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Group Title: Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin
Title: Florida facts and general statistics
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 Material Information
Title: Florida facts and general statistics
Series Title: Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin
Physical Description: 47 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Statistics chiefly for 1931.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "January 1932."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003072
Volume ID: VID00001
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Full Text







Bulletin No.58 NEW SERIES January 1932


Florida Facts


AND

General Statistics


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


iBulletin No. 58


NEW SERIES


January 1932








Balance Between Manufacturing

And Agriculture In Florida


By NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
Balance is prerequisite to harmony in anything. A man needs a
balanced ration. Plants need balanced elements in the soil. Political
t'conomy is a science of balanced production and consumption. The
world today is out of economic balance, perhaps more nearly univer-
.al than at any previous time in history; people who produce cannot
sell and people who need their products cannot buy. Such an anom-
;:!y confronts statesmanship of this day with a challenge which as
yet it has not accepted. Numerous schemes of patchwork are being
offered. Very few fundamentals are receiving due attention. In the
midst of this economic chaos we find ourselves encompassed by con-
tending forces with which we seem unable to cope and meet the
emergencies as they arise. Some parts of the country feel the depres-
sion worse than others, mainly because it is more difficult in those
sections to balance their economic conditions under the stress of the
laws of commerce as operated on the principle of supply and demand.
A one-crop country suffers worse than a country that has diversified
interests, industries and agriculture. Florida offers a striking ex-
ample. It has more nearly a balance between manufacture and agri-
culture than most states; supplementing these two major industries
are the resources of the forest, the mines and the fisheries. We
have thirty-five million acres, 1,488,211 population. We have more
than two hundred million dollars worth of manufactured articles en-
tering the marts of trade; one hundred fifteen to one million dollars
worth of agriculture; fifteen million dollars worth of minerals;
twenty- five million dollar output of fisheries; fifteen million dollars
worth of naval stores; ten million tons of water-borne shipping;
fifteen million tons of land-borne shipping; a thousand miles of salt
water coast; five major harbors for ships; 365 days to the year when
outdoor labor can be performed; an annual visit from neighboring
states bordering one million people, leaving millions in expenses dur-
ing their stay each year. With this balance of revenue and of vo-
cations, of resources, of commerce, and of finance, no wonder the
people of this state have felt less keenly the heavy hand of economic
depression.
No matter how much we may be affected, it is impossible for con-
ditions to reach the climax of despair in its broadest application that









will be experienced in other parts of the- country. With fewer re-
quirements for clothes and shelter during the winter, with closer
proximity to an ample supply of fruits and vegetables, the citizens
of Florida have greater opportunities for self-sustenance than can be
furnished in other states on the average.




Value of The Tourist Trade To

Business and Agriculture of Florida



This tourist business means more than just a good time, health
and relaxation. It is a big industry. Out of the $7,000,000,000 spent
throughout the world on touring, $4,000,000,000 will be spent in the
United States. This should be very helpful in stimulating the circu-
lation of money and loosening up the present buying paralysis. As
people circulate more rapidly money will do the same. Not only do-
mestic business but foreign trade should be helped. Expenditures of
tourists abroad will help compensate for lack of foreign financing.
thus, in a measure, restoring foreign buying power for our products.
While I believe thoroughly in advice to "See America First," it is a
mistake to think that money spent for touring abroad is money lost
to this country. Particularly now when the balance of international
payments is so heavily against Europe, this will be one way of lend-
ing financial support to our foreign markets, thus aiding employment
in our own manufacturing industries.

WHERE TOURIST MONEY GOES

Although trips this year will be shorter, expenditures smaller and
tourists will shop around for lower priced accommodations, the ag-
gregate amount of money put into circulation will help many lines
of business. Garages, gas stations, roadside stands, over-night camps,
hotels, amusement parks, beach, lake and mountain resorts, ice cream
and soft drink companies, all will get their share of the $3,200,000,000
spent on vacation motor tours. Railroads and hotels should collect a
major share of the $750,000,000 spent for rail tours in this country.
Inland steamship companies and aviation lines will benefit to the
tune of $25,000,000 from vacation travel of that type.









Outdoor amusement parks will be particularly popular. They can
be easily reached. They appeal to the masses rather than to the
classes, and under present conditions the inexpensive pleasures will
draw the biggest crowds. About 75,000,000 people visited 400 lead-
ing outdoor parks last year, excluding Coney Island. Such parks
spend money for maintenance and upkeep locally, thus helping the
comununity's business. Four hundred parks spent $23,000,000 in 1930
fur maintenance and supplies; $7,500,000 going for advertising;
85,000,000 for candy, drinking cups, etc.; $3,000,000 for electrical sup-
plies; $1, 500,000 for soda-water, and the remainder for plumbing,
paint, cleaning supplies, etc. These were only the running expenses.
New capital expenditures for amusement devices, land-scaping, etc.,
totaled about $46,00,000. Considering that these 400 parks are but a
portion of a much larger number throughout the country, we under-
stand how important the parks have become to business.-R. W.
Babson.






Florida's Live Stock Report Shows

But Little Change for Year of 1931



There has been no marked change in the numbers of Florida live-
stock during 1031. There has been a slight increase in cattle and
swine, while sheep have decreased in number. The number of mules
has remained stationary but horses show a decrease.

While the numbers of livestock show only a slight change, there has
been a sharp decline in values. On January 1, 1932, all Florida live-
stock was valued at $15,288,000 compared with $10,434,000 on January
1, 1931 and $23,972,000 on January 1, 1930.

HORSES: Horsese continue to decrease slowly in number. The
number on January 1, 1932 was 19,000 compared with 20,000 a year

ago. The total value was $1,264,000 compared with $1,545,000 on
January 1, 1931.









MULES: The number of mules on January 1 was 42,000 the same
as a year ago. The total value was $4,074,000 compared with $4,452,-
000 a year ago.

CATTLE: The steady decline in numbers of Florida cattle seems
to have been checked. On January 1 of this year, the total number
was estimated at 441,000 compared with 432,000 head on January 1
of last year. The number of milk cows was estimated at 88,000 com-
pared with 86,000 a year ago and yearling heifers being kept for milk
cows at 15,000 compared with 14,000 in 1931. All cattle were valued
at $7,946,000 compared with $10,249,000 a year ago.

SWINE: The number of swine on January 1 was 508,000 compared
with 498,000 a year ago. The total value was estimated at $1,902,000
compared with $3,042,000 on January 1, 1931.

SHEEP: Sheep were estimated at 43,000 head compared with
44,000 a year ago. Total valuation was $102,000 compared with
$146,000 a year ago.

For the UNITED STATES, the numbers of cattle hogs and sheep
on farms increased during 1931 while the numbers of horses and mules
decreased. While numbers increased, values of all livestock decreased
sharply and the inventory value of all livestock on January 1, 1932
was $3,195,748,000 compared with $4,450,708,000 January 1, 1931 and
$5,994,970,000 January 1, 1930.

The following table gives revised numbers of livestock for Florida
and for the UNITED STATES for the years 1930 and 1931.and esti-
mates for January 1, 1932:















FLORIDA UNITED STATES
Farm Thous. Farm Value (a) Thous. Farm Value (a)
Animals Head Per Total Head Per Total
Jan. 1 Head (000 Omit.) Head (000 Omit.)


Horses 1930 21
and 1931 20
Colts 1932 19

Mules 1930 42
and 1031 42
Colts 1932 42

Cattle 1930 432
and 1931 432
Calves 1932 441

Milk 1930 86
Cows 1931 86
over 2 1932 88

Heifers 1930 14
1 to 2 1931 14
for milk 1932 15

Swine 1930 519
Incl'd'g 1931 498
Pigs 1932 508

Sheep 1930 45
and 1931 44
Lambs 1932 43

Total 1930 --
Five 1931 -__
Species 1932 --


$ 87.00
77.00
67.00

125.00
106.00
97.00

29.70
23.70
18.00

55.00
47.00
38.00
91 nn


1,833
1,545
1,264

5,250
4,452
4,074

12,835
10,249
7,946

4,730
4,042
3,344


16.00 -
11.00

7.50 3,870
6.10 3,042
3.70 1,902

4.10 184
3.30 146
2.40 102

S 23,972
19,434
S 15,288


13,684
13,165
12,679

5,366
5,215
5,082

59,730
60.915
62,407

22.910
23,558
24,379

4,700
4,777
4,665

55,301
54,374
59,511

51,383
52,745
53,912


$69.86 $ 955,964
60.43 795,541
53.37 676,698

83.76 449,480
69.17 360,736
60.69 308,440

56.69 3,386,010
30.31 2,394,411
26.64 1,662,222

82.80 1,897,011
57.11 1,345,479
39.61 965,758

43.15 -
28.77 -
19.32 ----

13.46 744,308
11.36 617.668
6.14 365,133

8.94 459,208
5.35 282,352
3.40 183,255

S 5,994,970
4,450,708
8,195,748


H. A. MARKS, Agricultural Statistician.











State Marketing Bureau Gives

Report of Shipments of Crops


ACREAGE YIELD PRODUCTION
Estimated Final Preliminary Preliminary Final
1929 1930 1929 1930 1929 1930
Corn 625,000 625,000 13.5 12.5 8,438,000 Bus. 7,812,000 Bus.
Oats for grain 12,000 12,000 14.0 15.0 168,000 Bus. 180,000 Bus.
Hay, tame 86,000 83,000 .71 .70 61,000 Tons 58,000 Tons
Potatoes, white 23,000 32,000 118. 80. 2,714,000 Bus. 2,560,000 Bus.
Potatoes, sweet 29,000 29,000 110. 90. 3,190,000 Bus. 2,610,000 Bus.
Peanuts for nuts 46,000 41,000 600. 560. 27,600,000 Lbs. 22,960,000 Lbs.
Cowpeas, for peas 4,000 6,000 8.0 7.0 32,000 Bus. 42,000 Bus.
Sugar cane, syrup 9,000 8,000 190. 170. 1,710,000 Gals 1,360,000 Gals
Tobacco 12,300 12,300 .900. 895. 11,070,000 Lbs. 11,008,000 Lbs.
Peaches .... .... ............ ........ .......... 94,000 Bus. 102,000 Bus.
Pears ............ ............ ........ .......... 51,000 Bus. 56,000 Bus.
Grapes ......-... ............ ........ -...... 888 Tons 1,241 Tons
Cotton *94,000 *104,000 145. 225. 29,000 Bales 49,000 Bales










Florida's Citrus Crop For Two Years

Of 1931-32 Was 26 Million Boxes


(BY II. A. MARKS)
Agricultural Statistician, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture
Florida's commercial citrus crop for the season of 1931-32 is now
estimated by the division of crop and live stock estimates of the
United States Department of Agriculture at 20,500,000 boxes. Of
this total 8,000,000 boxes are grapefruit and 12,500,000 boxes are
oranges.

