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 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 List of Tables
 Main
 Back Matter
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Grow your own vegetables
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003058/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grow your own vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 70 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Norton, J. D
Jamison, F. S ( Frank Stover ), 1903-
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Joseph D. Norton and F.S. Jamison.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "R Nov. 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003058
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3560
ltuf - AMT2357
oclc - 49787471
alephbibnum - 002566076
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 66
        Page 67
    Back Matter
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Back Cover
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text







JROW


OUR OWN


VEGETABLES


By
JOSEPH D. NORTON
Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
And
F. S. JAMISON
Vegetable Crops Specialist
AGRICULTURE EXTEN 3ION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


STATE OF FLORIDA
[DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo-Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE












FOREWORD

People who live in the State of Florida are fortunate
in that they are able to grow a wide variety of vegetables
throughout the year. Most of these vegetables are con-
sumed fresh in the daily menus, while many families freeze
or can their surplus production for later use.
To those persons interested in raising some of the
many varieties of vegetables that can be grown here, this
booklet is dedicated. We hope that all who aspire to be
home gardeners will find the information in this book
useful, and that they'll discover the health and happiness
that can come from "growing their own vegetables."

NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture












PRINTED BY ROSE PRINTING COMPANY, INC.
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA








CONTENTS

PAGE
INTRODUCTION ........... ............................ 1

WHERE TO HAVE A GARDEN ...................... 2
SUNSHINE .......................... .......... ............ 2
Sou. ................................................... 2


PLANNING A GARDEN ......... .... ............... 3
SE.ECTING THE VEGETABLES ........................ ..... 3
PAPER PLANS ................. ........... ............ 3
SUGGESTED YEAR-ROUND GARDEN PLAN ..................... 4
SUCCESSION PLANTINGS ................. ................... 5
T OOLS ............ ...................................... 6

WEATHER ........... .................. ........

SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION ............ 9
SOIL REACTION AND LIME ................................ 9
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS ............... ............... 10
SIDEDRESSING ................... .......................... 13
MEASUREMENT OF FEBTILIZERS ........................... 13
MINOR ELEMENTS .......... .............................. 14
ORGANIC MATTER ....... ............................... 15
ARTIFICIAL M ANURE .................................... 16
C OVER C ROPS ......... .......... ... ......... ........ 16

PLANTING TIE GARDEN ............................. 16
SEED ................ ..................... ............ 16
SEED TREATMENT ........ ......................... ...... 16
PLANTS ................. ... ................. ........... 18
TRANSPLANTING SUGGESTIONS ............................ 20
PLANTING ............... .............................. 22
PLANT IN STRAIGHT ROWS ............................ 22
PLANT AT PROPER DEPTH ............................ 23
SPACE SEEDS PROPERLY IN ROW ........................ 23
FIRM SOIL AFTER PLANTING .......................... 26

CARE OF THE GARDEN ............................... 26
THINNING ............. .................... ........... 26
CULTIVATION AND WEED CONTROL ......................... 26
MULC ES ................... ............................ 27
SUPPORTING TALL GROWING CROPS ........................ 28
\VATERING TIHE GARDEN .................................. 30








ic GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

PAGE

PEST CONTROL ..................................... 3(
NEM ATODES ................... ............................
RODENTS AND SMALL ANIMALS ............................ 3

INSECTS AND DISEASES ............................... 3
HAND-PICKING INSECTS ................ ................ . C
INSECTICIDES ........ ........ ............................ 4(
FUNGICIDES ........... .................. ............... 4]
ALL PURPOSE DUSTS ......... ............... ............ 41
APPLICATION OF PESTICIDES ............................. 41
DUSTERS AND DUSTING ....................................... 4
SPRAYERS AND SPRAYING ............ ....................... 42
PESTICIDE PRECAUTIONS .................. ............... 4.

HARVESTING AND STORING ....................... 4
CAN OR FREEZE SURPLUS VEGETABLES ...................... 44
POTATOES ......... .. ............................... ... 4
POTATOES, SWEET ....................................... 4.
O NIONS ................ ..... ............ ............. 4E
TOMATOES ............... .... ............................. 4
DRIED BEANS AND PEAS .... ........... ................... 4E

INDIVIDUAL CROPS .................. ................. 4
ASPARAGUS ................................ ........... 4
BEANS ............................................. 4
BEETS .................................. ............ 4E
BROCCOL ... ............... ............................. 44
BROCCOLI ............................................... 4
BRUSSEL SPROUTS .................... ..................... 4
CABBAGE ...... ....................................... 4
CARROTS ................................................ 4.
CAULIFLOWER .................. ........................ 5C
C ELERY ................................................ 51
CHARD OR Swiss CHARD .................................. 5.
CHINESE CABBAGE ............... ....................... 5M
COLLARDS ................ .................... .......... 52
CUCUMBERS ........................................ 51E
EGGPLANT ............................................. 5
ENDIVE AND ESCAROLE ................ ... ............ 5
KALE ....................... ...... ..... ... ......... 54
KOHLRABI ........................................ .... 5
LETTUCE ................ ...... ............. 5=
LETUC ..E ............................................. & 5
MUSKMELONS, CANTALOUPES ......... .......... .......... 5E
OKRA ........................................ ........... 5











CONTENTS c

PACE
ONIONS .............. ... ................. ............ 57
PARSLEY ............................................... 58
PARSNIPS ............................ . . ..... ........ 58
PEAS, GARDEN ............. ... ........... ............ 59
PEAS, SOUTHERN ....................... .... ....... ... . 59
PEPPERS ................................. ........... 60
POTATOES ........... ..... ............................ 61
RADISHES ..................................................... 61
RHUBARB ............................ ....... ........... 61
RUTABAGAS ............................ .............. 62
SALSIFY .............................. ......... ......... 62
SPINACH ...................... ................ 62
NEW ZEALAND SPINACH ................ ................ 62
SQUASH ................................................ 63
STRAWBERRIES ........ .................................. 63
SWEET CORN ........ .................. ....... 65
SWVEET POTATOES ........................................ 65
TOMATOES .......... ......... ............ ...... ........... 66
T URN IPS ........ ....................................... 67
W ATERM ELONS ......................................... 67

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE PAGE
1 EFFECT OF TREE ROOTS ............ .... .................. 2
2 ESSENTIAl. TOOI.S ........ ............................... 6
3 HAND PLOW ......... ............ ....... 6
4 AVERAGE DATES OF LAST KILLING SPRING FROST ............... S
5 AVERAGE DATES OF FIRST KILLING FALL FROST ................ S
6 POOR GROWTH ON ACID SOIL ........... ..... ............. 10
7 GARDEN FERTILIZERS ................ ..................... 11
S BAND PLACEMENT OF FERTILIZER ........................... .. 12
9 MAKING ARTIFICIAL MANURE .................. .......... . 15
10 TREATING SEED IN PACKETS ............................... 1
11 THINNING PLANTS ON SEEDBED ..................... . . . 19
12 PIANTS READY FOR TRANSPLANTING ......... ............... 20
13 BEST CONDITIONS FOR TRANSPLANTING ...................... 21
14 HANDLING OF PLANTS IN TRANSPLANTING ................ ..... .21
15 PROTECTION LFRONM CUTWORMS .................. ... ........ .21
16 PROTECTION AFTER TRANSPLANTING ........ ............. .. 21
17 APPLYING STARTER SOLUTION .............................. . 22
1S MAKING SIIALLOW FURROWS ...... ... ....... ...... .. 23
19 CULTIVATION FOR WVEED CONTROL ......................... 27








vi GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

FIGURE PAGE
20 PINE STRAW MULCH ............. ............ ........... 28
21 STAKED POLE BEANS .............. ...... ... ................ 29
22 STAKED TOMATO PLANT ......................... .............. 29
23 NEMATODE INJURY TO TOMATO ROOTS ............ ........... 31
24 APPLYING FUMIGANT IN THE ROW .......................... 31
25 MOUNDS MADE BY SALAMANDERS ............................ 32
26 HAND DUSTER ................ .... ............. ............ 42
27 PRESSURE SPRAYER ....................................... 43
28 HOME FREEZING OF SURPLUS VEGETABLES ..................... 44
29 ONIONS READY FOR HARVEST .............................. 46
30 SNAP BEANS A GOOD PRODUCER .............................. 47
31 CAULIFLOWER HEAD ............. ... ...................... 49
32 BLANCHING CAULIFLOWER HEAD ........................... 50
33 SWISS CHARD A WARM WEATHER CROP ...................... 51
34 COLLARDS EASY TO GROW ....... .......................... 52
35 EGGPLANT A HEAVY YIELDER ...... .......... ........... 53
36 ENDIVE A SALAD GREEN ........... .... ................ 54
37 KALE A HARDY GREEN ............. .......... ............ 54
38 KOHLRABI ............. ...................... ............ 55
39 BUTTERHEAD LETTUCE ................................... 55
40 MUSKMELONS (CANTALOUPES) ................................ 56
41 OKRA A WARM WEATHER CROP ............................... 57
42 MULTIPLIER ONIONS EASY TO GROW ..... .................. 58
43 PEAS, ENGLISH ............. .... ............. ........... 59
44 PEAS, SOUTHERN ..... ..................... .................... 60
45 NEW ZEALAND SPINACH .............. ...................... 62
46 STRAWBERRY PLANTS PROPERLY MULCHED .................... 64
47 PROPERLY STAKED TOMATO PLANT ................. ......... 66
COLOR PLATE SECTION
(follows page 32)
GARDEN INSECTS
GARDEN DISEASES
NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

TABLES
1 SUGGESTED YEAR-ROUND GARDEN ................. .............. 4
2 FERTILIZER GRADES AND RATES ................ ............. 12
3 APPROXIMATE RATES OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION ............... 13
4- DUST TREATMENTS .................. .................... 18
5 PLANTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS ..................... 24
6 SOIL FUMIGANTS AND RATES FOR IN THE ROW TREATMENT ...... 31
7 DUSTING MATERIALS FOR INSECT CONTROL .................... 40









GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


INTRODUCTION

No state in the United States is climatically better located than
Florida for production of a year-round vegetable supply in home
gardens.
For many years hundreds of successful gardens, containing a
videe variety of vegetables, have been planted by home gardeners
throughoutt the state. A large part of the vegetables grown in the
iorne gardens are consumed in the home.
There is no valid reason, from the standpoint of either production
)r nutrition, why Florida growers cannot or should not produce in
gardens an abundant, year-round, supply of vegetables.
During winter months, while northern states experience tem-
)eratures too low for most vegetable crops. Florida's climate permits
he production of many vegetables. While midsummer's excessive
leat and showers prevent some vegetables from growing well,
certainn crops can be grown during this season. By growing crops
or canning and freezing during the best growing season, enough
vegetabless may be produced to supply the family with vegetables
throughout the year. However, these favorable temperatures promote
:he development and persistence of many insects and diseases that
ire a challenge to gardeners. Even so, there are few desirable vege-
ables which should be eliminated in Florida gardens simply because
)f insect and disease problems. To be sure, some crops are disastrously
attacked. occasionally or regularly, but the problem is not peculiar
:o Florida. Wherever gardens are grown, there are insect and disease
enemiess that must be fought.
Those who neglect the first principles of vegetable culture -
.,arietal selection and disease and insect control may expect failures.
Upon such neglect must be placed much of the blame for occasional
)essimism regarding vegetable production in Florida. Any garden
endeavor will be only as good as the intelligent planning, work, energy.
nd enthusiasm which go into it.
The home vegetable garden helps to keep both farm and city
families well fed. For the city family, in particular, it provides whole-
;ome recreation. The garden also affords an opportunity to teach
youngg people a sense of responsibility, and a garden too large to
neet the family requirements can be a source of income.







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


WHERE TO HAVE A GARDEN

A vegetable garden is easier to plant, cultivate, and harvest
if it is near the house. If possible, locate the garden near a source
of water for irrigation. Under most conditions, the garden should
be surrounded by a fence sufficiently high and close woven to keep
out poultry, dogs, rabbits, and other animals. Such a fence not only
protects the garden, it also serves as a trellis for pole beans, tomatoes.
and other crops needing support.
Sunshine
Vegetables do best when they get at least 5 to 6 hours of full
sunlight during the middle of the day. If there must be a choice,
put the root crops, tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, and melons
in as full sunlight as possible, as broccoli, snap beans, cabbage, and
most of the leafy crops can withstand more shade. Tree and shrub
roots compete with vegetable plants for nutrients and moisture. If
the garden must be located near trees or shrubs, dig a ditch 1% to
2 feet deep and place roofing paper or metal roofing along one side
of the trench. Refill the ditch with soil.








A . ...





Figure 1 Effect of tree roots on a nearby garden
Soil
You can grow a good garden wherever weeds will grow. Avoid
areas that are low and wet during the season of the vear that a
garden is to be grown. A fertile soil that is easily worked is the
best, but other soils may be used. Usually the town and city gardener
has little choice in soil; however, he can greatly improve an unfavor-
able soil by adding organic material (manure, compost, leaves. grass.
etc.) and commercial fertilizer.







