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Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Grow your own vegetables
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003057/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grow your own vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 54 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Writers' Program (Fla.)
University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1950
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 46).
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Works Projects Administration in the State of Florida"--p. 1
General Note: Sponsored by the University of Florida, Gainesville.
General Note: "July, 1950".
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003057
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3559
ltuf - AMT2330
oclc - 44555317
alephbibnum - 002566049
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text

Bulletin No. 52



State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MiAYO. commissionni r

*~~i u~a~4a'-00@yi i~, E S $ :24 $ $


July. 1950

New Series




(CompliledI by vork-ers of the \Writers' Program
of the
Works P'rojects Adminiistration in the State of Florida

State-Nide Sponsor of the Writcers Project



W\\illo,11K. I uah cvi. E. All .\h hl:.l all-


Nathaon M~Iayo. Comlmissioner


This bulletin is particularly timely now that war condi-
tions are again making home gardens popular. The health
of its citizens is the Nation's first line of defense. Vegetables
rich in mineral salts so essential to a well-rounded diet, can
be raised with a minimum of effort and expense in every sec-
tion of Floirda. The State's daily average of sunlight-
approximately six hours-is greater than in any other region
in the eastern United States. Combined with mild winters,
this permits of a long growing season.

In cooperation with a county-wide educational program
proposed by the National Nutrition Conference of Defense,
and the activities of the Farm Security Administration and
the home demonstration forces. Florida authorities offer this
booklet. Here is comprehensive information as to what vege-
tables are recommended; the time to plant them in various
sections of the State; how to grow them successfully; and the
best methods of preserving the surplus.

Rolla A. Southworth, Carita Doggett Corse,
State Director, State Supervisor,
Community Service Programs Florida Writer's Program
Works Projects Administration


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Grow Your Own Vegetables

(rowing their own vegetables is a contribution that rural
families, and many urban dwellers. can make to the Nation's
defense preparations. A home garden not only aids the family
budget. but indirectly helps to amplify the country's resources.
At a time when defense activities are accelerating with a mag-
nitude unequaled in history, food becomes increasingly vital.
No nation is stronger than its food supply. A family produc-
ing its own vegetables is doubly compensated, provided the
methods necessary to success are followed.
Probably thousands of Florida families have given little
thought to the possibilities of a home garden. This is par-
ticularly true of urban residents, to whom vegetable gardens
are associate( with farms, or with small communities where
large individual plots or back yards are available.
Whether in town or country, a home garden assures an
independent and immediate supply of fresh vegetables. After
they are gathered, most vegetables quickly depreciate in cer-
tain food values. This does not occur where green foods are
within a few steps of the kitchen.
The office worker who emIloys part of his spare time in
gardening, reaps health benefits from exercise in the fresh air
andi sunshine, and often finds peace from "jittery" nerves or
the solution to mental problems while in contact with the soil.
There are but few normal persons who are not intrigued by
the magic of seed in the ground, the inquisitive sprout pushing
its way through the surface: their enthusiasm mounting as
the plant waxes in growth, finally to give forth generously and
repay the care and attention it has received.
Many people in various localities still seek employment, or
are able to secure only part-time work. Quite often the pro-
viding of sufficient food is a major problem to the head of
a family whose income is inaldeuate. In such cases, if a
garden plot is available, it is practically a duty to grow a
vegetable garden. In the lush periods of the year surpluses
can be dried or canned.
Community gardens, in which workers collectively share
the labor and the harvest, have become popular and many va-
cant lots are made useful in this way.
Florida farmers who grow staples only. or specialize in
but one. or a few. truck crops, should have a garden in which
to grow an assortlnenl t of vegetables for home use.
More than one member of a family may enjoy taking part
in the planning and care of the garden. Sometimes each in-


dividual will select a certain vegetable, or vegetables, for
personal attention; a sense of pride in production develops.
and growing a garden takes on the aspects of a competitive
There are many excellent instruction books available on
such subjects as seed selection. cross-pollination, and various
methods of producing superior or even new varieties. And
for both adults and children, a garden is an ideal place to learn
many of nature's delightful surprises.

In planning the garden the first things to consider are the
types of soil, the water supply and drainage, and the adapta-

A Home Garden in Florida: An Investment in Health

ability of various vegetables to the specific conditions. Plants,
like all living things, have their individual preferences regard-
ing environment. Many amateurs meet with defeat through
lack of understanding of vegetable culture and failure to fol-
low certain mandatory procedures.
Type of Soil. Although Florida has a great diversity of
soils, they may be generalized into a comparatively small num-
ber of groups. Vegetables, also. may be similarly grouped
in their preferences for certain soils.
Many Florida soils are deficient in organic matter. As a
rule, soils dark in color indicate more organic matter than
the lighter types, and are usually more productive. Generally
speaking, however, the majority of Florida vegetables will
grow on most of Florida's soils, with adequate treatment for
humus and proper fertilization. Organic matter, or humus.


can be supplied by one of numerous cover crops, or by com-
post. This will be discussed later.
Water Supply and Irainage. Crops grown during dry
seasons must be watered artificially. If piped water is avail-
able. the garden can be sprinkled with a hose. Both overhead
and underground irrigation are methods too expensive for the
small grower unless the equipment has already been installed.
Where the contour of the land permits, water may be run
between the rows. If none of these methods can be used,
water must be carried to the plot.
It is better to water the garden thoroughly once a weeK
than merely to wet the surface several times during that
period. Preferably, watering should be done early in the
morning or late in the afternoon, for plants are liable to be
scalded when watering while the sun is overhead. The amount
of moisture necessary depends on the type of soil and weather
conditions. Ieavy soils retain water for longer periods than
the light types.
Drainage is an evident matter needing little discussion.
If land is allowed to remain soggy wet during wet periods,
most plants will suffer and the land eventually bi cones sou.r.
Drainage is a problem on low places where excess water is
unable to runi off. The usual solution is ditching, planting on
ridges or beds. and frequent cultivation, thus helping to dry
out the soil.
Locate ion. If there is sufficient land for a choice of site
the gard'tn should be planted where moisture control is pos-
sible. For convenience, the plot should be close to the house.
and fenced as a protection against chickens and roving
Seasonal Planting. When planning a home garden, sea-
sonal planting must be taken into consideration. Because
some vegetables grow best in warm weather, and others in
cool months, Ihe time of planting is important. Also, by
taking advantage of weather preferences, a garden may be
planted to produce continuously.
Cool Weather Vegetables. In the early spring and late
fall. and during the entire winter, if the weather is mild. such
vegetables as cabbaLge, cauliflower. Brussels sprouts, collards.
turnips, mustard greens and radishes thrive best. Among
others which do well are lettuce, endive, carrots, beets, onions.
F:nglish peas, parsley and strawberries.
Warm Weather Vegetables. In the late spring and early
fall one can grow snap beans, lima beans, cucumbtlibers, tomatoes.
Irish potatoes, corn and a long list of others.
Hot Weather Vegetables. Even in hot summer months a
few vegetables thrive. These include sweet potatoes, New
Zealand spinach, okra, eggplant, peppers, potatoes, melons,
cantaloupes and squash.


Preparing the Soil. In growing any crop, preparation of
the soil is of first importance. There is a saying that when
land is thoroughly prepared the crop is half grown. As
stated, many Florida soils lack humus, or organic matter. One
may supply this in several ways. If conditions warrant, the
best method is to grow a cover crop. Beggarweed, rye, oats.
crotalaria. vetch, cowpeas and velvet beans are all good cover
crops. These are planted for the sole purpose of being
ploughed under. In a few weeks the vegetation is well de-
For the small garden a practical method is to pile weeds,
leaves, grass. and other organic waste into a barrel or large
container several weeks before the actual planting. Sprinkle
with superphosphate and keep the whole moist. The compost
resulting is an excellent soil builder when worked into the
Well-rotted stable manure is not only one of the best of
all soil-building mediums but a rich fertilizer as well. If a
sufficient quantity can be obtained, this will provide all the
elements necessary for the garden with the exception of phos-
phoric acid. The latter is added by mixing two pounds and a
half of 16', superphosphate with every 25 pounds of manure.
a quantity sufficient for 100 square feet of garden. The cover
crop, compost, or manure should be spaded or ploughed under
at least 20 days before planting.
If the gardener is using cover crops or compost instead
of manure, the ground probably will need an application of
commercial fertilizer. One of the best for general use is a
5-7-5 mixture; meaning 5' nitrogen, 7'; phosphoric acid, and
5'; potash. This is broadcast at the rate of from two and a
half to five pounds every 100 square feet. The fertilizer should
be raked into the ground not less than 10 days, and preferably
two weeks, before the actual planting, so that it will be thor-
oughly absorbed. If applied too near planting time it will
burn the shoots as they emerge from the seed; or in the case
of plants transplanted from a seedbed, the rootlets will be
During the period between breaking and planting, the
soil must be well raked to destroy all weeds. Just before
planting, make sure that the surface soil is pulverized and
Testing and Treating Seeds. Granting that the ground is
carefully prepared and worked industriously, results will be
disappointing if poor seeds are used. Seed should be bought
from reliable dealers only. Many varieties of seed quickly
deteriorate in Florida's climate; therefore in selecting seed
an important point is their freshness.


