
Begonia* .................. Sept.-Dec. March-June
Bells of Ireland ............ ieb.-July June-July
Blanket Flower* ..........Sept.-Dec. April-Aug.
Blue-Eyed African Daisy....Aug.-Jan. March-June
Blue Lace-Flower .......... Feb.-April July-Aug.
Browallia ................. Aug.-Oct. Dec.-May
Butterfly Flower .......... Aug.-Feb. April-June
Calendula .................. Aug.-Oct. Dec.-June
California-Poppy* .......... Sept.-Dec. March-June
Calliopsis ................ OcL.-Dec. April-June
Candytuft ................. Aug.-Dec. March-June
Cape-Miarigold ............. Aug.-Feb. April-July
Carnation ................. Aug.-Dec. March-June
Celosia ....................Feb.-April May-Sept.
Chinese Forget-Me-Not* ....Aug.-Feb. April-June
Chrysanthemum (annual)... Feb.-Mar. May-July
Clarkia .................... Sept.-Nov. April-June
Coneflower* ............... Jan.-Mar. April-July
Cornflower ................ Aug.-Oct. Dec.-June
Cosmos (bipinnatus) ....... Feb.-April May-Aug.
Cosmos (sulphereus)* ...... May-Aug. Oct.-Nov.
Crotalaria* ............... Mar.-April Aug.-Oct.
Cup-flower ................ Sept.-Dec. March-June
Cuphea .................... Jan.-Feb. April-July
Cypress Vine* ............. Mar.-May July-Sept.
Dahlia .................... Mar.-April June-Sept.
Delphinium ................ Oct.-Nov. March-May
Double English Daisy ......Sept.-Oct. March-May
Flora's Paintbrush .........Aug.-Dec. March-June
Floss Flower* .............. Feb.-April May-Aug.
Gilia ..................... Sept.-Dec. April-June
Globe Amaranth ........... Mar.-April May-July
Godetia .................... Sept.-Dec. April-June
Gourd........................ Feb.-April
Hollyhock ................. Sept.-Dec. March-June
Hunnemannia ............. Nov.-Dec. April-June
Larkspur* ................ Oct.-Dec. March-May
Lobelia .................... Sept.-Mar. Nov.-May
Lupine .................... Aug.-Dec. March-J une
Marigold* '................ Feb.-May Sept.-Nov.
Mignonette ................ Sept.-Nov. March-May
Morning Glory ............. Feb.-April May-Nov.
Moroccan Toadflax ....... Sept.-Nov. Dec.-May
Mourning Bride ........... Sept.-Dec. April-J une
Nasturtium ................ Feb.-Mar. April-J une
Nicotiana ................. Aug.-Nov. March-June
Painted-Tongue ............ Aug.-Nov. April-May
Pansy ..................... Aug.-Nov. Jan.-May
Petunia* .................. Aug.-Jan. Jan.-July
Phlox* ....................Aug.-Feb. March-July
Pinks .................... Aug.-Feb. Jan.-July
Poppies* ................ Nov.-Dec. March-May
Rose Moss* ................ Feb.-July May-Oct.
Scarlet Flax ...............Sept.-Nov. April-June
Snapdragon ............... Aug.-Dec. Feb.-June
Spider Flower* ............ Sept.-Feb. April-Aug.
Statice .................... Aug.-Dec. April-Aug.
Stock .................... Aug.-Dec. Feb.-May
Strawflower ............... Oct.-April Feb.-Aug.
Sunflower ................ Feb.-April June-Aug.
Swan River Daisy ......... Sept.-Nov. Jan.-April
Sweet Pea ............... Sept.-Nov. Jan.-April
Tagetes .................. Feb.-April April-July
Tithonia* ................. Mar.-April June-Sept.
Torenia* .................. Feb.-May April-Sept.
Verbena ...................Aug.-Dec. Feb.-July
Viola .................... Sept.-Dec. Jan.-May
Wishbone Flower* ......... Feb.-May April-Sept.
Zinnia* ..................Feb.-Aug. May-Oct.

* Re-seeds and volunteers readily.

Tender or



Florida gardens depend largely upon annuals for color, with
the result that herbaceous perennials are often entirely lacking in
the design. This is unfortunate in view of the fact that a wealth
of mid-summer and early fall blooms is available through the use
of well-selected herbaceou-s p.i-renials. Annuals and exotic flow-
ering shrubs are recommended for winter and early spring blossoms,
but cheerful colors during the late summer and early fall will be
filled in adequately by perennials when many of the showiest
annuals are through blooming.
For Florida a list of flowering herbaceous perennials is not a
long one, nevertheless, there are many kinds that thrive here.
Many more perennials, such as bearded irises, delphiniums, fox-
gloves, hollyhocks, columbine, hardy phlox, phlox subulata, per-
ennial pinks, thyme and lily of the valley, have been tried and
have, for one reason or another, proved unsatisfactory in penin-
sular Florida. In the western part of the state, some of these are
worthwhile perennial garden plants.

Considering our wealth of hardy broadleaved evergreens and
beautiful flowering shrubs, it is best to use herbaceous perennials
in shrubbery bays subordinate to the woody things rather than by
themselves. Certainly herbaceous perennials alone should not be
depended upon for foundation planting, but they do add a com-
pleteness, a finishing touch, to home plantings.
By judicious choice of materials one may have perennials in
bloom from April until frost.
Herbaceous perennials are most valuable in bold, closely
planted masses for color effect and are really most successful
when grown thus rather than spotted about with a great deal of
distance between individual plants.

A decided advantage in favor of this group of plants is that
once the garden is laid out, the plants need not be propagated
every year. Furthermore, the foliage of many perennials is de-
lightful in itself when the plants are out of bloom.