By the term commercial crop is meant that part of the state's
total crop of citrus fruit to move to market by rail and boat, and it
includes express shipments. Tangerines are included with oranges in
this estimate.

Commercial shipments as above, for the 1930-31 season for Florida
totaled 27,200,000 boxes.

TOTAL CITRUS CROP

The total crop for this season is estimated at 26,000,000 boxes, of
which 11,000,000 boxes are grapefruit and 15,000,000 boxes are oranges,
including tangerines in the orange estimate. This embraces all fruit
utilized in any way, and includes fruit moved by rail, boat and truck;
fruit used for canning and juice extraction and for home consumption

Last year's total crop amounted to approximately 35,000,000 boxes
of all citrus fruit utilized for all purposes and shipped or handled by
rail, boat and truck.

Figures contained in this estimate are based on information obtain-
ed from growers and shippers and includes reports on individual
groves.

DRY WEATHER HURTS

The prolonged dry weather, affecting the entire state and all crops
has resulted in smaller sizes, and also has caused increased dropping








10

of fruit in many sections of the state. As a result of this condition
there is a material decrease in the estimated production for the 19.1-
32 season.

In spite of this and other adverse conditions, however, the total
commercial citrus fruit crop for 1931-32 will be larger than for any
previous season excepting those of 1928-29 and 1930-31. The total
crop for 1928-29 was 23,200,000 boxes of all citrus fruits, while for
the season of 1930-31 the total was 27,200,000 boxes. The only other
season when the total commercial crop approached this season's fig-
ures was that of 1923-24, when it reached 20,400,000 boxes.
The table below shows the comparative volume of citrus crops for
the past thirteen seasons, beginning with 1918-19:

Seasons Oranges Grapefruit Total
1918-1919 5,700,000 3,200,000 8,900,000 boxes
1919-1920 7,000,000 5,500,000 12,500,000 boxes
1920-1921 8,100,000 5,100,000 13,200,000 boxes
1921-1922 7,300,000 6,000,000 13,300,000 boxes
1922-1923 9,700,000 7,200,000 16,900,000 boxes
1923-1924 12,400,000 8,000,000 20,400,000 boxes
1924-1925 11,000,000 8,200,000 19,200,000 boxes
1925-1926 8,200,000 6,500,000 14,700,000 boxes
1926-1927 9,600,000 7,000,000 16,600,000 boxes
1927-1928 7,100,000 6,500,000 13,600,000 boxes
1928-1929 13,900,000 9,300,000 23,200,000 boxes
1929-1930 7,900,000 6,300,000 14,200,000 boxes
1930-1931 16,000,000 11,200,000 27,200,000 boxes










Total Movement of Citrus By Truck

For September to December 1931




Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Total

September 905 9,662 10,567
October 37,3;'6 43,306 282 80,954
November 170,697 123,941 12,355 312,993
December 323,295 55,270 50,493 429,058
538,263 232,179 63,130 833,572

*61,574 boxes of the November movement via boat.

Daily Truck Movement for Months
September and October 1931



Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Total

Sept. 905 9.662 10,567
Oct. 1-15 3,922 11,096 35 15,053
16 662 1,663 2,325
17 609 1,565 2,174
18 304 1.235 1,539
19 806 1,237 2,043
20 1,433 2,473 3,906
21 1,535 2.136 3,671
22 1,860 2,479 6 4,345
23 2,109 2,253 4,362
24 1,222 1.107 97 2,426
25 1,693 2,333 4.$26
26 2,117 1,389 16 3,522
27 4,617 3.133 7,750
28 4,032 2,142 12 6,186
29 4,454 2,253 116 6.823
30 3,332 2,236 5,568
31 2,659 2,576 5,233
TOTAL 37,366 43,306 282 80,954

TO DATE 38,271 52,968 282 91.521

The above figures include movement via boat, but shipments








12

Daily Motor Truck Movement Of
Citrus for Month of November 1931


Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
No..
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.


Nov. 16
Nov. 17

Nov. 18
Nov. 19

Nov. 20

Nov. 21

Nov. 22
Nov. 23
Nov. 24

Nov. 25
Nov. 26

Nov. 27

Nov. 28

Nov. 20
Nov. 30
Nov. 31
TOTAL


Orgs.
2,643
4,667
6,878
4,908
5,331
4,701
2,826
3,383

4,807
6,845
7,900

6,339
6,089
3,310
3,784

5,684
10,706

9,323

8,261

6,279

4,980

5,124

8,415
9,074

8,243
6,431

6,323

4,269

6,279

5,627


Gfrt.
2,493
1,591
4,494
2,813
3,053
3,532
3,150
4,491

2,541
4,637
3,305

3,947
4,493
2,819
2,915

1,375
5,835
5,324

6,586

6,704

3,817

2,353

3,331
5,826

3,570
7,394

4,394

6,606

6,704

4,011


Tangrs.

45
5
5
9
28

14
30
94

112
144
170
343


221
694

675

739

782

322

798

998
1,227

917
766
S1,130

529

782

826


176,697 123,941 12,355


Via Boat



776 Gfrt.
1,820
1,689
(2,716
( 130 Orgs.
610 Gfrt.
1,624
( 575
( 206 Orgs.
1,478 Gfrt.
1,692
1,155
(1,381 "
( 39 Orgs.
( 145 Tang.

(2,992 Gfrt.
( 18 Orgs.
(2,400 Gfrt.
( 38 Orgs.
(3,906 Gfrt.
( 477 Orgs.
(4,691 Gfrt.
( 585 Orgs.
(2,992 Girt.
( 19 Orgs.
(1,137 Gfrt.
( 448 Orgs.
700 Gfrt.
(2,872 "
( 29 Orgs.
1,205 Gfrt.
(5,196 "
( 428 Orgs.
(2,196 Gfrt.
( 519 Orgs.
(4,734 Gfrt.
( 172 Orgs.
(4,843 Gfrt.
( 677 Orgs.
2,264 Gfrt.

61,574.


Total
5,136
6,258
11,417
7,726
8,384
8,238
5,985
7,902
7,362
11,512

11,299
10,398
10,726
6,299


7,280
17,235

15,322

15,586

13,765
9,119

8,275
12,744

16,127
12,730

14,591

11,847

11,404
10,820
10,464

312,993


*Movement by boat is already included in the shipments for each
day and listed above under column "Via Boat" merely for information







13






Daily Motor Truck Movement Of

Citrus for Month of December 1931


Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Total


Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
D)ec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.


9,091
12,052
11,523
7,206
6,646
5,855
5,361
10,194
11,336
11,266
7,650
6,675
8,863
8,256
14,327
15,650
16,403
15,812
15,660
17,724
16,136
23,304
14,466
6,313
2,916
1,895
5,084
6,776
9,779
9,570
9.506


2,454
3,292
2,838
1,830
1,391
1,513
1,364
3,273
2,915
2,536
1,686
1,272
1,523
1,347
2,693
3,105
2,112
1,987
1,716
2,106
1,708
2,533
1,484
440
273
222
505
757
1,507
1,388
1,500


854
1,453
1,392
1,041
907
886
734
1,463
1,744
2,050
1,253
1,037
1,485
1,266
2,474
2,910
2,881
2,394
2,190
2,549
2,618
4,033
2,318
655
474
253
797
1,132
1,786
1,781
1,683


12,"99
16,797
15,753
10,077
8,944
8,254
7,459
14,930
15,995
15,852
10,589
8,984
11,871
10,869
19,494
21,665
21,396
20,193
19,566
22,379
20,462
29,870
18,268
7,408
3.663
2,370
6,386
8,665
13,072
12,739
12.689


TOTAL 323,295 55,270
Boat Movement is Not Included.


50,493 429,05C


429,058


50,493









Value of Live Stock Produced On
The Farms of Florida Annually
By J. E. TURLINGTON
The gross value of animal products produced on Florida farms
has ranged around $22,000,000 annually for a number of years, ac-
cording to estimates made by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
farms of the U. S. D. A. A little more than two-thirds of this is cash
income received by the farmers for quantities actually sold off the
farms where they were produced. The other $6,500,000 to $7,000-
000 in value is for livestock products consumed in the farm house-
hold on the farm where the commodities were produced.
This latter figure is considerably short of what was indicated
from studies made by the College of Agriculture during recent years.
These studies covered detailed information on what 817 Florida
farms furnished. The 817 farms were located in eleven different
areas of the State; two areas located in Jackson and Columbia coun-
ties, representing general farming; two areas located in Alachua
and Levy counties, representing truck and general farming com-
bined; two areas located in Polk and Lake counties, representing
citrus farming; two areas located in Hillsboro and Manatee counties,
representing truck combined with some citrus; one area in the cel-
ery district near Sanford, in Seminole county; one in the Hastings
potato district, St. Johns county; and one area representing com-
mercial egg production, located in Duval and Nassua counties.
The animal products most universally produced on these farms
were eggs, poultry, milk and its products, and pork. Taking a sim-
ple average of the areas, approximately 90 percent of the farms
furnish eggs and poultry, 65 percent furnish milk and 45 percent
furnish pork. In each of the general farming areas of Jackson and
Columbia counties, and in Levy and Alachua, where general farming
is combined with trucking, more than 80 percent of the farms fur-
nish milk, more than 85 percent furnish pork, and more than 95 per
cent furnish poultry and eggs.
In the citrus and trucking areas the percentage of farms fur-
nishing these products was usually much less. Pork was furnished
by only 5 percent or less of the farms studied in Lake, Manatee, and
Seminole counties and on the commercial poultry farms of Duval
and Nassau. These areas were also relatively low in Duval and Nas-
sau. With the exception of the poultry farms, these were the areas
where the lowest percentage of the farms furnished poultry and poul-
try products.










