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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
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 Acknowledgement














Group Title: Bulletin. New Series
Title: Drainage and water control in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003064/00001
 Material Information
Title: Drainage and water control in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 28 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Drainage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1931."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003064
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3569
ltuf - AMF8104
oclc - 41435329
alephbibnum - 002452799
 Related Items
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Acknowledgement
        Page 28
Full Text



te() -torl, 19!:1


DRAINAGE


AND


WATER CONTROL


IN FLORIDA


By
Ralph Stoutamire


CN- 111"


State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee


Bulletin No. 51


New~ Series






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nath an Mayo. (Commnissioner of Agric'ulture .
T. T. Brooks, Assistant Commissiouner
'Phi] S. Taylor. Slpervising Inspector


Tallahassee

Tallahassee
Taliahassee


CONTENTS


Page
History of Iand D drainage .. .3............................................ 3
Future Development of Water Control .... .............. 5
State and Federal Projects ...... ........ ................................... ......
Need for Drainage and Water Control ..... ...6. ................... 6
Im plortanee of Soil Aeration ..... .... ........... ......... ........ ..
Factors A ffectinLg Soil W after ........................ ....... ....................... 9
Run-off Considerations for Isolated Projects ......1....... ....... 11
Soil Factors Involved in Irrigation and Drainage .................. 13
S oil an d its F orm action ....................... ..... ................................ 13
S ubsidence of O( rgan ic Soils ..4. ................................ ............................. 14
C classification of S oils ............................ ......... ...... ...... ... 14
K inds of Soil M oisture .... ................. .............. .. . ,. .... ............ 15
Methods of Controlling Gravitational Water ................ ..... 17
The "Mole" Type of Under-I)rai ....18
F lat L and D rainaoe ................................ .. .. ................. .. 19
E conom ies of L and I)rainage ............................. ... .... .................. .... 20
Development of Pumping Machinery ........................ 21
"Flukkus" Type of' Pum p ... ............... ...... ........... ......... 21
The Cham ber W heel Pum p .......... .... .................... ............ 22
Centrifugal Pumps .................22
H iih-Head (entrifugal Pum ps .... ..... ....... ............... 23
Selection of Centrifugal Pumps ...................... ...... ........... 23
Centrifugal Pumps for Low-Lift ut ...... ......... 24
H horizontal Centrifugal Pum ps ................ .. ........ . .. ................. 25
Horizontal and Vertical Screw Pumps ................................... 25
Portable Screw Pump IUnits .. ........................... 26
S auction and D discharge P ipes ............ ...................... .......................... 27
Sources ofi Power for Pumpi ng U'nits ........ ........... ........ 28
A know ledgm ents ................ ... ....... .29






Drainage and Water Control

in Florida

By RALPH STOUTAMIRE



D 1)4 I isAlG a' Ili st eriii I t'f t 1 1ow I Ild I i 4,t* 1111' 11111-01

tit'; i111 1 wil il s 1 144' it In oledIII4'44'' ".1ii;II I rltll I il' 1 I 1)14'
4,111,1-a I cr pI III .(evvif-al llil? eaf arva Id II .1,1 i illaIr V.llliT'i iit\

of'I4 le "oil 1 1 m il limbit \ Iof a ll4411 1114414 I" 1441 "iiltliv *11 iii,

1;t'laf'e 1 111lii' ma'111 '11 tI'44111c tilld i : 41 '' thi1 ..iI I, p ,1



14i'llI I1( 111 141 ('II' th..( 11 1l' J44l ii ,4' lI Ilii 11 44 ; I'_..l 11114 .;1 ; 1 '4 444)4)li
N\V1111114.; UV4'I'IIIW 441'11 4111;1) IIIl) (.- f ll (it m) 111fo111t I
to1141 IliJ 144 1p44)1i III'. 111A 1 .1" \11 11411 1 4 ('Ill) 1)441 144 2I'44'41 II 4'1 14'
I I t w 4 4 li. I I I I I I I I I I I I 11 1 1' \v ; I t 1, ; I I I I I I I I I I I 'I.()(I) I













HISTORY OF LAND DRAINAGE



11 124' I x't .l. ill 4''. it I v'.4.1)' j I I I' III 1) 1, 11 Ii a 4 14214''1111tol 11 p ,li
I II II tIl I') f411 I44 1 4 1)". I II Iu IIIfIII. I aI1 1 '

I I'I IC. v' 1 4 t. f4 1 1 111411 ~ i t I I I44L I I Il 1 ii 14 '1141 111- I V I I r, 4I I











1,jIIII* I f lllitlI';II 511114' 144.1 \'44'l t44 1 l 1 111t I I. I q ;I4 i s II114
44 a l~lld hi 4, n'411)" f)4"-Si li4I4.] \X14 l IsIs I VI 1114' '441IW 44 M 4 11' 111I2 '.







IDEP~ARTM>%ENTI OF)1 A(; ICI'LURFIE


statute laws have been passed from time to time whereby a
majority of landowners might combine for constructing the
ditches and drains needed for mutual drainage and force an
unwilling minority to join in the enterprise and pay its share
of the cost. Few' legislatures have met in the last 50 years
without the passage of one or more acts or amendments to the
drainage law, to the end that the land owners might more easily
reclaim their lands.






C. ,--^r











Fig. 1. Exterior view of Hillsboro pumping station of South Florida Con-
servancy District near Belle Glade

Former governorr N. B. Broward is clearly entitled to the
credit for starting Everglades reclamation, and practically all
drainage and water control of muck and peat land in Florida
date back to llhe program of Everglades drainage launched by
him in 1904, following the transfer of title in 1903, of over
20,000,000 acres of such lands to Florida by the federal govern-
ment. The status of land drainage in Florida in 1920 is indi-
cated below, and these figures need little revision to bring them
to date.
Total area, acres 35,111,040
Total acres in far s ........ ....... .......... .... 6,046,691
Total acres improved ...... 2.297,271
Acres provided with drainage ..... 147,940
Needing drainage ...... ... ....... .. .. 687,021
Tnreelaimted swamp and overflowed lands
in acres .17.900.000






I)l\IX.\(;E .\ I) W A.\TER ('()NTll(l.


FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CONTROL
If is difficult t1 I'rei.i .st the ihvrloplll lil (it' \ later .,ilitlld ill
this state, bll t i s is r'liilil ltd thilit i nl Ille I \'ver U. ll'dldes alolll
3f)(0.00() ic'r s will i, reviliiied dl riiiir lihe n'xl 10 w al.rs. This
prill ictioii is li);.std nill th ii d ,illm lstrail l t'i t that \\with \wa;ler
onlltrol suiig r tl. iii alnd olli,'r (i')ips a;lln li "'i-mtVii sinll''ss'ully
ill tli is vast area.
S il.c 1 ir' li I F ei d i lts I'n ilstil lie lp irl xliimillll "1 11filllll. (1
iX'1 r s 4if thie ti l.;ll 17.!ill .l lII) ;is0 af Itll r cli liille' ln l l iil ill Thel
stilt'. ;1 lil''.' I it lar e li' ilis llssinli ill llis bulltill w ill dlel il
w ill \\t ;llr i' litrl iii ll i i' lr i ,_iii IT hi U_ il' r.if' l i'iii 'il>l s ('it'
dIlI 'lill ;]i,_,l ;l ld \\V 11 |' I ,e ill ,i ii1". ;11 il l ,i';ll1' it lil l I ;i ll s .
aI''';l' Ill itit tli ,'i, 'l 11iii iii u llt a \ il 'l' '.iil l t ld t Ibis lid-
Ti '' pilr : I r| ir:]
















Fig. 2. Gladcview Dra nage District pumps: Left. 48x18-inch Mengce; right.
54.inch Wood screw pornp. In the foregrcound is shown the type of removable
flashboard dam used to facilitate movement of dredging equipment.