PLANNING THE GARDEN


PLANNING THE GARDEN

In planning the home garden, many factors should be considered
so as to insure maximum production from the land available.
Selecting the Vegetables
Grow the crops that are liked by your family. This list may be
limited by the size of the garden and by the crops that are likely
to be successful in your area. For example, asparagus and rhubarb
seldom produce acceptable yields in Florida. The nutritive value
of the vegetables should also be considered.
Paper Plans
Before planting, a plan of the garden should be prepared on
paper, showing the location of each crop, the amount to be planted
on each date, crops to follow earlier ones, and companion crops that
are to be planted in the same area. No one plan will suit the needs
of everyone. The suggested year-round plan for Central Florida
submitted here may be adapted to individual needs. Planting dates
for North Florida are approximately two weeks later in the spring
and two weeks earlier in the fall. For South Florida the planting
dates are about two weeks earlier in the spring and two weeks later
in the fall. However, planting dates will vary for crops and by locality.
Check the Suggested Planting Guide, Table 5, page 24, before planting.
When making your garden plan, the following suggestions may
be helpful:

1. Arrange crops that are to be planted first along one side
of the garden.
2. Place long-season crops such as strawberries to one side of
the garden so they will not interfere with the preparation of
the garden each season.
3. Plant tall-growing crops on the north side of the garden so
they will not shade other plants.
4. Group crops of similar maturation dates together so that the
space may be prepared easily for later plantings.
5. If space permits, plant enough of each vegetable for freeziim,
canning, and storing as well as for fresh use. (See the Florida
Food Plan, a Home Demonstration Mimeograph, for vegetable
requirements for your family.)
6. Allow ample space between rows for convenient cultivation,
depending upon the type of tool to be used.
7. Don't plant too much of any one crop at one time, particularly








Table 1. SUGGESTED YEAR-ROUND GARDEN FOR CENTRAL FLOHIDA
(Family of five Approximately i acre)
Rows 100 feet long


Followed by Followed by
Fall Planting Spring Planting Summer Planting

Vegetable Date Vegetable Date Vegetable Date

Onions, Onion, From Fall
Shallots.. Aug.-Dec.. Shallots.. Planting.. Peas, So... May
Strawberries Sept.-Oct .. Strawberries Planting.. Peas, So.. May
Strawberries ... Strawberries .. Okra.. May
From Spring From Spring
Collards.... Planting.. Collards... Jan.-Apr.. Collards... Planting
From
Eggplant, Summer Egplant,
Pepper... Planting.. Broccoli. Jan... epper.... July
Squash. . Aug.... Beets....... Jan.-Feb.. Potatoes, Sw May-June
Turni. .Mus- I if not trans-


tard,andish Sept.-Dec... Carrots.... Jan.-Mar.... Potatoes,Sw. planted
Beans, Snap Sept.. Onions. ..... Jan.-M'ar.... Potatoes,Sw. spring.
Turnip, Mus-
Beans, Snap tard, Radish Jan.-Mar... Potatoes,Sw.,
Peas, So... Aug. 10-20. Cabbage... Jln..... Potatoes,Swj.
Pens, So.. . Cabbage.... .
Tomatoes.. Aug-Oct. Beans, Snap Feb.-Mar...
Tomatoes... ........ Beans, Snap ...... .
Tomatoes.... . Beans, Limla Feb.-Apr...
Okra... Aug... Beans, Linma
Broccoli.. Aug.-Dec. Peas, So.,
Onions. .. Aug.-Nov.. 2 rows...... Mar.-May. Cover crop such as
Beets... Oct.-Dec.. Squash. Fe.-ar... Crotalaria Spectabilis
Eggplant, or Crotalaria Striata.
Carrots. .. Oct.-Dec... Pepper.. Jan.-Feb.. Mar. 20-Jun. 20
Cabbage, Toniatoes,
2 rows.. Sept.-Dec... 5 rows ... Ja-Apr..
Okra....... Feb.-Mar .
Potatoes, Ir.,
4 rows.... Jan.... .
Beans, Pole,
'2 rows ... FIb.-Apr..
('over crop from summer Corn, Sw.,,
planting 4 rows... I Feb.-Ma'r..
Potatoes,Sw., Polaloes,Sw. Front Spr
5 rows .... Feb.-Apr.. 5 rows.... Planting
Cucumber.. Feb.-. ar...
Squash,
Winter... Feb.-Mar. Cover crop
Cantaloupe Feb.-Apr..
watermelono n Jan.-Apr..


in


ing


A\pprox.
:rnately
l (iO
feet
wide


NOTE: This plan shows the arrangement and the rotation of crops for one year.
Tlhe summer and fall gardens should be ollea in a different area of the garden
each 'ear.







PLANNING THE GARDEN


radish, lettuce, kohlrabi, spinach, and Swiss chard. Study the
production records in the planting guide, Table 5.
8. Make succession plantings every 10 to 14 days of radishes,
snap beans, sweet corn, and other crops to provide fresh
vegetables over a longer period. A similar effect will result
from planting at the same time two or more varieties with
different maturity dates.
9. To prevent diseases that may live over from the previous
season, practice crop rotation. That is, do not grow the same
vegetable in or near the same location more often than once
every three years. Since members of some plant families are
subject to many of the same diseases, rotation should be by
families as well as by individual crops. Move members of
the cabbage-cauliflower-broccoli-collard family and the cu-
cuniber-melon-squash family to parts of the garden where
no other members of the same family were grown the pasr
season. Crop rotation and seed treatment (page 16) control
many diseases.
Succession Plantings
To be sure of a continuous supply of garden-fresh vegetables
throughout the season, successive plantings of many crops may be
made. Space plantings 10 to 14 days apart of radishes, snap beans.
sweet corn, turnips, and other crops. Also, one crop may follow
another one in the garden. Study the Suggested Planting Guide.
Table 5, for combinations of crops to handle in this manner. For
example, you may follow fall cabbage with spring peas.
Through careful planning and companion cropping, production
from the small garden may be greatly increased. Provided the soil
is properly fertilized and water is available, frequently two or three
vegetables may be grown in the same area; for instance, crops that
mature quickly' can be planted between the rows or in the rows with
crops that occupy the space for a relatively long period. Lettuce
and cabbage are often set alternately in the row, with radishes planted
between the rows. The radishes and lettuce are out of the way before
the cabbage needs the space.
Squash or pumpkins can be planted in early corn if the corn
is spaced at least three feet between rows and single plants spaced
18 inches or more apart in the row. The stalks should be removed
as soon as the corn matures, so as to make room for the squash.
In small gardens early beans, lettuce, radishes, or turnips may
be planted between rows to be planted later in the spring to tomatoes,
eggplant, okra, summer squash, and sweet potatoes. Early peas may








6 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

be planted between the rows being saved for later plantings ot
tomatoes.
Radishes may be mixed with carrot seed and sown in the same
row. Since carrots germinate slowly the radishes will help to mark
the row and mature before the carrots need the extra room.
While succession and companion cropping is recommended for
the small garden, the practice makes heavy demands on the soil.
Two or more crops cannot be successfully grown on the same area
unless plenty of water is available, liberal amounts of fertilizer are
used, and the best cultural practices are used.

Tools
Every gardener needs a hoe, a rake, and a spading fork (Figure
2). Two stakes and a heavy cord are a help in making straight rows
Figure 2). A trowel is used in transplanting, but you may use a
hoe or shovel.


Figure 2 Essential tools
for the gardener


Figure 3 Hand plow
for large garden


F-,. '. .-






Z rt'. r;-r';,e








WEATHER


For large gardens, a handplow of the type shown in Figure 3
multiplies the gardener's efficiency many times. Dusters and sprayers
are shown in Figures 26 and 27 and are discussed on pages 42 and 43.
Small garden tractors save labor at planting and cultivating time
and are justified economically in large gardens. Such a tractor may
be most helpful in a garden cared for by young people because they
will take a greater interest in it than in ordinary equipment.
Gardening is easier if all tools are kept clean and well-sharpened
Tighten all loose nuts, bolts, or screws with a wrench to save wear.
and sharpen all cutting edges. Most edged tools can be easily sharpened
on a file, emery wheel, or grindstone.
Tools last longer if you keep them free of rust. Clean any rusted
tools with a rust-remover paste, steel wool, or sand paper. After
cleaning, rub all tools with an oily rag. Keep the tools under cover
at all times except when they are being used.

WEATHER

A good gardener must be a good student of the weather or follow
the advice of someone who is.
Weather in the different seasons may vary from year to year.
Therefore, forecasts by radio, television, and newspapers are valuable
to the gardener. However, seasonal weather generally repeats itself
from year to year. This helps the gardener use long-time weather
records in deciding the best time to prepare soil, plant, transplant
and harvest. The planting dates in the planting guide (Table 5) were
prepared on the above basis.
Successful spring and summer gardens in North and Central
Florida, and South Florida to a certain degree, depend on the
gardener's knowledge of late winter and spring temperatures. Both
yields and quality normally are highest from plantings or trans-
plantings made as early as the weather is favorable for good growth.
A careful study of the dates of the last killing frost in spring helps
in estimating when to plant or transplant with least risk.
In very early plantings, many of the crops will withstand light
frosts. Some gardeners are willing to risk these early plantings to
have the seasons' first vegetables. For example, it is ideal to have
snap beans emerge from the ground the day after the last killing
frost in the spring. However, if the beans emerge too early and are
killed, replanting will not cost much and the risk was well worth
taking.
Plantings in fall and winter gardens in North and Central Florida
must be made early enough for plants to make most of their growth








8 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

before the first killing frost. Hence, it is important to know about
when to expect the first killing frost. This also helps to determine
when to harvest tender crops such as tomatoes and sweet potatoes.
Although killing frosts sometimes occur in South Florida, the cooler
fall and winter months are the most desirable months for gardening.


FROST LIAILE ANNUALLY


PIOST


Figure 4 Average dates of last killing spring frost in Florida


11-20


KILLING FROST LIABLE
IN HALF THE YEARS


J/ NO RECORD OF KILLIIIG FROST


Figure 5 Average dates of first killing fall frost in Florida

The gardener is also interested in when it is most likely to be
wet or too dry. The general weather cycle from year to year is usually
very similar. Therefore, the gardener may make his plans accordingly.






SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION


SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION

Turn the ground about three weeks before planting with a spade
or plow when it is dry enough to work. A good test is to mold a
handful of the soil into a ball with the hands. If this ball is not
sticky but crumbles readily when pressed with the thumb, the soil
is ready to be worked. Plow or spade the soil 6 to 8 inches deep
or about as deep as it has been worked in the past.
For information on soil fumigation and soil insect control refer
to pages 30 and 31.
Harrow or rake the soil soon after turning to maintain good soil
texture and prevent excessive drying. For small-seeded crops, such
as carrots, a finely pulverized surface insures easier planting, better
germination, and a more even stand. A plank drag or harrow are
useful in gardens to fit the soil for small seeds. With these tools
the job may be done faster than with a rake. The success of a garden
often depends on getting the job done promptly and efficiently so
as not to interfere unnecessarily with other work. The thoroughness
with which the soil is prepared before planting determines to a large
extent the ease, efficiency, and amount of cultivation.
Soil Reaction and Lime
The symbol, pHl, and the figures accompanying it are used to
express the degree of soil acidity. A soil with a pH of 7.0 is neutral.
while one with a pil of 6.9 or below is acid. or "sour," and one with
a pH of 7.1 or above is alkaline, or "sweet.
Most vegetables grow best on a soil that has a pH- between 5.5
and 6.0 or slightly acid. Proper applications of lime made to ex-
tremely acid soils will increase the production of most vegetables.
Too much lime in the soil may be just as bad as too little. Apply
liming materials only if a soil test indicates a need for it. If the soil
is thought to be too acid, take a sample to the County Agricultural
Agent or Agricultural teacher for testing. The results of the test
probably will be expressed in terms of pH. A reaction below pH 5.5
indicates a need for lime. Dolomitic lime is a good liming material
because of its magnesium content; however, owing to its slow reaction,
it must be applied well ahead of planting. Hydrated lime may be
used where a quick-acting material is needed. It may be applied
two weeks or more before planting provided it is mixed well with
the soil.
The amount to apply depends upon the soil reaction or pH value,
type of soil, and kind of liming materials used. If your soil has a
pHl below 5.5, apply the amount suggested by your County Agricultural







CROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


acid soil, center of picture











Agent; however, 2 to 3 pounds of dolomitic lime to each 100 square
feet of area should be adequate except on extremely acid soils. Hy-
drated lime may be used at 3/4 the above rate for dolomite.
The liming material should be spread evenly over the garden
before plowing or spading. If plowing has already been completed
it may be applied and worked into the soil thoroughly by hoeing.
raking, or harrowing.
Commercial Fertilizers
All materials applied to the soil to furnish plants with nutrient
elements, except animal manures and other organic residues, are called
"commercial fertilizers." The nutrient elements most likely to be
needed on most soils are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These
nutrients are always given in this order in the analysis shown on the
fertilizer bag. For example, a "6-8-6" is a fertilizer containing 6 per-
cent available nitrogen (N); 8 percent phosphorus, expressed as
phosphoric acid (P205); and 6 percent potassium, expressed as potash
(K.0).
Other elements are needed by plants, but these are usually present
in the soil or are needed only in relatively minute quantities. They
can be supplied in the fertilizer in instances where needed. In
some gardens, particularly on the marl soils, the land may be alka-
line due to the high lime content of the soil. When alkaline water
is used for irrigation, the soil may also become alkaline. In such
cases it may be necessary to use fertilizer containing manganese
and boron. On the other hand, gardens on sand, muck, and peat soils
may be so strongly acid that lime is needed to correct acidity and







SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION


supply sufficient quantities of calcium and magnesium, as recom-
mended in the previous section.
Commercial fertilizers should be used in gardens to supply an
abundance of mineral nutrients, so as to insure production of satis-
factory crops of high quality. Manure is an excellent source of organic
matter for garden soils, and usually is a good source of nitrogen and
potassium, but is low in phosphorus. Nutrients from manure are
more slowly available than in commercial fertilizers. The high avail-
ability of nutrients, especially nitrogen, in commercial fertilizers is
very important in vegetable growing. Even when manure is used
on the garden it is desirable to apply a commercial fertilizer con-
taining some nitrogen and a high percentage of phosphate.