Forty-two percent of the Jackson county and 35 percent of the
Columbia county farmers were colored. It is interesting to note that
white farmers furnished about 10 percent more pork, about double
the amount of milk and chickens, and more than double the number
of eggs furnished by the colored operators.

The average number of dozen eggs furnished per family in the
different areas was as follows: Jackson county (white) 112, (colored)
56; Columbia (white) 104, (colored 36; St. Johns county (white) 93;
Manatee 67; Seminuole 75; Duval and Nassau (commercial poultry
only) 174; Lake 118; Polk 56; Hillsboro 79; Alachua 120; and Levy
102; or a simple average for the 11 areas of about 95 dozen eggs per
family. This is approximately an average of 100 dozen eggs per
family for those farms furnishing eggs.

The number of chickens furnished per family varied from as low
as 22 in Polk county to 57 on the Duval-Nassau poultry farms. The
simple average for the 11 areas shows that approximately 40 chick-
ens per farm per year are furnished the farm family from the home
flock.

The amount of milk furnished varied from area to area much more
than poultry and eggs, but this was due to the great variation in the
percentage of the farmers producing milk in these areas. The lowest
amount per family recorded was for Lake county citrus farms, where
the average was 100 gallons per farm, but there were only 22 per-
cent of these farms that furnished milk in this area. Thus those
citrus farms furnishing milk furnished slightly more than the average
for the other areas. Taking a simple average for the 11 areas we
have approximately 268 gallons per farm. But since only about 65
percent of the farms furnished any milk we would have an average
for those farms furnishing it of approximately 412 gallons per farm.

The lowest value per farm for animal products furnished was in
one of the citrus areas and even here the value was $93.00 per farm
for the year the study was made. The highest value was in a gener-
al farming area where the white farmers averaged nearly $340.00 per
family and the colored families $222.00 per family. The simple av-
erage for the eleven areas gave approximately $200.00 per farm. Us-
ing this figure of $200.00 per farm as the value, at farm prices, of
the animal products consumed in the farm household on the farm
where the commodities were produced would give us a value for our
60,000 farm families of approximately $12,000,000, divided about as













follows:
Milk and its products ---------------------------___ $ 5,640,000.00
Pork and lard .---------------.--------------__ 2,520,000.00
Poultry ------.. ------------ ------..---.. __... 1,020,000.00
Eggs ---------------------------------------... 1,740,000.00
Miscellaneous (beef, honey, turkeys, goats, etc.)---.-. 180,000.00
Farm prices, however, have been declining for.the last two years
at such a rapid rate that if the present farm prices were applied to
the quantities of animal products furnished, as found by the College
of Agriculture, the total for our 60,000 farms would probably not ex-
ceed $7,000,000 or $8,000,000 at the present time. If we should apply
retail prices it would bring the figure back to $200.00 or more.per
farm or a total in excess of 12,000,000.
Few, if any families in Florida, should'be without a milch cow
and enough hens to supply the family with all the eggs they need.
In the general farming areas practically every farm should have two
or more milch cows, fifty or more hens, and one or more brood sows.
These should supply the farm family with ample milk, poultry, eggs
and pork with some surplus to sell. It seems a pity that 35 percent
of our farm families should be without milch cows and that another
20 to 25 percent are without fresh milk for several months each year
when the cow is allowed to go dry.

Florida's Products Increase in 1931
And Imports are Greatly Decreased
By L. M. RHODES,
In 1929, the last year that I have comparative figures on the crops,
the United States produced 25,065 carloads of grapefruit; 20,892 of
these were produced in Florida. That same year the United States
produced 3,338 cars of peppers; 1, 972 cars of these were produced in
Florida The United States produced 427 cars of eggplant; 273 cars
were produced in Florida. The United States produced 7,465 cars of
cucumbers; 2,268 cars were produced in Florida. String beans, the
United States produced 9,524 cars; 4,181 were produced in Florida.
The United States produced 25,438 cars of celery; 8, 931 cars were
produced in Florida. Early tomatoes, the United States produced dur-
ing the months of December, January, February, March, April and
May 10,158 cars; 4, 813 cars were produced in Florida. Early Irish
potatoes during the months of March, April, May and June, the United
States produced 32,692 cars; Florida produced 5,069 of these. Water-
melons, the United States produced 52, 387 cars; 10, 497 cars were










17

produced in Florida. Oranges, the United States produced 97,521
cars; Florida produced 29,476 cars of these.

If we were to produce all the condensed milk, powdered milk, cheese
and butter used in Florida, it would require 139,000 more dairy cows
than we have. We are producing about all the whole milk we need.
In order to produce all the pork, bacon and lard that we need, we would
need 475,000 more hogs than we now have, and to produce all the
beef and veal that we use, we would need 454,000 more beef cattle.
To produce enough poultry and eggs without importing any we would
probably need 1,000,000 more hens.

We were producing $125,000,000 v-:.rth of food and feed products
in 1927 (four years ago). We have greatly increased production of
feed crops, dairy and poultry products, pork and beef, so we will not
import into Florida this year more than $60,000,000 worth of food and
feed products. We have made tremendous strides in the last four
years in producing home-supplies.









1930 FARM CENSUS
Preliminary Announcement: State of Florida
(1930 Census taken April 1 and 1925 and 1920 Censuses, January 1)


FARM ACREAGE AND VALUES 1930 1925 1920
Farms ---------------------------Number 58,966 9,217 54,005
Value of farm property (1) -------- Dollarse 402,456,035 513,884,122 330,301,717
FARM MORTGAGE DEBT
All farms operated by owners .-----. Number 39,394 45,586 38,487
Reported as mortgaged- ....-------Number 9,720 8,857 8,102
Farms operated by full owners .-- Number 35,485 43,378 35,757
Mortgaged (debt reportcOl)---.---.. Number 8,437 8,356 7,308
Acres 787.281 909,256 (2)
Value of land and buildings --------. Dollars 79,857,161 70,877,288 50,580,850
Amount of mortgage debt....-------- Dollas 21,606,900 18,2.79,099 12,909,813
Ratio of debt to value-------------Per Cent 27.06 25.79 25.52
SPECIFIED FARM EXPENDITURES 1929 1924 1919
Feed (hay, grain, mill feed,, etc.).... Dollars 8,096,841 6,402,931 5,024,668
Fertilizer ------....-- -----------Dollars 15,152,647 12,624,513 10,316,929
Farm labor, excl. housework (cash)--..Dollars 17,724,067 14,232,447 10,117,531
COOPEEA'tATIlVE MAtRKEI NG
Value of farm products sold. -------- Dollars| 14,369,275 13,104,289 4,346,378
Value of farm supplies purchased .. Dollars- 1,828,597 1,256,975 269,009
SHEEP 1930 1925 1920
Sheep and lambs on farms-------. Number (3) 47,275 58,729 64,669


















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1930 FARM CENSUS CONTINUED
Grapes, vines not of bearing age- .. Number 429,170 ) 366,489 (29,767
Vines of bearing age --------Number 617,158 ) (57,840
Pounds Harvested 1,823,769 (2) 1,220,623

Avocados, trees not of bearing age.--..Number 1,551 (2) 41,758
Trees of bearing age------------- Number 130,376 (2) 27,771
Boxes Harvested 35,220 (2) 16,209
Grapefruit, trees not of bearing ageoNumber 938.874 951,909 963,336
Trees of bearing age -----------. Number 3,595,155 2,969,910 1,681,481
Boxes Harvested 5,071,089 (2) 3,158,431

Guavas, trees not of bearing age.--..Number 12,362 (2) 13,124
Trees of bearing age------------- Number 20,693 (2) 24,982
Pounds Harvested 208,632 (2) 262,457
Lemons, trees not of bearing ago-- Number 14,761 68,909 22,756
Trees of bearing age --....-------.Number 28,497 84,273 34,170
Boxes Harvested 32,630 (2) 31,204

Oranges, trees not of bearing age- ....Number 3,121,837 0,040,261 2,341,341
Trees of bearing age--..---------... Number 9,002,362 7,305,722 3,684,327
Boxes Harvested 9,720,998 (2) 5,997,897

Papayas, trees not of bearing age --.Number 2,914 (2) (2)
Trees of bearing age---------------Number 9,875 (2) (2)
Pounds Harvested 192,471 (2) (2)

Pineapples, plants not of bearing ageo-Number 372,760 (2) 1,599,660
Plants of bearing age ---.--------- Number 1,002,895 (2) 924,594
Crates Harvested 11,906 (2) 26,016






Pecans, trees not of bearing age -----Numbet
Trees of bearing age..------------..Numb
Pounds Harvested

Tung, trees not of bearing age-----. Number
Trees of bearing ag ---------------Number
Pounds Harvested

Blackberries and dewberries -----------. Acres
Quarts
Blueberries -------------------------Acres
Quarts
Strawberries ---------------------- Acres
Quarts


208,159
275,410
823,000

294,095
6,739
111,220

161
71,470
2,014
360,585
6,759
12,159,305


317,53 208.G13
206,560 113,547
(2) 1,025,673


(2) 60
(2) 52,700
(2) (2)
(2) (2)
5,001 834
(2) 1,267,073


H. A. MARKS, Agricultural Statistician.
Land and buildings, implements and machinery, and livestock.
Not reported.
Including 8,526 lambs born since October 1, 1929.
Including estimates for incomplete reports.
Gas or electricity in 1920.
Grown for all purposes.