STATE AND FEDERAL PROJECTS


i l'1i r;ll i (id f '\ i ii'el lII-. il i lie l 111 ll l 1 ct i,,ll t le. \l l i i, s'll'

illssilie illi S I ll shoi iilI l i |al in> Ii | I'l ;l llt t l' r Hl ;l
illil '. rill 'l, l r111, I' liyli.- lHll ;d, ,ll i ;litllhl ,'lit v i ~l ]I,'

hill ;1 tia il,;i il illii \; ll -1 1 ', il i tri ill 'i \ t l lru Iti l .ivit|r I ill,,\

I"lh llli'i st |i ir ''l f Ithis kiil ill lth slilt is It l ;tetl ill i lL
t\''"|'ldil ,s. It i-s ii;lh i..sf ili 1n lhrji lih l r l \o r'l1 ;iies )illilli
;l'_<* D isl ri'l ;|s \\ l! :l- llilllir 'rli!ii s lii l]: e']| r >1. l-d r ,l~.l I; L- l rll ts






DEPARTMENT OF AGHICF'LTLIIE


throughout the state. (See Figure 1.) The control of the
water of Lake (keechohee is an immense task, meriting federal
attentionl and assistance. Recently the United States appropri-
ated $7,000,000 for the purpose of more effectively controlling
this great inland body of water, very largely with a view to
preventing any recurrence of the disasters of 1926 and 1928.

















Fig. 3. Pumping station near Clewiston. Note the overhead spray irrigation
system in the background.

Water control is just as necessary for successful farming in
certain areas of the state as cash registers, computing scales
and other modern business machines are to the successful mer-
chan t or business organization. Therefore, tlhe individual farmer
will often want to, and he compelled to provide his own local
water control system. even though the state and federal govern-
mnentl establish and maintain tlie larg-er general system.

NEED FOR DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL
Many vegetable crops, such as eggplant, beans, tomatoes,
potatoes, etc., suffer for moisture when the soil water-table is
: or more feet below the surface. Field observations have
shown repeatedly that the water-table is often lower than 3
feet during winter when the greatest amount of Florida's vege-
tables are being grown. Moreover, crops on such soils, whether
muck or peat in the Everglades or mineral soil elsewhere, show
evidence of injury from lack of water. Many irrigation sys-
tems have been installed, in order to prevent the loss from such
conditions. Figure 3 illustrates a large overhead irrigation








S.sX ll,- ll ll 'll- Hreh l I.Ill\ Il ,'.r il' t l I t',n lI | ill
lIr\ r 'cor-'dl. awra ;l ilabl el ; I l, th ] d [l lh \i 'ter-tlabl.
i ..'c4s. il'" r ey t l 'ipir l,' llff i'ic ,ll l IIniisilli' f'(r ) l;ill g]'()\O tll in1
Ill ll |x t'ilt til l lllin I'r;l nilc s ill I lh ti wt,. I ll,, ,'v \ t l i lr l
lH hI lt l> 1114 lll. 1 i 'rl ill tion llll;l ill i c lll n.11 till \ 1h r 1111 ,rr 'I

II' l)e tlll atllli lll Ii l I' 1 r rIll l \\ ilt'r-l ill1l.. TlIhI t"., I I l'\ I N i-

tIl Ir '. 'l ;I i ;11~\. ll i.;lc .l l i \\1' .Ir 1hll \\;l r-r-t Il hil \\i ;|

\ ilhilln 1 l 1'o i,' l4 O w l il 'il e 111. lh 1; lr | l l l fs '11l',l l'rii i t )l n I IlII.II

I Ili li rthi lr, l ; I l\ ; tlr .vr .\ l \ l li;nI .il .4-. l ir .\ lllrt t ; t |l-, .
-I,, l,. r v| l Il .. - I i l, I, .l I| | < I if I I, I HI A,.T ;I I ] Li L, l I I il -
l;i ,r, l l' 1 i ;I I, Wi l 'l N t i || | I "| | ',1 ,- 1 I


Fag. 4. Grove irrigation by bringing, the water through underground
pipes. releasing it through surface hydrants (see insert upper right) and
finally distributing it through open furrows. This outlet is the latest in sur.
face irrigation.


I)1{A\I\A(;I A I) VATE ('()XT OL.





S DEPARTMENTT OF AG(RI('I'L'ITRE
















Fig. 5. Young avocado grove protected against drought by overhead spray
irrigation. This project is located on over.drained, high, pine land which
would be worthless without this protection.

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL AERATION
Inl the iaverael' well-drained mineral soil the pore spaces
amounllt to approximately 5.0 percent by volume of the total
volume, and of this half' 25 percent is filled with capillary
water and tle remainingi 25 percent is air. The )proportion of
atler would he muc11h greater l than tlis in organic soils.
The combination of water, oxygen and solid matter in the
soil I'frnishes the l food and energY for tile countless soil )ac-
teria and filnli which live in the soil. The activity of these
ioraniisms depends on the prope, r balance of these soil con-
stitulents. Ili a large Ileasulre these orlgallislls prepare and
make available plant food directly or indirectly. If the soil is
wet there is little oxygen and, as a result, thie soil bacteria pro-
dutce substances undeisirable and injurious to higher plants.
HIence a soil must be aerated or ventilated for best results.
Drainage removes excess water, lets air and oxygen into the
soil and ventilates it. Iain water in percolating through the
soil producesll an aeration process that is beneficial. As the
water passes downward in the earth, fresh air is drawn in to
repilae the water. The changes in the pressure of the at-
mosphere froi day to day also assist ill ventilating the soil.
This aeration process is essential for all productive soils. On
the other hand there (an be too much aeration, and too great
a solution effect on the plant food elements in the soil. which
imay result in depleted fertility. This is illustrated by many
of)' 1lie opell sallndy soils iin the state.






FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL WATER
Ol f' ill ti' lit ic u'ii l rl \hi liff' l l Sci llill w ti)ll' lpre illlittio (j riill-
1';ll. is ,i 0111 ,t tin,. i .,t iill ,,rtitl. l.\ I l, dhim ,otf I)'a il)it -.
li rol. illdlii t ;illi| li'TS wrili ktiolr i'T h ,,t |irhia;ry illg ]'itllt t' is t00-,
ri'illTr ) l il ll i llinl '_r \\1) i <. T ] le I'l ill''l" i | 'ldlllr ll is |I>'l-
initrik\ llv ron I ) ;7l l i<, 1 ,x<.eess \v';i1 r ;inl l 1t t iliiI of 114,, (h d
\\vato 1 11' lo liis 1(I ;ilvil il rvllr r orids ri i ng- 1 i i-oty. hor Is


11 11
t:UI:








LTi~i C:.i


l: nzs





7A:i'A


nT PIBkCE





ACA III

L-t
WCll


A:;URIM


il111
S.A**: S~tX:




ill lilht
i: 'S.:.5,





ld il


Fig. 6. These graphs show the average monthly rainfall at various weather
bureau stations in Florida. The first bar in each group is for January, the
last one for December.