An interesting and simple germination test can be made.
To determine the percentage of germination, place a porous
brick. broad side up, in a pan of water, with the water almost
to the top of the brick. Place a blotter on the brick and on
this distribute 100 seeds from the lot to be tested. Keel pan
in a warm place. Discard the seeds as they sprout and after
10 days count those which have failed to sprout. By sub-
tracting this number from 100 the percentage of germination
is ascertained; if too low, the seed should be returned to the
To speed the process of sprouting if planting is to be
done before the garden earth is naturally warmed, a seed box
or pan filled with warm, moist soil may be of value to the
home gardener. This is especially practical for larger-seeded
varieties. The seed sprout relatively quickly in the warm
earth of the seed box. They then can be transferred to the
garden soil. with the assurance that each seed set out has ger-
minated, and that under favorable conditions it will produce
a plant.
Spores of certain organisms causing plant diseases are
often present on seeds. Fortunately this is not difficult to
correct. An effective method is to prepare a bichloride of
mercury solution. using one tablet to a pint of water. Place
the seeds in a thin cloth bag andl soak in the solution not more
than 15 minutes. When removed. rinse the seeds in water
and spread in a cool place to dry. Destroy the original con-
tainer. Not more than three lots of seed must he used to a
batch of solution. Bichloride of mercury is a deadlly poison
and a caustic. Use only a wood or glass vessel and keep
children and animals away.
The Seed Hed. Hlecause of Florida's mild climate, seed beds
are not used extensively, as in Northern States. Ilowever.
certain plants do better if started in a seed bed. These include
celery, lettuce. romaine. cabbage. escarole, endive, cauliflower.
and onions w'hell grown from seed. Pepplers. eggplant and to-
matoes are other varieties frequently started to advantage in
a seed bed. There are several reasons for this: some varieties
of scee are so small they can e handled more (llicienltly in this
manner; young Iplants are easily watered or protected from
the elements; when the plants are ready for setting out, one
m:i select the sturdy ones and discard the spindlings. This
last advantage dispenses with the thinning out process which
in manl cases is impractically when seed are planted in the
The seed bed is a simple arrangement. To avoid too much
water, it should lie slightly higher than the surrounding land,
about three or four feet wide. and as long as necessary. The
soil must be well prepared before planting, with a moderate
amoutnt of rotted malnulre o fully-decaved compost mixed with


it. Too much fertilizer produces quick, sappy growth and
reduces the chance of the plant to withstand the shock of
Seed beds should be protected against beating rain. wind,
hot sun. or early frost by stretching fabric over a framework
so as to form a cloth shelter with the sides sloping gradually.
The top of the shelter need not be more than three or four
feet above the plants. Arrange the covering so that it may
le conveniently taken off its supports when the weather is
favorable to the plants.
Transplanting. When the plants have been in the seed
bed from four to six weeks. they are ready to set out. About
10 days before transplanting, the plants may be "blocked off"
with advantage to the root system. This is done with a long
knife or similar instrument. Cut through the soil along one
side of each row of plants and about two inches from the
stalks. In three or four days cut along the other side in
like manner. This procedure severs part of the lateral roots.
causing new roots to form nearer the base. In about six days
after the second cutting the new roots are sufficiently devel-
oped to transplant.
Several hours before taking the plants out of the bed they
should be watered thoroughly. Do not pull the plants out of
the ground but loosen the roots gently, keeping as much soil
around them as possible.
In warm weather, transplanting is usually done late in
the afternoon as a protection against the sun. Once removed
from the bed. the quicker the plants are set out the better.
In the meantime keep the roots covered with wet sacking or
Prepare holes in the garden large enough to prevent cramp-
ing the tender roots. Pour a liberal amount of water into
each hole before setting in the plant. Then press the soil
carefully around the roots, fill the hole, and again water.
The first few days after transplanting are crucial to the
plant. It has had a major operation and its recovery is a
matter of care. If the sun is hot, plants can be shaded by
such devices as shingles or scrub palmetto leaves stuck into
the ground beside them.
Planting Seed Directly in the Garden. Although most
plants can be grown successfully by sowing the seeds directly
in the garden. certain difficulties attend certain varieties.
These are usually the small seed. and frequently the tender
types. As explained. such varieties do best when started in a
seed bed. When sown directly treatment is similar to that of
the seed bed, only more laborious because of the greater area.
The young plants cannot be shielded from excessive sunshine.
or carefully protected from other elements as in a seed bed.
Also. they must be thinned out at the proper time.


On the other hand many plants. because of their hardiness
or other characteristics, do best when the seeds are sown di-
rectly. These include beans, watermelons, cantaloupes, okra,
sweet and white potatoes, carrots. radishes, turnips, mustard.
onion sets. English peas. cucumbers, corn and collards.
The depth to plant depends upon the kind of seed. The
earth over the seeds should be firmed slightly, taking care
not to make the soil too compact. A driving rain will some-
times so pack the ground that shoots will have difficulty in
pushing through. After the seeds are planted, water gently
but liberally.
Before planting. the soil should be considered in its rela-
tion to drainage and moisture control. If the location is low,
it is advisable to plant on beds or ridges to prevent flooding
during heavy rains. If high and well drained, flat planting
is satisfactory.

When the garden has become a reality one must continue
its care. Weeds have to be fought: and plant diseases, insects
and other pests guarded against. As with humans, plants
are subject to diseases. Happily these-as well as attacks
by insects--can in most cases be controlled.
Except on low\ places, where water compacts the soil. culti-
vation is chiefly confined to keeping weeds in check. If the
land has been thoroughly prepared. subsequent cultivation will
be relatively small.
As plants grow, their root systems expand: therefore care
must be taken not to injure the roots.
Vegetables slow in developing, or those producing over
extended periods, often need subsequent applications of fer-
tilizer. This is worked in slightly with a hand cultivator or
rake, being careful that the fertilizer does not touch the leaves
or shoots of the plant.

certainn vegetables, to be at their best in texture and flavor.
must be harvested at the right time. ('orn and English peas
become hard andI flavorless when lel't in the field after reach-
ing maturity. Snap beans and okra become fibrous and tough.
On the other hand. root crops such as carrots. turnips, and
beets retain their high quality as long as they are growing
rapidly. Peppers and eggplants may be safely left ;n the bush
for some time. Tomatoes, cantaloup)es, ad (walermlelons are
of finer quality anrd flavor if fully vine ripened. Fortunately
those vegetables which deteriorate rapidly after reaching ma-
turity can usually be canned or stored.


The small garden will probably produce little more than
may be used at once on the family table, but even a small
surplus is often profitably stored or canned.
Storing. Such vegetables as onions, sweet and Irish pota-
toes. rutabagas. carrots, beets and turnips can be stored to
advantage. Onions keep well when "fired." Where there is
only a small quantity, an oil stove burning in a small closed
room makes an acceptable kiln. Hang the options by their
tops, or suspend them in wire baskets until thoroughly dry.
Carrots, rutabagas, turnips, and Irish potatoes may be buried
in dry sand in a cool place. or may be packed in hampers or
boxes between layers of dry sawdust or moss peat. The latter
method prevents vegetables from drying and protects them
from insects and rodents.
Sweet potatoes are difficult to store for an extended time
in Florida because of the humid, high temperatures, but they
can be banked with fair success. The following method is
quoted from Farmer's Bulletin No. 1112, United States De-
partment of Agriculture.
"Storage pits should be located where drainage is good.
In making a pit a little of the surface soil is thrown back
to form a level bed of the size desired. It is a good plan to
dig two small trenches, and, at the point where the trenches
cross, set a small box on end to form a flue up through the
pile of potatoes. The earth floor of the pit is covered with
four or five inches of straw, hay, leaves, or pine needles, and
the potatoes are placed in a conical pile around the flue. A
covering of straw, hay or similar material put on the pile and
over this a layer of soil. The covering of soil should be only
a few inches thick at first, but increased as the weather gets
cold. It is better to make several small pits rather than one
large one, because it is best to remove the entire contents
when the pit is opened."
Canning. The most extensively used method of preserving
a majority of the different garden vegetables-except such
things as potatoes, lettuce and watercress-is through proc-
essing and canning them. This is a relatively inexpensive
way ol absorbing any surplus which the home garden may
lrodiuce. Properly performed, canning retains the nutritional
values of the vegetable and preserves it as a food for an
almost limitless length of time. The vegetables should
Ib canned however as soon as possible al'ter they are .,gath-
Home canning equipment need not be expensive or elaborate.
although the basic equipment necessary may be augmented
by many devices, which make the job easier. Such essentials
as trays, measuring cups and spoons, sieves, bowls, pans. veige-


table brushes andl paring knives are usually a regular part oft
kitchen equipment. Jar fillers, funnels, jar lifters and a wire
basket are also needed by the home canner. A lard tin. a
wash boiler or a peanut butter tin may be used to hold cans
or jars of vegetables while they are being processed.
There are several meth:dos of' canning. including water
bath. hot pack. oven process, and steam pressure. The last-
named method, of especial v\'iaie in processing and canning
such nonacid foods as asparagus. peas, I)beans and corn, requires
a steam pressure cooker, equil)ped with a pressure gauge.

ec.u1ise the steam pressure cooker supplies higher temnper'a-
tures than the walter b th. and thus insures a itmoire complete
processingg. it is recommenllded for calling many varieties )o
vegetables. Either glass jars or tin-coaled cans may be used
as contlllilrs in canllilg fruits. Each has certain advantages.
Class jars may be simpler to use. but should be stored in
shaded or dark places to Iprevenl loss of color in certain vege-
tables. If tin-coated calls are used, a can-sealing apparatus is
lit cIss ary.
The novice in canning gigarden vegetables may encounter
disappointmentll.- in such activity if authentic instructions are
not followed carefully. Indifference, ignlo;rallce or car'etlessnless
may ble responsible for dangerous fiood pitisos fi rmillg ill the

Homn' Canning of Surplus. \ ege'tabls


canned vegetables. To some extent processing and canning
food may be a simple procedure, but certain well established
rules must be followed for success, satisfaction and the pro-
tection of health in this phase of home gardening. (For de-
tailed instructions in canning vegetables write for Bulletin
103. State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee.


Perhaps one of the most enjoyable periods of gardening
is the time spent in drafting preliminary plans. After the
requirements of soil and climate have been taken into con-
sideration. the amateur gardener is more or less free to choose
what he shall plant. Of course, there may be limitations due
to family budget, and the amount of space available for the
garden plot. And if the garden is purely utilitarian, no space
may be left for experimentation. But if the gardener can
afford to regard his efforts as a hobby as well as a source of
food, has the funds to risk on seed and fertilizer, has an
investigative nature, and has the time and space in which
to conduct experiments, he should follow his personal in-
clinations in planning his garden. This will increase the
zest of the venture, and the results may be of surprising
With a range of about six degrees in latitude and eight
in average temperature. Florida's growing season progresses
from south to north. Peculiarity of climate and wide varie-
ties of soils, serve to divide the State into three general
agricultural areas: south, central, and north. The approxi-
mate planting time in these areas for the different vegetables
were obtained from The Home Garden, Bulletin 80, prepared
by F. S. Jamison, Truck Horticulturist, Florida Experiment
Station, University of Florida.
The central or peninsular area roughly embraces the coun-
ties of Levy. Marion, Volusia, Brevard, Seminole. Orange. Os-
ceola. Polk, Lake, Sumter. Citrus, Hernando. Pasco, Pinellas.
and Hillsborough.

