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Title: Drainage and water control in Florida (1940)
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003055/00001
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Title: Drainage and water control in Florida (1940)
Series Title: Drainage and water control in Florida (1940)
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Stoutamire, Ralph
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Table of Contents
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    Main
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Full Text
* /.


lllllini No. .'s, Series .lulv. 19410




DRAINAGE

ANDI


WATER CONTROL

IN FL7




Ralph/Stoutamire I :9


(I? i~ lil) -- 'i

*



State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATIIAN 1.AYO ,in ,i.v.si,,nr
Tl'll;il;i-s,'e,


THE SULPHUR SPRINGS PRESS TAMPA








C 0~ xII' EN: 'I'S



Iliisto rv o Ii and I h-aillat .... .. ............... ....... ........ ......... ..... 3
Future Di-vviiement of Wal Control .... ................ ........I )
State aIndcl Fedle' l PIroj ....l......... ................ ..... ...
Needi faci I Drami-uIVzt anid ~'i er (W'teC trol........ ----.------------------ ....
ltimportaniIe (if Soil Avralltill.... ......... ............ ........ .......... .
Factor~ .\ Afft-cl ug Soil "VIatel......... .. ...... ..................... ........ 9
lIiII of (C'olnsiertiatiIIons for Isolated IVlojl(l ........................... 11
Soil Fac(tolr Inuvolved iii I rri-alot am nd I na-e-.- .......... 13
Soil and li I- Form ation ..... .. ...... ... ... .... ... ......... ...... ..... 13
Subsidt-lict. of Organuic Soe b ..........e ..... ........... . 1-I
'hiassifeu Iol ... ...... 14
ificatiiic ilt ol~i of s~oils .... .... ........ ........ ..... ............
Kind of Soil M oisturv.. .............. .........1........ .....5............. .... I
Methods (of (C'onltrlrollillg (rvilat inal \':1.......................... ..... 1
'The '*31()1,.** TY114 (-f Under-Drainl ........ ........ I f............ Is
Flat Land Drainage. .i........i......... ........ ................ .......... 19
EVonomic, of Land DrailtSgn ..... .........i........ ......... ........ . ......
Deve\.clolmu-111 of (,1' 11lll1il1 1 \;Ing, (1......... .... . ............ 1
I Flulditts" T.\.pv of Pum p .... .................. ........)........... .... .. 21
The ( iuiu Wheel I'ia............................... ....... .2
C'~ ltrrl~ll 1'I11 I~ .... .... ........ .... .... ........ ....... .... '
S41t11 1 .o....... .... ... ......t. .... ...
Sealectionjl (of Cenfrifual Pun ,111111s ...........................2
I llbri'/.4b1a? .ll.I ert ienl Sere\. Piut Ia-...............
CP.1triflilel fore Low-iLt DIit .ii..... .. ... ............. 21
Horizonta(;l anld Ver'tivall Screw 1 I'11111ps .... ..... ..... ........ ........ 2~
Pol-1.1141. Screw 1,11111I111 Unit,-... ........ .... ........ .... 21;j
StiItionll i11l 4I D)ieharllg l 'i p................................
P. ......... .... 28
stourevs (11 Pit --. for I'uuu1pi pl" Fnhu .....t .....
Ac~kuiowl'ed-nuuuuts ........................... .... ..........-.. .... 2