iillilp ii I t ,, r i till;l. Ill, ri -il, t'fr'l Ills kIll,\ l\Vl o pi e-
,'ri! it titon chilli. rl, t v, l ,t I t' O n 111lli, l ll lo 1' i1 ,'' ;lvl'l il lb le (ifr
tlhe i llolill II t I(.} l 'i 'lll(v d 1i ilirco n llY t' tilili t'ld illn' i )P ji,]'
w ill i' ;i t'f lit tl b''ll;r*l l' ;I11, lev lfll it, e I'll, illfl' lli I ll n st i l l llilliL \w ater, 1 vllftr l
,V -s+i llls,


I)IN.\l (;1' \NI) \\ATVIEIv' CONTHI






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTI'EI


There are about 45 official weather stations at various points
in Florida. lThe records from these stations furnish a large
fund of valuable and important information to agricultural in-
terests of the state. Through cooperative efforts of the United
States Weather Bureau and the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion of the University of Florida at Gainesville a summary of
the records of these stations has been compiled and published
in Bulletin 200 of the Florida Experiment Station. the authors
being A. .1. Mitchell. meteorologist of the United States
Weather Bureau, and M. R. Ensign. truck horticulturist of the
Florida Experiment Station. This bulletin provides a valuable
guide in determining the run-off co-efficient necessary on the
various drainage projects in all parts of the state. The Experi-
ment Station at Gainesville will send free copies of this bulle-
tin to those who request it. Figure 6 shows the monthly pre-
cipitation of several points in the state.
In the ease of land drainage tie excessive precipitation
which occurs during comparatively short intervals of time take
on great importance. Thle best criterion for judging future
precipitation is the occurrence of past precipitation. If reli-
able records were available for a period of several hundred
years, it would be possible to make satisfactory Iredictions as
to the maximum and miniinum amounts of rainfall which might
occur in the future and the fre(quicy of occurrence of a storm
of given intensity. unfortunately. such records are not avail-
able and it is necessary to introduce a factor of safety in the
assumptions based upon) available records. Until quite recent-
ly little attention has been given to the duration. intensity, and
distribution of precipitation at different points within storm
areas.
After the famous Dayton (Ohio) flood of 1913. a conservancy
district was formed in order to set up control works that would
forever remove the possibility of recurrence of such a disaster.
Arthur E. Morgan was placed at the head of the engine ering
staff of the Miami (Ohio) conservancyy District. Under his
direction a survey was made of tile records of :1.054 weather
bureau stations located east of the 103 meridian. Precipitation
prior to 1870 was not considered in the final study. From these
studies of storms, data have been taken which are applicable
to Florida. Below are listed the excessive rainfalls experi-
enced during periods from two hours to six days since records
have been available in Florida.
The maximum rainfall records for that part of Florida in-







)I\lNA(l E ANI) WATIEH (CONTROL 11

eluded betweeVn thel 25th and 27t1h parallel north and tlhe 79th
and H1st inerlihan west for lthe last 40 ears are:

Rainfall
Period In I ncles
2 hours 6.11
1 da .. *15.10
2 davs ... .... .. 15.40
3.... 19.10
4 "* 21.20
:5 22.00
i 22.50
Corrected to 193I).

Studies by thlie M Iliii ('inservain.v 1)istrit show that the
'probable llxililllllu am l ounlt (t preilpitatiluon to l e expectt'd in
Holornida duliiiii' periods ti'iii i)lt to) six days will tre' ir only
olice atil y rly inteirvals a. slown ll how:

Maximum Precipitation
S' in ire ill police ill ()nce Il
I.ri, 1 17rs r' h i 41 e'il r 1i00 l ya .rs
1 day" 9.7 in -ls _.-' inches 11.5 inches 15.1 inches
2 days Hi.s 12.: 14. 15.7
2. I 13. *" 15..I 17.2
S1 .5 14.5 15.1 18
SI.: 15.1; 17.5 19.1
; 1i. 1 .\ 20.1)


RUN-OFF CONSIDERATIONS FOR ISOLATED PROJECTS

l -Iall'se of 1111i ilew ilu (It' tinh' oillitrY aind a lack of full
illillrst'ialiluiig of all (' o i li l ilnkn ns there is a wide diversity
ot" opillioln It-'c.lding tlit' proper runI-off c(o-officient to apply on
dlift'er'el it iz arils. IHowevir, o)llservat l(ios have been miade
dliu'itiL ille last five e -ars. that \would illicate the general trend
of' requir'eiillnts lon peat lands. Thi small, isolated( trart of land
is iiunder a distinct disadvanilag since ipe al and i mck dykes are
ratlier mist;il)] b arrirs to lo tie low of wNatr'. T'l'e clement of
s't.'epag'e is mniuith bxa.n"l'it'lelt by t1l fact that the' )erii(ueter of
tiie piece Iof lainl is extremely high iln proportion to the land
that it inelos-. "'For example, tihe perini'eter of a 20-acre tract
is 3.960 feet while ilth perinic'ter of a 6n(40-acre tract is only
21,120 feet or a ralli of 5.34 to 1. Tlhe ratio of the areas is
640 to 20 or 32 to 1. 'ro'ii this compllarison it is apparent that
the length of (tdyke inclosing a tract of land has a very definite
influence on the seep(uage to be e',xpeted.






12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

When this 20-acre tract of land is included in a drainage dis-
trict having a systematically designed water control plan, the
element of seepage is of but small moment. Observations made
at Hialeah during the overflow of October, 1929, and a check
of the records of one of the large drainage districts in the
Everglades during 1930 indicate that the seepage factor is
negligible when a substantial dyke is built. The failure of
drainage district pumping units to maintain control has, in
nearly all cases, been traceable to weaknesses developed in the
dyke system. This is the most vulnerable part of any reclama-
tion plan in the Everglades. Safe dykes can be built and main-
tained at a comparatively small additional expense and the
benefits derived therefrom are many times this small added
cost.



0 -------- i -----so -


Is
r _ ; -










solated Area Drained Acres
-C










Fig. 7. Preliminary estimates of pumping capacity in terms of equivalent
run-off in 24 hours on small isolated areas within the Everglades.

Preliminary observations of pumping requirements for iso-

graphically in Figure 10. The run-off co-efficient shown on this
chart is plotted from data gathered over a period of only five
years and consequently lacks positive authority and should be
100 2M .300 400 Soo 600 700 600 900 1000
Isolated Area Drained Acres




consider. 7. Prelimid as anary estimate of pumping capacity in terms of equivalen e
posed trun-off in 24 hours on small isolated areas within the Evergladesithin rat




close limits and this graphic presentation may be taken as a
Preliminary servations of p pi requirements for iso-
lated areas varying in size from 10 to 1.000 acres are shown
graphically in Figure 10. The run-off co-efficient shown on this
chart is plotted from data gathered over a period of only five
years and consequently lacks positive authority and should be
considered as an estimate only. Projects that have been ex-
posed to maximum rainfall conditions seem to fall within rather
close limits and this graphic presentation may be taken as a
preliminary guide.