N-P-K N-P-K

6-8- 6 0 -12-20






Figure 7 Garden Fertilizers

Fertilizers are available with a wide variation in the amounts
of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash. Most commercial grades show
specified amounts of minor elements. The kind of fertilizer to use
on a garden will depend on the soil type and the previous treatment
of the soil.
In home gardens where many kinds of vegetables are grown in
a small area under intensive culture, it becomes necessary to suggest
practices that are widely adapted and will be satisfactory for the
crops that have large nutrient requirements, but will not be injurious
to those with the lowest needs. It is possible to use too much fer-
tilizer and thus injure crops.
Sandy, clay, and marl soils in Florida are usually low in nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potash; fertilizer for these soils should contain a
high percent of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash. Muck and peat
soils are high in nitrogen, but lack phosphorus, and are usually very







12 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

low in potassium. With these facts in mind, the following grades
and amounts of fertilizer are recommended.

Table 2.- FERTILIZER GRADES AND RATES FOR FLORIDA HOME
VEGETABLE GARDENS

Amount Amount
Soil Grade 10 ft. row 100 sq.ft.

Sandy, clay, or marl .. .. .. -8-6 1/3 lb. 2-4 1bs.
Muck or peat................ . 0-12-20 1/6 lb. 1-2 Ibs.


Best results are obtained by applying fertilizer before or at
planting time in two bands (furrows). The bands are spaced 1 to 2
inches below and 2 to 3 inches to the side of the planting row.
ht7.&*

S:~ ~-


Figure 8 Band placement of fertilizer







SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION 13

Sidedressing
Additional nitrogen may be supplied during the season by two
or three light applications of soluble forms equal to 1/4 to 1/2 pound
of nitrate of soda per 100 square feet. Leafy crops, such as cabbage,
kale, collards, lettuce, and spinach, which often require more nitrogen
than other garden crops, may be stimulated by sidedressing with a
nitrogen fertilizer at the above rate. As a rule, the tuber and root
crops, including sweet potatoes, potatoes, beets, carrots, and turnips,
need a higher percentage of potash than other vegetables. Addi-
tional potash may be added by applying soluble forms equal to 1/4
pound of muriate of potash to each 100 square feet of area. Where
a sidedressing of both nitrogen and potash are needed, you may
apply complete fertilizer as a sidedressing at 1.'4 the rates listed
in Table 1; do not use the nitrogen carrier on muck and peat soils.

Meaasurement of Fertilizer
Because of the small quantities of fertilizer required for short rows
and small pots. it is easy to apply too much fertilizer. The chemical
fertilizers to be applied should always be weighed or measured. Table
2 shows how much fertilizer to apply to each 100 feet of garden row
or to each 100 to 2,000 square feet of garden area.
If it is more convenient to measure the material than to weigh
it, pounds of a common garden fertilizer, such as 6-8-6, superphos-
phate, ammonium phosphate, or muriate of potash, may be converted

Table 3.-APPROXIMATE RATES OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION PER
100 FEET OF ROW, AND PER 100 TO 2.000 SQUARE
FEET OF GARDEN AREA


Weight of fertilizer to apply when the
amount to be applied per acre is:
Measurcnient
100 400 800 1200
Pounds pounds pounds pounds

Rows 100 feet long spaced:
2 feet apart........... 0.5 2.0 4.0 6.0
2.1 feet apart.... . 2.4 4.S 7.2
3 feet apart.... .7 2.S 5.6 8.4
Area (square feet):
100......... ........ .2 1.0 2.0 3.0
1.000. ..... . 2.53 10.0 20.0 30.0
2,000. ... ... . . .. 5.0 20.0 40.0 60.0






GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


roughly to pints or cups by allowing 1 pint, or 2 kitchen measuring
cups, to a pound. For example, Table 3 gives 0.25 pound for a 100
pound per acre application to 100 square feet. This would call for
about 1/4 pint, or 1/2 cup, of fertilizer.
Ground limestone and granular sodium nitrate weigh about 1%
times as much as the same volumes of water; therefore, measured
quantities of these materials should be about 1/4 less than those
calculated as equivalent to the weights in the table. For example,
3/4 pint of ground limestone weighs about 1 pound. Ammonium
sulfate and granular ammonium nitrate are much lighter, weighing
about seven-tenths as much as the same volumes of water; therefore,
volumes of these substances calculated by the foregoing method
should be increased by about one-third.
Minor Elements
Garden soils may be deficient in manganese, boron, copper,
and certain other minor elements. Such deficiencies are not likely
to occur when the pH is between 5.5 and 6.0. When the pH is
higher than 6.5, manganese sulfate may be needed for beans, straw-
berries, peas, beets, and certain other crops. A deficiency of man-
ganese shows up as a fading of the green color in the leaves, with
the veins remaining green. A spray application of 2 pounds of man-
ganese sulfate to 100 gallons of water should be made to correct
the nutrient deficiency.
Where the soil is neutral or alkaline in reaction- pH 7.0 or
higher borax is likely to be needed for turnips, beets, spinach, cab-
bage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, lettuce, and rutabagas.
The most noticeable symptoms of boron deficiency are black corky
areas in the flesh of turnips, rutabagas, and beets; rough cankers on
the outside of beets; blackened small center leaves in the case of
head lettuce; internal stem browning of cabbage and cauliflower;
small deformed center leaves on spinach; and cracking of celery
petioles.
The best insurance against a boron deficiency when it occurs
is to apply common borax. Arrange the garden so the above men-
tioned crops are in one section. Apply common borax at the rate
of 12 pounds per acre or 4 ounces per 1,000 square feet. Borax should
not be applied for beans and peas.
Copper deficiencies develop on muck soils and possibly on the
lighter sands. Applications of 25 to 50 pounds of copper sulfate per
acre or 1 pound per 1,000 square feet of garden on these soils are
required for good vegetable production.
Manganese sulfate, borax, copper, and certain other minor ele-
ments, where needed, may be mixed with the fertilizer since it is







SOIL PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION 15
very difficult to spread these small amounts uniformly. These ma-
terials can also be applied to growing plants. They may be dissolved
in water and sprayed on the foliage without harm if the rates given
are not exceeded. Use 1 gallon of water for 100 square feet of garden

Organic Matter
Organic matter may be considered the life of the soil. Without
organic matter bacteria and other microscopic organisms could not
exist and the soil would be too sterile to grow vegetable crops. Organic
matter also improves the physical condition of soil, making it easier
to work; it increases the water-holding capacity of sandy soils and
improves the drainage of heavy soils. Furthermore, on acid soils
or where too much lime or fertilizer has been used, organic material
helps prevent injury to plants.
Animal manures are the best organic materials for a garden.
Vegetable yields are greatly increased by broadcasting 25 pounds of
manure to which has been added 2'" pounds of superphosphate per
100 square feet of garden. If the manure is not well-rotted and larger
quantities are used, apply it three or more weeks before planting
and work the manure into the soil. You may use as much as 12 to
15 tons of stable manure and 5 tons of poultry manure per acre.
Manure is not a balanced fertilizer: for best results use a complete
fertilizer in addition to manure. Manure is especially low in phos-
phorus.


t ~d


Figure 9 Making Artificial Manure







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Artificial Manure
If animal manure is not available, synthetic manure is a satis-
factory substitute. Artificial manure may be made from leaves, straw,
weeds, damaged hay, or other plant material. If kept well filled, a
pen 10 feet square and 6 feet deep will produce 2 to 2Ot tons of
well-rotted manure a year. Put down a layer of the material one
foot thick over an area 10 x 10 feet. Sprinkle over this 5 pounds of
complete fertilizer (6-8-6) and spray with water until thoroughly
moistened. Add successive layers until the pile is about 6 feet high.
When the pile is completed, it should be straight sided, and concave
or saucer shaped on top. The pile will decompose into manure, equal
to good stable manure, in several months. Usually synthetic manure
is made early in the season and a year previous to using.
Cover Crops
Green manure crops offer another good way to maintain the or-
ganic matter of garden soils. Any crop that will produce a large amount
of top growth and is easily turned under makes a desirable cover.
However, in root-knot infested soils, it is desirable to use resistant
crops such as Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria striata, or velvet beans
as summer cover crops after the spring garden is harvested.
Cover crops should be turned under at least three weeks before
planting. This should allow enough time for the plant material to
decompose.

PLANTING THE GARDEN

Seed
Good seed may mean the difference between success and failure
in your garden. Buy good seed from a reliable dealer well ahead of
planting time. Plant only varieties of vegetables tested and found
adapted to your area. Vegetables resistant to insects, diseases, and
adverse weather conditions are much easier to grow than those that
are not resistant. The Planting Guide, Table 5, lists many of the
better varieties for Florida.
Seed Treatment
Buy treated seed; however, when treated seed cannot be ob-
tained, certain chemicals applied to seed before planting will protect
them against seed decay and pre-emerge damping off. It is con-
sidered good insurance to treat seeds.







PLANTING THE GARDEN


"Chloranil" (Spergon) 48% is a good general seed treatment along
with "Thiram" (arasan) 50% and "Semesan" 30% for specific crops.
The above chemicals may be used as dusts. They can be purchased
at seed and garden supply stores.






















Figtirc 1( Trcating 5eed in packets
Treatment may be made in packets, fruit jars, bottles, or tin cans.
Small measuring spoons may be used in measuring the dust for large
amount of seed. For each pound of seed use 1 level teaspoonful
of "Chloranil" and 1/2 teaspoonful of "Thiram" and "Semesan". You
may estimate the amount of dust for treating smaller quantities of
seed. In treating small paper packets of seeds, tear off one corner
of the packet and put the dust (this may be picked up on the point
of a knife) in the packet shake together for a minute. In treating
loose seeds place them in a jar. bottle, tin can, or similar container,
put in the dust, and shake together for a minute. Be sure all seeds
are thinly coated. Pour the seeds on a piece of wire screen to remove
all surplus dust before planting. Too much Chloranil will delay
sprouting of some seed. Be sure the dust is not removed from the
treated seed in handling.
CAUToxo Seed treating chemicals are poisonous and should be
handled with care.







18 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

Table 4. DUST TREATMENTS FOR PREVENTING SEED DECAY
AND IMPROVING STAND

Ounces per Teaspoons
Crop Materials 100 lbs. per 1 lb.


Bean, lima ...............
Bean, snap...............
Beet ....... ...........
Broccoli.................
Brussel Sprouts..........
Cabbage ...............
Carrot.................
Cantaloupe..............
Cauliflower .............
Celery ...... ...........
Cucumber ...............
Eggplant .......... ......
Escarole ............
Lettuce ................
Mustard ............
English Pea..............
Pepper.......... .......
Spinach. ..... ......
Sweet Corn.. ..........
Tom ato.................
Turnip ...............
W atermelon.............


Chloranil 48% ..........
Thiram 50%...........
(Same as for lima).......
Thiram 50%............
N.I. Ceresan 5%........
Thiram 50% ............
Semesan 30%...........
(Same as for broccoli)....
(Same as for broccoli)....
Thiram 50%............
Spergon 48%...........
Thiram 50%............
Semesan 30%...........
Thiram 50%..........
Semesan 30% ...........
Cuprocide 80%.........
Spergon ............ ...
Thiram 50% .....
Semesan 30%.......
Zinc Oxide 80%.........
Semesan 30%...........
Thiram 50%............
Spergon48% ...........
(Same as for escarole)....
Thiram 50%............
Semesan 30%...........
Spergon 48%...........
Thiram 50%............
Zinc Oxide 80%.........
Semesan 30%...........
Thiram 50%............
Cuprocide 80%.........
Thiram 50%............
Spergon 48% ..........
Zinc Oxide 80%.........
Spergon 48%...........
(Same as for mustard)...
Spergon 48% ...........
Thiram 50%..........


4
2

8
8
4
6

8
12
2
6
4
6
8
12
3
5
8
6
4
8
4
6
4
4
8
6
4
8
2
6
8
8
6
4


Y4

1

34
%






M
14



1%






M
4
1













Y4
Y2

. .


Plants
Many home gardeners purchase their vegetable plants from a
reliable dealer or grower. Owing to difficulty in obtaining certain
varieties, some gardeners prefer to grow their own plants. Others
grow them for the pleasure of growing the plants.
It is a good idea to start plants of certain crops (Cabbage
tomatoes, eggplant, lettuce, pepper, etc.) before it is time to plant







PLANTING THE GARDEN


Figure II Thinning plants on seedbed


them in the garden. You can use a hotbed, coldframe, or seedbox
to grow plants for transplanting.
A seedbox, or flat, is probably the most practical device for the
home gardener who starts a small number of plants. In a small way,
the seedbox serves the same purpose as a hotbed. Any small, shallow,
wooden box can be used as a seedbox; however, one 3 to 5 inches
deep, 12 inches wide, and 18 inches long is most convenient. It
should not be too heavy to move easily when the soil is moist. Small
cracks in the bottom provide drainage. A newspaper may be placed
in the bottom to prevent the soil from dropping through the cracks.
Place a 3/4-inch layer of pea gravel in bottom of box. Take a
loose, fertile garden soil from an area where vegetables have not
been grown and sterilize it by heating it in an oven 1 hour at 3500
to 4000 Fahrenheit. Add 3 to 4 inches of this soil to the plant box;
then mix 2 tablespoons of 6-8-6 fertilizer with the soil.
Make rows in the seedbox 1/4 inch deep and 2-3 inches apart.
Cover seed; water soil, and place the box where it will be warm and
receive light. Place a newspaper or plastic material over the box until
plants begin to emerge.
If "damping off" is observed on the seedbed, wet the base of
the plant stems and soil surface to a depth of 1/2 to 1 inch with 1






GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


A

~o. .5-
~~d~F -.