Florida Crop Report For The

Principal Farm.Products of 1931


The value of the principal Florida crops for 1931 is estimated at
$86,188,000 compared with valuations of $115,944,000 for the crop of
1930 and $111,141,000 for the crop of 1929. This includes staple crops,
truck crops and the principal fruit and nut crops.

STAPLE CROPS: Staple crops for 1931 estimated to be worth
$16,992,000 compared with $23,819,000 in 1930 and $26,911,000 in
1929. While yields average somewhat below those of the two pro-
ceding years, the decreased valuation is due largely to the lower
price received for such crops as corn, cotton and peanuts. Both yield
and price received for corn were below last year. Cotton made a
good yield but at a low value per pound. Production of peanuts was
larger than that of last year but total value less. Irish potatoes
showed a record yield but a lower value for the crop. Sugarcane,
sweet potatoes and tobacco all brought less money than the crops
of the two preceding years.

TRUCK CROPS: For the truck crops, the total valuation for
1930-31 was $27,847,000 compared with $34,786,000 for the season of
1929-30 and $33,980,000 for 1928-29. Production and values are by
crop years. Celery, string beans, strawberries and watermelons are
not much below last season but some of the other crops are valued
materially lower.

FRUITS AND NUTS: Fruits and nuts are valued at $41,349,0e0
compared with $57,339,000 for the season of 1930-31 and $50,250,000
for 1929-30. Valuations for the present season are based on Decem-
ber 1 prices which usually differ somewhat from the seasonal prices
obtained at the close of the shipping season.










Acreage, Yield and Production; Staple Florida Crops.

ACRES
CROPS HARVESTED PRODUCTION VALUE
(000 Ommitted) (000 Ommittcd (000 Ommitted)
'29 '30 '31 '29 '30 '31 '29 '30 '31
Corn 648 648 674 6,804 5,832 5,720 Bus. 5,783 5,24) 3,036
Cotton 103 120 114 29 50 43 Bales 2,422 2,200 1,129
Cowpea., all 14 21 21 165 210 206 Bus. 412 514 258
Hay, all 82 77 82 49 45 49 Tons 852 756 618
Oats 8 8 9 112 120 162 Bus. 100 95 81
Peanuts, all 240 251 297 144,000 140,560 172,20 Lbs. 5,040 4,638 3,790
Sugarcane, syrup 10 9 9 1,860 1,530 1,485 Gals. 1,581 994 742
Swt. Potatoes 20 19 21 1.820 1,520 1,638 Bus. 1,011 1,444 1,147
Ir. Potatoes 23 32 28 2,714 2,560 3,640 Bus. 4,885 4,736 4,004
Tobacco 10.7 10.9 9.1 9,630 9,'56 7,598 Lbs. 3,101 2,673 1,710
Velvet Beans 136 122 127 61 40 5] Tons 824 520 477
STAPLE CROPS, TOTAL 26,911 23,819 16,992







ACREAGE, YIELD AND PRODUCTION: CONTINUED
i i


ACRES PRODUCTION
HARVESTED (000 Ommittcd)
'29 '30 '31 '29 '30 '31
Beans, snap 27,000 35,800 30,000 3,259 3,178 3,376 Bus.
Cabbage 6,500 3,700 6,500 39 26 48 Tons
Cantaloupe 600 600 250 36 30 13 Crates
Celery 6,620 6,650 6,150 3,176 3,329 3,132 Crates
Cucumbers 11,340 12,100 9,650 1,163 649 961 Bus
Eggplant 1,320 1,680 1,800 540 440 520 Bus.
Escarolo 500 460 850 307 345 367 Hmprs.
Lettuce 1,500 1,100 1,600 543 331 495 Hlmprs.
Peas, green 1,350 700 2,000 77 28 120 Bus.
Peppers 6,650 6,550 8,200 1,562 1,493 1,869 Bus.
Strawberries 6,800 9,000 9,100 544 603 655 Crates
Tomatoes 38,700 31,260 27,800 2,963 2,371 2,020 Bus.
Watermelons 40,000 34,700 31,000 11,600 10,410 10,230 Melons
TRUCK CROPS, TOTAL
Grapefruit, total 8,200 16,000 iT,00l B oxes
Grapefruit, commercial 6,300 11,200 8,000 Boxes
Oranges, total 8,800 19,000 15,000 Boxes
Oranges, commercial 7,900 16,000 12,500 Boxes
Peaches 66 72 92 Bus.
Pears 45 49 59 Bus.
Grapes 1,824 1,800 2,020 Lbs.
Limes 8 8 9 Lbs.
Pecans 864 1,000 2,200 Boxes
FRUITS AND NUTS, TOTAL
VALUE OF CROPS AND FRUITS ABOVE __


VALUEk
(000 Ommitted
'29 '30
5,143 6,805
1,310 1,612
72 52
5,123 5,294
3,164 1,568
832 454
230 427
522 546
116 42
2,471 2,002
2,883 4,040
8,889 8,970
3,225 2,368
33,980 34,786 2
22,960 20,800 1
26,840 36,100 2
112 86
47 51
251 262

40 40
50,250 57,339 4
111,141 115,944 8


'31
6,592
918
20
6,107
1,293
350
209
297
222
2,243
3,766
3,778
2,040
7,847
5,400
5,500
87
41
281

40
1,349
6,188


-i --~ ~ ~-- -- --


--









Tenancy on Farms Found Increasing

In Every State of Nation but Seven


The percentage of tenants among farmers increased between 1925
and 1930 in all but seven States, 42.4 of the farmers having been
tenants last year compared to 38.6 in 1925 and 38.1 in 1920, the De.
apartment of Agriculture stated Aug. 141. All of the eight States in
which more than half of the farmers are tenants are in the South,
the Department said.

Of the six States which showed declines in tenancy, five are on the
Atlantic seaboard, according to the Department. One State showed
no change in percentage. The statement follows in full text:

Tenancy on the farms of the United States increased to 42.4 per
cent of all farmers in 1930 as compared with 38.6 per cent in 1925
and 35.1 per cent in 1920, according to an analysis of census reports
announced by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of
Agriculture. Increases in tenancy between 1925 and 1930 occurred
in 41 States; decreases in 6 States; in South Carolina there was no
change. In 1880, when the first statistical study of farm tenancy was
made, 25.6 per cent of the farmers were tenants, in 1900, 35.3 per
cent were tenants, and in 1920, 38.1 per cent.

FIGURES BY STATES

The States with decreased tenancy were: Connecticut, New York,
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Deleware on the Atlantic seaboard,
and Arizona in the West. The downward tendency in the eastern five
of the States between 1925 and 1930 is a continuation of a trend which
set in following 1900. The 1930 percentage was less than half that
of 1900 in Connecticut, and only a little more than half that of 1900
in New York and New Jersey. The 1900 census showed 50.3 per cent
of the farmers of Deleware to be tenants whereas the corresponding
figure in 1930 was only 33.8 per cent.

MISSISSIPPI IN LEAD

Mississippi continues to lead in the percentage of its farmers who
are tenants. In 1930 this percentage was 72.1, in 1925 it was 6S.3, in







26

1910 and 1920 it was 66.1. All other States in which more than half
of the farmers were tenants in 1930 were in the South: Georgia, 68.2
percent; Louisiana, 66.6; South Carolina, 65.1; Alabama, 64.6; Arkans-
as, 63; Oklahoma, 61.4; and Texas, 60.9.

In none of the North Central States are as many as half the farm-
ers tenants, yet tenancy is important in many of these States and
has shown an increase with every successive census from 1880 to 1930,
inclusive, in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Da-
kota, Nebraska and Kansas. In 1930 in the North Central States
percentages of tenancy were: Iowa, 47.3; Nebraska, 47.1; South Da-
kota, 44.6; Illinois, 43.1; Kansas, 42.4; North Dakota, 35.1; Missouri,
34.8; Minnesota, 31.1; Indiana, 30; Ohio, 26.2; Wisconsin, 18.2; Michi-.
gan, 15.4.




Decrease in Farm Population Has

Exceeded a Million in Ten Years

A decrease in the farm population of the United States from 31,-
614,269 in 1920 to 30,447,550 in 1930, or a percentage drop from 29.9
percent of the total population to 24.9 percent of the total, is shown in
an analysis made public Aug. 24 by the Bureau of the Census.

.During the same 10-year period, however, the population living in
rural territory but not on farms increased from 19 to 19.3 percent
of the total population.

RURAL NONFARM DWELLERS GAIN

The number of persons living on farms during the decade decreased
3.8 percent, while rural nonfarm population increased 18 percent.
Urban farm population remained the same for both census years,.
amounting to only 0.2 of 1 percent of the total population.

The rural farm population formed 43 percent of the total popula-
tion of the South, compared with 16 percent in the North and 18.7'
percent in the West. The rural nonfarm population likewise formed
a larger percentage in the South than either in the North or West.
The Bureau's analysis of the farm and rural nonfarm population.









of th United States follows in full text:
The Director of the Census announced today (Aug. 24) the Fif-
teenth Census returns for the farm population of the United States,
and for the rural-nonfarm population, classified by color, nativity and
sex. .

The farm population of the United States on April, 19330, was 30,-
447,550, forming 24.8 percent of the total population, which was 122,-
775,046. In 1920 the farm population amounted to 31,614,269, and
formed 29.9 percent of the total population.