Drainage and Water Control

in Florida


IIy RA.1L'H STOl'TA.rllitE

D AINAA(; il \v;aler conlol ;ilt twio orl the most impor-
illn I';Ictor.s i ve n Id lin rTo\vin ilriciiiltiiial aiind horti-
(.il111111r l (rops iln setr\v i;] ir<'il ari s of Florida. Fertility
of lthe s, il i i' it ost v liluablr ol a;ll ilnlliril I'soililr'es ill tilis
state. I'nlike iimilly lii irails. i.lsers ;Ill oils. tihe soil is lprac-
tivilly inexhllaust iil. if the proper iimhilods ofi' miainii iinient a ire
e 1nililovt dI. I Iml( r r. flrlili I of tihe soil ailoii to II '(o cIIce cr(. s. A sai i-jfilcriy ,billince ll. 1111m s e estbi lisled ](e-
tw\ 'e 1i t il liii l i I' \v\I l l l al:(I ;1 ii ill I1t' sS il.
In flier \wo ndk. \ lri i i'.Y iinI| ; 1 .1 aII(.vt
in the f i r lnre (.1iilltiral c((i s. In imiia y c-ils-s i his lilalls Ihalt *r;i' itatio(ial
wa.lter inus1 1 I '( 'lnolt\i I:' ro i the' i,' t :i or I fe>('t if soil so ais (t
])('ril air toli il ( s iit11,.- illi tt l stoil ja tii'1 'd ll t il n lovide i'oo111
for sailislactlVry rooit aiid pila lit dtevi lopmeiln. There are ap-
plroxin.ilil i y I ..l( 8II .()It0 ;lr.l s i f land in Floridai cl(' ssil'ied is
swal iii overl'iliw (oi tl lal Ilmir-li Jill of l which r'eqllll dr ill;i~'l
in s.)oii' i, forl folr >iile ssfi l l ;airic.i]lt ral (tiitr1 r)rises. lfowev' r.
whlen dr1 inid ill' il I l )ll[lyv ol, moiist ll(r. ior nle rlliess to the
w';lt'r-ltilhc. mi ike., l osS-il the prodh uclioln cl, crops profitt ilallh.
Siuclh .oi el iil ; Ile l" Florida Il'ir er i, t lo'-lm fr'sh \\i i (lr crol'ps
alid shiip to notlrlhern llvilrkeis w \\hinii llh (.;ll not lie rowlIn ilse-

IllSTI().IY OF LIAND 1 )l>.klN.A(; IF
The hislory- ol lultid raili i;. in l lori(lai has h1e1n Inmirkld l)v
tillti y il, verlsitits tihat iar shlo ly hi'iinu, a over'. inle hv lth ilnvfl l-
tion of moilderii powr nmachlinlcv. )ippl<'r ;iiidl (an-sheIll di'd"'e.
hliive lnt'e'i rs'slo sih l in ai liriger ilde'i'ee li' i prt !act i-i] lv ;ill'
otiler inii\ llions. I'or lte sncllopincill \\! I ter control

'I'lle i 'il ie t ii f ilnd diliaii tg' bel nlli in thllis counillv a lboit
]8-11 8 \\. 'ii ('otniie-ss i.assetld ll h S\wamp aiii (l Ovr'lowiiw' laid
Act. I'niier this ;lI tliose portions of ille pubililic hiiids whlici. ill
their natural slilla wore loo o \\el to culli\ialt. were -ivnll to the
stlites ill which tlIy laiy with i lte Iuiin 'irshlillinig l liil tihe sev-
e'ral states were to iiali mulld she'll then. I lrwever, most of the
slitais realizeId tlhit und'r tllie coiiiillon lii\w only v i small ;aini:l1mt
of dr i liage \\.is Ipossible. To assist ill thn' work of draiinlage,





4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

stallite law., have bveei I l sd fro 1 t1 1 ime to I iine whereb v a
mfajolit. V f lanidownier, mi-lht co:mbinle for C 'iint illcl iig' the
d itelle' itl and ills nIeeded for m tnu iiallriia&ie a ial drauiceV afr i
uimwillinl l- iiiiitritY to joili ill te (dlweteplis al andpa it, '4h:1re
tu Tht cost. Few lp lii-laurctlhave met ill dtivt laI -i)0 vi,.Ars wilth-
ou1t tlle nsslg'e of 4ie4 cir mliore aets ui. ailtlllm-1dlt'iits to lilth drain-
aget law., Io Ile ('vi) that ilie land owner., m-iht Iliort' t'vailv I'--
cla un their lailldz.