II


Figure 12 Sturdy plants ready for transplanting

ounce of wettable Chloranil 48% to 3 gallons of water (about 2
tablespoons per gallon), or dust Chloranil 12% on the soil surface
and water in.
Thin plants to 2 to 3 inches apart when they are about 2 inches
high, and transplant them to another flat or paper bands. Before
setting plants in the garden, place them where they will be hardened
by the sun and wind. Increase the time the box has full sunlight
each day until plants are thoroughly hardened.
Transplanting Suggestions
1. Have vigorous, disease-free plants ready at the right time.
Start plants in the seedbox, coldframe, or hotbed 4 to 6 weeks
before time for transplanting. Thin when 2 inches high so
they will develop strong, stocky plants. Harden to wind
and sun before setting in garden.
2. Have the soil ready for transplanting. Prepare the soil long
enough before planting for it to be rained on if possible.
Apply fertilizer 10 days to 2 weeks before planting or band-
place at planting.
3. Transplant when conditions are best.







PLANTING THE GARDEN 21
Soon after a rain or when cloudy or in late afternoon.


At


(


4. Handle
Remove plants
from beds to
save all roots.


Figure 13
plants carefully when transplanting.


Dip roots
in soft mud


or water when and
setting


Figure 14


5. Place a cardboard band around the base of
protect from cutworms.
Cardboard such as a postcard


each plant to


Figure .5


6. Protect plants 2 to 4 days after transplanting.
Palmetto Leaf Newspaper Board Flower Pot


Bush


Figure 16


A starter solution gets the plants off to a quick start. Special
starter preparations may be purchased or one can be made by thor-


put dry
soil over
moist soil.


e(


~e~lI
i.;~~~


--A






22 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
oughly dissolving 1 to 2 tablespoons of 6-8-6 fertilizer in one gallon
of water. Pour 1/2 to 1 pint of this solution around the base of each
plant; then cover the moist soil with dry soil.


Figure 17 Applying starter solution


When ordering plants, be sure to specify stocky plants of the
right variety and size. Also specify date plants are to be delivered.
Have the ground prepared when the plants arrive. Buy only fresh
plants and plant them immediately.
For further transplanting suggestions see the Transplanting Sug-
gestions on page 20.
Planting
It is desirable to plant in a freshly prepared seedbed; otherwise
the weeds are likely to come up before the plants.
PLANT IN STRAIGHT ROWS This will increase the attractiveness of
your garden and make cultivation, insect control, and harvesting
easier. Use stakes, string, and a yardstick to mark off rows. Follow
your previously prepared plan. Shallow furrows, suitable for small
seed, can be made by drawing the hoe handle along the line. For






PLANTING THE GARDEN


deeper furrows, use the corner of the hoe-blade or a garden plow.
PLANT AT PROPER DEPTH In moist soil, cover small seeds such
as turnips and lettuce with 1/2 inch of soil. Medium-sized seeds, such











Figure 18 Making

shallow furrows for
small seed












seeds, such as those of beans and peas, are covered with about 1
to 2 inches of soil. In light soils or when moisture is deficient, as
it is likely to be in summer and early fall, plant somewhat deeper.
See planting guide (Table 5) forem depths of planting.



left. The seeds may be distributed more evenly be pouring them
out of the package into the left hand, then taking a pinch between
the thumb and first finger of the right hand, and spreading it by roll-
ing it out between the fingers. Follow the planting directions in the
planting guide (Table 5).
pla~ntinlg guide (Table 5).








Table 5. PLANTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS


Crop

Beans, Snap....

Beans. Pole........

Beans, Lima .

Beets..............

Broccoli............

Cabbage ..........


Carrots............

Caulilower ........

Celery.... .......

Chinese Cabbage....

Collards...........

Corn, Sweet........

Cucumbers ...... .

Eggplant ..........
Endive, Escarole..

Kohlrabi........

Lettuce.....(Crisp)
(Butterhrad)
(Lear)
Muskmelons, (Canlta
loupes.........
Mustard.. ....


Varieties'


Sellillole.2 Tendergrcen,2 Con-
tender,2 Topcrop,' Wade,'
Cherokee (Wax).........
I.S. No. 4 (191,2) McCasan,
Alabama No. I. Florireen ...
Fordhook 242,2 Conrentrated.2
llenderson Challaeer (Pole)
Early Wonder. Detroit Dark lied,
Cronby Egyptian. King Red..
Early Green Sproutings Freezerx,
Waltham No. 29, Texas No. 107.
Copenhagen Market, Resistant De-
troit, Badger Market, Glory of
Enkhuisen, Red Acre, Savoy
Chieftain.................
Imperator,1 Touchons Red Cored
Chantenay,' Gold Spike....
Snowball Strains........ ..

Florida Pascal, Emerson Iaseal ....

lichih!i.... ............ ...

Vates, Georgia, Florida Savoy,
Louisiana Sweet.............
loana,2 Golden Cross Bantam,2
Golden Security, Seneca Chiefl,
many others...............
Marketer, Palomar, Santee, Ashley,
Stono.................... ...
Fort Myers Market, Florida
Market, Florida Beauty... ...
Full Heart Batavian...........

Early White Vienna..........

Premier, Great Lakes;
Bibb, White Boston:
Black Seeded Simpson, Salad Howl..
Smith's Perfect, Hale's Best No. 36.
Georgia 47, Rio Gold......
Southern Giant Curled, Florida
Broad leaf .............


Spacing in Inches

Rows Plants


Seed or
Plants
100 fl. of Iow


I lb.

I lb.

I Ib.

1 oz.
60 plants
(f o0.)

65 plants

(c oz.)
(H o.)
55 plants
(M on.)
160 plants
(M oz.)
125 plants
(% oz.)
75 plants
(4 oz.)


3 lb.
I oz.
30 plants
(M os.)
I oz.

Sos.


osz.


I Oz.


18-30
40-48

26-48

14-24

30-36


24-36
10-24

24-30

21-3G

24-30

24-30

34-42

48-60

36-42
18-24

24-30


12-18
70-80

14-24


Seed
Depth
Inches


Planting Dates in Florida (Inclusive)

North Central South

Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.
Aug.-Spt. Sept.... Sept.-Ap...

Mar.-June. Feb.-Apr Jan.-Feb...

Mar.-June.. Feb.-Apr... Sept.-Apr.

Sept.-Mar.... Oct.-Mar... Oct.-Fle.....

Aug.-Feb.... Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Jan..


2-3

15-18

12-15

3-5

16-22


14-24
1-3

20-24

6-10

8-12

14-18

12-18

15-24

30-48
8-12

3-5


12-18

48-60

4-6


Sept.-Jan....
Oct.-Mar....

Oct.-Jan...

Aug.-Feb....

Oct.-Jan.....
Jan.-Apr....
Aug.-Nov..

Feb.-Mar....
Feb.-Mar..
Sept........
Jan.-Feb....
July.......
Jan.-Feb....
Sept...... .
Feb.-Mar.....
Oct.-Nov....

Jan.-Feb...
Sept ....... .

Feb.-Apr......
Jan.-Mar....
Sept.-Nov.....


Sept.-Jan.....

Oct.-Feb....

Oct.-Jan....

Oct.-Jan ..

Nov.-Jan. ...

Sept.-Jan.....

Jan.-Feb......

Jan.-Feb......
Dec.-Fel...
Aug.-Sept...

Sept.-Jan...
Nov.-Feb..

Sept.-Jan..

Feb.-Mar ...

Sept.-Mar...


Plant Pounds
Hardi- Yield
ness 100 ft.


Sept.-Feb....

Sept.-Mar....
Jan.-Feb.....
Aug.-Oct......

Jan.-Mar ....

Oct.-Jan....
Feb.-Mar...
Sept.-Nov.....

Mar.-Apr...

Feb.-Apr.....
Feb.-Mar....
Feb.-Mar ....
Sept.......
Mar.-Apr.....
Oct.-Nov....

Feb.-Mar...
Sept.......

Mar.-Apr...
Jan.-Mar.. ..
Sept.-May....


Days
to
Harvest


50-60

60-85

05-75

0G-70

B0-70


70-90
70-75

55-60

115-125

75-85
50-95


80-85

50-65

80-RS

90-95
50-65


50-80

75-90

40-45








Okra .. Clemsono pin;le, While Vrlv.t, I I M..r.-M\a Mar.-May Ieb.-M'r.
I'erkins .ong Greeni .... 22 oz. 2 1'1 I 1 21 i 2 \Ig.. :ug. Aug -Sept. T 70 50-55
Oniolns tllihini) I': ], Texas (;raio, ,Graix, 411) plant
Creole kot) orsets Jan.-Mar., Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Mar.
I ot seed 12 21 3 i Aug.-Nov.. Aug.-Nov. Sept..Nov. 1 100 100-130
800 plants
'(;rlen) FI:xel, Txas Grano,ra .... or sts 1- 21 1 2 Aug.-Mar. Aug .-Mar. ept.-Mar.. 11 100 50 75
relo) Kssoe, 3 -nrtis l naitor ........ (aioutuz I
PS ialli i u ltipliers). I 'i l I.sts i-21 s \ Jliin.. Asg.-Jau. Sipl.-i)ec. II 1110 75 105
I'ar ry . Mis u l ... I o. 12-20 f S 12 F l ib.-M.ir l)ec.-Jn.. SptI.-Jan II 40 90-95
ias ..... I ile M.irvel' 2 nar Skiiedil P'erf r-
lion, l. O h'.lo', Provr Ijoerail2 10 lls. 21-31; 2 3 1-2 i Ja .--eb.. Sepl.-Mar.. I S pt.-F h. II 40 50-55
Pen'. Southern,. .. Iliackei-y,2 ,r.wu CrowdIr, lih- Bsh
('Coih,2 Di\ie I 1! 1 1. :0 31; 2 3 1 2 IM.ir.-May. Mar.-May. Ili'.-Apr T s 70-80
P'ipper (S .ll Cliodifrnia Womitr. World .lilaer,
Yolo londeri \ l (i;r l t.... i0 pluts Jai.-llF'b.
lHot) uli ngaria: Wa., Alai.l., C(l ili. oz.) 2-3 IS- 21 ll.-:\pr Jan.-Mar A.\g.-)t. T 50 70-80
I'.ltatoes ... Sela o, lKe tine 'er, ( ;tl hion,
Pontiac, lied PoI'onei lI5 s 34- 12 12 15 S Jai..-(... Jan .. Se-pt.-Jan. SI 150 80-95
Polaltor. t S ..I (oll Rushl, Ulnt No. I I'orlo Itie,
Ileart -.( Gohil, ClivUt Iounch Porto
Itio ...8 lanis IS-3l It 24 Mar.-June. el.-Jini I .-. Jol' T 75 120-11(1
ta< h-li. l tarly S? arhtl l I I r -. I' 11i ,
Cornet, Pearl I r *i , '
Ti]ppeid . ... ..1 12 i t.-M.r (l t.-Mar )it ar II 10 20-25
Spinach .. ...... Virtguia Savu,.,2 l!lnsdale 1 ong ot.-'v.. Oct.-Nov.
Staunllli. lDark (;reen Savoy 2 1.1 14 -I :1 56 I J.-Fe. Jan. .. Oct.1Jan. II 40 40 45
Spiab, Siineir Kew Zeialand 2 -1 30 36 IS 21 l; Mar.- \pr. Mar.- r. Jdin.-.|ir. T 4i 55 65
Sill l.oi, Sul:ll r. I alv I:r li i o-
el .. .urchi, ., .1 I. .. Mlar.-.\,r. IFeb.-Mar. Jaii.-Mar.
P atty lPa 2 .z. *12 IS 42 I .Al . g. S it.-Oct. T 150 15 00
.a.g Wi\\ilr .. \ I a ll iill rnut 2 oz. SO 12) S-72 2 Ma r. l.) b-Mar. Jan -Feb 'I' 300 95-105
Sirawlerry.. .... Miionary, I'lorila l,1)2 .. 1) plats 30-10 10 14 Spt l. Oct.. Sellt. Ort.. Oc.-Nov. II 50 00-110
Toiatlos.t. ....... .. Maulutic, llri.eslti, Jifersot 35 plants F,.-Apr. F'ei.-Mar
\ ill It eistant.i .(istal.ed'i l or.) 10-00 3i 40 ; Aug... Sept. ..... Ain.-Mar., T 125 75-85
;roilen's Gl.ol. tul1T...(sta dl 70 planls I"eb.-.Apr .... ell.-Mar..
f l.. oz') 3G-IS 18 24 )j Aug ....... Slaept...... Aug.-Mar.. T 200 75-S5
l urips) Japan(-se I'li.rge (PShIi )(O2loe2 IiPurli] Jan.-Apr .. Jan -Mar .
I Toip \Wlilc loe. .. ... I. o. 12-20 4 0 2- Aug.-Oct.... Sept.-Nov.. Oct.-Feb.. I1 150 40-50
'aliternielio. Congo, llackith, C(harleslii Gray, I
Ialir"a. \'u Itrllslhire Mlildet. I 2 oz. 0 120 60-SI 2 Mar.-Apr. Jan-Apr.... Feb.-Mar.. T 400 80-100

