Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Growing annual flowers
 Herbaceous perennials
 Roses in Florida
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003074/00001
 Material Information
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 95 p. : illus., photo. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1945
Subject: Flowers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: Revised.
General Note: "June, 1945."
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003074
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3579
ltuf - AJU2147
oclc - 41223108
alephbibnum - 001867638
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Growing annual flowers
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Herbaceous perennials
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Roses in Florida
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Back Cover
        Page 96
        Page 97
Full Text




N T Vilrm \ fl., V1 A M. II

No.0 59),



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1( I







o I.O)RIDA iaas tlhe largest and most varied plant life of
S any state ini the nation. Many professional and amateur
botanist, coiine to this state in the interests of their work
anld even the most casual visitors are impressed with the color-
full tropical plants and the beautiful gardens that they ee here.
Here. gardening is a twel e-months' job and we ,who live
here can hale charming though changing effect- evenr month
in the year. The possibilities, are almost endless if one 'will
but take advantage of the many -triking native plant- together
t ith the wealth of exotic speries that thrive here. It is true
that co'ndition- are quite nniqpe. that many things will have
II, he unlearned. but by taking advantage of the manv excel-
lent book- and magazines on the subject and by utilizing the
miany wortlhhile free bulletin-. excellent garden.l can lbe
created anywhere in the state bv anyone wlho really Ias the
Sill to go after it.
"It Isn't a Home Inlil It's Planted" i- the inuirervyman's
motto and it i a \vry good theme for Florida himei owner-
to adopt for their own. \luch has been done in recent Vears
to improve thle .-lrroulndingll f Florida homile and mIllt h i'
yet to be done. Trees for enframementil and background, foun-
dation planting- to tie the hou-e to the grioun and dto accent
certain features. flowers for color and a lawn to serve a., a
gettingg flo it all \\ill contribute inlm eaulrablv to the attrac-
tli\ne.', of the home and incidentally to its molletary lalue a,
well. bI iould ie remembered thaa the house imult dominate
thle mccne and that all planting, mu hI Ie u.Ibordinate to it.


Annuals are especially valuable in Florida. many of them are in
bloom during winter months, contributing splendidly toward a color-
ful garden and producing endless blossoms for home decorations.
Other more tender annual species are depended upon to give us
flowers during the trying months of June, July, August, and Septem-
ber. persistently blooming through the heat and heavy rains that
usually come during summer.
One may literally have a colorful garden and cut flowers every
month in the year by judiciously selecting varieties and planting
seeds at intervals to give a succession of plants for bedding.
Annual plants may be roughly divided into two groups as to
seasonal adaptation. First. and possibly most important, are those
hardy frost resisting. cool weather plants, the seeds of which are
sown in autumn, that they may take advantage of the temperate cli-
mate of the months of November to May.
Second are those tender heat-tolerant. pest-resistant plants that
defy the high temperatures, heavy rains and numberless garden pests
of summer. Seeds of this second tender group are best planted in
the months of February through August in those portions of the state
that experience freezing temperatures, but in frost-free areas they are
planted at any time of the year.
The uses of annuals are endless. The variety of colors, the differ-
ences in height and habit of growth, the ways in which they lend
themselves to effective flower arrangements. account in part for the
tremendous popularity of this group of blooming plants. Indeed it
is a drab garden that does not display annuals as edgings, as bold
but incidental color masses in the prominent shrubbery bays or in
the bright striking borders that are so essential in our modern gardens.
Although the permanent woody shrubs are always to be preferred
for foundation plantings about buildings, and to enclose the garden,
sometimes a temporary planting is desirable, and then the annuals.
especially the tall growing sorts, will serve the purpose admirably.
As window box materials and porch plants. annuals are indis-
pensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a sunny
piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy, pest-resistant
annuals whose seeds may be sown broadcast and forgotten. Many of
our flowers such as annual phlox, alyssum. annual blanket flower.
coreopsis, and petunia can be used in this manner: they will volunteer
each year. supplying endless numbers of colorful blossoms with the
least possible care.


It is an established fact among successful growers that the best
seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of course
there is no one best source or seed house, but an old reliable concern
that has a big turn-over, that buys large quantities of seeds from es-
tablished producers. can be depended upon to distribute fresh seeds
of excellent quality. In many cases, experienced flower growers buy
seeds direct from the specialist who produces them and who has
spent years of careful work and study developing good strains. Fresh
seeds from true-to-name. robust parents contribute in a large way
toward a successful garden of annuals.
One is attracted bv the glowing accounts describing novelties
offered each year lv seedsmien. and( usually it is worth while to try
a packet or so of any new variety that is especially attractive. It
should be borne in mind that perhaps these newer sorts have never
been grosn in your section and may not be adapted to local con-
ditions. but at the same time. our gardens would certainly be commion-
place if no onc ever tried a novelty. One should. of course. go in for
novelties ini a small way. depending upon old and tried varieties for
the principal components of the garden.


The greatest difficulty experienced bI most gardeners is getting
a good stand of seedlings and protecting them from the dread disease.
damping-off. During August. September and October. when most
annual seeds are planted. the warm weather is very favorable to the
growth of dainping-off organisms. and the loss of seedlings is tre-
mendotis). if proper precautions are not observed.
There are. perhaps, as many different methods of planting seeds
as there are gardeners. The meth od described herewith has been used
successfully v bthe writer for man\ years.
Sowing seeds in flats is preferable to open ground planting
because conditions may be more easily controlled. A flat is a shallow
box of ani convenient size that has plenty of drainage holes or cracks
in the bottom to allow water to pass freely out of the soil. Thorough
drainage is exceedingly important in soils where tender seedlings
are grown. as a sour, water-logged medium is fatal to most young
garden plants. In the bottom of the flat should be placed a layer of
pine straw. dead grass clippings or other coarse material so that the
soil will not wash through the drainage holes.
The soil used in flats may )be any good mixture in which there
is a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such as cow manure,
oak leaves. or peat moss. The older the compost is. the better. Earth


that is free from root-knot nematodes is desirable and this may be
secured in heavily wooded areas.
Firm the soil to within a half inch of the top of the flat with a
brick or a block of wood. Flood this gently packed medium with a
solution of one of the organic mercury compounds that are indicated
for the control of damping-off. After this solution has drained off,
sift the seeds, broadcast, on the wet surface. Cover lightly, by sifting
sand or sandy loam through a screen, over the seeds. Covering seeds
too deeply is a common error. Generally speaking, if the seeds be
just barely hidden, good results may be expected. After the seeds
have been covered with soil, place a wet newspaper over the flat.
Water should be sprinkled on the paper whenever it becomes dry.
In this way, there is no danger of washing the seeds out, and the soil
is kept uniformly moist. The wet newspaper should remain on the
flat until the seeds germinate. Place the flats on boxes or benches
that are protected from ants which often carry away the seeds. Some
of the most popular of our autumn-sown annuals, such as pansies.
snapdragons, and larkspur, are distinctly cool weather plants and
their seeds will not germinate readily if the temperature is excessively
high. For this reason, to assure a fair stand, it is important that the
flats should be placed in the coolest possible situation. The north side
of a building, under a tree, or under an open shed should do nicely.
After germination, the flats must he placed where the seedlings can
get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade, the seedlings
will grow into weak, leggy plants. A muslin shade, such as is used for
celery or tobacco seed-beds. allows sufficient light to penetrate to the
young plants. Shortly after germination, the flats should receive
another application of a compound for the control of damping-off.
Water should be carefully applied through a fine spray.
When the seedlings show about four true leaves, they may be
transplanted to well prepared beds where they are to bloom. Choose
a cool, cloudy afternoon for transplanting if it is at all possible, and
set the plants about 12 to 18 inches apart. Close planting is desirable
to assure bold color masses. As further insurance against damping-
off, it is often a good plan to use the damping-off control immediately
after transplanting. Great care should be exercised in watering the
young plants until they are well established. Over-watering can be
as harmful as under-watering.
The second class of annuals, those which are planted in the open
ground where they are to bloom, may be handled much the same as
vegetables. Sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills or trenches. Cover
lightly with soil and sprinkle with a damping-off control. The drills
or rows may be covered with wet strips of burlap. If this material is
used, water will not wash the seeds out of the soil, and the soil stays
uniformly moist. If ants are abundant, grits or cornmeal should be
sprinkled liberally along the rows. These will be taken in preference


to lie seeds. As soon as lihe seeds germinate. thli burlap miust be re-
moved. and a second application of the damping-off control should
It- made. When the plants are well established. thin so that thev stand
about 12 to 18 inches apart.

Although thel majoril\ of annuals arTe Iro,\n from r'ds. it i-
sotiitincs des-irable to plropagate a particularly\ fine individual 1,\
cullillgs. Tip cuttings about 3 imnclies long inserted in elan. conlrsel.
sand should root ill two ,or three ceeks. A\ Io\ w ith plenty\ of drainage
hole' ma\ I'. ti-edl to conilain the -andl. The sand should (le kept moisl.
the clittin L- piitected from iun. I lid or ('coli. WVhe tihe root- are aln
inch or so in lenlth the cultings Ina\ le pott i|d up or planted hlireI.
tlhe are to bloomIIi. iSom annuals Ithat %ill gro;w readily frll cutliing.s
are. arnat ion. hir\iianlheinilm (Ianmal I. petunia. pinks uidraons.
tonr'ia and N\,' irlla.

Special pileparation of the .-il i- usually nee---m \ if thrift\
planl- \bhi hi produIm e la,_e I numl'er-- ,f flo, ,er- of 2.1. l -1u1,-t l ce aI r,
expected. If tdle iati\e oil i e lightly. -andv andl l,, in oIr ani" Inattelr.
it should loe built up l)i inlg go le'a\es. liaiiImo k soil. o, peat mo".. If tie ialtie -.oil. on tile other
Iandl. is lo-\ and -Iulijet| to, flooding. adequate drainage slohiuld flie
lproided. lBied, raised alout 12 incre'h, with dillIe.- hle leen thlentil
-hoil l[e .atil.factory for annuals. lMuch evidence points o ilth- valle
of muhlchinll and after thie plants are set where tlthe\ art Ito looml. a
blalnkt of peat moss. rolled manure or ,ak leae- \, ill pr.-erve lthe
moli-ture. keep thel, roo,t- ool. and di-,ourae %,eedl roilith.
l.igit bi-. suptllies nilrogeni. plhospiorus and plotash. arel important to insure
rol-t )I]ant. tild and abundance of blooms. \ it rate of ,odta ,r sulfal
of ammonia dissolved in %at'er at the rate of one table--p.on to the
gallon is an e\eellent stimulant for \eetatie urowth. butl these ma-
terials should lie supplemented \ilth fevtilizer wlhiclh contains phos--
phorus and potash. Steamled bone mnal is an excellent food that will
nolt lurn tle plants. It becomes available to thle plant rallther slow\l\.
lbut it, effect is lasting.

Annuals for (Ctlling
Aster. babv's breath, blanket flower, bliu-eved ifrican daisy.
blle lace flo("er. )butterfl\ flower. calendula. California poppy. calli-


opsis, candytuft, carnation, chrysanthemum (annual), clarkia, corn-
flower. cosmos (both species), flora's paint brush, floss flower, gilia,
godetia. globe amaranth, hunnemania, larkspur, leptosyne, lupine,
marigold. mignonette, mourning bride, nasturtium, orange African
daisy, painted tongue, pansy, phlox, pinks, poppies, strawflower,
scarlet flax. snapdragon, stock, statice. sunflower, sweet pea. zinnia.
Re-seeding Annuals
Alyssumn. blanket flower, blue-eved African daisy. California
poppy, calliopsis. Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos (sulphureus), floss
flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroccan toad flax,
nicotiana. petunia. phlox, poppies, sunflower, torenia. zinnia.
Annuals for Window Boxes or Porches
Alyssum. balsam, carnation IMarguerite), double English daisy.
floss flower, lobelia, mignonette. moss rose. nasturtium, pansy.
petunia (dwarf), phlox. torenia, verbena.
Annuals for the Rock Garden
Alyssumn, butterfly flower. California poppy, candytuft, double
English daisy, flora's paint brush, floss flower Idwarf), lobelia,
mignonette. Moroccan toad flax, moss rose. orange African daisy.
pansy. petunia dwarf I. phlox, pinks, snapdragon (dwarf), stock.
torenia. verbena.
Annual Vines
Cypress vine. gourd. morning glory, nasturtium (climbers), sweet
Annuals for Edgings
Alyssum, calendula. double English daisy, floss flower. I dwarf).
lobelia, marigold dwarf I, Moroccan toad flax, moss rose, pansy.
phlox, snapdragon (dwarf), torenia, zinnia (Liliputs).
Annuals Planted in the Fall for Winter and Spring Bloom
Alyssum. babv's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy.
butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy, calliopsis. candytuft.
carnation, Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia. cornflower. double English
daisy, flora's paintbrush, gilia, godetia, hollyhock, hunnemania,
larkspur, leptosyne, lobelia, lupine, mignonette, Moroccan toad flax,
mourning bride, nicotiana, orange African daisy, painted tongue,
pansy. petunia, phlox. pinks. poppies, scarlet flax, snapdragon, stock.
statice. sweet peas.
Annuals Planted in the Early Spring for Summer Bloom
Aster. balsam, blue lace flower, celosia, chrysanthemum (annual i.
cosmos (both species), cypress vine, floss flower, globe amaranth,
gourd, marigold, morning glory, moss rose, nasturtium, straw flower,
sunflower. torenia. verbena, zinnia.


ALYSSI'M (Lobulnria uitritirna)
The le ie ral varieties of sw ,el alyvssun. uith %%hite or lilac flower,-
are aniong he best of annuals for edging and for planting in the rock
garden. l.,o-growing. sehldo, exceeding a height of 12 inches. this
plant shiuiild have a place in ever% garden. window box or hanging
Of ea-ie-t culture. extremely hardy. s~cee al ssumi may be sown
every m1inth in the \ear. except during idl-siummer. and n ill bloom
in four to six weeks. \ oluiteer seedlings are uisuall\ abundant about
older plants.


Asler-China A ser (Callisteph.us rhinensis)
The alnmial aster has ibeii I highlv developed. the parent if which
%as inliiroiced from China and shtouli not Ie confused ~ith the
--malle'r flowered perennial aster native to America.


