Bulletin No. 50 New Series September, 1931
MARY A. STENNIS
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Bulletin No. 50)
WIDESPREAD demand in Florida and in
other states for our recent publication,
"Florida Fruits and Vegetables in the
Family Menu," Bulletin 46, was accompanied by
numerous requests for a similar publication to be
used by makers of commercial menus. In our effort
to supply the material desired, we are pleased to
present "Florida Fruits and Vegetables in the Com-
Commissioner of Agriculture.
T HIS publication does not have the purpose of teaching horti-
culture nor vegetable culture. Neither is it a cook-book. It
is not, by any means, a complete list of Florida's commercial
The material presented here. however, is an effort to bring to
public attention, in true light, Florida's products-fruits and vege-
tables-available to commercial mennu-makers, and to suggest the
possibilities of these products in improving the public menu.
More space has been given to some fruits and vegetables than
to others because of the fact that they offer a variety of uses often
overlooked. Green fresh vegetables and fresh fruits have received
special emphasis because Florida's winter supply for herself and for
other states is a remarkable gift in nature's plan for the feeding of
human beings-even in the non-producing season of other sections-
with the natural green foods that make for better nutrition and health
andI consequent efficiency and happiness.
If commercial menu makers, who request and use this book, form
the happy habit of generously increasing their use of Florida's
fruits and vegetables in every menu every day then Florida will
have made an important contribution to the Nation's Optimum
Diet and the Florida State Department of Agriculture will have
realized its purpose in presenting this material to the public.
It is with gratitude that we acknowledge the contributions of
photographs, time. service, information and good will made by
numerous friends and acquaintances, both personal and professional,
throughout Florida. In fact the material here presented, as well
as the subject matter in the companion bulletin, "Florida Fruits and
Vegetables in the Family Menu," No. 46, represents the cooperative
work of a large number of generous minded Florida citizens.
MARY A. STENNIS.
Table of Contents
I. Introduction: Vegetables Today?-The Commercial Menu
II. Fresh Vegetables-Green Fresh Vegetables-Uncooked
III. The Effect of Heat on Green Vegetables .. ......................
IV. Florida "Greens"--Varieties and Preparation .... ..............
New Zealand Spinach
Common Head Cabbage
Tender Greens or
Green String Beans
Chinese Cabbage, Head
or Loose Type
V. Celery ... ................. .. ..
V I C a r r o t s ................................................................................................ ..........................
V II. S w eet P o ta to es ................................................................... ...... ...... .... .
V I I I S q u a s h ......................................................................................................................................
IX. Other Florida Vegetables Available for Use in Florida
M e n u s ........................................................... ...... .... .....................................................
X F lo rid a S o u p s .......................................................................................................
XI. Vegetable Groups, Their Nutritive Value and Combina-
t io n s ........................................................................................ ..... ... ....................................
1. Function of Vegetables in the Diet.
2. Vegetable Plates.
3. Left-Overs and Combinations.
I. Fruits Other Than Citrus-Identification
and Uses ...........
II. Fruit Zones in Florida 73
III. Fresh Raw Fruits in the M enu ................................. .... ... 75
IV. Citrus Fruits-Varieties and Place in the Menu ..... ... 79
1. Varieties; Lemon: varieties
Kumquat Grapefruit: varieties
Shaddock 1. Common Orange or Mediterranean Types
Sour Orange 2. Mandarin or Loose Peel Type
Bitter Sweet King, Tangerine, Tangelo, Satsuma.
2. Place in the Menu
A. Appetizers B. Conservation
a. Before Breakfast a. Juices
b. For Breakfast b. Jellies
c. For Luncheon or Dinner c. Marmalades
1. Canapes d. Preserves
2. Cocktails C. Crystallization
3. Frozen Fruit D. Salads
4. Fruit Cups E. Desserts
5. First Course Salads
7. Frozen Juices
8. Christmas Wassail Cup
Florida Salads in the Menu
. ... 117
1. Preparation of Fruits and Veg- 5. Salad Dressings
tables for Salads A. Mayonnaise
2. Combinations: Vegetables; B. French Dressing
Fruits. C. Cream Dressing
3. Garnishings; Settings; Mari- D. Cooked Dressing
4. Special Salads-Florida
A. Orange and Other Citrus
B. Miscellaneous Salads
C. Jellied Salads
D. Frozen Salads
E. Salad Sandwich
XIII. Florida Desserts
1. Citrus- Florida Special Desserts
2. Fruit Jellies or Molds and Frozen Fruits
3. Miscellaneous Desserts
Mmicc Count, Flord Products-Fcbri, 1931
Cabbage (8) Spinach (3) Ceiery (6) Sgqash (20) Beans (10i Carrots (6)
Brussels Sprouts Enive (3) Lettuce (7) Chayote Okra Parsips
Chinese Cabbage (3) utard (2) Parsley (2) Peppers (7) Peas (5) Salslly
Broccoli Turnip with Greens (8) Dill Tomatoes (6) Corn (2) Artichokes
Kale Radishes with reens (13) Lees (1) Tomatoes Pumpkin (3) Rutabagas (3)
Collards Beets with Greens () Onions (3) (dwar) (3) Cucumber (3) Cassava
KohlRabi (2) Chard (3) Fennel (2) Eggplant (3) Watermelo Ctron Melon
"Vegetables--Fresh Green Vegetables"
The Question of the Day
The Business Man or Woman
( ['[ HAT are your vegetables today?" That is the prevailing
Question in the public or commercial dining room. The
average adult may eat what he "likes" at home or he
may eat what lie "can get" hut when that same adult is the business
man or woman in the commercial dining room, he demands what he
"should have." People who live in offices and people who are busi-
ness travelers are beginning to know that certain diets are necessary
for their well being and continued efficiency. Three meals a day
may be a social function at home but "down town" or "on the road"
it is a business proposition and the customer insists upon food value
as welas ll s money value. Meat-bread-potato-dessert diet no longer satis-
fies. Where are the vegetables?
"Where can I find a good fresh vegetable dinner?" Meat, bread,
cereal, potatoes he can find without question. In the experience of
one who has traveled ten years over a territory of five states the
above question has been asked ten to one by the stranger. The tourist
everywhere is out for a good time, to spend money, to enjoy leisure
or sight seeing. Ile wants best food. Without it, his trip is spoiled;
his humor is gone; his playground is uninteresting. The average
tourist is intelligent as to the basic factors of his diet-that is, he
knows, in general, what lie needs in order to keep "fit." lie knows,
now. through instruction and by experience, that bread, meat, potatoes,
and dessert will not keep him at his best and keen for new interest.
lie knows that mental alertness is dependent upon diet. He, too,
wants the food that keeps him fresh and fit. So he asks "Vegetables
"Menu-Wanderer" lie is called. "A vegetable dinner?" Too
often lie has gone in and found meat, bread, two kinds of potato,
spaghetti, rice, corn, and bread pudding. Perhaps the sweet potato
was on the dinner plate while the white potato reposed on a lettuce
leaf. Perhaps it was Sunday and lie found baked chicken with bread
8 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
dressing, sweet potato, white potato, rice, white turnip; sliced banana
for a salad and cake for dessert.
The commercial traveler, necessarily deprived of regularity of
food habits, of the social enjoyment of family meals must get some-
thing out of life. So, he asks for "good food-fresh vegetables." and
honestly feels that he is entitled to it when he pays for it. lHe knows
by experience he must have fresh food to maintain his vigor and
appetite. lie may not thoroughly understand vitamins and calories
but he knows that meat, bread, cereals, desserts leave him inert,
heavily fed but not with an overplus of eagerness for business, a
surplus of health and capacity for work and pleasure. So, he wanders
from place to place looking for a change, something appetizing,
something that gives him zest.
Rice, potatoes, spaghetti, stewed corn, sour-kraut, bread pudding
have their places but they do not all go together to make a meal and
such a meal does not interest the traveler to come again, even if the
dessert be "pie." The soup, with no fresh vegetables, the salad of
dried beans or peas or potato-the dinner that is 95 per cent meat
and starch has no alluring effect upon the person looking for what
the public calls today "a good meal."
Food production was once the main food question. Food prepara-
tion then became the topic of interest. Food selection today holds the
attention. To please the public, it is necessary to be more than a
good cook. One must know food selection. Makers of menus today
find themselves in the same position as the physician who must deal
with a public who is at least beginning to be informed. This is in-
teresting even if difficult.
Habits of any nation move slowly-food habits more slowly than
others. Food habits in the United States have gradually changed
(with the change from a new country with nature's own supply of a
balanced ration to an industrially developed nation with mechanical
refineries as a means to modified foods of less efficiency), to quick
processes, short cuts and time save s.
Away from natural foods to the menu of modern made-easy foods
has been the tendency. Food that will keep; non-perishable, in the
box, in the can; trimmed, peeled, steam pressured, sifted, evaporated,
dehydrated has been the goal. Meantime, food production increased,
and food manufacturing reached every section. Competition grew
stronger and resulted in extended advertising. Food selection be-
came an item of argument. Companies sought proof for the promo-
tion of their own foods, much to the confusion of the meun-maker.
Meantime, during the new period of food refineries, certain
deficiencies of diet began to show. New diseases appeared. Human
beings learn largely through experience of disaster, accident or dis-
ease. Here again it was to cure and then to prevent certain diseases
that new food knowledge and important discoveries came to light.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
Diseases among people living on non-fresh diet disappeared upon
a change of diet to fresh foods. Earliest discoveries were made by
the use of citrus fruit as a cure for scurvy among sailors living on
stored food. Animals then came into use as a means of biological
tests. Certain diseases were brought about and later cured by
changes of diet.
By use of the knowledge gained by animal experimentation, we
have been able to locate causes of diet-deficiency diseases and, by
supplying the food needed, not only to cure the disease but to restore
normal growth and health. Today successful experiments are being
made all the time with human beings and, more and more, not only
the scientist but the general public, is learning to select and use a
Research, covering a period of twenty years, has revealed the fact
that the adequate diet (necessary for health and growth) is made
up, not of one food only, but of at least thirty-five simple substances.
Of these substances more than fifty per cent are generally supplied
by fruits and vegetables, and nearly all of them may be supplied by
milk, fruits and vegetables.
With our new knowledge we are able to know what combinations
of foods will bring about good nutrition. Furthermore, we are
privileged to selection from an easily available food supply-manu-
factured and natural-that is greater and more varied than that of
any nation in the world. Florida, with her year-round fruits and
vegetables can make her menus every day in the year in accord with
Urged on by the findings of scientists and by the surprising con-
ditions found by means of physical examinations in 1917, the Ameri-
can public has made worth while progress in building for resistance,
for good growth, for health and efficiency. Fruit, green vegetables
and milk have played a large part in the food selection program.
Modern progress in research and in change of human food habits has
made a new classification of foods based on:
1. The quality of their proteins.
2. Their content of vitamins.
3. Their peculiarities of mineral content.
A fourth desirable quality needed is usefulness in regulating
(without irritation) intestinal elimination. Because Dr. McCollum,
Professor of Chemical Hygiene, Johns Hopkins University, has so
definitely and so easily stated the value of vegetables in meeting
the above named food requirements we are quoting him verbatim.
"The most desirable quality of a food for the regulation of intes-
tinal motolity is that it should contain an appropriate amount of
indigestible matter, which should preferably possess a high water-
holding capacity so as to maintain a favorable physical consistency
10 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
for intestinal elimination. Such properties are possessed by the leafy
vegetables, such as cabbage, spinach, lettuce, cauliflower, Brussels
sprouts, etc., and these have the advantages over bran, in that the
indigestible residues which they contain are very smooth and can-
not irritate the lining membranes of the alimentary tract. Through
the consumption of a suitable amount of such leafy foods daily. one
can readily provide the most favorable physical qualities in a diet
containing liberal amounts of highly refined cereal foods, meats, etc.
In lesser degree, but important for promoting intestinal hygiene, are
the starchy roots, especially carrots and turnips, since they also con-
tain a considerable content of indigestible carbohydrates, pectin,
etc., capable of swelling in water.
"One of the most interesting and important observations ever
made in nutrition studies is the great dietetic superiority of the leaf
of the plant over the storage organs, such as the grains, tubers, roots
and fruits. An edible leaf is essentially a complete and nearly or
quite balanced food. This is illustrated by the fact that there are
many kinds of grazing animals which have subsisted for many gen-
erations on the leaves of plants. Animals fed exclusively on grains,
on the other hand, or on grains or seeds of other plants, together
with some tuber or root vegetable, do not succeed well. This is
illustrated by the fragile bones, soft fat, high mortality of young,
etc., among hogs fed too largely on peanuts and sweet potatoes. This
knowledge increases the emphasis which we now place on the im-
portance of hay or other forage plant in the rations of domestic
animals receiving a quota of grain; and also on the importance of
the daily inclusion in the human diet of a suitable amount of some
leafy vegetable, greens or pot-herbs.
"The mineral content of leafy vegetables is so appropriate for
the supplementing of a grain, tuber, root, fruit and meat diet, that
the importance of this type of vegetable cannot easily be overesti-
mated. These leafy products, together with milk, are so distinctive
as supplemental foods, that the writer some years ago distinguished
them as 'protective foods.' Both are rich in calcium, in which all
other classes of foods are deficient. Both have a vitamin content
which significantly supplements that of cereal, tuber, root and fruit
products, and both have proteins of excellent character which serve
admirably to enhance the proteins of cereals, so as to make them
utilizable in higher degree than when eaten in other combinations."
Special Problem of the Commercial Dining Room
The commercial dining room menu is a problem different in many
ways from that of the family type yet similar in certain funda-
mentals. Again the hotel dining room presents a study quite dif-
ferent from that of the tea room, the cafe, the cafeteria and dif-
ferent again from the institution serving large numbers of growing
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 11
boys and girls. And again the metropolitan hotel, with its a la carte
menu, does not compare with the American plan small town hotel
dining room; the exclusive tourist hotel has yet another problem.
No plan nor suggestion can possibly include them all.
Notwithstanding the differences-as to guests, demands, supply
-there are certain fundamental needs everywhere in every' place
supplying food to the public.
Not only food preparation but food selection must depend upon
demands. supply, equipment and economical conditions. The occu-
pation of the patrons must have consideration. The dining room
giving little choice of menu and catering to people who are in
sedentary positions all day should pay special attention to dietetic
principles for they become conunercial principles. The larger dining
rooms, offering greater variety and serving a cosmopolitan group,
are able to place the responsibility of food selection upon the guest
but they must be careful to offer the proper variety. To the menu
makers for this type of dining room the art and science of food
preparation must be a daily study.
Clinate, weather, seasons must, for commercial reasons, have a
part in making the menu. Food relished in a "zero" temperature
is not necessarily appetizing to people living or visiting in a mild
or semi-tropical climate.
Serving people who come often, or who come in occasionally
(the regular or the transient), complicates the problem. An adapt-
able menu with emergency qualifications is the only solution, for
pleasing all the public is the only way to success.
Fruits and Vegetables Always Essential
Of course it may be the purpose is to please a wealthy patronage
who want out-of-season high priced foods or it may be to satisfy
the people of moderate income who must wait for the "in season."
Then again the chef may be a well trained scientific "professional"
or he may be "just a cook." The fact remains, however, (1) that
the general public is becoming more or less educated as to balanced
diets: (2) that appetites must be kept in good tone; (3) that food
must meet modern requirements of nutrition and health. To make
a commercial success of feeding the public at least a basic knowledge
of menu making is necessary. For those who have little or much
training, for those who are interested in continued success in busi-
ness, one underlying principle holds good today: "Ample variety
with special emphasis always on FRUITS AND VEGETABLES."
In no section of the U. S. A. is it so nearly possible to do this as
in Florida. It would be well for every menu maker to read his
menus for the past year, as he checks his business, and see whether
or not therein may lie his success or failure.
Winter Virlitj of Frulti ind Vepetibb Produced bj Polk CouNty, Fi-Midwlutir Onion,
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
Florida Fruits and Vegetables Meet a Special Need in the Nation
Florida products, during the winter season being the best avail-
able source of abundant supply of fruit and vegetables for a large
area of the United States, play a large part in the nation's suc-
cessful menu making. The long period, each year, during which
Florida must supply the North and East as well as other sections
(whether the people come to Florida or stay at home) with fresh
fruits and vegetables, makes the extended use of these foods in the
menus of many states essential. Florida's supply is available to
all commercial menu makers in Florida or in other states who are
willing to offer to the clamoring public a reply to that prevalent
question "Vegetables Today?" and every day.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Green, Fresh Vegetables-Uncooked
V EGETABLES, next to milk-particularly the green, leafy
vegetables-supply the body with more mineral food than does
any other class of foods. "An edible leaf," McCollum tells us,
"is essentially a complete and nearly or quite balanced food."
Florida Greens, Fresh or Only Slightly Cooked.
Many Florida greens, in addition to the cabbage family, suitable
for fresh salads, are on the market for use in large quantities. They
grow quickly and are of pleasing flavor and texture. Endive,
romaine, escarole, plain head lettuce, young mustard, kale, water
cress, "tender greens," cabbage, celery, parsley, chives, onions, sorrel,
and other varieties lend themselves easily to uncooked or slightly
To be used in the fresh raw form, these greens must be thoroughly
cleaned, well chilled, and crisped
before being prepared. Real
salad greens are freshened in
cold or ice water for half an
hour, well drained in a salad
basket or bag, and placed in the
refrigerator to chill either in a
cloth or in a coveFed pan. To be
crisp, these greens should be
dressed just before serving.
Proper cutting of greens is
necessary for an attractive salad.
Florida Head Lettuce Head lettuce looks well cut across
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
in three-fourths-inch slices. Endive and romaine may be cut across
in half-inch slices. (hicory and escarole are effective in a mixed
salad if used sparingly. Curly celery, minced parsley, sprigs of mint
or watercress, nasturtium leaves, green cucumbers and green pep-
pers, sliced, find their places in many salads.
Romalne-White Paris Cos Lettuce
French dressing is most popular for greens but there are many
special variations of dressings for the plain green salads.
Special Dressing for Plain Lettuce.
To each cup of mayonnaise add: 4 table-
spoons cucumber (grated), 1 teaspoon green
pepper chopped. 4 teaspoons onion. 1 tea-
spoon horseradish. I teacup gherkins. 6 tea-
spoons capers, 1 teaspoon salt. paprika,
%, cup celery. Mince all vegetables and
pickles and drain off all juice. Add to may-
onnaise just before serving.
Special Dressing for Escarole or Chicory.
Mash and mix to a paste 1 cup chicken
livers and yolks of 4 hard-cooked eggs. Add
2 teaspoons prepared mustard. 1 teaspoon
salt, 1/ teaspoon white pepper, 6 tablespoons
vinegar or lemon juice. Add 1 cup salad oil
gradually stirring until the mixture is of the
consistency of thin mayonnaise. Mix with
16 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
1 cup oil or butter,
1 cup vinegar or lemon juice,
% teaspoon pepper,
%, teaspoon dry mustard,
1 teaspoon salt,
Pour oil and vinegar into a howl.
Set in hot water. When the mixture
is hot add all at once the eggs and
beat very quickly and hard with a
Dover beater until the whole is as
thick as cream. Set in a pan of cold
water and heat two minutes. Add
seasoning. Tis dressing keeps well.
This amount will dress sixteen serv-
Succulent Green Salad Dressing.
Rub a bowl with a clove of garlic.
Add 1 cup salad oil, 3 teaspoons lemon
juice, 3 tablespoons chili sauce. 2
tablespoons vinegar, 1 teaspoon Wor-
cestershire, 2% teaspoons salt. and
% teaspoon paprika. Mix thoroughly,
add % cup chopped celery and serve
Water Cress on greens.
To 1%/2 cups mayonnaise add 1 cup chili sauce, 2 teaspoons Worcester-
shire, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 1 teaspoon salt, .,G teaspoon pepper, V tea-
spoon paprika. Serve on endive. one pound for eight persons.
Slice cucumbers wafer thin. Soak for two hours in ice water. Arrange
on cress or chicory. Use French dressing. Garnish with green pepper
Dressing for Wilted Greens, or Bacon Dripping Dressing.
2 cupfuls bacon drippings, Paprika,
% cupful flour, '2 cup vinegar,
Y4 cup lemon or lime juice.
Add flour and paprika to fat. Stir to a smooth paste. Then add vinegar
and stir until the mixture is ready to boil. This amount will serve 16
people. It may be made in large quantities as it keeps well.
Special French Dressing for Greens.
Dissolve in one cupful of vinegar
or lemon or lime juice, 1 teaspoon of
salt. Then add this mixture slowly
to 2 cups of oil, stirring thoroughly
until completely incorporated in the
oil. Continue until both are well
mixed and form a thick grayish
emulsion in which neither the flavor
of the vinegar nor that of the oil pre-
dominates. Pepper will break the
emulsion. A little onion juice, pap-
rika or even cayenne may be added
at serving time. This dressing is
especially appropriate for all green
salads and is most favored for dinner
salads at course dinners.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 17
III-Effect of Heat on "Greens"
P EOPLE eat not "what they should" but "what they like;" not
"what is good for them" but "what is good." Attractiveness
and palatability sell the menu, create the demand for the food
offered. With vegetables and particularly with green vegetables one
of the main points of attractiveness is color. What is color? How
is it lost ? How may it be retained?
Green vegetables, such as spinach, turnip greens, chard, string
beans (green), green cabbage, mustard, kale, lettuce carry a green
coloring matter or pigment (chlorophyll) which is slightly soluble in
water as is shown in the cooking. Heat turns this pigment brown
when there is acid present. All vegetables contain at least a trace of
acid but this acid will disappear in steam if the cover is left off the
cooking vessel and nearly all of it will go during the first fifteen
If a steamer is being used the color may be improved by letting
the steam escape at the end of fifteen minutes. An open kettle cook-
ing results in better color.
An alkali has the opposite effect on the green from that produced
by the acid. Soda, sometimes used to retain the green color, has a
tendency to destroy some of the vitamins and break down the fiber to
a state of mush. Avoid the use of soda.
For palatability and attractiveness then, cook greens by the open-
kettle quick method. Spinach cooks very quickly and its color is
not injured by the process of steaming.
Cooking softens the fiber, breaking down the natural texture. The
problem is to make the product tender, yet as natural as possible in
texture. Spinach and okra are particularly unattractive in texture
when overcooked. Select tender and cook quickly is always right.
Greens lose into the water from 40 to 50 per cent of the mineral
and some per cent of vitamin but, since they gain in color, texture
and palatability by the open kettle process this process is to be de-
sired. The water or liquor in which the greens are cooked may be
utilized in the menu. In this way some of the mineral and possibly
vitamin is regained.
Method of Preparation.
1. Place greens in water that has been boiling long enough to drive out
2. Leave cover partially off the first ten or fifteen minutes.
3. Add salt (one teaspoon to a quart of water) early in the cooking to
preserve the green color.
4. Vegetables of mild flavor require less water; vegetables of strong
flavor-cabbage, Brussels sprouts-use more water in cooking.
5. Select young greens: remove from heat as soon as tender.
6. Serve with salt, pepper, and butter, or season with bacon while
cooking. Hard cooked eggs may always be used with any of these "greens."
7. Thin cream, a thickened sauce or a tomato sauce, butter, bacon juice.
or ham stock are suitable as seasoning. Some combinations are preferable
to single dishes. Turnip greens mix well with beet tops, or with mustard.
Kale and mustard combine well.