The rural-nonfarm population living in rural territory but not on
farms, amounted to 23,662,710, as compared with 20,047,377 in 1920.
While the total population of the United States increased 16.1 per
cent between 1920 and 1930, the rural-farm population shows a de-
crease of 3.8 percent and the rural-farm population an increase of 18
percent. These figures are summarized in Table 1.

The farm population as shown for 1930 comprises all persons liv-
ing on farms, without regard to occupation. The farm population
figures for 1920 include, in addition, those farm laborers (and their
families) who while not living on farms, nevertheless lived in strictly
rural territory outside the limits of any city or other incorporated
place.

Though the number of additional persons thus included is believed
not to have been very great, some allowance should be made for this
difference in definition when comparing the figures.

COUNT TAKEN LATER IN YEAR

Further allowance should be made for the fact that the 1920 census
was taken in January, when considerable numbers of farm laborers
and others usually living on farms were temporarily absent, while the
1930 Census was taken in April, when by reason of the advancing
season the number of persons on the farms was appreciably larger.
All except two-tenths of 1 percent of the farm population, both in
1930 and in 1920, was returned from rural territory. For convenience
in handling the tabulation, the various classifications by color, nativi-
ty, sex, etc., are presented only for the ruralfarm population.

The rural-farm and rural-nonfarm population figures are presented
in Table 2 by sex, color, and nativity.










FARM POPULATION BY SECTIONS

The rural-farm population formed 43 percent of the total popula-
tion in the South, as compared with 16 percent in the North and 18.7
percent in the West. The rural-nonfarm population likewise formed
a larger percentage in the South than either in the North or in the
West. These figures are summarized by color and nativity in Table 3.

The rural-farm population in 1930 comprised 15,864,375 males and
14,293,138 females, or 111 males per 100 females. In 1920 the sex
ratio was 109.1.

NATIVE WHITES 68 PERCENT
There were in 1930 rural-farm population 20,495,382 native white
persons of native parentage, forming 68 percent of the total; 3,305,-
365 native white of foreign or mixed parentage (11 percent); 1,084,087
foreign-born white (3.6 percent); and 4,680,523 Negroes (15.5 per
cent).

In the 1930 rural-nonfarm population there were 105 males per 100
females, as compared with 102.5 in the total population.

Of this group, 16,144,000, or 68.2 per cent, were native whites of
native parentage; 3,443,307, or 14.6 percent, were native whites of
foreign or mixed parentage; 1,555,461, or 6.6 percent, were foreign-
born white; 2,016,707, or 8.5 percent, were Negroes.

The data for the farm population, both rural and urban, and for
the rural-nonfarm population are presented by geographic divisions
and States in Table 4. (The figures for all States except Texas have
already been released, State by State, as the tabulations have been
completed.)


Tot,
Far
Rur
Urb
Rur
Rur
Rur


Table 1.-Farm Population, Rural and Urban: 1930 and 1920
Per Cent
(April 1) (Jan. 1) of Total
1930 1920 1930 1920
al ---- -------------122,775,046 105,710,620 100.0 100.0
m population --..------.. 30,447,550 31,614,269 24.8 29.9
al-farm ------------ 30,157,513 31,358,640 24.6 29.7
an-farm ---. -----...... 290,037 255,629 .2 .2
al Population ----------- 53,820,223 51,406,017 43.8 48.6
al-farm ---------...--. 30,157,513 31,358,640 24.6 29.7
al-nonfarm ------..---_ 23.662.710 20.047.377 19.3 19.0


. o







29


Special Appropriations by Congress

For Floods and Other Disasters


SPECIAL APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FOR MANY
YEARS FOR SUFFERERS FROM FLOODS
AND OTHER DISASTERS


Venezuela, earthquakes in ------------
New Madrid, Mo., Terr., authority to
select a like amount of public land, etc.
New York city, sufferers from fire to be
relieved from paying certain duties--
Florida, rations to be given sufferers
from Indian depredations in---------
Portsmouth, N. H., sufferers from fire
to be relieved from paying duties on
merchandise ------------- -----
Norfolk, Va., sufferers from fire given
extension of time within which to pay
certain duties ..-- -------------
Alexandria, Va., relief of sufferers from
fire -------------------------
Ireland, authority to use U. S. S. 'Mace-
donian" for transportation of supplies
to sufferers in Ireland ----- -----
Minnesota, relief of persons damaged by
Indian depredations ----
D. of C. Arsenal, relief of sufferers from
explosion in cartridge factory --.....
Portland, Maine, relief of sufferers from
fire, certain articles admitted free of
duty -----------------------
D. of C. Arsenal, relief of sufferers from
explosion -------------------
Portland, Maine, relief granted in pay-
ment of taxes to citizens who suffer-
ed from fire ---------- ------
Southern States, authority given to use
public vessels in transportation of sup-
plies-- ----------..------
Southern States, authority given to
charter vessels for the transportation
of supplies --------- ---------
South, Secretary of War authorized to
issue supplies of food to sufferers in--
Southern States, purchase of seeds for
distribution -------
South, authority given to- Secretary of
- ..War to distribute certain food supplies
France and Germany, authority given to


Amount Date
$50,000 May S, 1312

Feb. 17, 1815
Mar. 19, 1836
Feb. 1, 1836

Feb. 19, 1803

Mar. 19, 1804
20,000 Jan. 24, 1827


200,000
2,000


Mar.
Feb.
July


July
2,500 Mar.


4, 1864
17, 1866


July 27, 1866

Feb. 22, 1867

Mar. 29, 1867
Mar. 30, 1867
50,000 Mar. 30, 1867
Jan. 31, 1868









use naval vessels for the transporta-
tion of supplies to the destitute and
suffering people in ---- -----
Chicago, Ill., relief of sufferers from
fire at -----------------------
Chicago, Ill.,'relief of postmaster on ac-
count of loss due to fire ---------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, Presi-
dent authorized to issue supplies of
food and clothing to -------------
Mississippi River floods sufferers relief
to --------------------------- ----
Sufferers from ravages of grasshoppers,
purchase of seeds for ----------
Yellow fever, refrigerating ship, disin-
fecting of vessels and cargoes on ac-
count of ------- ----------
Colored immigrants, articles for relief
of to be admitted free --....------
Ireland, Secretary of Navy authorized to
use naval vessels for transportation of
supplies ---------
Macon, Miss., Secretary of War authoriz-
ed to send 4000 rations to cyclone suf-
ferers-------------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, re-
lief of ---- --------------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, Sec-
retary of War authorized to use hospi-
tal tents for .......----..----------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, Secre-
tary of War authorized to use Gov-
ernment vessels for transportation and
distribution of rations ------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, relief
by furnishing relief to ------ --
Mississippi River flood sufferers, pur-
chase and distribution of subsistence
stores to -..---.. ---- --- -----
Sufferers from ravages of grass hoppers,
purchase of seeds for -------.....
Ohio River flood sufferers, purchase and
distribution of subsistence stores, cloth-
ing etc., to -------------
Ohio River flood sufferers relief ---...
Mississipi River flood sufferers, authori-
ty to use unexpended balance of $125,-
000 of above appropriation to furnish
rations to ---- ---- ---
Yellow fever and cholera, prevention of-
Yellow fever, eradication of-------
Japanese crew, recognition of kind treat-
ment of ------------
Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana,
purchase of tents for flood sufferers-_


Indefinite
Indefinite

Indefinite

190,000
30,000


Feb. 10, 1871
Apr. 5, 1872
Mar. 12, 1872


Apr. 23,
May 13,
Jan. 25,


200,000 Apr. 18, 1879
Mar. 5, 1880

Feb. 25, 1880


20,000
100,000


Apr. 11, 1882
Feb. 25, 1882


Mar. 10, 1882


Mar. 11, 1882
150,000 Mar. 21, 1882

100,000 Apr. 1, 1882
150,000 Feb. 10, 1875

300,000 Feb. 12, 1884
200,000 Feb. 15, 1884


200,000
100,000
5,000
25,000


Mar. 27, 1884
Sept 26, 1888
Oct. 12, 1888
May 24, 1888
Mar. 31, 1890








Mississippi River flood sufferers, authori-
ty to hire boats from appropriation
for improvement of Mississippi River-
Mississippi River flood sufferers, relief
to --------------------------------
Oklahoma, certain unexpended balances
made available for the relief of citizens
of, made destitute by drouth -----
Potomac River, removal of ice gorge ---
For Theatre disaster, payment to heirs
or legal representatives of persons
killed in ------------_-------
Ford Theatre disaster, payment to em-
ployes on account of ..___- -----
India, authority to transport supplies to
poor of -------------------------
India, use of vessels authorized to aid
suffering poor ---------------
Mississippi River flood sufferers, relief
to ----------------- ---
Cuba, relief of citizens of the United
States in -----------------------
Battleship Maine. payment to sufferers
on account of destruction of ..__._
District of Columbia, prevention of spread
of contagious diseases ------------
San Francisco, Cal., relief of sufferers
from quake ------------...............--
San Francisco, Cal., relief of sufferers
from quake __-------____------
Jamaica, relief of sufferers from earth-
quake and fire ----..-----------

Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, relief of
cyclone sufferers -------- ----
Italy, relief of citizens of --------
Ohio River, removal of ice gorges -----
Costa Rica, sufferers from earthquake,
tents, blankets, ets., by Army, Navy
and Panama Canal -.--.---------
Imperial Valley, Cal., protection of lands
and property from Colorado River _--
China, relief of famine sufferers --
Mississippi valleys, relief of flood suffer-
ers in -- ------ --
Mississippi River, between head of passes
and Cape Girardeau maintaining and
protecting levees ------- ---
Mississippi River and tributaries, re-
maining and protecting levees against
spending floods ------ ----
Mississippi River and Tributaries, au-
thority to use $1,500,000 for repair,


Apr. 3, 1890

150,000 Apr. 21, 1890

Sept. 1, 1890
5,000 Feb. 15, 1895


125,000

131,550


200,000

50,000


50,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

clothing, foot
etc. from
Naval stores

250,000
800,000
10,000



1,000,000
50,000

1,239,179


Mar. 2, 1895

June 8, 1896

Feb. 19, 1897

June 1, 1897

Apr. 7, 1897

May 24, 1897

Mar. 30, 1893

Feb. 28, 1899

Apr. 19, 1906

Apr. 24, 1906


June 18, 1906


May
Jan.
Jan.