The annual China Aster is highly prized as a cut flower on account
of its variety of color and form. As protection against the insects and
diseases which prey upon the China Aster the plant should be grown
in new soil each year. Even with the most careful attention, asters
will sometimes fail. The wilt-resistant strains should be chosen.

Baby's Breath adds daintiness to bouquets of heavier blossoms

Baby's Breath (Gypsophila elegans)
The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three varieties of Baby's
Breath are delightful additions in the flower vase or bouquet. Blanket
flowers, dwarf sunflowers, carnations or pinks may be used as the
principal part of the bouquet. The tiny flowers on wiry stems add
daintiness and softness to the well arranged bouquet.
Baby's Breath blooms quickly from the time of sowing and passes
quickly into seed production. Several plantings at monthly intervals
are recommended.

Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)
The cheerful Balsam grows quickly, finds a congenial home in
window-boxes, porch containers, or as a border in shady places. The
newer varieties are striking in form and color. The seedlings should
be pinched several times to assure well-shaped plants.


Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pulrhetllo picta)
The annual varieties of the Blanket Flower. single. semi-double
and full double, are of great value in the flower garden. The red and
yellow daisy-like blossoms are highly appreciated by those who enjoy
their cheerful colors and keeping quality. The Blanket Flower does
well in almost any type of soil. volunteering annually and producing
abundant flowers, even on the poor light sands of the seashore.

Blue-eyed African Daisy (Arrctois grandis)
Graceful. light blue, dais'-like flowers about 21e inches across
having steel blue centers are obtained from these flowering plants.
They are not difficult to grow in almost any kind of soil. New vol-
unteer plants appear each year. As the flowers close in the afternoon
they should be used in the morning bouquet.

Blue Lace Flower (Trachymrene caerulea)
The globular blossoms of tile Blue Lace Flower are composed of
many tin\ light blue florets and resemble a sky blue scabiosa flower.
The plants are not attractive garden subjects. merit lying entirely in
the unusual blue flowers for arrangements. The Blue Lace Flower is
not widel planted.


California Poppy



Butterfly Flower (Schizanthus pinnalus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is covered
with tiny. orchid-like blooms and always attracts a great deal of
attention. It requires constant care and most favorable conditions.
Calendula (Calendula officinalis)
A universal favorite, the Calendula is one of our most important
winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers are pro-
duced in shades of orange and yellow. As both garden plants and cut
flowers they are unsurpassed. If the seeds are sown in August and the
seedlings protected from the direct sun for a month or so before
bedding out. blossoms may be cut from December until early spring,
except during periods of very low temperatures. The plants will stand
considerable cold: even though the blooms are blasted by heavy
frosts, others will open up when warmer weather returns.

California Poppy (Escholtzia californica)
The California Poppy to be effective should be grown in large
groups in a garden that gets plenty of sunshine. Varieties in cream,
white and red are now obtainable. Very hardy, easily grown from
seeds sown broadcast, the California Poppy deserves a place in every
flower garden. The blooms are excellent as cut flowers and should be
arranged in low containers with their own foliage. The flowers close
in the evening.
Calliopsis (Coreopsis-several species)
The Calliopsis or Coreopsis is another type of the numerous daisy-
like flowers that are so suitable for annual borders. The flowers are
to be had in shades of yellow, maroon or terra cotta, and add beauty
to both garden and bouquet. This plant is easily grown and is highly
recommended for Florida gardens.
Candytuft (Iberis in two species)
Candytuft in its varieties with white, lilac, crimson umbels of
flowers. is a good subject for edging, for the rock garden or for
cutting. It is similar to sweet alyssum, but is a taller plant and the
flowers are larger. Hardy and not difficult to grow, the candytuft
can fill the need, as does sweet alyssum, for a hardy, dwarf, much
branched flowering annual.

Carnation (Dianthus in several species)
The hybrid annual carnations which have recently been developed
by plant breeders, will supply everything save size, for which the
perfect florist carnations are prized. The delightful spicy fragrance,
the charming variety of colors, the way in which the flowers lend
themselves to arrangements certainly makes the annual carnation
worth growing.

(:CeloaiaL (Celonias ill several species)
thell(, red or yetllo h prlues. (if the co-losias or cockscoih-. hborne on
iolobi-t. qntick-gr.. ing plants. are often seen in summer gar(delis and
(cci((lionalli as diricd bouIqu(luets. Teillter. hut of easiest culture. tlhe
(PI( hIs sucI I Ied diulring tile suminmer mn lith h,.. H.i% e'. r. r. t .k n t is a
'ecrlotls petII- ) Ito eb.e plants andt wr ill sometimes take a hea\\ toll of the
seedlinigsr g \inIg o4jn soil infested witli niemiiatodes.

(Inl l t Iult

C:him-m- Ft ~~rgell-me-t w~t (C.-vitoglossrina antbile))
For l11tc fto~%er,I. if) thle late sprin- gardleni. one sh0aild (ert"i'lllv
vollimer the (:hiii.se foru-Ct-Ille-no~t. AltthoughJ it i ilhjim-d~ b% fros.~t.
it i casy to grow.% \ (hlhltver readtit% and blooins in a cuiloparat ivel,\
h time. rhi charming annual deserves a place ill ve(.1eN one s
grardlern. l'o-sibIl it- gTcretest umk(- is for blue c(t-tor nid-ses ill the -spring
liormlei becauseli~ tilt, fiom-1r 51uikvst,-.uall\ % ill badly lilenl tlhe- art,
use(td5 asi cut~ ) ers.


Chrysanthemum-Annual (Chrysanthemum-several species)
The perennial chrysanthemums are among the most important of
the flowers for cutting, and for blossoms that come earlier than the
perennial sorts, we might take advantage of the annual varieties.
These are tender and are best planted when there is no danger of
frost. The plants, which attain a height of 2 or 3 feet, should furnish
during the summer months abundant yellow, white or banded, small
daisy-like flowers that are admirable for cutting. As the plants are
robust growers, they should be thinned to a stand two feet apart.
Clarkia (Clarkia in two species)
This plant, native to Western United States, is hardy and com-
paratively easy to grow during the cool weather of the winter and
early spring. The plants, attaining a height of about two feet, pro-
duce spikes of single or double flowers in shades of white, pink. sal-

Early Cosmos


mon or red. They make good annual borders and arc effective
in flower arrangements.
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
The Cornflower. characteristic of the old-fashioned garden. is a
favorite. The single and double flowers of white, pink. red. blue and
purple are produced abundantly in early spring. Their beautiful
clear colors add life to the border and their blooms are excellent for
cutting. Especially pleasing effects can he attained by planting seeds
in separate colors. Diseases remaining iln tlie soil sometimes give
trouble in the late spring. It is best to sow the seeds early which will
assure Iblooms before hot weather. 'The plants are of easy culture.
germinate promptly. transplant well. and thev will stand consider-
able frost.
Cosmo--Early (Cosmos bipiinnatus)
The early (Cosmos ears Ii single. crested or double dai-\-like flow-
ers in while, pink or red. They may be cut during June and July if
the seeds are planted iin March. The blooms make excellent stminer
flower arrangements. The plants grow rapidly and bloom quickly
and they should be tied to stakes to present the wind from breaking
off the lIa\ branches.
(o-,mos. Late or Klondike (Cos,,mos sulphurous)
Yellow flowers are produced in the aullltum by \ mi(an'y embers of
the Compositae and with ius. one of the most dependable of lihe family
i- the late or Klondvke Cosmos. This Cosmo-. succeeds with little
attention. lThe -ingle or doiible crested soilplhur- yellow blooms appear
in October.
C. pre"r Vinel (Quamoclit pernnata)
The finely 'cut foliage and attractive tiny blossoms of white, red
or salmon make it an atlracti\e plant for .-mall. temporary screens
and trelli-,s. 'The seeds %hlicli are hard. germinate better whlien they
have been -carified before planting.
Delphinium delphiniumum hi -ierail -pecieo)
The Delphiniums of the Belladonna. ellanmosuni and C(hinensis
types are coming in for considerable popularil. Fresh seeds. collm-
pairati\cly col weather, a conlstlat moisture supply. and ia soil that
is flrefe fromli diseases seem to lie essential lo a good stand of healthy
seedlings. If -own in earl\ auitilmn. Delphinium should be blooming
in March and April. Alha \- popular in flower arrangemennt- and i.as
I-ubjCetl- flr the --prilig order. D)elphiniumil- are 'cerlainlk worth

Double Enigli-hL Dais (HBellis peretnnis)
In Ilorida. the perenniial English l)ais% or Hellis will not thiri\e
after the advent of warm neahler in May and therefore it is rowiin as



a winter annual. The English Daisy is well suited for rock gardens
and edgings. The plants are flat, tight rosettes of shining green leaves
from which the charming double flowers of white, pink or red are
borne singly on stems about four inches long. This species produces
the best effect when set in close masses.
Flora's Paintbrush (Emilia agiratala)
These clusters of small gay orange. tassel-like or brush-like flow-
ers are produced in the spring on stiff stems about 18 inches long.
The flowers are rather small. They furnish a light airiness to a
Floss Flower (Ageratum eonyzoides)
Nothing surpasses the Floss Flower or Ageratum for blue blooms
during the summer period in the garden or as cut flowers. The soft
lacy blossoms blend well into any color combinations. There are
dwarf and tall varieties in white. pink. or shades of blue. The plants
are easy to grow. seedlings usually volunteering about old plants.
They should be grown after the danger of heavy frost has passed.


Gilia (Gilia spp.)
Another blue flower that blooms in the late spring is Gilia. The
flowers are rough. gllobular heads. about an inch in diameter, and
are borne in profusion. The Gilia has proven its ability\ to thrive here.

(;lobe Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa)
This plant sometimes called Bachelor's ButtonI. should not le
confused with the Cornflower Centaurea which also is known yv
that name. The Globe Amaranth thrives during hot weather. pro-
ducing myriads of white or red globular flowers that resemble clover
heads. Thec are used for permanent or dried bouquets. Tender, easy
to grow. volunteering in great profusion. the plants can be depended
upon to succeed under almost any conditions during the summer.
Godetia (Goderia spp.)
The Godetia. or Satin Flower. will succeed in Florida. especially
in partial shade. The open. primrose-like flowers of white, rose or

Flora's Paintbrush



red are borne on spikes about 18 inches long. The seeds germinate
well in the autumn and the young seedlings, which closely resemble
snapdragon plants, grow quickly. The losses from transplanting are

The Floss Flower

The Gourds in their many varieties are too well known to neces-
sitate descriptions or discussions. Interesting, unusual fruits of mul-
titudinous shapes are borne on the annual vines which grow during
the rainy season of mid summer. They are useful for temporary
screens during the summer. The seeds should he planted when danger
of frost has passed.
Hollyhock (Althaea rose)
Because of the lack of success with the old fashioned, biennial
Hollyhock of temperate climates, it was assumed for many years that
we could not have these stately flowers in Florida. The introduction of
an annual strain from tropical America has brought to us a most
useful Hollyhock that has all of the good qualities of the old favorite.


Be certain that vour seeds are of this type. sow them in September,
transplant the seedlings to heavily enriched soil and you will proba-
bly be more than pleased with the beautiful Hollyhocks that \ou can
grow here.
Iluinenianl i (Hlunnemnanira l urnarineolia)
The lliunnemlanlia. sometimes called T'ulip Poppy. resembles a
sulphur-.ellow California poppy of giant size: coarser and of greater
substance. The plants. about two feet in height, are very prolific,
hardy and eas\ of culture. The seedlings do not transplant readily
and the seeds should lie sown where the plants are to bloom. The
Hlunineniaia is excellent as a source of sulphur-yellow color in the
late spring border and as a cut flower.
Lark-tpur (Delphinium spp.)
IThe well-known I.arkpur is -o widelyl\ rown that it .seems hardly
necess;ar\ to describe this \atalule annual. Single and double, flowers




of white, buff, rose, blue, lavender and purple are borne on tall, erect
spikes during the early spring. Some of the improved varieties hav-
ing very double flowers of clear colors, are very charming. Larkspur
seeds fail to germinate if they are planted early in the fall. It is best
to wait until November, then sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills,
firm them into the ground and water with a fine spray without cover-
ing. Volunteer seedlings are usually numerous where the plants
bloomed the previous season. These seedlings produce single flowers
in colors that are not so clear nor so attractive as the flowers produced
from new seeds. The young plants are hardy, transplant very readily
and react very favorably to good care.
Leptosyne (Leptosyne spp.)
Two varieties of annual Leptosyne will produce their yellow
flowers during the early spring in Florida. Good for cutting, they
are unusual, worthwhile annuals, although they are seldom seen.
Lobelia (Lobelia erinus)
Lobelias, in their beautiful shades of blue, in the dwarf compact
variety make a very desirable edging. The trailing or hanging variety


is used in pots. boxes and baskets. The charming dwarf plants, under
six inches in height, of many tiny branches, are covered with tiny
blue flowers throughout the blooming season. They need cool weath-
er, but cannot stand freezing, so must be grown (during the winter
and receive protection on cold nights. The seeds germinate well. For
good color effects the plants should be set no farther than 1. to 6
inches apart.
Lupine (Lupinus spp.)
For a tall border, the annual Lupines are very effective. The cut
flowers have excellent keeping quality. Long spikes of pea-like flow-
ers in white, pink and shades of blue are numerous in the spring.
Sow the seeds in their permanent place and thin the seedlings to 12-
inch intervals in the row.

i.ptum are ratamel'' t for cli ttitn in springtime

Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
The African Marigold is tall. erect, attains a height of three feet,
and bears large globular flowers that range in color from lemon
yellow to orange. This plant is valuable at the back of borders where
height is desired. Many of today's best hi brids do not have the ob-
jectionable Marigold odor.
The French and Mexican Marigolds are compact. dwarf (usually
under 16 inches in height I, and good plants for edging or front posi-
lions to taller plants.


In late September and through October when most annuals are out
of season, the Marigolds contribute their bright yellow and orange
flowers to gardens whose brightness has begun to wane. Withstanding
heat and drought, thriving where many plants would perish, free
from pests, the Marigolds are useful both in the garden and the home.
Seeds germinate well and quickly, and the seedlings are easy to handle.