SOIL FACTORS INVOLVED IN IRRIGATION AND
DRAINAGE
Tilt- prinlililY p)il1p s o f o ldr lilge an (d wiir Oili ol li s 1r0ii
i.ir' y -1 t o x. ss \v Il. iI t, ,ilt i w h ich is llill'jur i s t) plill
-,r', 141 Tr hi li v Il i it illp~ pli h .l Iyl- t h if t lisr 11' sollic f'otill
WI IIll ll i -d 1 it ill i r IlI,, li I iti llth, I 'lh 1 1 r f ll i t.i r ii. l d IIlt',I lio .I
l lr Ii I itl, h ,l l -I i t, ;1 Ir t1 l, 1 1 'I l t ll', tr i h l i.iIl ill l oitv. ili l
, I' t le 1il l 1l r iipil lpli ll. lltI'. it 1i.. l I' p ssil' y l'c r tllr e lli-
1iir 'r 1) i iilr .ii .'ilil tin' 1 s hillr 0 il' so il phy. i t., lite'fof 1 h lei
lilt elli ,nl ly dtl si'_'l;l drilll vli'. t systll ll. W hllil ..iill ph|yvsi s is
a1 verY w ide fichli. 11 1i evid l1 li h it i]ly I I V ,v lilt- i l l(l i irtailit
ellh t l. ".irll 1, dl i ti ,lls ilt ; lh ,l i ri ,lr lt'i 'I til I I Ill It'
' l 'I \,iv i li l ,il i ll .ij i I 1 l lilli ll i l r ll iI s tli l ,i," w hIIn 'li -h 1iili] I i \ ill .\ r ill ii ;l.i r tP i-i. i, ', s lili'1 irI .

SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
S illcer .il mniile nl illn .ril l, lilI''i ;i s diri l li ',,ks Il ii rii
hll\i li r11 1ti illl1 1 l1- ril led \ ll[ *.i, r.il .i n'1 il, ii vlllp .,'t< li\
(l. 1-i lli c'l fi 11., iI 1 1 a llli i l \1 v w ilhl Ill l'r Ill'r\ \\(1 ll4l iv \p rl'.l|ed to \1;v i I ll p li/.J i I;ill \\l i l l s li' ll c r ill
l)Ipro t 'l it'S.
A\ l;irO. iillj.iill'ily ll'ii ille'l l .l lr i Iave l rl Ol lr ive'd fl iill
lllillriills w hicl h llvh lii <' ll 1r ill l 'ltr l b. \\illi|. Winlt r iilli
n ;lll r Vi l,_'llii -. I 4l n, 114t lln .\ ;iir n l' ti tr;ilitir li i l .ollali ill
itn llllill'll li l \. .1 S \ ;lni illl li ll 'l ].,il- hll ,, t I ll,. I d tl ri\l'v l

llipt| lviioLIs lill "rr11 li li( silr;llil. .\ liir re par' t ol' tilt fli lw omx i
of F1 1' lri 1i i is, int llrwl i t \\ Iith Ii li I-r i lir i l-l i i I ol' (tc li\
sll ll ll ll i ll. > l1 i 1 'F Ilhv \v >1h1 '.i i ll I'ti litn., a I ill' s lili-perillii; il t'
Il \\1 it\ ]' W\ llt i affocl,' i le. tfl il I\l ll .I r'+l l i'] 4l.y> l ll a i 111lli I 1" ill'
1\ i l i vl tI I ,1 ,11 p nil'. i1 ly 1- I' .I il l t I il lli( I I I'llla t l NI I InI

i1r-ie n it'll ( d it 'liIt' .
''i Ip eat sol ils l' t lt .vi rl' ailld s Ihlilve I ill t'l'llli'(I llyV ilit l -
lIillit II hII l vii i I u 'i l 'r ,Iss ;iId \vi il w l. v \ .'C '1ilt iii (I ]lill I)p rio' i t ( i yti, s: lirlii' il i sl i ltiloV ill' lls ;iltnd q)oiliyV
ill llltlll'i '. ''llr,\ ll\\ ;il.\ ha lilv ; li, li Wu .ait l.r Iml i lli vlilp l ity .
ill' tilt il'1 l il. le r 1. lilt, oVll tsr ilIIlI lllt I .lra l y l ll \ 'ti lit r
it lio inzltiill\Y. W It'll tlis trmIIl il is l'rol 'll don 'lti l lOW el' ,
h1lior .iil1li l Ill(ov'illi (ll i l' \\;i1l w ii 'll ll. It is (ill these tVP4.s
of' silk1 lhat ile lim i"" 1.\" h'T ill nlr

.\Nl)






IAR'kivr.AlENT O_.F AGRIC11LTFRE


SUBSIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS
Supelrficial drainage such as was the case of the early experi-
mients on the peat and muck lands of the Everglades has re-
sulted in a distinct shrinkage, caused by the drying out and
oxidation of the soil during dry periods with a resultant loss of
volume. If the water can be controlled properly, the shrinkage
will be reduced to a minimum and the soil, at the same time,
made more productive. Since the Everglades is a low, flat
expanse of land having no appreciable natural water courses,
a different problem arises in controlling the water than in many
parts of the United States. The question is not only one of
drainage but also of definite water control.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS
Mineral soils are composed of varying mixtures of clay, silt.
sand, gravel and organic matter and are classified according to
the amounts of these substances which they contain. The defi-
nitions of the more important soil classes are as follows:
1. Sands contain more than 75 percent of sand.
2. Loams contain from 30 to 50( percent of sand and less than
15 percent of clay.
3. Gravelly loams contain from 25 to 50 percent of gravel.
munch sand and little silt.
4. Sandy loams contain from .()0 to 75 l)prcent of sand and
less than 15 p(rcenit of clay.
5. Silt loams contain 50 percent or ilore of silt, less than 15
percent of clay and some sand.
6. (lay loams contain from 15 to 25 percent of clay, much
silt and some sand.
7. Clays contain 25 percent or more of clay and much silt.
8. Mueks contain from 15 to 35 percent of organic matter.
9. Peaty loams contain from 15 to 35 percent of organic
matter, a large amount of sand and a little clay or silt.
10. Peat contains 35 percent or more of organic matter and
sometimes some sand, clay and silt.
The greater the content of clay present in the soil, the slower
the movement of soil water. A knowledge of the texture of the
soil will be of material assistance in laying drainage and irriga-
tion systems.








Some1 "oil ai', lill ra ill'lly piorl v rai r,1 lin. not (onlyl to illhe
aillm lliut iof prI l-i)it till il. Ihu t lt t liItl i' ur of tie Iiiiitle .Ti' iii ll
stlrailaaphay -s. w1il as elevatio11.

The' acomlpaliv-i. ; table cic paI m 1(i) gives ;n ioutlini of,
llf 1of tl li p'ro[perties f Mip"ll ,i alit aligrilll r l soil s o l f- l'.lo.-
il;i. iincl liln.g 11h,4m nIlatiirhilly lrv iiiui l. lHere Ipoor 1riainii.i.
nil] iiIs a W t.er-tlail li of i s l i li ha 1.5) feel fin'il hi, sif1i'e f fior
a1 porlll ll of 111 ,- y 'r1. Solli f1i o |'il;l o 1 t -Iill '_r i, Il1 r".arl 1'or'
the pI|oorly d(r;|iain'|l soils it l lt l i lh.













A.*.
.




















Fig. 8. Small screw type water control pump developed 'at Port Mayaca
Farms. Port Mayaca.