18 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Varieties and Preparation for Cooking
f'1 REENS," meaning, usually, cooked leafy vegetables and in-
". eluding string beans, okra and onions, form a highly valued
class of vegetables already discussed. The "green family"
is well connected and extensively related. They live all winter
in Florida and many of them remain
through the summer season. The greens
available on the market in quantities
necessary for fresh salads and for cook-
ing for the commercial (lining rooms, are
Turnip greens are the tops of the conmn: .n
turnip. They are unusually rich in iron and
ealilum. They are a valuable sorce of vitn-
inins A. R, and C. These greens are not
easily hurt by frost and light freezes. They
are hardy and should be grown all winter.
Turnip greens rate as well as slpina(ch in
food value and have a texture that is lmore
pleasing. With bacon or egg. hot corn nmuf-
fins, sliced tomatoes, a buttered baked sweet
potato. turnip greens form a well balanced
Japanese Foliage Turnip
IN TIIE COMMERCIAL MENU 19
vegetable plate not only attractive but satisfying and nourishing and very
popular throughout the South.
Turnip roots, peeled and diced, may be cooked with the greens. They
add a spicy, pungent taste and show a good vitamin and mineral content.
The liquor, in which turnip greens are cooked, should be consumed. It
has a high food value.
Spinach has slender, succulent stems having small leaves. It has a
highly alkaline residue in the process of digestion. It is rich in iron and in
vitamins A. B, and C. According to Sherman it has as much vitamin A as
an equal weight of egg yolk or butter. It needs only a few minutes high
temperature in cooking and therefore maintains its rich vitamin content.
It is better steamed than boiled. Lemon juice helps the flavor. Add butter.
New Zealand Spinach
This vegetable is not related to the ordinary spinach. It is a hot weather
grower and forms a good substitute for spinach during the season when
spinach does not thrive. It is cooked as "greens" and is popular often
among people who do not like spinach.
Spinach and Bacon.
4 pounds spinach, Salt,
Pepper, 12 slices bacon.
Prepare and cook spinach (steam in small amount of water or in water-
less cooker). When tender, chop, season and add the bacon which has been
cut in small' pieces and cooked until
crisp. A sinall amount of lemon juice
may lie added if desired.
Variations-The bacon may be omit-
ted and %/ cup of butter added just
before serving. For creaumed spinach
add /, cliup of crl'elim 11nd 2 tablespoons
of butter to the drained, chopped
spinach and llace the mixture on thin
slices of crisp toast. Garnish the top
with grated Ilard-cooked egg ior sliced
Baked Spinach Loaf.
6 cups cooked spinach,
4 cups bread crumbs,
2 eggs, well beaten.
2 cups grated cheese,
4 tablespoons lemon juice,
4 teaspoons salt.
1/ teaspoon pepper.
MAix all throughly. Place in greased
making dish or in individual ramekins.
Bake in medium oven for twenty-five
minutes. Serve hot wilh Ipoached egg
on top of loaf andi tomato sauce aroulnlI
it. Ponchled egg may be oInitted and a
small a mount of grated egg used.
New Zealand Spinach
20 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Baked Spinach and Eggs.
10 pounds fresh raw spinach, 3 qts. medium thick cream sauce,
3 doz. hard cooked eggs, 2 cups grated cheese,
2 cups dry bread crumbs.
Wash spinach, pour off water, cover and cook slowly without additional
water. Uncover and cook for ten minutes. Put in buttered baking pans
and cover with sliced or quartered hard boiled eggs. Pour the cream sauce
over all and cover with the crumbs and cheese mixed. Bake until browned.
(Two-thirds cup, a serving.)
Swiss chard is a variety of beet that instead of having roots has fleshy,
succulent stems with broad, thick leaves. It is sometimes called "leaf
beet." The outer leaves may be removed for use and the plant left to grow.
Chard is cooked in a way similar to spinach. It should be stirred until
it settles well. Too much water destroys the flavor.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
Beets greens, or the leafy tops of beets, may be used from the freshly
pulled beets. They should be broken-not cut-then cooked quickly. With
twenty minutes in boiling salted water, they are very palatable when chopped
fine and served hot with butter or cream. To remove prejudice, they may
be combined with some type of greener greens and served under the other
Mustard has green crumpled leaves which should be crisp and a vivid
green. To prepare, cut crosswise finely and boil in a little water for five
or ten minutes. Season with butter, salt and pepper. Cover and cook
slowly 20 or 30 minutes.
White Chinese Mustard
The Chinese mustard has white stems and green leaves. It is a hot
water green. The Chinese variety has a half pungent flavor, very agreeable.
Endive is used largely for salads but may be cooked slightly. A wilted
salad is made by using hot bacon fat instead of oil in the dressing. This
adds a good flavor. Sliced or grated hard cooked egg combines nicely as
to color and food value. Endive should be chopped fine. Boiled salad dress-
ing (hot) may be added to bacon juice. Escarole, romaine, water cress,
lettuce (green) may be prepared in the same way. Non-heading lettuce is
often more popular when slightly cooked.
4 heads chicory (curly endive), 1 tablespoon butter,
1 tablespoon meat broth or cream, 31/V tablespoons butter,
1/3 cup croutons.
Wash the endive thoroughly and cook in boiling salted water without
covering. When they are tender, drain and rinse and chop fine. Put in a
pan with the butter, salt, pepper, stock or cream and heat through. Deco-
rate the dish in which they are served with croutons or bread browned in
butter. Serve on thin toast on a vegetable plate.
To serve plain.-Select the very tender parts of 1 bunch of kale and
wash thoroughly in several waters. Cut the kale in 2-inch lengths. Put 2
teaspoons peanut oil, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 slice ginger in a heated pot; then
add the kale and fry for one-half
minute. Add one-half cup water
and cook until kale is tender.
Then add 1 teaspoon sugar to
the liquid to form gravy. Serve.
To serve with fish.-Prepare
1 bunch kale as directed above.
Wash and slice one-half pound
fish finely. Put in heated pot
1, teaslpoolis peanut oil, 1 slice
ginger and one-half teaspoon salt.
Add the fish; stir the whole vig-
orously for one-half minute;
then add the kale and one-half
cup water. Cook 3 minutes over
hot fire. Serve.--(Selected from
Kale Hawaiian Recipes.)
22 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Japanese Mustard Spinach
"Tender" is a mustard leaf with a spinach flavor. The oblong, dark
green leaves are the shape of the loose leaf lettuce but have the texture
of mustard. This plant endures dry, hot weather and, like okra, should be
one of Florida's summer time green vegetables always available. It grows
quickly, ships well, and is easily prepared for the table.
Kale, radish tops, leeks or green
onions, chives, sorrel, peppers, green
ucucmbers, escarole, romaine, head
lettuce, parsley, celery and string
beans are listed and have the food
value of Florida "greens." Water
cress and mint have a place also on
the Florida "greens" list.
Tendergreen-Japanese Mustard Spinach (kra thrives well throughout the
long hot season. The plants hear over a period of several months and
supply a green food in abundance when other "greens" are scarce.
Steamed until tender in the whole pod, in combination with other vege-
tables, and as a soup ingredient, okra fills an important place, particularly
in the Southern menu. (See Soups.)
Green String Beans.
Green beans have shown at least as much vitamin A as head lettuce
and much more than the inner leaves of fresh cabbage. They are particu-
larly rich in vitamin C when fresh. String beans grown in Florida have a
texture more tender and a flavor more delicate than beans in climates of
slower growth. They are similar to "greens' in food value when young and
To prepare for cooking, break off and discard the ends of the pods;
break into pieces, wash well and drop into boiling water and cook rapidly
for fifteen minutes. Allow water to evaporate. Season well with salt and
butter or with bacon. Place over a slow heat and cook 30 minutes longer.
Do not "soak" beans before cooking. This process loses flavor and food
value. Sometimes a distinction is made between string beans and snap
beans, the latter being smaller but similar in food value and method of
Succotash (String Beans)
Cook beans as for boiling and add in proportion of one cup of each
grated corn and stewed tomato and cook until well combined (about ten
Preparation of "Greens" for Cooking
Examine all greens and wash them carefully, discarding any wilted or
yellow leaves. Leave the roots on for the first washing as this makes the
greens easier to handle; then cut them off to allow a more thorough
cleansing. Wash in at least 3 waters, lifting the greens out of the pan
before emptying the water so that the sand and other impurities will be
left in the bottom of the pan.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 23
Kilgore's Wakefield Cabbage.
Cabbage, lowly in Its origin-probably the "colwart" or collard-and
once despised, has, by artificial selection, climbed to a position of promi-
nence in the modern menu. Well known to the early Saxon, popular later
among the Scotch and Irish. the cabbage has a long record but at no period
has it been so popular as it is today.
The "cabbage family" is not always recognized. A few of the branches
easily produced and shipped or placed on local markets as winter vegetables
in Florida are the following: (1) The common green head cabbage; (2)
Chinese cabbage; (3) Cauliflower; (4) Broccoli; (5) Brussels sprouts; (6)
Rape or Portuguese cabbage; (7) Kohl-rabi or turnip cabbage; (8) Collards.
(1) COMMON GREEN HEAD CABBAGE
The common cabbage rates higher in food value green than white;
raw than cooked. The flavor and digestibility also rate higher in the raw
1. Sherman tells us. "Raw cabbage ranks with oranges, lemon juice and
tomatoes as the richest source of vitamin C." Cabbage, being much less
expensive than lemons, tomatoes and oranges, is therefore the most eco-
nomical supply of vitamin C. Florida cabbage, a winter product, used and
shipped always as a fresh vegetable, makes vitamin C available at a low
price to everybody at a time when it would otherwise be not only scarce but
2. Sherman tells us also that the green leaves of the cabbage are much
richer in vitamin A than are the white cabbage. Florida products, grown
in warm winter sunshine, mature very quickly and are green, tender and
sweet and are lacking in the "strong" flavor.
3. Cabbage is rich in calcium.
To get the real food value of cabbage one selects the fresh green product
24 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
and takes it raw. The flavor, texture and digestibility are superior to that
of the cooked product.
Cole slaw is the original Scotch cabbage salad. "Cole" means "kail."
"Slaw" means "salad." People blessed with Scotch blood know that it is
aye a "kail slaw" though anglicized to "cole."
This salad is made by chopping or shredding very fine, delicate, tender
cabbage and moistening it with a good sour cream or cooked salad dressing.
Hot Slaw Dressing.
4 tablespoons butter, 1/ teaspoon dry mustard,
4 tablespoons flour, % teaspoon salt,
4 tablespoons sugar, % cup lemon juice or vinegar,
1 cup thin cream, 2 eggs.
Mix all dry ingredients with butter and cook over a gentle heat, stirring
to a paste. Add the cream and stir until it boils-it should become very
thick-then add slowly the lemon juice or vinegar, stirring constantly.
When this mixture boils, stir in rapidly the eggs well beaten. For a hot
slaw a quart of finely chopped cabbage should be added and mixed so that
the cabbage is thoroughly coated with dressing. This dressing may also
be used with a cold cole slaw.
Old Fashioned Sour-Cream Cole Slaw
Beat until stiff- 2 teaspoons salt,
2 cups sour cream, 8 tablespoons sugar,
% cup vinegar or lime juice, Paprika.
Combine thoroughly with two quarts of finely chopped cabbage.
New Cabbage Salad.
1 quart chopped cabbage, 3 Florida pears (slightly ripened),
4 green peppers, 1 cup cooked salad dressing seasoned
4 small onions, chopped, with mustard and sugar.
1 teaspoon salt,
Sprinkle the cabbage, peppers and onion with the salt and let stand
about one hour. Chill thoroughly. Combine with pears, thinly sliced and
cold, and with salad dressing. Serve at once.
4 cups grated raw carrots, 2 quarts shredded cabbage,
4 cups grated raw sweet potato 4 cups crushed peanuts,
(the sweet, yellow kind), Salt and paprika,
4 cups crushed pineapple, 1% quarts mayonnaise.
Combine and serve at once.
Mix an equal amount of shredded cabbage and diced fresh tomatoes
and a few chopped pecans or peanuts with mayonnaise.
Make a dressing of equal parts tomato pulp (cooked thick and well sea-
soned) and mayonnaise and add to finely chopped cabbage.
Cabbage with Whipped Cream Dressing.
2 quarts shredded green cabbage, 4 teaspoons salt,
1 pint double cream, 4 teaspoons sugar,
1. cup lemon or lime juice, Scraped onion,
1 cup thick tomato puree, 6 tablespoons ground horseradish.
Whip the cream, add the seasoning to it and fold in the puree and com-
bine with the cabbage just before serving. All ingredients should be very
cold. Garnish with rings of green pepper.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 25
Cabbage and Carrot Salad.
To one quart of shredded cabbage add an equal amount of grated raw
carrot and combine with a dressing made of equal parts mayonnaise and
Cabbage and Onion Salad.
Shred the cabbage and cut the onions into very thin rings. Season with
salt, celery salt, pepper and paprika. Mix with mayonnaise or French dress-
ing and serve in pepper rings.
a. Cabbage in all varieties contains sulphur compounds, which produce
undesirable odors in the cooking process. In an open vessel the odors will
escape in the steam.
b. The pigment in white cabbage turns a reddish brown when over-
cooked. Fifteen to twenty minutes is sufficient time for cooking tender
cabbage. Cook only until tender.
Improved Pekin Celery Cabbage
Cabbage being among the "strong" vegetables is cooked in a generous
amount of water and with the top open for at least fifteen minutes. Season
with ham or with butter, salt and pepper. Cook only until tender.
Very tender cabbage chopped fine may be steamed but they are usually
more "tasty" and better color if cooked in more water and in an open vessel.
26 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Five Minute Cabbage.
1%1 quarts shredded cabbage, 2%1 tablespoons flour,
3 cups milk, Salt,
1 cup thin cream, Pepper.
21/, tablespoons butter,
Cook the cabbage three minutes in the milk. Add the cream, the
blended butter and flour, and the seasoning and cook rapidly for three or
four minutes. The result is a dish of superior flavor and texture.
2 cups mashed potatoes, Salt and pepper,
1 medium-sized onion, Celery salt,
1 green pepper or pimento, Cabbage leaves,
1 cup cold cooked meat, ground Boiling water or stock,
or chopped, Sage to taste.
Combine the vegetables, meat and seasonings, and shape the mixture
into small rolls. Roll each of these in a wilted cabbage leaf (wilted by plac-
ing in boiling water for 5 minutes) and place them in a greased baking dish.
Add sufficient boiling water or stock to cover them about halfway. Cover
and bake in a moderate oven until the cabbage leaves are tender.
(2) Chinese Cabbage
Chinese cabbage (Pe-tsai)-This cabbage is made of white close-growing
stems with green leaves. There are two types-one a compact, blanched
head, the other a loose, non-heading growth. The centers are very tender
and may be used for raw salads.
Use raw or cooked. This cabbage requires even less cooking than com-
mon cabbage. The inside leaves are better uncooked. The loose, green,
non-heading type of Chinese cabbage shredded is suitable to serve as
"wilted" salad. To cook, chop and cook in boiling salted water for about
15 minutes. Season with butter and lemon juice.
Broccoli is a winter vegetable in Florida. It looks a little like the
cauliflower but is more hardy. It contains probably more vitamin A than
cauliflower but otherwise is similar in composition. Select when young
To preserve the at-
tractive texture and
flower of the Broccoli,
arrange with "heads
up" in a vessel. Steam
in salted water for a
few minutes with the
vessel open to pre-
serve the green color.
Cook until tender.
Season with butter or
bacon fat or with a
combination of butter
Italian Green Sprouting Broccoli
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 27
(4) Brussels Sprouts
Brussels sprouts is a variety of cabbage having blistered leaves. The
stem of the plant is covered with small heads of cabbage which form the
edible portion of the plant, and which are more delicate in flavor than the
cauliflower or cabbage. It is used as cabbage in the menu. It contains more
vitamin A than the white leaves of common cabbage.
Cook in boiling salted water about 20 minutes or until tender. Drain.
Add butter or cream. If young and fresh steam instead of boil.
Brussels Sprouts With Celery.
('hop 1 quart sprouts cooked as
above. Chop celery 11t ;ulips, and
cook two minutes in 3 tablespoons
butter. Add two tablespoons flour
ande polur oni gradually 1c culp
scalded milk. Bring to a boil. Add
sprouts. season with salt and pepper
anl. as soon as heated. serve. To-
mnato pull) may be used for milk.
Collards belong to the Inon-heald-
ing, thick-leaf vegetables growing
oni one stalk. Both cooked and raw,
they are excellent in vitamin A.
They are also sources of vitamins 4
B :lad C. They are a good winter
vegetable ant are improved with
(ool mornings and light frosts. In
colder climates the leaves form loose
heads but in Florida they do not
head. Leaves may he broken from
the stems and the plant left to colln-
tinue to grow through the winter. Brussels Sprouts
Select tender leaves after frost (if in frost section). Cook until tender
in a generous amount of water to evaporate as the greens become quite
tender. Season with cured bacon or ham hock. Usually the meat (with
bone) is placed in cold water and allowed to come to a boil and cook for
a few minutes before greens are added. Add salt to taste after greens
have cooked for a while. Chop fine. Serve with a sour relish or pickle.
Cauliflower and broccoli are about the only flowers used as vegetables.
Cauliflower is considered as a cabbage, but it is milder in flavor and possibly
more easily digested. It has a high water-holding capacity. It is a good
source of calcium, having nearly twice as much as any other vegetable,
Remove the green and imperfect leaves from the cauliflower and place
it top downward in a dish of cold salted water to draw out the dust and
other impurities. Leave whole or break into flowers, boil until tender in a
generous amount of water. Drain and serve with salt. pepper and butter
28 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Cauliflower, French Style.
1 cauliflower, 5 tablespoons butter, 2 tablespoons cream,
2 quarts water, 4 tablespoons flour, 1 egg yolk.
2 tablespoons salt, 3/8 pound sorrel,
Boil the cauliflower for twenty minutes in the salt water. Cook the
finely chopped sorrel for ten minutes. Make a white sauce of the flour and
part of the butter and the Juice of the vegetables.
Put the cauliflower through a sieve, return to the soup, add the white
sauce and, just before serving, add the well-mixed egg yolk and cream.
1 large cauliflower, 1 cup milk, 3 tablespoons cream,
3 tablespoons flour, 4 tablespoons butter, 8 eggs.
Cook the cauliflower until tender in boiling salt water, drain well, run
Make a cream sauce with the flour, butter, cream and milk. Mix with
the cauliflower and add the egg yolks and lastly fold in the stiffly beaten
whites. Put in a buttered mold, set in water-cook covered for at least 1
hour. Ten minutes before serving, remove the cover and brown. Turn out
of the mold and serve with tomato sauce.-(French Selected.)
Cauliflower Au Gratin.
1 medium-sized cauliflower, 2/3 cup cheese,
1 1, cups thin white sauce, Salt and paprika,
When the white sauce is smooth, add the cheese, the salt and paprika,
and pour the sauce over the cooked cauliflower. Turn the mixture into a
buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Brown in a moderate
oven (350*-400* F.) from 15 to 20 minutes.
Cauliflower With Cheese.
Place a whole cooked cauliflower on a dish for serving. Pour over and
around the cauliflower 2 cups of:
Cheese Sauce Made of:
2 tablespoons butter, ',/ teaspoon salt,
4 tablespoons flour, Few grains pepper,
2 cups milk, 1 cup American cheese, grated.
Melt butter in saucepan, add flour mixed with seasonings and stir until
well blended, pour on the milk and stir constantly, cooking until thick. Then
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 29
add the cheese which has been carefully grated, and cook slowly until the
cheese is melted. Additional cheese grated and sprinkled over the cauli-
flower makes an attractive garnish.
Kohl-rabi. or turnip cenbage, has
the stem or ulh. the edible portion
of the plant, largely above the ground.
The smaller bulbs are less tough
andl fibrous than the larger ones.
Kohl-rali has from one to three
limes as much phosphorus, calcium
angd protein as have beets and carrots.
It also has a high iron content.
Select small bulbs having crisp, new
pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water
15 minutes. then add leaves and cook
an additional 30 minutes. Slice tile
bulb, arrange the greens around the
edge of the dish and place the slices
in the center. Season with melted
butter. If very tender, steam instead
White Vienna Kohi-Rabi Rape, or Portuguese cabbage, having
deeply lobed green leaves and small
white or yellow flowers. is usedl in the very young, ten(ler stage for greens when
the flowers begin to show a little yellow. It is cooked in boiling water about
30 minutes. Grated cocoanllut or tolnato catsup make a good seasoning.
Garnishes for Greens.
Hard cooked eggs; young radishes and onions; slices of lemon, lime or
orange; grated cheese, carrot or beets, sliced tomato or cucumber.
30 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
A G E E R S serving of fresh Florida celery, crisp and
"crunchy," will sell almost any meal. Celery is a good balance
for meat and bread diet; it adds texture to the too-soft food;
it lends a flavor and an individuality to the neutral meal; it gives
freshness to the canned meal; supplies bulk for the concentrated
food; furnishes minerals and vitamins to the starch and sugar diet;
saves the lay for an emergency addition, being always ready without
cooking. (See "Salads.")
Celery is best in its fresh, crisp, raw form but it may be cooked
slightly without decreasing its value. The coarser outside stalks may
be utilized in soups, white sauce, chowder, chop suey, stews, and scal-
lops while the hearts go with salads, sandwiches, and garnishes.
Florida celery grows under ideal conditions of soil, sunshine and
climate; it is tender, well flavored and superior in quality.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU
(Serves 12 to 14.)
2 quarts finely diced celery, 3 teaspoons salt,
6 large potatoes, diced, q teaspoon pepper,
2 medium sized onions, chopped, 2 quarts milk.
4 tablespoons flour, 4 hard cooked eggs.
Melt the fat in a kettle. Add the chopped onion, celery, and potato.
Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until the celery and potatoes
are tender. Add salt, pepper and milk. Heat well and thicken with the
flour which has been rubbed smooth in 4 tablespoons of water. Just before
serving add the hard cooked eggs chopped fine.
6 eggs, 4 dozen oysters,
12 slices bacon, 4 cups celery,
Salt to taste.
Brown the bacon in a skillet. Remove bacon and place oysters in the
pan and heat until they begin to curl. Add eggs slightly beaten. Cook
until the mixture begins to thicken and add chopped celery and then cook
only long enough to heat the celery. Serve on toast or on lettuce. Garnish
with crisp bacon.
2 qts. celery or six hunches, 1 qt. onions.
3 qts. cabbage or 2 large heads,
Chop and cover with salt water for two days. Drain well and put on
1'. qts. vinegar. i cups brown sugar,
/% lb. mustard. 1 tablespoon flour.
1 tablespoon turmeric powder.
Boil twenty minutes, then add three well-beaten eggs, before taking from
heat. Add more salt and sugar if needed.
American Chop Suey.
1 lb. round steak ground, 1 large bunch celery.
1 cup raw rice. 1 pint tomatoes,
1 green pepper (cut fine). 1 can mushrooms may be
1 large onion, added.
Brown meat slightly in small quantity of fat, add all other ingredients
which have been cut. Cook until vegetables are tender. Add tabasco if
desired. (Jewel Taylor, Florida Power & Light Co.)
Chile Con Carne.
One pound hamburger, one-half can pimentos, cut fine; two large onions,
cut fine, one cup diced celery, one teaspoon sugar, one pint tomatoes, one
package spaghetti, cooked in boiling salted water. When spaghetti is
tender, drain off water; add hamburger, celery, tomatoes, pimentos, onions,
sugar. Cook slowly until meat is done. Add salt and pepper to taste. Add
tabasco if desired.