This group is, as a whole, extremely easy to propagate by
division, seeds or cuttings. A note regarding the common methods
of propagation of each plant will be found under the discussion
of species.
Division: Propagation by division is the easiest, quickest and
best way to increase most herbaceous perennials. Dig the plants,
shake off the dirt and it will be apparent that they will divide
up into units or small plants all having roots, stems, buds or
leaves. These units may be separated and planted. The beds
should be thoroughly prepared beforehand by spading in rotted
manure or rich compost and abundant water should be added to
pack the soil well about the roots. Most herbaceous perennials
are best divided after the blooming season or when frost cuts the
plants to the ground, but with care they may be so increased at
any time.

Z7 J

Dividing bulbs to provide more plants


Cuttings: This method also is much used in the propagation
of perennials and it is not at all difficult if a good grade of sharp,
clean sand and plenty of water are used.
Old stems are cut in three or four-inch lengths, just above and
just below convenient nodes or buds. The leaves on the upper
node should be left intact. A sharp knife that will make a clean
neat cut is the best tool to use in making cuttings.
A flat or box of any convenient size in the bottom of which
several holes have been drilled to allow the free passage of water
is an ideal receptacle for the rooting of cuttings. Cover the drain-
age holes with coarse material so that the sand will not wash
through. Fill the box with coarse sand to within an inch of the
top; pack well, insert the cuttings to the upper nodes, and water
to firm the sand about the cuttings. Cover the flat with a pane of
glass or a piece of doubled cheesecloth and keep the sand moist
at all times. When the roots are about one inch long, set the
young plants in fertile soil that can be readily watered and
protect them from the hot sun or cold until they are well established.
Seeds: The plants discussed herewith vary a great deal in
facility of propagation by seeds. Some set seed readily and are so
much at home that chance seedlings are found scattered about
the vicinity of old plantings. Others seldom or never set seed
and propagation of these must be by division or cuttings.
Under most conditions the seeds should be planted as they
become ripe. They may be sown in open seedbeds protected from
cold or the direct rays of the sun, or better still, in shallow boxes
as described on pages 6 to 9 in the section on annuals. In any
case, the soil should be well supplied with humus, such as rotted
cow manure or peat. A good mixture for seedbeds or seed boxes
is loamy soil and fine peat in equal amounts. Plant the seeds
very thinly and licIhtl\ c,,oer with sifted soil, peat or sand to a
depth of about four times their diameter. Very small seeds
may be dropped in rows and pressed into the soil with a board.
It is a desirable practice to cover seedbeds with burlap until the
seeds 2erininate. A very fine spray under light pressure is used in
watering. It is important that seedbeds have an adequate water
supply at all times.
The young plants should be potted off or set out before they
crowd, as over-crowding greatly reduces the vigor in young seedlings,
causes them to become leggy and often encourages damping-off.


For a successful garden of herbaceous perennials, the land
must, in most cases, be especially prepared. The soil of the beds
should be enriched with well rotted cow manure and good woods
soil. A balanced fertilizer, tankage, cottonseed meal, a sprinkling
of a mineral mixture and peat should be spaded into the beds.
Thorough preparation in advance is essential, as the plants in a
perennial garden will often stand as long as three or four years
without being moved. Applications of complete commercial fer-
tilizers furnishing nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash should
be made before growth starts each spring, and again at the beginning
of the rainy season.
A heavy mulch for this type of garden is strongly recommended
and for the purpose, peat, well rotted manure, or oak leaves are
excellent. The mulch preserves moisture, keeps the roots, cool
during the heat of the summer, and discourages weed growth and
root-knot nematodes. Each spring when commercial fertilizer is
applied, new mulch should be added.
Weeds must be checked when very young and should never
be allowed to gain a foothold. Hoeing is often impossible or
dangerous where the plants are grown very close together, so
hand-weeding is to be preferred in the perennial garden. Small
plants in nursery rows, or hobby collections, spaced widely, should
be kept free of weeds with a garden plow and scuffle hoe.
One great disadvantage of this type of garden is that mainte-
nance is a 12 months' proposition and the gardener is often
inclined to neglect weeding, mulching, and applying the essential
side-dressing of complete fertilizers during the summer when this
work is most important.

In the following pages are listed a number of species and
varieties of herbaceous perennials which can be grown successfully
in Florida. The common name appears first, with the scientific
name of each species immediately following.

Adam's Needle (Yucca smalliana)*
This yucca is native to Florida, and useful in making a tropi-
cal scene. The unusual habit of Adam's needle makes it useful
* Manual of Cultivated Plants, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan, New York, 1949.


Native Adam's needle used as a border for a drive

for landscape work here and the tall spikes of white flowers,
produced in summer, are striking. The thorns at the ends of the
leaves may cause painful wounds and for this reason they should
be cut off as the leaves unfold. Adam's needle usually is propa-
gated by means of offsets that arise about the old plants. The
gray threads along the leaf margins make identification easy.

Angelonia (Angelonia salicariaefolia)
This graceful Latin-American perennial grows about two feet
in height and has lance-pointed, toothed leaves about three inches
long. The flowers are dark blue, white centered and bloom from
May until frost. In the spring it is advisable to cut the plant back
for new, fresh growth. These stem pieces can be used as cuttings
and the plant can be divided and the units re-set.


Artillery Plant (Pilea microphylla)
This Mexican herb has found a congenial home in southern
Florida and has escaped from cultivation in many places there.
In almost any soil, in sunlight or shade, the artillery plant is one
of the very best edgings and window box plants.
Cuttings, taken at any time when there is abundant moisture,
may be set directly where they are wanted to grow. Seedlings
abound in the vicinity of old plantings.

Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior)
The aspidistra has long been a favorite pot and planter subject.
It probably can withstand as much abuse as any other plant, as
shade seems to be its only requirement. The stiff, shiny green
leaves, 15 to 20 inches long, grow in thick masses. It is very
hardy, but winter may kill the plants in the colder sections if
not protected. Slow-growing aspidistra is increased by dividing
old clumps.

Asystasia (Asystasia gangetica)
For tropical Florida, one of the most attractive little perennials
is this flowering scandent herb from the tropics of the Old World.
A garden spot in full sunlight that is reasonably well supplied
with moisture suits the asystasia quite well and it will produce its
tubular lilac flowers almost the entire year around.
Divide heavily matted beds into fertile soil every 4 to 5 years.
A leaf mulch is preferred to cultivation.

Banana (Musa spp.)
These large herbaceous perennials are grown in many Florida
gardens for fruit and for the tropical effect of their handsome
foliage. In northern Florida they are valuable as garden plants
when used behind hardy evergreen shrubbery or walls, then the
frost-injured plants are hidden until new growth is well advanced
in the spring. Bananas are usually dependable for a year-round
effect in the warmest parts of the Florida peninsula where Caven-
dish, Ladyfinger and Apple bananas may mature fruits.
Propagation is by division of the suckers from the parent
plant. Mulching is preferred to clean cultivation.

Begonia (Begonia spp.)
Begonias are among the most popular of plants for the house
and terrace but with good conditions and proper care, their planting
extends to the out of doors in Florida. They must have shady
situations, a soil rich in humus and plant food, a leaf mulch and
an abundant water supply at all times. Protection from frost is
Propagation is by division, cuttings or seeds.

Blanket Flower

6p ,



Blanket Flower (Gaillardia aristata)

An erect perennial which grows to a maximum height of two,
feet, and bears showy yellow and red daisy-like flowers two or
three inches across, on stiff straight stems. It is difficult to
distinguish this species from the annual varieties.
Blanket flower requires full sun for best results and thrives in
almost any soil that is not too wet. Clean cultivation with a
scuffle hoe should contribute to good growth and heavy flower
Blooms may be had :the first year from seed and during the
second and third years the plants may be divided.

Blue Flag (Iris spp.)

The bearded irises do not thrive in Florida' excepting on the
clay hills of the western end of the state where a few varieties
may be grown. Seven riative species of irises together with those
from southern LUuis;ira are particularly graceful and may be
successfully transplanted and grown in the garden. They are
water-loving. hefbs, two feet in height, that bear lovely white, violet
or purple flowers in the spring. Large numbers should be planted
as but few flowers are borne by each plant. The native irises
will thrive in or near the lily pond and with a little extra attention
to watering they may be grown in any good garden soil that is
well supplied with humus.

Blue Sage (Salvia spp.)

Salvias are propagated by division, cuttings, or seeds. Several
varieties of blue sage are excellent perennials for Florida gardens.
The attractive spikes are produced in summer and early autumn.

Bugle-Weed (Ajuga genevensis)

For gardens in western Florida this creeping perennial is con-
sidered an acceptable ground cover. In early summer, the termi-
nal spikes of blue flowers are borne on stems that reach above the
mat of green that is formed by the prostrate plants. Either sun or


Native Iris

shade suits the plant but it prefers a heavy soil and is not recom-
mended for the light sands of peninsular Florida. Because bugle
grows in heavily matted clumps, a light mulch of leaves should
be supplied; mechanical cultivation omitted.
When plantings become overcrowded, lift out the plants, fer-
tilize the bed and replant with single divisions set about six
inches apart.

Cacti (many genera as Cereus, Hylocereus, Heliocereus,
Epiphyllum, etc.)
These rain-forest cacti that are found widely distributed in
the American tropics serve as ornamentals in warmer sections.


These thrive in the high humidity, heavy rainfall, and the soils
of southern Florida and are not to be confused with the western
desert forms. Most of these latter are not dependable in Florida
because of our wet summers.
Hylocereus undatus grows abundantly in southern Florida and
is probably the plant best known as "night-blooming cereus."
Species of Epiphyllum, the orchid cacti, produce some of the most
spectacular blossoms known in the plant world.

Giant night blooming cacti thrive out of doors in southern Florida


Epiphyllum Cactus.

Canna (Canna, many species)

Canna varieties that have flowers of red, yellow, white, buff
or pink with foliage of green or bronze are available at most seed
stores in season. Varieties vary in height from 18 inches to seven
or eight feet. Cannas do well anywhere in the sun if there is an
abundant supply of water and plant food.

A chlordane dust frequently applied may control the canna

d inty annual for sum-
irertime edgings.

Cup flower makes a good
cool-weather edging.

Everyone loves pansies.

Scarlet sage is the brightest thing in many

Use purple alyssum with the
white for interesting variety.

Plume celosia thrives in hot weather.

golds are leaders for sum-
garden in Florida. Seeds
,own in Feb.-May.

All-time favorite for winter
color in Florida is the calen-
dula. Plants from seeds sown
in Aug.-Sept. should be in
flower for the holidays.

/ Snapdragons
grow during
cool months.

All-time favorite for sum- .
mer color in Florida is the ,
zinnia. Endless forms, colors
and sizes are available from
seedsmen today. '


leaf roller (Geslina cannalis), an insect that causes unsightly injury
to the leaves.

The root stocks should be divided every two or three years to
prevent undue crowding. This is best done when the plants are
killed to the ground by cold.


Cardinal's Guard (Pachystachys coccinea)
A tropical American herb which grows to five feet, with large,
remarkably shiny, green, opposite leaves and abundant showy
spikes of crimson tubular flowers. The plant is an excellent
source of bright red and is most effective when it is grown in
large clumps.