KINDS OF SOIL MOISTURE
A W-4sii i (! sol vililt ii ai 1si llu' ;i l ofilj' j i iiois ir i li s p iligi.
oill thi 1 x li' of soil, littni, l ily i l a ilnid fartorsl 'T'his ItoisNtil't'
is NiIIlli "r to I thIill iM ;il r'- irilt lih y. 'T lhis, i kl li l\\ l ;is l i l'l-ro.
- .opi \\lalll' h;i .l lia 1o vaili, it, plaints. If ;ii -l 'i,. alloiWedl 1o hl.coi.r sallil;led vil I W ,"r Hinll thell ;AlloWed to
liainll, the valit.r ilisorl it, I or itell is knilowin l as apillarYv water.
'lhis is lhe w lat, i lh i 'y phlalis.
S il wv l r. al ovr h tl pl i t "o olill axi ilimii e -.plIIthlly I 'capar itm
and lip T t)lr Io- int ,ot' aI t rall ti onil, i, ,.alh.I L!trl.l hit l lio l wa tllr


1) RA I NA (T 'E ANI) \V.k'l'El, CONTI%'M,








SUMMARIZED CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA SOILS

(10110uut hi re i 'rop
Soil i r SrI' Ibl 'Pries Il ylnicrul ToIItIInq


li (il o ll Ighllt gr 'y WIite

I',: stii i VcI I n l ti', 'i' l l il t i i l

Fellos1111i) Fli' i tio i griy to yi ior l a (i tali
poor 1lluh'1 illoilled

( iilsII (ill (i l l o I 'd lliid ti ('llico iite

llirnluind Fair to YI'llowis Yelliw ind mlottled
guod l grly
I1 Wllil ovr lirowni


Milik 'Poor Uhliik il Ick
'lorfolk ,!(l id ilriy iillow

OU'ktlgelligll 0(l d l lotliilll grnuy i llrilckrNal

l'ailll (i i d l IrownlA groy i Brownish groy

I'orlktmnoll I'iilr Iltik (i y o r lliy


lllo ll Ill khile


S nrlutil lll Illitk I'nle ,lllc '


S'tI ltiie 0( a1 | ',1' ight I lit,


*Iroips iniliiitd ie i tlioh i lio hi grin rio iil thii skills ulI;Issfull


B111dol Plot (Ini, Y1 11)WIS11 1 I)IIII'


I






I

I

I



1.

I


smill I-rn 11111 trilA
81111 11 111111 fa111 lr
li( llive 00 i 1111 ru Belm
rocli Irw o111111 ,6 11P n

lribllc hiollinig MnIl mu livaruick, V

(lar11,11rlls iry, uulimn

kamt m uill c ein mir d
Ilist4k Illlig liunimle 'I'mruk


rliile il i'lli slirlliu l tn l Roll
%lrjjle '1111RIWllpn

Yrlnlulc loll b i luilil winilt I Is I







Iiu
Ph is hi, lyvd ii iI s i
%ri illeriAl

I Holsi'i Corn s'll

Il~lnl lil l (Illelliell s BI I llos
Frin ~mild m Jlcr


I ~Alrsr Iic rl l lorh mo o'l liitr z

sl ll irl; w ere,

Friable I i -iihihiling mll-1111 sIrjw~jjrri j7,

Loos(!e lr Illl l





1)IAAINAG(;E AND WATEI (CONTROL


or free water. This is tie waiter which is injurious to plant
growth and it should he remiove(d Iy drainage. The percentage
of gravitational waiter also varies with the depth below the
sullrfiace. the surface soil under saturated conditions usually
containing a larger amroiint 1uli Ilihe subsoil because ol differ-
ee ce' inl texture.
The iratt ail which gravitational water moves downward
through tlhe soil depends ,on size of the soil particles. size of
pare spaces. gralnulation of the soil, organic matter inl the soil
and opening's in the soil made by cracks. by burrowing of
eartlhwornms, and animals iand iy decayedel roots of plants. In
coarse-giirained soils. percolationr is mcIh more rapid than in
fine-g-rainced soils. notwithstanding the, fact that tihe latter soils
arc more porous.
Rate of pereolat ion is the important I'acor in tile design of
thlie drainage system. Since for different soils it is necessary'
to study the soil strip l ture in eaeh case. a soil auger should he
part of the engineer's field equipmi nt. and samples aof the sub-
surfl'ace and isubsoil should be lakeln at representative places
to determine th11 texture of tice soil studied. It is often pos-
.sible to comlpar'e samplelts ol' the .soil under consideration with
samples taken' froio a field which is satisf'atorilyv drained lby
a system of known depth and spacing of tile or i11,o drain.

METHODS OF CONTROLLING GRAVITATIONAL WATER
The cominoi metthod of water control in low, flat lands is
that of flooding and open ditches. beraulse there is an ever-
pres'ent supply of water thIat can ibe had at a miniumi exlensei'
by installing low-lift pumps and allowing the water to toow
through opet'n ditchesc to thle fields where 'neetled. Another
valuable consideration for this type of water control is the
fact that thie dilches provide e an excellent weatns of removing
excess water ilduriln times of heavy rainfall. The main disad-
vantage of this system is their tendency of raw peat and muck
soils to retain gravitationat] water for periods too long for satis-
factory plant grciwvth under conltinned excessive rainfall. The
list' tof sinIetype of i iid(er-idraill iln conjunction with opien
ditches will overt com this tendsoen.v. Thie effectiveness ol water
control in all parts of the wiorl lias iben increased by the intro-
duction of uinder-draincs it such an extent that this practice
has lbeern accepted acs the most practical yet employed.
One of the mIost important problems from ar agricultural
viewpoint in peat and inuck stils is tle ability to maintain a
unlliforml condition of' soil lnmoistlure. This can only lie accolm-
plished hy coilibininig subsoil drainage and such metthods of






I)ElI'ArT1'EN'l OF AGRI('l'LTI'liE


tillage as will check the loss of water from the soil through
evaporation. Ability to maintain the proper balance between
capillary water and air in the soil hastens soil building pro-
vesses that break down the vertical fibrous structure of peat
and nluck.
THE "MOLE" TYPE OF UNDER-DRAIN
Realizing the importance of very aeeurate control of ground
water in muck and peat soils of the Everglades, Florida agri-
culitural engineers delved back through the experiences of the
past and decided to experiment with the 'mole" method of
sub-irrigation that had been used to some extent many years
ago oin the Disston Sugar Plantation in the Kissinmmee Valley
and in the San .Joaquin Delta region in California. The equip-
ment used at that time was rather crude. buit by applying mod-
ern caterpillar treads and improving tihe mole design, a very
satist'atory piece of machinery resulted. See figures 9. 10
and 11.
















Fig. 9. Early type of "mole" plow. It has been modernized by the use of a
heavy caterpillar carriage.

A powerful tractor is utilized to pull the "mole" through
the relatively soft muck and peat at depths varying from 18
to 42 inches below tlie surface. This opens a drain 5 inches in
diameter through which gravitational waters flow, as is usually
accomplished by tihe use of tile drains. Experiments were made.
ulsinlg various spacings to determine drainage, irrigation and
aeration influences wlhen these 1mole draills were either used
for drainage or sub-irrigation instead of clay or concrete tiles.
After three years of observingi their operation they have been






I)I\INAGE .\NI) WATER (C)N'()OI


pironotedil .i satisfa.cory to nsuhl an cxitint that thlie largest
sutNar.-Ia p; i laltaitiitio in Florida lihas adopted lllis In tilt d 'o!"
lise oil al)lroiXiiimitely 20.000 'lre(s of mu(ck andI ipeat soils. The
cost per awre of tine "mole" operation is very lotw. anld could
be rep)ateHl at iintervills of I'foli threIl to five ears, whell


Fig. 10. A "mole" drain discharging into a lateral ditch. The 1-foot length
concrete tile inserted in end of drain retards cutting of the bank. This drain
has been in operation four years. The screen. lifted off to the right, protects
the drain from burrowing animals.