11, 1908
5, 1909
19, 1910


June 25, 1910
Feb. 11, 1911

May 9, 1912


350,000 Apr. 3, 1912

300,000 Apr. 16, 1912









etc., of levees against floods ------
Middle West flood sufferers, reimburse-
ment of life-saving appropriations for
aid to --------------------------
Mississippi and Ohio valleys Peachtree,
Alabama and Nebraska relief of suf-
ferers from floods, tornadoes and con-
flagrations department appropriations.
Action of the President in extending aid
from various appropriations ratified-.
Mississippi Valley flood sufferers 1913,
credit in accounts of certain river and
harbor appropriations for expenditures
Mississippi Valley flood sufferers 1913,
medical supplies, action of the Presi-
dent in issuing, ratified ------
Ohio flood sufferers and Indiana and on
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, reim-
bursement to certain naval appropria-
tions for relief ------------
Salem, Mass., relief to sufferers from fire
at (Expended $47,140.10) ------
Paris, Texas, relief to sufferers from fire
at, tents, cots, etc., and supplies to be
furnished by War Department ---..-
North Carolina, South Carfolina, Georgia,
Alabama, Florida, Tennessee and Mis-
sissippi flood sufferers, supply of
seeds to be furnished and Army sup-
plies by Quartermaster and Medical
departments of the Army --------
West Virginia, relief of flood sufferers,
provisions of the resolution appropriat-
ing $540,000 extended to W. Virginia-
European sufferers to be reimbursed so
far as possible --------- ---
European sufferers to be reimbursed so
far as possible ---------------


5,000
Amount


Apr. 30, 1912

Oct. 22, 1913
Date


654,448.49 Oct. 22, 1913
Oct. 22, 1913

34,192.35 Oct. 22, 1913

8,239.40 Oct. 22, 1913


130,940.38 Oct.
200,000 Aug.


22, 1913
1, 1914


Apr. 11, 1916


540,000 Aug. 3, 1916

Aug. 24, 1916

100,000,000 Feb. 25, 1919
5,000,000
barrels of
flur Mar. 30, 1920


Russia, food for starving ----------- 20,000,000 Dec. 22, 1921
Russia, medicine and supplies -------- 4,000,000 Jan. 20, 1922
Corpus Christ, Texas, flood sufferers-. 82,853.15 Mar 20, 1922
Pueblo, Col., flood sufferers much as
deemed necessary ----__ -- Mar. 30, 1922
House Document No. 195 Sixty-eighth
Congress, first session ------------.Total expenditures by Navy
Department for Japanese re-
lief on account of earthquake
in September, 1923, authoriz-
by the President will not ex-
ceed $700,000.
Total expenditures by Navy
Department for Jap relief on
account of earthquake in 1923,










authorized by President $600,-
447.67.
Amount Date
Individually and collectively the people of the United States contri-
bute more money for beneficient purposes than is given for all bene-
volent causes by the citizens of every other nation on this planet.




Heavy Endowments by Rich Men To

Nation's Churches, Schools and Charities



The Rockefeller General Education Foundation is $135,000,000, and
other Rockefeller endowments total $575,000,000. The Caregie Foun-
dations aggregate $350,000,000. The Cleveland Foundation, one of
many community endowments, is $150,000,000.
Dr. J. H. Snowden has estimated that within the past ten years
about $2,000,000,000 has been placed in foundations and that all told
the endowments of the United States must reach $3,000,000,000. This
is about one-fiftieth of the country's wealth. Of the above $2,000.-
000,000, education has received $800,000,000; philanthropy and religion,
$500,000,000; scientific research, $300,000,000; literature and art,
$200,000,000; miscellaneous causes, $200,000,000. Some of our univer-
sities have large edowments. Harvard has $52,000,000; Columbia,
S41,000,000; Yale, $35,000,000; Chicago, 32,000,000; Leland Stanford
Junior, $27,000,000.

As the number of rich men increases, the list of great givers
grows. Within the last few years there have been some notable in-
stances of philanthropy. Milton S. Hershey, having gathered a great
fortune from the manufacture of chocolate candies, gave $60,000,000
for a foundation to care for orphan boys. George Eastman out of
kodak making became wealthy and established endowments amount-
ing to $58,000,000. James B. Duke has made bequests not definitely
valued but above $60,000,000.