I "., r i .. ..i; .. i i j .i .. r i ., i to homre caiiinog. Certai varieties have reisltanee to iliseass: Snap Beanss -Contender, .Wadv, Seminole (mosaic.
po-'0l -. I.r. .* . *, i r.4 P.i E ...i I i rirrivrn (com!nnnr arid Soulihern bean rtio:aii rust), 11.S. No. 4 (1911, (certain rusts). CabbageB-elt instant Detroit
(y llows!. Cantaloupe- ..i;. i.. - iowny i ildlrw), Rio (;old (downy uani powdery nillrew). Colery--Iomerson Pascal (early blight). Cucuimber--'ilonmar, Ashley,
Stotn, SantLee downy .- E-jt l .rl 11 r -. ', rket. Florida iceauty (lil-over). Pepper-World lBaterr (cerrlin strains, leaf spot), Yolo Wonder (tobacco mosaic). Spinach-
Viruiinia Pavoy (nimoaitc i. r .6 .i. i I .. i ,iI li.-t). Tomalo--Maruiuen- (w ill, early Ililht, grey leaf sotl, leaf mold), Homestead, Jefferson. Wilt lResistant Grothens Globe
(will). Water rercn ...* i *., .. I1. i I will, C(harlpston (Gray, Fairfax 'wilt, anthlracno.e).
2 Outstanding in free- .I i I I I i- i.- ... i .1 Experiment Stationll. ;;tinesville. iOtlers may nieet home Ifreezing requirements.
3 li--lardy, can stand frost and usually somle freezing (32 Fahrenlheit) without injury. S11--Slightly hardy, wil! not le injured by light frost. T-Tender. will be injured by light
frost.







26 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
FIum SOIL AFrER PLANTING This practice packs the soil particles
around the seed and hastens germination. It may be easily and
quickly done by light tamping with the back of a hoe or rake or
by watering with a sprinkler.
CARE OF THE GARDEN

Thinning
Thinning the seedlings in the row is one of the most important
of garden operations. It is difficult to sow small seeds thinly enough
to permit the plants to make the best development. The planting
guide (Table 5) gives the proper spacing for plants in the row
after thinning.
Thinning should be done while plants are small and when the
soil is moist, so they can be pulled out easily without injuring the
remaining plants. Turnips, rutabagas, and other root crops should
be thinned before their taproot becomes fleshy. Onions from seed
and radishes may be left in the ground until those that are thinned
are large enough to eat.
Pull surplus turnip plants when they are 4 to 5 inches tall and
use for greens. Plants thinned from the beet row may also be used
for greens.
Carrots should be thinned first when they are 2 to 3 inches tall,
so as to stand about 1 inch apart. They may be left until large enough
to be eaten, when alternate plants may be pulled and used, leaving
more room for those that are left.
Cultivation and Weed Control
Cultivation generally increases the yield of vegetable crops be-
cause of weed control. On some soils cultivation may be needed
also to loosen the soil and allow water to enter more rapidly.
Weeds can be the gardener's worst enemy. They not only steal
the moisture and fertilizer but also serve as a cover for insects and
diseases. Many weeds are affected by virus and fungus diseases that
are carried to the crops. Furthermore, by shading the plants and
interfering with air circulation, tall weeds may retard the evaporation
of dew and rain from the foliage, thus favoring infection by bacteria
and fungi.
A single cultivation will kill practically all weeds less than 1
inch tall, but it is difficult to kill them when they are 4 or 5 inches
tall. It is not necessary to cultivate when there are no weeds, but
during good growing weather weeds grow enough to make weekly
cultivation necessary.






CARE OF THE GARDEN


Shallow cultivation is best, for it is less injurious to crop roots
than is deep cultivation (Figure 19) and is just as efficient in con-
trolling weeds. A garden plow with weed knives or shallow sweeps








Figure 19 Cultivate shallow

to control weeds
CORRECT \>1 INCORRECT








is one of the most efficient and useful tools for the home garden.
A hoe is the next best hand tool for weed control.

Mulches
Weed growth can be prevented by the use of mulches. Mulches
also tend to conserve soil moisture, prevent erosion, do away with
any root damage by deep cultivation or hoeing, and keep clean
the fruits of such crops as strawberries, tomatoes, squash, and melons.
Straw, pinestraw, old hay, grass, leaves, paper, sawdust, and wood
planings are the most common materials for this purpose. Mulches
are most beneficial when applied as soon as the plants are large
enough (6 to 8 inches high) so they will not be covered by the
materials.
Most mulching materials tend to lower the soil temperature;
however, black mulching materials may raise the soil temperature
a few degrees.
Some of the mulch papers, if carefully used, may be good for
more than one year. Usually part of the straw, pinestraw, hay, or
wood by-products can be saved for another year with less work
than getting an entire new supply. Any reasonable quantity left on
the garden will, however, be beneficial to the soil when turned under.






GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Leaves and pine straw make an excellent and economical mulch
if gathered 4 to 6 months before time of application and placed in
flat-topped piles so they become thoroughly soaked with rain.











Figure 20-

gi Pine straw mulch


Supporting Tall Growing Crops
Some of the taller growing plants and vine crops will need a
support of some kind to hold them erect.
To support pole beans and other similar plants, set 6-foot posts
every 12-15 feet in the row and drive stakes about 12 feet from
either end of the row. Stretch wire between the posts at top and
bottom, extending the top wire beyond the end poles and fastening
it to the stakes to serve as guy wires. Weave string between the
top and bottom wires to support the plants.
Shorter plants such as peas can be supported in the same way.
using 3- to 4-foot poles. If available, cut brush stuck in the ground
along the row will serve as a satisfactory support for such crops.
If the tomato plants are to be staked, use stakes 13 inches in
diameter and 6 feet long. Drive the stakes before the plants are set.
Space them 18 to 24 inches apart in rows 3 to 4 feet apart. As the








CARE OF THE GARDEN








. .- ;, ' .* :
- : ,,
. r4


Figurre 21 Staked pole hban.a


plant starts to grow, remove the small side branches (suckers) as
they appear so only one or, at most, two stems are allowed to develop
Don't remove leaves on the main stem. The side branches (suckers)
emerge where the leaf joins the stem; whereas the fruiting cluster
emerges on the stems between each leaf or node.
Although it is possible, with proper care, to produce more perfect
fruits and to get an earlier crop if they are staked, the production of
tomatoes per plant is less than when they are not staked.






Figure 22 Suckers (arrow)

and fruit cluster


onl vtakedL tomato plant







30 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
Watering the Garden
A short period of dry weather may reduce the yield and lower
the quality of the vegetables, and a long drought may result in a
total failure of many gardens. Vegetable crops grow best when
they receive about 1/2 to 1 inch of water each week as rain or irri-
gation. Whether it will be profitable to irrigate depends on how
easy it is to get water to the garden.
If water is available from a hose you may water the entire
garden once every 7 to 10 days when less than 1 inch of rain falls
during that period. Except for seeds that are difficult to start in dry
weather, such as carrots and lettuce, water only once every 7 to 10
days and then heavy enough to wet the soil to a depth of 6 to 8
inches. This takes approximately 5/6 gallon of water to each square
foot of garden, or from 90 to 120 gallons for a garden no larger than
the average size room. One should know how much water is being
applied. This can be done by placing two or three straight-sided
cans in the area being watered. After checking to see how long the
sprinkler must run to apply 1 inch of water, you may estimate the
sprinkler running time when irrigating the garden.
A porous hose through which the water soaks is perhaps the
best device for irrigating small gardens. With it the water may be
applied where needed and little is wasted. If land slopes gently
and the soil is not too sandy, you may apply water to one end of
the rows and allow it to flow down the middles of the rows to the
far end.

PEST CONTROL

Nematodes
The root-knot nematodes are microscopic eelworms which cause
the roots of certain plants to swell and become knotted. Injured
plants become stunted and may die as a result of the nematode at-
tack. This pest is severe on okra, tomatoes, beans, cucumbers, carrots,
beets, and many other vegetables. There are other species of nema-
todes in addition to the one causing root-knot.
Root-knot infested soil should be avoided. The pest may be
controlled to some extent by planting resistant crops, such as Crotalaria
spectabilis, velvet beans, or possibly running Conch (White Acre)
variety of Southern peas for one or more seasons. Soil fumigation,
if properly done with one of the materials listed in Table 6 will
control nematodes for at least one season. Fumigation permits early
use of the land but usually has to be done each season.








CARE OF THE GARDEN 31




Figure 2.3 Root-



injury to

tomato roots








Fumigate the soil 10 to 14 days before planting for nematode
control. The soil moisture should be at a medium level not too
dry and not too wet. Open a furrow 6 to S inches deep. A small
jar with two holes in the lid may be used to apply fumigant. Apply
the fuminant in the row and rake the soil into the furrow immediately.
A soil drench over the entire area may be used instead of in-the-
row application; however, the drench method is more expensive

- 'igure 21-Applyimn fuoiiguint in the row
T I UI."' ;.-SOil. FUL.I( ;ANTS AND RATES
"',. iORt IN TIlE ROl TEATMENT


:i Fuliiigant Trad Nae a 100 feet





c.hlo Pr- D.. f"Diclo ro pro i n ne-
pene.s dichloropror oane) 1001" 1.2
... ofTloe 1ro


ixt lrnes f Dorlowf ne.... ...... Il
Dibroi,ide Caries i)oi fam .. I 2


LD ) Garden X F ..... 1in-





. p e lo re 10. r1propnes


l).ti D 1TT Flylone (Sec- .i Brands) 1
..'', k hoo ..







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Nemagon, Telone, Mylone and Vapom may be used as drenches.
Follow recommendations on the container for rate and method of
application.
If you have observed severe stunting of plants in the garden
from root-knot during the past season, it will probably pay you to
fumigate.
Caution: Do not breathe the fumes or allow the material to
contact the skin.
Rodents and Small Animals
Rodents of various kinds damage vegetable crops in Florida.
Salamanders (pocket gophers), moles, and mice cause much injury.
Unlike the mole which only burrows beneath the plant, the sala-
mander eats the plant roots in addition to burrowing. Both animals
burrowing causes the soil to dry out around the roots. Mice either
work independently or follow the burrows made by salamanders
and moles, destroying newly planted seeds and young plants. The
above pests may be partially controlled by trapping, using poison
baits or gases, or placing repellents in their runs. However, trapping
is probably the quickest and most effective method of control for
salamanders and moles.
















Figure 25 Mounds made by salamanders
Rabbits may be controlled by fencing the garden with 1 inch
mesh poultry wire. Where other animals, such as woodchucks, squir-
rels, skunks, and raccoons, are damaging the vegetables, it may be
necessary to trap them or shoot them with a .22 caliber rifle. Chemical
repellents may be satisfactory for certain animals.








GARDEN INSECTS


Cabbage Arlphids (Plant Lice)*


.\exican Bean Beetle*


CmEu rn ruz anad Insiury*


Cabbage Loopser


Ilarlcquin Bug, Bean Leaf Roller*

'irtesyi: .illedge Alurplicy, Jr.. ULniversity tsf Florida Cdh'gcer of A-rvivltrure









GARDEN INSECTS


Cutworm and Iniury*


Blister Beetles*'


"--~ ;Z .;-,-
C
'`
1 r'





i7


-ai3
r


12-Slotlcd Cucumber Beetle" Colordlo Potato Beetle"

Courest!: *Milledge Murphey, Jr., University of Florida College of Agriculture
**Arkansas Agricultural Extension Service


Tomato ]Iornwornm0







GARDEN INSECTS


Sweet Potato Weevil and Punctures*


Banded Cucumber Beetle and Injuryn
a


Leaf-footed Plant Bug*


Vegetable Weevil*


Green Stink Bug*


Leaf .Mliner Injuryi*


urtcsy: .illtd~c .MlurpIhey, Jr.. lUnivcrsit of Florila College of .Ariculture
"*H. S. Ma/yeaux


'rT~r:: g

tji
I







GARDEN DISEASES


Leaf Spot Infected Strawberry Plant*


Early Blight Infected Tomato Leaflet*



V -


Black Rot Infected Cabbage Plant0**
Courtesy: *James Montelaro, Florida
Agricultural Extension Service
O *F. E. Meyers, Florida Agricultural
Extension Service


Late Blight Infected Tomato Leaflet
Late Blight Infected Tomato Leafet*


Helminthosporium Infected Corn Plants'


Bacterial Spot Infected Tomato Leaflet
*John C. Noonan, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
""*John F. Darby, Florida Agricultura
Extension Service








GARDEN DISEASES


Scle'rtinia Infected Cahbage IPlnt*


D)wny~ Mildew of Cuc'iumblr"



" "


Bhlisson-cld Rot of Tomato *


Sodl Rot Infected Toniato Fruit*




ri'a
0m PdI. :f~


Scab Infected Potato Tubers*'* lFu ~airium Wilt of TomIato
rtesy: 'John F. Darby, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
United States Department of Agriculture
**"'. MI. Co'. Florida Arricultural Extension Serv;ice







NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES


Nitrogen Deficient Corn Plant1








Potash Defcit C e








Potash Deficient Cabbage Plant3


Iron Deficient Sweet Potato Leaves"
Curtesy: IB. A. Krantz
4R. L. Cook


Phosphorus Deficient Tomato Leaf2


Manganese Deficient Bean Leaflet4

%. *


2SW. R. Rollins


Zinc Deficient Corn Plant"
3M. A. P
*U. B. Hester








INSECTS AND DISEASES


INSECTS AND DISEASES
Many insects and diseases attack garden crops. Unless con-
trolled, they seriously lower the yields and quality of vegetables.
In extreme cases, they may destroy an entire crop.
Most insects are readily controlled after they appear on the
plants, and the home gardener should learn to recognize and watch
for them. It is best to control them promptly. Insects pass through
three or four stages in their development. True bugs such as aphids
and the harlequin bug go through only three stages: egg, nymph,
adult. The nymph looks much like the adult but is smaller and wing-
less.
Most insects such as beetles, flies, and moths pass through four
stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. For example, the moth lays an
egg that hatches into a cut-worm. Then the full grown cutworm
changes into the pupal stage. Within a week in warm weather a
new moth will emerge from the pupa, and the cycle begins again.
Fortunately a few simple measures control most insects and
diseases. The following suggestions will help to avoid the more
common pests:
1. Rotate the crops within your garden.
2. Plant resistant varieties.
3. Use treated seed if possible.
4. Provide good drainage.
5. Stay out of the garden when plants are wet.
6. Spray or dust with recommended materials.
7. Clean up the garden and destroy old plant material that may
contain insects and diseases.
Many beneficial insects help you by destroying other insects.
For example, the lady beetle feeds on aphids (plant lice) and a
small species of wasp kills hornworms.