'I'lle usual spacillng of' the les is ')() I'c e Lateral ditches
which olmnnl'ct with Ilhe Ilain supply) ailld collection illnals are
it a intervals (of one-foulrth mlile. Thus Ilr'l'-v(olullme. ow\\-
]heiad( ll ll)ps ;al aihle I ma ililliilil lth \ver'l i ri' le l ; mI' Illtrol of
thie water table necessary to profitably lro\v slaraiio as \\ell
is llllny otl r chl.l rops iulder whih li lthis V1l'ni sysel iNlli)-dlla'lil ne
anld irrigation i llaillntail 'd.

FLAT LAND DRAINAGE
D)rainlu, of fiat lnlds is depelldetl on creating a '(mlitioll
Ilhat will force mioveIe.lt oillf wa r lfrion the soil. In other word-s.
llhis malls than differences of water srfllil elevations ust II.
estaillished ill order to mlake waeillr fl(\\ frollm point to pointl.






)DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC'LT1RE


This can be accomplished by following systematic hydraulic
laws ill designing, a system of channels with proper dimensions
to collect water from specific areas of land in an orderly and
systematic manner, and carry it to its ultimate outlet inl pro-
gressive and systematic steps in order to create a consistent
and regular flow.
On the higher lands where greater differences in elevation
exist. movement of water can be satisfactorily accomplished by
means of gravity. But under conditions existing in low. flat
lands it is necessary to provide large-capacity, low-lift pump-
inlg ilnits in order to create a unlliforill flow in collection ditehes
nid canals.











Fig. 11. Sugarcane field under which the "mole" system of drainage is used.
The Canal Point plant of the Southern Sugar Company is seen in the back-
ground.

Examples of this type of drainage (as well as irrigation
which is so closely associated with it) are numerous. Open
surface diteles play a most important function in the potato
fields of the Hastings area. Around Sanford and Bradenton,
in particular, surface and subsoil drainage and irrigation are
effectively accomplished by means of tile drains. In many of
these areas artesian water is available and is distributed by
means of surface ditches or tile drains which have been so laid
that in wet seasons they serve to remove excess water from the
land. Thus such drainage systems serve a double purpose.

ECONOMICS OF LAND DRAINAGE
Reclamation of land is primarily a business enterprise and
if the increased income from the land as a result of the im-
provements is less than capital invested, the system is a failure.
regardless of how efficiently the drainage system functions.
A conservative estimate of the increased gross revenue which
the land will produce as a result of water control should be
made preferably in comparison with increased gross revenue





1)1lNA(;IE ANI) W\VATER' (O)N'THO


obtained o11n l'arbyl ll1(i ol' similar soil chliarafcnteiristics. Net
ilnlome is foilnil by dled lctinll from gross income the cost olf
raising a cr(op.
N tc in iivoi e lll acre re pr'i'nts illonlital. liv'llefit to the land-
ownerlIl. (en'll-rally bellefits d1rivedl from a water control sys-
ltelli 'really exceed the coist of iliirovellients. It niiist he rte-
illeillered, hlowverl' that il s.ysteii will lnot provide
coilil)fl'te (driin;ilg allnd thilat lit'e ost of dlitchlis 111t st lnot 1In so
111m(ic tlhait \\lwh( e tl c lst of l or ile llii is addtl ll lotal cost
will xcccd 1thl e )elleftit derived.

DEVELOPMENT OF PUMPING MACHINERY
()\viin. 1i lIl' illliost iilli\v i'.ie l l ln ei'.sity of )illnllfs 'or \wilter
tiltrol pi rl'liloses ill I 1lo 'ridli. i t i i ( \vllri'lt of \'(w llt r-lillovi) 2'
eitlipilielit hlis Ibeen d \'velop"d Tlii' developl(\ o|i ll t hlis lbee so
rapid h;1 1 trh i tltii'ill t' lie <\'ollliolii of \\ lte'r control puilip,
i111s loses li illy IlliIll i icisiulld t ioln The4y vai ,v wild l'l 10 i1l I.s
lto ilpicitY. rftfirivi'.ly 1 d x1 ( I'X r ll ,i1re of .desii'"i.

















Fig. 12. "Flukkus" installation at entrance of a culvert through a dam. It
has a boat propellor driven by a Ford automobile engine which is located in
a tin shack.

"Flukkus" Type of Pump: Amiongh tilt tir's pImpsl to )e uised
in Florida for artificial drliaiiiima w'er' Ilosi conlloily l Iv Iiiown
is the "fiikkl.s." Se Figiiurl 12. 'I'll)' ftukkiis I)ipu p 1iconsists
of a float propeller, a drive shll'ft 111ad solle sollurce of lIlorive
l)\power, l.usIl lly a iili -u 1111'- d aiil dis arde'l d ord. it iclk ior otl er
aililo o)il engie ,i oil dou ll l'il l oi'llrali i lns ('lilara 'list ics, Illi(d
sucil load (1o iditillis. Tliw Io;t propeller, \\as p)lar d ill tihe end





1)DHl'ARlMNEN'I' OF A(R ICIA'l1'VR-E


of a culvert or a wooden box Hand tihe drive shaft connected( to
the engine through a universal joint.
These puImps. while usually of very low efficiency. have
poillted the way to ithe average farmer, showing hiin that by
the movement t of water onto or off of his land at the proper
time Ilis crops may be successfully produced under more ad-
vantageous conditions. The trend naturally is toward tile more
scientifically developed puImps of higher efficiency. The fink-
kus. however., hlas hadi a very definite place in the evolution of
the low-lift. large-2palciry water control piu)IIps ill Florida.



















Fig. 13. Small Menge pump installation used for drainage of a 10-acre citrus
grove owned by C. A. Walsh, Orange Villa, Davle.

The Chamber Wheel Pump, certain types of which have been
used for draillage, is practically a meter, tile discharge being
in proportion to tihe speed. Because of the pulsations set up
d(ue to thle alternat accelerating and retardation of the water
that is pumped, there are well-defined limits of speed that
may be established w\ithoit injury to the pump. While the
centrifugal plinip may bIe forced to an extent that is limited
only by tlhe power of the motor or engine driving it. the limita-
tions of eclpacity for the chamber wheel type are found inl the
lpumpl itself'.
Centrifugal Pumps ill various forms have been used for drain-
age work where large volumes of water muslt be elevated only
a few feet. There are many reasons for thle popularity of the
centrifugal pump1 among which might be mentiolled initial
cost. reliability of operatioll simplicity of construction and its








;ilYill. w'11 1. fIl'r .I d. 11 ( I 1d I lo 1 i ;ill)a p ity 111l ih I t.l r'll. r tllill
its i;tlle l rap;lpa i It is effiei'iv l it' I r' iperl' d si'.i'lu l for lirth
olaIlitills it ndll r \\ liich it ijs opll .,r l vd.
.A h(C ip ) IIil irl. It'hrici lr l I'tl'l (if cr' 'ltrli il'iil_ II pil p tllil(
\\;is liIII( Ils d ;I lrp\v yr l'-s 12\i'o iN IIIt wood- ll 1 l illx l l l1ox
Failli| '\11i 1 ;v 114 still ill Usl 1111ti of ( It' T tliiv liI v;\ 1 tri i iv rl w i v
t l l r slit il lis l .i 1 I I ,' il llll lt is l li i' el V l ot' lll i'l;ll. Tlh i's l i l(Iir
l> Il sllss l isi.ill il\ \\ i i .vi \iv ii ilm l l l-r ll ) ,ler I i op ( i litillf .
)hiil 1Il r' not Opr II 1 ll irl' y s.il isl';tli c o 4 I Iniilc i'l il coiiiiilio ..i .
T InO i Itlil ril p llla .ll i l lls r ( l llI ll\ i llr i 1 y ,) h 0 1irh lll 'otors.

l Ir, obl.. s Iil ir;lly 1 n '-rn 'ii.' I''rl Iiii l or r'o|),r ) lri\\ .