Mignonette (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for Mignonette a place in every
flower-lover's heart. The dwarf plant which hears the odd flower
trusses of this old favorite should have a place in every garden. The
chief value of Mignonette is its use in bouquets of flowers which have
no odor of their own. The seeds do not germinate easily and hot
weather is fatal to the plants.

Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea)
Nothing can surpass the annual Morning Glory, a vigorous, rapid
growing vine which is covered with glorious flowers throughout the
summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds will produce plants that
bear large flowers of beautiful clear colors. Volunteer seedlings
usually have flowers of inferior quality. The Morning Glory is ex-


cellent for making a screen or as a covering for unsightly objects
during the summer.
Moroccan Toad Flax (Linaria maroccana)
This little plant from Morocco is very well adapted to Florida
conditions. It is very hardy and bears spikes of tiny snapdragon-like
flowers of white, lemon, pink. blue and purple throughout the winter
and early spring. The small leaves are narrow. dark green and
delicate in texture. The plant self-sows. the volunteer plants appar-
ently not deteriorating rapidly in quality or the color of the flowers.
Blooming profusely. even during frosts. in poor sands soil. the
Toad Flax can be most highly recommended for edgings. borders
and rock gardens.
Moss Rose (Portulraccra grantdilora)
Fior a summeiir edging or rock garden plant. probably nothing else
equals the Moss Rose. The leaves are narrow. thick. succulent, and

Moss Rose is one of the best summer edgings


are completely hidden in a blanket of gay colors in the mornings
when the flowers are open. Shades of buff, salmon, pink and red are
characteristic of the double and single flowers.
The Moss Rose flourishes under the most trying conditions of
heat, drouth and poor soil. The seeds germinate best during warm
weather. The young plants can be moved with very little loss. Volun-
teer seedlings should not be used because of the poorer quality of their
flowers. Seeds of the best double strains will give the most satisfac-
tory color effects. As the blooming season is short, it is well to have
small plants available by sowing seeds at monthly intervals during
the summer.

Mourning Bride (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the Mourning Bride or Pincushion
Flower furnish a range of color found in no other annual. From
white, through all shades of yellow, blue, rose, red, maroon, to an
almost black purple the colors are charming, and always harmonious.
The plants, which attain a height of about three feet when well grown,
are prolific, thrifty and almost indispensable in the spring garden.
The keeping quality of the blossoms is good; the long stiff stems
make for artistic flower arrangements.

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums, if planted after the danger of frost has passed in
the early spring, will furnish an abundance of delightful color for a
period of about two months. The many flowers of yellow, orange and
maroon make an attractive addition to the garden and are good for
cutting. A strain that has fragrant double flowers has met with con-
siderable favor. Climbing varieties make good screens for a short
time. Free from pests, and enjoying light soils, the Nasturtium well
deserves its popularity.

Nicotiana (Nicotiana spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of most kinds of orna-
mental tobaccos remain closed and of little beauty during the day,
the principal value of this plant is for its perfume which is delight-
ful when the flowers open in the evening. The ornamental forms are
large, coarse annuals, that succeed during the late spring and summer.
Several different colors are available.

Orange African Daisy (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca)
Daisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in shades of yellow,
are produced in considerable abundance by the dwarf spreading
plants of Dimorphotheca. The flowers close in the evening. Hybrids,
having flowers of different colors, are available.


Painted Tongue (Salpiglosis sinuara)
The striking. highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers of
the Painted Tongue resemble ornate Petunias. A wide range of
bright. bizarre colors is exhibited by these funnel-shaped blossoms.
Germination of the seeds'is satisfactory in cool weather. but even
under good cultural conditions continual replacement is necessary.




Pansy (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach Pansies for edging or for bedding in the
late winter and early spring. The highly-developed strains are char-
acterized by gigantic flowers of most striking brilliance and endless
variety of design. Being distinctly a cool weather plant, the seeds will
not germinate well in the warmth of late summer. If fresh seeds are
planted in a cool, shaded place in late autumn, no difficulty should
be experienced. Set the plants 6 to 8 inches apart to obtain a continu-
ous border without breaks. A stock of plants should be kept on hand
to replace unthrifty plants in the edging. The loss from moving, if
properly done, is negligible. Pansies will ordinarily stand consider-
able cold without injury.

Pansies probably are the best annuals for winter edgings

Petunia (Petunia axillaris)
No garden would be complete without Petunias. The small single
varieties are valuable for color-effects, while the more pretentious,
single and double fringed and veined giants always attract a great
deal of attention because of their unusual texture. size and colors.
The small single varieties are very easily grown from seeds, when
instructions for planting are followed.
The giant fringed Petunias demand the greatest care in planting,
watering and transplanting. The full, double-fringed varieties are
propagated by placing tip cuttings in coarse sand.


Phlox (Phlox drummonndi)
The annual Phlox is one of the easiest of plants to grow from
-ced. TIhe little flowers that cover the dw arf. spreading plants through-
out the early spring have a wide variety of colors. Excellent as an
edging. for ribbon beds. as a ground cover for a sunny expanse. and
for naturalizing. Most pleasant are the effects when planted as a
solid color edging. For rich. clear colors, it is best to plant fresh
seeds rather than to rely on volunteer seedlings.
Annual Phlox is relatively free from pests. transplants most easily.
and succeeds in dr\. light. sandy soils.

PinkL ()ianthus in see rail species)
Pinks thrive as annuals. very often as perennials, if thev are cut
back in the early summer and fertilized for a second period of bloom.
\u attempt iill be made to distinguish the species or hybrids of
I)ianthus. Different kinds should be tried and selections t len made.
The hardines, of the plant. the old-fashioned quaintness of the fra-
,_rant. man- -colored blossoms. the ea--.c ith \hliich the seeds sprout
and gri' i. commend tIhe annual pinks. Several Inew hybrid Dianltihu
are charminii amnuials ol considerable merit.
7.~rr '



Poppy (Papaver in several species)
Poppies are garden favorites. The bright colors of the hybrids
of the Opium Poppy and the fragile, fine-textured, delicately tinted
flowers of the Shirley group, offer variety in color and design. The
Poppies do not transplant well, nor do the seeds sprout in hot weath-
er. It is best to sow the seeds in November, where the plants are to
grow. Ants are very fond of poppy seeds, and grits should be sprin-
kled along the rows to protect the seeds. Thin the seedlings to stand
12 to 18 inches apart. Some of the varieties of the Opium Poppy
volunteer and occupy the same garden spot year after year.

Annual Phlox

Scarlet Flax (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered, hardy, bushy annual is quite at home in Flor-
ida. It grows to about two feet. The clear color is good in the border
or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings are easy to grow and can be
moved with little loss.

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the Snapdragon is really a perennial, in Florida it is
treated as an annual because it rarely survives summer temperatures
and rains. It is a cool weather plant and succeeds when grown through
the winter and early spring months.
The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place and protected
from ants. After germination, the seedlings are easy to transplant


and produce their spikes oif delightful hlos-inls in the earl% spring.
Iiialualle; as a cut flokcr. oir for the border. the Snapdragon in its
hiighl\.-dc\eloped colors is well worth growing.

Itnnil Pinks

Statice (Linwoniumi in several peries.)
The aniiial kinds of Slatice are well adapted to our gardens.
thriving e\en under difficulties. I.inonium sinuala has. in Ihe spring
tall spikes of blue or white flowers arising from dwarf. tight rosettes
of lobed. spatilate leaves. I.. bonduelli is \er\ similar in habit. but
produces yecllo flowers: I.. -uwo\rori. the rat-tail Statice. bears tall
graceful spikes of delicate pink flowers. All are desirable garden
plants and excellent for fresh bouquets or as everlastings. like the
Strawflowers. they may be Iuiing in bundles, blossom end down. to
drv before being used. Germination is slow. btul the plants are easily
handled after llev are eslabliilied.


Stock (Matthiola incana annual)
Stocks are old favorites and are to be had in full double varieties
in many pleasing colors. The plants vary in time of bloom. The
seeds give a good stand. The plants should stand 8 to 12 inches apart.
Plants must be sprayed with a nicotine insecticide for control of
aphids or plant lice. Soil-borne diseases, prevalent during warm
weather in old garden sites. may be reduced by the use of soil-steriliz-
ing agents.
Strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust plants which attain a height of three feet when well
grown. supply attractive material for dried bouquets. Cut the flow-
ers when they are about half open, strip off the leaves and hang in
bundles, blossom end down, in a shady place until dry. A variety of
gay colors is available. The plants are best set out after the danger
of frost has passed .
Sunflower (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is available
in this group of heat-tolerant annual:. Ihev are good material for



screens. boundaries aind for cutting during the months of Mla\ through
September if successive sowings of seed are made. The plants should
be thinned to two foot intervals depending upon the variety. Refined
types with small blossoms of attractive colors held on stiff wiry stems
are offered by most seedsmen. Mildew. which attacks some varieties.
can be controlled by dusting sulphur.

The Strumcllowcr

Sweet IPe (Lathyrus odoratus)
Sweet Pea- are among the most important winter aind spring
Iloomini-l annuals.
Winter flowering strains planted in the early fall should start
blooming in I)ecember. The Early Spring Flowering strain, intro-
duced in the earl\ 191.0's is very well adapted to Florida and is rec-
ommended as the best strain for this climate. Sow the seeds in
December or January.


The following method of planting is usually satisfactory. If
the soil is light, sandy, infested with rootknot, remove it from a trench
two feet deep where the trellis is to stand. In the bottom of this
trench place six inches of rotted cow manure, and fill to the ground
level with a good compost of rich hammock soil. It is important to
treat the bed with a soil sterilizing compound. Plant the seeds in a
staggered double row to permit the erection of a trellis between the
rows. When the seedlings emerge treat the bed again to control
damping off. Thin the plants to stand a foot apart. When the
plants are six inches high apply steamed bone meal in sufficient quan-
tity to cover the ground white, then stir it in lightly. A mulch of oak
leaves or peat moss is valuable in conserving the moisture. When
tendrils appear provide a support of poultry netting stretched between
posts, or a trellis of cotton cords. Cut the blooms frequently to pre-
vent the formation of seed pods which materially reduce the period of
flowering. When the stems begin to get short, apply a solution of
nitrate of soda-one tablespoonful in a gallon of water.
Aphids are controlled by tobacco sprays, and red spiders by dust-
ing with sulphur or syringing the vines with water under high pres-
sure. Remove and burn diseased plants, as soon as they are discovered.
The vines will stand considerable cold, but the flower buds are
easily injured. Protection on cold nights is suggested after the plants
have commenced to blossom.
Torenia (Torenia fournieri)
This plant as an edging or rock garden subject will withstand heat
and succeed with little attention. Torenia grows about 12 inches high
and is covered throughout the summer with masses of white or laven-
der, yellow-blotched blossoms. It is a creeping annual that develops
new roots where the runners come in contact with the ground. These
rooted tips may be used as new plants.

Verbena (Verbena hybrida)
The modern Verbena, with its globe shaped heads of large in-
dividual flowers, is a very desirable garden plant. In some sections
of Florida it is a perennial, but it may be treated as an annual. If no
particular color effect is desired, the plants may be grown from seeds,
however, propagation of choice kinds should be by means of tip
Zinnia (Zinnia elegans)
The Zinnia is a remarkably thrifty and heat tolerant plant.
The blossoms, ranging in size from tiny liliputs to giants that
are close to eight inches in diameter, appear in strikingly clear
colors. There are pompon varieties, curled and crested, picotes,
quilled and others that contribute much variety to the flower garden.


The seeds may be planted either in flats or in the garden after
danger of frost has passed. Sowings of the seed should be repeated
every eight weeks to have a succession of new seedlings to take the
places of plants that have finished blooming.
The liliputs should be placed about 12 inches apart, while the
larger varieties should have at least two feet between them.
These plants are gross feeders and must be supplied with abundant
plant food and water.
In the garden or in the bouquet Zinnias cannot be excelled during
the summer or early fall months. For edgings the lMexicana hybrids
and the liliputs are especially desirable.