Hand-Picking Insects
In small gardens, hand-picking is a practical way to control such
insects as bean beetle, cabbage worm, tomato hornworm, squash
bug, cucumber beetle, harlequin bug, and Colorado potato beetle.
Many of these insects are on the underside of the leaves. You may
easily crush egg masses and clusters of newly hatched insects on the
leaves by squeezing or rubbing them between your thumb and fore-
finger. This method works fairly well also against the numerous
small-bodied aphids, or plant lice, that cluster on small shoots. You
may crush the larger insects or pick them off or cut them with an old
pair of scissors and kill them. Bean beetles and potato beetles drop








GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


readily when disturbed and can be collected more rapidly by slapping
the plants sharply with your hand or with a wooden paddle to jar
them into a wide pan. Although hand-picking is not practicable for
all insects and is laborious, it is surprisingly effective if done per-
sistently.
Serious trouble often results from allowing insects to develop
in large numbers on plants which are left in the garden after har-
vesting is completed. Remove these plants soon after harvesting
is completed.

Insecticides
Most insects may be controlled after an early discovery of their
presence on the garden plants.
Materials used to control insects are known as insecticides. In
the average size garden, the use of insecticides is the best way to
control most insect pests. Insecticides may be applied to the plants
in the form of a dust or dry powder, by a duster (Figure 26), or

Table 7.-DUSTING MATERIALS FOR INSECT CONTROL

5% 4% or 5% 1.5% 1%
DDT Malathion Lindane Rotenonet

Aphids* ...... ...... X X .
Armyworms...... .. X ......
Budworms........... X .
Cabbage Worms ....... X X .... ... X
Colorado Potato Beetle... X .......
Cucumber Beetle....... .. ... X X
Earworms...... X
Fleabeetle.. .. X .
Fruit, horn, pinworms.... X .. . . X
Fleahopper ........... X X
Lesser Cornstalk Borer.... X .
Leaf M iner...... . .
Leaf-hopper.. .. ... X X X
Leaf-roller.... .... X X .
Melon, Pickleworims .... X X
Mexican Bean Beel l..... .X .
Pameras ......... ... X X
Pea Pod Weevil. ....... X .... X .
I'epper Weevilj ......... X ........ .. .
Red Spiders* ..... ...... ........ X .
Stink Bugs... ....... ............X .
Thrips* ...... .......... X X X .


SNicotine is effective against aphids and thrips In warm weather.
" Dusting sulfur may be used for red spider control.
t Rotenone gives satisfactory control of many of the above pests when infestations are light.
but may be less effective than other recommended materials.






INSECTS AND DISEASES


are diluted in water as a spray and applied with a sprayer (Figure
27). For dusting, the insecticides come already diluted to the proper
strength with talc or some other powdered material and are ready
for use. For spraying, the insecticides are sold in concentrated liquid
or powder form to be mixed with water in the proper proportion
before applying. Dusting is probably more satisfactory than spraying
for control of most insects in the home gardens, and evening ap-
plications are generally preferable. If the materials listed in Table
6 are used as sprays, follow the directions on the insecticide container.
The dusts shown in Table 6 are effective against the insects
indicated and are safe if properly used.
Chlordane may be applied to the soil surface as a 5% dust or as
a 1)' to 2% bait for the control of ants, cutworms, grasshoppers, and
mole crickets (or the dust may be directed on the insects as needed).
Chlordane is sometimes included in general garden fertilizers and
may offer some measure of control of insects and wireworms.
Fungicides
Materials used to control diseases are known as fungicides. Fungi-
cides, like insecticides, may be applied as a spray or dust, depending
on your preference and on the materials and equipment available.
For the average gardener only two materials are needed: (1) Zineb
for general disease control; (2) Chloranil (Spergon) 48% for seed
treatment and control of "damping off" on the seedbed (see discus-
sion in chapter on planting). Zineb applied as a 4 to 614% dust, or
1 ounce of the 65% wettable powder to 3 gallons of water (2 table-
spoons to 1 gallon), is suitable for general use in the garden. A pro-
tective schedule necessitates applications at least once a week and
reducing the interval to 3 to 4 days if the disease continues to develop.
All Purpose Dusts
Combination dusts containing an insecticide and fungicide may
be purchased, and are acceptable where a combined insecticide-
fungicide is needed throughout the season. They are especially
useful on tomatoes, squash, cucumbers, and melons. Dusts con-
taining an insecticide like lindane, malathion, or DDT and a fungi-
cide like zineb are available under various trade names and are the
safest and most effective materials for combined insect and disease
control.
Application of Pesticides
Many insects live and feed mainly on the underside of leaves, and
many plant-disease organisms enter there. To be most effective, in-
secticides and fungicides must be applied with equipment that will