Fig. 14. Riser type overhead spray irrigation on five-acre pepper field at
White Belt Dairy near Miami.

High-Head Centrifugal Pumps: ( '.itritmuil ,puimis are' vwe.l
rllil 'l"n .or ||.,r i\i In. ilel' ,l ;ll t 'lh,' t hI lh i rro .ill ,. one Illy

l ill' insl;ilht~ l i il l iiarts of' ll''l iii ill. M1 lll \ tit' l il l l' rli 'l r n111
Iwll ;.I 's o l' Jlo i lii l l sAll l l o ill '11, lJ' I lil1 s 1,il l iill t 1 'IIII 'l i ils

iN hiihl it, 73 ;lin l Sit lp trl' ilt St', 'iltirr 1 1.
Selection of Centrifugal Pumps: It i iiinporiilii \\wlitnii .l''t-
iiI- i ill ) ll 111 ii11 l ll tof I ioss- ilil klii \l n I'i;I tl' r ili iln ipro, l-
J iil ite I(llo vi l l' i 'H ,ll li 'i( ', lh l 1i i illi i, I i,1 ii lii Il 1 ; i l I i n 1, th e
(\11 vPa1 s -, sl (l itl.
1i .\A (t iirrl'l l l i| ri llill ltioll s ioll(l It i liixt ol l' tl l friv ilol
a1ss, x ox lill iliu ill iii pipi lin 11 l'i'ul-o l 1ll i' ]llp I(n 1il illn ost 't-
lll il,~zzllr to li,, svr \ d. .A s;|il si l';I l orY i tii i li, l Tallie
\ ill bIe I lr'lii l l I,.\ ;illY jin, l li il, i i lllii lil; l filll t';l l ll .A
.l i'r li llir 1 i ;ISs, |lli ill lilll is. ;l h ,it, 11 I l "l' 'rill i'r 111ill
'- I' tl 'per 10111) f't' f pip' piil l d" 11 i 11111('1i l<') l 'rr to );iv o tll
t l'I\' (lo' 1 1'S Iio r' ill O w Iri 11 l i .l1'i ii I )i )r ill ;l i l i i till l h11 1ll
toi tllilli' tio pai, I lir'im'l lih iit ;I i11r.Iio< of i'iIs ili i x '\ 'sssiv'' 2'aisto-
ili'. 'll, l oill o ir il- ,lir i, pio\l 'r ills. 'I' ll i toll l 'r Ii'i' ss iu'- to
4lriv' it llr1 ) i in i t'o ;ir i \ ill ll.i illi le r dn'li'e, l 11aIll y ll-ors -


DUAIN.WE, AND WATER ('()NTI%'()L






24 I)EIARTMENT OF AGRI(CITI,'IIETIE

power by substituting a size or two larger pipe than was
originally selected.
2. Be sure that the suction lift is not greater than the pump
is designed to meet. Several cases have come up in the past
where it was necessary to lower the pump into a pit because
the water level had been drawn down below the limit of the
pump's ability to lift water out of the well.
3. It is well to remember that you usually get what you pay
for when buying any kind of pumping equipment. The cheaper
the pump the less efficient it is likely to be.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS FOR LOW-LIFT DUTY
In many cases the low-lift centrifugal pump fits into the sur-
face or sub-irrigated project in excellent fashion. The type
of pump to use is usually determined by the source of water
supply.














Fig. 15. Two 30-horsepower electric motors used to drive Worthington Axiflo
screw pumps at Butler Farms. Inc., west of Deerfield. Each pump delivers
8,100 gallons of water per minute against an 8-foot head.

Where the water supply is taken from a canal or lake where
much dirt and foreign matter will be encountered it is often
better to sacrifice a few points in efficiency to a more open
design of impeller. such as the single-sutmion, open-itmpeller
type made by nearly all manufacturers of centrifugal pumps.
Naturally the more efficient pumps are designed within nar-
rower limits and clearances are less, with the result that more
difficulty will be encountered in cases where gritty, dirt-laden
water is to be handled. However, the average installation is
made where the water sulpplly is relatively free from such
debris, and lhe double-suetion, closc-impcller centrifugal pump








tits t >he conditions of v'-ir rqlually well ;lnl tihen IIIrs r
ti (drive Ilie 1I[ll )i \\'ill hli illiilt riall.v I' dll- 'l.
Whellnever the irriatio
sYstvI lls is if s h pteI lilitlo i vIIIi.
111'.;.%'t -\s! ; 1 | i 1) ( ''l.tl II'F 1 o e i a


tll 1 .0 atI. t il W Ill ) ]It 1c 1,e 1111
t1 It -'I i Iel r v. 4. ( 1111 l 1-tv, I



Illl)st < i l S lltl( Ii x ni l l I 1 1'l






I I I i ll lii. 1. Motor reduction ear ia
lit I i0e, I tll l iiontrol panel for a
11lAmericn lliWell Wors e 1ll il
n1111 1 ti tili li t ll l cated on te w t nit o t



ahl oee Drainage District near Pa-
Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps : ilt it'Li 'ililiilt' i:
n itl1 h I "1 Ithe I.tilti t l tiolll (1 ]










I\\tlii i. :\itli lilr l pn i, io i 1sylltl \\ iti)I Itt' |I11111) iat tile tol
tit a c'l'irl ti'i t h iteh~ itt trit ll xiii ti oit i :i il for r-iait*. \'ari i-
iIg. iA t I a ilI' l Iost' l it S ithc Fig. 16. Motor reduction gear and











lliii' 1In111) ii tl I iii' lilt is allXX't*Vs Ijlil tot 1 lire; 'ttlill (lifl'i'ft'cii't'
lll I l. o l t- sol ill I- i I llt i l pump located on the west unit of the
Pahokee Drainage District near Pa.
(liitive lit' pilll ) ll J l li'l I ic ll hokee.
NHat itice's fhle ;It ;IIllit .t's ob-
tailable throw gti~h the application I II+ the ili'tetl o.illliete'd unit.