4


77








F'ig. 1 E* Ieriot r View .tr Ilfl imI,,ro 11imping utlation of South FlIorida
Ctonmervitmtt'ik I rjiu(t nelar Belle0 (:iaude






Former Govvrnor -N. B,. B-nmard is c.le.11.1 v vi............litled 14l.) dw)
foIr statl i l'vt'rvliua dl'esIallu;loll. an u Iract icai lv all ti ii ll
and maitui- control of intik m1 ad peat land in Fbida dait* 11 1ak to
ilhe pr."gia il of1- i'sdc. drnivaiilgt' LInchel bY himi inl 19'04 ,
(11 bowiiis.. th In'I a isfei of title ill 1903. ot' over 10,000.000( a1cres of
suic~ihi i. t 41 o Floridia bY ilie fedleial --Ovei'iiiiieiiI. The status1 of

titr liettl-1 little rev i-hic 14, luuii l eii 114-1 1 t) d te.







ac vs~.................... ...............1.!l1.11






DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL 5

FIl'TI'?: 1)-:VIE:)LOPM ENT OF WATER (' CONTROL

It is difficult i) I Il't(' iis the d v'loplit l ntli of wNiter control iln this
state. hut it is e'tinialed th ilt ill the Ev' er tla; des alone .')().()( )0 (t ;'0 i
will Ibe relilliel(d during thi(, nclx 1i 0 e i I'rs. This pr1 )based onl 1i] (lh1()oiistrvaidl flirt that with u;it illn i other i r(ps n ll i' he gr vIl s c('(e- lillyV ill 1his vast aIvii.
Silit.' llt I:\ l-aI(ls ( icollsii1 ill te iapp-itrxi telt v 1 0,(0).()000 acres

lir-ge' I it of the l isc mission illn i, bi ll li wt ill c0i1111 i ini 1hi r.eg'iioll. Th l r'll4irll prinlcip lis lof drilrla';- a11. nd
waler c4:tI

II'


Fig. 2. (;ladei lel I)rlinilge lIintric( I'imiinlp: Le.ft. IS x IS-inch MlenKge
righllt. *1-inelh lHood ScNrewv I'uith lp. In thle Iregi rotiund ln lhown the t yIpe
of remito;Iblel<, flitlhboard danit u.tted (lto f'iliate t iovenict f l dredging
equipment

T.\ATE ANDI) Il-I)Kl\AI. PIIO.I-('l'TS

Most illtijor \i;tatr contilrol projects. hiv rvsol ol their hiiagnititl(10>
m1ltd t1hie (x\' lt lseI invo i"ov'r1m'liinltc.. iiiilividully or j. inlly. Wl'herever possible the ss'm, t






E'V,11'lidh.s. 11. is u1 rc,[l possible thlro yhl lihr, l \\, Hvr,. il;>d s d raiiia- l lge
Dist ri-it ; s w\\tll ;Is 1m1111I oiis s1mi ll r suil-dr( l iniia;




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


out t he staiio. (See Figulre 1.) The count rol of the water of Lake
(Okeechobee is il immenseii ltask. Initiing federalal attenltioni ail(d
-Isi~,tall~ev. R~(eently the Illitedl States- apprlprliit((l $:0))o~
II. i Illv* pi rp:cs(' of mt re EefcIivelv colitrolliiig th t rell illhlld
Immix- Cf %%;ft r. N1.w Vl Iel withi a view. toi preventing any~ ~k reill rlenei





















Iliac. :. Punapinig Statlon nenr (Cewlulon. Note the nverhend "pera
irrigantitpn m*mteen In the backwrolund

Water contr oil is just ai i eeesaiv for siiteessflu fa rim kll- ill eel-
taiti are-as of tile( Stalte as cash1 registers. comiiputilig scales .111d other
illOderlt' Iksi'I less iiiavhiines art! to thle succe...ssI'll I Ilerchlait or. bulsi-
II4'(Iss orIlllizatloll. ller'edte. the individual frill ler wvill teil
w'ant to. anid bo0 ciiiiiipellek to) prtCvi(e his~ (own bwatil xter control
SsV~temi. ev1.Ii thIoulgil the -fiat he a41 fodelil at i.(ikveriilenit estabihi ii1 Al





Maiiv Neget;Ible Crops. such~ ais v-pj)Ia ut. ilallks. ttonlaltovs", )otikt ,ws.
(,t( suffter f'or Ilkloistlkre NX-heli the soil watei-ialdev is :3 or. more feetI
below ille suracrie. Field obhi-evatlensl. halve shown repeniki ('(Iv that
the walter-tAlkdoie ofteii lower thain 3 I'eet dulinii& winter w~heil the
Irets nillomlit of FL icla's vegetables are bei ii- trhownh More-over.
C10i is oii such Soils. %\1ifI tier mucllk or- peit ill the Evr-av oW
iliilitncrl soil eke-wh er.. -how evidlenice cf injur I rv from1 lack of m-ater.
M~.aiiv il-ligat iolu svstemls have heeti inlstalled. inl ordIer to 1)rvvelit
th leo"5 tiromi su~chi (,Iidit tils. Figure :3 ilhisti it(s af large oveihewki






DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL 7

irriratlioll sy ivtei in llth' e\vTcrl(dhes. Manlv others iir t)o le found
i ll d 'rif enilt i r; ofl tihe \vgelalI-g-roa i1 ;ir s of the s late.