The Zinnia surrceds in all sectlions oj Florida


When to Sow Approximate Tender or
Name Seeds Time in Bloom Hardy Page
Alyssumn* ...........Aug.-March ........Nov.-June... .. Hardy. .......... 9
Aster... ... .......... ................. Feb.-April...........July-Aug....... ...... Tender.......... 9
Baby's Breath............... .... .A g.-Dec..............Jan.June.......... ... Hardy ...... 10
Balsam .......... ................... Feb.-April..........April.Nov... .. ....Tender ..........10
Blanket Flower*............... Sept.-De ........ April-Aug.... Hardy ....11
Blue-Eyed African Daisy* .........Aug.-Jan .......... March-June........... Hardy ....I
Blue Lace Flower........... .........Feb.-April ... .....July-Aug ........ Tender ..........11
Butterfly Flower................ Aug....... Au .-Feb .. .....April-June..... ...Tender ..........12
Calendula ......... ...... Aug.-Oct.. ......Dec.-June ........ Hardy ......... 12
California Poppy* ............... Sept.-Dec.. ......... arch-June .....Hardy............12
Calliopsis ..... ... ...............Oct.-Dec.............. April-June..............H ardy............ 12
Candytuft A.... ...... ........ Aug.Dec. ..March-June........ Hardy ....... 12
Carnation......... ... .... ... .... ug.-Dec...... March-June .........Hardy....... 1.. 2.
Celosia......... .. ....... ....... Feb.-April ... ay-Sept... ...... Tender ..........13
Chinese Forget-Me-Not* ..... Aug.-Feb... .....April-July.............. Hardy. ...........13
Chrysanthemum annual)..... F -March .....May-July....... .... Tender.......... 14
Clarkia ........ Sept.-Nov.... .. April-June ..... ......Hardy............14
Cornflower...... ........ ..... Aug.-Oct..... Dec.-June............. Hardy.... ....15
Cosmos (bipinnatus) .............Feb.-April...... ...May-Aug ....... Tender ........ 15
Cosmos (sulphureus) ............ M ay-Aug.............. Oct.-Nov..... ........ Tender.........15
Cypress Vine*.. March-May .......July-Sept...... ... Tender .........15
Delphinium...... .. .....Sept.-Nov...... arch-May.. ...Hardy ..... 15
Double English Daisy. ...... ept.-Oct.............. March-May...........Hardy............ 5
Flora's Paintbrush............... Aug.-Dec.............. March-June...........Hardy ..........16
Floss Flower* ......... .....Feb.-April... ....May-Aug... .. ..Tender.......... 16
Gilia .. ............ ...... ept.-Dec......... ... April-June..............Hardy..........17
Globe Amaranth ..................... arch-April. .... May-July................Tender ....... 17
Godetia............................ .........Sept.-Dec. ..........April-June.............H ardy......... 17
Gourd...................... ...... Feb.-April. ........... ...... Tender .......... 18
Hollyhock .. ..... ......... Sept.-Nov....... April-June........Tender .....18
Hunnemania.........................Nov-Dec.. .........April-June.......... Hardy..........19
Larkspur*. Oclt.Dec.............. March-May............ Hardy............19
Leplosyne...... ......... .. Au...... -Nov....... .....M arch-June.........Hardy............20
Lobelia. Sept.-March ...Nov.-May....... ..Tender..........20
Lupine ........Aug.-Dec .. ....arch-June. ...Hardy............21
.Marigold* . ..... .....Feb.-May.........July-Nov ..............Tender..........21
M ignonette.... .................. ... Sepl.-Nov............. M arch-M ay........... Hardy...........22
Morning Glory Feb.-April ...........May-Nov................ Tender ...... 22
Moroccan Toad Flax'. ...Sept.-Nov. ........ Dec.-May.......... Hardy............23
M oss Rose ..... .... .... .... .-July.. .... ...M ay-Oct ........ .. Tender ..........23
M mourning Brid ... ...............Sept.-Dec.............April-June..... ...... Hardy............24
Nasturtium .............. ...... ....... Feb.-M arch......... April-June......... ... Tender..........24
Nicotiana...... .. .... ...Aug.-Nov........... ..March-June.... Hardy .......24
Orange African Daisy .........Aug.-Feb .... .....April-July.... ...... Hardy............24
Painted Tongue....................Aug.-Nov..............April-May.............Hardy............25
Pansy.. ...... ................. ....... A Iug.-Nov.... .........an -M ay............ Hardy..........26
Petni* ... ..........ug...an .....Jan.-Julv....... Hardy ........26
Phlox* ...... .... .... A..... u g.-Feb..... M arch-July .... ...Hardy............27
Pink Aug.............Feb........ Jan.-Julv .... ..... Haardy ...........27
Poppies*......... N v ec ...... Nov......March-May...... Hardy...........28
Scarlet Flax ................. ........Sept.-Nov... ...April-June ..... ..Hardy ............28
Snapdragon .. .\ A "..Dec.... Feb.-June.. ......... Hardy. ..........28
Statice.... .... ... Aug.-Dec... ....April- ug ..... .....Hardy ......... 29
Stock .A........ .. ...... Aug Dec ... Feb.-May.............Hardy............30
Strawflower... .... ....... Feb.-April ........... I ne-Aug........... Tender ......30
Sunflower .. ..Feb.-April ...June-Aug.............Tender .........30
Sweet Pea..... pl.-Nov. ....Jan.-April......... H.. ardy ........ 31
Torenia. ....... ....... ......F b-M ay .... April-Sept ........ .Tender ........32
Verbena... ...... .......Aug.-Dec ....Feb.-July ........ .. Hardy............32
Zinnia*....... ... Feb.-Aug... l.ay-Oct...... Tender .......32
*Re--eed and volunteer readily.



Florida gardens depend largely upon annuals for color, with the
result that herbaceous perennials are often entirely lacking in the
design. This is unfortunate in view of the fact that a wealth of mid-
summer and early fall bloom is available through the use of well
selected herbaceous perennials. It is true that winter color through
the use of annuals and exotic flowering shubs is most desirable, but
cheerful colors during the late summer and early fall are sorely needed
to fill the vacancies left in our plantings when many of the showiest
annuals are through blooming.
For Florida planting the choice of herbaceous perennials is quite
restricted as compared to the North and the East. Nevertheless, there
are many kinds that thrive in Florida. Many more perennials, such
as common garden irises, delphiniums. foxgloves, hollyhocks, colum-
bine. hardy phlox. phlox suhulata. perennial pinks, thyme, mallow
and lily of the valley, have been tried and have. for one reason or
another. proved unsatisfactory in peninsular Florida. In the western
part of the state. many of these are worth-while garden plants.

Considering our wealth of hardy broadleaved evergreens and
beautiful flowering shrubs. it is best to use herbaceous perennials in
shrubbery bays subordinate to the woody things rather than by them-
selves. excepting in the case of borders in enclosed formal gardens.
Certainly herbaceous perennials alone should not be depended upon
for foundation plantings. but they do add a completeness. a finishing
touch. to any design.
By a judicious choice of materials one may have perennials in
bloom from April until frost.
Herbaceous perennials are most valuable in bold. closely planted
masses for the color effect and are really most successful when grown
thus rather than spotted about with a great deal of distance between
individual plants.

A decided advantage in favor of this group of plants is that once
the garden is laid out. the plants need not be propagated every year.
Furthermore, the foliage of many perennials is delightful in itself
when the plants are out of bloom.


This group is, as a whole, extremely easy to propagate by divi-
sions, seeds or cuttings. A note regarding the common method of
propagation of each plant will be found under the discussion of
Division: Propagation by division is the easiest, quickest and
best way to increase most herbaceous perennials. Dig the plants,
shake off the dirt and it will be apparent that they will divide up into
units or small plants all having roots, stems, buds or leaves. These
units may be separated and planted. The beds should be thoroughly
prepared beforehand and abundant water should be added to pack
the soil well about the roots. Plants are best divided after the bloom-
ing season, but with care they may be so increased at any time.

Dividing a herbaceous perennial to provide more plants

Cuttings: This method also is much used in the propagation of
perennials and it is not at all difficult if a good grade of sharp, clean
sand and plenty of water are used.
Old stems are cut in three or four-inch lengths, just above and
just below convenient nodes or buds. The leaves on the upper node


should be left intact. A sharp knife that will make a clean, neat cut
is the best tool to use in making cuttings.
A flat or box of any convenient size in the bottom of which several
holes have been drilled to allow the free passage of water is an ideal
receptacle for the rooting of cuttings. Cover the drainage holes with
coarse material so that the sand will not wash through. Fill the box
with coarse sand to within an inch of the top: pack well, insert the
cuttings to the tipper nodes, and water to firm the sand about the cut-
tings. Cover the flat with a pane of glass or a piece of doubled cheese
cloth and keep the sand moist at all times. When the roots are about
one inch long. set the young plants in fertile soil that can he readily
watered, and protect them from the hot sun or cold until the\ are
well established.

I'iinii lsajor rariegrta is a good wiindow bor subject for .\rrthern Florida

Seeds: The plants discussed herewith vary a great deal in facility
of propagation by seeds. Some set seed readilv and are so much at
home that chance seedlings are found scattered about the parent plant.
Others seldom or never set seed and propagation of these must be by
division or cuttings.

Under most conditions the seeds should be planted as they become
ripe. They may he sown in open seedbeds protected from cold or the
direct rays of the sun. or. better still. in shallow boxes. In any case.


the soil should be well supplied with humus, such as rotted cow ma-
nure or peat moss. A good mixture for seedbeds or seed boxes is
loamy soil and fine peat in equal amounts. Plant the seeds very thinly
and lightly cover with sifted soil, peat moss or sand to a depth of
about four times their diameter. Very small seeds may be dropped
in rows and pressed into the soil with a board. It is a desirable prac-
tice to cover the seedbeds or seed boxes with sacks until the seeds
germinate. A very fine spray under light pressure is used in water-
ing. It is important that seedbeds have an adequate water supply
at all times.
The young plants should be potted off or set out before they
crowd, as over-crowding greatly reduces the vigor in young seedlings
and often encourages damping-off.

The Native Florida Coontie is well adapted to shady locations

For a successful garden of herbaceous perennials, the land must.
in most cases, be especially prepared. The soil of the beds should
be enriched with well rotted cow manure and good woods soil. Bone
meal, tankage. cottonseed meal and peat moss are often added to
advantage. Thorough preparation in advance is essential, as the
plants in a perennial garden will often stand as long as three or four
years without being moved. Applications of complete commercial


fertilizers furnishing nitrogen. phosphoric acid and potash should be
made before growth starts each spring.
A heavy\ miulch for this type of garden is strongly recommended
and for the purpose. peat moss. well rotted manure. or oak leaves are
excellent. The mulch preserves moisture. keeps the roots cool during
the heat of the summer, and discourages weed growth. Each spring
when commercial fertilizer is applied, the old mulch may be worked
into the soil and new mulch added.
Weeds must be checked when verv ountg and should never be
allowed to gain a foothold. Hoeing is often impossible or dangerous
where the plants are grown very close together. so hand-weeding is
to be preferred in the perennial garden.
One great disadvantage of this type of garden is that maintenance
is a 12 months' proposition and the gardener is often inclined to
neglect weeding. mulching, and applying the essential side-dressinigs
of comllplee fertilizers (during the summer hien this work is most


In the following pages are listed a number of species and varieties
of herbaceous perennials which can be grown successfully in Florida.
The common name appears first, with the scientific name of each
species immediately following.
Adam's Needle (Yucca filamentosa)
This yucca is native to Florida, hardy and perfectly at home.
Although the plant when not in bloom is stiff and forbidding, it is

Native Adam's Needle used as a border for a drit e

valuable for its subtropical effect, and the tall spikes of white flow-
ers. produced in summer, are particularly striking in the garden pic-
ture. The thorns at the ends of the leaves may cause painful wounds
and for this reason they should be cut off as the leaves unfold. Adam's
needle usually is propagated by means of offsets that arise about
the old plants. A variegated form is sometimes used as an urn or
pot subject.


Geneva Bugle-Weed (Ajuga genevensis)
For gardens in western Florida this creeping perennial is quite
well adapted and is considered a first rate ground cover. In early
summer, the terminal spikes of blue flowers are borne on stems that
reach above the mat of green that is formed by the prostrate plants.
Either sun or shade suits the plant but it prefers a heavy soil and is
not recommended for the light sands of peninsular Florida.
When planting s become overcrowded. lift out the plants. fertilize
the bed and replant with single divisions set about six inches apart.

Angelonia (Angelonia salicariaefolia)
This graceful perennial grows about two feet in height and has
lance-pointed, toothed leaves about three inches long. The flowers
are dark blue. white centered and bloom from Mar until frost. In
the spring it is advisable to cut the plant back for new. fresh growth.

Artillery Plant (Pilean icrophylla)
This Alexican herb has found a congenial home in southern Flor-
ida and has escaped from cultivation in maniv places there. Almost
any soil. any ex)posurc. in s-unlight or shade. the artillery plant is oine
of the \ery best edgings and window box plants.
Cuttings. taken at an\ time when there is abundant moisture. may
be set directly where these are wanted to grow.

Aspidistra (As pidistra Furida)
The Aspidistra has long been a favorite pot plant and 1 isndohw box
subject. It probably witlhstands more abuse than any other plant. as
shade seems to be its inly requirement. The stiff. shiny green leaves.
15 to 20 inches long. griow- in thick masses. It is very hardy. lbut
winter ma\ kill the plants iln the colder sections if not protected.

Av.ytasia (Asystasia roronmandeliana)
For tropical Fllorida. one of the most attractive little perennials
is this floweri ng scandent herb from the tropics of the old world.
A garden spot in full sunlight that is reasonably well supplied
with moisture suits the Asvstasia quite well and it will produce its
tubular lilac flowers almost the entire year around.
Divide heavily matted beds into fertile soil ever 1, or 5 years.

Banana (Musa spp.)
These large herbaceous perennials are grown in many sections of
Florida gardens for fruit and their tropical effect. In North Florida
they are valuable as garden plants when used behind hard evergreen
shrubbery or walls, as their unsightliness. during winter, is hidden


until new growth starts in the spring. Bananas are usually depend-
able for a year-'round effect in the southern part of the Florida
Propagation is by division of the suckers from the parent plant.
Begonia (Begonia spp.)
The Begonias are among the most popular of plants for the house
and conservatory, but with good conditions and proper care, their
planting extends to the out of doors in Florida. They must have

Tht Blanket Flower


shady situations. a soil rich in humus and plant foot. and an abundant
water supply at all times. Protection f fro frost is important.
Propagation is by division. cuttings or seeds.
Blanket Flower (Gaillardia aristata)
An erect perennial growing to a maximum height of two feet.
bearing showy yellow and red daisy-like flowers two or three inches
across, or stiff straight stems. It is difficult to distinguish this species
from the annual varieties.
The Blanket Flower requires full sun for best results and thrives
in almost any soil that is not too wet.
Blooms may be had the first vear from seed and during the second
or third vear the plants may be divided.

pipinpl/ Cn r (.tttis


Blue Flag (Iris spp.) Native
The bearded Irises do not thrive in Florida excepting on the clay
hills of the western end of the state where a few varieties may be
grown. Seven native species of Irises that are particularly graceful
may be successfully transplanted and grown in the garden. Note-
worthy among these are I. savanarrum, I. hexagona, and I. virginica.
They are water-loving herbs, two feet in height, that bear lovely white,
violet or purple flowers in the spring. Large numbers should be plant-
ed as there are few flowers to each plant. The native Irises will thrive
in or near the lily pool and with a little extra attention to watering
they may be grown in any good garden soil that is well supplied with
Blue Sage (Salvia spp.)
The Salvias are propagated by division, cuttings, or seeds. Several
varieties of Blue Sage are excellent perennials for Florida gardens.
The attractive spikes are produced in summer and early autumn.
Cacti (Opuntia, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, etc.)
As a result of the present day seeking of the unusual, the Cacti
have become quite popular. The kinds of Cacti available from col-
lectors and nurserymen are almost endless and they can be grown
quite easily if given full sun and poor soil that is well drained. They
do not blend with other plants, so it seems best to establish a separate
Cactus garden.