32 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
E carrot, rich in vitamins, minerals, and color, should be pop-
ular everywhere. The young carrot has a higher caloric value
than the old carrot, the latter having a tendency to become
woody. The peel is a good source of vitamin, so the grating of a
young carrot (peel and all) is a wise method.
The flavor and odor of the carrot for fresh salads is more pleasing
in the raw than in the cooked product. (See salads for uses.) Be-
cause of the pectin content of carrots they are often combined with
pineapple (cooked) or with other fruits having no pectin, in the
making of marmalades. Grated carrot helps to give pineapple pie
the right consistency and bright color. Due to the non-digestible
carbohydrates, pectin, etc., carrots are a mechanical aid to digestion
and elimination. In cutting carrots for cooking, cut them lengthwise
and there will be less loss in cooking.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 33
Wash and scrape young carrots. Boil or steam until tender. Add
butter, pepper, salt to taste. Add cream sauce if desired or use only
butter or cream. Carrots may be boiled with meat. They may be
used whole for garnish, around the meat platter. Cubed, they are
16 carrots, 4 cups cooked rice.
I '. cups ground boiled ham, 4 tablespoons butter.
1 teaspoon celery salt. Pepper.
Salt, Buttered bread crumbs.
Scrub the carrots and cook them until tender. Remove the skins, cut
off the root end, and split the carrots in half lengthwise. Combine the other
Ingredients and mix thoroughly. Pile the stuffing on the carrot halves,
sprinkle with the buttered crumbs, and brown in a moderate oven.
4 cups carrots, boiled and 4 cups medium white sauce,
mashed. 8 eggs.
4 tablespoons minced onion, 2 teaspoons salt.
Add the carrot, the onion and the seasoning to the white sauce, then
add the beaten egg yolks. Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff.
Fold them lightly into the first mixture, and turn this into a buttered baking
dish. Set the dish in a pan of hot water and bake the souffle in a moderate
oven (350*-4000 F.) for 30 minutes. Serve it at once.
Carrots and Peas.
Boil carrots whole. Cut in cubes. Combine with equal quantity of
cooked green peas. Season with butter or light cream, salt and pepper.
4 cups carrots cut into thin strips, Salt and pepper,
4 teaspoons chopped onion or 4 tablespoons butter.
2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 tablespoons chopped parsley.
Boil carrots ten minutes and drain. Melt butter, add onion and cook
five minutes. Then add carrots and salt and pepper to season. Stir gently
until well blended. Pile In.hot dish and sprinkle with parsley. Lemon juice
flavor is more popular than onion juice. Do not cook lemon juice. Mix with
melted butter and add just before serving.
Creamed Carrots With Peanut Butter
12 carrots 4 tablespoons peanut butter.
2 cups white sauce,
Dice the carrots and cook until soft. Make white sauce, adding to it
the peanut butter. Pour over the carrots and serve hot.
2 C. NM.
34 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
(Servings, 16 to 20)
4 cups grated or diced carrot 1 cup bread crumbs
2 lbs. ground meat 2 cups tomato pulp (thick)
2 eggs Salt and pepper.
Mix well and pack tightly in loaf bread pans. Bake in a moderate oven
350 degrees for 1 to 1% hours. Baste with a little butter if needed.
1 quart carrots, ground, 1 pint vinegar,
1 cup celery, chopped fine, 2 teaspoons salt,
1 large red or green pepper, 3/ cup sugar,
chopped, /i2 teaspoon paprika.
1 medium sized onion, chopped,
Cook carrot until tender. Chop celery and other ingredients very fine.
Combine ingredients and cook until mixture is clear.
2 pounds of sweet Spanish 1 pint of small carrots, sliced,
pimento or No. 1 cans Cook until tender.
of pimento, /, pint of gingered watermelon
1 pound of sugar, rind.
2 hot peppers,
Juice of 4 lemons,
Red Part-Place sweet peppers in a hot oven, blister and peel. Chop
sweet and hot pepper together, add sugar and lemon juice, and let stand in
an enameled vessel or crock for 5 hours. Drain off the liquor and allow it
to simmer for ten minutes. Pour it over the peppers again and let stand
for 2 hours. Simmer the liquor again for 15 minutes, allowing the peppers
to remain in while simmering.
Yellow Part-Use one pint of sliced carrots (cooked) and one-half pint
gingered watermelon rind chopped or cut into small, uniform pieces.
Packing-A ten-ounce jar is an attractive package for this product. In
packing, place the heavier color-red-at the bottom in a one-inch layer;
then place a one-inch layer of yellow. Continue in this manner until the
jar is nearly filled. Combine the liquors and boil five minutes, strain, and
pour over the contents. Paddle to remove air bubbles. Cap, clamp, and
process for 10 minutes. If desired, this chutney may be made for immediate
use. It is attractive as a relish and as a garnish.
12 carrots (medium size), 1 cup water,
11/3 cup brown sugar. 4 tablespoons butter.
Clean and cook whole carrots in small amount of salt water. Make a
sirup of the brown sugar, water and butter. Place cooked carrots in sirup
in a heavy frying pan. Baste carrots until they have a rich glaze. Serve
with roast meat.
Carrot and Apple Pie.
1 cup grated carrots, 1 cup grated pineapple.
1 cup diced tart apples, cup water,
1 cup sugar, 1 tablespoon butter,
1/3 cup raisins, Nutmeg and vanilla.
Cook carrot, apple, pineapple together. Make sirup of sugar and water.
Add raisins and cook until tender and plump. Combine all and cook the
mixture, with the exception of the butter and seasoning, until it is thick and
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 35
clear. Remove from heat. Beat in one egg, and butter and seasoning. Turn
it into a crust that has been baked, and cover it with meringue. Bake it
in a slow oven 25 minutes.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade.
6 carrots, medium size, 1 lemon, juice and grated rind,
3 oranges. Sugar.
Dice the carrots and cook them until they are tender, in as little water
as possible. Cut the oranges and the lemon in small pieces. Measure the
carrot and fruit, and add 2/3 as much sugar. Simmer the mixture until it
is clear and at the jellying point. Turn it into jelly glasses, and when it is
cold, seal it with paraffin.
Grated carrot, Cocoanut.
Pineapple, Whipped cream.
8 eggs, 2 teaspoons salt.
2 cups milk. 4 tablespoons melted butter.
1 cup fine bread crumbs, 6 cups grated raw carrot.
Beat eggs slightly and add remaining ingredients. Turn into greased
custard cups, place in steamer basket, set over boiling water, cover and
cook until the custard is firm, about 30 minutes. Unniold and serve as a
vegetable or with cheese or egg sauce as a main course at luncheon or
Carrot and Peanut Sandwich
1 cup ground peanuts, 2 tablespoons lemon juice,
cup grated carrot, 2 tablespoons salad dressing.
%1 tablespoon salt,
Use between slices buttered bread.
Carrot and Honey Sandwich.
Grate raw tender carrots and mix one tablespoon of honey to three of
the carrot. Spread on buttered whole-wheat bread. Excellent for children
over ten years. One tablespoonful of lemon juice may be added to the
mixture if the sandwich is too sweet.
Happy's Combination Salad.
3 pounds cabbage, 4 pounds carrots,
4 pounds pear, 6 heads lettuce.
Freshen the cabbage in cold salted water 1 hour. Drain. Chop cabbage
finely. Wash and cut the pears in slices. Mix at once with the sour cream
dressing to prevent discoloration. Wash and scrape carrots. Put through
a food grinder. Combine pears with cabbage and carrots and serve upon
fresh, crisp lettuce leaves. (One-half cup, a serving.)
2 quarts cottage cheese, 1 quart hot water.
1 cup chopped nuts, 2 tablespoons salt,
1/k cup lemon juice, 2 cups sugar.
J. cup gelatin, 1 quart grated carrot,
2 cups cold water, 1 quart grated pineapple,
1 quart whipped cream.
Soften gelatin in cold water, dissolve in boiling water. Add salt, sugar,
and lemon juice. When it begins to set add remaining ingredients and fold
in stifily beaten cream. Pour in molds and chill. (One-half cup, a serving.)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
20 medium sized carrots, Thin cream or rich milk,
1 cup butter, 2 teaspoons salt.
Wash and scrape the carrots and cook in boiling salted water or cook
in skins and peel. Press through a sieve or potato ricer. Add enough cream
or top milk to make a creamy consistency. Add the butter and a little sugar
if desired. A cup of grated cocoanut or ground pecans may take the place
of 1% cup of butter. Reheat the mixture and serve hot.
Fried Carrots and Apples.
12 medium sized carrots, 3 tablespoons lemon juice,
6 tart apples, 1 teaspoon salt.
4 tablespoons fat.
Scrape the carrots and cut into thin slices lengthwise. Core the apples
and slice through the peel into slices about % inch thick. Place a single
layer of the carrot and apple in the skillet with hot fat. Cover tightly and
cook until well browned. Turn and brown the other side. Remove and
drain well. Sprinkle with salt and sugar and a little cinnamon if desired.
Grated carrot, Grated cocoanut,
Shredded or diced pineapple, Whipped cream.
Carrot Plum Pudding.
111 cups brown sugar, Grated rind and juice of 1 lemon,
1 cup suet, ground, 3 cups flour,
3 cups grated raw carrot, 2 teaspoons soda,
2 cups grated raw potato, 1 teaspoon nutmeg,
1% cups chopped figs.
Add sugar and ground suet to the grated carrot, potato and lemon juice.
Mix the dry ingredients and combine with the above mixture. Use canned
or preserved sugar figs. Drain well and slightly dry in the oven. Chop fine.
Add to the mixture and pour all into the well greased baking pan. Cover
and steam for 2 hours. Serve with or without a vanilla sauce.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
M ANY varieties of sweet potatoes flourish in Florida soils.
Usually the moist, sweeter potato goes on the local market
while the dry mealy article goes to the Northerner who likes
it better. The sweet variety of sweet potato has from 6 to 8 per cent
sugar and a higher caloric value than the white potato. The sugar
increases while the starch decreases during storage. There is very
Sweet potatoes show a vitamin content in A and C and are
cheaper in money value than most sources of vitamin C. In diges-
tion they yield an alkaline effect and are therefore a suitable combi-
nation with meat and eggs and other acid producing foods. Sweet
potato has a slightly lower percentage of protein than the white
potato and about the same mineral value.
The "Porto Rico," rich in color, moist in texture, sweet in flavor,
and the Nancy Hall, with a creamy pink yellow flesh, are two of the
more popular varieties among Southern people. The Triumph and
Big Stem Jersey, dry and mealy in texture, are more popular among
Northern people who are more accustomed to the white potato and
who like the drier type. Various yam varieties are splendid for
home use but are rather tender and easily bruised in handling.
Canning factories are now taking care of the surplus and of
potatoes too small for shipping. In this way many localities through-
out the country are being supplied for the first time with sweet
METHODS OF PREPARATION
Baking is the best method. A well matured sweet potato baked in the
skin needs no sweetening. nor additions. It supplies sufficient sugar for
a meal and is within itself a dessert. The sweet potato combines nicely
with meat, cheese, egg, milk and nuts and forms the basis both for many
main dishes and for desserts.
SWEET POTATO RECIPES
Sweet potato develops the best flavor when baked. Wash well, grease
with butter or bacon and bake in covered pan inside oven. The skin, when
brown. cracks and allows steam to escape. Split through center or break
into halves crosswise and butter. Serve hot. A good sweet potato needs no
extra "trimmings." Even Ihe peeling is palatable.
Baked on Half Shell.
Bake potato as above. Cut lengthwise, remove contents, mash, season
with salt, butter and possibly a little sugar. Add to one cup potato %1
cup crushed, pi relied peanuts and one egg. Beat well and place in potato
shells. Sprinkle the tops with peanut crumbs. Brown and serve hot.
38 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Smothered Ham With Sweet Potatoes.
1 slice of smoked ham. cut into 1 tablespoon butter or ham drip-
sizes for serving, pings,
3 cups raw. sliced. sweet potatoes. 1 (culp lhot water.
Brown tilh hainm lightly on both sides and Iarranlle it to cover the bottom
of a Ibking dish. Spread tile sliced weet potatoes over tihn ha ini. Sprink'e
with sugar. Add the hot water and extra fat. Cover the dish and bake
slowly until the ham Is tender. Baste the potatoes occasionally with the
gravy. Brown the top well.
Swest Potato and Peanut Croquettes.
(Serves 10 or 12.)
2 cups niashed sweet potato. 1 teaspoon salt.
2 cups finely ground parched pea- Cayenne peplpr.
nuts or pecans, 2 tablespoons flour.
2 eggs. Bread crurlils.
Combine the ingredients, and shape the mixture into croquettes. Roll
them in bread crumbs, beaten eggs, and crumbs again Fry them in deep fat.
'Prarae croquette material as above. Shape ltie croquette around a white
or colored marshmallow and fry in deep fat. Serve with a roast or with
Sweet Potato Tournado.
Select potatoes about two inches il diameter. Cook tlhie in boiling
wlter until tender. Peel IIanl cult iln pieces two inches long. .round each
piece wrap i thin sli-e of hltaon and fusten with toothpick. Place on a pan
ini a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. Serve with parsley garnish.
Breaded Sweet Potatoes.
Peel boiled sweet potatoes and cut them in lengthwise slices. Ilip the
slices in beaten egg. then in bread crunil:s and fry in deep fat. IDrain in
soft palper. Serve hot.
Peel and cut tile potatoes lengthwise in sticks a half inchl in thickness.
1)r'op the stilks into fill i half inch ill depth alnd smoking hot: when a
golden brown, lower the flame a little and cook until done, testing with a
tork or straw.
Glazed Sweet Potatoes.
Boil medium sized piotatces tVwenty minutes, p1el and cut in halves.
Place inl a buttered pan. Brush potatoes over with a syrup prepared as
!i% cup syrup (cane or inaple). 4 tableslpouins water,
1/8 lablhespooun salt. Add I tablespoon of butter.
Boil together for three minutes.
After brushing the potatoes over with the syrup, place in the oven and
bake for litteen minutes. Haste again with the syrup and bake for five
minutes. Pour the renminiig syrup over the potatoes. return to tie oven
and bake until well browned.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 39
12 medium potatoes. 2 teaspoons salt.
2 cups water. 3 (ups sugar,
V c('p butter, / ('n) vinegar or lemon juice.
2 teaspoons ciinialiOn.
Cut uncooked potatoes into slices, then strips about 1/3 of an inch thick.
Place in ia baking d'sh. Add butter and sprinkle with sugar. Pour on water.
Dash with cinnaii(ain. Add vinegar. Jitlke until sugar tandl butter are candied
and the potatoes iare we!l cooked. ILemon juice miiay be substituted for
('ut uncooked p:>tato s lengthwise into strips anil place in a baking disli.
Make it syrulp of sugar. leilon juice. water. cin1lnimon 1and grated rind of a
lemon. When well dissolved biy hoi ling pour syrup over the potntotis. Add
butter. Cook until potatoes are clenr. This methlid keeps potato strips
1 qiiurt glra'ted raw sweet poltaites, i,_ cup flour,
1 egg. L' tenspoolln nltinlg,
c(it call ne syrup, I teaspoon cinnamon,
3 ttlblesploc s butter, lmeltted. : telspli ill salt.
1 cup milk.
Sift together the dry ingredients. Combine these with the remaining
ingredients. Put the mixture in a baking dish and bake it in a slow oven
about two and one-half hours. or until done. stirring oc('is.onailly during the
first of the cooking. During tile last thirty minutes, discontinue the stirring
anil allow thlie pone to brown. Malliy people prefer to serve the dish cold
with mi.k or cream. When cold it ain lihe sliced. It is very frequently served
hot ias a veetaIble.
Sweet Potato Souffle.
I Servings, 12)
3 (upsii cooked 1nshed I potato. 4 eggs.
1 (icup hot milk. 2 teaspolons nutmeg,
1 teaspoon nutmietg. 1 1up raisins,
4 tablespoIns sugar. 1 (111up chopped nuts,
1 teaspoon salt, Malrshmlltiows.
4 tablespoons butter.
I1'ie.ss leflover ii iled ir ake;d sweet potaittoes through a ricer or niaishl
well. Scalil the lUinlk a;n adil small. sUllar. ain I utter. When the butter hias
melted and the salt and sugar are dissolved, add to the potatoes and mix and
beat until light and tuliy. Separate the eggs, beat yolks, and add to the
potato alha ng w.lh the 111utieg. ilisins, an(d lnuts. Beat the whites of eggs
stillff, cut and told into potato mixture, and iour at once into a buttered linak-
ing d sh. Arrnllge lmalishiallows 111 tup laout /X, inch apart. lPut into a
moderate oven andl bak e lutil tlhe soufflei is set and tlthe ilnrshlltiallows iare
delicately to;:sted. Serve at tonce from the making dish.
40 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Sweet Potato Souffle in Orange Cups.
Make souffle as in above recipe. Cut oranges one inch slice from top. Re-
move pulp. Fill orange cup with potato souffle. Omit marshmallow. Place
cups inside oven to bake until set. Remove from oven, sprinkle with freshly
grated cocoanut and serve immediately.
Sweet Potato Pudding.
8 eggs, 2 cups cane syrup,
1% cups milk. 2 teaspoons nutmeg.
8 cups grated raw sweet potato, 2 teaspoons cinnamon,
1 cup sugar, 1 teaspoon salt.
/ cup butter, 1 cup chopped nuts.
Beat eggs, without separating, until lemon colored, add milk and stir.
Mix nuts, spices, sugar, syrup, and salt with grated sweet potato. Melt the
butter, add together with the eggs and milk to the potato and mix. Butter
well a pudding pan, pour the mixture into it, and steam for three hours or
bake in a moderate oven. If baked the pudding may be stirred from the
pan as it crusts so as to make the whole grainy or nutty. Serve with fresh
cream sweetened and flavored or with a lemon sauce. One-half cup shredded
cocoanut makes a nice addition to this recipe.
Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Pudding.
3 cups mashed boiled sweet potato, 3 cups stewed apples.
2 teaspoons cinnamon, 1 tablespoon salt.
Mix well and put in a buttered baking dish, place in the oven and brown.
Serve if desired with cream. (Should additional sugar be desired it may be
added while mixing.)
Old Fashioned Southern Sweet Potato Pudding.
4 cups grated raw potato. 1 cup crystallized orange peel,
% cup sugar, 1 teaspoon nutmeg.
1 cup corn meal, 1 teaspoon cinnamon,
1 cup cane syrup, / cup crushed peanuts or
4 cup butter, cocoanut.
4 eggs, 1 teaspoon salt.
1%1 cups milk,
Mix well as for sweet potato pudding. Bake in a moderate oven or in a
steam cooker. During the first thirty minutes stir occasionally. Cook for
an hour or more, depending upon the size of the recipe used. Serve hot or
cold, with cream or without.
Georgian Sweet Potatoes
4 cups mashed sweet potatoes, 1 teaspoon salt,
11/3 cups fat or 2 cups chopped 1 teaspoon baking powder,
nuts or ground peanuts, % cup milk,
1 cup cane syrup or 1/3 cup sugar, Flavoring, 3 teaspoons vanilla ex-
12 eggs, tract or 4 teaspoons cinnamon.
Select sweet potatoes, boil and mash through a sieve. To 4 cups of
mashed potatoes add the fat and syrup and beat until smooth. Add the
beaten yolks and flavoring, then add the baking powder, fold in the beaten
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 41
egg whites. Place in a buttered baking dish and bake. When just beginning
to brown, dot over with halves of marshmallows and finish browning. One
cup of raisins may he added to the mixture if desired.
Sweet Potato Cake.
2/3 cup butter, 1 cup chopped nut neaits (pecans
Pinch of salt, or walnuts),
1 cup granulated sugar, 3 teaspoons baking powder,
1 cup brown sugar. ( tablespoons cocoa (or 2 sq.
1 cup hot mashed sweet potatoes, melted chocolate).
2 cups flour. I teaspoon each cloves, cinnamon,
1( cup sweet milk. Nutmeg.
2 eggs. 1 teaspoonl vanilla.
Cream butter and sugar, add egg yolks, potatoes, spices, vanilla, baking
powder sifted with the flour, milk, whites of eggs well beaten and nuts rolled
in flour. Bake in a ilaf in a moderate oven for 45 minutes.
Variations of this cake may be lmade by omitting tlhe cocoa andI baking
it as a spice cake or omitting hloth cocan andi spices a nd baking it as a plain
cake. All brown sugar may be usedl instead of part granulated.
Serve in slices 3 inches by 2 ilncls on plate with whipped creain sauce.
Whipped Cream Sauce
I cupl thick cream. wliipped. 1 teaspoon flavoring.
2 tablespoons sugar.
Potato Yeast Bread.
Use any standard recipe for yeast bread. For each loaf add % cup
sifted hoiled sweet potato. If the yellow potato Is used it gives a creamy
yellow tone and nutty llavor. Keep the loaf as light and soft as is possible
in the making.
This old-faslioned method of cooking sweet potatoes develops their finest
flavor and one unlapproached through any other method. Select smooth,
uniform potatoes of medium size. Make a Ixed of them in tle hot ashes of
a burning fire. Cover well with Ille ashes. over this bank glowing coals.
Ioast the potatoes until soft throughout. When soft, remove from tile ashes,
peel and serve. They should be elen hot with butter. This method is
especially adapted to the open fireplace or to camp cookery and is frequently
usedl at tlie time of syrup and sugar making on the farm when tile hot ashes
and glowing coals at the entrance of tlhe furnace suggest it. It may be
practiced on a wood stove. utilizing tihe hot ashes in the ash pan as a bed
for the potatoes and covering them will a layer of glowing coals.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
SQUASII, in some variety, every month in the year is in the
Florida market. All of the usual varieties and some of the un-
usual types flourish in Florida soil and climate.
Squash, being nine per cent nutrients, has a higher food value than
puplkin, which is rated five per cent. It is equally as attractive in
flavor and appearance as asparagus if prepared with the same care.
It is much more economical than asparagus. Yellow squash is said
to have more vitamin A than have the white varieties.
Too long has this vegetable, with a value all its own, been con-
sidered in the commercial mein only as a portion of an onion dish.
Squash, in all its types. adapts itself easily to a long list of happy
1. Chinese Squash.
Chinese squash or melon, round or slightly elongated, is a light
green color and has a rind something like a watermelon. When
young it has a whitish, fuzzy appearance. The meat. about two inches
thick, and the seed are white. The flavor is mild. Steaming is the
best inethod for cooking. It forms a good casserole lining for squab
Cozelle Squash-(Italian Vegetable Marrow)
--Courtesy Killgori. Se(d Co.)
2. Summer Suash.
Summer squash is an oval or round shaped fruit. Its preparation
is similar to that of the Chinese squash. It may be steamed or boiled.
combinedd with eggs and the proper seasoning it forms a most pala-
table baked dish. The yellow variety adds attractive coloring to the
vegetable plate. This fruit varies all the way from white, light
green, to a deep yellow. A new variety, the ('COOZELLE, is inter-
esting in that the crooked neck has been straightened. It is what is
known as the Italian Vegetable Marrow. It grows from ten to twelve
inches long. is dark green in color and mild in flavor.
3. Winter S:.uash.
Winter squash should be peeled and se;:ded, before steaming or
4. Hubbard Squash.
Ihubbard squash or )pumplkin squash has a large, clark green,
IN THE CoMMElERC('IAL IMENTU
thick. wanted rind. It will keep well in storage. The flesh is an
orange color, rich in vitamin A. It is good for baking and for mak-
ing pies. The flavor is excellent. Baked in the rind it loses none of
its food value.