Of easiest culture, cardinal's guard requires little attention,
but it responds favorably to frequent cultivation and abundant
water and plant food. Propagation is by cuttings or division.


Cardinal's Guard

Century Plant (Agave americana)

Native, resistant to salt and strong winds, tolerant of poorest
sandy soils, even those which are strongly alkaline, this succulent
perennial has been widely planted throughout the Peninsular State
to enhance the tropical atmosphere. The huge, upright leaves
are green or banded in cream and are tipped with vicious thorns.




These must be clipped off as soon as leaves unfurl. There are
many other species of century plants, and countless horticultural
forms. Tall candelabra flower stalks may be sent aloft after
ten to twenty years of favorable growing conditions.
Century plants are increased by suckers which spring up around
old plants and by plantlets which develop in the inflorescence.

Century Plant in the foreground

Chrysanthemnm (Clhryanthemum n i;n,),,,, ij n,)
Cbrysantheimum flowers, in m ltitdinou form, range in aie,
from single daiin-i-ke bloom through the pofrmpom, w e anns
and spidsay Japaunr varieties to the huge globular flowers o
popular at football games,
Many arpv iire from all of the group listed above, are grown
out of dofor in Ifloflda


Probably the most troublesome insect pests are the flower
thrips which are usually present in great numbers during the
warm, dry weather of early autumn. Control by a contact in-
secticide such as DDT, malathion or rotenone is necessary. Many
backyard gardeners find it impracticable to spray or dust the few
plants they grow. It is suggested, for them, that varieties be
grown which mature during November or December. At this
time of the year lower temperatures usually aid materially in
reducing infestation by flower thrips, and blossoms are of good
At this season there is the real danger of frost injury in parts
of Florida. Several methods of protecting chrysanthemum plants
have been used with success.
1. A muslin-covered frame can be built over the plants prior
to the date of expected frost.
2. The plants may be carefully lifted and transplanted into
a greenhouse or similar well lighted structure until the
blossoms are cut.
3. The plants can be potted in large containers, staked and
carried into the garage on cold nights.
Leaf spotting of chrysanthemums, the result of infection by
several different fungi, is particularly serious in Florida, and in
certain years clean foliage is restricted to small rosettes just beneath
the blossoms. Fermate or Captan if applied frequently will assure
healthy green foliage. Unfortunately, casual gardeners seldom
apply spray materials at frequent intervals throughout the season
and as a result, heavy infection by the leaf spotting disease may
One hand-picking of diseased leaves in September and another
in October has kept many varieties relatively free of spotted foliage.
It has been observed that plantings maintained by division of
old clumps are much more severely attacked by the leaf spotting
diseases than those which are renewed each season by fresh tip
cuttings. For this reason, it is suggested that the plants be destroyed
after cutting the blossoms, and a fresh start be made each year.
Rooted cuttings, secured from a wholesale grower each May,
should mature into plants that show little leaf spot. While this
practice is more expensive than the usual method of increasing


garden chrysanthemums by division, the improvement in quality
will more than pay for the planting stock each season. Of course
it is possible to retain your old plants and keep them free of
leaf spot by frequent application of a fungicide. In springtime
tip cuttings are made and dipped immediately in a bath of Captan
or Fermate before they are stuck in the rooting sand.
As a further precaution against the leaf diseases, it is suggested
that rotation between several plots be practiced. Two or three
sunny areas that can be used in alternating years will give good re-
sults and these may be planted to annuals or bulbs in the interim.
Heavy applications of cow manure well in advance of planting,
supplemented by light, bi-weekly feedings of a balanced fertilizer,
should provide adequate nutrients for garden chrysanthemums.
Frequent shallow cultivation is the rule.
A square wooden garden stake should be driven close by each
plant, with the plant being tied to this support every eight or ten
inches with a twist-em or heavy cotton cord. Wire stakes are
likely to whip in the wind and bend under the weight of water-
filled blossoms, when used in outdoor plantings.

1. Use November-flowered varieties to avoid serious thrips
2. Avoid leaf spot disease by destroying old plants each sea-
son or by protecting the foliage with a suitable fungicide.
3. Replant each spring with fresh stock grown from clean
tip cuttings.
4. Spade manure into the bed well in advance of planting,
and apply a balanced fertilizer in small amounts every
two weeks.
5. Tie the plants to stakes so that the stems will not bend
and break from the weight of water-filled blossoms.

Coontie (Zamia floridana)
This is a hardy Florida perennial with long pinnate leaves,
valuable in the sub-tropical plan, and as a ground cover for shady


The native Florida coontie is well adapted to shady locations

Seeds are used for increase and transplanting is extremely diffi-
cult because of the deep, far-reaching roots. Florida red scale
is a major pest that must be controlled by several annual sprayings
with an oil emulsion.

Cyperus (Cyperus spp.)

These graceful sedges are useful for striking foliage effects
when used in or near water plantings, as they actually grow well
in water a few inches deep.
Although low temperatures usually cut the stems to the ground,
plants quickly rally in warm weather.
There are two species widely planted in Florida:
The Egyptian paper plant (C. papyrus) is probably the more
desirable, although more tender. Stout triangular stems to a
height of eight feet bear attractive clusters of small, wiry leaves,
about five inches long, at their tips.
The umbrella plant (C. alternifolius) is the more widely
grown, because it is more robust. It is not so striking in appear-


ance as the Egyptian paper plant. The variety, gracilis Hort, is
smaller and more slender, the variety, variegatum Hort., is striped
with white.
Propagation of both species is by division or by placing the
terminal rosettes in moist sand.