These endowments are an excellent commentary on the character
of our civilization. A deep well of benevolence springs in our peo-
ple, and a keen conscience of social responsibility actuates them.
While such immense streams of thoughtful provision flow to the
country and on into the future there must be a large and wholesome


~~~rrrrrr+lr~Frr~ll~~,






34

effect on human life. What institution is better fitted than the
Church to care for foundations, large or small? The Southern Metho.
dist Church is incorporated and prepared to administer trust funds.
Its members and friends who desire to bequeath estates may wisely
confer with one of our Church representatives.



Gifts of Fifty Million Sent Abroad

For Religion, Science and Charities


Approximately $50,000,000 was sent abroad by Americans during
1930 in the form of missionary, charitable and scientific contributions,
according to a study of the balance of international payments recently
made public by the Department of Commerce.
The largest item in the nonsectarian group is that of the Rockefeller
Foundation for $4,632,714.
The section of the report dealing with this subject follows in full
text:
As in the 1928 survey, a questionnaire was sent to about 150 reli-
gious, charitable, and scientific organizations in the United States
making remittances abroad during the calendar year 1930. The
questionnaire explained that the figures reported should exclude sums
spent in this country for administrative purposes, collected here dur-
ing the year but held in banks here for future periods, or added to
endowment investments in this country; and it requested that the
return should include a statement as to whether the figures reported
migth be duplicated in the returns of any central (or constituent) or-
ganization. It requested further that remittances to Alaska, Hawaii,
and Porto Rico (within our balance-of-payments area) be excluded.
In several cases preliminary estimates were used where the calendar
year totals were not available. The returns wre classified, for con-
venience, into five groups showing the following totals:
Protestant, $31,273,000; relief, education, and science, $7,929,000;
Jewish (mostly relief), $4,122,000; Roman Catholic, $3,837,000; mis-
cellaneous gifts and commissions, $2,000,000; total, $49,161,000.
To obtain exact figures for the Protestant group of organizations
would be, of itself, a major investigation. Duplications and ommis-
sions are likely to occur. Several of the organizations have very





35

similar names, and a board of missions may include all churches in the
United States of the same sect or only those of a certain district.

The figure for remittances abroad during the calendar year 1930
by Protestant organizations in the United States is based principally
on the most recent annual report by Secretary Leslie B. Moss, of the
Foreign Missions Conference of North America. That report, for 1929,
contained figures of 94 mission boards or other religious institutions
in the United States and of seven in Canada. The United States
total for 1929 was $30,281,000. This figure "includes expenditures at
home base but not for capital I penditures on the field"; it includes
also remittances to Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico, which are within
our balance-of-payments area. Moreover, it excludes the remittances
of a number of Protestant sects-as examples, the Unitarians,
Christian Scientists, Southern Baptists, and Mormons, reports obtain-
ed directly from these sects indicate their total for 1930 to be about
$2,324,000.

For the calendar year 1930 this division has compiled returns re-
ceived directly from 21 of the 94 Protestant institutions which were
included in the 1929 report of the Foreign Missions Conference of
North America. The total of these 21 returns, which were made
specially for balance-of-payments purposes, equals more than half of
the grand total reported by the conference for 1920. As the returns
of those 21 institutions show a reduction during 1930 of 4.4 percent of
the amounts for 1929 which they reported to the conference, the 1930
total of the 94 institutions for balance-of-payments purposes is
estimated to be 95.6 percent of $30,281,000, or $28,949,000. This
figure is raised to $31,273,000 to cover Protestant sects which do not
report to the conference.

Among the notably large contributors in 1930 were the Presbyterian
Church of the United States of America, $3,022,000; Seventh-Day
Adventists, $2,700,000; and Methodist Episcopal Church, $2,480,000.
The Methodist Episcopal Church South and the Young Men's Christ-
ian Association each reported slightly above $1,500,000.
The largest item in the nonsectarian group is that of the Rocke-
feller Foundation, $4,632,714. The Near East College Association re-
ported $877,000, and about $650,000 each was reported by the Ameri-
can Red Cross and the Near East Foundation. The aggregate ex-
penditures of the very numerous American archeological units abroad
were carefully investigated in 1928; the like figure for 1930 was es-
timated at $800,000.








36

The figures of the United Palestine appeal office and of the Ameri.
can Jewish joint distribution committee were, respectively, $1,874,762.
and $1,235,651. Thirteen other Jewish organizations reported. The
large remittances of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society
were incorrectly included in the 1929 survey; that organization han.
dies immigrant remittances.

In the Roman Catholic group, reports were received from 22 dif-
ferent institutions. The largest report was that of the Society for
the Propagation of the Faith, $2,382,263; this was about $580,000 less
than in 1928.

The estimate puports to cover remittances by Greek and Gregorian-
Catholic organizations. It should include, also, remittances by such.
institutions as the newly founded Harkness Foundation of $10,000,000*
for-charitable work in Great Britain, in recognition of its contribution
to the common cause during and after the war.









For Comparative Study of Two Years

Estimated Wealth of Country Given


Estimated Wealth of United States, by States
MANUFACTURER'S RECORD

States 1922 1929


Alabama ---------------------- $3,002,043,000
Arkansas --------..----------- 2,599,617,000
District of Columbia --------- 1,097,270,000
Florida ----------------------- 2,440.491,000
Georgia ---------------------- 3,896,759,000
Kentucky ------------------- 3,52391,000
Louisiana --------------------- 3,416,860,000
Maryland ----------..-... --- 3,990.730,000
Mississippi -------- 2,177,690,000
Missouri ----------------------- 9,981.409,000
North Carolina ---------------- 4,543,110,000
Oklahoma ------------------ 3,993,524,000
South Carolina ----.--..--------- 2,40.1,845,000
Tennessee --------------------- 4,228,251.000
Ttxas ------------------- 9,850,888,000
Virginia --------------------- 4,891.570,000
West Virginia ------------------ 4,677,919,000

South -----------------------$71,375,367,000

Ma.ine --------------------$--- $2,006,531,000
New Hampshire --------------- 1,374,135,000
Vermont --------------------- 842,040,000
Massachusetts ----------------- 12,980,839,000
Rhode Island ------------------ 1,924,326,000
Connecticut --------------------- 5,286,445,000

New England -------- $24,414,316,000

New York --------------------- 37,035,262,000
New Jersey ------------------ 11,794,189,000
Pennsylvania ------------------- 28,833,745,000
Delaware ---------------------- 625,765,000

Middle Atlantic ---------------- $78,288,961,000

Ohio -------------------------- $18,489,552,000
Indiana ------------------------ 8,829.726,000
Illinios ---------------------- 22,232.794,000
Michigan ---------------------- 11,404,861,000
Wisconsin ----------------------- 7,866,081,000

East North Central ----------- $68,823,014,000


$3,316,000,000
2,876,000.000
-1,800,000,000
2,905,000,000
4,442,000,000
3,994,000,000
3,864,000,000
4,537,000,000
2,476,000,000
11,311,000,000
5,429,000,000
4,271,000,000
2,763,000.000
4,957,000,000
10,939,000,000
5,665,000,000
5,374,000,000

$80,979,000,000

$2,314,000,000
1,595,000,000
947,000,000
15,032,000,000
2,215,000,000
6,186,000,000

$28,289,000,000

$40,708,000,000
13,581,000,000
32,757,000,000
725,000,000

$87,771,000,000
$21,390,000,000
9,910,000,000
24,356,000,000
13,293,000,000
8,964,000,000

$77,913,000,000











Minnesota ----------------- $8,547,918,000
Iowa --- -------------- 10,511.682,000
North Dakota ------------------ 2,467,772,000
South Dakota ------------------- 2,925.968,000
Nebraska ----------------------- 5,320,075,000
Kansas ------------------------ 6,264.058,000

West North Central ---------- $36,037,473,000

Montana ------------------- $2,223,189,000
Idaho ------------------------. 1,533,941,000
Wyoming --------------- ---- 976,239,000
Colorado --------------------- 3,229,412,000
New Mexico ----------------- 851,836,000
Arizona --------------------- 1,314,291,000
Utah ------------------------- 1,535,477,000
Nevada -------------------- 541,716,000

Mountain ------------------- $12,206,101,000

Washington ------------------- $5,122.405,000
Oregon ----------------- 3,419,459,000
California ------------------ 15,031,734,000

Pacific ------------------- $23,573,598,000

United States ---------------- $320,803,862,000


$9,518,000,000
11,385,000,000
2,580,000,000
3,419,000,000
5,818,000,000
6,791,000,000

$39,511,000,000

$2,560,000,000
1,829,000,000
1,167,000,000
3,516,000,000
963,000,000
1,578,000,000
1,765,000,000
569,000,000

$13,947,000,000

$5,727,000,000
3,844,000,000
17,048,000,000

$26,619,000,000

$$361,837,000,000


*Includes $6,085,000,000 representing the value of ships of the
United States Navy, value of privately owned waterworks, and value
of gold and silver coin and bullion, not distributed by states.
$Includes $6,808,000,000 representing the value of ships of the United
States Navy, value of privately owned waterworks, and value of
gold and silver coin and bullion, not distributed by states.











One Per Cent of Income Tax Payers

Pay One-fourth of Total Amount



One percent of the total number of Federal income taxpayers in
1129 paid nearly one-fourth of the total reported income. In 1921 the
same group reported less than one-seventh, or 13.16 percent of the
total.


Pet. of
Taxpay-
ers
1921-1.00
1922-1.08
192:3---1.053
1924-- .93
1925-1.042
1926-1.035
1927-1.1418
192S-1.056
1929- .96


Number in
upper
bracket
(66,622)
(72,955)
(80,813)
(68,592)
(43,585)
(42,705)
(47,151)
(43,1814)
(38,650)


Group Income

$2,574,438,3S7
3,384,468,001
3,640,074,266
3,904.571,536
4,318,823,712
4,314,093.021
4,968,347.561
6,309,085,009
5,952,356,057


Percentage of
total income
held by group
13.16
15.87
14.64
15.22
19.72
19.73
22.05
25.02
24.27


One statement in particular we want to correct. It runs something

like this:
"There are 504 individuals in the United States whose annual in-

comes are over one million dollars and whose total incomes are 1,185
million dollars.'

Truly booming and impressive figures, and at one time correct as to
taxable income of which about 700 million dollars was capital gains.

But now the Government has revised them, or rather 1930 revised
them. The 504 becomes 149; the 1,100 million becomes 350 million.
The rich grow poorer, it seems, on occasion, along with the rest
of us.

Let's make an entirely arbitrary definition of "rich man." He's
a man, we'll say, who pays taxes on an income of $50,000 a year or
more-that is, his income is 5 percent of a million-dollar investment.








40

In 1929 there were about 40,000 such persons and their total tax-
able income was about 6,000 million dollars. In 1930 there were few-
er than 20,000 such persons and their income was 2,500 million dollars.

The whole income tax picture for 1930 as compared with 1929 is
on the same lines. Aggregate net incomes reported by individuals
for 1929 were 17 billions, for 1930 about 10 billions while tax liability
dropped from about one billion to half a billion.

No one questions that incomes in 1931 were less rather than more
than the 1930 figures. If you doubled the rates the return on 1931
might not yield as much as those on 1929 incomes.





Farm Property Has Decreased About

28 Per Cent Since World War Days



According to the late census, farm property has depreciated about
28 percent from the war prices of 1920; the census of 1920 gave a
valuation of all farm lands and buildings at $66,316,000,000.00, the
1930 census gave $47,880,000,000.00, a depreciation of nearly 28 per
cent. The 1920 census was taken at the peak of land prices or war
prices.

Let us compare this to the deflation of 10 prominent common stocks
listed on the stock exchange:

Jan. 6,
1929 1932
High Close
United States Steel --------------------------. $262.00 $ 40.00
Sears, Roebuck ------------------------------ 181.00 32.00
Radio Corporation --.----------------------- 115.00 6.00
American Sugar ----------------------------- 95.00 37.00
General Motors ------------------------------- 92.00 22.00
General Electric ------..... ------------------ 101.00 24.00
Montgomery Ward ------------------------- 157.00 9.00
American Tel. & Tel. Co. --------------------- 310.00 115.00
National Cash Register -----.. ---------------- 149.00 8.00
Cities Service -------- ------------------- 68.00 6.00







These most substantial industries suffered a depreciation averag-
ing 80 percent; their loss is almost three times that of the farm or
land owner, yet their loss is much less than the farm equipment in-
dustry.

Take a look at the terrible loss of the implement manufacturers. I
am listing eight of the large implement companies, showing loss in
common stock values in the past two and a half years.

Jan. 6,
Previous 1932