The chayote grows on a climbing vine which. when once estab-
lished, continues to grow year after year. The fruit is pear shaped
more or less and varies in size and color as well as shape. It has
only the one big seed easily removed.
To, prepare for choking. pI el
anll slit or lice: steam unlil
ienlh'er-no longer. Serve with
hutl lr. To vll y t lle iishl.rlt
thei squash l or fry the slices
in but ler. Slquash fritters ar,
lastlY vlhll hei made of icha .yote:t
th juice of lthe flowers of the
Florida ,Rosell, his n plulhs-
ing flavor; sweetvlii lhe saume
slight ly and ;t gtid dessert Is
Slthe result: climy ioe pie made
similar to) I green aI)ple pie.
either thit dlevlI dish otr custard
tyIpe. is einally ais ialatablde
as tile green apl bp pie itself.
4 cups diced chayote,
I cup sugar,
I tablespoon flour.
/4 cup butter,
Teaspoon grtii rind of
untllil lender, lenvinz about one
Chayote cup liquid. Mix sugar alid
flour ;11l(J grated lintmeg and
lmon r'nd. Line the baking pan wl.h pastry Place the chayote in the pan
alternating with the sugar mixture. Pour ov(r the fruit the one cup of
liquid in which it was cooked. lave the liquid boiling hot. Add the top
crust at once. Set the l;ie in a moderate oven and bake well from the
bottom. Do not ailow to brown too quickly n tlop. A deep dish pie lade
in this material is most appetizing served hot. Only the sides of the dish
may b lined with pastry and additional strips added as the dish is filled.
In this case more liquid is necessary.
ThL fruit or vegetable, as it may be called, may be preserved like pears
in thin slices, and spiced with lemon or ginger. Made into a spiced sweet
pickle it is a delightful relish. Plain canned, it may be used like a squash-
baked, steamed or fried-or it may be used in salads.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
IX-Other Florida Vegetables Available for Use
in Florida Commercial Menus
Lima Beans, Rutabagas, Jerusalem Artichoke,
Butter Beans, Potatoes, White, Plantain.
Sweet Corn, Yams, Banana,
Cucumber, Dasheen, Yutia,
Egg Plant, Salsify, Pigeon Pea,
Parsnips, Pumpkin, Chaya,
Peas, Field, Beets, Faba Bean,
Peas, Green, Cushaw, Talinum.
A Few Vegetables Helpful in Giving Unusual Variety to the Florida Menu
With a small amount of effort in gardening many hotels, tea rooms, and
other commercial organizations may both in summer and winter, in North
Florida and in South Florida, grow a few unusual products which lend in-
terest to any menu. With the climate, moisture and soil available it is quite
possible by the production of even a small number of vegetables to build
a reputation for the "unusual." This is always an attraction for the public,
particularly the traveling public.
This is not a sweet potato. It is a larger tuber than the sweet potato-
and not so sweet. When it grows to unusual size it is coarser than the
sweet potato. It keeps more easily than the potato. In the lower part of
the state it remains in the ground from year to year without replanting.
Farmers "dig" it as they need it from day to day.
The dasheen is an underground corm or tuber in which the plant stores
starch. The leaves are similar to "Elephant Ear." The tuber is similar to
the white potato but has less water and more starch and protein. It has a
nutty flavor, when cooked by boiling or baking, that suggests boiled chest-
nuts. It is served with drawn butter. It bakes nicely. The dasheen makes
a successful fluted "crisp" to be eaten like potato chips. Dasheen leaves
are also used as greens. They should be selected when young and tender.
Plantain has the appearance of a very large coarse banana. It is not
edible raw but is a good source of vitamin A and B in the cooked stage. It
should be cooked slowly. Before it is ripe it may be sliced very thin and
cooked like potato chips. It may also be baked or boiled. It is akin to the
sweet potato in taste and texture when cooked. Lemon juice and butter add
to the flavor.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 45
For baking, for salads, or for desserts the Florida banana is adaptable.
It combines nicely with citrus fruits which give it an additional pleasing
flavor. The Florida banana has a finer texture and flavor than the imported
The yutia is a tuber related to the dasheen. It grows easily and to the
size of two to three feet in length in South Florida. It keeps for a long time
in the ground. It is similar to the white potato in food value. To prepare
for table use. peel, boil and dice, and season like potatoes. Yutias and
dasheens may be used to advantage in the season when Florida white po-
tatoes are not on the market.
Tropical Green Pea-Pigeon Pea
This pea grows on a tall woody half hardy shrub that yields abundantly.
They are only a little less tender than the "English" peas. A "lloppin' John"
made from pigeon peas using one-half pint of peas. cooked, to a pint of rice,
cooked, and seasoning with onions, tomatoes and a little bacon or ham
would tempt the appetite of any guest.
This bean. very popular with Europeans. is now grown and is being
placed on the Florida market. It is an unusually well flavored bean and
when fresh and green requires only a short time cooking.
Okra thrives through the hot season and continues to bear well. Its
food value is similar to that of the green leafy plant and it should be culti-
vated throughout Florida for commercial and home use especially through
the "scarce" season.
Recently a variety of rhubarb suited to Florida has been grown success-
fully and been welcomed by the public in the Florida market.
NEWER FORMS OF SPINACH
The chaya plant grows from a cutting. The leaves are tender and free
from any unpleasant flavor. The ends of the branches of this tropical
spinach shrub may be steamed until tender and seasoned to taste. They
make be cooked so as to hold their shape and then (lipped into a thin
batter and fried in a deep fat. This method gives variety to those who
tire of the milder ways of preparing vegetables.
Talinum is indeed a tropical spinach, tender, mild flavored and attractive
in texture. It will grow in the very hot sun and grows rapidly from small
cuttings. Steaming is the best method for cooking. Eight or ten minutes
steaming is enough.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
X Florida Soups
"In the soup is the success of the d(inner."-Selected.
SOt' may mean an appetizer; it may mean a nutritious item of
high caloric value; it may be a clear soup or a thick soup, an
extract or a vegetable soup, a consolnnii or a cream soup but,
whatever place it has in the menu. it is the key tone of the meal. The
flavoring (meaning taste and odor) must be fine and individual even
though elusive. Soup should taste like "something" not like "every-
Florida's Fresh Vegetables for Soup
thing" nor like "just anything." A blend it should lbe-not just a
mixture. Be it a consolmme, hot or cold, a cream soup or a clear
soup, a main dish or an appetizer, it should be distinctive in flavor.
Too long soup has been a welcomed consumer of left-overs; a
deposit for by-products without thought for distinctive flavor. Com-
binations need to be made with the purpose not only of a savory
result but a pleasing effect. Not only the flavor should be a success,
but the color, the consistency, the temperature, must please the guest.
The soup is a good beginning for a successful meal. ;As a first course,
IN THIE COMMERCIAL MENU
it warns the digestive tract. increases the activity within while it
relaxes tired nerves and muscles and places tile individual in a
receptive attitude for the next number of his menu. "Tickle his
palate with his s:>up and the average person will be generous in his
attitude during the remainder of the meal-at least until he reaches
Numerous nutritious and full-flavored soups are being canned for
the market today. Not all of these soups, as the nutritionists once
advised, are void of vitamins nor missing in minerals. The fresh
soul), however, is a splendid means, if properly prepared, for con-
serving food value. in that the vegetables are cooked and served in
the same water. Nothing is wasted.
The combination vegetable soup furnishes a successful method for
teaclhii, people) children and grown-ups to like vegetables. Many
vegetables, such as carrots. cabbage, and spinach, become a habit in
the soup and gradually a favorite dish per se. Okra, not always
pleasing in texture. becomes a favorite in the soupl. not only because
it is of good flavor, but because its texture lends the proper consis-
tency t ttie soill. Mlany vegetables, )hecomllilng monotonous as such,
take on a new meaning when blended into attractive, well-made soup.
Florida vegetables. as well as fruits, furnish ample material for
lending not only nutritive value but also color, flavor and pleasing
CLASSES OF VEGETABLE SOUPS
Soup With Stock.
(1) Brown soup s:ock. made from beef (two-thirds lean meat and re-
mainder hone and fat). highly seasoned with vegetables. spices, sweet herbs.
(2) Consommin made from two or three kinds of meat (beef, veal, fowl),
high y scnasl'lel with v'geaibldes, slpics land herbs. Served cletr.
Vegetable Soup Without Stock.
(I) C.eam soups made of vegetables with milk and seasonings; always
(2) Puriers made from vegetables forced through a strainer and com-
bined will milk and seasonings-thicker than cream soup.
Vegetables Used For:
1. ('o!or-Tomato. popper, carrot, beets, okra. greens and green peas,
2. Flavor-(Special)-Chives, bay leaf. celery seed, fresh celery, endive.
sage. mint. parsley. garlic, onion, ginger, horseradish, peppers, mustard.
A bouquet garni of celery, parsley. and sprigs of herbs tied together is
used much in French cookery for flavoring. It is the "added touch," and
gives stew or soup a distinctive flavor.
3. Nutty Flavor-Peanuts, cocoanut. ground pecans.
4I. Consistency-Okra. avocado, potato, beans.
5. Accessories-Gherkins, celery, radishes, combination relishes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
RECIPES FOR SOUPS
Cook vegetables in water until tender. Drain, reserving liquor to substi-
tute for part of milk in cream sauce, liquor not to exceed two quarts. Rub
vegetables through a sieve. Melt butter, add flour and stir until smooth.
Add 1 cup cold milk; add hot milk, stirring constantly. Cook 5 minutes.
Combine cream sauce and pure and add remaining seasonings. If tomato
or other acid vegetable is being used, add pure to milk carefully to avoid
(Serving, % cup.)
8 pounds potatoes,
10 quarts milk, including water
in which potatoes were
1% cups flour.
1 pound butter.
% cup onion,
2 tablespoons parsley,
2 tablespoons celery tips,
6 tablespoons salt,
1 teaspoons pepper.
(2) Corn Chowder.
(Serving, % cup.)
4 quarts corn,
4 quarts sliced potatoes,
10 quarts milk, including water
which potatoes, parsley, and
celery were cooked,
1% cup flour,
1 pound butter,
2 cups cracker crumbs,
1' pound onions browned in
1/3 cup salt,
1 teaspoon pepper,
% cup parsley,
1. cup celery tips.
(3) Cream of Pea.
(Serving, :y cup.)
6 quarts peas,
10 quarts milk, including liquid
in which peas, onions and
bay leaf were cooked,
1% cups flour,
1 pound butter,
/ pound onion,
1 bay leaf,
3 tablespoons salt,
1 teaspoon pepper.
(4) Cream of Spinach.
(Serving, % cup.)
3 quarts canned spinach or
6 pounds fresh,
10 quarts milk, including liquid
1' cups flour,
1 pound butter,
1/3 cup salt,
4 pound onion chopped with
spinach and rul bed through
(5) Cream of Tomato.
(Serving, % cup.)
6 quarts canned tomatoes sim-
mered 30 minutes, with
cloves, bay leaf, onion,
6 quarts milk,
1% cups flour,
1 pound butter,
/4 cup salt,
1 tablespoon whole cloves,
3 bay leaves,
1/ pound sliced onion,
12 cup chopped parsley,
4 cup sugar,
1 teaspoon soda.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
(6) Cream of Celery.
(Serving, % cup.)
214 quarts diced celery and leaves,
cooked with onion in water,
rubbed through sieve,
1 quart milk, including celery
2 cups flour,
1 pound butter,
14 pound onion,
14 cup salt,
I teaspoon red pepper,
% teaspoon paprika.
Allow two-thirds lean meat to one-third bone and fat. Cut lean meat
into one-inch pieces. Put fat, bone, and lean into kettle; add cold water
allowing three cups to each pound of meat. Let stand one hour. Heat a
frying pain very hot, put in small amount of suet and brown one-third of
the lean meat so that all parts are seared. Add the browned meat to the
first and cook six or seven hours at low temperature. Salt, to taste, should
be added the last hour of cooking. Strain and cool quickly. This stock
may be used for any vegetable stock soup.
Vegetable Soup With Stock.
10 quarts of stock,
1 clup carrots,
1 cup) turnips,
1 cupl parsnips,
I cup cabbage.
1/2 c'up onion,
2 quarts boiling water.
1 tensploon pepper.
'. tablespoon of celery salt.
1/ cup brown rice, cooked in
1 quart of cold water.
1 quart of canned tomatoes, or
1' I/ quart of fresh tomatoes,
Wash. pare nml chop vegetables. and cook in boiling water until soft.
Wash adl boil the rice, then add the rice and vegetables. together with the
water in which they were cooked. to the so)up stock. Add tomato and season-
ings. Serve very hot.
Rich Cream Soup.
Wash and soak over night 11 quarts split peas in 12 quarts cold water.
Put over the fire adding 3 large onions; cook until thoroughly done. Mix 1
quart of milk with 1 cup flour; stir into peas; add 1 cup peanut butter; cook 5
minutes; add 1 quart cream and finely cut parsley. Serve with croutons.
Salt to taste.
2 quarts beans,
2 green peppers,
2 pounds cabbage.
I cup onions (chopped line),
2 No. 3 cans tomatoes,
10 quarts ham or I.eef stock,
3 tablespoons Worcester sauce,
% tablespoon chili powder,
2 lemons (juice and grated yel-
Soak the beans over night, boil and make into a puree. Strain the toma-
toes and use the juice and pulp. Combine all ingredients except lemon.
When ready to serve add lemon.
50 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Vegetable Vitamin Soup.
4 eupsi diced carrots. 4 cups tomato juice,
4 cups chopliiiied onions. 8 tableslonis chopplled green
quarts diced potatoes. pepper.
(i cups chopped celery. 2 cups butter.
4 cups diedml turnips. 4 tabiletspoons salt.
2 gallons nient stock. 1 tealslpoon !nepiwr.
Brown ll the vegetablel's. except the IHjtaitoes, in the butter in a skillet
for about 10 minutes. This he'lps develop the flavor. Then pllaie the col-
tents of the skillet In i Iiler. Washli out the iatrticles of browned vegetables
clinging to lithe skillet and add tIhe stock in the sauceplln. Boll 20 nilinutes:
tlen add the MIptaitoes and the tomato Juice. (ook 111 to 20 ninultes longer.
The IpotatIts aire added lhst. becatmse they do not require much time to cook.
If ad(del with the other vegetables. they would lie overcooked.-- I'. S. De-
Ipartllient of Agriculture.)
I Servings, 50)
5 pints beans. 1 (cup Iutter.
10) quarts water, I cup flour,
Benn soup iilly he nIlde with any one of the several kinds of beans-
nalvy beans. linla bieo us. pinto beans. and soy Ibens.
Sualk the It'wlns overnight inl water. Cook in the same water until very
soft. If the fliivor of onion is desired. cook one or two inl slices with ieains.
A tireless cooker is excellent for cookinlg the ieans. Mlinsh the Ialens through
at sieve when they lare dlone. Add water aiid milk or mIle tblroth enough
to make up 11 quarts. All Iealn stouips should have at little flour added to
then its Ia hinder to prevent tIhe thick Ipart from settling to the lihttom. Mix
one cupl of butter with one clup of ilour. Add a little of tlle ihot soup and
stir until smaiitilh. Addi the relniining soup and salt and pepper to season.
Ilent to Ibiiling. then cook in the doulllle lii.er aiboult O1 minutes. Celery or
lilly other allpproriirte vegetable l ma y bi e eookeil with the soup. They should
he cut into small pieces. A tablespoon of chopped parsley sprinkled over
the soupl at thie last nilllnte is inl iagreeilile additiotl)l. MiLced liard-coioked
egg and thin slices of lemon over the top of the soup add to Its popularity.
Quick Turnip Soup.
4 cupis miilk. I tailesloon flour.
2 cups grated rnw turnip. 2 tlablespoollns butter,
I I teilspoonl suit, / teaspoon parsley. cut very itne.
i'. tensp oitn grated union.
Ilent thlie inilk in a doule' loiler, adld the flour and butter. which have
Ilen well lblended. then the rnp e io nd e i.n salt. (Cook until the
turnip is tender. or for aloiiut 10 minutes. Sprinkle the parsley in tlhe soup
just before serving. Witl this soup. serve toslted cl es of lireadl or croutons.
Anl easy wity to make croutons is to spread slices oif lreiad lightly with butter.
Cut ecilih slice into strils, then into culles. lrown the cubes in tie oven.
O.iion Soup Au Gratin.
:1 cups imenlt broth. 2 tablespoons cold watilier.
Smnediutill sizle onliolns. chopped. Pl'tiper.
11/ tealspoonltls sult. 'Tost,
4 taliltspoclns lour, Cheese.
C(i.k the chopped unions in i sinail atnmount of waiter until tender. Add
2 tablesplHons of lit from the ienat brot h or the sale lquanlitly of butter and
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU .1
let tie ounitons cook down in this until they are yellow. Mix thle with the
meat broth anild thi< ken with the flour' aindl (-oli winter which have been well
blended. Cook for ai few minutes. 4111"iir the soup into tiowls or sollp Iplates,
lace on top) i rounll (or s'ic e of toasted brIad ;and sprinkle grilledl cheese over
the blrenl md sou. Serve at onle.
Cream of Spinach Soup.
I iliart milk. 2 tablespoons flilmr.
I c'll raw grolllld spilllach, I teaspoon salt.
2 Iniblespoons l utter.
Plat'(e the inilk in a doull)e holler with the suit. Wash lithe spinach. atil
.chop or griln it. If ground. place :i lhowl to natch the liquid which runs
from the grinder and add the liquid to the spinach. Mix the flour and butter
until well blended and add to the milk with the ground spinach. Stir until
thickened, alid the sphiliti
I73 serviiligs. ;l-th I c'uptl
1 gallon waterl, lI llilhlspooiis snlit.
1 iliirt t'elery ilived,. I teasoo i Ipil r.
:it 'llp chollop l o lliol. cu s 11
1 gilllon dliced polittoes, : cupls 'lnt.
10i No'. cails (eorn. :1,.. gailltons milk.
Cock ehlery. oion. i).]ltt:
to tlirev-iltnirierrs of tit hiiur. Mix flotir with iiieltedl fat alnl midd to tri'ii
mixture. iook 15 iii:niltes. .'.ddI s.idehlld mli k.
Corn and Tomato Chowdrr.
I Servings. 15)
4 utips liianned 'orln 1 ciupl gratd clhel-se.
4 c(ups clannedl or ripl tomalti es. I vuii chopped iliml:itus,
4 cups diceti (celery. i t 'li,'lspoltis llohur.
2 IIIInrts (oldl w\tlf'r. -1 t'itsptomll s salt.
4 tiblihspotis l)utter. 1,, tensImon pH'pper.
2 (cilis milk.
Place c"orn. tomnatles. iliv'e'd celt.ry. nd onl e te isptc
and cover with c-iol waler. Boil hoiur. Melt fat ant add flour gradually.
Then adll the (cold milk. stirring constantly. AdIl the vegetagble i mixture
gradually to the while s;uie: aidd seiisoiniings. Add to tlie lehowder tlte
grated chl'ese aind inieinttis. chopped tile. Stir until lchees is melted.
Serve piping hot. A rain soullp nmlay I ma lle. if desired. ly straining <,lit
the vegetables liefore' adding the white sauce.
The reni roleoe (initmllo is inmde as follows: Wash onie-linlf gallon of
okra podts, dry (ot I lowtel. (lu't otff end(s olf posll. iad slice. Pltt one-third (t
of Iard anti two tabllesioiins of ininiteil niiin.n into a kettle andtl fry a young
chicken. previously jointed, untilil ;i golden brIowni. Remove chicken. :dd
the sliced okra and rone small choliped toninat.. Fry until tlo more "s.rin.s"
come ttront tie okr. Then put tlhe' chli ken ill MId sIat lantId Ipp'er to taste.
Adld tione I(ttiar of titiling water. (CoIk lthrte-lontIls hour. ','rve inl sloup
plates with t p trtion ti lo;i iled lie in edach plate. Wlien hlhikeln (aiin..I
lne secureld, use haum.
52 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
1l', No. 10 cans tomatoes, 4 quarts water,
8 iay leaves, 1 teaspoon peppercorns,
I onion. sliced. 2 teaspoons celery seed.
1 teaspoon allspice berries. 'i, teaspoon whole cloves,
2 1ouillon cules, 1 tablespoon Worcester sauce.
Add water and seasonings to the tomatoes. simmer 20 minutes. and
press through a sieve. Add the bouillon cubes and Worcester sauce and
recent. Strain again, through cheesecloth and serve in cups.
Emergency Tomato Soup.
5 quarts boiling water, with 4 2'z quarts tomato soup.
bouillon cubes, or 2%1/ quarts plain cream.
5 quarts stock,
Dissolve bouillon cubes in bolling water. Add tomato soup and. just
Ixfore serving, stir in hot cream (4/5 cup serving).
Vegetable Soup Mixture.
This should be made in the proportion of one-halt tomato pulp, one-
fourth corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra, with seasoning added.
One slice of onion should be added to each No. 2 can. The tomatoes should
be heated, rubbed through a sieve, and cooked down to about the consistency
of ketchup before measuring: then the corn. okra, onion, and seasoning
should be added and cooked until the corn and okra are about three-fourths
done. Then pack into cnns and process one hour at boiling or 25 mllnutes.
at 10 pounds steam pressure.
((60 servings. % cup)
1 No. 10 can tomato puree, cup salt.
4 gallons soup stock, 4 cups uncooked spaghetti,
2 cups finely chopped onion, 1 teaspoon pepper.
1 culp flnely chopped green pepper.
Heat stock, salt and pepper. Add onion and green pepper to stock and
cook 1 hour. Add spaghetti 30 minutes and tomato puree 15 minutes before
4 quarts water, 2 tablespoons salt,
2 pounds fresh lima beans. 8 large carrots,
6 tablespoons tapioca, 41.. tablespoons butter.
(Cook the beans and carrots in the salted water until thoroughly tender.
Rub through a sieve and return to the water. Fifteen minutes before serv-
ing add the tapioca to the boiling soup. Add the butter just before serving.
4 quarts water, 2 tablespoons salt,
2 pounds potatoes, 6 leeks or onions.
4/5 cup bread crumbs, 5'!. tablespoons butter,
I tablespoon corn starch, 2 tablespoons cream.
Put the potatoes and bread to boil in the salted water; add the leeks
when the water is boiling; boil two hours; rub through a sieve; add corn
starch moistened with cold water. 15 minutes before serving. At the last
moment add the butter and cream.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 53
4 cups fine diced celery. 1. teaspoons salt,
3 large potatoes, diced, 1/8 teaspoon pepper,
1 mediiium sized inioni. chopped. 1I% quaiirts milk.
4 tablespoons fat. 3 hard cooked eggs.
2 tablespoons flour.
Melt the fat in a kettle. Then add the chopliHl onion. celery and
potatoes. Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until tile celery and
potatoes anr tender. Then add the silt, pepper, anad milk. lleat well and
thicken wit th tt flour which has ICbeen r'nibed smooth in two tablespoonfuls
of water. Just before serving, add hard-cootked eggs chopped. Serve with
4 pints milk. -I tblilesloons onion juice.
4 cnt!i cooked carrot. pressed 4- tilblesimxons minced parsley.
through a strainer, celery. or celery salt.
N tahllesiiions butter.
Ilealt tIle milk. (comliine the other ingrndiients. lihet them, and add then
to the heated milk.