Canna (Canna. many species )
Canna varieties that have flowers of red. yellow. white. huff or
pink with foliage of green or bronze are available at most seed stores
in season. Varieties vary in height from 18 inches to seven or eight
feet. Cannas do well anywhere in the sun if there is an abundant
supply of water and plant food.

(.Cardinaris Guard



A pyrethrum spray frequently applied controls the canna leaf
roller (Geslina cannalis), an insect that causes unsightly injury to
the leaves.
The root stocks should be divided every two or three years to
prevent undue crowding. This is best done when the plants are killed
to the ground by cold.

Cardinal's Guard (Pachystachys coccinea)
A tropical American herb which grows to five feet, with large
remarkably shiny green opposite leaves and abundant showy spikes
of crimson tubular flowers. The plant is an excellent source of bright
red and is most effective when it is grown in large clumps.
Of easiest culture, Cardinal's Guard requires little attention, but
it responds favorably to abundant water and plant food. Propaga-
tion is by cuttings or division.

Century Plant (Agave spp.)
The Century Plant is so easy of cultivation that it is found, in
many varieties, growing almost everywhere in Florida.
Century Plants are valuable when used sparingly to lend an exotic
Propagation is by suckers arising from the old plants.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
Chrysanthemum flowers, in multitudinous forms, range in size.
from single daisy-like blooms through the pompons, anemones and
spidery Japanese varieties to the huge globular flowers so popular at
football games.
Many varieties, from all of the groups listed above, have been
successfully grown out of doors in Florida.
Probably the most troublesome insect pests are the flower thrips
which are usually present in great numbers during the warm, dry
weather of early autumn. Control by a contact insecticide such as
nicotine sulphate, pyrethrum or rotenone has been urged repeatedly,
but many backyard gardeners find it impracticable to spray or dust
the few plants that they grow. It is suggested, therefore, that varieties
be grown which mature during November and December. At this
time of the year lower temperatures usually aid materially in re-
ducing infestation by flower thrips. and the blossoms are of much
better quality.
At this season there is the real danger of frost injury in many
parts of Florida. Several methods of protecting chrysanthemum
plants have been used with success.


1. A muslin-covered frame can he built over the plants prior to
the date of expected frost.
2. The plants may be carefully lifted and transplanted into a
greenhouse or similar well lighted structure e til the blossIoms
are cut.
3. The plants can eI potted in large containerr, staked and car-
ried into the garage on cold nights.

P ?
(.eumtormr P'latr in thre jan raundcr l

Leaf spotting of chrysanthemums. the result of infection bh se.-
eral different ftingi. is particularly serious in Florida. and in certain
years clean foliage is restricted It small rosettes just beneath the
blossoms. A copper fungicide such as cuprous oxide or Flordo is
strongly recommended. I nfortunatelv. casual gardeners s-eldomn ap-
ply spray materials throughout the season.
One hand-picking of diseased leaves in September and another in
October has kept main varietiess relatively free of spotted foliage.


It has been observed that plantings maintained by division of old
clumps are much more severely attacked by the leaf spotting diseases
than those which are renewed each season by fresh tip cuttings. For
this reason, it has been the custom at the University gardens to destroy
the plants as soon as the flowers are cut, and this is strongly recom-
Rooted cuttings, secured from a wholesale grower each May,
should mature into plants that show remarkably little leaf spot. While
this practice is more expensive than the usual method of increasing
garden chrysanthemums by division, the improvement in quality will
more than pay for the planting stock each season.
As a further precaution against the leaf diseases, it is suggested
that rotation between several plots be practiced. Two or three sunny
areas that can be used in alternating years will give good results and
these may be planted to annuals or bulbs in the interim.
Heavy applications of cow manure well in advance of planting,
supplemented by light, bi-weekly feedings of a balanced fertilizer,
should provide adequate nutrients for garden chrysanthemums.
A square wooden garden stake should be driven close by each
plant, with the plant being tied to this support every eight or ten
inches with heavy cotton cord. Wire stakes are likely to whip in the
wind and bend under the weight of water-filled blossoms, when used
in outdoor plantings.
1. Use November-flowered varieties to avoid serious thrips injury.
2. Avoid leaf spot diseases by destroying old plants.
3. Replant each spring with fresh stock grown from clean tip
4. Spade manure into the bed well in advance of planting. and
apply a balanced fertilizer in small amounts every two weeks.
5. Tie the plants to stakes so that the stems will not bend and
break from the weight of water-filled blossoms.

Coontie (Zamia floridana)
This is a hardy Florida perennial with long pinnate leaves. valu-
able in the sub-tropical plan. and as a ground cover for shady places.
Coontie can be propagated by seeds, division or offsets, or the
plants may be collected from their native habitat in the open pine

Cyperus (Cvperus spp.)
These graceful sedges are useful for striking foliage effects when
used in or near water plantings. They grow well in water a few
inches deep.


Although low temperatures usually cut the stems to the ground
theyi quickly rally in warm weather.
'There are two important species.
The Egyptian paper plant (C. papiruIs is probably the more
desirable. although more tender. Stout triangular stems to a height of
eight feet bear attractive clusters of small, wiry leaves, about five
inches long at their tips.
The umbrella plant (C. alternifolius) is the more widely grown.
probably because it is more robust. It is not so striking in appearance
as the Egyptian paper plant.

D)A liiic.


The variety, gracilis Hort., is smaller and more slender. The
variety, variegaturn Hort., is striped with white.
Propagation of both species is by division or seeds.

Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.)
No perennials are so well adapted to Florida gardens as are the
Daylilies. Their hardiness, long blooming period, brilliant coloring
and freedom from pests make them indispensable for the Lower South.
There is certainly great satisfaction in growing plants that are not in
constant need of dusting, spraying and replacement. Many old plant-
ings are known where Daylilies have bloomed profusely each season
without any care whatsoever save for one spring feeding and an occa-
sional soaking during periods of drought.
Most varieties of Daylilies are cosmopolitan plants that thrive on
the muck of the Everglades, the oolitic rock of Dade County, the light
sands of central Florida and on the red clay hills of the western part
of the state.
Over most of Florida the Daylily season opens in early March
with the flowering of DOMESTICO and other early yellows, reaches
its climax in April and extends well into June. Certain types will
bloom a second time toward the end of the rainy season. In northern
Florida, flowering dates are some two months in advance of the dates
published in northern catalogs. In western Florida the dates will be
a week or two behind those for Gainesville, while toward the tip of
the peninsula, all types bloom a couple of weeks earlier. By carefully
compiling one's varietal list, these hardy perennials can be enjoyed
over a period of some four months.
Daylilies are most effectively grown in clumps of three or more
plants in the bays of shrubbery borders. If the colors are grouped
separately, perhaps the best effects will be attained.
The genus Hemerocallis has received much attention from plant
breeders and now we have huge blossoms that are bi-colored or two
toned, flowers that are a bright cardinal red and other choice vari-
eties whose blossoms are a deep glowing purple. Indeed the color
range in Hemerocallis is remarkable and it is expanding every year
as further generations of carefully bred seedlings come into flower.

False Dragon-head (Physostegia virginiana)
This is a vigorous, hardy herb, about three feet in height, that
has the characteristic square stems and toothed leaves of the mint
family. The white, pink or lilac flowers are borne in a striking four-
sided spike and are useful by virtue of the fact that they bloom in
the autumn.
It is not particular as to soil, but responds well to good culture.
Propagation is by division.


Ferns in variety are valuable for moist. shady locations. Splen-
did kinds such as the cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamnomea), and
the different maidenhair ferns (Adiantum spp.) may be collected in
the woods. Scores of horticultural varieties of ferns are grown in
Florida. They should be protected from extremely low temperatures.
Thoroughly enriched beds or borders containing peat or muck
on the north side of walls are ideal locations for ferns.
Soil moisture is of prime importance in fern-growing. Propaga-
tion is by division.

False Dragun-herd

Fig-Marigold (Clottiphyllum depressum)
This is a prostrate herb from South Africa that is very desirable
as a ground cover for seaside gardens. Revelling in full sunlight,
well-drained sandy soil and thriving in spite of salt spray, the Fig-
Marigold is a real find for Florida's coastal sand dunes. The old
clumps can be lifted and cuttings taken in mid-summer.


Ferns and other tender herbaceous plants

Four-o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa)
An erect bushy herb that is easily grown from the large black
seeds. The fragrant funnel-shaped flowers in shades of red, yellow,
white or striped, borne in late summer and early fall, open in cloudy
weather or late afternoon and close in the morning.
Four-o'clocks are killed to the ground by even light frosts, but
they will quickly recover in the spring.
Chance seedlings that are usually found about parent plants are
easily transplanted.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
The Gingers are striking perennial herbs, which are widely used
in cooking and medicines. In Florida, the gingers find their greatest
use in the ornamental field, but have long been grown to a limited
degree as culinary herbs. They thrive in shady, moist locations.


Usually winter-killed to the ground in colder sections, ginger is
evergreen in southern Florida.
Propagation is by division of the rhizomes.
Ginger-Lily (Hedychium coronarium)
The Ginger-Lily is an herb with canna-like leaves, about three
inches across, that grows to a height of four to six feet. A water-
loving plant admirably adapted to use in the lily pond planting. The
leaves are killed by a temperature of about 25" F.
The long-tubed, white flowers which appear in September and
October are extremely fragrant and are much admired.
Golden Glow (Rudbecka laciniata)
A hardy perennial whose flower stalks in the late fall rise to a
height of four or five feet and bear large, full, double, lemon-yellow
flowers in great profusion that are excellent both for garden decora-
tion and for cutting.

Native Iris


Golden Glow prefers the climate and soil of the western part of
the state and is not recommended for peninsular Florida.
A half day's sun with shade in the heat of the afternoon suits the
plant very well. When used in bold clumps, on the east side of a
north-south hedge or wall, the effect is very striking.


Golden Glow


.An abundance of plant food and water is requt ired.
Propagation bv division should be repeated every year or twio.
Mildew ima be checked bi dusting with sulphur.

Japianese Snake's Rieard (Ophiioligmte japonicus)
Perennial stemrless herbs of about a fooI in height grow ing from
rootstocks and creeping by means of stololln. The \hit' or Niolet
flowers are inconspituous.
Like it close relative, the Liriope. this grass-like plant is \er
useful as a ground grows well under the most trying conditions of stitn or shade. heat or
cold. droilght or humidity .
Snake's Heard is an e\er._reen that should he used more exten-
sivelv. 'There is a \arie.ated \arietv and a larger species known as
0. juralan.
Propagatioin is b\ division.
Jurtlicia (Justicia spp.)
These are large. coarse h'erb ,. attaining a height of I to 8 feet that
bear. during spring and summer. loose terminal spikes of red. pink
or orange tibitlar floIIers. lt-he are most useful as a back ro nd in
the herlaceou, lirder.
Prlopapationll is by outlines.
Lily-turf (Liriope ipp.)
A member of the lily famril w ith graceful grass-like foliage a foot
high. the l.iriope is exceptionally fine as a ground cower. for the
windowt-box. or an edging plant. The l.iriope grows well in most
soils but seems to thrive best in the shade. It bears its spikes of tiny
blue flowers in the summer. Tolerant of heat and cold. all of the lilh-
turfs must be protected from scale by an occasional spraying withi a
suilTilter oil.
Propai',gatioin is by diision.
L. Mluscari. the wide-leaied I.iriope. altains. t height of I incihe-
and is an excellent species for its- flowers in June and July. There i?
a variegated form.
L. spicala. creeping lily-turf. does quite well in Florida and is
highly recoil mended.
Mornea (.1loraea spp.)
As a -ufsititute for iri oni sand\ soils,. this perennial is hard.
vigorous and easy to grow. 11. iridioides. the species illustrated.
is better known than 11. bicolor %which is occasionally seen in penin-
sular Florida gardens. The clumnps should Ie divided every two or
three years.
Propagation is by division or seeds.


Pampas Grass (Cortaderia selloana)
Pampas Grass is popular in Florida where it is usually found as
a lawn specimen. It grows in large, graceful clumps to 10 feet in
height, bearing, in the fall, striking plumes which rise to a height of
12 feet. A gross feeder that requires full sun for best development.
Valuable as a screen or when used in connection with clumps of
bamboo. Often the leaves are browned by low temperatures, but this
does not impair the screening value of Pampas grass. New growth
quickly starts in warm weather.
The variety Rio des roses has rose colored panicles.
Propagation is by division.

The Mloraea can be grown on light sandy soil

Pentas (Pentas lanceolata)
Pentas has become very popular in extreme southern Florida,
where it thrives out of doors with little care. Colorfulattractive heads
of tubular flowers in lilac, pink, white or red are borne throughout
most of the year. Pentas is prized for cutting as its keeping quality
is excellent. Cuttings root quickly if they are simply set where they
are to mature and are watered frequently.


Periwinkle (Vinca rose)
A robust. erect, ever-blooming perennial growing to two feet, that
is seen everywhere in Florida. Of easiest culture, it has escaped
cultivation and may be seen in old fields and about abandoned houses.
In spite of the fact that it is so common, the Periwinkle deserves
a place in most gardens because it is sure to give a cheerful mass of
color, even without attention. Very useful and satisfactory when used
in borders. In the colder sections of the state, Vinca rosea is grown
as an annual.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. Chance seedlings abound
year after year.
V. major variegata is a reclining or creeping perennial that is
much used in window-boxes and hanging baskets and is quite easily
handled in Florida if it is grown in the shade and is occasionally
replaced with freshly layered branches.
Vinca minor, running myrtle, is valuable as a ground cover in
extreme western Florida.

e Periwinkle thrives where many flowers would perish

Sansevieria (Sansevieria spp.)
Various kinds of Sansevieria are popular as pot plants, urn sub-
jects and in patio plantings. Although they are not sufficiently hardy
to withstand cold winters, in the warmer parts of the state they are
used extensively.


Tolerant of heat, sunshine, shade, and drought, the Sansevierias
will thrive with very little attention. Some 50 species have been
The erect, thick, succulent leaves that arise from underground
rootstocks usually are mottled, sometimes variegated, and are much
sought after for their tropical character.
Propagation is by division or by cutting the leaves into pieces 2
to 3 inches long and inserting them in sand.