The lima bean. native of tropical America. and thought
to have been named for Lima, capital of Peru, does well
in warm weather, and is an excellent vegetable for both
home gardener and truck grower.
Seeds must be planted from 1 to 2 inches deep. If runner
varieties are grown, the distances should be from 14 to 18 in-


ches between plants and
..4 0 ronm 2 to 3: Ifet be-
Sween rows. Bush va-
ri ties are planted from
8 to 14 inches apart.
L atce hpleantings do well
undea 1 ia r t i a I shade.

tr()uble, and do not rc-
q. uI i i re supllorts. The
Garden f enLcev mata be
used fuort Ieeunntlo \(ari-
tics. if only a moderate
number of planIts oare
st out.
G(; o (d pole \'arieties
arc E ar I Lev\-iathan.
1l, cwis l)ailev. an(I
Challenger. The Ford-
hook and the triendler-
soln Bush art the most
generally u sve( bush

Time to Plant. North-
vrn Florida : March-
June. Central Florida:
I'le Lima (Blutter) 1Bean.: F')bruar1Y-April. South-
.\ ;ood Producer. ern Florida: Septem-

Snap beans were grown by Ilndiallns in North and South
America. and have been grown in home gardens in this counl-
try since its discover. Today Florida leads ill production
of green beans for the market. String or snap beans are
cultivated in all parts of the State. Certainl'v no gardener
would omit this (delightful and nourishing vegetable from his
plot. Hoth pole and bush varieties are excellent, the same
care and condition being necessary for both except that sup-
ports must be erected( for the climbing variety.
Several plantings can be made and. when partial sha(le
is used, the growing period can be exten(le(l into either warm
or cool weather since the sh(lter is a protection against both
heat andt cold. lehans may be grown o(n both acid and alkaline
soils, aided by abundant sunshine, moisture, and warmth.
Seeds should be ldanted from 8 to 1.4 inches apart in warm.
moist soil and covered about 2 inches (leep). 'rhe rows should
Ie, no more than three feet apart.

TilE 11tOME G;.\A)IEN

The crop need not be thinned but must be cultivated tii
keep it free (if weeds. The plants must not be cultivated
whe n they are wet from dew or rain, as diseases spread more
rapidly under these conditions. Farmers' Bulletin 1692. L'. S.
Department of Agriculture. Washington. I). (.. contains de-
tailed informati: n concerning bean diseases.
Beans grown for the family table may be left on the plant
until they begin to fill out the pod: for marketing they should
be picked when the pods are mature but before they begin Lo
ripen. Several pickings will be necessary. The KeIntu:ckv
Wonder is an excellent pole bean. the only disadvantage being

Bush Lima (Ford Hook): A Rapid (rower That Does
Not Require Stakes.

its susceptibility to bean rust. Florida Pole is another good
variety. Among the bush varieties are Early Speckled Valen-
tine, Early Refugee, Bountiful, Green Pod, and Stringless Black
The wax bean varieties include Wardell. Kidney Wax. and
Davis White Wax.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: bush beans. March
April. and August-September; pole beans. lMarch-June. Cen-
tral Fori:':I: bush beans, February-March, and September;
pole be: ns. February-April. Southern Florida: bush beans.
Stptembner-April: Pole beans. January-February.

Both the tops and roots of beets are rich in minerals and
vitamins and should be included regularly in the diet. The
beet is a cool weather vegetable and must be planted in early
spring to attain its best color, texture, and quality.


Seeds should be sown directly in the garden in rows 2 feet
apart, and the plants thinned when about 3 inches high to one
plant every :3 or 1 inches.
It is advisable to mix a few radish seed with the beet
seed so that the quickly germinating radish seed will mark
the rows. Since it is sometimes necessary to destroy the
weeds before the beet seed are up, this method of marking
the rows makes wheel-hoe or hand-hoe cultivation possible.
Later the few radishes may be removed.
Varieties grown successfully in Florida include Eclipse.
Ietroit Dark Red. Croslby's Egyptian. and Early Wonder.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March and
September-November. Central Florida: January-March, and
September-November. Southern Florida: January-March,
and September-November.

Broccoli was first mentioned in print in 1724, at which
time the English called it "sprout calli-flower" or Italian
asparagus. Although only recently introduced into the
United States. its popularity has increased phenomenally.
Broccoli is closely related to cauliflower, resembles it some-
what in appearance and taste, but is a much hardier plant
and easier to grow.
A sandy loam or muck soil. prepared, fertilized, and culti-
vated as for cauliflower, is favorable to the growth of broccoli.
It is necessary to sow the seeds in a seed bed or in flats
during September or October, transplanting when plants are
about six weeks old, or when four inches high. They should
be placed from 15 to IS inches apart in the garden, in rows
three to four feet apart. Seed sown too thickly will produce
spindly plants.
There are two types of broccoli, the sprouting or Italian
green broccoli, and the heading or white broccoli, the latter
not recommended to Florida home gardener.
When fully developed, the center head of the broccoli plant
is clipped from the stem. Later, small heads appear on lateral
shoots, growing out of the buds along the stem of the plant.
These small heads may also be gathered and eaten.
Aphids are apt to infest broccoli and their appearance
should be watched for. Derris dusts have been used effec-
tively to combat these insects. Poisonous sprays or dusts can-
not be used on the heads of the plants. Broccoli is subject
to most cabbage diseases, including mildew.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: August and February.
Central Florida: August and January. Southern Florida:


Cabbage was used by the ancient Greeks and Egyptians,
and its record as a food is about 4,000 years old. Its early
form probably resembled the wild cabbage found growing in
England, Denmark. and other regions of Europe, more than
the modern firm head seen in the American market today.
Sandy loam, clay loam, and muck soils are suitable for
growing cabbage. Thin, sandy, loose, soil should be avoided
unless liberal fertilization and irrigation can be provided.
Organic matter, such as compost and manure, can be used to

Cabbage, One of the World's Oldest Foods. Always
a Stand-by With Home Gardeners.

advantage in a small garden. If the plants grow too slowly,
an application of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia will
produce a sturdy growth and firmer heads.
Cabbage should be started in seed beds or flats, and seed
planted at 6-week intervals, thereafter if the vegetable is
desired over a long period. The plants are transplanted when
from 4 to 6 inches high and spaced 15 to 18 inches apart in
rows 3 feet apart. Shallow cultivation is advisable.
Cabbage are the prey of many insects and diseases. Full
information on this subject is contained in bulletins issued
by the State Department of Agriculture at Tallahassee. Bulle-


tin No. 23, January, 1939, will be particularly helpful to the
Numerous varieties of cabbage will grow successfully in
Florida. For fall planting and early maturing the pointed-
head Charleston Wakefield and Jersey Wakefield are good.
Flat-headed types which mature later include Copenhagen
Market and Early Flat Dutch.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-March. and
September-November. Central Florida: September-January.
Southern Florida: September-December.

Chinese cabbage, while neither true cabbage nor lettuce,
has the characteristics of both and can be either cooked or
used for salad.
Land suitable for cabbage or lettuce is suitable for Chinese
cabbage. On sour soil. hardwood ashes or agricultural lime,
applied two weeks before the first application of fertilizer, is
recommended. This vegetable must grow quickly to be crisp
and succulent. For this reason a fertilizer of higher than
usual nitrate content may be used.
The Chinese cabbage may be started in a seed bed but
does as well and requires less work if the seed are sown
directly in the garden. When plants are sufficiently sturdy.
they should be thinned to stand 12 to 15 inches apart in the
rows. about 30 inches apart.
The variety commonly used, the Pe-Tsai, produces compact
Time to Plant. Same as cabbage.

Cauliflower grows best in compact, sandy loam, well forti-
fied with organic matter. Although needing constant mois-
ture, it does not do well in wet land. Overhead irrigation has
been quite successfully used in many areas.
Cauliflower should be started in a seed bed in light, well-
fertilized, and moist soil. The young plants require delicate
handling when transplanted. The rows should be 2 to 3 feet
apart and the plants spaced at least 20 inches in the row.
This vegetable is often the victim of numerous pests and
diseases. The farmer should write the Department of Agri-
culture, Tallahassee for its bulletin. Plant Diseases and Pests
and Their Treatment.
The leaves are tied over the center head to prevent it
from becoming discolored. Since the roots extend for about


3 feet in all directions and seldom more than 3 inches below
the surface, cultivation must be shallow.
Early Snowball and Erfurt varieties do well in Florida.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January- February,
and August-October. Central Florida: January-February.
and August-October. Southern Florida: January-February,
and September-October.

From the dietary point of view, the carrot is one of the
most valuable garden vegetables, and among the easiest to
grow. They do well in deep loam or muck, and do not object
to a certain amount of acid. The garden soil, in which the
carrot seed should be sown directly, must be well pulverized
and in perfect condition, for the seeds are small and the young
plants delicate.
If the soil is unusually rich, or stable manure is also used,
the quantity of commercial fertilizer should be diminished.
Fertilizer is applied in two lots, one just before planting and
the other when the plants are half grown.
Carrot seeds should be sown plentifully to secure a good
stand, since the percentage of germination is low. They
should be sown about 6 inches apart. When 2 inches high,
they should be thinned to one plant every 3 or 4 inches.
Red Cored Chantenay and Denver's Half Long are the
most popular varieties among Florida gardeners.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March, and
September-November. Central Florida: January- March, and
September-October. Southern Florida: January-March, and

Chard, or Swiss chard, as it is often called, although not
well known in Florida, is worth cultivating, for its large
leaves and succulent stalks are enjoyed by all who like leafy
vegetables. Soil, fertilization, planting time, and cultivation
requirements are similar to those given for beets.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: October-February.
Central Florida: October February. Southern Florida:

Collards, a relative of the cabbage, are grown in Florida
practically every month of the year, can be propagated at all
seasons, and are popular because of their hardiness, and the
case with which they can be cultivated.
The same conditions under which cabbage is grown will


produce collards. Quick growth is necessary to secure tender.
crisp leaves. They may be planted whenever desired, although
too much heat or cold is not advisable for young plants.
A popular variety is the Georgia.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February--March. and
September-November. Central Florida: January-April. and
August-November. Southern Florida: September-January.