SOUPS THAT ARE DIFFERENT
1 Ipund spinach. 3 leads lettuce.
/2 polilnd sorrel or endive. 5 talh)lespo(ons butter.
4 tablespoons flour. I pint milk.
4 talblheslons cream. I eg yolk.
4 talilesiI ns butter. C'routo ns.
Chop the spinach.
Wash the endive and lettuce and put it to cook in 4 tablespoons butter
willh it spoonful of line salt. Make a cream sai5(ce witl tie rest of the but-
ter. flour and milk and cliar with :3:. quarts water. Add tlie vegetables
and cook 1.. hour. Just Ie.rore serving add tile well mixed cream and egg
yolk-inixed with a few sl|niiifuls of t(le soup. .Srve with croutons browned
Cream of Cauliflower.
1 cauliflower. -1 tablespolins flour.
2 quarts water. :3/.S piund enlive.
2 tablesi.Sons .salt. 2 tablesisbpons cream.
;5 laile.spoons butter. 1 egg yolk.
Boil the cnialiflower for tweinly Iliilultes ill tli salt water.
Cook the Ilnily cliihopped endive 'or Itle minutes.
Make a wllite sancll of ithte l iir id p:ar of theI lintillr andl tile juic
of lihe vegeta miles.
Put the nauilitlower throiugi a sieve. return to tlie soup Add tlie white
sance and. just I-fore serving. .idl the well mixed egg yolk and cream.
(French,. selected. I
54 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
2 pounds Ieief. I pound leef I ones.
5 qullllrts wlter, 8 carrots,
2 talilespoons suit, 5 turnips,
1 (inlio with cloves. I leIeks.
2 sets of chicken gilhlets. I little branch of celery.
s whole eggs and 5 whites.
M.Ike i t Inallllon with the heef. hllon4. gi:hets lanil vIegetailplce 1iii water
and let biil 3: hours.
Takel 1 Jpint of tills hulilllln iin!d pour slowly 1Ion tlirhe eggs ,ntiin to ini
omelet ll. P'lour into In Iflt lutteredl tin in111 pult inl oven iln 11 piin iof wlter
iinlil it is set. Cool.
At tlil i moment t of servfin. inmoll d indi cut i into sminIll rounlllis or 4illllmoillll.
I'ut i il IMIwI Iandl Iui ur the strninel tisrtl4;nuimne livelr this anl serve.
( Servings. 15)
l'l lm1111ns rteenl enlls. 5 tablesMllMns butler.
2 heltdls of lettuce. 1 egg yoplk
'I lImpuldl of endlive. 3 qurts of Iooling water.
po Iolllln rice. 2 tableslooilns1 sil.t.
Cook thlle chloplidI lIltuicr nd endll llvll e with II little sllt in i covered
vessel for 15 minutes.. Atll the Ils anld ll cook until thoroughl.v tender. Ituh
through i sieve andlll ilil toI tlle INilllin water. A half hour iuwfoire serving
addl tlihe washed riv. At the momenilt of serving mix the egg yolk with the
llttter aid one ianll d1 t h li rI t ilespoin creali. A
Il.. poundlls carrots. *i pounds turnills.
1 INmlllll Ilillns.. 5 lliales4po ns i ll utte.r.
4 iliuarts water. 2 talllesplhIns (orilt-rilih.
1 rclip Imilk.
Wash and pare the vegetables; save 1/3 carrots, I/i turnips and
I1 beans; cook the remainder in the boiling salt water. Cut the reserved
vegetablel.s Into tine strips iJuliennei ainl4 co.ik In 2 iluairts of bIllin: walter
with I tillesl lon sallt :to minuteI s and11 theI n (draiil.
Iull the other vi.egetilhles through :a sieve nlld return tip the water inl
which Illey have I1een Willedl. Just Ibefore serving. lldd the 2 trllesmltilis of
or)llitllr'1li wIl!h hll h oeelnii ixedI witl 1 cup ll c,1 wnter-- llad tile jlliennle,
Ili1nd islly tilhe uttel'.
'ut inl1to Iit. all kinllds of vegetables i ll'out 2 Ipiounlids. Ilnlit M carrots.
till lnips. green I'iImns. Ini lien llls. cll, Ihliige leaves indl surrei.
Pull tile vegetl alesi lip rook with 5 tahlelispoons butter alind I little silt,
cover well iand cok I11 hInst twenty minllutes. Then ndd 4 (uilirts o(f winter
andii 1 lllesplimn suit : icook 1 hours. Ten minutes I.etore serving, aldd
2 tallesllu ols cornrstnrcl mixed with 1 cup milk.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 55
XI-Vegetable Groups-Their Nutritive Value
(1) FUNCTION OF VEGETABLES IN THE DIET
SINCE the balanced diet does consist of probably about 35 dif-
ferent food constituents it is necessary that no one food should
be used to the exclusion of another. Meat is a good protein food
but to supply all protein needs with meat would be a mistake. The
digestive system would be overtaxed to take care of it. Other types
of protein food-eggs, cheese, milk, vegetables-should enter the
diet. No single food is a complete diet. Even milk needs green
vegetables to supply iron and vitamin C.
Meeting Body Needs.
1. Vegetables help to neutralize the acid condition produced by
the digestion of meats, bread, cereals.
2. Vegetables have an unusual value as ''roughage." This quality
aids digestion. Vegetable cellulose has a water-holding capacity and,
for that reason, helps to prevent constipation. Vegetables supple-
nent, in this respect, a rich-food diet with little bulk.
3. Vegetables are important sources of minerals, especially cal-
cium and iron.
4. Vegetables supply vitamins, particularly A, (, E, F and G.
5. Vegetables, certain legumes, as lima beans, supply an appre-
ciable amount of protein. Leafy vegetables supply very small but
constant protein. Plant protein, however. does not complete the
protein needs of the body.
Vegetables va ry gr'etly ill their contriblliiio ti the incilil. Leaves are
not roots; pods are not tubers; roots are not fruits (tomato. squash, etc.).
This distinction should he iumade always. A potato does lint take the place
of string oceans: turnip roots do not take the pace of turnip greens; beets are
il Slot sulitute for Swiss chalrd : carrot does not answer for lettuce nor green
(a) Leafy Vegetables.
(a) Thick-leaved, cabbage, onion, cauliflower.
(h) Thili leive \s. suclih as tlrniii greensl, s tpinach ind lettuce.
Leaves cre well known for \t iamins anid minerals ull a>re poor in energy.
They have high water content. Ibulk. They are made of firing col's coim-
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
posed of nearly all food constituents. In oriental countries they help in
balancing dietaries limited in meat and milk products. Leafy vegetables
also have a hygienic effect In the alimentary tract.
(b) Pod Vegetables.
Pod vegetables (legume family) are a partial substitute for meat. being
a source of protein. Dried legumes have a higher energy value. Fresh
green legumes are good sources of some vitamins. Legumes contain phos-
phorus and some iron. They leave an alkaline residue in the process of
digestion. String beans, before the seeds are deve!oped. have the value of
green leaf vegetables.
(c) Root Vegetables.
Root vegetables have a higher water holding capacity than tubers,
especially when cooked. Some root vegetables, such as carrots, have a good
vitamin content: some, such as kohl-rabl. are rich in sources of phosphorus
and calcium, good sources of protein and also iron. Some have good energy
This group of vegetables is important as a source of energy. However
the sweet potato is a good source of vitamin A and the white potato also
has a vitamin content. Both have mineral content when cooked properly.
The residue, in digestion, is alkaline.
(2) VEGETABLE COMBINATIONS ON FLORIDA VEGETABLE
To the visitor coming from a cold climate into a warm, relaxing
sunshine temperature in mid-winter, nothing is more welcome than
one of Florida's Fresh Vegetable Plates-an appetizer, a change,
a tonic for the tired or jaded appetite. By lessening the heavy
roasts, fried foods and rich desserts and giving them fresh, green
vegetables and winter fruit, Florida helps to keep her tourists fit and
sends them home rested, refreshed and looking forward to coming
To the people who must remain north in the winter season and
who must have a heavy diet of meats, starches and sweets in cold
weather Florida fruit and vegetable menus, generously used, will
bring "balance" and health.
In no way does the Florida menu appear in more popular form
than in that of the Florida Plate.
Fresh! Colorful! Varied!
Warm days of Florida's winter climate are similar to the northern
spring. Then a spring diet is the "balance." Florida can serve a
"spring" meal any day in the winter. To the person who cannot
come, Florida can send a spring meal any day in the winter.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU
Selecting the Vegetable Plate.
Color. form, texture, balance are necessary. To select a meal that
will satisfy the consideration of these four points is essential. Repe-
tition of color, form or texture is unappetizing. Color particularly
affects the appetite. A too white plate of corn, onion, white cabbage,
white potato excite no color interest. Too many creamed or soft
foods detract the interest. Texture as well as color must vary.
Celery IIearts. White or Green,
Squash. yellow, Yellow.
Green String Beans, Green.
Stuffed Baked Potato White.
Texture Form Balance
Buttered, Slices. Starch, Mineral.
Raw. Natural, Minerals, Vitamins,
Steamed, Slices or strips, Succulent.
Buttered. Broken. Minernl. Bulk.
Baked. Natural. Starch and Protein.
This pinte meets the requirements for: 1. Color; 2, Variety; 3, Some-
thing crisp; 4. Something fresh; 5. Something cooked; something raw. The
colors ire arranged so that the effect is pleasing. The variety gives effect
and balance as well us "something to chew." If sweet potato is substi-
tuted for white potato no dessert is necessary. Turnip greens, spinach.
collard or any of the "greens" may be substituted for string beans. Instead
of beets, carrots may he used. In that case tomatoes, raw or grilled, may
be substituted for squash. Cole slaw with sweet pepper may take the place
of celery hearts. Green okra may replace beans especially if tomatoes are
ANOTHER VEGETABLE PLATE.
Corn, stewed. White
Potato, white. White
Potato, sweet, candied. Yellow
Boiled and mashed Starch
Boiled and baked Starch
All rules of color, texture or form, as well as balance have been dis-
regarded. A sameness of color and texture and an overbalance of starch
58 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
makes a complete failure of a vegetable plate. Five good foods, but never
meant for a group on the same plate!
"at home" on any plate.
Each one, when properly placed, is
Wilted Greens with Bacon,
Egg Plant au gratin,
Lima Benns, green,
Sweet Potato, baked.
Beets with tart sauce,
Spinach with egg,
Black-eyed Peas (green).
Corn on the cob,
Carrot and Cabbage Salad,
Wilted Endive with Bacon, gar-
nish with radishes and young
White Potato, baked.
Creamed Celery and Peppers with
Shrimp on Toast,
Sliced Tomatoes with Lettuce
Cabbage with Ham Hock.
Grapefruit Hearts on Lettuce,
The vegetable plate is a basis for an easy meal plan. Either a fruit
drink or a glass of milk should be added. A glass of milk may be used
with the meal and in that case a fruit dessert is suitable to complete a
full meal. If no milk is used one dish may easily be a cheese combination
in order to add needed protein.
(3) LEFT-OVERS AND COMBINATIONS.
4 pounds beef (half lamb may be
2 pounds carrots (raw squares),
I L, pounds cabbage,
2 pounds potatoes (raw squares),
3 pounds celery,
8 pounds bones (break up well),
4 bay leaves.
1'_ pounds bacon ends diced,
1! pounds lima beans. cooked,
1i2 pounds turnips (raw squares),
I round onions (pearl),
1 pound noodles (cooked),
4 ounces green onions or leeks,
4 gallons water,
1 ounce general seasoning to
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 59
Put bones on with the water to make a stock over night. In the morn-
ing take the stock, add meat which has been diced in small cubes, cook
about one hour. Then add carrots, turnips, onions, cabbage, celery and
potatoes, finish slowly. Add the lima beans cooked with juice; the bacon
may be diced and braised, and then added. Serve in deep steam table inset;
dish up with ladle.
Combination Vegetable Recipes With Eggs.
16 eggs. 2 pounds green peas,
1 lb. diced carrots. 1 pound baby limas.
1 Ib. diced potatoes, Mayonnaise, egg, oil and lemon
1 lb. green beans, juice.
Boil the vegetables, tied in cheesecloth, in boiling salted water. Cook
tl' egg's at sillmmerilln temirneratnre until they are lihard: shell, cut off the
pointed end, remove the yolk and fill with mayonnaise. Run the yolk through
a ricer and garnish the edge ef a plate with this. Then put the eggs, filled
with mayonnaise, inside of this. Fill the center of the dish with vegetables
well marinated with the mayonnaise in the center, keeping each variety
Lamb Stew-Irish Stylo.
20 pounds boneless shoulder and 10 pounds Parisienne potatoes,
neck of lamb (1-,-in. squares). 21_, pounds cabbage (sliced),
3'.> pounds onions (sliced), 15 branches celery,
5 pounds potatoes (sliced), 3 bay leaves,
L teaspoon thyme, 5 tablespoons whole pepper,
10 sprigs parsley, 5 pounds small onions,
3' ounces salt, 5 cloves garlic.
Parboil meat. Cook in a casserole with the onions, cabbage, celery and
potatoes. Add kitchen bouquet, salt and water to cover. Cook one hour.
Remove the meat and bouquet. Pass the rest through a sieve. Meanwhile
parboil the small onions and Parisienne potatoes. Add to meat and cover
w:th sauce. Hiring to a boil, cover, cook in oven for 30 minutes. Remove
the grease from the surface. Garnish with chopped parsley.
Ham a la King
4 quarts ham, cooked and diced, 25 large slices bread.
2 cups tomato paste, SAUCE
4 cups mushrooms, 4 quarts milk.
8 chopped green peppers, 2 cups flour,
8 pimentos. (cut in strips. 1 cup fat.
16 sliced hard-cooked eggs, Season to taste.
Make white sauce. Cook peppers in fat; add ham, pimentos and mush-
I1roms ,nd 11ad toP white saiune. (ook until piping hot. addl eges and serve
on half slices of toast.
2 pounds ground beef, 1 cup dry bread crumbs,
'1 pound ground pork, 1 to 2 cups canned tomato,
1 onion, grated, Salt,
1 cup thick cream sauce or gravy, Pepper.
or two eggs, Celery tops.
Mix the ingredients together thoroughly. Shape the mixture into a
loaf, place a strip or two of salt pork or small pieces of suet on top, and
place in a heavy baking pan. Bake for 12 to :, of an hour. The oven should
he hot at first, reducing the temlperature toward the end. If the sauce or
gravy is used as a binder for the loaf. make it with 3 tablespoons flour and
2 tablespoons butter or other fat to 1 cup of liquid.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Savory Meat on Toast.
1 pound shredded lamb, beef or 2 cups canned tomato juice.
4 cups celery tops, chopped fine, 1 teaspoon salt,
or, 2 tablespoons flour.
2 cups celery and 2 of chopped 2 tablespoons butter,
leaves, 1 tablespoon shredded onion.
Shred the meat into small pieces. Brown the meat in its own fat in a
frying pan. Add the celery tops, onion and salt. Cover and cook for about
10 minutes. Add the flour and butter mixed together and the tomato juice.
Stir until the mixture is thick and there is no starchy flavor. Serve the
savory meat on slices of delicately browned toast. Fried noodles or French
fried onions sprinkled over the top just before serving are an attractive
(Servings. 56-- ounces each.)
3 pounds carrots cut Parisienne, 2 pounds onions, small,
3 pounds turnips cut Parisienne, 2 pounds potatoes, diced,
pound lima beans, 4 ounces barley,
1 pound string beans, 2 pounds peas,
56 small okra pods, 2 pounds celery,
Cooked rice, 2 ounces salt and pepper.
12 pounds beef stock (1 gals.),
Place raw vegetables In pot, cover with stock and boil. When coming
to a boil add dry lima beans which have been soaked, barley and celery;
cook until done. Add peas and string beans. Line the baking pan with
rice and sprinkle the cooked rice through while filling the pan. Garnish top
of pan with 56 small pods of steamed okra when serving.
Stuffed Green Peppers.
25 large green peppers. %1 cup chopped parsley,
3 pounds cooked meat, 3 tablespoons salt,
2 quarts cooked rice or mashed 1 teaspoon pepper,
potatoes, 2 teaspoons kitchen bouquet,
1 quart canned pens, 1 cup butter,
1/8 pound chopped onions, 2 cups dry crumbs.
Cut peppers in half lengthwise or crosswise, remove seeds and veins;
parboil 10 minutes in salted water. Drain. Chop meat, onion and parsley
fine. Add rice. peas, seasonings. Mix thoroughly; 11ill peppers; cover with
buttered crumbs. Pour hot water or stock around them. Bake slowly 45
Cauliflower With Mushroom Sauce.
1 medium sized head of cauliflower broken into flowerlets.
3 cups of mushroom sauce made of the following proportion:
4 tablespoons fat, 1 cup of milk,
4 tablespoons flour, 1 cup of mushroom stock.
1% quarts cold lamb. 1 cup cooked- onions,
1 pint left-over gravy, Bacon fat or drippings,
2 tablespoons Worcester sauce, 1 quart mashed potatoes.
Add the gravy, Worcester sauce and onions to the cooked meat.
Add more salt and pepper, if necessary. Place in a baking dish or casserole,
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
put the mashed potato on top, and sprinkle with bacon fat. Put in oven to
heat through and to brown the potatoes on top. (If making shepherd's pie
of uncooked nmeat, the shoulder or chuck may be used. Where a whole lamb
has been purchased, the shepherd's pie will take care of the cheaper cuts
in the fore-quarter. This recipe will also take care of the dark Iportions of
10 cups cold diced chicken,
1 cup green chopped pepper,
10 tablespoons gelatin.
2 cups tart mayonnaise,
Salt to taste.
3 cups celery, diced,
3 cups chopped pimento,
8 cups chicken stock,
2 cups whipping cream,
A little onion juice.
Mix chicken. celry. )peppers and piienoto. Add onion juice. Soften
gelatin In chicken stock and bring to boiling point. Add gelatin to the above
mixture and let stand until it begins to stiffen. Fold in cream which has been
whipped and mixed with the mayonnaise. Pour into individual molds or
large noll. Put in ice box to cool and stiffen. Serve on lettuce leaves
garnished with cress.
Baked Spinach or Turnip Green Loaf, Tomato Sauce and Egg.
3 cups of cooked spinach or turnip
2 eups' of bread crumbs,
1 egg, well beaten,
1 cup grated cheese,
2 tablespoons lemon juice,
2 teaspoons salt,
% teaspoon pepper,
Mix tll thoroughly and put in a greased baking dish or in individual
ramekins, if you prefer. Bake in medium oven for 25 minutes. Serve hot
with poached egg on top of loaf and tomato sauce around it.
Prepared from Manatee County-Florida Fruits and Vegetables February, 1930,
Plain Fruit (18) Jellies (17) Pickles (16) Juices (10)
Plain Vegetables (31)
RPllnh 1 (13) hrmnhi (4
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
I-FRUITS OTHER THAN CITRUS
(See IX, Page 110)
The I iiinaii phl iin grows well only in south Florida. The (Cavendish.
brownish in cilor wlen fully ripe. is a dwarf variety bearing dense btIunches
of small fruit of very high quality. The Iart variety. taller. is also a good
banana (:f line flavor and texture.
L. VYou eysenburg,. M. ).. Tulane I'niversity, says:
"The banana is a good source of vitamin G. the pellagra-preventive
factor. Through maniy experiments it has also been found that. in se'rvy
or in sy nptons leading to scurvy. (the banana is curative. It is palatablle
Barr:es in Florida include May-haw (red) and a Red-haw (red).
ripenllilng in tIh late siunnier: the hlckleherry. bIlllluerry. dewherries, black-
berries. Youlig berry. IIillverli;s. liIaii l isri is. 1straiwlerr. elderly jerry. goosl:-
berry anil dlowniy myrtle.
The ha'ws are smitil seedy berries growing wild oni a shrull. They are
liest known for their use in making; jelly of a wonderful d'.linclive flavor
andl ri-h cioloringi*. oine people have called tie red haw north Florida's
lucklel: eli is are il'tTerent firolll Florida lliel ri:s i s iii l..I tl iey vcanit:lin
the large seeds whereas the lluelierry lias many inconspicuoins sniall seeds.
Tile lhuckleherry shrub ibs simaller andl scrubby. The huckleberry is good for
pies. jel ies. ani drinks.
The tall growing "Itabilt-eye" liluellrry, of the hulickielberry fa:li]y. is
the variety which has lbenole famous comnmercially as the native blueberry
of Florida plhlntings. It ripens in lhue May or early .Itlue and hlsts 10 or 12
weeks. Thil cluster does not all iiaii at oin, lie. This iprolonigs the
"season" and requires weekly picikiilgs. The acidity varies but is low. Blue-
berries combinlie nicely with orlanie jlice in filling for pies. They are used
alone ill tie fresh lnallral formal with sugr anld vcreain or will oaranel juice.
64 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
DOWNY MYRTLE (BERRY)
This berry grows wild on a shrub. It resembles the huckleberry but has
a thicker, richer juice. It makes a splendid jelly when 50 per cent acid
guava is added.
The dewberry, growing on a low trailing vine and ripening earlier than
the blackberry, is available early in the spring-the last of April or first of
May. In the native growth they are more highly acid than the blackberry.
For "deep pies" in early spring they have a popular place in north and south
Florida menus. The jelly is welcomed as one of the first "spring jellies"
in north Florida. In south Florida the Manatee dewberry has been cultivated
with splendid results.
Blackberries grow wild throughout north Florida where the wild variety
is much more popular in flavor for cooking purposes than the cultivated
types. In southern Florida the blackberry has been cultivated. The Florida
Marvel, found originally on the east coast, is a large, firm, good quality berry
but lower in sugar than some other varieties. It is a splendid breakfast fruit
served with sugar and cream. Juices. bottled in the natural form (or slightly
sweetened) and processed at a simmering temperature, contain practically
all the original food value of these various berries and to a large extent the
natural flavor. In many sections all of these berries in the wild varieties
"may be had for the picking" and the juices should be stored for the season
when other fruits are "scarce."
Florida mulberries of some varieties hear through a period of several
months. They are used by various methods as are other berries. There are
the white, red, and black varieties. The trees grow wild or cultivated.
The fruit is very sweet, not having enough acid in the ripened stage for jelly.
The seeds are too small to be noticeable.
A loganberry of rare quality is now being grown for local use and for
market in west Florida, near Panama City. Its cultivation will no doubt
become extensive in that section of the state.
The strawberry is Florida's most valuable berry. Needing a remarkably
short period for growth and maturity, it can be grown very early in the
warm climate and shipped advantageously.
This berry, being about 90 per cent water, appears to have a small per
cent nutrients. Experiments have shown, however, that the strawberry, even
when canned, is listed among those fruits having a very excellent vitamin
content. An acid flavor and sufficient pectin in the slightly unripened fruit
produces a good jelly but better known are the jam and preserves.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENUT 65
1 It. berries, %Y lb. sugar
Select large, firm fruit. Wash, .clp. getting the pithy center if possible.
Place berries in alumiull or porcelain vessel. Add sugar. Ha-lndle vessel
over flanme so that the juice reaches the sugar and dissolves to form a syrup
or let stand over night. Place vessel over flame and bring to loil and boil
8 minutes. Cover and set aside until fruit is plump and cool. Cook to de-
sired consistency. Pack and seal.
Wash. cap and crush ripe strawberries. To each pound of fruit add %
pound of sugar. Stir constantly and( cook to 222* F. or until desired con-
Berry shrub may ie made of strawberries, raspberries or dewberries.