Few record- r tava, nlliblel a;s to the depth of w acr-la ]e neces-
siry i o provide )\'ile siul'ficili moisilre I'or plant.t growth ill im lcki. patit
'1nHd miiier'il s< ils i l lhe -itlr Ilowevvr. hllcre have beelln ]nuinv
obs('lrv'a iilii- nm ilh ci o0 li l .ltuiit l \v.' <'r-Il;l)]ci Tl'hsl ()tbsirv ailiole s indlie' i t that wa eircI
tlh wa\v -table i m' 3..) I'vit l low 11h -'Irfic' I'for IIIV lenIgth of
timic llh ) phil slui'ilird fr.ml lack of' Imioi.s"ii The v ls.) indicated
that where Ie wwc W ti t-a- l \w;is within I fool )of 1h11ke Irl'I e. thel
pla;ll1- ul'Ifl'rd 'l ,;i I no ir l h n i isi ilt o W\ heill tin wa;lir t \is w a u;l lit
? I'oi elh w m the s I ii e l ilt pl I is Iwel r ill a( li tlll hv conldiitioll. As
a re-still of flii-e li-( \; ii ii is beilieu dl that thi waler-tliable
shl>ild Inc minii itii ii d t i I depth i of iiia roP imt i t ly '1 t el.


l'ig. 4. 4 rot e Irrigation by bringing (lie Iinler thromigh iuntlergromunid
pipe*., releranin g II hroligh uirftamer hylildraints O(wes< ini er upper right)
aind f'inilly m dimlrilmtiing; i(t through oipen fairro'r 'This outle( Im liae
latest ima su1rf'mce irriKgation.





S DEPARTMENT OF AGRI(ULTL'RE


















Fig. N. Voung nIouando gro e protected agilnnit drought I.% ucmrhend
MIpr;ay irrimullon. This project IN lecnted on oier-drnined. highly. inr land
"hlih would fhe %northlers without thiM Iprotection.

1 I'ORTANC.\(' OF SOiL, AII.ATION

in the av\rale well-draind mineral soil th, pole, spaces aillount
Io pljp ro\,xii;,t.ly .' *( ]r tlii. half : ,ll lrf nit is filled vith i i ca illary .iater .a il tIhi. reni;ain-
inj\ 22)5 percent' is air. 'l'The proportioni of watclr would Ibe muiich
r-iatic tllh 1n thiS iln orianiic soils.
The c nlhinlatiol ol witer'. v'ox 'lei laiid solid mltti.r in tle' .oil
furnishlis tlli fo'od and l ern'r for llhe ( iiintle-,s soil bliactrii and
funi \hi.h li v\ in lhle soil. 'll ac-livitlv ot li-s or aisins d(e-
P[eld.s ol. lli i)proiper hlailain of these soil colistitiielits. In a large
llieasur .;ltill. lhe orgaliiils preparlie lid make available planiit food
directly oil inllirectly. I' lthe sil is wet, tlher is little oxygen aind.
i. a result, the soil hoalci ia produce sistauihli ces uinde iiijuriouls lo lhi.iher phii:ts. Iilence a soil niisll he aerated or venlit.-
llo.d 1[ for lbest results.
D)raiiinage i'm oVIIo, excess \\ilatr. lets air ;alld oxv en iInio llhe soil
aniid ventilate. it. Raiti wa\\;i in percolatiln thlrollig tile oil pro-
duces iln aeratiioin pri cess li; t is hinefiicial. As the w\\ler passes
d<;\nvi\\'iwrd ill the earth. 'frsli ir is drai\\wn in to rIeplace the water.
The (hanligs,.'s in the prss're of the a;iliosphliere from day to day
also assist in veiitiliiting lth soil. This aeraltion piroce-ss is e~seltiail
for all prodilclive soils. Oni he otler lnln l liihi'e call he lot)o nuhii
;aeratiiln. aind too great ai solution effect on Ilih, plant fod;Il s'l'ii'nit.s
in, the soil. which maiiy result in depleted I'frtility. 'This is illis-
rilrated bhy iialy of thle open)i sandy soils in Ihli stlA;.







DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL


FA(T0IUS .\ FFE;(TI NC SOIL WATER



1- ot. of ii Ille ll1mm-I jilt J -tali.t At kitmdwedgin- oft Jrciteei I ii ll ~t. attiouiit


drai l::-oe work. TI1: t. ~ j p(r o ti'tt il.iiii primla iivY (14 lI-t re oval


l1g1. Gl. Ihrex wriaihx xhqi% lite ii crsege nimimnihi, ritinfasl int l rinaum
i- earnS er Iii ream a Inlidionx. in I-brldni. The fi rim hIor In eam' h group lx for
.3isntoii ). the Imxt one for ID)ecemeruII-v.


4ihtt ate. iti~ e:\ ing un1111-oft, lie t- t k compolledit) 4I 1f)fh tldi 11111-

fftI fro his ktI4 m h-lilt. pitjie p~ul t-Iw imici,1.e-aol. 1.tret cr. tInUfiilla.
.1111 4.[111 of waler ht- I'villo d i illcoItl.-






D)EPAR ITMENT OF A6 RICULTILRE


lIus 111 ill'i llowllI I.-' officij l cat IItIit ,lati rill.- at va isiml sss.)iIIIs ill
Fllsri Ill. 'I i ll- srelrds froml these.I at 5iolIs flurish a largi, e 'l d 111of
%;I 11able aIItIi Is I I pl ss l I I ii I I formua I (4of1 14) apgricllt IllalI i I Is''I enA s u I I le
s-tal.1 'I'll Isslgl .1* v, jslal lve efforssI of lilt VI ititd Slats' Weathi~er
Burcaii i ]fill ie .\Ili A riclllIllI-al E\I1rill6 llI S1 at 51 li ll of 1l1 I's. l vi l 's
ofI lFsloilia ;.A ( .ailnc 's iill a ,unlluar v of lilt- rsesr1l-d sof Ille-i. tatlio~ll
Ila, 1t4-1l 4. illpiilti-4 1 IIs Ililslj-l I-4l III 1li lis4till 211 (of it ie. Flosridia
E,\Jp,- ilh In 1it 1 at1 i .aI I ie lltllsr 1)'; 1 I I1. M iIhelI. 11-i iis 1. 1i ,ist
f lilt'- I lisiles Suitas Weli tt' ireiI. andiM..il 11. l -igIg. nicvk
lissi icultit If I iI s l I lilt F ida Eii\-rilllt 1Iat 15411. Tlii- isiillsl ill
js 1m(i d esle if \ al iasIs g ide ill deirtmilliiu till- I h I rii-oi-sffol ticiIllt
liv)is'es lm. ll's vili va ar lilo draiIIIgs.- pro'4ject, ii all iis is Icf ilic stnte.
hI'ic' E.XjipiIIIsIIt sta lii a1 Gainell sville \ ill ,eild fivel copiee ofli l lii-,
isil I 1sf rii Ios his -i'. \%' 11.1 itr.lllpt it. ig G the monthl iy relisi t ii Ic 1514'-
cilpiIIasii ssC -e'. s lla s l iio'i tilel 1lt


I554'll sille I f silflad l ii l lau'v ll.- I.iti'l'' -il= ps t cim kill mil'ai
I) II'S (Ilslis If 4lls 1 pii1*tl i x- I v A ll Isi ji IsI en I Is fitI' !srs i'si lsit it 14g1- I
1 Ills por( llrc' se. sTh lsi~v cr'siteio fitisl. jI ll I'lilh' 1,1111.1 p o- il- asssl' 1ol's'ii-