(Collards: &i.,% to (Grow I)IIring Sunmer W\hen Other
(Greens Are Scarce.

There is a difference between true sweet corn and the
semi-sweet varieties familiarly known as "'roasting ears." The
latter are grown more extensively in the State and bear much
larger ears.
For some time it was thought that roasting ears having
longer and tighter husks, were better protected against the
corn earworm. The Florida Experiment Station developed a
variety known as Suwannee Sugar. and the Texas Experiment
station developed another called Iloney June. both true sweet
varieties equal in resistance to worm damage to the common
roasting ear and much superior in flavor to the older sweet
corn varieties. It is recommended that either or both be tried
in the home garden.


Sweet corn can be grown on any good vegetable land and
in nearly all sections of Florida; but dry, sandy land or wet.
undrained land is to be avoided. Commercial fertilizer should
be worked into the soil before planting. When the crop is
about 2 feet high, broadcast nitrate fertilizer at the rate of
one pound per 150 feet of row.
To guard against insect pests, sweet corn should be
planted as early as the weather will permit, and planted
closer than field corn, since it results in better distribution
of pollen which produces well filled out ears; however, the land
must be rich in humus and able to hold moisture.
Plant three or four grains to a hill, about 12 inches apart
in rows approximately 3 feet distant. Roasting ears may be
planted as much as 18 inches apart.
When the plants are about 8 inches above the ground they
should be thinned to one or two leading stalks.
The best producers among sweet corn are the above-
mentioned Sugar and Honey June. Older varieties are Coun-
try Gentlemen and Long Island Beauty. Among roasting
ears are Snow Flake, Stowell's Evergreen, Silvermine, and
Trucker's Favorite.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April. Central
Florida: February-March. Southern Florida: January-

Cucumbers should be included in every garden. Well-
drained, sandy loam with preferably a southern slope will
grow this vegetable. Flat, moist land is also good if well
To prepare soil properly for cucumbers. plow it deeply,
pulverizing the dirt. If vegetation is to be turned under,
it should be done at least one month before planting.
The soil should be liberally fertilized. Half should be ap-
plied 10 days before planting and the remainder 10 days be-
fore the first blooms are scheduled to appear. Side-dressing
of fertilizer must not touch the plant directly but should be
worked gently into the soil.
If the plants fail to grow vigorously, nitrogenous fertilizer
should be applied as a top-dressing two or three times at 10-
or 12-day intervals. Single heavy applications are not ad-
Cucumber seed should be planted directly in the garden
in rows from four to six feet apart, as soon as danger of frost
is past. About six seeds should be sown to a hill, covering
the seed about three-fourths of an inch deep. The hills should
be from 2 to 3 feet apart. Successive plantings should be


made. After the plants are well established, they should be
thinned to three or four to a hill.
As soon as three or four leaves appear, spraying with Bor-
deaux mixture should begin, continuing every week or 10 days
until the cucumbers are picked.
Shallow cultivation should be given to control weeds, care
being taken not to injure the roots or tender vine tops.
It is sometimes necessary to irrigate cucumbers. to obtain
maximum yield. Overhead irrigation is apt to stimulate vine
diseases aln subirrigation is usually preferred by experienced
Improved Clark's Special, Straight Eight. Improved Long
Green Klondike. Early Fortune, and Kirby Staygreen are
popular varieties.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-April. Cen-
tral Florida: February-March. and September. Southern
Florida: ,January-February.

The eggplant is believed to have originated in India
and it is known that the Chinese and Arabs grew them in the
ninth century. At that time the fruit was much smaller than
it is today, and egg-shaped. which probably account' for its
A sandy loam soil. rich in organic matter, with constant
moisture supply and good drainage is necessary for the suc-
cessful propagation of this plant.
It is well to apply manure and compost to the soil in ad-
dition to commercial fertilizer. the formula depending on the
type of soil. An application of nitrate of soda or sulphate
of ammonia about blossom time. often gives excellent results.
Some gardeners plant seeds for a fall crop in the row where
they are to grow but, because of cold temperatures, a spring
crop should bIe started in a seed bed. South Florida raises
eggplants as a winter crop.
Young plants wilt easily, and must be carefully handled.
They are ready to transplant when about four weeks old. and
should be spaced 3 feet apart in rows from .1 to 5 feet apart.
Shallow cultivation is sufficient.
Flea beetles. Colorado potato beetles. and other insects
attack eggplant. Spraying with a Bordeaux mixture contain-
ing calcium arsenate or dusting with dehydrated copper lime.
sulphate lime. and calcium arsenate is usually effective in com-
batting these pests.
Eggplant should be cut, not I)ulled, from the plant as soon
as the fruit has become large enough to use. If allowed to


remain on the bush the flesh becomes tough and the seeds
Florida Highbush. and New Orleans Market, are all well-
liked varieties.
Time to Reset. Northern Florida: February-IMarch. (en-
tral Florida: January-February, and July. Southern Florida:
December-February. and August-September.

Endive or escarole, as the broad-leaf type is commonly
known, is increasing in popularity as a salad plant and should
prove interesting to the small gardener. The outer green
leaves should be tied together to blanch the heart. Under this
treatment the inner leaves become creamy white, crisp, and

Endive and Chicury: Along with Lettuce, the
Universal Salad Plants.

palatable. Cultural requirements are the same as those given
for lettuce.
White Curled. Green Curled, and Moss Curled are the
best known varieties of curled leaf endive. Broad-leaved
Batavia is an example of the escarole type.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March, and
September. Central Florida: January-February, and Sep-
tember. Southern Florida: September-January.

One of the most interesting vegetables and one which is
still little raised in small gardens in Florida is the kohlrabi.
It belongs to the cabbage family but resembles the turnip in
flavor. Its cabbage-like roots are in the ground but the turnip-
like bulb grows above the surface. The green leaves, like

coarse 'inter greens. stem from this bulb. This vegetable is
considered superior to either turnip or cabbage anl deserves
a place in every home garden.
It is grown under approximately the same conditions as
those necessary for growing turnips. Seed planted at 2-week
intervals provides a continuous crop of this delicious vegetable.
l:ulbs should be harvested when about as large as a medium-
sized oran ge. If allowed to reach full size the bulb becomes
coarse and hard.
Satisfactory varieties are White Vienna, Early Purple. and
Early Green.
Time to Plant. Northern and Central Florida: March-
April. and August. South Florida: January-April, and

Since lettuce is conlsidereld so important in the diet the
home gardener should include it in his list. A rich. moist.
sweet, sandy loami is best suited to this plant. The location
should be such that it can be irri;gated and drained: an over-
supply of water can ruin the crop. Where the land is low\
the hletictue bed should lie inltersectel with furrows leading to
an olpen ditch.
To productle solid heads the soil must be well supplied with
compost or decayed vegetable matter. In addition, a collm-

Wi. If Len'.ioii I .cLeal.'a Tp Thal iii ri in Fi'oid(.



mercial fertilizer should be used in two applications, the first
worked into the garden two weeks before the plants are set
out. the second applied two to three weeks afterwards. From
one and one-half to two and one-half pounds should be used
for each 10 feet of row.
Lettuce should be started in a rich, well-pulverized seed
bed about October. Plenty of seed must be planted to allow
for poor germination. They should be planted about I i-inch
deep or rolled lightly into the soil.
The lettuce bed should be checked off in 12- to 15-inch
squares according to the size of variety sown. When the
plants have developed four leaves, which will take from three
to four weeks, they should be set out, one plant to each square.
The soil must be pressed firmly around the roots by hand and.
if the soil is dry, a small amount of water added.
White Boston is a popular semihead variety; Imperial 847
and 44 are the recommended Iceberg types.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-March, and
September. Southern Florida: September-January.

Muskmelons, often called cantaloupes, grow best in sandy
loam or clay loam soil that is not too compact or too moist.
Commercial fertilizer should be applied before planting, using
about one pound to a hill.
One method of planting consists in laying off rows about
6 feet apart, hills being spaced 3 feet apart. Some, however.

Rich Muskmelons (Cantaloupes) Do Well in Florida's
Sandy Loam Soils.

prefer to check the land 4 by 6 feet and plant in these checks.
About six seeds are planted in each hill or check. When the
vines begin to run they should be thinned to one or two plants
to the hill.
Rocky Ford. Netted Gem. and Emerald Gem, are desirable
varieties. Old Georgia produces a larger melon but of in-
ferior quality.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April. Central
Florida: February-April. Southern Florida: February-
The okra. a southern plant, is closely related to the cotton
plant, and when properly cooked, is an enjoyable food. It can
be grown in a variety of soils but a fairly moist sandy loam
is advisable.

Okra: A Warm Weather Plan(; Easy to (iron.


If sufficient stable manure is available, commercial ferti-
lizer is not necessary. Where the latter is used, apply as for
sweet corn, using about one pound for every 15 feet of row.
This should be worked into the soil before planting. A side
dressing of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia. applied
at blossom time. using about one pound to every 150 feet of
row, is recommended. The ground must be fairly warm at
planting time, and since okra will produce during hot weather,
it is a valuable addition to the home garden. The seed can
be planted directly in the garden in rows spaced about 3 feet
apart. When plants are about three-quarters of an inch high,
thin to one stalk every 10 or 12 inches. Okra bears in ap-
proximately 45 days from planting, and will continue to bear
for several months if the pods are cut every two or three days.
Favorite varieties are Ierkins Mammoth Podded. Long
Green. and White Velvet.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-May, and
August. Central Florida: March-May, and August. South-
ern Florida: February-March, and August-September.