Select sound fruit. wash, measure, and place in a stone jar. For every four
quarts of hIerries use one quart of vinegar. Cover Ihe jar by tying a cheese-
cloth over it. Stir the berries daily for three or four days. If the weather
is very warm do not let it stand over three days. Strain without squeezing,
and put into kettle, allowing one pound of sugar to each pint of liquid. Boil
slowly for live minutes, bottle, cork and seal. )illlte with cold water for
serving.-U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The eldlrberry grows on a shrub or hush 15 or 20 feet high. The berries
grow inl clusters. They have an acid flavor and make a refreshing drink and
a good pie. They are often used as a cordial alad as a coloring for other
NORTH FLORIDA GOOSEBERRY.
The m)rth Florida gooselerry grows ion a low plant. It is acid and
suitable for pieus.
FLORIDA BERRY JUICES
Th2 great variety of Florida berries, including also many other juicy
fruits such as plumis. peaches. grapes. contribute fruit juices of unusual
flavor and color that lend themselves easily to combinations with citrus
juices or stand alone as appetizing and nourishing drinks.
Almost any of the berries, if selected partially ripened, will produce a
splendid jelly. Strawhlerry. Florida gooseberry. blue lerry. with additional
citrus pectin give a g idi jelly. Juices for future jelly making are canned
Sauces. sherbets and other desserts made from the berry juices canned
at low temulpera tu re are almost as nourishing and palatable its the dishes
made from I lie fresh juices.
Florida's most popular "refreshment" is "Punch." made from the pure
fruit juices I).ured over crushed ice. Berry juices combined with a mixture
of sweet and sour citrus juices is as "tasty" as the combination of grape
66 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Berry Juice Canned.
Bring the fruit to a simmering temperature 170 to 180 degrees F. Remove
the juice. Strain through a heavy cloth for a clear juice (a thick juice
contains more nourishment and is better flavor). Sweeten slightly adding
about one cup of sugar to a gallon of juice. For a clear juice strain again.
Fill bottles and cork hot. Process at about 180 degrees. Then dip in
melted sealing wax. Ordinary fruit jars are used for home purposes.
The Spanish or Honey type is used in north Florida and the Chinese or
"Peento" group of peaches has been grown successfully in south Florida.
The peach, depending upon the variety, has a fairly high sugar content
although it is about 85 to 90 per cent water. Fresh peaches show a good
content of vitamins A and C. By s:il selection and adaptation of variety.
Florida has learned to supply herself to some extent with peaches.
1 dozen ripe peaches. pound spiced grapes.
1 red pepper, 1 cup sugar,
1 hot pepper, tablespoon ginger,
1 green pepper. tablespoon cinnamon.
3 onions (mild). % tablespoon spice.
cup acid fruit juice. V tablespoon celery seed,
2 quarts vinegar, Salt.
Combine ingredients and cook until the mixture is quite thick and clear.
Pack hot. seal and process 15 minutes at simmering.
The Pineapple and Hood pears are the most desirable Florida pears as
to color, texture and uniformity. The Kieffer is adapted to north Florida.
Pears are low in acid and need little sugar. Lemon or lime combine nicely
with pear products. In the fresh form a fully ripened pear needs no addi-
tions. Raw fresh pears show some vitamin B and C. For canning or for
cooking, gather pears when fully grown but not entirely r:pened. Keep in a
dark. cool room for a few days for ripening. This process gives a finer grain
texture and possibly a better flavor than the tree ripening process. When
peeled, pears turn brown quickly, due to the action of an enzyme. A dilute
saline solution (2 tablespoons salt to a gallon of water) prevents the coloring.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 67
25 firm pears. 1 cup lemon juice,
4 onions, 3 oranges, grated rind and juice,
6( green peppers, sweet. 3 cups sugar.
25 pimentos or 6 small cans. 1 teaspoon celery seed.
2 cups chopped figs, canned or 1 teaspoon mustard seed.
fresh. ('innamon and clove to taste.
1 pint vinegar.
Grind first five ingredients in food chopper. Coml ine and cook one hour
or until desired consistency. Florida pineapple pears are particularly suit-
able for this recipe.
The native persimmon, one to one and a half inches in diameter, grows
almost all over the upper half of the state. It is highly stocked with tannin
before the fully ripened stage but. when ripe. it is a very popular fruit,
having a sugar content of about 15 per cent.
This fruit is the cultivated persimmon used in Florida. It is much larger
than the native fruit. ranging in size from two to four inches in diameter.
The color varies from a light yellow to a deep reddish orange.
The varieties most used are the Tane Nashi and the Fuyugaki. The
former is round in shape with a pointed apex. It is from 3 to 3% inches
long and nearly as broad. The skill is light yellow. shading to a bright, deep,
yellowish-red as it ripens. The yellow flesh is astringent until the ripening
period in August and September. The Fuyugaki. slightly flattened, deep red
in color, is not astringent and can be peeled and eaten before it is fully ripe.
Persimmons are best used in the fresh form and are sweet enough for
desserts. The pulpl has been successfully used. however, in pies, sauces and
puddings as well as in ice creams. For pies. the non-astringent type is used
when not fully ripe. For cooking in any form the non-astringent type should
be selected. Cooking tends to increase astringency.
Because of the essential oils and ethers present in small quantities in
pineapple, it has a delightful odor and flavor that is unexcelled. Because
of its enzyme called bromelin, pineal.ple is valuable in that it helps in the
digestion of meats and other protein foods. Because it loses little of its
flavor or food value in canning, it is easily kept in storage for immediate use.
Pineapple, because of its enzymes, combines nicely with meats or omelets.
Broiled ham or small sausages are often served on slices of pineapple or with
a sauce made of shredded pineapple.
7 eggs 1l' tablespoons fat
1 teaspoon salt 1%/ cups crushed canned
3 tablespoons milk or cream pineapple
% cup grated cheese
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Separate eggs; beat yolks for one minute; then add salt, milk or cream,
and cheese and continue beating until well mixed. Melt fat in frying or
omelet pan, turning pan so melted fat goes well up on the sides. Beat
whites of eggs until stiff and fold in the yolk and cheese mixture. Pour
Into the pan and cook over low heat until nicely browned on the underside.
Then place in a slow oven for about three minutes to dry off top. Mean-
while put the undrained pineapple into a saucepan and boil until thick.
about ten minutes. When omelet is done, make a cut about one and one-half
inches long on either end of the fold line; then pour pineapple on one-half
of the omelet, fold and slide onto platter.
Pineapple Luncheon Sandwiches
1 cup finely diced cooked ham 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 cup crushed canned pineapple, 2 tablespoons pineapple juice
drained 1 beaten egg.
2 tablespoons milk or water
Mix first four ingredients together well and spread between slices of
buttered bread. Dip each side of the prepared sandwiches in the beaten egg
which has been combined with milk; saut4 until golden brown on both sides.
Serve at once.
2 cups crushed canned pineapple, 1/3 cup of sugar
undrained Juice and rind of 1 lemon
%1 cup pineapple juice or water 1 tablespoon cornstarch
Heat pineapple, pineapple juice, grated lemon rind and lemon juice until
boiling. Combine cornstarch and sugar and add to pineapple sauce, stirring
constantly. Cook until thickened, and serve hot.
(For Pineapple Desserts, see "Desserts," XIV.)
Florida has a number of varieties of wild plums that still flourish,
especially in north Florida. They are quite acid before ripening and make
an excellent Jelly, jam or butter at the half-ripened stage. Wild plum
products have rare flavor and color that make them most suitable to serve
with meats or chicken.
Excelsior-Japanese plums crossed with some of Florida's native plums
have given a few hybrids that are of splendid variety such as the "Excelsior"
a wine-colored fruit with a firm yellow-red pulp of excellent quality and
sub-acid flavor. The skin is thin and tough and neither bitter nor astringent.
McRae (Hybrid)-The fruit is a reddish yellow, has a juicy, yellow.
sub-acid, firm flesh with an aromatic flavor.
Terrell (Hybrid)-This large plum. 2 inches in diameter, is wine-colored
when fully ripe and has a greenish-yellow, meaty, slightly sub-acid flesh of
excellent flavor and texture.
CARISSA OR NATAL PLUM (S.)
The carissa grows on an ornamental thorny shrub. The scarlet fruit one
to two inches long and ovoid or egg shape, ripens mostly in summer but
continues to appear through other seasons. As the fruit ripens it becomes
a rich, dark red outside and inside. It exudes, when cut, a milky substance.
This little plum is good for jellies and marmalades. Carissa sauce resembles
IN THEl I ('oMM EICIAi. MENU
Loquat or Japan Plum
The 1, **: igro\\s oni a slImall iori'llUelit;il tl're( tlIhat liranllhni s aliout tlhre(
fee froc 'l: e, ground to fori in dense crown. Thel while flovwrs 're fragrlnut
and orre: mental. The somewhat rounded pearshaped fruits from one to
three *'i.;tie long, grows in loose terminal clusters and are from pale yellow
to a eau'lful orange in color and downy on the surface.
'I tit, s' in is like that of ia peaclih only i little
tflgh* : : file flsh is f`il 11 and lnq'll.y ill nel('e
indI 'nilling" i oltheur varelle's aulid is i
' .i.e to dleel orange color. jlity uindl iof a
.-priglhtly sul.-a.id flavor.
The loquat ripens in winter and the season
lasts until In the spring. liipened, the fruit
is sweet iul is most inimitable in its Iltirl'lI
forli. I'ril.ienld. it is avid and proill'es
s Splendid jellies. pri servet.s anid pies. 1.ila-'nt
pie frr.om the p:artle i'il.wlel fruit flavors of
'Thi lili l<,at i;s a llin silllilaIr to, theilt' alI t.
It is yellow. egg-shaped. smaller but of better
flavor Ihan the, loluatt.
Canning Loquats for Pies
loneidove IIthe seesls. aI'l-t'-cook t ohtout thre2
linuls nll a boil ing medium syrup. dlepe1nd-
ing iloI the a, idlity of the fruit. Phoiet iln
quart jrlls ,ill l .vter wit l hot syrup Iaol
]lritvess :I l inullt es.
IRemove the seeds. ('it with nledium blade
of fooI ch'ohIer. .Adhd olly *sufficient water
lto iook ultil t'alende'r. lThen a -hill .. uip siigar
and cook five minutes or until proper consis-
tency. Pour into hot jars and seal and pro.
cess a few minutes. Canned Loquats, Halved
1 lb. fruit :k pint water :i lb. sugar
Wash. scald, peel and seed fruit. Make a syrup of sugar and water.
Ahl thlie fruit andl rook to =2-1; degrees F. l'Pak in lhot jars and prowess 15
Prel'are the 'fruit us fo prI'ese'rves. 'Cover with water and 'cook until
lender. IProce..ed Ias with .-ther fruit fo'r jelly. lThe slightly unripened fruit
will lr..ahbly -i'lutnain enoughh 0't'liin and anial for jelly. IGive the usual test
to decide the necessary amount of sugar. Cook to about 225t._ degrees, the
Iislnal jellyintg poill Ifor hmillats.
Tilt Iroselle is onl, of ti le South's tMost :llil jelly lian.its. It closely
resembllles the okra :ltal (n ,t ollon lilatlt. It is oftenll .alhdl tIlse "jelly okra."
70 FLIORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Another name is Jamaica sorrel. The plant grows to perfection in Florida.
The bright redl and rich green coloring com'biinationii mike the 1luint suitable
Young tender shoots from this iplnt have Ibeen usNed for "greens" and
also in jelly making. The edible portion most generally used is the bright
reil -;alyx low ini sugar andI high in neid alnd rich ini IN-tin. Tie fine rel
color anld tie pleasing acid flavor combine to give the roselle a distinctive
foodd value." Tihe calyces. if picked when fully grown. make nIdes. sauces,
jelly (or jiin which prmiuHIcts are used in l' lori(da to take the place of (ran-
berry dishes in mtiiany mlenus.
For jelly making, only % |imIund oif sugar (It.. clups) is added to a pint
of Juice. secuIred by cooking a ni straining the fruit. Tihe fruit mamy le dried
without losing its jelly ima king ea lnnity. After tihe junle has Ibeen extracted,
the mpullp may le used for butter. Equal iiquantities of sugar and pull are ustl.
I'se tUllnl i mneasiures of .enlyces ainil water and cook asiollt ten minutes.
Add ias niuch sugar its desire l and look until the desiredt consistency. The
fruit nimy be strained before the addition of sulgair but this process s is un-
The rose apple grows on ani ornliamenii taill tree. Tin fruit smCells like a
rose. is crisp and juicy. It is the color of apricot. It is round or oval and
one or two inches long. Ti'l rose apple inmny lie preserved or crystallized.
Rose apple sanite retains its origiiinl rose fiavor and odor which Inike it
delicious ini the fresh form.
The sapodilla is a stately evergreen tree of 50 or more feet in height
iid grows well from Palnim Beacih south und up as far as the MIIanitee river
on the west coast. The birk contains a milky latex called chicle, interesting
commercially as a basis for chewing gum.
The fruit, round or oval in shape and from 2 to 3'., inches in diameter.
looks like a potato, the thin skin being a rusty brown and slightly scurfy.
The seeds, 10 or 12, slip out easily. Yellow brown, translucent, soft, sweet,
and of delicious flavor Is the ripened flesh. Unripened, however, the tannin
and chicle are unpleasant. Someone has called the flavor of the ripe fruit
"pear with brown sugar." Others have said, "it is maple syrup." It has
about 14 per cent sugar. The odor is fragrant. There is a vitamin content
of A and C.
The sapodilla is first of all a dessert fruit. It is used In the plain form
and in sherbets.
(Or Marmalade Plum)
This fruit grows on a tree (60 feet in height) of abundant light green
foliage. The fruit is oval, 3 to fi Inches long. The skin is a russet brown,
thick and woody. The flesh is firm and of a finely granular texture. The
color is yellowish brown with a tinge of red, rather a rich saffron. There is
IN TITE COMMERCIAL MENU 71
in the center a large, hard, black and shiny seed which comes out as easily
as the avocado seed. The flesh is rich and lacks acidity. It is similar to
that of the sweet potato when cooked. Improperly ripened or inferior
sapote has a squash-like flavor. In Havana the sapote is used in sherbet
and as a filler in guava cheese. In Central America the large seed is roasted
and usel to mix with cocoa in making chocolate. The sapote is best in its
fresh, natural form. It has been used as a rich preserve. It has been called
a "natural marmalade."
Sugar apple grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. The bush
is similar to that of the sapodilla. The skin of the fruit is yellowish green,
thick and rough. The fruit is pear shaped and the size of a man's fist. It
is really a seed pod with numerous black seeds inside. The outside or sur-
face is covered with "bumps." When the fruit is separated into carpels, of
which it is composed, each rough section has a pure white or yellow, meaty,
sweet and slightly acidulous pulp with the little black seed adhering. It
is a custard-like dessert fruit. It is sometimes called the sweet-sop. It is
similar to the cherimoya in composition, having a high sugar content, about
184 i per cent, but it is less piquant in flavor. It ripens in summer and is
"in season" six months.
This fruit is closely related to the sugar apple. The tree is rarely more
than 20 feet high and grows only in the tropical section of the state. The
fruit is the largest of the annonas (4 pounds). It is 6 to 8 inches long,
rather an oval shape; a dark green color; a spiny surface. The flesh is
white, juicy and aromatic. The texture is rather cottony. The flavor is a
combination of mango and pineapple. It ripens in late spring.
The sour-sop is used for preserves, for preparation of sherbets and other
refreshing drinks. The sour-sop sherbet is considered one of the finest in
PITANGA OR SURINAM CHERRY OR FLORIDA CRANBERRY
The Pitanga, or Surinam Cherry. sometimes called the Florida ('herry
or Cranberry, is a compact bushy shrub with a green glossy foliage which is
wine colored when new. The plant, with its deep crimson, ripe fruit about
one inch in diameter is quite ornamental and is usually set in hedges. It
grows as far north as Cintral Florida and matures its fruit two or three
times a year in South Florida. The flowers come in February and the fruits
about s:x weeks after the flowers fall. The leaves have a pungent agreeable
odor when crushed.
The soft, juicy, red flesh is of aromatic. sub-acid flavor, pleasing in its
natural state. Before the rilpening process is fully developed, there is a
resinous, pinglelnt flavor. .\s the fruit ripens the color changes from green to
yellow, then orange and finally becomes a deep scarlet. The Florida cherry
seems to have a richer color as well as flavor than those grown elsewhere.
72 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The fully ripened cherry drops into the hand when touched. It is then
ready for jams. jellies, sauces or for canning in a medium syrup.
Remove blossoms and pits. Pre-cook in boiling water one to two min-
utes. Use the water for making a syrup (one-half cup sugar to four cups
water). Place fruit in jars, pour boiling syrup over the fruit and process
jars fifteen minutes in water.
Jams, Jellies, Sauces
Follow directions as for cranberries.
The tamarind fruit (Indian Date) is a pod of a leguminous tree of
ornamental small leaf foliage. The beans inside the pod are surrounded by
a dark. pasty material, the edible portion of the fruit. This pulp has a
sweetish-sour rather spicy flavor. Analysis shows 15 per cent acid (mostly
tartaric) and over 40 per cent of reducing sugar. In fact it contains more
acid that the sourest fruit and more sugar than the sweetest fruit. The
taste. however, is distinctly sour.
Tamarinds are therefore used to make cooling sub-acid beverages,
especially for invalids. The fruit is official in the pharmacopoeia as a laxa-
tive and refrigerant. Tamarind paste is a mixture of the pulp and about 75
per cent sugar. Mixing an ounce of tamarind pulp with 11 pints of warm
milk a nourishing beverage called tamarind whey is made. Young pods are
sometimes cooked with rice and fish. The roasted seeds are said to be
superior in flavor and valuable as a food product. Dried tamarind has a
small amount of vitamin C.
In Subtropical Florida, the people pack tamarind pulp in jars and cover
with sugar sirup to keep on hand during the "off" season. They use the
paste for making drinks when the fresh supply is exhausted. Tamarind
pulp is a splendid addition to Chutneys.
(See Part II; XI.)
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU 73
II Fruit Zones in Florida
Zone III-North Florida and Gulf Coast. This zone extends as far south
as St. Augustine. Palatka, Gainesville.
Mulberry, pears, persimmons, plums, peaches, satsuma, orange, loquats,
limequats, kumquats, calamondin, figs, quince, huckleberry, pomegranate,
bunch grapes, muscadine, blackberries, dewberries, strawberries, blueberries,
Zone IV-Central Florida. This zone lies below Zone III and reaches,
roughly speaking, from Vero southwest to Moore Haven. north to Davenport
and Lakeland, and southwest to Bradenton. Some locations south of this
are also included.
Avocado, mulberry, citrus, pears, peaches, persimmons, loquats, guavas,
Surinam cherry, fig, pomegranate, dewberries, blackberries, bunch grapes,
Zone V-South Florida.
Avocado, mulberry, mango, grapefruit, citrus, loquat, sapodillas, tama-
rind, rose apple, Surinam cherry, guava, papaya, granadilla, carissa, pine-
NOTE: The above information as to fruit zones is according to Hume in
"Gardening in the Lower South."
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
C('ourtesy Mrs. Grace K. I.ogar, Di.-tliian. Hillshorn Hotel, Tamlpa, Fla.)
Lettuce with Water Cress and Mint leaves garnished will Hlillsboro
Pineapple with top removed.
Pieneapple tid-bits. celery, and tangerine cubes finished with a circle
of tangerine lobes centered with a strawberry on a mint leaf.
French with Fruit Juice or Fruit Cream dressing.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 75
III-Fresh Raw Fruits
Fresh Raw Fruits-How Shall We Use Them?
IN the promotion of greater consumption of fruit-fresh uncooked
fruit-lies at least the partial solution of the problem of an ade-
quate supply of minerals, organic acids, vitamins and roughage
essential to the nutrition of human beings. Not purely from the
standpoint of nutritive value but in the promotion of a hygienic in-
testinal condition, fresh fruit is essential.
Attractive. stimulating, satisfying, and hygienic are the fresh
fruits. They are, therefore, most suitable as an introduction to any
meal, as a "psychological effect," not only for appetites but for
Cocktails, Hors D'Oeuvres, Made of Florida Fruits and Vegetables
Other Than Citrus.
(For "Citrus," see Page 84)
Fruit may be prepared in bulk but each cocktail should be hand-
Materials should all be well-chilled.
Avoid too much sugar, since the first course is an appetizer.
The sense of taste is keener for the first course than for any other
Therefore. care should be given to effect the exactly proper combina-
tion in the cocktail. No matter how simple or plain be the meal the
cock.ail, if there be a cocktail, should be "just right."
1. One-f(irtlh Ito one-half cup of blueberries, crushed. with a few orange
hearts andl jiiice. Iand one teaspoon lemon juice. A sprinkle of sugar or a few
drops of tupelo honey. a sprig of mint.
2. One-half cup Manatee dewberries ctu in halves or slightly crushed,
with cubes of pineapple pear, canned, and two tablespoons pear juice.
3. Fill cocktail cup two-thirds full with halved strawberries anid add
two tal lespoons crushed pineapple with juice.
4. One-half cup Marvel bla(ckl:erries with three or four cantaloupe balls
and a sprig of mint.
5. Diced pineapple with tangerine hearts- and juice. Top with seeded
Surinam cherries or slices of carissa.
6. Sliced lo(qialus with spiced grapes.
7. Papaya balls with a suggestion of lime or lemon-nothing more.
Florida Fresh Fruits In February
Thirty.six Varieties Citrus and other Frults Shown by Manatee County Midwinter Season,
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 77
8. Ti-Es, cubed or sliced, with a sprinkle of granadilla or pomegranate
or maybe Key lime.
9. Diced mango with a few chips of pimento.
10. Guava pulp, slightly sweetened, ,and poured over strawberries cut
11. Carpels of sugar apple with a few drops of the juice from a grana-
di!la, or sour-sop.
12. Diced sapodilla, with a sprinkle of lime, a few Surinam cherries, or
slices of kumquat.
13. Persimmon pulp (pour stage), two tablespoonfuls poured over one
cup canned grapefruit hearts.
14. Combine. in the following proportions. 1 cup chopped tomato, % cup
grapefruit pulp. '1/ cup chopped green pepper. 2 tablespoons olive oil, 3 table-
spoons lemon juice and enough grapefruit juice to thoroughly moisten. Serve
1. Small pear halves rolled in chopped mint and filled with berries.
2. Curled celery filled with peanut butter or with these.
3. Radish Roses.
4. Banana sections marinated in lime or lemon and rolled in peanuts.
5. Lemon baskets filled with toasted pecan halves and candied kumquats.
6. Sliced papaya marinated with lime or lemon and dipped in freshly
7. Small red or yellow tomatoes filled with celery and snappy cheese.
8. Half of large preserved fig. well drained and filled with cheese and
9. Satsuma hearts (free from membrane) rolled in black walnut meats.
(See Florida Salads, XIII)
(See Florida Desserts, XIV)
78 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Citrus and Health
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU
Varieties and Place in the Menu
('LW THAT we like" and "what we should have" are not always
Found in combination. Nature has given us both in the
class of fruits known as CITRUS.
Beauty, flavor, texture, "zest," along with minerals, vitamins, energy
(sugar in its most attractive and valuable form) give us in citrus
fruit a priceless contribution of happiness and health.
Every commercial menu today, to meet public demand, must serve
citrus fruit in some form for two reasons:
First-The public likes it.