Daylily (Hemnerocallis spp.)
No exotic perennials are better adapted to Florida gardens
than are the daylilies. Their hardine-S, long blooming period,
brilliant coloring and freedom from pests make them indipewl sbl
for the Lower South. There is great satisfaction in growing plan



that are not in constant need of dusting, spraying and replacement.
Many old plantings are known where daylilies have bloomed
profusely each season without any care whatsoever save for one
spring feeding and an occasional soaking during periods of drought.
For greater numbers of large blooms over an extended period,
liberal feeding and watering and frequent light cultivation is
Most varieties of daylilies are cosmopolitan plants that thrive
on the muck of the Everglades, the oolitic rock of Dade County,
the light sands of central Florida and on the red clay hills of the
western part of the state.
Over most of Florida the daylily season opens in early March,
reaches its climax in April and extends well into June. Certain
types will bloom a second time toward the end of the rainy season.
In northern Florida, flowering dates are some two months in
advance of the dates published in northern catalogs. In western
Florida the dates will be a week or two behind those for Gainesville,
while toward the tip of the peninsula, all types bloom a couple
of weeks earlier. By carefully compiling one's varietal list, these
hardy perennials can be enjoyed over a period of some four months.
Daylilies are most effectively grown in clumps of three or
more plants in the bays of shrubbery borders. If the colors are
grouped separately, perhaps the best effects will be attained.
The genus Hemerocallis has received much attention from plant
breeders and now we .have huge blossoms that are bi-colored or
two toned, flowers that are a bright cardinal red and other choice
varieties whose blossoms are a deep glowing purple. Indeed the
color range in Hemerocallis is remarkable and it is expanding
every year as further generations of carefully bred seedlings come
into flower.

False Dragon-head (Physostegia virginiana)
This is a hardy herb, about three feet in height, that has the
characteristic square stems and toothed leaves of the mint family.
The white, pink, or lilac flowers are borne in a four-sided spike
and are useful by virtue of the fact that they bloom in the autumn.


False Dragon-head

It is not particular as to soil, but responds well to good culture.
Propagation is by division.

Ferns in variety are valuable for moist, shady locations. Splen-
did kinds such as the cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea),
and the different maidenhair ferns (Adiantum spp.) may be col-
lected in the woods. Scores of horticultural varieties of ferns
are grown in Florida. They should be protected from extremely
low temperatures.
Thoroughly enriched beds or borders containing peat or muck
on the north side of walls are ideal locations for ferns.
Soil moisture is of prime importance in fern-growing.. Propa-
gation is by division.


Ferns and other tender herbaceous plants

Hottentot-fig (Carpobrotus edulis)

This is a prostrate herb from South Africa that is very desir-
able as a ground cover for seaside gardens. Revelling in full
sunlight, well-drained sandy soil and thriving in spite of salt spray,
hottentot-fig is of value on Florida's coastal sand dunes. The old
clumps can be lifted and cuttings taken in mid-summer.

Four-o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa)

This is an erect bushy herb that is easily grown from the
large black seeds. The fragrant funnel-shaped flowers in shades
of red, yellow, white or striped, borne in late summer and early
fall, open in cloudy weather or late afternoon and close in the


Four-o'clocks are killed to the ground by light frosts, but they
will quickly recover in the spring.
Chance seedlings that are usually found about parent plants
are easily transplanted.

Geranium (Pelargonium spp.)
Long popular as pot-plants and for bedding out-of-doors,
geraniums as a class are not as much at home in Florida as they
are in the lands of cooler climates and heavier soils. Some few
varieties grow well as container subjects, others will not thrive in
our climate. It is suggested that gardeners get cuttings from friends
who have plants that seem to do well for them. Plant in sterilized
soil, in planters or in new pots that stand on boards under a roof
that will protect the geraniums from the heavy rains of summertime.
During cool months, subject geraniums to as much light as possible.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
In Florida, the gingers find their greatest use in the ornamental
field, but have long been grown to a limited degree as culinary
herbs. They thrive in shady, moist locations and should be pro-
vided with a leaf mulch in lieu of cultivation. Usually winter-
killed in colder sections, ginger is evergreen in southern Florida.
Propagation is by division of the rhizomes.

Ginger-lily (Hedychium coronarium)
The ginger-lily is an herb with canna-like leaves, about three
inches across, that grows to a height of six feet, admirably adapted
to use in the lily pond planting. The leaves are killed by a
temperature of about 25" F.
The long-tubed, white flowers which appear in September and
October are extremely fragrant and are much admired.
Golden Glow (Rudbeckia laciniata)
A hardy perennial whose flower stalks in the late fall rise to
a height of four or five feet and bear large, full, double-lemon-
yellow flowers in great profusion that are excellent both for garden
decoration and for cutting.
Golden glow grows best in the western part of the state and
is not recommended for peninsular Florida.


Golden Glow
A half dray's sun-with shade in the heat of the- afternoon suits
the plant very well. When used in bold clumps, on the east side
of a north-south hedge or wall, the effect is very striking.
An abundance of plant food and water is required and frequent
stirring with a scuffle hoe is beneficial.
Propagation by division should be repeated every year or two.
Mildew may be checked by dusting with 300 mesh sulphur, or by
spraying with Mildex (Karathane).
Dwarf Lily-turf (Ophiopogon japonicus)
This is a perennial stemless lily-relative of about a foot in
height that grows from rootstocks and soon forms large clumps
by means of stolons. The tiny spikes of white or violet flowers
are inconspicuous.


Like its close relative, the liriope, this grass-like plant is very
useful as a ground cover, for window boxes, or as an edging. It
grows well under the most trying conditions of sun or shade, heat
or cold, drought or moisture. As a ground cover under oak trees
where grass will not thrive, this attractive little perennial excels.
Propagation is by division.