Onions are cool weather vegetables, and under favorable
conditions are among the easiest to grow. For home use.
onion sets are planted 2 to 4 inches apart directly in the
garden. The rows should be about 12 to 18 inches apart.
The soil should be rich in organic matter. A dark. sandy
loam having a clay compact subsoil or a muck soil are both
good. Plenty of moisture is essential but the land must l)e
Onions need liberal fertilization. In addition to either
compost or manure, two or three applications of commercial
fertilizer should be worked into the soil, the first before plant-
ing. One pound to 10 feet of row is the usual amount used.
A later application of one pound of nitrate of soda or sulphate
of ammonia, to each 75 feet of row, worked in with hand tools.
will increase the size of the onions.
Onions should be constantly cared for and cultivated
during the growing period. The roots must not be disturbed.
however, which necessitates shallow cultivation.
The young onions can be eaten as soon as they have at-
tained any size but to harvest and keep a mature crop. they
must remain in the ground between four and five months.
To keel) well they should be harvested during dry weather
and carefully handled. After being pulled, they shouldn't
be subjected even to dew, nor should tops be broken off too
close to the bulb. Onions improperly handled rot easily.
Varieties recommended for Florida include 'Crstal Wax.


Red Ilermuda, Australian Brown, and Riverside Sweet
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-March. and
August-November. central l Florida: January-March, and
August-Novemlber. Southern Florida: Janulary-March. and
September-I)ecem er.

IParsley is grown extensively in Florida. The seed are
minute and the seedlings delicate, and should lie planted in
a seed bed during October or November. A 5-7-5 mixture is
used to enrich the bed. applying a pound for every 20 feet
of 'row.
There are four types of parsley: common or plain-leaved:
celeryi-leaved or Neapolitan: crled ; Iamburg or turnip-
rooted. The plain ty.1pe is grown extensively. The outer
leaves are pulled first, new ones forming from the center of
the crown. The celery-leaved type can lhe blanched and its
petioles eaten like celery. The II tamblurg type produces a
root similar to the turnip. which can be eaten fresh or lie
st ored.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February. Central
Florida: )Dcember-.anuarv. Southern Florida: Septemnber-
English peas require a rich, moist, sweet, soil full of
humus, and will not do well on wet. sandy or sour muck land.
Well-drained hammock land is excellent.
The land should be treated with commercial fertilizer
worked into the soil before planting. It is often desirable toadd
nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia as a side dressing when
the vines begin to bear. One pound to 150 feet of row should
be right for small gardens.
Plant in both single and double rows. spacing the seeds
1 inch apart and about 2 inches deep. The vines begin to
bear about 60 days after planting and should continue over a
:10- or 40-day period. As soon as the pods are killed, the peas
are ready to pick.
Popular varieiees are Alaska Extra Early. Thomas Laxton.
Laxtonian, Little Marvel, G(radus. and Hundredfold.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: .January-February.
central l Florida: Seplember-Ala'rch. Soul hern Florida: Sep-
t mb er-Fel ruary.
Green sweet peppers are a good source of vitamins A. B.
and (. being in this respect the eupal of green cabbage, or
young) carrots. In addition, they sometimes hear fruit over
a period of from six to eight months. Peppers add a tang ito


many food combinations and are canned sweet stuffed, or
Peppers can be grown on a variety of soils provided the
land will retail moisture. A moist, fairly compact, sandy loam
is acceptable as is a good type of flatwoods.
Ruby King and World Beater are standard varieties of
sweet peppers; Perfection and Tomato are pimento varieties;
Anaheim Chile and Mexican are favored as chili peppers; and
for very small, hot peppers, Anaheim and Tabasco are good
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February-April. Cen-
tral Florida: January-March. Southern Florida: January-
February, and August-October.

White potatoes do best on well-drained, fairly heavy, moist
soils. If the crop is well fertilized and properly handled, the
yield will be determined greatly by the moisture content of
the land. Bladen fine sand, and Bladen fine sandy loam, both
found in many flatwoods areas. are well adapted to potato
production, provided the land is sufficiently moist and well
drained. Soil must be liberally supplied with organic matter.
West Florida land requires from two to three times as
much fertilizer as Everglades muck soils. In fact, some pota-
toes are produced in the Everglades without added fertilizer.
As a preventive against disease, seed potatoes are soaked
for two hours in a solution of formaldehyde. one part to 1.000
parts of water, then dried and cut for planting. (See Press
Bulletin 494, Florida Experiment Station.) To break the rust
period and hasten germination for the fall crop, the seed
should be treated with ethylene chlorhydin, one part to 60
parts of water.
Seed potatoes should be cut to have two or three eyes to
a piece, and one piece dropped in hills spaced from 12 to 15
inches apart, and covered about 3 inches deep. The rows
should be 'roni 2 to 4 'eet apart. Where the soil is wet, rows
must be ridged, otherwise flat beds are desirable. It is well
to use a protective mulch such as dry grass, leaves, or moss,
during dry warm weather to help control soil moisture and
reduce soil temperature.
Several varieties are successfully raised. Spaulding Rose
No. 4 and Bliss Triumph are favorites. Green Mountain and
Irish Cobbler are also produced and two new varieties, Katah-
din and Warba, show promise of increasing popularity.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: January-February. Cen-
tral Florida: January. Southern Florida: September-March.


The sweet potato is well adapted to Florida climate, but
grows best in clay or sandy loam underlaid with red clay sub-
soil common in the northern part of the State.
The plant is propagated either by slips taken from the
potato after it has been bedded or by vine cuttings. By
bedding in spring a luxuriant vine growth will soon appear
from which slips or vine cuttings may be taken. Select a
protected, slightly raised spot for the bed. When tempera-
ture permits, place the sweet potatoes in the bed. cover lightly
with sandy soil or sand, and keep moist. Sweet potatoes
sprout only in warm soil.
When the slips, or draws. are from 6 to 7 inches long
they can be pulled and planted, or be allowed to grow into long
vines which can be divided into cuttings. each containing a
sucker root. Either slips or cuttings are set in hills spaced
from 1-1 to 18 inches in rows 3 to .1 feet apart.
The soil should be firmed well around the plants and over
the cuttings and water applied to insure growth. During the
rainy season it is usually necessary to ridge the soil to insure
adequate drainage.
The sweet potato is a heavy feeder and most growers use
commercial fertilizer. Sometimes the potash content is in-
creased to 10 or 12 percent with favorable results.
The Porto Rico. a reddish-skinned sweet potato and Nancy
Tall, a light salmon-pink type. are general favorites. both
moist-fleshed when baked. The Big Stem Jersey is popular
among those who prefer a dry-fleshed type.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: April-June. Central
Florida: March-July. Southern Florida: February-June.

Radishes are almost always included in home gardens.
This is a cool-weather plant and should mature quickly for
best results.
Radishes grow best in a deep sandy loam or muck soil
containing an abundance of organic matter and sufficient
moisture. NMuck soil seldom needs fertilizer. If not sown too
thickly radishes need not be thinned. Iarger varieties should
average about six plants per foot, in rows 12 to 15 inches
Long Scarlet. Long White Icicle. White Summer, and
Scarlet Turnip are favored varieties. Also popular are Scarlet
Globe, Crimson Giant. and French Breakfast.
Time to Plant: Northern Florida: October-March. Cen-
tral Florida: October-March. Southern Florida: October-

Two plants grown in Florida are called spinach, but one.
known as the New Zealand variety, is not spinach at all. The
latter was discovered in New Zealand in 1770 )by a member
of Captain Cook's crew. The natives were even then using
it as a pot herb. It is considered by many to be superior
in quality and taste to real spinach.
A sandy loam or muck produces good spinach. Open
sandy soil or poorly drained, soggy land should be avoided.
Sandy soils should be enriched with a commercial ferti-
Seeds of both are covered 1 inch in rows 2 to :3 feet apart.
When growing well, thin to one plant every 6 inches. The
apical leaf clusters of New Zealand spinach, which form the
edible portion, are cut or broken off. The more clusters re-

Spinach (Improved CurleN Sav.o%): A Quick (rom er Rich in Iron.



moved the more new clusters form, and as long as the plant
is healthy. it will continue to produce.
BIloomsdale and New Zealand are the usual varieties
Time to Plant. Northern and Central Florida: March-
April. Southern Florida: January-April.

Squash an(d pumpkin are typical native American vege-
tables, and were grown by the Indians before America was
discovered. Almost any type of good soil will grow them.
Muck or Ilat lands make heavy yields but their product is
not of best quality and will not handle or keel) as well as
that produced in higher soils.
In addition to well-rotted stable manure or compost, a
commercial fertilizer should be applied at the rate of one
pound to 15 feet of row, half before planting. the remainder
when the plants are almost a month old.
Early squash can be planted in 4 x 1 foot checks, but
later running varieties should be planted in 6 x 8 lfoot
checks. Four or five seeds are planted to a hill. When
the plants are 2 or :' inches high, thin to three plants to
a hill.
Cultivation should continue as long as it is possible to
work between the rows, being careful not to disturb the roots.
which are close to the surface.
Early varieties include ('ocozelle, White Bush or Patty
Pan. Early Yellow Crook Neck, and lMammoth \Vhite Bush.
These yield in from 45 to 60 days after planting. Later
varieties recommended are Hubbard. Great Summer, African.
and Table Queen.

Squash: Easy to G(ro in IMos.l IFlorida Soils and Can fte
Stored i'or mLong I'eriods.


Time to Plant. Northern Florida: March-April, and
August. Central Florida: February-March, and August.
Southern Florida: January-March, and September-October.

Strawberries grow well in Florida, and if properly cared
for produce over a long period. The best lands are soils
having a clay or other compact subsoil, to which is applied
an abundance of organic matter in the form of well-rotted
manure or compost turned under at least 20 days before
The use of commercial fertilizer is recommended for
the first application before the plants are set out; a second
application, six weeks after planting; and the third, when
the fruit is setting. An application of nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia when the fruit is setting increases the
size of the berries and prolongs the bearing period.
Plants can be set out about 12 to 14 inches apart in well-
drained land in 30- to 36-inch single rows.
When the land is low and poorly drained, the two- or
three-row system is advisable, making narrow beds about
40 inches wide with a water furrow between. The plants
are set 12 inches apart in 12-inch rows, care being taken
not to cover the bud and crown. Firm the soil around each
plant with the fingers and moisten with a cup of water.
When berries are ready to be picked, it is advisable to
spread a mulch of grass or pine needles around the roots
of the plants. This retains the soil moisture, keeps the berries
off the ground, prevents decay.
Brandywine, Excelsior, and Klondike are varieties grown
in this State but the Missionary, according to tests conducted
at the Strawberry Laboratory at Plant City, is superior to
them all. (See Bulletin No. 63, Agricultural Extension
Service, Gainesville, Florida.) Obtain plants from a reputable
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: Runners set out dur-
ing August and September, depending upon weather. Central
and Southern Florida: About one month later.