Second-The public knows its health value.
Citrus and Health.
1. Citrus fruit gives zest to the appetite. Its flavor, texture and
color please the guest and tickle his palate, that is, give him a healthy
attitude toward his food.
2. Citrus, particularly orange, grapefruit, and lemon, is rich in
3. Citrus helps to "balance" the ordinary diet of meat, bread and
other starches, and dessert-that is, it helps to counteract the acid
effect of this diet.
4. Citrus helps to keep the alimentary tract in healthy condition.
5. Citrus has a part in the building of teeth and bones; it helps
to keep the teehl and gums in a healthy condition.
Citrus in the Menu.
Due to the fact that the public is informed as to the above facts
it behooves the public menu-maker to include citrus fruit in his menu.
Because citrus easily and appropriately combines with all foods-
starches, meats, eggs, milk, vegetables, and other fruits-even the
inexperienced menu-maker may use it successfully. For emergencies
and quick, economical service it is unexcelled because it requires lit-
tle or no preparation.
Citrus goes well as a cocktail, a first salad, a canape, a dinner,
luncheon or supper salad. Citrus appropriately accompanies the
meat, the fish, fowl, or even the omelet. Almost no dessert is complete
without it and, alone, it is a perfect dessert. Many Florida hotels
are serving orange juice free to their guests, both at meals and be-
tween meals. Pullman cars are also introducing "orange juice com-
pliments." This is a courtesy well used to form a splendid habit.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
(1) CITRUS FRUIT VARIETIES
The kumquat, growing in bright, golden yellow clusters, is the smallest
of citrus fruits, being only one to two inches in diameter. The thin rind is
sweet and aromatic; the pulp is decidedly acid in certain varieties like the
oval fruit of the Nagami or the round Marumi but the pulp of the round
Meiwa is sweet. The fruit is eaten fresh; it is also preserved or candied
whole. It is splendid for jelly or marmalade.
This citrus fruit grows on a tree similar to the lemon. The fruit is
oblong, protuberant at the tip, 5 to 8 inches long, greenish-yellow in color
and very fragrant. The pulp is acid and has a juice that may he expressed
and used like lime. The rind, thick and spongy, may be candied, preserved,
spiced and pickled. There is another fruit (a melon) by the same name
used in a somewhat similar way.
The shaddock is the largest and coarsest of all citrus fruits. It has a
thick rind and thick leathery septa between sections. It is suitable only for
preserving and crystallization. It is sometimes pink inside. The juice is
acid, bitter and scant.
Sour orange has a thicker peel than the common orange. It is used for
marmalades. The juice combines nicely in drinks with the sweet oranges.
The bitter-sweet has a thicker peel than the sour orange and has a loose
peel. It is used only for marmalades.
The lime is not a lemon but it is closely related to the lemon, orange,
mandarin, pomelo and shaddock. Limes are more sensitive to cold and are
therefore grown further south. Most of the limes in Florida are on the
keys south of the mainland. They are grown from seeds and therefore vary
greatly in size, shape, flavor and juice percentage. They range in size from
a medium-sized plum to a large-sized lemon. Lime juice is a good source
of vitamin C. The Tahiti. a sprout of the Persian variety, a budded variety,
has been grown on the mainland and found adaptable. It grows much larger.
The rind is smooth, thin and green to yellow. The juice is almost colorless,
of good flavor, and quite acid.
West Indian Lime.
West Indian Lime grows on a thorny bush with rather small, light green
foliage. Fruit is fine grain, juice plentiful, pulp soft, acid strong flavor
distinctly lime. The Palmetto Lime, a cross between West Indian and the
lemon and the Everglade Lime, a cross of West Indian with the pomelo, are
both good limes.
Itangpur Lime is hardier than the true lime. It is said to Lelong to
Suntara orange group. Tree is small, thorny; foliage sparse. The fruit is
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 81
medium size. rind roughly. mndlim in thickness. easily separated from pulp
and of irregular color: segments are easily separated: flesh is orange colored:
Jiice is plentifull. flavor nareenhle.
Lime juice is even more acid than lemon. It is 7 per cent citric acid.
It also has an essential oil. Lime juice is used in medicine. It prevents
scurvy and symptoms which precede the disease. It is used to supplement
a diet necessarily short of fresh fruits and vegetables. Lime juice makes
an excellent flavoring for many of the tropical fruits, for vegetables as well
as for fish. meats, candies and desserts. It is also used to add flavor to
various jams. fruits and jellies. Lime oil extracted from the rind is used
in flavoring extracts and perfumery.
The Calamondin, Golden Lime or Panama Orange
The calamondin. a small, round, thin-skinned, very juicy fruit growing
on an ornamental hardy shrub, is sometimes erroneously called an orange
but it is very closely associated with the lime. It combines nicely with the
sweet orange in the preparation of a citrus drink. It is very sour but good
flavor and makes a pleasing limeade. It is popular for marmalades, jellies
and glac- fruits.
The liinmeqluat is a cross lietween tih lime land klllumiqualt. It has a sweet
rind and acid lime-like pulp. It is a hardy typc. growing well in south cen-
Iime Iwerry grows on it sinall hush. Tlih fruit is edlileh and is like a
small. dark rtl cherry. It nlmkes a jelly of good acid flavor.
Lemons. in the original wild variety first found in Florida by early set-
tlers, is good only for root stock in high. dry land. The Ponderosa is too
large to It of general coniimercial use. often reachlling one tI towo lun)onds.
The quality nind flavor. however, are good. They are quiite jllicy antid not a
very thick skin. The regular comiierciil type of linciins is grown Iut the
tendency is to grow too large for market purposes. From the rind is pro-
duced lemon oil; the pulp. citrate of lime. citric acids and lemon flavoring.
Lemnli juice is uo411 of thie t' st sonur.es of vitmini ('. even child storage lemons
show an excellent supply. Vitamins A and B are found in the peel and in
fresh juice. Vitllninii It is ils:) found ill tlhei dried juice.
The grinlwfruit is ain excellint Ip alitizer ind iipronlihly contains "tonic"
prolerit-is. Some haIlve thought the gr;apefruit has nll ailkloid iall its own
lbut clheiisis have 11n foundlo it. (irilm)fruit juice. liIoth fresh und driTld. is It
good soturel of vitallilill I IUd 111i exc(lent soIr'('c of vitiamlin (', qIlil1 to that
of orange juice. ilc'imon juice or tomllato. The pal'titions in tlie fruit have a
bitter titste. Ilnlpovet l fruits lih v elillinillatcd tlhe oljeclioniall e littler allid
have left only the taste which lends individuality to, the iin.i-ch--that blend-
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
lug of sweet-bitter-sour that makes the fruit a pomelo. Those who know the
flavor best call it the "pleasing personality" of the pomelo.
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season. Florida Com-
mon and Walters: and late. Marsh Seedless. Foster and Thompson are the
Oranges are divided Into two main classes, the common round orange
of commerce known as "Mediterranean" and the Chinese or Mandarin or
Kid Glove variety.
King Orange-King Orange (from Burma) is a large, rough, thick loose-
skinned fruit with a reddish, very juicy pulp of best flavor.
Tangerine-Tangerines (an excellent source of vitamin C) are of two
main varieties, the fiat red kind (Dancy) and a larger one, yellow in color
(Oneco), a late variety.
Tangelo-Tangelos are hybrids-crosses between tangerine and pomelo.
The tangelo has the qualities of both but is distinct from either. It is very
juicy, of a rich, tart flavor. It has almost no fiber or rag. The Thornton is
one of the best varieties.
Satsuma-Satsumas are a hardy variety of the mandarin group, having
been grafted on the trifoliata stock, and are truly north Florida's orange.
Among the varieties of Mediterranean oranges best adapted to Florida
are the early oranges such as Parson Brown and Hamlin; mid-season vari-
eties are seedlings, Pineapples. Enterprise Seedless and Jaffa; the late
varieties are Valencia and Lou Gim Gong.
(2) CITRUS FRUIT IN THE MENU
A. As an Appetizer.
a. Before Breakfast.
1. Instead of the early coffee cup, try an orange cup like this. Remove
a strip of peel around the middle of the orange. Cut in half and
remove the seed. Drink the beverage from the orange cup, gently
squeezing with fingers as you drink.
2. Squeeze the juice into a glass for the more fastidious guest. This is
permissible even in Florida for the newcomer.
3. The before-breakfast orange or grapefruit juice bracer has largely
replaced the old habit of the early morning coffee cup.
4. Lemon or lime juice diluted in a glass of water, hot or cold, is a
popular bracer. Drink on rising in the morning.
b. For Breakfast.
1. Halve the grapefruit, core, and remove seeds. Free the pulp
from the peel. Serve without "seasoning." Sugar or salt may
be added, if desired by the guest.
2. Prepare half of grapefruit as above. Heat orange blossom honey
and "drizzle" a little over the grapefruit.
IN TIE COMMERCIAL MENUJ 83
3. Fresh or canned crushed pineapple and fresh or canned straw-
berries furnish a delightful core for the grapefruit. A spoonful
of thoroughly ripened Florida banana pull) makes an interesting
slightly-sweetened addition to the grapefruit.
1. Orange juice is the laziest method at breakfast. Do not dilute.
Chill by setting in ice unless you are using the frozen orange juice.
Never add water or Ice to orange juice.
2. Orange pulp: Peel the orange so as to remove the membrane;
slice crosswise with scissors and clip the cores.
3. Fruit cups: For those who prefer a combination, the fruit cup
of orange pulp and strawberry or of orange and grapefruit is
4. Orange flower: Peel the orange in quarter peels three-fourths
of the way from blossom end to stem end and split peels into
halves again. Divide pulp into sections. Clip core line with
scissors and remove seeds. Fold in tops of peel atAin-t the
uorainge. i i jl not add sugar td Floridil siraiiurs. It !s Iin:oiees-
5. Orange slices in the rind: Slice oranges through the rind. Clip
the cores. Divide slices into thirds or fourths: serve alone or
as garnishes for other breakfast fruits, particularly brries-
strawberries or Florida blueberries.
6. Orange with cereals: One-half cup of orange juice. instead of
milk, on cereal, cooked or uncooked, is becoming popular.
Orange slices. served with cereals and milk. make the cereal
7. Sliced orange is now used as an acconmraniment for omelet or
c. For Luncheon or Dinner.
Citrus flult because of Its variety and because of its appetizing qualities
may be served often. In fact. repetition is not undesirable In sev-
eral courses of the same meal. Hors d"'ruvres. first course salads
or canapes. cocktails or truit culs or welcomed in one form or an-
other at all meals. Not only orange or grapefruit but limes, lemons,
kumquats, limequats, tangelos and even sour orange ju!ce and other
varieties of citrus should appear often as appetizers.
The introductory course of the luncheon or dinner has two purposes:
to attract the eye: to stimulate the appetite. Citrus-oranges.
giap-fruit. lime and lemon-being attractive both in color and
texture, attract the eye. As an appetizer, citrus is unexcelled.
Suggestions for first courses are as follows:
Use a slice of orange as a base. Whip avocado pulp with a few drops
of lime juice or calamondlin juice, and heap a spoonful of this in center of
orange slice. A dash of French mustard adds to the flavor of the whip.
Garnish with thin slices of kumquat or crystallized orange peel. Grape
fruit pulp combines nicely with avoc.do. In this case lime juice is not
S4 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
A slice of orange forms the base. Banana pulp whipped with lime
juice and a tablespoon of peanut butter is placed In the center and topped
with crystallized kumquat.
A slice of pineapple is heaped with orange pulp rolled in cocoanut.
Soak 4 tablespoonsful of gelatin in I cupful of grape juice for 10 minutes,
then heat over hot water until dissolved; cool and add U' cupful of shredded
orange and .-. cupful of shredded cocoanut. Beat 1 pint of cream until stiff
and add 'z cupful of sugar. Combine the two mixtures and beat into gela-
tine. Pour into cold individual molds and place on ice until ready to serve.
Turn out on a slice of pineapple and garnish with whipped cream and
A slice of orange is spread with paste made of litchi nuts and lime
Juice. A sprinkle of sugar may be used.
Spread thin brown rounds of toast with avocado pulp seasoned with
I:me. Heap center with orange pulp. Sprinkle with cocoanut meat. shredded.
Fruit Juice Cocktails.
1. Frozen Fruit Juice or chilled orange juice (no dilution nor sugar is
needed for a Florida orange).
2. Orange and grapefruit. 50-50.
3. Orange and ginger ale. 50-50.
4. To a half-glass orange juice add one tablespoon lime or sour orange
Juice and one teaspoon of sugar.
To keep limes for several weeks, select clean, sound fruit picked with
stem button on. Place in air-tight fruit jars. Lime Juice extracted, and
strained after it settles, may be filled into Jars, corked and kept for several
(For cold drinks, Ice cream, sauce, etc.)
2 dozen ripe limes, 1/ cupful water,
1 pound of cube sugar, Crushed ice and plain water.
Wash the limes thoroughly in cold water and dry. Rub the sugar
vigorously all over the lime until it loses its color. Squeeze the juice on
the sugar, add water; then boil and strain. For cold drinks, place 2 table-
sl-oonfuls of the syrup In a tumbler with crushed ice and filled with plain
Honey Orange Cocktail.
1 cup orange Juice. % cup lime or lemon Juice,
2 tablespoons honey. Few grains salt.
Calamondin or limequat juice may be substituted for lime. Tangerine
juice will sweeten the sour orange or lime.
1 cup grapefruit juice. %XI cup lemon or lime Juice.
1 cup frozen orange Juice. 2'. cups water.
%a cup sugar. 2 tablespoons chopped mint.
Mix thoroughly. Serve at once.
IN rI.IIE: ('COMME IIRICAL MENIU
(1) Florida's Fresh Limeade.
(2) Florida's Grapefruit-in "The Half Shell"
(3) Florida's Grapefruit-in "The Drink"
(1) Florida's Orange Juice-In "The Cup"
(2) Florida's Orange Juice-Fresh or Frozen
Citrus for Drinks
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENT' 87
Grape Juice Limeade.
Juice of 5 limes. 9 cups water.
3 cups sugar, 6 cups grape juice.
Place ice in pitcher. Add sugar and water; stir thoroughly. Add grapt
juice and, last, the lime. Let stand several minutes before serving.
Lime Juice Cocktail.
4 tallcdspoons of lime juice, 2 Inllespolns of suglnr syrup,
3 tablespoons of orange juice. 2/3 cupful of ginger mie.
Place ingrcditillts in ~.w'kt il shaker: sh;uke. n lind inr over crushed i( in
four cocktail glal ssies. Sairve.
Juice and Pulp Cocktails.
2 oranges. : tillleslunioos lime juice.
I cup strawberries. tl taillesiosmns ipowderel sugar.
Itemove a ie' iilibranei from orange pulp,. nit in halls. Hn1lve berries. mix.
Add nlenon juiev. Sprinkle with .sugar.
2 oranmges -juire andml graitmtl rind. 6 slices pineapple cubes.
JIuice from pioneapplde.
P'lane pilne;iple i ul ies in glasses. sprinkle with grantld ornai e Iwel. Roll
orange, pulp in niilmi-Iil minlt l-aves ainil pluce on top of iiineapple. If desirdl.
mix neI ta;llislipoon ginger syrup with pineaUlipll jlui-- anid pour over fruit.
Orange Cup Cocktail.
4 smanll oiranmigies. .. uml) strnwl-rri-s.
Few grains sailt. '-. rulp i-ruslnhel pinepple.
I te'i isplilm lemon jui e. Sugar to stle.
('lt thinl slic front llhi liops of ,orUlngcs. Itemllve pulp illmnd JI-jlle. Add
strawherri.s. leumnon juiice annd .siilir" tio orInnIIII ji ice' aInd pul. Fill OI'Hrage
-llIps ti(im srt on i(, am ll1I1d 141i', l mntil thllorolluig ly c'old. Ser've 1 il glasses sur-
roiiiundil with r-ruhsliil ie.
2 tahles oiiins gralnfruit pulp. 2 tahlleslxmins tangerine pulp.
In cocktail glasses. A few drops lime Julice,
2 tlalespoi.ns crushed strawherries, A sprinkle of sugar,
A few whole Inerres. A .prl g of minlIt.
I'lier gramI-fruit. in srinkle of sugar. then crunshld berries. and tan-
gerilne oin top. A fi-w drops of lime aindl s oinfii| of any left over juilce.
Garnish with mint. A half of carissa or a Surinam (cherry gives a contrasting
color. In south Florida a few drops of the juice of granadilla may be sub-
stitultil( for litme jinic.e.
Inl tihe early season liefor gra itxfruit is fully swi-ertentil. two tllileslonsls
of Japanese persimmon pulp. ripened to the pour stage may be added to
grapefruit pulp in a cocktail combination. A 50-50 cocktail or fruit cup is
made of the persimmon and grapefruit with an added flavor of limequat or
garnish of sliced kumquat.
I cupl graIe-fruit pulp. I cup gr;aii Juime.
sweetened if mmie-cssairy.
I'se orange pullp if desired, garnish with a few spicd grapes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
3. FROZEN OR ICED FRUIT APPETIZERS.
1% cup crushed pineapple, .1 cups grapefruit pulp.
8 cups orange pulp. 4I., cups powdered sugar.
Drain pineapple and add to orange and grapefruit pulp. Add powdered
sugar and stir until dissolved. Pour into mold and pack in 4 parts ice and
1 part salt. Let stand for 3 hours until frozen.
6 tablespoons gelatin, 6 tablespoons lemon juice or
-% cup cold water, lime juice,
9 cups orange juice, :3 cups orange pulp.
% cup sugar,
Combine gelatine and cold water. IIeat 3 cups of the orange juice over
hot water. Add gelatine and sugar. Stir until dissolved. Cool. Add rest
of fruit juices. Chill several hours. Stir occasionally. Add orange pieces.
Serve ice cold as first course. Garnish with mint sprigs.
Iced Fruit Punch.
4 cups sugar. 2 quarts grapejuice.
2 cups water, 2 quarts crushed pineapple,
2 cups lemon juice, Lemon or orange slices.
2 cups orange juice,
Cook sugar and water 5 minutes. Cool. Add fruit juices and pineapple.
Serve with plenty of ice nid garnish with slices of lemon or orange.
(4) FRUIT CUPS
Orange Fruit Cup.
2 cups orange juice, 3 cups diced pineapple,
2/3 cup lemon juice. 3 cups of one of the following
2/3 cup pineapple syrup, fruits: White grapes, straw-
Sugar. Ibrries, peaches, pears, canta-
3 cups orange pieces. loupes, bananas.
Combine fruit Juices and sweeten to taste, keeping rather tart. Add
mixed fruits. Place on ice. Serve very cold in cocktail or sherbet glasses.
Garnish each serving with Surinnml cherry, strawberry, carissa, cut in half,
or loquat slices. Use mint if fruits are not in season.
Oranges should have all membrane removed. If grapes are used, seeds
should be removed. If strawberries are used, cut in half. Peaches or pears,
if used. should Ib diced : cherries should Ib stoned; cantaloupe or bananas
should be cut in balls or small sections.
(5) FIRST COURSE SALADS
First course salads should become a habit. Such a variety to choose!
This custom simplifies the service. The salad attracts. appetizer and elim-
inates elalborate service. The main course follows without further inter-
ruption and without further service. The first course salad is an appetizer
and not a main dish. It should include fresh fruit or a particularly attrac-
tive raw vegetable.
Frenchl dressing made with lime or lemon or sour orange, instend of
vinegar, is suitable for first salads, or "greens." Rings of pepper (green)
or celery hearts are also appropriate. Sprigs of mint or parsley or shredded
leaves of lettuce are well used. See (Part II, XII:2) "Combination of Fruit
for Fruit Salads."
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 89
% orange, 1 pineapple slice, 2 grapefruit sections,
% orange pulp, 1/ banana, split, dash of lime.
% orange pulp, in half cantaloupe,
% orange pulp, 1 tablespoon minced cucumber, 2 sections grapefruit,
or orange pulp heaped in center of thick slice of tomato on which has
been placed a ring of green pepper.
Cut fruit in half, remove core with sharp knife. loosen pulp from peel
and from membrane. Fill center with any one of the following:
1. Crushed berries topped with a whole berry. Sweeten slightly.
2. Mashed banana pulp, or avocado pull) with lime sprinkle.
3. Seeded grapes with two tablespoons orange juice or pineapple syrup.
4. Preserved fig, well drained, slightly dried, chopped.
5. Grated cocoanut topped with tart jelly or colored marshmallow.
6. Crushed peach (Florida Sweet Peach).
7. Shredded sand pear topped with Florida kumquat fresh, preserved or
Fruit Punch for a Crowd.
2 quarts sugar, 2 quarts tea, weak,
1 quart water, 1 quart lemon juice,
1 quart orange juice, Ice water (2/4 gallons),
1 quart grape juice. 1 cup strawberry slices,
1 quart pineapple (grated), 2 cups fancy orange sections.
Make syrup of sugar and 1 quart water. Make tea infusion by pouring
2 quarts (8 cups) boiling water over 5 tablespoons tea. Cool. Combine
syrup, tea, fruit juice and water. Add strawberry slices and orange slices.
which may be cut in fancy shapes or simply halved or quartered.
Punch may lie strained before adding strawberry and orange slices, but
this will lessen quantity made. Less water may be used and punch poured
over lock of ice in punch bowl. When strawberries are out of season, the
strawberry slices may be replaced by another cup of orange slices. Recipe
may be halved or quartered to serve a smaller group.
Frozen Fruit Punch.
8 cups sugar, 3 small bunches mint,
( cups water, 2 cups lemon juice,
3 cups weak tea or ginger ale, 2 quarts orange juice.
Boil sugar, water anld mint together for 5 minutes. Chill, add remaining
ingredients. strain and freeze.
1 egg yolk, 14 cup thin cream,
% cup orange juice, Sugar. if desired.
Beat egg yolk until light, add orange juice and blend thoroughly. Pour
inlo glass and stir in cream. Sweeten to taste. Serve at once.
(7) FROZEN JUICES
Frozen Orange Juice.
Into a large glass pour a cup of orange juice. Add a dip of vanilla ice
cream and stir until partially dissolved. Serve immediately.
To lemonade, orange juice or other fruit beverage, add a dip of lemon
or orange ice. place in the glass at serving time. The beverage should be
cold. The fruit ice replaces the service of crushed ice in the glass.
90 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Fruit Juice Punch.
Sweeten milk with sugar and add two tablespoons or more of any of
the fruit juices-lime, grape, blackberry. Young berry, pineapple, grapefruit
Beat well before serving, and add a beaten egg white and a dash of nutmeg
or cinnamon, or a dab of whipped cream for each glass.
(8) CHRISTMAS WASSAIL CUP
4 cups sugar. (10 orallges., juices of.
4 c(lps winter. S lemons. juice of.
12 whole cloves. 4 pieces stick cinmnamonl.
(6 allspice berries, 4 cups cider.
2 tablespoons chopped ginger,
Make a syrup by hliling sugar andl winter 10 minutes. Addl cloves. cinna-
mon, allspice and ginger and let syrup stand covered in a warm place one
hour to infuse. Strain, add orn lge ianil lemon juice andl ider. Bring quickly
to the loilling point alnd serve at onle.
B. Citrus Conservation.
While more than one hundred plants in Florida are taking care of the
citrus surplus in the form of jams, jellies, juices, marmalades and crystal-
lized products, and while many of these products are on the market in
attractive standard packages, it is true nevertheless that many of the
smaller commercial kitchens still find it profitable to conserve left-overs and
surplus in the big season.