Scarlet Sage (Salvia splendens)
This perennial is widely cultivated in Florida. A vigorous per-
ennial that furnishes bright scarlet spikes throughout the summer
until cut down by frost. In cold districts, it is usually treated as an
annual, unless protected from cold. Almost 20 horticultural varieties
have been recognized.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.

The Scarlet Sage


Selaginella (Selaginella spp.)
A large family of fern-like plants containing many species that
succeed outdoors in Florida. They are much prized for their delicate.
feathery effect. Closely allied to the ferns. they enjoy practically the
same culture.
Most of the Selaginellas require shade. an even supply of soil
moisture. and a humid atmosphere for their best development.
Propagation is by division of old plants.

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maxintum)
The Shasta Daisy is a perennial that is truly at home in northern
Florida. but often will not survive the summers and light sands of
the peninsula. Large. pure white. yellow centered daisies borne on
stiff leafy stems a foot and one-half in height. are produced in pro-
fusion during the spring. These daisies prefer full sun in the morning
with. perhaps, partial shade in the afternoon. The plants stand a
temperature as low as 25' F. without apparent injury.
Popagation is by division in the fall.

Shrimp Plant (RIeloperonre guttata)
This striking and unusual perennial attracts a great deal of atten-
tion wherever it is seen. The plant attains a height of two feet. and
is prolific in its production of showy coppery-red flower bracts that
are somewhat similar in structure to Bougainvillea bracts. The
Shrimp plant will survive mild winters. but it should be potted and
taken indoors in the colder parts of the state.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.

Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus spp.)
These are succulent herbs growing to six feet which exude a milky
juice when bruised or crushed. Although members of this group are
very tender, they stand adverse cultural conditions and are valuable
in South Florida gardens when a tropical effect is wanted. There are
variegated varieties.

Spanish Bayonet (Yucca aloifolia)
This familiar native plant warrants no special discussion. Valu-
able when massed for the sub-tropical effect. especially\ where it is
too dry for manly perennial plants to thrive. The many branched
spikes of fragrant white blooms are very striking.
The thorns on the tips of the leaves should be removed by pruning
shears to prevent injury.
Propagation is by offsets from old plants.
There is a variegated form.


Spanish Bayonet

Stokes' Aster (Stokesia laevis)
This plant is, without question, one of the best native American
perennials that succeeds in Florida.
The plants, about a foot high, grow in strong clumps and bear
blue aster-like flowers three inches across, on stout stems through-
out the summer.
Although Stokes' Aster prefers high, well-drained, rich, sandy
loam, it will persist in poor, light sand, blooming year after year.
Extremely valuable for garden decoration and for cutting. There
are pink, white and yellow forms, but they are not as dependable
as the blue type.
Propagation is by division, which should be practiced every three


Strawberry-geranium (Saxifraga sarmentosa)
As an unusual ground cover for densely shaded locations on the
heavier soil types of western Florida, this little perennial is highly
commended. It is frequently used also as a porch plant, hung so that
the drooping stolons carry the tufts of young plantlets as a part of
the decorative scheme of the porch.

Strobilanlhes (Strobilanthes spp.)
A coarse, erect herb about three feet high that has attractive light
blue funnel-shaped flowers from May until frost. When grown in
large clumps the effect is very striking from sunrise until noon. Un-
fortunately, the flowers fade in the sun. Prolific and cosmopolitan.
Strobilanthes will endure almost any hardship and seems to succeed
anywhere in the state.
Propagation is easy by division, cuttings or seeds. Volunteer
seedlings are found in numbers about the parent plant.
S. isophyllus is larger. coarser, more hardy than is the more slen-
der S. anisophyllus.

Stokes' Aster


Tall Cup Flower (Nierembergia frutescens)
A graceful shrubby perennial herb to three feet high. Handsome
cup-like white flowers tinted with blue are borne in profusion in
early summer. They are easily bruised by the heavy rains. N.
coerulea, is a dwarf species that can be grown as an annual through-
out the state.
Apparently the cup flowers are little used, but they undoubtedly
warrant more extensive planting.
Propagation is by cuttings, seeds, or division of the old plants.
Transvaal Daisy (Gerbera jamesoni)
This superb perennial is, justly, one of the most popular grown
in Florida. The plants, which grow in large clumps about six to
eight inches in height, are vigorous, deep-rooted and quite resistant
to insects and drought.
The large but delicate daisy-like flowers, ranging in color from
white to cream to rose red, are borne on stiff stems a foot or more
in length. The flowers are produced continually if not cut down by
frost and have excellent keeping quality.
Propagation is by seeds or division. The latter method seems best
as there has been difficulty in germinating seeds, unless they are
absolutely fresh.
Divide at least every three years into well enriched soil.
Rhoeo discolor
Rhoeo discolor is a stiff, upright, tender foliage plant whose long
lance-pointed, strap-shaped leaves are green above and purple below.
It is unusual in appearance and consequently prized as a conserva-
tory plant. However, it succeeds in moist, shady outdoor locations in
Florida, but should be protected from the cold. In colder sections
it is advisable to lift the plants in the fall and carry them through the
winter in pots indoors.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne in clusters protected by
purplish, leaf-like bracts in the form of tiny boats which grow very
close to the upright stem.
Propagated by separating the young offsets from the parent plant,
or by seeds.
Tradescantia canaliculata
The native spiderwort, sometimes called blue-eyed grass, is a
worthy perennial that can be transplanted to one's garden. Flowers
of white, pink or rose are to be found, in addition to the blue type.
Tradescantia fluminensis
The Wandering Jew is valuable as a ground cover for a densely
shaded, moist spot.


Verbena (Verbena hortensis)
The present-day \Verbena, in many charming colors, is a result
of the hybridization of four species.
Usually perennials in Florida. Verbenas are low. creeping herbs.
of the simplest culture, that are dependable for strong color notes in
the garden. Attacks of red spider can be forestalled bv dusting the
plants with sulphur or syringing them with heavy pressure from the
water hose. Valuable as a ground cover in sunny places, edgings.
rock gardens and for Nwindow box work.
Propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings. but if no
special color is desired, the seeds may he planted.
Moss \erbena (1'. erinoides) is valuable as a self-seeding subject
for bold masses of lilac color. It is similar to the above. but not so
highly developed as to flower size. Only one or two shades are known.

Rhoeo discolor


Violet (Viola odorata)
Everyone loves violets and everyone can have them out of doors
in southern gardens. An acid soil abounding in humus and plant
food, moisture and shade are all that the violet requires. The de-
liciouslv perfumed flowers are numerous from December until May,
unless extremely low temperatures are experienced.
Divide the old plants each year or two. in August or September.
The variety Princess of Wales is probably the one grown most widely
in Florida.

Uinrbrellar Plant

Wedelia (Wedelia trilobala)
In any authoritative list of ground covers for south Florida this
creeping perennial would be found well up toward the top. Thriving
on any soil type, in sun or shade, in moist or dry locations, the worth
of this yellow-flowered member of the daisy family is widely appre-
ciated and it is to be found growing abundantly in the warmer sec-
tions of Florida.
The prostrate stems root readily at the nodes and abundant plant-
ing stock is always at hand.


Herbaceous Perennials For Special Situations


Aname Page
Angelonia ... .......... 41
B lue flag .......................................... -1
lue sa e .... .............................. 44
ily-turf ... .. .... 55

Nam fe Page
Stokes' aster ... ......... ........ 60
Strubilantll e ..... ....... 61
\ er ena ........................ ................ 63
\ iolet ...................... ....... ..... 64


Adam's nteedlh .................. ............. 40
Banana ........... ......... ............... 41
Blanket flower .............. 43
C arti ................. ....... ................. 44
(Ca inna ..... ... .. . 45
Carlinal- guard ........... .46
Ce( itn ry plant ................................. 46
Ch(lrvanllwthe m ll .... .. 46
False dragonl ad ................ 50
Four-o'clock ..... ...... 52
Julsicia .. 5.3
M1ra.a . .......... 55

I amlpas gra s .. ....................
P eriw inkle .....................................
Scarlet Sage ................ ...
Shasta dais ......
S lipper plant ..........................
Spanish hayonel ....
Sloke-' aster .. ........... .
S t r bilanthe .................... ...
'all iup flower ..
Tran aal dai ....... .. ....
\ .r bna


13 D)a ilv .
1 F1 r-,'lck
15 C.(;Ilii.n g h
16 \\ ldelia ..


Adam'.- n iedl .
;C ar ti .. . ............ ..
C(ardinail'- guardd
(I nrura plant
(C ni .. ....... ... . .
Il a lil ... .
Fiu \Maasigld .
F iir 'e l-'c h 'k .. ...... ... ..
Japanesf-f akeo'- lard

P riwinkI
Scarlet Sagi
Slippcr plant
Spaniihi ha. smnet
\ iol, t .
W edelia ..............


Adatm'i' nedl .. .. ....... -40
A -pidi tlra .................. ............. 4 1
Banana ................. .. 411
Begonia .. ........................ 42
Blue flag ............ ... .. 44
C ac i ... .............. . 4 1,
C(enlury plant .................. .... 46
Coon ic ................ ....... . 48
C vyp rus- ......... .... ............... 48
D aylily .... .. ....................... 50
Ferns . .. ....... .... . 51
( singer ...... ..... ... ........ .52

Ginger-lily ....
Japanese snake'- heard ................
loraea ..............
I'Pal pa- gras- ..............................
Salaginella ...... .... .
S lip per p lant ..................................
Spanish ay n t ....................
Tradescantia .......
I inca major rariegata ....

Rlankt fhlwnr
C acti .....
(ana ..
(:Ih r iainthmm inui


(aril '

A -pidi-ira
Bli. flag


B u .. ....
Japan.-. -inak,'- hard

Blue flag

I)a~ ili
F. rn-
( ;iln r

crl n'I l ..... .
I ina rt major 'ariet gata
\ i.. i ...
\V ,. ,llia ........ ...

... ...... . 4 1 (;ing r-lily ........
48 Japanrw-. -nake's blard
50 .il\ turf
51 Seagini lla


\ngtl, ia
Blank.el tliwr .
(Chr -.anth lll I
l)a l ilI
Fal-. dragimnhl-al
(;ingirg.li ,

11 Slibta daisy .
43 Stik- i-ter ...
16 lTramn-iaal daisy
50 \ ,rli'na
50 \ i.,lht

Page .\ ane
41 Japanrc -nake's Ieard
42 I ily. ti. r .............. ..
59 Selaginella ...
18 \ vrlo'na
51 Iin'a major rariegata


41 Japanii'e- nake'- hlaril
12 Lily-.iirf
.. ....9. San vieria ........
44 Slagiin lla ........
18 Trad,-cantia ...
51 \ i..h
52 W\lelia


.. 55
....... 57
...... 59
..... 61

..... 57
.... s


The rose probably enjoys tile greatest popularity of all flowers
and it is extensively grown for both pleasure and profit. It lias been
cultivated for as long a period of time as any ornamental plant and
the flowers are acceptable for decorative purposes on all occasions.
In Florida the rose is of great importance and hundreds of thou-
sands of bushes are planted annually by amateur and commercial
growers. However. many factors affecting growth must be taken into
consideration if there is to be abundant flower production. \ varieties
available have been introduced from locations outside the state and
many are not suited to tihe climatic and soil conditions here. Con-
sequent.ll one must select varieties with care. Nevertheless. it can be
safely said that the growiiig of roses is not difficult if suitable pre-
cautions are taken iin he selection of varietiess and planting stock and
providing conditions for adequate growlth.
Some of the stronger varieties. with proper care. will give fairly
satisfactory results in permanent planting. but only a comparative
few will produce the abundance of bloom in subsequent tears that
will Ie obtained the first season after transplanting. This situation
lhas pi\cn rise to one type of rose culture in which the plants are
treated as annuals. B this method new0 stock is purchased from the
nurseries each autunnu for the cutting garden and thle plants are kept
in a vigorous. thrifty condition so as to give maximum flower pro-
duction tlhroug-hout the growing season. At tihe end of the blooming
season. in early fall. the plants are removed and the soil is made
ready for setting the new slock. \\hen roses are grown ill this mian-
rer it is possible to increase the varietyy list greatly. as imaly will
produce blooms for one season that wiuld not be satisfactory over
a period of several years. Hocw\er. this method cannot be stucess-
fully followed unless strong No. I stock is secured with which to
make the annual plantings.
The growing of roses as permanent plants seems to be the natural
method of haIndling the garden and is desired by amateurs wherever
possible. varietiess must be selected that can be successfully carried
over several seasons to justify their place in the garden. This can be
done. but it will require careful attention to the spraying program.
for ihe control of insects and diseases and the nutrition of the plants
if flowers with long sterns are to be provided in abundance.

When a plant demonstrates its adaptability in a new country so
well that it naturalizes without aid from the land of man. that plant


deserves consideration when we plan our gardens. It seems to be a
gardening tradition to seek the exotic, the unusual, the rare plants
for one's garden. and this trait is commendable in that it sets one's
garden above the commonplace. giving it distinction and charm. But
all too often, in our seeking for the unusual, we overlook the very
excellent plant material that is growing at our very doorsteps. These
tried and true materials should be used as the firm foundations upon
which the weaker growers. the temperamental garden plants. should
be allowed to lean for stalwart support.
The roses that inspire this tribute to dependable naturalized plant
material are. of course, the Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigala). that na-
tive of China that has found a congenial home in Florida. and the
Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata) that contributes so magnificently
to the spring garden picture.