Justicia (Justicia, secunda)
This is a large coarse herb attaining a height of 4 to 8 feet,
that bears, during spring and summer, loose terminal spikes of
red, pink or orange tubular flowers. Justicia is most useful as a
background in the herbaceous border. Partial shade is a re-
Propagation is by cuttings and division.

Lily-turf (Liriope spp.)
A member of the lily family with graceful grass-like foliage
a foot high, liriope is exceptionally fine as a ground cover, for
window boxes, or as an edging plant. Liriope grows well in most
soils but seems to thrive best in the shade. It bears its spikes of
tiny blue flowers in the summer. Tolerant of heat and cold, all
of the lily-turfs must be protected from scale by an occasional
spraying with a summer oil.
Propagation is by division or by seeds when they are formed.
L. muscari, the wide-leaved liriope, attains a height of 15 inches
and is an excellent species for its lilac flowers which appear in
June and July. There is a variegated form.
L. spicata, creeping lily-turf, does quite well in Florida and is
recommended for densely shaded spots.
Cultivation is impossible, so a leaf mulch is used instead. The
tough leaves endure moderate treading and do not need to be clipped.

Moraea (Moraea spp.)
As a substitute for iris on sandy soils, this perennial is hardy,
vigorous and easy to grow. M. iridioides, the species illustrated,
is better known than M. bicolor which is occasionally seen in
peninsular Florida gardens.


Mliotr/es can be grown in igid sandy soil

There are other species which should be given wide trial.
The dlumaps should he divided every two or thIee years
Prepagri,0n is by %-i*i.i or steds.

Pampas Grass (Cwr t i sellowua))

Pampas grass is i*.**tir is Fil.o..i.-uA, where it i is ismually foaad
as a lawn spefinx It t'pr' .e in B.u-iir. iy.hr l hdallomops to 10 fett

Leihtt of 12 ffett.
Vadluabte as a screen or wen v rna ian ceammmitiem wilth llinips
of f ambam.. Ofn t&e it es n wae brwndl by Fow tepnimun,
heat tthiis dles molt ipaiinr thme .-niiiiir ae off pampas gres
MNiw o.'.a]|iii quiidMy sarits in wfarmi woailtHiera, whoSMR aiMB alBlsnMilae
of water aWm ter ltrittaltS aie rMAii'r-jiia


Pentas (Pentas lanceolata)
Pentas has become very popular in Florida, where it thrives
out of doors with little care. Colorful, attractive heads of tubular
flowers in lilac, pink, white or red are borne throughout most of
the year. Pentas is prized for cutting as its keeping quality is
excellent. Cuttings root quickly if they are simply set where they
are to mature and are watered frequently. Broken shade is a.
better environment than is a bed in full sun.

Periwinkle (Vinca rose)
A robust, erect, ever-blooming perennial growing to two feet,
that is seen everywhere in Florida. Of easiest culture, it has
escaped cultivation and may be seen in old fields and about aban-
doned houses.
In spite of the fact that it is so common, the periwinkle
deserves a place in most gardens because it is sure to give a
cheerful mass of color, even without attention. In the colder
sections of the state, Vinca rosea is grown as an annual.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. Chance seedlings abound
year after year.

The periwinkle thrives where many flowers would perish


Vinca major variegata is a good window box subject
for northern Florida

V. major variegata is a reclining or creeping perennial that is
used in planters, window-boxes and hanging baskets and is easily
handled in Florida if it is grown in the shade and replaced
occasionally with freshly layered branches.
Vinca minor, running myrtle, is valuable as a ground cover in
extreme western Florida.

Pine-Cone Lily (Costus spp.)
A popular ginger-relative, wanted for the grenade-like flower
clusters which top tall fruiting stems in the fall, pine-cone lily has
become rather widespread in Florida gardens. This tropical per-
ennial wants a shady spot, abundant moisture and adequate fer-
tilizer. Division of crowded clumps should be resorted to twice a
Rhoeo discolor
Rhoeo discolor is a stiff, upright, tender foliage plant with
long lanced-pointed, strap-shaped leaves that are green above and
purple below.


Rhoeo discolor

Unusual in appearance, it is prized in sub-tropical gardens.
In colder sections it is advisable to lift the plants in the fall and
carry them through the winter in pots indoors.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne in clusters protected by
purplish leaf-like bracts close to the upright stem.
Propagation is performed by separating the young offsets from
the parent plant, or by seeds.

Ruellia (Ruellia brittoniana)
A coarse, erect herb about three feet high that has attractive
light blue funnel-shaped flowers from May until frost. When


grown in large clumps the effect is very striking from sunrise until
noon. Unfortunately, the flowers fade in the sun. Prolific and
cosmopolitan, ruellia will endure almost any hardship and seems
to succeed anywhere in the state.
Propagation is easy by division, cuttings or seeds. Volunteer
seedlings are found in numbers about the parent plant.

Sansevieria (Sansevieria spp.)

Various kinds of sansevieria are popular as pot plants, planter
and urn subjects and in patio plantings. Although they are not
sufficiently hardy to withstand cold winters, in the warmer parts
of the state they are used extensively.
Tolerant of heat, sunshine, shade and drought, sansevierias
will thrive with very little attention. Some 50 species have been
described, but only a half dozen are in general cultivation in
Florida. Several patented varieties are popular here.
The erect, thick, succulent leaves that arise from underground
rootstocks usually are mottled, sometimes variegated, and are ad-
mired for their tropical character.
Propagation is by division or by cutting the leaves into pieces
2 to 3 inches long and inserting them in sand.