During the plentiful season to store the pantry with those Florida
products which say the last word in attractiveness and palatability to the
future guest who yearns for something different, is the purpose of the ambi-
tious menu-maker not only for the small dining room, but for the most pre-
tentious and popular resorts.
It is the individual touch in the menu that counts; the added surprise
that increases value; the final flavor that allures. Therefore the following
suggestions are offered for using citrus liy-producls.
Prepare the grapefruit heart as for salads, removing them from the
core whole. Cut a slice from each end of the grapefruit in such a way as
to remove all peel and membrane. Then cut down the sides in wide slices.
removing membrane each time. With a sharp knife or wooden spatula
Pack hearts solidly into sterilized containers and add two tablespoons
medium sugar syrup. Process 35 minutes at 180 degrees.
Extract Jice in such way as to exclude oil of the peel or the bitterness
of the rag. Bring juice to 165' or 170* in open vessel. Fill bottles to over-
flowing with juice, boiling hot. Cap quickly. Process in water at 180* F.
for 30 minutes.
Sweet orange juice keeps its flavor better in canning when combined
with sour citrus juice In proportion of 4 to 1. Lime, lemon, calamondin,
Seville or sour orange may be used. Use sugar in proportion of 2 cups sugar
to one gallon juice mixture. Bottle and process at 165 F. for 30 minutes.
IN THE COMMERCIAL MENU 91
Other Fruit Juices.
Ripe grapes, plums, berries produce valuable fruit juices. Bring fruit to
simmering temperature. Remove juice, strain through a heavy cloth. Sweeten
slightly, about 1 cup. sugar to a gallon of juice. Strain again if a clear juice
is desired. Seal hot and process at about 180* F. Fruit jars may be used
for keeping juices for home use. If bottles are used, cork tightly, process
and seal with wax afterwards, or use a bottle capper.
Fruits Containing Pectin for Jelly-Citrus fruits, partially ripened
grapes, blackberries, dewberries, huckleberries, quinces, guavas, crabapple,
May haws, plums, pomegranate, roselle.
Fruits Lacking in Pectin-Strawberries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb.
Fruits Lacking Acid for Jelly--lears. quince, sugar apple, sapodilla,
Tropical Fruits for Jelly- Tamarind (red). satin fruit (red), pitanga
(red), mulberry (dark), guava. carambola, Persian lime, pomegranate,
Cattley guava, jaboticaba. umkokolo, ketembilla (English gooseberry).
Citrus Fruit Especially Recommended for Jelly-Kumquat. sour orange.
Florida lemon, grapefruit, and orange (not too ripe).
Citrus Pectin for Other Fruits.
The fruits in many sections require additional pectin to produce jelly.
Fortunately, Florida has an abundant supply of pectin in citrus fruits.
It may be prepared for convenience as follows:
One-half pound white part of orange peel. 1 pint water. 4 tablespoons
Cut or grate the yellow from orange peel. Pass white peel through a
food chopper. Weigh, add lemon juice, mix. allow to stand I hour. Add 1%
pints water. Let stand I hour. Holl gently 10 minutes. Cover, let cool,
place in flannel jelly bag. Press to remove juice. Drain juice through a
The Pectin Test.
To give the pectin test. pour 1 teaspoonful of jelly stock into a clean cup.
Pour into cup a teaspoon of grain alcohol (or denatured alcohol). Gently
shake. Pour into a spoon. If the pectin shows a solid clot, use one measure
of sugar to one measure of juice. If it is not so solid use less sugar.
Strawberry and Orange Pectin Jelly.
1, pt. orange pectin '.2 lb. sugar .. pt. strawberry juice
Preparation of Strawberry Juice for Jelly.
Wash strawberries thoroughly, pour into a colander, cap, crush, pour
into a preserving kettle and boil carefully for 5 minutes. stirring constantly.
Strain through a cheesecloth bag, squeeze and place juice in a flannel jelly
bag and allow to drain.
Add one-half pint orange pectin juice to one-half pint strawberry juice.
Boil; add one-half pound sugar. Continue boiling until the jellying point is
reached. This is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from the spoon. Pour
immediately into hot sterilized jelly glasses and skim. When cold, pour hot
paraffin over the jelly.
1 lb kumquats I lb. sugar 2 pts. water
Clean kumquats thoroughly, sprinkle with soda. using about 1 tablespoon
of soda to 1 pound of kumquats. Pour sufficient boiling water over this to
cover the fruit and allow to stand 10 minutes.
92 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Pour water off and rinse through three changes of water. Cut kumquats
horizontally, place in kettle and add 2 pts. of water to every pound of fruit
taken. Boil for one-half hour, then pour into a cheese-cloth bag and press
until no more juice can be obtained. Strain the juice through a clean flannel
jelly bag, put into a kettle and bring to a boil. To this boiling juice add 1
pound of sugar for each pound of fruit taken. Stir until the sugar is thor-
oughly dissolved and continue boiling until it reaches the jellying point.
The jellying point is determined by dipping a spoon or wooden paddle
into the boiling solution and then holding it above the kettle, allowing the
syrup to drop. When it drops in flakes or sheets from the spoon, pour im-
mediately into clean, sterilized jelly glasses and seal.
Sour Orange Jelly.
1 lb. peeled sour oranges, 2 pints water.
1 lb. sugar,
The sour orange jelly is made by preparing the juice as directed in
recipe for sour orange marmalade. No peel is used in the jelly.
1 lb. peeled grapefruit, 2 pts. water.
% lb. sugar,
This jelly is made by following the same directions as for making sour
Sour Orange Marmalade
1 pound peeled sour oranges,
2 pints water,
1/3 of peel,
1 cup of sugar to 1 cup jelly
stock or less according to
Preparation of Peel-Wash fruit, remove
peel, keeping 1/3 cup of thin slices. Leave
some white on skins. Place in kettle. Add
water 4 times weight of peel. Boil 10 minutes.
Drain. Repeat 3 times, each time boiling 5
minutes. Continue until peel is very tender
and all bitter taste removed.
Preparation of Jelly Stock-Weigh peeled
fruit; cut into small pieces and, for each
pound of orange, add 2 pints of water. Boil
until thoroughly disintegrated. Drain in
flannel jelly bag and press.
Making Marmalade-Pour juice into a
kettle; add peel and bring to a boil. Make
pectin test and add sugar as needed. Boil
until the jellying point is reached. Test by
flaking from the spoon.
1 pound peeled fruit,
2 pints water,
1 pound sugar (based on pectin
One-third of peel.
This marmalade follows same directions as
Calamondins for sour oranges.
IN THI E COMMERCIAL L I ENU 93
Combination Marmalade-Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon
2 oranges (pulp and peel) 1 grapefruit (pulp)
1 lemon (pulp)
Wash fruit. Grate yellow froin oranges. Use white peel. Peel grape-
fruit and lemon and discard peel. Iun fruit and orange peel through a
chopper. Add 3 times the bulk of water. Boil 15 minutes and Jet stand over
night. Boil 10 minutes and let stand again. When cold. measure pint for
pint of sugar. Cook rapidly to jelly stage. 222 VI. (Ole cup grated pineapple,
previously Ioilled, may le added with Ihe sugar.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
3 cups carrots, chopped, 2 oranges.
1'. teaspoon sall, 3 lellmons
-4 ulis sugar'. I cup watel'.
Wash and scrape carrots and run through a
food chopper. Boil until tender. Drain.
Wash and peel oranges; chop one-half the
peel; strip the other. Boil strips until tender.
Pour sugar over hot ground carrots. Let melt.
Add water. lemon juice. orange pulpl (cut in
small pieces) and orange peel. Cook until
sirup is thick and fruit is clear. Three slices
of canned pineapple may be used instead of
Remove seeds and juice of kumquats. Cook
skins in water (changing 2 or 3 times if nec-
essary) until tender. Drain. Chop in meat
chopper. Combine juice and peel, adding ::,
cup of sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil to
Remove the membranous skin or rag from
the orange peel. Put through a food chopper.
Add twice its weight inl water and 2 table-
spoons lemon juice for each cup of water. Let
stand one hour and add same amount of water
as first taken. Boil 3 minutes, cover, allow to
cool. Press through a jelly bag. Keep one-
half ground peel to add later to boiling juice.
Add the other half to the juice. Test for
pectin and add as much sugar as the test
shows is needed. Use I cup juice to one cup
sugar if there is a solid clot. Bring it to a boil, i
Add the remaining half of the ground peel and Orange Marmalade
cook to 222, F, or to the jellying stage.
I pound peeled tangelovs, I., pints of water.
I pound) sugar, t2 of the peel.
Preparation of the Peel: Wash the fruit; remove the peel; discard one-
half, reservllng the porllon freest from Iblltnish. anldl run through food chop-
per. Boil for 10 mlinutes; drain free of water, and add water again. Bring
to a boil anld allow to simmer until tendetlr.
Preparation of the Juice: After the peel has been removed. weigh tile
fruit, cut into small pieces and place in a kettle. For each pound of tangelo
taken add l J/ pints of water. Boil about 20 minutes. Pour into a cheese
cloth jelly 1bg and press. DIrain the juiicc agailli through cl'iianI flallnel
jelly bag without pressing.
Making the Marmalade: Pour juice into a kettle; add drained peel;
bring to a lhoil ; add 1 pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. Boil to to tile
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
fruit with a
wash well. Cut
the peel in
shapes. To 1
Kumquat Preserves lb. of fruit add
2 pints of water and the lemon. Boil for 15
minutes, change the water and boil again.
Repeat the process as often as is necessary
to remove as much of the bitter from the
peel as is desired. Remove the peel and
lemon from the water and drop them into
a boiling syrup made by adding % lb. sugar
to 3 cups of water for each pound of peel and
boiling until the sugar is dissolved. Boil
until the peel is transparent and the syrup
NOTE-A ginger flavor may be added to
citrus products by adding root ginger to the
syrup while boiling.
Sour Orange Preserves
Grate the yellow from the peel. Cut the
oranges in halves. Put four oranges into five
quarts of water and boil 20 minutes. Change
to fresh water and boil 15 minutes. Change
and boil 10 minutes. Change again and boil
8 minutes. Drain and boil in syrup of one
part sugar and two parts water until fruit is
transparent. When sirup cooks to desired
consistency, pour over fruit packed into ster-
ilized jars and process 10 minutes. Seal.
Grapefruit with Kumquats
1 pound kumquats, 3 cups water.
% pound sugar,
Wash kumquats with soap and water.
Sprinkle with soda (1 tablespoon soda to 1
quart kumquats) and pour on boiling water
and let stand 10 minutes. Pour off water.
Rinse in 3 waters. Slit kumquats % inch in
side, cutting seed cells. Place in kettle with
water to cover. Boil 15 minutes. Repeat
boiling process until fruit is tender. Drop
kumquats into boiling sugar solution made by
adding %: pounds sugar to 3 cups water. Boil
to 2220 F. Pack in jars. Strain sirup over
fruit. Seal while hot. The fruit may be al-
lowed to "plump" in the vessel covered for 25
1 lb. grapefruit peel, 3 cups of water,
:y lb. sugar, lemon sliced.
IN HIIE COMMERCIAL MAENU 95
2 cups grapefruit pulp 2 cups sugar
2 cups orange pull) Peel from one orange
%/4 cup pecan meiats (chopped)
'4 cup grated pineapple
Preparation-To chopped peel add 1 cup water and boil 10 minutes.
Cover. Iet cool. (If fresh pineapple is used be sure to boil as it contains
an enzyme that prevents the action of pectin unless the pineapple has reached
boiling point.) Mix fruit pulp and orange peel: boil 20 minutes; add sugar.
When dissolved, add pineapple. Cook to the jelly test. Add nuts. Pour
into sterilized glasses and seal.
C. Crystallized Fruits.
Directions for crystallizing fruit when it is desired to keep the fruit for
a long period of time:
1. Preparation of Fruit-All citrus fruits should be of a bright color,
without blemish and with thick peel. Grapefruit, lemon, oranges and limes
must be grated sufficiently to break the oil cells. The bitter in the peel is
removed by putting the peel on in cold water, letting it come to a boil, and
then by draining off. changing the water and starting over each time with
cold water. The number of changes depends on the individual taste. The
peel should be tender before it goes into the sirup.
Kumquats Wash, treat with a hot soda
bath (one tablespoon of soda to one pound of
fruit). Cover with boiling water. Let stand
until cool. Wash in clear water. Make a
small slit in the sides of the kumquats. cut-
ting through the seed cells. Cover with water.
then cook until tender before putting into the
Pineapples--Peel, cut in one-half inch slices,
core and boil until tender.
Fig, Watermelon Rind and Other Fruits-
Treat as you would in preparing for preserves.
Quick Method for Immediate Consumption
Make a thin sirup, 2 parts water, 1 part
sugar. (sufficient to cover the fruit after the
sirup is cooked down). Put fruit on and cook
until clear. Cook down to 220 F. first day.
Let stand in this sirup for at least 24 hours.
Then cook to 2260 F. Let stand in this sirup
until next (lay. Then cook to 228' F.; take
out, shape and put in sun to dry. When par-
tially dry roll in granulated sugar and put
back in sun or in a good place to dry.
Continued Method for Marketing
To make a marketable product when the
fruit is cooked to 226" F. put in jars and pro-
cess for 15) minutes. Seal and keel) this pre-
serve until you are ready to crystallize it.
To finish product make a 222- F. sirup and put
the drained fruit into the sirup and cook to
226c F. Drain, shape and place in sun to
dry. When partially dry roll in granulated
sugar. 'Ihis method will take longer to dry, Sour Oranges
but the product will keep much longer. (Preserved for Crystallization)
Coloring and flavoring may be used. but it chealqpns the I)roduct and
causes the fruit to lose its identity if overdone. Eight drops of any standard
vegetable coloring to tihe pound of sugar put into the sirup is sufficient to give
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
a delicate shade to the finished product. If flavorings are used, add to the
product the last five minutes of cooking.
For pineapple, whole limes, etc., preserve in 235* F. sirup and finish in
a 2500 F. sirup. As soon as the desired temperature is reached, remove from
fire and stir until moderately cool. Remove the fruit, which will be coated
in fondant, and dry.
Grapefruit Peel Strips.
1 lb. grapefruit peel 6 tablespoons liquid 3 t juice
1 lb. sugar 3 water
Preparation of Peel-Select bright fruit with a thick peel. Wash care-
fully. Grate lightly on an ordinary grater to break the oil cells. Cut this
peel into strips that are % to % inch in width; or into small shapes. To
remove the bitter, place in pan of cold water and let come to a boil. Change
water as many times as necessary, starting each time in cold water. When
fruit is tender, drain and weigh.
For each pound of peel add 1 pound of sugar and 6 tablespoons of
liquid; cook until the sirup is absorbed. Remove from the fire and roll in
granulated sugar and lay on platter to dry.
Finishing Point-If cooking is continued for too long a period of time
and evaporation carried too far, the product will be hard and unattractive.
The point at which the product is finished may be determined by rolling a
piece of the fruit, when it has become transparent, in granulated sugar.
If, after a few minutes, the fruit stiffens enough to retain its shape, it is
sufficiently cooked. A strip of the peel is preferred to the small shapes in
making this test.
NOTE-If it is desired to give a variety in appearance to the finished
product, the peel may be cut into small attractive shapes, before being boiled.
Vegetable coloring may be added to the sirup in which the peel is crys-
tallized. Mint, ginger or other flavoring may be blended with the grapefruit
flavor by adding to the sirup.
Orange Sugar for Flavoring.
1. Grate off the thin yellow rind of oranges. being careful not to
get any of the bitter white undernmeth. Then place in a preserving jar
and cover with a thick layer of granulated sugar. Screw the top on
tight. The sugar will absorb the aromatic oil and can then be used both for
sweetening and flavoring.
2. With a thin, sharp knife peel off the yellow rind (only); dry it on
plates in the sun or a slow oven. Add to the perfectly dry rind of six
oranges, one-half pound of granulated sugar; grind to a powder; sift several
times and place in airtight jars for using. One tablespoon of this will flavor
one quart of custard or sauce.
Orange Mint Paste.
3 tablespoons granulated gelatin, 2 cups sugar,
1/3 cup orange juice, % cup cold water,
V cup minced mint leaves, 1 tablespoon lemon juice,
6 drops peppermint essence, Green coloring.
Allow gelatin to stand in fruit juice until liquid is absorbed. Place
sugar, water and mint in a saucepan over slow heat until sugar is dissolved,
add gelatin and boil for 20 minutes. Color and turn mixture into a bread
pan. Allow to stiffen over night, sift powdered sugar over the paste, loosen
at the edges and remove to a board dredged with powdered sugar. Cut in
cubes and roll in sugar.
TN TIE COMMERCIAL MENU
2 tablespoons gelatin, 2 tablespoons lemon juice,
i cup cold water, 4 tablespoons nut meats,
1 cup sugar, % cup orange juice,
14 cup nut meats, Grated rind 1 orange.
,: cup hot water,
Soak the gelatin in the cold water. Chop the nuts fine or put through
a meat chopper and add first amount to gelatin. Add the fruit juices and
grated orange rind. Make a syrup of the sugar and hot water and cook to
the soft ball stage or 238 degrees F. Remove from the fire and add the
gelatin and nut mixture. Return to the fire and boil about 10 minutes,
stirring occasionally over a moderate heat. Remove from fire, pour into a
flat pan and sprinkle with remainder of nut meats.
Soak orange peels three days in cold water, changing the water daily.
Then boil until soft. Drain, wipe dry, chop fine and measure. Take an
equal amount of sugar and for each third of a cup of sugar add two table-
spoons each of water and butter. Boil until the soft ball stage is reached,
or 238 degrees F. Add chopped peel, boil a minute or two longer, cool and
pour out on a board, sprinkle with granulated sugar and shape into small
balls. These may be rolled in coarse sugar and allowed to dry or they may
be dipped in fondant flavored with vanilla. They are also delicious dipped
(See Florida Salads under XIII.)
(See Florida Desserts under XIV.)
98 FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Varieties and Value
The hardy Celeste is popular throughout Florida. It is a small, brown-
ish-yellow. sweet fig (.uly I ). The Brown Turkey (luly 15), white to pink
inside, is a solid fig and hardy. The Brunswick (August and September) is
a large violet-colored fig with thick, soft pulp.
Figs thrive best in tem-
perate localities but do well .
farther north if protected.
They are grown largely in the
vicinity of the "yard." The
fruit contains a high per cent
of sugar. Other nutrients are
not abundant. The texture
and flavor are pleasing. The
fruit is best freshly picked
from the trees. It needs no
flavoring. The fig has a slight
It is sometimes used with
sugar and cream as a break-
fast fruit. It lends itself to
drying and preserving and
canning. It is used in cookies,
cakes and pastes, pudding, ice
cream and other desserts.
Serve ripe. peeled or un-
peeled figs. with or without
cream. No sugar is needed.
Select firm, sound, mature but not fully ripe figs.
4 pounds figs 4 pounds sugar 4 quarts water
Sort over and weigh. Wash dust from figs by placing in wire baskets,
or colander, and dipping in and out of boiling water. Add sugar in propor-
tion of 1 pound to 1 pound of figs and four cups of water. Cook, without
stirring, to 224 degrees F. Allow to stand, covered, over night to "plump."
Pack figs in sterilized jars. Fill to overflowing with sirup heated to boiling
point. Partially seal and simmer 15 minutes for pints.
Lemon sliced through the peel may be added just before processing.
Spices or ginger may be added but the real flavor of the fig is pleasing.
IN ITHE COMMERCIAL MENI' 99
4 cups grapefruit pulp. 4 cups sugar.
4 cups orange pulp, Peel of orange, chopped,
2 cups pecan meats, 2 cups preserved figs, chopped.
1 cup grated pineapple. (cooked).
To the chopped peel. add two cups of water and boil ten minutes. Cover.
Let cool. (If fresh pineapple is used be sure to boil as it contains an
enzyme that prevents the action of pectin in the other fruit mixture unless
the pineapple has been cooked.) Mix the fruit pulp and orange peel: boil
twenty minutes; add sugar. When dissolved, add pineapple. Cook to the
jelly test. Add nuts. Pour into sterilized glasses and seal.
cook until right consistency for conserve. Add
2/3 cup pecan meats. Remove from heat.
Pack and process 15 minutes at simmering.
NOTE-G(ratted lenon rind adWIs to the
Fresh Fig Preserves.
I For large white preserving figs.)
4 thounlds fresh figs. 2 )poundiiis sPu ga r.
I lenlon. 1 culp later.
Wash and pl'el the figs. Slice the lemon.
Boil the l sugar and water together for ten
minutes. Add the figs and lemon. (ook until
figsar are c ('Ill itand the syrup thick. about 224
degrees. Cook rapidly the last half hour.
Ginger miay he iused instead of lemon. Seal
lit clean. hot jiirs. If a fancy fig is desrilrl.
allow to stand oIverllighlt o plllnpl up before
packing. In this case. process for a few min-
Wies after parking.
Sweet Spiced Figs.
5 pints figs. I stick cilinaltn n.
I pint water, I teaspoonli spil'e
1 (lup vinegar. 1 tesplllo n111('e.
I pint sugar.
1Wnash and dip figs ais forl' lilpresev ig. ii, lace
in boiling water for at few minutes Ilnd t add
sugar. viniegar mid slices. Cook to 222 le- Preserved Figs
greens or 224 degrees F.., or until Ilih figs are P
clear. 't stand over ni ght. Pack and process : l i inut es at similnering
tempileratlure i 15 minutes alt Ioiliig poiit.
This Is made from the broken figs or over-ripe stock. ('lip off stems.
run through a coarse food grinder. Measure. Place in a heavy aluminum
kettle and cook until thickened. Add ._. measure of sugar to one measure of
fig pulp and cook to 221 F. Pack In hot jars, seal and process by boiling
Treat the figs with Ii slda halh ais in lprepatring themll for preserving.
Pitt them in it syrup pirepallre'd by Idling together Itwo cups of sugar, six
FLORID)A FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
nups of water. Iet the whole boil one hour: pour immediately into sterilized
Jars and seal.
1 pimind Imtter, 1 loaf liread. crunhhld.
4 cups sugar. 4 teaspoons baking powder.
12 eggs. 1 teasipon salt.
Creamial the butter and eggs with sugar. Add bread crumls and baking
lHpwder. To this mixture add four cups chopped figs (fresh or canned), two
cups spiced grapes, one cup crystallized orange peel, three cups pecans, all
well flavored. One cup of fruit Juice- orange or gral-p-hellm the flavor.
(;rated lelani rind also gives a good flavor. Stain the pudding in a well-
greased pudding mold for two hours. Serve with a hard sauce flavored with
Stuffed Fig Salad.
75 fresh or preserved figs. 1 pound (hopla l peCans
1 '. pounds cream rhe~.e. or peanuts,
6 tablespoons milk. 3 clip chopped celery.
11. tablespoons silt, 1%/ tablespoons paprlka.
Soften cheese with inilk. Add nuts, celery, salt, paprika, and mix
thoroughly. Drain figs well. Stuff with cheese mixture. Serve three figs
on lettuce. Garnish with pecan halves and with thinly sliced lime or lemon.
Rolled Fig Sandwiches.
Chop very ripe fresh or preserved figs to make 1%' cups. Add 2 tea-
spoons lemon juice or ginger syrup. Butter very thin slices of fresh whole
whlleat lire-dil. remove I1I c-rusts. sprelld with thile fig lImste alnd roll carefully.