A prildtt'i'e roe garden

In addition to these naturalized oriental species. most gardeners
are well acquainted with certain other members of this great
genus that show remarkable tenacity of life in our trying semi-
tropical climate. First place in this class might be given to Yellow
Banksian (Rosa banksiae). This robust. evergreen thornless climber
exhibits an adaptability that is positively astounding when one thinks
of the very short lives of some of our most popular cutting varieties.
An important position must be given. perhaps, to that comparative
newcomer to Florida gardens. Belle of Portugal. This hybrid of
Rosa gigantea is almost assured of success in the deep South and the


vigor with which it grows and the myriads of huge pink flowers that
it produces cach spring should satisfy the most critical of rosarians.
Next in this class of persistent garden roses for the lower South
we might list the interesting Noisette group (Rosa noisettianal which
contains that long-time favorite of the old South- shade-loving
larechal Niel. In this group that was originated by John Champney
in Charleston. we find also Reve d'Or and .amarque. two other
very tenacious varieties.
These rampant climbers and some of their descendants can be
depended upon to contribute verge definitely to the garden ensemble
year after trying year. while cutting roses are succumnbing to the
ravages of blackspot. brown canker and the upsetting influences of
li ght sand soils and not enough rest. The rampant climbing forms.
always excellent material for background for enframement and defi-
nition. are so well adapted to the Florida climate that they are vere
long-lived and seldom need replacing. while the temperamental bush
hybrids that are demanded today for flower arrangements ca be
grmon n i closely planted beds in front of the climbers and discarded
and replaced when necessary.
If the garden de-ign calls for a fence or trellis. one or more of
the striking climbers can be trained onl the structure. The planting
interval should be about eight feet. \ er often a vigorous vine can
le used to climb tup that narrow space on either side of the garage
doors and. when tied to horizontal wires. it caln be encouraged to
cover, and thus soften and add a great deal of interest to the gable
end. The yellow Banksian is beautifully adapted to this use.
Most of us have seen the delightful effect that can lie attained bv
planting rigorouss climbing roses bN pine trees so that the canes mav
le secured to the tree trunks as thev grow. lMembers of the Noisette
group are charming when grown in this way.
One of tlie most popular of garden appurtenances is the combina-
tion gate and arbor with seats on either side. IThis structure, in its
many variations. lends itself beautifully to the planting of attractive
climbing roses. It shows them off well and it allows for tleir easy
In a garden of formal design nothing is more attractive than pillar
roses. Posts of material and color that reflect the feeling of the gar-
den are set at strategic accent points. and on these posts are trained
climbing roses. Bv judicious pruning and careful tying. these pillars
are kept neat and compact and when in bloom the roses are very
telling in lihe garden picture.
In the modern mode for white houses of brick or concrete block.
some certain climbing forms are very effective components of the
garden when they are grown espalier-wise.


A rose that persists in many older northern Florida towns is Marie
van Houtte. This old fashioned tea rose assumes picturesque shapes.
develops a great deal of character as the years pass and these old.
gnarly plants are often used effectively in patio plantings. If they
are selected and transplanted with forethought and care they can
create a most attractive picture.
Bush roses in close bed formation should not be used in the fore-
ground or as a main feature of the landscape plan. When the plants
are dormant ( modern cutting roses need a specific rest I and properly
and closely pruned, they leave a great deal to be desired from an
aesthetic point of view. Roses that are wanted for the house must
be cut as the first or second petal unfurls. and this cutting of the
immature flowers precludes any garden value that the rose plants
might have.
For these reasons the rose bed should be in an enclosed portion
of the grounds. preferably as a part of that enclosed area that de-
signers call the cutting garden.
Roses are ordinarily classified according to the original species
from which they descended. The lineage has become so complex
through %ears of hvlbridization that the classes overlap considerably.
and no one can say definitely, for example. whether or not a modern
cutting rose should fall into the Tea class rather than in the Perne-
tiana or the IHybrid Tea classification. However. the list herewith
presents the horticultural classification usually accepted by most stu-
dents of rose pedigrees. This is intended for use bv Florida gardeners
and does not include many other groups of roses successfully grown
in Northern states but of doubtful value in the Gulf Coast region.
This class of garden roses is indigenous to the warmer parts of
Asia and from it. come imain of the varieties most cherished in old
gardens of the deep South. The plants are rather vigorous growers
when good conditions are provided. although they are easily injured
by low% temperatures. The.tea-scented flowers are usually] of, delight-
ful form and exhibit a wide range of colors. Continuous blooming
is characteristic of this group unless dormancy is induced by low
temperatures. Among the best of the Tea roses for Florida might be
listed the following well known varictie-: Duchesse de Brabant. Lady
Hillingdon. .Mine. Lanibard. Marie van IHoutte. Minnie Francis and
In this group is found the great majority of sorts thai are offered
to ie('e Ilhe present day demands for fancy cutting roses. Pedigrees
of these modern roses are very complex. IHybrid Tea roses are more
nearly perpetual bloomers than are members of the Hybrid Per-


petual group. T'he\ combine nearly all of the colors possible in the
genus Rosa, are usually characterized by long pointed buds, strongly
scented of tea. Some few of the scores of Hybrid Tea roses success-
fully grown in Florida gardens are Antoine Rivoire. Dainty Bess,
Editor McFarland. Etoile de Hollande. President Hoover. the Radi-
ances. Talisman and others.
This is a term used to denote many of the highly colored roses
originated by the great French y bridizer Pernet-Ducher. In this
class the yellow pigment is occasioned by a strong infusion of blood
of the Persian yellow rose. Generally speaking. Pernetiana roses are
extremely short-lived in Florida.

The Du Irhss of Wrellington is a saiiron hybrid tea


L _ K& *,.

Beltt) appIeri pink h lirid tea rose

John Champney originated this class of climbing roses in Charles-
ton. Sioth Carolina. earIN in the 19th century. Many have shown
remarkable adaptability to conditions of the Lower So;uth and some
are clo-elv associated with the charming ante-hellum gardens that
have become so famous since their restoration. Chromatella. Marechal
Niel. Lamarque. and Reve d'Or are members of the Noisette group.
As the name implies, roses of this group hear many flowers in
clusters. The plants are dwarf in habit, more or less exerblooming.


exhibiting a wide range of warm colors. For corsage use. no rose can
surpass Cecile Brunner, the Sweetheart rose. It is found listed in this
Polvantha group along with Baby Rambler. Chatillon. Miss Edith
(avell. George Elger and Tiip-Top.
Large flowers borne on stiff. upright stems characterize this class
of garden roses. With the outstanding developments in the Hybrid
Tea group. Hybrid Perpetuals are rapidly vanishing from the Florida

Etoile tie Hollande, a hybrid lea with Ielrvet crimson buds


Nj ,

Resee Vlrio. hlerind lea vitih a(itr,'t ie nil se r enk Ulf ..il'

scene. Practically the n IIL survivor of this one-time great class of
roses is Frau Karl lDr)u-liki. This old fashioned white fIlo',er is of
such size and charming form and grace that it %ill Ibe difficult to
surpass as a ~ hite rose for cutting.

Several species of the genus Rosm have representatives that are
part and parcel of Florida gardening. and these are listed herewith
for %%ant of better classification.


Rosa chinensis is represented in the gardens of the lower South
by that remarkably tenacious plant that is so widely distributed, Louis
Philippe. Demonstrating a marked ability to persist in spite of the
high temperature and high humidity, this old fashioned red-flowered
variety has earned for itself a place in the hearts of Florida garden-
ers. Rosa laevigata. which we call the Cherokee rose: Rosa bracteata.
the Macartney rose: Rosa banksiae. the Banksian rose: and Rosa
gigantea, represented by Belle of Portugal. are all outstandingly beau-
tiful climbers that are firmly established as excellent garden plants.
All are capable of multiplication by cuttings or layers and this. to-
gether with their extreme persistence. adds greatly to their usefulness.
Rosa wichuraiana is the forebear of many of our best climbers
but. in Florida. none will prove satisfactory except in the extreme
northern and western parts, where many gardens are glorified Iv
members of this class as they blossom each spring. Among the ex-
cellent sorts for this extreme northern section are American Pillar.
Paul's Scarlet Climber and Silver Moon.

Several weeks before the plants are ordered from the nurser,\ the
bed should be thoroughly prepared, its location having been 1mire
or less predetermieddet bI the design of the grounds. It should not
le situated near trees or large shrubs whose roots will rob the soil
of plant food and water and whose foliage will intercept the sun's
rays. Trees far enough away to allow not less than five hours of sun-
light a da\. preferable in the morning, may be tolerated provided
plentI of plant food and water are given to supply what the rose,-
need after the trees have taken their toll. A root restricted. made by
burying galvanized roofing vertically along the edge of the garden
nearest the trees or shrubs. will be beneficial in keeping out thle roots
for a year or two. Tie sheets must overlap several inches. It is ad-
visable to dig down to the bottom of this metal at least every two
years to ascertain whether or rot aln\ of the roots haxe gone under
or between the plates.
An abundant supply\ of water is necessary and some provision
must be made for proper irrigation of the rose garden. On the other
hand roses cannot stand wet feet. so a well drained location should
be chosen. If this is not possible. raised beds should be used to assure
the passage of standing water.
In laying out the rose garden narrow beds. preferably not over
five feet in width, are recommended so that weeding. pruning,. dL(ust-
ing and spraying, and the gathering of tire flower.- can be accom-
plished from walks on both sides. Tender new growth is easily broken
off by gardeners if they are required to walk between the plants when
working. Nothing surpasses turf for garden walks. lhe grass. if


properly grown and sheared, makes well-nigh perfect enframement
for beds of roses.
It is considered good practice to arrange trellises for climbing
roses as a boundary around the rose garden to protect the more deli-
cate bush varieties from winds. Dwarf Polyantha varieties may well
be used as an edging next to the walks.
For climbing and pillar roses, six feet is a satisfactory planting
distance. Hybrid Perpetuals and strong growing Hybrid Teas should
be planted two or three feet apart, while the less robust Teas and

Grass an Teplitz, crimson-flowered hybrid tea


Hybrid Teas succeed well in checks of either 18 inches or two feet.
Polvanthas may stand as close as 1.1 inches in the row. Close planting
is desired because the shade cast on the ground hI the foliage is of
benefit in keeping down the soil temperature.

Panul's Scarlet Climber b-oonts pro/n.set in the spring

If the soil is loose. poor sand. remove it to a depth of 15 to 18
inches and replace it with a compost of rotted leaves. cow manure, and


tlarechal A'iel ( Noisettel one o f the Soufh'l jut orite cliimbers

good hammock earth. Thl older this compost is the better. In western
Florida. if tlih garden be a clay or clay loam soil. this preparation is
not necessary. Here. the addition of co, manure to the soil. about
three inches deep. and turning it deep. is sufficient preparation
The be.,t planting time is when the plants are completely dormant:
this is usually December to early February but may vary. of course.
in either direction as imuch as several weeks. It is a good plan to
obtain tlhe bushes as soon as possible after they become dormant so


4 J-

9 S-II



that the root svstem may be well established by spring. Choose an
overcast day for planting if possible. The plants should be carefully
pruned back to four or five eves. and all broken or bruised roots
should be cut off clean and smooth.
The holes for thel plants must be sufficiently large to accommo-
date the root systems without crowding. In the bottom of each hole
drop two handftu ls of bone meal. or a complete, balanced fertilizer,

Josepih Hill. a vellauc hi-brid te tn timh pink edges


and cover it lightly with top soil. Dip the roots of each plant in a
bucket of water just before planting. This is helpful in making good
contact with the soil particles. Insert the new bush so that the root
system maintains its former shape and position, and so that the bush
will stand at the same level that it grew in the nursery row. With
plenty of water, work the soil about the roots, filling the hole to the
ground level. Pack firmly by trampling with the feet. and build a
large saucer of earth about the plant to hold water. Fill this saucer
every four or five davs unless there is sufficient natural moisture
available in the soil.

The mulch system in the rose garden is preferred to clean cultiva-
tion. Most organic materials such as weeds, leaves, and grass clip-
pings which accumulate about the home grounds make a satisfactory
mulch. Oak leaves are excellent for this purpose and generally can
he easily obtained during the period of heavy leaf shed; at that time
they can he gathered and placed in the garden, covering the soil to a
depth of from four to six inches. Cow manure applied two or three
inches deep over the entire garden is a most excellent practice and
will give good results.

Under practically all conditions it is necessary to apply commer-
cial fertilizers if the plants are to make vigorous growth and maximum
flower production. When preparing a bed for a new planting.
phosphoric acid and potash should be added. If superphosphate and
sulfate of potash are used they can he applied at the rate of four to
six pounds and three to four pounds respectively to each 100 square
feet of the rose garden. Where the application was not made and in
old gardens it is recommended that a fertilizer containing 4 to 6 per
cent nitrogen, 8 to 10 per cent phosphoric acid and 6 to 8 per cent
potash be applied during February. The amount of this mixture to
use will vary somewhat under different conditions hut. generally.
15 to 20 pounds per 100 square feet or about one-half pound per
plant will prove satisfactory.
Fertilizing during the growing season should consist of nitrogen-
ous materials applied on several different dates. Three applications-
about April, June and August-will generally meet the requirements
of the plants if the organic material has been maintained in the soil,
but they can be applied at shorter intervals if necessary. The amount
to apply each time will depend on the source of nitrogen used; in
most instances from one to four ounces per plant will be sufficient.
Watering is important, as the plants should never suffer a set-
back due to a dry condition of the soil. Where there is no competi-

tittl ill tin' gardeln front oot- ot rieark' tree,. ainout onet thoroughd
%%lterinu- i'ieuii %eek dot uring. uir %%eatlit'r %%ill suffice. I iomt' er. if
root,. fromn oilier pilant:- p'ene'trate the(' soil of tilt ro-e garll. it may
he llvc',.,arll to ~%Ntl'i ofteneitr anid someil soii may~i require it (aihN
appli(attl. Wtli (ce'rtain ciay Soils that ild\e a high \%a wrm''-hmthioiiig
capaeit al til([ outside root comiipetitionm. Ie-s fircit'qneit imr'al iou iilliV
mneet tilt, require emenemts f Ople~ants. Thet pro%%el' 11111t -'tini the plant
taini "dequat grtimhthtl and al alnI uitti-toe o"tfei Idom'. ie'-a~itmmi

I',,litilu an/ i ornm n i n II lhiti (.le'roket. (uitdl filtd lr trellis or jincre

In appll inrl nater it i-l betterr to flood tlhe -,,il if possilde. otherwie
.use a good -plrinkling s -teill 1 as to gik\ an m\en ci distrilumtion over
the entire ar deii. W \ ler tihe laltcr metlodl i. u-ed a good(l type of
ordiniuar w hirligiii law.n -)i inkler will ie i\ atisfactorv outragee if
it is set oit as to water thie entire area. It %ill 1be found cominejient to
follow tlhe practice of turliing on the waler in the morning after the
Ibuds art' icut. allowiing, it to run for as long a period as requiired.
The cal' of climbers do",' iint differ grm'atil from that of Slsil
roses. \Wiith libinliers the flowl'r- are produced for show and are borne
on short stems on( the caiirs. wh&iiclh aar direct over along some
type of support. while ifn tli cuitling glardeln li the aim is to groIw buds
with lonl sterns lto i iC uwrd for cuttingg and ithe plants m11uslt 1' fed (ctn-
stantly to maiiitaini vigorous irowthi and development. Organic mate-


Reel and I ni k RadiRane

rials and commercial fertilizers should be applied to meet the require-
ments of the climbing types at all times.
The pruning of plants at time of setting has been discussed and
during the first year very little additional pruning will be required.
In cutting the flowers there will be a certain amount of wood removed
and the stubs which are left should contain not less than two or three
vegetative buds and healthy leaves. If there is a tendency for the


plants to grow too rank. a certain amount of judicious heading back
can be practiced by pinching out the terminal buds.
After the first Near. plants will continue to require adequate prun-
ing to produce growth suitable for satisfactory cut flowers. This
pruning. which should be done during late January or earlv I'Fblru-
arv. consists in removing about half of the wood by cutting hack the

The Edith Carell is a desirable ox-blood red I'olyantha


Rer. F. Page Robert.l

canes to an outside vegetative bud at the proper location on the stem.
All dead and diseased canes should be cut out completely and under
no conditions should they l)e left in the garden. As a matter of pre-
caution in the control of diseases in general it will be found helpful
if all wood cut from the plants is carried out of the garden and
destroy\ ed.
Some disbudding will be required with certain varieties, if stems
containing a single flower bIud are to be had. This can be accom-
plished best by watching the growth of the canes and pinching or


breaking off anll lateral fl,,er bud.- i irh may appear a- growth
prog'e, -(-.