Scarlet Sage (Salvia splendens)

Salvia is widely cultivated in Florida. A vigorous perennial,
it furnishes bright scarlet spikes throughout the summer until cut
down by frost. In cold districts, it is usually treated as an
annual, unless protected from cold. Almost 20 horticultural va-
rieties have been recognized.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.

Selaginella (Selaginella spp.)

This is the type genus of a large family of fern-like plants
containing many species that succeed outdoors in Florida. They
are much prized for their delicate, feathery effect. They resemble
ferns and enjoy practically the same culture and will not endure
trampling, clipping or frost.


Scarlet Sage

Most of the selaginellas require shade, an even supply of soil
moisture, and humid atmosphere for their best development.
Propagation is by division of old plants.

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum)
The Shasta daisy is a perennial that is truly at home in north-
ern Florida, but often will not survive the 'summers and light
sands of the peninsula. Large, pure white, yellow-centered daisies
borne on stiff leafy stems a foot and one-half in height, are pro-
duced in profusion during the spring. These daisies prefer full
sun in the morning with, perhaps, partial shade in the afternoon.
The plants stand a temperature as low as 25" F. without apparent
Propagation is by division in the fall.


Shell-Lily (Alpinum speciosa)

This is a robust perennial of the ginger family that is in high
favor for garden decoration and for arrangements during the
autumn when the drooping racemes of orchid-like flowers are
produced. Tender to cold, shell-lily may be cut to the ground
during some winters, then, matted clumps can be lifted and cut
apart for increase.

Shrimp Plant (Beloperone guttata)

This striking and unusual perennial attracts a great deal of
attention wherever it is seen. The plant attains a height of two
feet, and is prolific in its production of showy coppery-red flower
bracts that are somewhat similar in structure to bougainvillea
bracts. The shrimp plant will survive mild winters, but it should
be potted and taken indoors in the colder parts of the state.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.

Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus tithymaloides)

These are succulent herbs growing to six feet which exude a
milky juice when bruised or crushed. Although members of this
group are very tender, they stand adverse cultural conditions and
are valuable in southern Florida gardens when a tropical effect is
wanted. There are variegated varieties.

Spanish Bayonet (Yucca aloifolia)

This familiar native plant warrants no special discussion. It is
valuable when massed for the sub-tropical effect, especially where
it is too dry for many perennial plants to thrive. The spikes of
fragrant white blossoms are very striking in early summer.
The thorns on the tips of the leaves must be removed by
pruning shears to prevent injury.
Propagation is by offsets from old plants, or simply by planting
stems where new plants are wanted.
There is a variegated form.


Spanish Bayonet

Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana)
Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana), sometimes called blue-eyed
grass, is a worthy perennial that can be transplanted to the garden.
Flowers of white, pink, or rose are to be found, in addition to
the blue type.

Stokes' Aster (Stokesia laevis)
This plant is, without question, one of the best native American
perennials that succeeds in Florida.
The strong clumps about a foot in height, bear blue aster-like
flowers three inches across, on stout stems throughout the summer.


Stokes' Aster

Although Stokes' aster prefers high, 'well-drained, rich, sandy
loam, it will persist in poor, light sand, blooming year after year
during summer time when flowers are needed for cutting.
There are pink, white and yellow forms, but they are not as
dependable as the blue type.
Frequent light cultivation supplemented by several feedings
during spring and summer should make for heavy flowering.
Propagation is by division, which should be practiced every
three years.

Strawberry-geranium (Saxifraga sarmentosa)
As an unusual ground cover for densely shaded locations on
the heavier soil types of western Florida, this little perennial is
highly commended. It is frequently used also as a porch plant,
hung so that the drooping stolons carry the tufts of young plantlets
as a part of the decorative scheme of the porch or Florida room.


Tall Cup Flower (Nierembergia frutescens)
A graceful, fine-textured, perennial herb that grows to three
feet high. Handsome cup-like white flowers tinted with blue are
borne in profusion in early summer. N. hippomanica is a dwarf
species that can be grown as an annual throughout the state (p. 26).
Though the cup flowers are little used, they succeed in Florida
and warrant more extensive planting.
Propagation is by cuttings, seeds, or divisions of the old plants.

Transvaal Daisy (Gerbera jamesoni)
This superb perennial is, justly, one of the most popular
grown in Florida. The plants, which grow in large clumps to ten
inches in height, are vigorous, deep-rooted and quite resistant to
insects and drought.
The large single or double daisy-like flowers, ranging in color
from white and cream to rose red, are borne on stiff stems a foot
or more in length. The flowers, single or crested with raised centers,
are produced continually if not cut down by frost and have excellent
keeping quality.
Employ the scuffle hoe frequently to stir the topsoil and
discourage weeds.
Propagation is by seeds or division. The latter method seems
best, as there has been difficulty in germinating seeds, unless they
are absolutely fresh. Pasteurized soil is required to reduce the
disease hazard.
Verbena (Verbena hybrida)
The present-day verbena, in many charming colors, is a result
of the hybridization of four species.
Usually perennials in Florida, verbenas are low, creeping plants,
of the simplest culture, that are dependable for strong color notes.
Attacks of red spider mites can be forestalled by dusting the plants
with sulphur or syringing them with heavy pressure from the water
hose. Kelthane is a dependable miticide. Valuable as a ground
cover in sunny places, edgings, rock gardens and for window boxes
and planters, verbenas should not be overlooked.
Propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings, but if no
special color is desired, the seeds may be planted.
Moss verbena (V. tenuisecta) is valuable as a self-seeding sub-


ject for bold masses of lilac color. It is similar to the above, but
not so highly developed as to flower size. Only one or two shades
are known in this species.