When the gardener considers the nutritive value of toma-
toes and the fact that they grow so well in Florida, this vege-
table will be included in his list of planting.
Tomatoes are successfully grown on several types of soil.
The largest acreage is planted on well drained sandy pine
land; but marl and muck land also produce abundantly.
On loose, thin soil, two applications of commercial ferti-


lizer are preferable to one. the first being made soon after
planting and the second when the first bloom comes. Care
must be taken not to break the roots during the second appli-
cation or the bloom will shed, and the first crop be lost.
Tomato seed can be planted in a seed bed and later trans-
planted. but for small plots, it is easier to buy plants from
reputable dealers.

TIomai~toeics: E er Po)pular Veget able. Rich in Vitamin .A.

When the plants are from 6 to 8 inches high, transplant
into rows from 312. feet apart (if they are to be staked) to
20 to 30 inches apart in the rows. Some growers place a
handful of peat moss around each plant to keep the roots
It is advisable for gardeners with small plots to prune
the plant to a single stem, tie it to a 5-foot stake, and thin
the fruit to four or five clusters. Labor so expended will be
The most satisfactory varieties grown in this State are


Marglobe, Glovel, Livingstone's Globe, and Grothen Red Globe.
Ponderosa. a larger though less uniform variety, is also suit-
able for the home garden.
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: February- August.
Central Florida: February-September. Southern Florida:

These vegetables, delectable in tops and roots, are con-
sidered as a unit since they grow well in the same type of
soil and under similar cultural conditions.
Both turnips and mustard develop best in the cool weather.
Plantings can be started directly in the garden and continue
at intervals except in the coolest sections.
Early Flat Dutch, Purple Top Globe, and Early White
Egg turnips are recommended varieties. Southern Giant
Curled and Florida Broad Leaf represent two types of
Time to Plant. Northern Florida: turnips, January-April,
and August-October: mustard. January-March, and Septem-
ber-November. Central Florida: turnips and mustard.
January-March, and September-November. Southern Florida:
turnips, October-February; mustard, September-March.

The home gardener may not care to take up valuable
ground with watermelons, since they require considerable
space for proper growth. Moreover, the usual truck garden
soil is not well adapted to the production of good melons.
Any soil which is expected to grow melons must be well
drained, and land plowed and harrowed from four to six weeks
before planting. It is not advisable to plant watermelons

Walermelons Do Well on High Rolling Pine Lands. Early Melons
.nd Seeds Are Large Commercial Crops In Florida.


three successive years on the same land unless the variety is
wilt resistant. The better grades of rolling pine land usually
produce good crops.
For small gardens, an authority suggests two pounds per
hill of commercial fertilizer to be worked into the soil about
a week before planting, which should begin as soon as the
danger of frost is past. The field can be laid off in checks
measuring 8 x 8. 10 x 10. or 10 x 12 feet. Six or more seed
per hill are planted 2 inches deep. When well established, the
plants are thinned to two or three per hill.
While the plants are small the surrounding soil should
be sufficiently cultivated to keep the earth loose and to kill
the weeds. Cultivation must be shallow and at a safe distance
from the plants. for the vines are easily injured and the roots
are tender. If large melons are desired, it is advisable to
prune all but one or two melons per vine.
The Tom Watson is the most popular variety grown.
Other well known varieties are Stone Mountain, Florida
Favorite, Kleckley Sweet, and Dixie Queen.
Time to Plant: Northern Florida: March-April. Central
Florida: January-April. Southern Florida: February-March.

Because of the widely differing temperatures and soils
found in the State. it is difficult to give figures that will
apply in all cases for depth of planting. spacing. time of
growth to maturity and other relative information. Home
gardeners should consult experienced farmers, if possible,
and county agents.
The figures in the following chart are a composite of those
contained in Bulletin No. 1. What and When to Plant In
Florida; Bulletin No. 23, Some Florida Farm Crops. and Bulle-
tin No. 80. Ready Reference For Farmers. all publications of
the State )Department of Agriculture.

Seled or D)istances Distances
plani per D)isontcl between between Ieph f IY to
Vegetables Varieties l feel lween rows- rows-
1of rw Plantl horse hand planting malurilt
cullivalion cullivalion

I-Early Leviatlh
Lima Beans 2-lwis / pt, 14.18 in, 4 ft. 2 t, 1-2 in, 45 to 70
(pole) ,-Daily

lima Reans Ford Hook : pl, 8.14 ill. 3 ft, 2. ft, 1 2 in, 15 to i7

1-Burpee Stricgl'ss I
Greer Belans (reenpoll
(snap) 2-Early SpcAledd
3-Early Refugee, ete. pt. 8-11l in, 2'4 ft, 2-.t 12 in, 45 to 61)
(wax type) 2-Kidney Wax
3-Davis White Wax

(reen Beans 1-Kentucky Wonder /j pt 14.18 in, 4 ft, 3 ft, 1.2 i., 45 to5
(pole) 2-Florida Pole

Beets 2-letroit Dark Red 2 oz, 31 i. 2-2' ft. 2 ft. \ in, 50 to I)
3-Crosby's Egyptian

1- Italian (ree n
Bromeoli 2-HMaiIhiotl While oz' 1 5. i3, .4 ft l 120 to
: -Ailumn Protcliiing p 1
4-Wllite Caipe

l-Cla1'lesto l Wak ticil oz,
('abbae 2- yrs Ay Waktlicl
a-(openhlage l M Iarket 15. 18 i. 2'. ft, 2- in. 8l o 100 i
4-liiarly Flat Dl' )h plllat

I ,
('hihwse 8r

Carrots I- hao fv ill. 1 to
S 2-)Dam ve's Half Lolg a 2." I Ii to

I),ar ii '9 ft, 8.24 ill, 1 -1 ill, 4 to (;0
],1 t i,, : i

('ollar 2;5.1121 182 i .2 f 18.24 i., 120 (8
ilais 1210

1-Silwaanltae Su ga p i ill;
Sw-et ( i o l lli'y 1Ji, 31)2 t, f 2 i, to 100
,I- og Is lail li'a\ty pit' hll aparlo
- M"

Seedsr Disnces
plants p er
100 fret Itwe
of row

Distaoims listanes
between between
rows- rows-
horse hand
cultivation cullivation

I)epthof Days to
planting maiurily

1-Snow Flake
"Roastiig 2--Stowcll's Evergreen
Ears" 3. Silvermine
4-Trucker's Favorite

1. (lark's Special
2-Straight Eighl
('ucumlrks 3--improvel Long (;eeln
5-Kirliy Staygreel

1- Floiulta Highllush
El'gplait 2--New Orleans Ma'rkt
3--Hlack Beauty

Bndive l-Whitle crlel
or 2-(;reen Curled
3-Bloss Curled
Escarole I-lroa-lcavelld Batavia

S1-White Vienna
Kohlrahi 2 Early Purple
3 Kirby Staygreen

1 pt,
3or 4
per hill

Is sds
p r' hill;
thin lto
per hill

18 in,

2.;3 ft,

3 ft,

3.3% ft, ft.

2in, lil) to 1(i0


4.5 ft. 4.i ft, 'i, in, 141) /
]41) 7

89 ill, 2.2t l ft 15-18 inl, i. i il, i ) to 1811

ii ill, '.3 ft, 18.24 in. inl, l 1 to nil


I -41'it1, Boson
2 New Yoi No. 12
3 Notw Yori No, fli5
1 Paris Whiii ('uCs

2. ('ren C('us

l' eI'lli lllal'h

I WhitL Vflvel

((nis 1 (irystal Wax
{ Id} 2 lid liI'llIda

li'~ A iliE1av arl

1^ 11 -, in-- l]t iig

L ,is las I- AI ka i'xlra ':arIly
(si le s) 2 I ,,,i ,,.. i aix t nll

( i lm nil'rsl |- l\d le larval

(i 12-1. ii ,

1'.) II1,

per rlw

pi ll
1tl2 a il tl2 in. I ft di
ila n .1." n r ri i n1 1 I0
|iliinl< Il

S, l n-l 1 ii? ft, 1 2-1 fi, 1: in. ;

S t 12- i, 12 i
10 o I 12

S :, 1 i. il 2 i, i. 1O to 120

Ilit. 81 .

i ii P. I It I 'I

12.15 i.ll, 11 ii, (Q lo 90l

2 iti, ,li I1o i



'clPeppersl 1-lRuy King
(sweet) 2-Worl Hleater
(iinietl) 1-Perfection
(chili) l-Mexicanl
2-Anahciin Chili
(hot) I-Anaheim

1-Spauhling lRose No, 4
to, 2-lis Tr'iumph]
(IisIrish Cobbler

'tatos I1-Porto Ric
3-Ilig St m Je i s y

1-,Long Scarlet
Ialishes 2-Long White kicl'
3-Scarlet (Glohe
4-French Hreakfast

Spinach l-Bloonisdale
(true) 2 (Curley.Savoy

New Zealand New Zealand

Seds or
plants per
I00 fret
of row




)eplh of Ilas to
planning matlurit

S 1110 to
2 3 in, l. 3 I1 ; ft, ill 1. P

I se ed.
per hill

1 slip
or cultiiin
per hill

12.15 il, 24 fl ,

14.18 in,

1 oz,,;
thin when 1.4 in.
4 in, high

I oz, Thin to
I plant
on, I18 in,

24 ft, 2 ill, 8. to 1.111

31. I', f, 4 ft. 3 inl,

2 ft, 2.15 in, ',.I in, ;:0

2.3 ft, I in, :0 to li

31 ft, I il, XI to O

Squash I-Whie Btluh
anld or Paly Panl
I'timpkills 2-Karly Ydllow
(larly) (irookl Nck
i Mlmlmoth Whil, Biusli
(latt) 1-lilu ailrd
2- (;iant Sumiic'r
t-TaIlble Queen

slrawhelnlrrl e s I- ,lll 11 ,
(single iow 2- xcclsior
syst'nil ;-Koliilykr

rIly systtlll

om s ;i-(irlihlln Red Glo(el

Turnips 1-Early Flat Du1I)t
2-Phrplle Top (;ilobl
llustanl 1-iiant Curled
2-[lhridll BroaId L'Iaf
Iulahlapls 1-Purplel Top

1-'Tor Watsol
2-Slone llMuntaiii
Wlcriinloins :l-Flr'idla Favorith,
4 -Klrckley 'vSwe
5 -)ixir Q(lucen

,1-5 sils
per 11 ill;

tIiii to

pe l l

I ft, 8 ft, 1. il to ;

; It, 8 f, 4 ft, il, 1i t
I 61

I""" I ('art

,l -t (111 t s llt
(tI 1'2 il, exposed
12 III

l W 2] l iln, 14 \, l i'- 'l,
pli l l

2i f, 5-. in. 2 ft. 1-1 in, .