T'he raiinv Season is attended bv a flush. of growth ll hilh produces
a prof-uioln of blooms After the rainlv sason. which i. often fol-
lo.ued I, drought. the plants ma\ ie allo.ued ,1) re.-t in preparation
for a 'a-'on i of bloom in the e arl\ fall. DIuring tlhis rel pie1 iod irriga-
tioln ma\ be I ithhehl and a lt plants Ilia,\ be Iprluned .o a- to make
them -l.hai.'ll and comlpalt. \\ Iih the ad\X dant ,suppl, (il f wat<'r and plant food %%ill Irinl the rose Iu.slihes into
a ftush, of Cliimbirs. are pruned Iihen it is ne'r--ar\ to( rent ceirtilti of the
old ati.'- that are in poir n(ilditioon. TI~li atrc directed ,\rI 'ni me
type orf .,Ipp.rl such II. a ti relli. or artbr. iand the aim i- to haie
a _real -lihn rem'i nlllproduit kli\ v ancs ms<' r 2 .\ar- old. A\ ll'nlant renieal oif ('a(I-
is the r ul \ ith i clitnilt in II roI ls.

11\ )1.(ING I1, 111(M S
l.a l\ mi in \ hil, thl d, i- till nl the leair I- l1he be.-t
liim e < ill t I.- I -. l I iud, t I tl t ith t iiio I- I petal o n' I and 'ut
therll n ili a,- -llort eIIn. a t- p >isible. ( iltiiil_ n r t. i so i lise i l t- -lcesar\. l but this I I rrelie girallt redire. tlie i af area
and thll- .aul-e a -riu- hieck to the plant. A. plant i dependent
upon it- lva\t- for its m.lfar, and if i iti l o rcet il cl nIt I- t he
defliat l. l. -liaI e a plt n ing -lhe. arl s l- et f ur ,ntlil, rises.
Th"le c'ul huhl l be miadl. ,nI a -lant. ju-t alm\e an cex \hi h po mint-
a\Na\ from tOhe center f llhe lush.
If llih're i- i \ idienice of o i'<,i ranker, lhto \snounds usedsd v k n.ltinll
the lind -hl uild betl prtri'hld l\ paintin._ immediately %ith sulphur
OIl lo rdreatl\ paste.
A\. ..." a- lp,-ild aftir Ilds ar _althrlired ves-.el of (,,il I \alcr and hl iid in a cool plat arranghl_ them. Flhner arraingement'- -hould not lie placed in a
draft. ini direct sunlight or inear heating, aipliaIncts. Each Cla\ Cult a
half inclh or so off of 1the the contai1'r.

The quality on long., stiff >tlt.. Tlhe plant. are proun for onlv one \ear.
when ltheiv are discarded and new stock planted just as earlu in the
fall as il incomes dormant enoin h to lie dIll. and hallhdd safelv by
I ll lic n rn'i 's.


j aI6'


-Intin rir' ,. h ua bride t u ith r my l'hitu Ilomn delicately trintedI ith pink
The Rladiances are the most satisfac-tor\ ais a rule. tlie IR'd Radi-
ance beini tlhe ariety nmot 4\teni\el.\ grmii for this puiitrpw. Other
standard varieties growni for the market are Talisman. (Golden Ophe-
lia. Kaiscrin Auguste \ ikioria. Briarcliff. Texas Centennial. Better-
times. Editor McFarland and Etoile de Hollande. Novelties. as they
appear. are often tried in limited quantities.

F L()\\ I.-1{ F'() FI.(O II) \ II)\IM S 87

A f, rtile. %eIll d( aialm d ocatio' it 1 i- IllpirtP nt. It hi.l llld Iw wefll
nmallur'dl .IndI p)eparelatingli_. (:Cm i;manlure in lil,,iril quanii-
titifs oI. ifl it i- not (. llilinail]d cottonseed inval o1r tanki.,r li],r iadcast
and plow(id i11- di-k d in at Ilie rate (of (inr In three t.'- prir iacre at
least I% I %4\'k- bliforte pl inilig is a (mId pirliminary preparaliii.

iMr. Aaron I In. a hI~ lridl lia u';i Inlii-n t'lloir u/i,,,s





Fr au r I)rt iu'hli. often called f hit'e Am.4 rican Befiut

It is best to set the plants in rows three feet apart. spacing them
one and a half or two feet in the ro%,w. mixing bone meal %iith the
soil in the Ibttoim tof eaClI hole prior to placing the ro-sc. Mulching
is not practicable for large areas. and so abundant fertilizer and a
limited amount of sliallow cultivation should be given. Cultivation
lmay bcgill wihc signs f nivw growth appear and continue at intervals.
only as oflen as necessary, to kcp down ee('ds and grass. A copper
fungicide must protect the plants from Ilack spot at all times. Bor-

p lt i It kthr

1, F


ptu~-Ifertiiiii'r. itI n-i d\ I (eri bedi. Iza Im %I)e I i td e aiti d cI ItI v a t (]
inIiIi~to incrteazw an~ ii d bl-ttti1 Pr-olilct itn.

dlii- elviiis'iu Is reducIzz Inti jt ii fertilizer. but juhznsphou!4z. adin potash.l

lhvhc.s., de Bmbant, (it) old Pi.\himied tea rom,


are used liberally. \ ell balanced fertilization. careful attention to
irrigation and drainage. cultivation and other factors that are im-
portant iln sandy land gro%,ing %ill insure su-ccess.

Rose a/phitls. or plant lice. at times are serious pests- in tile rose
garden.. 'They may gather iln great number ,on the tender new growth
and aluiit lne\ buds. Stunted shoot- and imperfect blooms are the
re-ilt if tlie in-ects are allowed to go unchecked. Nicotine and soap
spra\s or nicotine dust are efficient controls.
/Rose .heir/'ls occasionally feed ton tlie tenler buds. It is important
that thistlehl he destroyed because the\ are hosts to rose beetles.
F/ou er thrips are e\trilrm.l I trouble-soiime during dry sea-oni-. Tliev
are tiin li-il-\i ello, ini-e e-tiiiation. hro lined petal- and balled huld- that fail to open i -inmilar
to thle injur. caused b\ roe canker often result from attack- iof
thrips.. SSine varieties of roses are more seriouslyS injured Ihal others.
All roses should be gathered as soon as tlhe\ open sufficiently. and
frequent appllications of nicotine should bIe made if these insects arc
nunerou-. As needs and floor of niani kinds harbor thrips. a
careful cleanup proigrami i- recommended.
I'Pulrpkl'i bugs often attack roses. e-.peciall\ during the fall. and
lipunclured buds of abnIormal shapes result from their feeding in the
rose garden. Knocking tlihm off into a pan containing a little kero-
sene Ilia\ le practiced. Spraying is of little orr no value. Thistles
harbor pumpkin bugs. so tihe should notl e allowed to gro, near
the rose garden. Catch crops. s-uch au- sunflowers. ma\ prove of
benefit if the bug'i- are s\. tenaticallv collected from them.
( l'olloil cushion scf. hlien found feediing oil the under sides of
leaves or oni the cane-. is ibesl controlled I,\ colonies of \, dalia. a
small beetle which is a siechific predator. It is possible Ti reduce
the infestation by washiin tihe scale froln tlhe bushes will a vigor-
ous stream from the nozz//e of the garden hioe.
Red spider may be kept in check di sting with lphur or byr l)
heavy s\ ringing with the hole.

Blarl, sipot is one of the most serious diseases with which h the
rosarian lias to contend. It is first e ident in the form iof round or
irregular black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. As these
enlarge the leaes- turn \ello%\ and drop off. When the leaves are
severely infected they rim\ shed without turning yellow. The infec-
lion starts near the ground and spreads upward on tiie plant until
it is nearly defoliated. This reduction of Ihe leaf area checks and
stunts the bushes. The leaves which fall off are a serious source of
infection. since the, produce myriads of spores of the fungus. It is


\er important that all inflected leave's Ie bulirneld or otherwise de-
st roved.
Lack ~spot is especially prevalent during hotl 1. humid leather. and
at thi s time special pIrecautions should be lakenl to protect the rI'-
garden fronll the ravages of this disease.

133113' lS .,oetf An. ha,%'i large b/I' I nI,3l of 11/ red

(opl)per ('1111) 1cnd.,L uch as bordeaiix mlixture. EFlordo spral or
alninoioiacal copper carbonate. a colorless spra are efficacious vlihen
applied frequently. Calcit4l ca.seinate. soaplls or o1il emulsions assured
g)ood coverage w hen added( d to spras that contlailn no spreader. The
disease spr1Ieads so rapidly that a coating of some fungicide should
cover the plants at all limens to forestall the entrance of the fungus
into the tissues of the plants. Plants in \vigorous growth seem to be
less severely injured.


7 Rldieiun
Investigations have shown that erv fillne sulphur is effective in
controllinig black spot if a coating of lth material is kept on the
leaves. Tihe grade known ias 300 mesh is used as a spray or dust.
DustingL is usually preferailel. Sulphur sprays ma\ beh bought in the
form of Ipate. Caution.' )During the umnmer. rose foliage that is
covered with sulphlur may suffer considerable injury from burning.
Fermalte. a c ar-time fungicide. shows ,reat promise as a rose spray
when used according to the maker's directions.
Powdery niildet is a serious menace to roses. especially the climb-
in- varieties. Dorothy Ierkins. Crimson hnambler and many of the


common lush v arieties are highly susceptible. i The leaves and shoots
of affected plants bIecome dwarfed and co\Tred )iith a grayish-white
coating. The shoots and buds of those varieties most susceptible be-
COIIm deformed. Sulphur fungicides, either dusts or sprays. arn- satis-
factory for the control of mildew.
Rose canker causes the failure of i0iore rose gardens than any
other silnle disease. Several fungi causing similar symptoms are re-
sponsible for the trouble. The canes are the part most frequently
attacked. Small purplish spots develop along the stem. and as they
enlarge they bIecome grax ish or brownish in the center. As soon as

t^ l ^* ~- -

Rere D'Or, climber (Aoiette group)


a cane is girdled, the upper portion dies. The fungus usually con-
tinues down the stem, unless pruned out, and, if it reaches the crown,
kills the whole plant. The disease frequently begins around pruning
cuts and other injuries, from which it spreads rapidly. killing the
bark as it progresses.
The leaves arc not affected to the same degree as the stems. On
the other hand. flowers are often attacked, the outer petals turning
brown. drying and then dying. The flower is bound so tightly by
these dead petals that it fails to expand. This condition is frequently
confused with the injury caused by thrips.
Either a copper fungicide or one containing finely ground sulphur
may be applied consistently and thoroughly after the removal of all
affected canes. All parts of the plant must be kept covered with the
protective coating. During periods of rapid growth and damp weather
it mnay be necessary to apply a fungicide once a week or oftener. It
is necessary to add calcium caseinate soap or oil emulsion to some
sprays to obtain maximum protection.
Pruning wounds should be covered with liquid or melted grafting
wax. lead paint or bordeaux paste immediately after they are made.
Further protection may be obtained by dipping the shears in alcohol
or formalin solution after each cut. Many fungi can invade the prun-
ing cuts on dormant plants and cause severe damage, while established
or growing bushes are unaffected by them. Consequently it is very
important to treat these on new plants if you would avoid the loss of
plants during the first year. It is probably the most serious trouble
during this period.
When setting a new rose bed be careful to use only healthy plants.
It is easier to keep rose canker out of the garden than to eliminate
it after it is present.


Locate the rose garden so that it receives at least five hours of
sun each dav. and avoid trees and large shrubs.
Buy rose bushes of Number 1 grade that are budded or grafted
on a suitable stock.
Enrich the soil before planting.
Plant bush varieties in beds 18 to 2.1 inches apart each wa\. and
space climbers at least six feet apart.
To have ample buds of a gi\en color for flower arrangements, set
several plants of a desired variety .
Ilant as early during the dormant season as possible. setting at
the salm level as the bushes stood in the nurser row.
U se a heavy mulch of some organic material.
(Gie plenty of water and plant food. Fertilize several times dur-
ing: the growing season. Remember that roses must grow to bloom.
Prune twice each season. Remove dead. infected and weak wood.
Give heaviest pruning when plants are dormant.
Dust or spra\ wxith a good fungicide and insecticide to control
diseases and insects.
Replace weak. unthriftv plants each dormant season.

.S. I'PcteT.%liurg Pri nting Ic

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