42 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

cover the under as well as the upper surface of the foliage. Dusting
is increasingly popular because it is much quicker and easier than
spraying and is more effective than a poor spraying job.
Dusters and Dusting
The best duster for the average home gardener is an all-metal,
plunger type of hand duster of a 1- or preferably a 2-quart capacity.
as shown in Figure 26. With the extension tube and "underleaf"
nozzle, the undersurface of the foliage may be dusted without stoop-
ing. Such dusters cost from $1.50 to $3.00, and are a good investment.
Most small dusters do not spread the dust to the undersurface of
the foliage, and many are unsatisfactory in many other respects.



~~~~Is~-'- '-a--t- ~ ~ '~;T~i3




-J-
... .6'


Figure 26- Hand duster
To prevent clogging and waste, the dust chamber should be
no more than half-full. Dusting is done when the air is still and
preferably when the plants are wet. The dust is directed upward
through the foliage, and applied in a light, even coating to all sur-
faces. A pound of dust properly applied treats about 400 feet of
row of average-sized plants.
Sprayers and Spraying
The best type of sprayer for an average-sized garden is a com-
pressed air sprayer, equipped with an extension rod and angle nozzle
for spraying the underside of the foliage. Those of 2- to 3-gallon
capacity are the most practicable. Fair results can be obtained with
the type of hand sprayer that gives a continuous spray and that has
a two-way, or adjustable, nozzle to direct the spray upward. This
requires working in a stooped position. These hold 1 to 3 quarts
of spray. The small, single-action, atomizer type of hand sprayers,
such as those used for household sprays, are unsatisfactory. Do not
use household sprays (oil sprays) on your garden plants.
Measuring spoons are useful in measuring the pesticides care-
fully. The material is shaken thoroughly in a closed jar with a small







HARVESTING AND STORING


amount of water before it is put into the sprayer. Wettable powder
sprays should be agitated or stirred continuously while spraying.
Emulsions, which turn milky when placed in water, require some time
to settle out and do not need as much agitation. Compressed-air
sprayers are filled to no more than two-thirds capacity. The water
is measured each time, or a measuring stick is marked with levels
for different amounts. Diluted sprays soon lose strength; therefore,
they should be mixed fresh when needed. The spray is directed up-


Figure 27 Pressure sprayer


ward through the foliage and all surfaces are wet until they begin
to drip. One gallon of spray covers about 100 feet of row of average-
sized plants.
Pesticide Precautions
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons, each to be applied
strictly according to manufacturers' precautions and recommenda-
tions. Always wash vegetables from the garden thoroughly before
using. Use pesticides only as necessary to control insects and diseases
and where possible stop application during the harvesting season.

HARVESTING AND STORING

Prompt harvesting at the proper stage of maturity insures good
quality and more uses for the crop. Have plans made in advance
for any extra vegetables.





GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Can or Freeze Surplus Vegetables
The family can have an abundance of nutritious vegetables
practically all year by canning or freezing the garden surplus. Proper
freezing retains the color, flavor, and food value of most vegetables
better than canning. However, some vegetables such as beets and


Figure 28 Home freezing of surplus vegetables


tomatoes are more suitable to canning. Also, vegetables that are
usually eaten raw, such as lettuce, should not be frozen.
Can or freeze only high-quality vegetables. The quality of vege-
tables cannot be improved by canning or freezing. However, care-
less or improper methods may lower the quality of the canned or
frozen product.
For best results in canning and freezing vegetables, follow the
directions carefully in Florida Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin
165, "Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables," Department of Agri-







HARVESTING AND STORING


culture Bulletin 117, "Canning in Florida," and Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Bulletin 441, "Freezing Florida Fruits and
Vegetables."
The following suggestions should be helpful:
1. Crops that are at the right stage for eating fresh are ideal
for canning or freezing.
2. Harvest in the early morning while vegetables are still cool.
3. Remove all overmature, bruised, diseased, and insect dam-
aged vegetables.
4. Wash vegetables thoroughly, using plenty of cool running
water.
5. Keep vegetables cool by placing them in refrigerator or under
crushed ice.
6. Can or freeze vegetables as soon as possible after harvesting.
Some vegetables lose much of their quality even in 2 or 3
hours after harvest. The sooner they are canned or frozen, the
better the product will be.
Varieties recommended for freezing include: beans, snap Semi-
nole, Tendergreen, Contender, Topcrop, and Wade; beans, pole -
U. S. No. 4 (191); beans, lima Fordhook 242, Concentrated, and
Henderson; broccoli Early Green Sprouting; carrots Imperator.
Touchon, and Red Cored Chantenay; corn, sweet loana, Golden
Cross Bantam, and Seneca Chief; mustard Florida Broad Leaf;
okra Clemson Spineless; peas -Little Marvel and Emerald; peas,
Southern Blackeye, and Conch (White Acre); spinach-Virginia
Savoy; strawberries- Florida 90 and Missionary; turnips -Japanese
Foliage (Shogoin). Other varieties listed in the planting guide (Table
5) may meet home freezing requirements.
Potatoes
Remove all cut, bruised, and diseased potatoes immediately after
harvest. Place sound potatoes in boxes or crates and store in a cool,
dry, dark place. Do not store potatoes where they will freeze.
Potatoes, Sweet
Dig sweet potatoes before frost and when the soil is relatively
dry. Handle them carefully to avoid bruising and carry immediately
to the storage house. Remove all diseased potatoes before placing
in storage. Place the potatoes in crates or other containers and stack
so air can circulate freely. If possible, keep temperature 80 to 85
degrees Fahrenheit for a 10- to 14-day period; then, lower the tempera-
ture to 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Sweet potatoes may be stored in a hill or bank. Select a well-
drained area, level it off, and put down 6 to 8 inches of straw. Place









46 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
a vent stack in the center to allow moist air to escape. Place 15 to
20 bushels of potatoes around stack in a cone shape. Cover with
straw and 4 to 6 inches of soil. Dig a shallow trench around the hill
to carry off rainwater. Potatoes keep better if the hill has a shelter
over it.
Onions
Harvest onions after the tops have fallen over. Spread them



Figure 29 Two onions

on right are ready

for harvest








in their layers in a dry, well-ventilated place for a week or more.
Then either tie in bunches and hang them up or remove the tops
and place the onions in slotted crates or boxes. Regardless of the
method used, store onions in a cool, dry, ventilated place.
Tomatoes
Before frost injures tomatoes, they may be stored for several
weeks if you pick mature, green fruits and spread in a single layer
in a relatively cool place. Another way to store tomatoes is to pull
up the entire plant and hang it by the roots in a cool place.

Dried Beans and Peas
Allow beans and peas to mature thoroughly on the plant. Before
storing, spread them in a dry, ventilated place and allow to dry for
2 to 3 weeks. Then shell or thresh and store where mice, rats, and
insects cannot damage them.
Small quantities of beans and peas may be fumigated effectively
in air-tight drums, barrels, or lard cans to control weevils. Sprinkle
mixture over surface of seed and cover with sacks. The container
should be kept air-tight for 60 to 72 hours. Then open the container








INDIVIDUAL CROPS


and allow seeds to aerate thoroughly. Use a fumigant containing 1
part carbon tetrachloride plus 3 parts of ethylene dichloride at the
following rates:
1. 50 gallon drum or barrel................1, 2 pint
2. 50 pound lard can -....-...............---- tablespoonfuls
Other fumigants may be used for treating stored seed.
Weevils may also be controlled by heating; however, this may
prevent germination of seed.
INDIVIDUAL CROPS
Detailed information on each crop regarding varieties, dates,
and rates of planting, amount of seed to buy and average yields are
given in the planting guide, (Table 5. page 24). The following
discussion of crops is by no means complete; however, an attempt
is made to mention useful information that was not included in the
previous sections of this bulletin.
Asparagus
Since asparagus does not produce well in Florida due to our
warm climate, we will not discuss it at length. The plant will grow
well, but only a few small spears should be expected.
Asparagus should be grown only in large gardens, because it re-


Figure 30- Snap beans, a good producer







48 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
quires two years after planting to come into production and yields
comparatively little food per unit of land.
Beans
Snap beans are a tender crop, easily killed by frost. They yield
heavily in relation to the area occupied, and are easy to grow. The
first planting may be made slightly before the last killing frost in
the spring, and successive plantings may be made every 10 days to
2 weeks thereafter until early summer, depending on the area of the
state, to provide a continuous supply of fresh beans.
Lima beans require a longer and warmer growing season than do
snap beans. The bush, or dwarf type, of lima bean matures earlier
than does the pole type.
Edible soybeans are desirable in the home garden primarily for
green-shell beans. They are a tender crop and need a longer growing
season. The green beans may be stripped from the pods easily if
they are dipped in boiling water.
Beets
Beets are easily grown, yield heavily, and are high in vitamins
and iron content, especially when the tops are included for greens.
They are a hardy green and will not be injured by light frost and
will stand some freezing.
Broccoli
Broccoli is a hardy, easily grown, highly nutritious crop that is
rapidly gaining in popularity with gardeners. It is simliar to cauli-
flower, except that it is green and has a more open head. Unlike
cauliflower, sprouting broccoli continues to bear throughout the
season and requires no blanching.
Plants may be started in plant boxes, cold frames, or hotbeds
4 to 6 weeks before they are to be planted in the garden.
The edible part of broccoli is the immature flower buds and
stems, along with the tender leaves. These heads are clusters of green
flower buds, and should be cut, with 6 to 8 inches of stalk, before
the buds open. After the main cluster is cut, small lateral clusters
will continue to develop throughout the growing season. The plants
are very hardy planted in the fall, and they will usually continue to
develop throughout the winter and early spring months. Its general
culture requirements are similar to those of cabbage. See Cabbage
(page 49).
Brussels Sprouts
Brussels sprouts are not considered easy to grow, but they may
be grown successfully in Florida. They may be harvested for a con-







INDIVIDUAL CROPS


siderable period by picking the lower sprouts as soon as they become
large enough. The leaf below each sprout is usually broken off so
the sprout may be picked conveniently. Cool weather is necessary for
development of solid sprouts.
This crop has the same culture requirements as cabbage. See
Cabbage (page 49).
Cabbage
Cabbage is a vegetable high in vitamin content, especially vitamin
C. By a wise selection of varieties and by planting at the proper time
you may have fresh cabbage for several months. Cabbage is a hardy
vegetable that is easily grown.
Cabbage needs abundant moisture and fertilizer, and will not do
well on a very acid soil. Where the soil is highly acid, below pH 5.5,
lime can generally be used to advantage. Cultivation should be shal-
low because a large portion of the cabbage roots develop near the
surface of the soil and run almost horizontally across the rows.
Carrots
Carrots, an excellent source of vitamin A. are used almost daily
by the housewife. They are easy to grow and store, and only a small
space is required to grow a season's supply.
Carrots, like other root crops, thrive best during a cool season
and in a deep and fertile soil, well supplied with moisture. They
are hardy and may be planted any time during the winter months.
See planting guide, Table 5, for specific planting dates for the different
areas.
Carrot seeds are slow to germinate, and need careful attention
in planting to assure a uniform stand. In dry weather the seedbed


Figure 31-Cauliflower head (curd)







50 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
may be sprinkled every evening for from 10 days to 2 weeks to insure
rapid germination and a uniform stand. Another way to get a better-
than-usual stand of carrots is to make a furrow approximately 2 inches
deep. Sow the seed in the furrow and cover with 1/2 inch of soil.
Boards or paper laid over the furrows until the seed germinate give
still further protection against drought injury.
Cauliflower
Cauliflower is a difficult crop to grow. Like cabbage, it thrives
best in cool and moist weather; but unlike cabbage, it will not stand
much freezing or extreme heat. It is sensitive to a soil reaction below
pH 5.6. The young plants may be set in the garden whenever cabbage
is set, for it is only the matured heads that are not resistant to freezing
weather.







Figure 32 -

Blanching cauliflower

head


Cauliflower must be blanched to get a white head like the one
illustrated in Figure 32. Blanching is done by tying the outside leaves
together as soon as the curd (head) has reached a diameter of 2
.to 3 inches. Examine the heads every day or two to make sure they







INDIVIDUAL CROPS


do not pass the proper stage of maturity before harvest. Harvest
the curds when they are still compact, not open and riceyy."
Celery
Celery is difficult to grow and is not recommended for the aver-
age home garden. It thrives best when the weather is cool and the
moisture supply is abundant. The soil should be well-drained, fertile,
and well-supplied with humus. The soil reaction should be pH 5.6
or above because celery is sensitive to highly acid soils.
The seeds may be started in a plant box, cold frame, or hotbed.
but because of the difficulty in getting plants started most gardeners
prefer to purchase plants. Celery responds well to two or three side-
dressings of nitrate of soda (or equivalent nitrogen from other soluble
forms) at the rate of 1 pound to each 100 feet of row at 3-week
intervals after the plants are set in the garden. Scatter the nitrogen
from 4 to 8 inches away from the row and stir in lightly with a hoe.
rake, or cultivator.
Blanching is accomplished by excluding light from the stalks
while they are still growing, such as close planting or the use of
boards, paper, or soil around the plants. Heavy paper may be fastened
tightly against either side of the row or a few plants may be blanched


Figure 33 Swiss chard, a warm weather crop
at a time by wrapping newspaper around the individual plants. Also.
clay drain tile may be used. Banking with soil is not safe in hot







52 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES
weather. A period of from 10 days to 2 weeks is required for blanch-
ing.
Chard or Swiss Chard
Chard is recommended for summer greens because it withstands
heat much better than spinach. Its culture is similar to that of spinach
except that the plants are spaced from 4 to 8 inches in the row. If
only the outer leaves are removed in harvesting, a single planting
will last all season.
Chinese Cabbage
Chinese cabbage requires a fertile soil, an abundance of moisture,
a cool season and short days. When grown quickly it is a delicious
salad crop, often used as a lettuce substitute, or it may be cooked





Figure 34 -

Collards, easy to grow the year-round 4.


like common cabbage. Its culture is very
See Cabbage (page 49).


similar to that of cabbage.


Collards
The collard plant is essentially a cabbage that forms only a large
rosette of leaves instead of a head. It is more resistant to heat than
cabbage and is hardy to cold. The collard is a good crop for both
winter and summer greens in Florida. Collards may be harvested
any time alter the plants are large enough by either cutting off the
rosette or picking the older leaves as they mature, leaving the
younger, upper ones to develop. Collards respond well to extra
sidedressings with soluble forms of nitrogen.








INDIVIDUAL CROPS


Cucumbers
Cucumbers are a frost-sensitive crop. They may be planted
either in hills or in rows. A few hills will produce a large number
of cucumbers if the fruits are picked when they are young. The long
varieties, which are used primarily for slicing, are equally good for
pickling if the fruits are removed when small. The crop does well
on a wide range of soils and responds to heavy applications of humus,
especially manure.
Eggplant
Usually six plants of eggplant will produce all the fruits that
will be used by a family of five. Plants should be transplanted into
the garden after all danger of frost is over in the spring. Planting
dates are given in the planting guide. Table 5 (page 24).



'ZI







* .' .rlI ,











Figure 35 Eggplant, a heacy yielder
Eggplants will respond well to one or more applications of a
complete fertilizer, and irrigation when necessary is very desirable.
The fruits should be harvested when they are glossy or shin'.
Endive
Endive is handled and used in a similar manner to lettuce, but
some persons prefer it cooked as greens. When the plants have







54 GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES

become large enough, draw the outside leaves together over the
head and fasten them with a string or rubber band. You may use
an inverted berry box instead. Blanching should be done two or
three weeks before the plants are to be used, to remove the bitter
flavor.


SFigure 36 -

Endive, a salad

green


Kale is a hardy crop that belongs to the mustard (cabbage)
family. It grows under the same conditions as cabbage, and tastes


Figure 37 -

Kale, a hardy

green







much like it, but it does not form a head. It is a good source of
greens in late fall and early spring, particularly in North Florida.







INDIVIDUAL CROPS 55
Kohlrabi
Kohlrabi is grown for the turnip-like enlarged stem just above the
ground. It is cooked as is cauliflower, and is an excellent vegetable
if used while tender. It is an easily grown and quick-maturing crop.
Kohlrabi must be harvested when between 1M and 3 inches in di-
ameter, or it will become tough and stringy. It is a hardy vegetable
and will grow on a fertile soil with adequate moisture.




igure 38 Kohlrabi

,hf







Lettuce
Lettuce is a hardy cool-season crop that grows during cool weather.
It is grown on practically all kinds of soil, but does best on a fertile
soil, well supplied with fertilizer and moisture. Lime is suggested
if the pH tests below pH 5.6.


Figure D9 Butterhead lettuce,

an excellent lettuce *. ,










The two principal types of lettuce are loose-leaf and head. The
loose-leaf type is usually more satisfactory for the inexperienced







56 G(HOl\' YOUR O'WN VEGETABLES
gardener. I ead lettuce may be of either the crisp or the "butter'
i Boston ) type. lhlad lettuce is more likely to form good heads if
it is grownI diirin, cool weatherl and spaced properly.

.I uskniclis, Cantaloupes
\Miskmneloins require a warm Lro\\in season About a month