2, ,oz, `.1 ill,

li;Irmore Wfatr iielols art usually planltil
seils ill c'his mnlciring 8i 8, lo x 11),
perhill; :)r lO 12, HO e hill is planted in
thin to :ah ceii,
2 or I
Itr hill 1 l ,


80l to Z(I

(i)t 8 .

3 ft, .1 I in,


Plant diseases are usually caused by microscopic organisms
known as bacteria and fungi, which are spread by air cur-
rents. water, clothing and hands of persons, animals, tools.
and various other agencies.
The home gardener can combat these diseases by using
varieties of seed that through scientific experimentation,
have been rendered resistant to certain organisms; by treat-
ing seed with poisonous materials before planting, so that
spores of adhering organisms are destroyed; or by protecting
the plant with substances that are poisonous to the bacteria
and fungi.
In combatting fungus diseases it is necessary that the
gardener observe the axiom that "an ounce of prevention
is worth a pound of cure." Spraying or dusting must be
done before the fungus penetrates the plant tissue. and
repeated often enough to protect the new growth as it
Sprays used to control plant diseases usually have poison
content of copper, such as Bordeaux mixture, which contains
blue vitriol (copper sulphate). lime and water. In dusting
plants, a copper-lime mixture of sulphur is used.
Insects that attack garden plants can be divided into two
distinct types or groups, each type requiring a different
method of control. The chewing type of insect, generally
worm-like larvae, shreds foliage and attacks stems. A stom-
ach poison, in dust or spray form. is applied thoroughly to
all parts of the plant to destroy these insects. In consuming
the vegetation they eat the poison which has been placed upon
it. and are killed. The sprays or dusts usually contain some
form of arsenate. A poison-bait mixture, such as Paris green.
bran, and syrup. is used to combat cutworms. Because the
cutworms emerge from the ground to attack vegetation at
night, a small amount of bait is placed at the base of each
plant in the evening.
The other group. or sucking type of insects, cannot be
eliminated by stomach poison. These pests have aproboscis
which they insert into the plant tissue, sucking the juices
from below the surface of the plant, and thus while feeding
avoid consuming the poison placed on the exterior of the
plant. Among the sucking insects are plant lice (aphids),
plant bugs. scale insects and leaf hoppers. Poisonous spray
or dust must be applied directly to these so that they are
suffocated. Nicotine sulphate, rotenone, and pyrethrum are
used. Pyrethrum, nonpoisonous to human beings also is used
to some extent in controlling chewing insects.
From the standpoint of necessary equipment, dusting may
be more convenient and practicable than spraying in small


garden plots. Combination dusts for disease and insect con-
trol, if used soon enough, employed correctly and with suffi-
cient persistence, will generally be effective. I)usts used to
control disease organisms or chewing insects will adhere
better to plants if applied while the latter are daml with
dew in the morning. Nicotine, intended to form a suffocating
gas to destroy sucking insects, is better applied during the
hottest part of the day, when the air is still.
I)ust is generally easier to handle and apply. Ready-mixed
compounds are sold by all seed dealers, but they can easily
be prepared at home alnd at less expense. One good non-
poisonous preparation is made up of derris powder (4 or 5
per cent rotenone). .3 pounds; red copper oxide. 1 pound;
wheat flour 112 pounds; and talc, 11 pounds.
The derris destroys insects upon contact or when eaten.
The red copper oxide Irevents disease organisms from being
established. The wheat flour acts as an adhesive for the
dust. and the talc is the inert diluting material. For apply-
ing, a hand plunger or bellows duster is used for the small
home garden, and a rotary-fan or bellows-type knapsack
duster for larger areas.
Almost all plants are subject to one or more diseases and
pests, the control of which has been a highly specialized study
by State and Federal agencies. Explicit information concern-
ing control methods can be obtained from the Florida State
department of Agriculture. Tallahassee, the Florida Experi-
ment Station, University of Florida. Gainesville, or the United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington. I). C.
In writing, the home gardener should explain in detail
,he situation confronting him. describe the pests or diseases
involved, and indicate the apparent effect upon his plants.
In this way a more nearly correct diagnosis can be made by
experts in plant pathology and entomology.
The home gardener should call on the county farm
demonstration agent or write the Experiment Station in




No. 1 What and When to Plant in Florida (1935)

No. 3 Plant Diseases and Pests and Their Treatment

No. 23 Some Florida Truck Crops (1939)

No. 52 The Home Vegetable Garden in Florida (1931)

No. 80 Ready References for Farmers (1937)

No. 88 Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits (1938)


No. 80 The Home Garden (1935)

No. 90 Florida Vegetables (1937)


No. 58 Vegetable Crops in Florida (1930)

No. 103 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables (1939)


No. 1442 Farmers' Bulletin

No. 1692 Farmers' Bulletin


By I. J. IIASKELL, sitlior extension plant pathologist, Exten' ion
ServicC and liurveau of Plant Industry, and V. R. IHSWELL. prin-
cipal hortivultirist. Division of Fruit and Vegettablle Crops and
)isease.-. liiurau of I'lant I industry.

IIlome vegetable gardens, which add so much to better
family living. would usually be easier to maintain if it were
not for the ravages of plant diseases and insect pests. Ways
are available to wage a successful fight against these enemies,
however, and those who understand and follow such practices
are the ones that are most successful. A large part of the
success in controlling vegetable diseases lies in early precau-
In choosing varieties of vegetables to plant it is well to
select those that are resistant to prevailing diseases, if
Also, it is important to start with disease-free seed, as
many diseases are steed borne. This means obtaining good,
high-quality seed that has been grown under sanitary con-
ditions. from a reliable, well-established seed company.
A third precaution to take against disease is to treat or
disinfect some kinds of seed with a good seed-treating ma-
terial before planting. Instructions for doing this may be
obtained from your State agricultural college.
Other early precautionary measures include rotation of
the garden plot from one location to another to keep down
soil infestation with plant-disease-prod tc ing organisms, the
use of new, clean soil in seed flats and beds, and avoiding the
use of infested compost. After the plants are up, it is some-
times necessary to spray or dust them for leaf diseases.
Ways of preventing vegetable diseases by using some of
these methods are described in I'nited States Department of
Agriculture Farmers' Hulletin 13871, diseases s and Insects of
(arden Vegetables."
This leaflet briefly describes some of the diseases which
have caused heavy losses and gives the name of and a few
facts about varieties resistant to these diseases. The list is
rather short, but the I'nited States Department of Agricul-
ture. the State agricultural experiment stations, seedmen. and
many private individuals at present are active in developing
more and better disease-resistant varieties.

Rust at one time 'ruined the asparagus-growing industry
of the United States. However. owing to the prompt develop-
ment of resistant varieties of asparagus, the disease was
overcome so that today it is not of much importance.


Rust is not a disease of the edible. young shoots but of
the mature tops, attacks them in the summer and devitalizing
th m, and consequently the roots. Small pustules are formed
on the stems, twigs. and leaves that are at first reddish and
later turn black. The tops of the plants take on a yellow
color and look as if they were ripening prematurely.
Mary Washington and also Martha Washington and other
strains of the Washington type are highly resistant to rust
and are good commercial varieties. Mary Washington is the
most popular variety grown and is carried by practically all
sced firms having asparagus seed or roots for sale. It is a
cross between Mary. a giant female seedling selected from a
bed of Reading Giant from England, and Washington (male).
The cross was made by J. B. Norton of Concord. Mass., in
1910. Superior strains of Mary Washington have been se-
lected and given other names by certain seedmen.
Common bean mosaic causes the leaves to be mottled with
light green and dark-green areas. Because of uneven growth,
affected leaves may be puckered. cupped, and dwarfed. Badly
affected plants are stunted and fail to bear a profitable crop.
Usually mosaic comes into the home garden with the seed.
It is spread in seed fields largely by sucking insects. Some
varieties are much more susceptible than others.
Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease that is not so serious
as it used to be, because most bean seed now is grown in the
Far West. where dry climate, during the growing season pre-
vents its development. It is characterized by dark. sunken
circular cankers on the pods and blighting of the leaves.
The bacterial blights are caused by seed-borne bacteria.
They cause a blighting of the leaves and spotting of the pods.
As with anthracnose, the best way to avoid injury is to use
disease-free seed. There are considerable differences in sus-
ceptibility of varieties, but as yet none have been produced
that are very resistant. Robust Pea, Yellow Eye, Marrow, and
beans of the Refugee type are resistant enough so that they
can usually be successfully grown.
Rust occurs widely over the United States. It causes
small, reddish-brown pustules on the leaves and sometimes
on stems and pods. Affected leaves turn yellow and drop off.
There are several forms or types of this rust.
(urly top occurs in the Rocky Mountain States and West-
ward. It also affects sugar beets, tomatoes, squash, and many
other vegetables. Bean plants are stunted and killed.
Green Snap Beans
Refugee U. S. No. 5, Idaho Refugee, and Wisconsin Refugee
are all highly resistant to common bean mosaic, to which
snap beans of the Refugee type are generally susceptible.


They are also resistant to powdery mildew. The last two
varieties are further resistant to some strains of the anthrac-
nose fungus and tolerant to the bacterial blights. Wisconsin
IRefugee is resistant to some forms of rust.