Violet (Viola odorata)

Everyone loves violets and everyone can have them out of
doors in southern gardens. An acid soil abounding in humus and
plant food, moisture, shade and-a mulch of leaves are requirements.
The deliciously perfumed flowers are numerous from December
until May, unless extremely low temperatures are experienced.
Divide the old plants each year or two, in August or September.
The variety Princess of Wales is probably the one grown most
widely in Florida.

Wandering Jew (Tradescantia fluminensis)

Wandering Jew (Tradescantia fluminensis) is a perennial,
succulent herb that will form a dense green mat in a short time if
given shade, fertilizer and moisture. Tender to cold, wandering
Jew is killed by temperatures below freezing and it will not
endure trampling or moving. Under trees, below leggy shrubs
and -for softening the walls of planters, either indoors or out,
wandering Jew is highly recommended.
For increase, sections of stem are simply stuck where new
plantings are wanted.

Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata)

This creeping perennial is one of the best ground covers for
southern Florida. Thriving on any soil type, in sun or shade, in
moist or dry locations, the worth of this yellow-flowered member
of the daisy family is widely appreciated and it is to be found
growing abundantly in the warmer sections of the peninsula. It
will be injured by temperatures in the twenties.
The prostrate stems root readily at the nodes and abundant
planting stock is always at hand.


Cultivation is not possible because of the stem-rooting char-
acteristic which makes wedelia unsurpassed for planting strips,
parkways, against walls and for sloping ground that would erode
and be difficult to mow.

Wedelia is southern Florida's most popular ground cover




Name Page Name P
Angelonia ...................... 58 Ruellia ........................
Blue flag ...................... 61 Stokes' aster ...................
Blue Sage ..................... 61 Verbena .............. ........
Lily-turf ....................... 77 Violet .........................



Adam's needle .................. 57 Pampas grass .................. 78
Banana ....................... 59 Periwinkle ..................... 79
Blanket flower ................. 61 Ruellia ........................ 81
Cacti .......................... 62 Scarlet Sage ................... 82
Canna ......................... 64 Shasta daisy ................... 83
Cardinal's guard ................ 65 Slipper plant ................... 84
Century plant ................... 66 Spanish bayonet ................ 84
Chrysanthemum ................ 67 Stokes' aster ................... 85
False dragonhead ............... 72 Tall cup flower ................ 87
Four-o'clock ................... 74 Transvaal daisy ................ 87
Justicia ........................ 77 Verbena ....................... 87
M oraea ........................ 77

Blanket flower ................ 61 Daylily ...................... 71
Cacti .......................... 62 Four-o'clock ................... 74
Canna ......................... 64 Golden glow .................... 75
Chrysanthemum ................ 67 W edelia ........................ 88

Adam's needle .................. 57 Lily-turf ....................... 77
Banana ........................ 59 Periwinkle ..................... 79
Cacti .......................... 62 Ruellia ........................ 81
Cardinal's guard ............... 65 Sansevieria ..................... 82
Century plant .................. 66 Scarlet Sage ................... 82
Coontie ....................... 69 Slipper plant ................... 84
Daylily ........................ 71 Spanish bayonet ................ 84
Dwarf Lily-turf ................. 76 Verbena ....................... 87
Four-o'clock ................... 74 Violet ......................... 88
Hottentot-fig ................... 74

Adam's needle ................. 57
Aspidistra ..................... 59
Banana ....................... 59
Begonia ....................... 60
Blue flag ...................... 61
Cacti ............... :......... 52

Century plant .................. 66
Coontie ....................... 69
Cyperus ....................... 70
Daylily ........................ 71
Ferns .......................... 73
Ginger ...................... 75



Name Page
Ginger-lily ..................... 75
Dwarf Lily-turf ................ 76
Lily-turf ....................... 77
M oraea ........................ 77
Pampas grass .................. 78
Sansevieria ..................... 82

Name Page
Selaginella .................... 82
Slipper plant ................... 84
Spanish bayonet ................ 84
Vinca major variegata ........."...80
W wandering Jew ................. 88

Aspidistra ..................... 59 Lily-turf ....................... 77
Begonia ....................... 60 Selaginella .................... 82
Beloperone ..................... 84 Verbena ....................... 87
Coontie ........................ 69 Vinca major variegata ............80
Dwarf Lily-turf ................ 76 W wandering Jew ................. 88
Ferns ......................... 73


Aspidistra ..................... 59
Begonia ....................... 60
Beloperone ..................... 84
Blue flag ...................... 61
Coontie ........................ 69
Dwarf Lily-turf ................ 76
Ferns ......................... 73
Ginger ........................ 75

Bugle-weed .................... 61
Dwarf Lily-turf ................ 76
Hottentot-fig ................... 74
Ferns .......................... 73
Lily-turf ....................... 77
Selaginella .................... 82

Blue flag .....
Cyperus .....
Daylily ......
Dwarf Lily-turf
Ferns .......

Angelonia ...
Blanket flower
Daylily ......
False dragonhea
Ginger-lily ...

Ginger-lily ..................... 75
Lily-turf ...................... 77
Sansevieria .... .......... ... 82
Selazinella .................... 82
Spiderwort ..................... 85
V iolet ......................... 88
Wandering Jew ................. 88
W edelia ....................... 88

Verbena ....................... 87
Vinca major variegata ............80
V iolet ......................... 88
W wandering Jew ................. 88
W edelia ....................... 88

.................. 61 G inger ......................
.................. 70 G inger-lily .....................
.................. 71 L ily-turf .......................
................ 76 Selaginella ...................
.................. 73 Spiderw ort .....................

.................. 58 Shasta daisy ...................
.................. 61 Stokes' aster ...................
. .............. 67 Transvaal daisy .................
.......... ........ 71 V erbena .....................
ad ............... 72 V iolet .......................
.................. 75

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