.1111v' forl a I ss'il;s (it 'severlaI l I's'sdre I 'a I it wosuild bes js'.-ihlvl to

m I a l l v l l t i' 4 1 a i I a fs s hhill- r i ii gs I ,t 5 h ( II l l a x I I I I a s u l ls ; ii i i l li s I r s -

tast4IIIIS ssf ra; lls 's all %%lls' .: lli"lllt I 41-c l is i ls's 1 "11411 1. andil~lss dw fre41'
I 1114114 vpis 15(5 cccu IV lc l'. o a tts'litll,) glat-' lss's 'll~ y gus'' I'hsll llfss
!.11t5Iiits re issl .1 it 1-4 11 lo an d 1 's'iliht i 41 llv ar v 1iI IsIs I(I I sIIlt-. .


factor ou f %.' iI~Is ilsl llOw I(lI ii" ''I'vq ('5511 rss l ''ssr-10h t s4s11
Issi's''ss'i Isli ss'ss' 1 Ii' Isss atlsjlit VI l11slII'l''llss ss o llel a duriatson.
.riht ll'i ,v ald. Msr ist's'sa- 1shsss atf ilis' hs'as l a)1 te d.l.iffIsvsIlt ilg tall
si hills Aolalli I ll-ilo '.i'llV I)- is. Iihi hs si''I01
A fe s lil t-V 'si itmois si 1vto4' l((sWl isA :fl'.s I of' s'a9i3s' llsa iiia i
cisse: ic's sash i l 1,41 1 t4 In ord'ril toal m I'is'ilsl a o tro~l wo k that 1 8 ,:is'sll

Artsur E.i~i~'ss io~ll wpaeatthes Iiiall of15's lisu list-' iiss-sltsul.
s,, l l hase M iami s' I asii 's' hulsh ers'l~ v 45 iqiss ust it *F sris Ii. (I is'lss's's .115
ljit ilis', f'C '-'s 3.0:)f~l 1'jsrsls s \ shintieiIg 1 'rsil -v l 114411 t's'ss




Ii. IM ~Is) 5iu Ia 's- -i 115s Is'.rsk, ha's thIila's par ofh)Floria I~included









DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL 11

how(.4ni thli -ithll anid ?tIll parallel norih .I tilie 9ilth and 81st
nweridia in evst fo'ir ithe last. I1 ve.,rs are:

Rainifaill
I'-riol In Inches
I h oul rs ........................ ............................................ .1 1
1 --- .... .. .............. . ............... ....................... ". 1 5.10
*! d ;,\ -.-..... .......................... .. .. ................................ I -.-4I I
------ ...... . --.. .........-- -. .. ................. ............ 19.1)
I "" .......... .... . ... ............... ... .... ... ....... 1 .10
S............. .. ................ ..... ...... ....... ........... .. .
I; ....... .--. .. .. ........................... ........ .

: ," rr+ 0,d t I .)*

Sti lii- 1)\ :h, .li<- M i ('mni-.I r n\;, -.II )i.t it-i ,-l \ io l that th l i proh-
II I llllM\i ll lll I ;!ll i l of l, iililli,,ll n t) Ill. \['l, c-l. ill F hlridla


S1i i\ I l 1 1 0 II Ir lll I 1i l n


n i, i< i I n l i(n )In. ii O(lice in

I 'l .' *.7 inr h, : i, -s in-., l S.- I1..1 in hll.. s
2 ,l *t!. 1 1.3 I 1. *" 1 ,.7
: 1'. 5 "1 1,.4 17.2
SI I 11 .1 1 .41
5 4.3 1 7..; 17.5 19.1
1 ., ." l .. I 2 .1.1