High Close
Allis Chalmers --------------.-.... ----..-___ $ 85.00 $12.00
J. I. Chase Co. .------ ---------------. 363.00 35.00
Deere & Co. ____...-------------....-_____ 162.00 10.00
Int'l. Harvester Co. ------------.------._ ------ 142.00 23.00
M3inn.-Moline --. ------ ------------------- 52.00 2.00
3Iassey-Harris .----- ...--------------------. 98.00 4.00
Oliver F. E., Co. ...-----... ---... ... ______--_ 65.00 1.00
Caterpillar Tractor Co..... ----- ___--- __.---. 88.00 13.00

Taken as a whole the loss averages 90 percent. I cannot learn of
any other industry suffering such loss. The total market value in
1928 and 1929 was $1,301,278,072.00; the market value on January 6,
1932, is $164,758,187,00, a loss of over a billion dollars.
While the stock prices of 1928 and 1929 were high, the stocks were
bought by thousands of investors and employes of the companies.
These stocks are listed on the stock market and can be bought at
the 90 percent discount from the high. If anyone thinks they are
making a profit on farm machinery, then get in on these low-priced
shares. The facts are they are still suffering a loss, and the thous-
ands of employes that are large consumers of farm products are cut
out of the privilege of buying millions of dollars worth of the products
of the farm.

It is hardly reasonable that the farmer can look to the implement
industry to help him out of this depression. The farm industry is 28
percent in the mud and the implement industry is 90 percent in the
mire, or up to its neck.

The people of the United States spend as much money for education
annually as all the rest of the peoples of the earth, $2,500,000,000.
Has 25,000,000 students in public schools, 2,100,000 in private schools
and 800,000 in universities.









"The total weight of the mailings of newspapers and periodicals as
second-class matter at the pound rates of postage and free in the
county of publication during the fiscal year was 1,593,522,696 pounds.
an increase of 42,703,510 pounds, or 2.75 percent, over the mailings for
the previous year. The postage collected on the mailings at the
pound rates amounted to $27,812,037.80. This was a decrease of $4,-
836,743.55, or 14.81 per cent, as compared with the previous year and
$6,708,896 less than the postage which would have been chargeable
on the same mailings at the rates in effect during the previous year.

"The advertising portions of publications subject to the zone rates
mailed during the year weighed in the aggregate 584,407,761 pounds,
on which $14,159,300.01 was collected, making the average for these
portions 2.4 cents a pound. The weight of the reading portions of
such publications was 688,934,311 pounds, and the postage collected
thereon amounted to $10,342,591.47.

It finds that all the morning and evening daily papers in the
United States have an average circulation of more than 40,000,000,
which is an increase of 36 percent since 1921, and an average of 28,-
000,000 copies of Sunday papers is sold every week. The circulation
of periodicals has also mounted rapidly, contrary to the impression
of some, and now all such publications sell a total of 120,000,000
copies of each of their issues, which is almost one for every person
in our population under the new census, including illiterates and
infants.

This branch of the general publishing business does a total busi-
ness of $2,500,000,000 a year, gives employment to an army of 133,797
persons and has an annual payroll of $249,995,591. Of the 1949 daily
newspapers in the country, about 300 are so called chain newspapers,
under 40 different proprietary chains. At least a tendency to group
proprietorship in the magazine field is recorded.




In April, 1931, there was $4,653,394,640 in circulation or a per
capital average of $37.32. In March money in circulation totaled $4,-
607,913,610, a per capital figure of $37, which was the same as April,
1930. The lowest per capital circulation in recent years was in June,
1914, when it dropped to $34.92 and the lowest on record in January,
1879, when it dropped to $16.92.










The statement showed that total money in the country amounted to
.,,6S2,294,732 on April 30, an increase of $84,000,000 over March and
:in increase of $341,000,000 over April, 1930.

The total gold of the country held by the treasury, Federal Reserve
Ba::k. and Federal Reserve agents amounted to $4,725,583,973.



There are over 20,000,000 telephones in the United States, one for
very six Americans. The radio is only about twelve years old, and
there are nearly 15,000,000 sets in this country. The radio moved up
to popularity quicker than any other invention.

The committee on the Costs of Medical Care reports that capital in-
vestment in our 7000 hospitals amounts to more than $3,000,000,000.
Investment per bed ranges from $2500 to 10,000.

Since 1920, there have been six influenza epidemics in the United
States, causing 250,000 deaths.

In 1929 thewe were transported by the railroads of the United
States 2,427,000,000 tons of revenue freight and 780,000,000 passeng-
ers. A total of over $25,000,000,000 has been invested in the proper-
ties of these carriers. They employ some 1,700,000 persons who re-
ceive yearly wages of nearly three billion dollars.
Since 1916 American railroads have in creased their gross earnings
75 percent, capital only 13 percent and their outstanding common
stocks only 4 percent. They have expended billions of dollars from
earnings and capital to increase property accounts and operation ef-
ficiency.

Comparative Importance of Silver and Other Commodities
(Based on world production in 1929 and prices during first week of
April, 1931.)
Relative
Crop Production Value Value
Wheat, Bu. .----------- 4,169,000,000 $2,500,000,000 100.0
Cotton, bales-------------- 26,200,000 1,340,000,000 53.6
Sugar, Lbs..------------- 60,000,000,000 789,000,000 31.9
Copper, Lbs.------------- 3,800,000,000 370,000,000 14.8
Rubber, Lbs.-.---....---- 4,446,000,000 312,000,000 12.5
Silk, Lbs. -------------- 108,433,000 281,000,000 11.25
Coffee, Lbs. -------- 3,000,000,000 165,000,000 6.8
Silver, Oz... ..........-- 261,715,000 73,300,000 2.93







One-third of World's Water Power

Is Developed in the United States


The United States at the end of 1930 had developed water power
of 14,885,000 horsepower out of an estimated potential capacity of
38,000,000 horsepower, according to a statement of the United States
Geological Survey, June 30. Developed water power in the United
States comprised considerably more than half of the entire total deve-
lopment of North and South Americas, while potential capacity of the
United States is approximately one-third of the total of the two con-
tinents.
Developed water power of the world at the end of 1930 totaled 46,-
000,000 horsepower, an increase of 100 percent in a decade, the Sur-
vey said.

The statement of the Survey follows in full text:

The capacity of the water wheels in the constructed plants of the
world, according to estimates made by the United States Geological
Survey, Department of the Interior, was 23,000,000 horsepower in
1920, 29,000,000 horsepower at the end of 1923, 33,000,000 horsepower
at the end of 1926, and 46, 000,000 horsepower at the end of 1930, an
increase during the last four years in Europe has slightly exceeded
that in North America. Outside of the United States the greatest in-
cresaes in constructed plants have been in Italy, Japan, Canada, Ger-
many, Switzerland, Austria and Sweden. A large percentage increase
is also shown by New Zealand, Mexico, Brazil and India.

These estimates are based on information available in the United
States Geological Survey, and for many countries the estimates of
capacity of installed water wheels are based on data collected a year
or more ago. The estimates for the United States and Canada are
corrected to Jan. 1, 1931.

The estimates of potential water power are based on ordinary low
water and an efficiency of 70 percent in the plants. The installed
capacity of machinery at constructed plants averages two to three
times the potential power under-conditions of low flow, and this ac-
counts for the fact that in some countries the installed capacity equals
or exceeds the estimated potential power.








Recapitulation-Africa: Developed, 33,000; potential, 19D,000,000;
Asia. developed, 4,000,000; potential, 71,000,000; Europe: developed,
IS,400,000; potential, 56,000,000; North America, developed, 21,000,-
000; potential, 69,000,000; Oceuanica: developed, 370,000,000; potential,
17,000,000; South America: developed, 900,000; potential, 44,000,000;
approximate total: Developed, 40,000,000; potential, 447,000,000.

Rapidly increasing demands for'electric power in the United States
will necessitate the establishment of many more pover projects, it
'was stated orally Just 21 at the engineering division of the Federal
Power Commission.

Already estimated at a value of $12,250,000,000, the plants and
equipment of the electric light and power industry represented by
this sum are now serving 24,627,900 customers, who are increasing so
rapidly that unless the industry expands more within the next 10
years a shortage may result, it was pointed out.


LEADING HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS
(Installed Capacity in Horsepower)
Massena Point Dam, St. Lawrence (projected)..-----.---- 2,200,000
Boulder Dam (building_ ..- ---------------------- 1,000,000
Schoellkopf Station, American Niagara--- ....-.-- 480,000
Conowingo Dam, Susquehanna River..-..--..--.------ ... 378,000
Wilson Dam, Muscle Shoals ...__- ...- -- ---- .-.. 260,000
Qucenstown-Chippawa, Canadian Niagara -. .------- 565,000
fBeauharnois Canal, St. Lawrence (building) ------------ 500,000
Dnieper River, Russia (building)--...-- ............ .. 800,000
Proposed installation at Massena Point is larger than Boulder Dam,
Schoelikopf Station, Conowingo, and Muscle Shoals combined.



The first survey ever made of retail business in the United States
by the department of commerce, shows that we have 1,549,168 stores,
or an average of 12.6 for each thousand inhabitants. They do a
business (1929 figures) of $50,033,850,729, or an average per store
of $32,293. Every person in the United States purchases an average
of $407.52, making the family budget average $1,250 to $2,000 a year,
according to how many people in it. This is a pretty high standard
of living. Lots of people don't make that much money a year to
spend, while others make considerable more. It costs more to live
it some states than in others. New York and California per capital
retail sales are largest; Rhode Island's, smallest.








Florida's Waterways Benefit Greatly

By Aid from Federal Government



(By RUTH BRYAN OWEN)
To Those who are interested in the development of the harbors and
waterways of Florida there is much of interest and encouragement in
a review of the Federal projects' now in process of construction or in
line for early development along the eastern Seaboard of the Florida
peninsula.

If it were possible to review at the same time the work which has
already been undertakne by the people of Florida at their own ex-
pense the total would be far more impressive. It is my hope to pre.
pare during the few weeks a review of all the expenditures on the
part of private interests, communities, counties and port districts,
which are eloquent evidence of the faith which the people of Florida
have in the future of their own state. The millions of dollars which
they themselves have already expended will make an impressive show-
ing when placed beside the considerable appropriation which has
been allotted to river and harbor development in Florida by the Fed-
eral Government.

The improvements in the St. Johns River from Jacksonville to the
Ocean represent an appropriation of $1,036,697 and the development
of the inland waterway from Jacksonville to Miami is set down in the
recent list of Federal expenditures in Florida as $1,296,952.

The new turning basin in Miami harbor represents an expenditure
of $262,951.

The dredging of the Inlet into Ft Pierce harbor will be carried out
at the cost of $23,982.

Improvements in the St. Johns River from Jacksonville to Lake
Harney will total $39,290 and in the Lake Okeechobee drainage area
there are rivers and harbors improvements to the sum of $786,777.

There is allotted to the St. Augustine harbor $1,500 and to the
Key West harbor $27,680 and to the Kissimmee River $1,969.








The annual harbor maintenance at Hollywood represents an appro-
priation of $44,0000 and maintenance work in the Jacksonville district
s19,500. The new waterbrcak in Key West harbor will be constructed
at a cost of $180,000.

The largest single item in the Federal program is the Okeechobee
project which carries an appropriation of $6,000,000. Although this
project provides a much needed flood control of waters of
Lake Okeechobee, it is in effect also an inland waterway construction
for this project will provide for improvements in the St. Lucie canal
from the Atlantic ocean to Lake Okeechobee to connect with a deep-
ened channel around the south edge of the Lake and additional im-
provements from Lake Okeechobee to the Caloosahatchee River to the
Gulf of Mexico, furnishing in effect a cross-state canal.

Not only the agricultural and industrial development of Florida
will be advantageously affected by these improvements but the
yachts and pleasure craft which find their way in such numbers to
Florida waters will find in the improvements represented by this
present construction program many added facilities which will make
their cruising a source of greater pleasure and interest.




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