I'ole Beans
Kentucky Wonder U. S. No. :, and I'. S. No. -1 are two
selections from European pole beans of the Kentucky Wonder
type that are resistant to some forms of rust. Some of the
seed companies also have other selections of Kentucky Wonder
that are more rust tolerant than the ordinary variety.
Alabama No. 1 is a pole bean selected from a strain that
has long been grown in Alabama. It is said to be tolerant
to the root knot nematod(e that is serious in sandy soils of
the Southern States.

Shell Beans (dry edible)
Great Northern U'. I. Nos. 5). 81, and 123: are three im-
proved selections of shell beans made by the University of
Idaho from the variety Great Northern. They are highly
resistant to common bean mosaic and tolerant to yellow bean
Wells Red Kidney, Geneva. and York are three kidney
beans that have been developed at the New York Agricultural
Experiment Station for their resistance to anthracnose. Most
of the red kidney-bean seed on the market is one of or a com-
bination of these varieties.
Perry Marrow. Jumbo Marrow. (astile Marrow. and Nova
Scotia Marrow are beans of the Marrow type resistant to
Geneva Pea. IHoneoye Pea are resistant to anthracnose.
Robust Pea is resistant to common bean mosaic and
anthracnose and usually is resistant enough to the bacterial
blights to make a successful crop.
Red Mexican, California Red. California Pink, Ilurtner.
Red Mexican U. I. No. 3, and Red Mexican U. I. No. 3,4 are
shell beans adapted to the West that are resistant to curly
top except when very young. The last two are also resistant
to common mosaic.

Lima Beans
Hopi 155 shows some resistance to the root knot nematode
in California.
Yellows. or fusarium wilt. attacks cabbage severely and
sometimes affects kale and other plants of the cabbage family
when planted on infested land. Affected plants become
stunted, turn yellow, and drop their leaves, from the ground


up. When cut open, the stems show a brown discoloration
of the woody tissue. This disease is caused by a fungus that
lives in the soil; once established in a garden or field, it may
remain for many years.
Fortunately, excellent varieties of various types of cab-
bage that are yellows resistant are available. Most of these
were originated at the United States Department of Agricul-
ture. The varieties with the approximate length of time re-
quired to reach maturity are as follows:
Jersey Queen. Jersey Wakefield type, 60 days.
Racine Market. Early Copenhagen Market type, 60 (lays.
Marion Market. Copenhagen Market type, 70 days.
Globe. Glory of Enkhuizen type, 75 clays.
Wisconsin Allhead Select. Allhead early type, 75 days.
Wisconsin All Seasons. All seasons type, 90 days.
Wisconsin Ballhead. Danish Ballhead type, 95 days.
Wisconsin Hollander No. 8. Hollander type, 100 days.
Red Hollander. Holander type, 100 days.

Yellows is a disease that is more likely to be troublesome
in commercial celery areas, where the crop is grown frequently
on the same ground, rather than in home gardens that are
rotated occasionally. Affected plants are stunted and yellowed
and have a yellowish or reddish discoloration in the woody
part of the stalks near the crown. Dark-green varieties are
very resistant; but easily blanching celeries are likely to fail
it planted on "yellows" soil, that is, soil infested with the
fungus that causes the disease.
Michigan Golden. developed by the Michigan Agricultural
Experiment Station. is resistant to yellows. It is like Golden
Self Blanching in type. The seed is produced, packaged, and
sealed under supervision of the Michigan State College of
Agriculture and Applied Science.
Golden Pascal and Florida Golden are other new white
varieties that show resistance.

Mosaic caused mottled, wrinkled, dwarfed leaves: mottled.
warty fruit: and stunted plants. It is caused by a virus that
lives over winter in the roots of certain wild perennial plants,
such as wild cucumber, milkweed, catnip, pokeberry, and
ground cherry.
Shamrock is a large slicing cucumber suitable for the
home garden that is resistant to mosaic. It is like white
Spine in type.


Brown blight is a disease that has threatened lettuce
growing in the Southwest, particularly California and Ari-
zona. Affected plants become stunted, yellow, and gradually
turn brown and die. It is apparently a soil-borne disease.
Once a field becomes infested, it stays so for many years, and
lettuce cannot be grown unless resistant varieties are used.
Downy mildew causes spots on the leaves, at first light
green, then yellow, and finally brown. The white mildew
grows on the under side of the spot.
Tipburn is one of the most destructive diseases of head
lettuce. It is associated with high temperatures. It is not
likely to be severe on the early-spring and late-fall crops.
The edges of the leaves turn brown, and growth is slowed
down. Leaves inside the head may become slimy.
Varieties of lettuce have been developed by the Ihureau
of plant industry that are resistant to both brown blight and
downy mildew.
Imperial No. 8-17 and other numbered Imperial varieties
are resistant to brown blight. They are like New York in
Imperial ('. 1). and F and other lettered varieties of Im-
perial are resistant to both brown blight and downy mildew.
Coluilimbia No. 1 appears to Ibe resistant to tiplburn. It is a
crisphead sort similar to New York and adalpted to the lighter
soils of the Midd(lle Atlantic States.

.1usk melon
Powdery mildew affects melons, cucumbers, and other
related plants. It appears as a white, mealy growth in spots
on the upper surface of the leaves. When there is a severe
attack of the disease. the leaves wither and (lie. It is most
serious in irrigated sections of the West. There are at least
two forms of the fungus that causes this very destructive
Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloupe No. 15 was devel-
oped in California from a cross between liales Best and a
melon from India. It is of the llales Best type, of excellent
quality, and a good shipper. It is resistant to form No. 1 of
the mildew but susceptible to form No. 2. which was serious
in 1939.
Mild mosaic causes a slight crinkling, dark- and light-
green mottling of leaves, a reduction of vigor of the plant.
and a lowering in yield. It is one of the principal causes
of so-called "running out." It is caused by an insect-
transmitted virus.


Late blight and the tuber rot that accompanies it are
often very destructive in moist climates, blighting the tops
;and rotting the tubers.
Katahdin, Chippewa. Golden. and Houma are four new
varieties originated by the United States Department of
Agriculture that are resistant to mild mosaic. The first two
are smooth, uniformly shaped, midseason. good yielding,
widely adapted varieties. Golden is a yellow-fleshed variety
of good quality but limited adaptation. Houma has proved
to be well adapted to parts of Louisiana.
Sebago is a new variety recently released by the United
States Department of Agriculture that is resistant to late
blight of the vines and tubers. In gardens along the Atlantic
seaboard and in the Northeastern and Lake States, where late
blight is often damaging, this variety can be grown success-
fully even without spraying with Bordeaux mixture. It is
also resistant to mild mosaic.

Curly top affects pumpkins as well as sugar beets, beans.
and certain other vegetable crops in the Rocky Mountain
States and westward to the extent that these vegetables
frequently cannot be grown unless resistant varieties are
Varieties of the Cheese group, Cushaw group, and Ten-
nessee Sweet potato group, and Big Tom are resistant to
curly top.
Mosaic, blight or yellows, is somewhat like mosaic diseases
of other plants in appearance. It causes a mottling and curl-
ing of the leaves, which may later become yellow and die.
It is caused by a virus and is spread by aphids.
Virginia Savoy and Old Dominion, both originated at the
Virginia Truck Experiment Station, Norfolk, Va., are re-
sistant to mosaic and of good commercial quality. Virginia
Savoy goes to seed very quickly when sown in the spring and.
therefore, it should be grown only as a fall crop.

Sweet Corn
Bacterial wilt causes diseased streaks in the leaves of
sweet corn, which finally (lie. Affected plants produce few
or no ears. depending on the earliness of the disease attack.
Yellow early varieties are much more susceptible than the
white, late ones. Several early, yellow hybrid sweet corns
that show resistance are now on the market. When selecting
early yellow varieties for the home garden, select one that is
listed as resistant to wilt.


Golden ('ross Bantam. developed at the Indiana Experi-
ment Station in cooperation with the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, is an excellent standard, early, yellow.
wilt-resistant variety. Several lines of Marcross. Spancross.
\\'hipcross and others developed by the Connecticut Agricul-
tural Experiment Station are also resistant to bacterial wilt.
Several other varieties with some degree of resistance are
listed by seedmen.
The Marblehead, the Long White Bush. and the Vegetable
Marrow varieties of squash are resistant to curly top. See
Pumpkin (p. 52).
Fusarium wilt is very common in all but the more northern
States. It is caused by a fungus that enters the roots from
infested soil, grows into the water vessels, and causes the
leaves to roll. become yellow, and finally die. When affected
plants are cut open. the woody part of the stem is found to
be darkened.
Verticillium wilt is much like fusarium wilt in its appear-
ance but much less common.
Nailhead spot is caused by a fungus that makes round.
sunken spots on fruits and brown spots on the stems and
leaves. It is found chiefly in the South.
Marglobe. Pritchard (Scarlet Topper). and Glovel are all
resistant to t'usarium wilt and nailhead spot. Certified seed
is more likely to be satisfactory than uncertitied.
Louisiana Pink and Louisiana Red are two varieties re-
sistant to fusarium wilt and adapted to conditions in Iouisiana
and surrounding States.
Riverside is resistant to fusarium wilt and verticillium
wilt. It was developed in California by the United States
Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the California
Agricultural Experiment Station.
Prairiana. Early lBaltimore. Illinois Pride, and Illinois Hlal-
timore are four field varieties said to be resistant to fusariumn
wilt and adapted in Illinois. They \were developed by the Illi-
nois Agricultural Experiment Station.

Fusarium wilt is a very common disease of watermelons.
It is caused by a fungus that. once established in the soil.
is very dil'licult to get rid of. Many thousands of acres of
watermelon land have been abandoned because of wilt-sick
soil. Affected Ilants wilt and die early.
Resistant varieties such as the following offer the best
solution of the wilt problem.


Hiawkesbury (Hawkesbury Wilt Resistant) is a dark-
seeded. long gray-skinned melon introduced from Australia.
Improved Kleckley Sweet No. 6 is a selection from Kleck-
ley Sweet made by the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station.
Iml)roved Stone Mountain No. 5 was developed from a
cross of Stone Mountain with a Japanese variety by the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station.
ILeeslurg is a resistant selection from Kleckley Sweet
made by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Klondike R7 was developed from a cross between Klondike
and lowa Belle (resistant) made in California.

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