Horizontal and Vertictrifugal Screw Pumps: S't''ifiial rilIageps li\m'
with hlloriz'n11 tai l siit ts to uIt all lv h lllave i ltlion alsllt tlit`ha 'g. pipea t
W hll.t ll1il\ h ill p- ll f'ofIll s N yp ollt with 111 f t pill ) at tile. top
ait a ioliv il li Itel ilt For ,x n itnll tloll atilt r I r. forVa li-
tiolll. ill lilt- liv'' l of s.ill, tiolln alnd 4l.iA lil't' i ol i1, l rilot affel'l-
lfrcilt l lll lll (I) lll ii 1le lif t i Wl S rsil to the il' tlil tii ff (l ti lt
IIf hv ol. w ohie tile hei s ti i l llllr ;ill.rt (sl\'v op ;>pplii'.dts of t -in
ftati lift i plll. thie variol< s t r'lii 'tion lo> .sd, ill t i' tll ip' oII lf
pipin-.
Hoizontal and Vertical Screw Pumps: ser,.w pmlimis have
Ieell (h.Veloh peI lini.iiI. fl'olli I to 12 fe t ill (n liil llet', tile
laii-i' ) <' t havin ilsapait'les lip to 701 l ublits fp' t pill' stco nl The
lift ranl es illt 1() `10 aiql 13 feel. A colnihiliatioll cenlitrifuli ial-
t' i\ littlll ) 1 s beenl (leveloptli that 1i l veialllv 'iliteil t o Ili,
,lii ,i ty iIt, l -virv i~llorols o' Interlial v llibllstion ui illves. lve] -
tric initorl or full Diesel Inll'iiles are l istiall]v applie(l to ill-
stallationll i 41f the lai el'r lype.. Tile Mlath. III' this type of,
I)Iiilnl ati(- so fldesigriled Ihlat the halld i l' pracl tially constant
froini iiiiiiiniilni to ia 1l xiiiiiitn lifl w l en rillulinl at i voiista it
s|tedl. W helln vl tri

DRAIN.W'E' .\ND Wk'[A-Av' CONTRI(III.






l)El'Al'I'MENTl OF AG1IU'IC[l't'IliE


usually employed. being directly connected to tlie vertical shaft
of the pump,. thereby elimniiatiiin the difficult of beltini or
g1Iril h the5si. pilimps with holrizoital power units.




















Fig. 17. Two of three 54. inch wood screw pumps installed at the Bare Beach
pumping station of South Florida Conservancy District.

Portable Screw Pump Units: Several pump builders in Flor-
ida have developed screw type pumps that may be shifted from
point to point in the fields by the simple expedient of backing
a trailer up to the bank of the canal, picking up the pumping
unit and haulinll it to a new location where by a reverse opera-
tion it is set in place, lined and levelled and made ready for
operation as soon as the tractor can lhe shifted into place. It is
believed that tle future will bring irrigation to a more stable
condition and the average farmer will know where ihe will need
pumping equipment and provide a small pumping plant of a
stationary nature.
SUCTION AND DISCHARGE PIPES
In water control installations where tlie lift is usually be-
tween 4 and 10 feet, the loss at tlhe entrance of suction pipes
and the kinetic energy thrown away at the end of the discharge
pipe together Imlake iup a large percentage of lthe energy lsed.
These losses increase with the square of the velocity of the
water at entrance and discharge and the velocity in turn de-
pends upon the diameter and area of the pipe at the two ends.
The larger the area at these ends. the less is the velocity and
energy loss and vice versa. For this reason the practice, for-






I)lAINA.\(iE ANI) \\'ATI'I-I ('()X'I


i ril. ('o imon1111111ill. ,'r de( signi.;i the s. tlion ind disclha'rge' pi|' to)
ble 1ti' sa;iille liiill t'r' tlilhro1gholii is I\now b ill' ve\ ry n? i ll-ll?
allal ondllc'. lthlii,_dlh d'cs.riptionls of such plants., in whi rillli hl iltill laws 44 hyIdr-illi.s ;Yr ls. r _lr l I o,. isioilid y
linid 1li.ir w ily ill lilt te .hliii ill lpre' .





















Fig. 18. A 30-inch Wood screw pump used for primary lift on an irrigation
system at Port Mayaca.

i 1it l i ',l' 1 hitl Iy w l rl l ,ir l, ., I I lla liia l l ,11 -l.) tI ill lel l
;at (0).1il: ol' Ith vieli ily l 'eadl il iith' 'iltl' rall;n '. tIfilill ti ii of tihe
Ein inev'ri'niLg Ex\p ri-mill nt Sl it iotill,. 1I iversity talil.s evidi,<|'ll thll thlli-. li,,-s of .tl .i[ JIl,' is tin, ll l lLh island s ,ll ,-
_'e.sts a va'illu l ,f ,0.(i2. T'11. dlihill-L' l"o is .,(llall to il le hiIad
;it tilhet ild of lihe dlisfhailro g pipt'. I1 lilt' Iipt's ;lrt. rolin l alu l
tIhe dli;liter he ilmtleid al t lilt sm tionll and dischllnr_'re vlds, I thel
;r l11 i I 11111 i ll i )ltil l id 4 : 1 il: Nl ith l ll i pilll ip ll', 1 l it ll .ls illnl
r;iT ,. Illh r w ill liv .ilitr la r i ,lI li ,.h;ir'_',' v ln ili s.. ,(i -I'.l'o rth
is1 grearit as witli jipiis of niifoii si/i. I )i..rl);r\e lOS( ? v'ry
its ili c s|llar of 1 1" V'lt O Sil the li i' w ill lI' e l l.tt 1 lit ,-
sixtot'etllh l t the l, Ioss in pip f ut' liltfoltil si/' e.
Till ilil lrtilli i t' of This .I l tr i l if. o pipe ,xp lliisl ll i- illll.str-ilvd
ill F iurl 1!. 11 i.s ;ssu il ,l ll;lt tll- pm nlll tllp ill r iir <|l.si l, lI
for a dlis har,_'i pip' 2 I''et i i ililii relll r indl a hn lI.I'an vrlocity
is 10 I't141t per s' ci(mil. T'll'h hni tht of s0laifliflt piple is ltak'n ;as
1.5 feeI.
SOURCES OF POWER FOR PUMPING UNITS
The sN illl e of ( it Wirr% toi Ii tU ls d ill 111 p[)llllljill' Stillill i in ;
liestionll whivih .h,,llld h.he .i,,sidert' dl whill tih projr. is first





28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICI'IL'tIRE

contemplated. Much care should be exercised in the selection
of the motive equipment necessary for the operation of the
pumping station. In some cases it may be found advisable to
use some form of internal combustion engine. However, where
electric transmission lines are available it is often possible to
take advantage of much simplified design in the reclamation
plan, since with electric service it is possible to extend lines to
points where the best advantage may be taken of natural grades
to secure a more positive control of the water-table within the
district.
Under t he electrically --Y--k---
driven pump plan of reclama- I----,.
tion it is not necessary to ex-
pend large sums of money in --- -
digging drainage canals to ----
bring water from the whole -L- ---
district to a single pumping *- ------ --- -
station. It is frequently ad- -
vantageous to consult with .- t
your local electric service --
company to ascertain
whether satisfactory ar-
rangements can be made for C ~
the electrification of the
project you have under con-
sideration. Some of the pub-
lie utility companies in the .
state have trained engineers .
who may render valuable as- J
distance to you in the solu-
tion of your water control i iL
problem. And always re- V'-0. s--O s5 "
member that your county Diametrg of Opening
agricultural agent is in a po-
sition to give 0o11 worthwhile FFig. 19. Illustrating the gain efficiency
sition to give ou worthwhile due to expanding suction and discharge
counsel, pipes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In securing material for this bulletin the author has fre-
quently consulted not only the publications mentioned but per-
sons in the state who are in positions to know what is correct
and best and modern in the field of drainage and water con-
trol. Among those who have been consulted are Forrest 1).
Banning. agricultural engineer for the Florida Power and
Light Co.; Dr. O. C. Bryan, agronomist and soil expert, and
Frazier Rogers, agricultural engineer, both of the Florida Col-
lege of Agriculture. Mr. Banning and Dr. Bryan read and eriti-
cised the manuscript.




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