elfore thle a\erage (late of the last killing frost, four or five seeds
ma\ be planted in each of several individual pots or bands con-
taining fertile soil. Allow onlv two or three plants to grow inl each
p)ot or band. After all danger of frost is past. remove the plants. with
soil intact. from the pots and set them in the garden. From eight to
ten hills are usually enough for the a\erage family. Muskmelons are
highly sensitive to acid soils.


Figu'c 40 .lu.sineoii I/Caintaloulnc,
Muskmelohis should be allowed to remain on the plants until
they slip easily from the sten.

Okra
Okra has about the stame hardiness as cucumbers and tomatoes
and may be grown under the same conditions. It thrives on a fertile
well-drained soil. An abundance of quickly available plant food
will stimulate growth and insure a good yield of tender, high quality
pods. Therefore, since okra, ma" grow in the garden from sprii1
to fall. it is necessary to sidedress the plants with a soluble nitrogen
carrier approximately every 3 weeks during the growing season.








INDIVIDUAL CROPS 57

As okra is a warm weather vegetable, seed should not be sown
until the soil is warm. The pods should be harvested within a few
days after the flower petals have fallen; if allowed to remain on the


Figure 41 -

Okra, a warm weather crop












plant too long they will become tough and stringy. Old pods will
also exhaust the plant if allowed to remain on it.
Okra is one of the crops that will produce during the hot sum-
nmer weather.
Onions
Onions may be grown from plants or sets. Sets are small onion
bulbs 1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter, grown from seed during the pre-
vious season. Plants are also small onions but produced during the
current season. Seed is satisfactory for green onions or for growing
mature onions, providing they are planted at the proper time. Sets
more than 3/4 inch in diameter are likely to split or produce seederss"
instead of producing a bulk. If green onions are desired, plant them
close and thin as they grow, leaving those which are to mature about
3 to 4 inches apart.
Shallots are multiplier-like onions which do not make bulbs. After
they have produced a crop, they should be harvested in the spring
and the sets stored until the fall planting date.
Onions will not store well unless they are allowed to mature
before harvest. The tops should fall over and dry down, and the
outer skin of the bulbs should be dry before they are pulled. The
tops normally fall over before the ripening period. Lower yield
and poorer keeping quality will result from knocking them over.
Onions should be thoroughly dry and cured before pulling.






GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Figure 42 -

Multiplier onions, casy to grow












Multiplier onions are hardy perennials planted during the normal
planting season for onions. They differ from the regular bulbing type
in that they) are a perennial and do not make a bulb. The evergreen
onion will continue to multiply throughout the season. By growing
them, you may have green onions throughout the season. When
harvesting, remove the hill with a shovel; then separate them and
replant one or two of the green onions in the hill.
Parsley
Because of the slow germination of parsley seed and the delicate
seedlings produced, it is best to sow the seed in plant boxes or in
open seedbeds and to transplant the seedlings later to the garden.
Another procedure is to sprout the seed according to the method
recommended for carrots (page 49). Since the plants are hardy, you
may start the plants in plant boxes and set the plants in the garden
during the recommended winter planting dates. If only part of the
leaves are removed for use, the plant will continue to produce an
abundant supply of leaves throughout the season.
Parsnips
Parsnips require a longer growing season than do beets and
carrots. The seed should be sown in the fall, and preferably mixed
with radish seed to help mark the row until the parsnips are grow-
ing. To produce a crop of large, smooth roots, parsnips need a deep,
loose soil that is high in humus content and well fertilized. The quality
of parsnips may be low unless they are exposed to low temperatures





INDIVIDUAL CROPS


Peas. Garden (English)
Peas grow best in cool weather and should be planted at the
recommended time. The best way to get a succession of peas is to
plant at the same time three or four varieties requiring different
lengths of time to mature.



















Figure 4,S Peas, English
Most home gardeners prefer to plant the dwarf varieties of peas
rather than the tall-growing ones, as the dwarf ones need no brush
or wire netting for support.
Since peas stay at the best table quality for only a relatively
short time, harvest them in prime condition and eat or preserve them
as soon as possible after harvest. The higher the temperature, the
more rapidly peas will pass the edible state. Peas, blanched and quick
frozen, may be held in good condition for a year or more.
Peas, Southern (Edible Cowpeas)
The Southern pea is a highly nutritious vegetable. It may be
eaten in the snap, green shell. or dry seed stage.
Southern peas will thrive on a wide variety of soil types but
will do better on soil free of fusarium wilt and root-knot nematode.
Preparation of the land and fertilization should be the same as for
snap beans. However, where nodulation of the roots is abundant.
the nitrogen needs of the plant will be supplied by the nitrogen-
fixing bacteria in the nodules. If the pH is below 5.5, liming should
be beneficial.





CROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Figure 44-

Peas, Southern, a

warin weather croji













Plant the early crop as soon as there is a reasonable assurance
that a killing frost is no longer likely. The late crop should be planted
about 90 days before the first killing frost in the fall. While the
plants may produce a satisfactory yield during the summer, the
two suggested growing seasons above are more desirable for pro-
ducing peas for canning, freezing, or storing. The low yield in sum-
mer is probably due to excessive vine development and difficulty of
controlling cowpea curculio and other insects.
Peppers
Twelve to eighteen plants of peppers should provide ample
supply for salads, sauces, and other uses for a family of five.
The culture of peppers is similar to that of tomatoes. Since
they are tender and require a long season for maximum production.
plants started 6 to 8 weeks before the last killing frost should be
set in the garden after the frost danger has passed. They should
be transplanted with care to prevent checking growth which will
reduce production materially. Irrigation will be beneficial during
the dry seasons.
Peppers are ready to be picked when they are firm and crisp.
Thev are usually preferred while the color is still green, but are still
edible after turning red.
"Hot" peppers that haven't ripened before frost may be pulled
by the roots and hung in a cool sheltered place where they will mature.







INDIVIDUAL CROPS


Potatoes
The potato is a good crop for home gardeners. However, it is
not recommended for the small garden; nor is it recommended for
gardeners who are not prepared to protect it from insects and diseases.
The potato grows best on well-drained, sandy loam soil, that
is well supplied with organic matter. Potatoes should not be planted
on old grass sods because these are often infested with grubs which
injure the potatoes. The soil should be plowed 6 to 8 inches deep
and harrowed to a good seedbed.
Certified seed should be planted, because it is relatively disease-
free and generally out-vields ordinary seed. A 100-pound sack of
seed is sufficient for a plot 100 by 50 feet, and should produce 10
bushels or more of potatoes. Each seed-piece should be cut in a
square or blocky shape and should have two or more eves. The cut
seed may be planted immediately or stored for 24 or 48 hours. Do
not plant if the soil is wet.
Harvesting should generally be delayed until the vines mature.
Well-matured potatoes are of better eating quality than immature
ones. and they keep better in storage. If possible, dig the potatoes
on a clear day when the soil is not wet. Dig and handle the potatoes
carefully to prevent bruises and cuts. Allow the potatoes to dry well
before placing in storage.
Radishes
Radishes are hardy and mature quickly. The small round varie-
ties develop more quickly than the long ones. If radish seeds are
mixed with carrot seeds to mark the rows for early cultivation, it
may not be necessary to make separate plantings of radishes. All
radishes planted in carrot rows should be pulled as soon as they
are ready to eat. You may plant a few feet of row every 10 days to
2 weeks during the growing season to provide a continuous supply
of radishes throughout the season.
Rhubarb
In North Florida, rhubarb or pieplant is propagated by root
division because there is variation in plants grown from seed. The
old crowns may be cut into as many pieces as there are strong buds.
No rhubarb should be harvested from a new planting the first
year and only a small harvest the second year. After this a full
harvest may be made for 8 to 10 weeks each spring. If rhubarb
becomes unproductive, it is advisable to check for root rot and root
knot. If either of these are present, it is best to start a new bed. Due
to the above pests and our wa m climate, rhubarb is not very well
adapted to growing in Florida.







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


In South Florida, rhubarb seeds are planted in August; the
plants are transplanted to the garden about November 1. Rhubarb
may be harvested about February 1 from this planting.
Rutabagas
Rutabagas are similar to turnips except that they have smooth
leaves instead of hairy and rough leaves. They also have a larger
and rougher root. and require a month longer to mature. They may
he grown very similar to turnips.
Salsify
Salsify or vegetable oyster roots resemble small parsnips in
appearance; when cooked, their flavor resembles that of oysters
They require a long growing season. Salsify requirements are similar
to those of parsnips (page 58).
Spinach
Spinach is a hardy crop that grows best during cool weather. It
will withstand freezing better than most vegetables, but it produces
seedstalks when days begin to lengthen in the spring. Therefore.
New Zealand Spinach or Swiss Chard should be grown for summer
greens.
Spinach may be grown in any good soil that is well-fertilized
and not too acid. It seems to do best with a pH 5.6 to 6.0. As with
all other vegetables, shallow and clean cultivation is essential.
New Zealand Spinach
New Zealand spinach is entirely different from common spinach
in growth habit and climatic requirements, although they are cooked


iL'irc 4i5 N\or Zealand Spinalc.


a t'arm t'atiher crop







INDIVIDUAL CROPS 63
and eaten in the same way. It has a flavor very similar to common
spinach except its flavor is much milder. New Zealand spinach is
a heat-resistant, warm-weather plant that is tender to frost. The
seeds are large, germinate slowly, and produce much-branched, suc-
culent plants that will grow about one foot high and two feet or more
in spread.
When the plant has a spread of a foot or so, the end 2 or 3 inches
of the branches may be harvested with a knife. New growth will
arise along these branches and the ends of these new branches may
be harvested. Harvesting too heavily will retard growth and reduce
the total yield. The gardener must learn from experience how much
can be harvested under his own conditions.
New Zealand spinach promises to be one of the leading vegetables
for greens in Florida gardens, because it may be grown during sum-
mer months when other cool-season greens are not adapted.
Squash
There are three major types of squash. The summer squash
varieties such as Early Prolific Straightneck may be used fresh, canned
or frozen. Another type of summer squash, such as the Table Queen
and Acorn varieties may be grown as a fresh squash or harvested in
the fall and stored in a cool place until used. Winter squash may
be grown during late summer and early fall and stored in a cool
place until used; it may also be harvested in the young, tender stage
for fresh squash.
Squash is very tender and should not be planted until after the
danger of frost has passed in the spring. Earlier squash may be ob-
tained by planting the seed indoors in bands or berry boxes 3 to 4
weeks before time to plant in the garden. The plants may be removed
carefully from the boxes and transplanted to the garden.
To conserve space, squash hills may be located at the edge of
the garden and the vines may be trained on the fence or adjoining
grass.
Squash is sometimes planted in early corn, but in dry weather
both crops will suffer. If this is done, the corn stalks should be cut
as soon as the ears mature.
Pumpkins require so much space that they are recommended only
for large gardens. They may be grown and stored in the same man-
ner as winter squash.
Strawberries
Strawberries grow well in Florida and, if properly cared for,.
produce over a long period. The best lands are the darker colored
flatwood soils which are underlaid with clay, marl, or compact sand.







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


Other types of soil will produce good yields with proper treatment.
Irrigation facilities should be available.
Production of runner plants and berries for harvest is a year-
round operation. Fertilizer applications on sandy soils should be
divided so that one application of 6-8-6 is applied at transplanting
time with additional sidedressings of 6-8-6 at approximately 3- to
4-week intervals thereafter. Berries grown on marl soils should have
an application of 6-8-6 at transplanting time plus an additional side-
dressing of 6-8-6 for six to eight weeks afterward. See Table 2 for
rates of fertilizer application.
A mulch is used to aid in the prevention of fruit rot and dirty
berries. Wiregrass, pine straw, or similar materials may be placed
around the plants when the plants begin to bloom.




Figure 46 -

Strawberry plants

properly mulched

with pine strate














See Table 5 for recommended varieties and transplanting dis-
tances. Plants should be placed in the soil so that the crown of
the plant is even with the soil surface.
Berries should be picked every 2 or 3 days during the early
morning hours and on a regular schedule to avoid harvesting past
the prime condition of the fruit. Handle berries carefully and re-
trigerate at 400 F. or lower until consumed.






INDIVIDUAL CROPS 65
Sweet Corn
Sweet corn requires plenty of space and is adapted only to the
larger gardens. It is susceptible to frost injury and grows best during
warm weather, but will withstand more cold than will cucumbers,
muskmelons, pumpkins, and squashes. It is one of the most im-
portant home garden crops in Florida.
To have a constant supply of sweet corn for the table, plant
early, midseason, and late varieties at the same time. Also, a similar
effect will result from making additional plantings of the same va-
riety each spaced 10 days to 2 weeks apart. To obtain good pollina-
tion and a lull set of kernels on the cob, plant at least three adjacent
rows at each planting.
Many Florida gardeners still practice suckering (removal of
the side shoots at the base of the main stalk) sweet corn. Since many
years of experimental work have failed to substantiate the claimed
benefits from this practice, suckering is not recommended.


Sccet Potatoes
Sweet potatoes are a wanr-weather crop that requires a long
growing season. They may be grown in small gardens even though
they require a large growing space, because they may be grown
during the hot summer months when very few crops ina\ be grown
in the garden.
A light to medium soil is required by sweet potatoes and they
do best on a sandy loam soil. Tnev develop poor yields and roots
ot undesirable shape in soil that receives heavy applications of nitro-
genous fertilizer. Applications of manure should not be made im-
mediately before sweet potatoes are planted. If poor yields are
experienced when using the standard garden fertilizer (6-S-6), you
may try a 3-S-S fertilizer at the same rate as suggested for 6-S-6.
It is generally better for the gardener to get disease-free plants
(draws or slips) or vine cuttings from seedsmen or plant growers
than to grow his own. A good plant for transplanting should be
about 6 to 9 inches long. The plants are usually set on ridges S to 10
inches high, 4 feet apart. If fertilizer is placed in the ridges before
planting, it must be well below the level of the plants and well mixed
with the soil. Another application should follow in about 4 weeks.
A better method of fertilizer application is to place it in bands
2 to 3 inches below and 3 to 4 inches to the side of the row. By using.
the band method, applications of fertilizer may be delayed until
after the plants are set in the garden. Make the first application
one week after planting and the second application 3 to 4 weeks







GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES


later. The danger of over fertilization is rather acute. Normally top-
dressing should be used only following periods of excessive rains.
For directions on storing, see Sweet Potatoes (page 45).
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C. In the absence
of a continuous supply of citrus fruits, tomatoes may be used as a
substitute for citrus to supply the much needed vitamin. At least
a few plants should be in every garden because they are easily grown
and can be used fresh, canned, or as juice.
Tomatoes are tender and should not be set in the garden until
danger of frost is past. The seed are usually planted from 4 to 6
weeks before the time of setting in the garden, in rows about 2 inches
apart in plant boxes, coldframes, or hotbeds. When the plants are
about 2 inches high, thin them to a stand from 2 to 3 inches apart.
The less the plants are injured in transplanting the sooner the plants
will recover and the greater will be their yield. Tomato plants are
often transplanted, when the seedbed is thinned, to individual pots
or paper bands which make it possible to transfer them to the garden
with a minimum of disturbance to the root system. Plants in plant
boxes or flats will be retarded less when set in the garden if they
are blocked out; that is, cut the soil with a heavy knife to the bottom
of the box in both directions between the plants.




Figure 47 Staked toniato, t


properly! tied to stake






INDIVIDUAL CROPS 67
On a given area of land the yield is usually about the same
whether the plants are set close, pruned and staked, or whether
they are spaced farther apart and allowed to grow all over the ground.
Pruned and staked plants produce a large early yield, but the total
yield per plant is usually smaller. Staking may be desirable where
there is a considerable loss of fruit from fruit rot.
Mulching with straw or leaves greatly reduces fruit rot, cracking.
and blossom-end rot.
For directions on storing, see Tomatoes (page 46).
Turnips
Turnips are a quick-growing, cool-weather crop. They require a
shorter growing season than rutabagas and are less exacting in their
requirements. The seeds are so small that it is difficult to avoid
sowing them too thickly and too deeply. Special care is required if
good results are obtained without wasting seeds and labor.
Sometimes turnip seeds fail to germinate or the seedlings are
killed by black rot. If this trouble has occurred previously, use only
hot water treated seed.
Watermelons
Only gardeners with a large amount of room should grow water-
melons. The requirements for watermelons are similar to that of
muskmelons.








68 YOUR GARDEN NOTES









YOUR GARDEN NOTES 69







YOUR GARDEN NOTES




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