IN N-OI'FF (')NSII)II{.\'rI()N, FOI 8Is<..\'I-:i) I'IHO.E(lTS

I'(';lllc s f l l Tlhe IIn' int'..S tl" 111'l county r illIl v 1 lan I k of f' lll u dllll '-
StallIilit ol all if thi llk inknownS lt r is i' a\ idla ,i i\. rsil\- of opinioit
r.i-ard ling litII propl-. ru-oflf co-'fficicit to apply on dilifftrcilt siz ;r'til< Il years that \moull indict'le lwhn g"'n-ral frcivl of r P'it lhln s. ITh l im ll. i.'illl'tdl I ractl of lInil is is untir l. I (listlill t
(lisiis\',va ti .-incel ])cnit illiid I ck Iyk s ari rattl' r i un tabeii harriers
i the fI I>\w of X\altcr. '.I'h, elmlnt o>t seepal i- Imullh 'exa:; glratd(
hy tIhe f'acl t.hatl lilt' | ri1ii.t(-r (lof tile' pirct of nl;I ni is 'xtr n-'lvy
h'iih ill proportion ,, O l.Iml lltha it it nlo .. For xailllll tllh
]'rinit-l .r ,: ;, "1-i-r, trlIi ia- ".!H 1 l "t lhiill > 1h1. | rinltl.tl.r of a
Sll-;nrt' I t is only L f or ratio oflp i I .3 1. 1. Tih' rat io
ofi lh' are;s is 4<0 to *1 or :t'32 it 1. Froni this.- comiparioni it is
al.iPI iir nt lhll) the l i.nlt. lh ol' dt ket il-closinlg a tri-I'l of aIlil has a very
(defl'inile inll'lilnc. o l the .sI <'v I ;gI itt) he' oxi, ec eil.d.







1! DEPARTMENT OP' AGRI(T'LTlrr-RE


\\h'ii' llii- tI-a(re t r;Ivct 4f N;iIItI i~ iiielid lII ill ]a (nI[-i I;I go Iilicti



licsi- 14.41 watel (.t~lt I-ll ph ll. f ll- 4 1.114li
(ii -.I4pagi. I1 ., if but suuilil Illoll ilt. (f( ) iisv ui Iouil uiiiil I la illf.
(i ll-ill. fhe ui- im.fbm. I(4 ( htohii i%19*.111. m11(l1 (chck (if 11fit- icci-iki

9311 sills. icIlie Hautt ii ,Il. l';ii i-I nit nii Iligbe i*%'ii.liv iiraiiig

,I I fit i;l i 1 1%k(- i I m ~ i It. 'I'll huli Ill Iv or 1,4 ni I II g-. (Ik i-r ict pillipi hg
LlI lits to 111.1 ii dill61 colul .,il 1111. ill Ilull i-1' idi a i m-1.11-i n(-m ilbIil
14) %' e.ikiie-m- 4itis lolc i lli fdii Ilit- 4Iks- ,v-i.-ii. Th'liQ I- Ilhe 114)t
xiiiiiill JJ I i ll y 10 i(i.4ti .; 1 fmII-II pill i ll t lv s*- as S 11`4,
41 .vkv- (.;Ill hIll Isijilt 111( lwilafiivtiiil A ;I aiii~aaisl ml s
I imiiil (XjI~lsii ;1i1( th14- hs-lict'its thri-kvedIiiil- oiln-lli tifius*,


L-
O02






) t
U.

ce




iOO ZOo 30O 400 So0 600 700 600 900 000
Isolated Area Drained- Acree

I-Flo. PrIenslnary rtisninls., of Itsuultimwr earlcsssin torroslu cor equivalent
runf-off In 21 hponr% timn mnall latistfesl nrart. uilkhim the V:orrguudem.



I'ielilluilaig ill Azti Vmili (II 1.1 1.il4011 i;]( 1*(-, m4. Aeiil gnip. f cr -l.lt
ill ica g riiiv 1 i) Tllv Iniuiss ii' cti 1 *lllivi at- t 1rl~i i gn jdim 1ihl

1)] t (1I If'-i ll (u ;ll l oul d gI i iilwiitl (1f' olll\. hii\t v 1*- w1uill
(i-CIltsjlIvh~llY h 'ieIs pui,-ilk i~ lliliiuii y' ;iii -Iiiitihuh l lit- II-Isifivivh I,
'ill Ivetai iil. liiiu-.tii at lies-is s iOp4'-ih lii ImIlillililill
nilihl cmi'1 tlithit olls *evliiIll to) N %ithlilirt hit)i* tht i jl1 wl tIli.
gi-ul jilict pitiisvi'l~tltioui 111m.1w V le1ake-l (IS a hIt'1liii illoY I gui he.







DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL 13


SO()I FACT('()O INVo()LVI, ) IN i II(.ATIN() A I)

1)IlAINA( I:

The prillmry prpli:.s olf excess walt1er ill ilth, soil which is injurious to plant growth. This
lli" h' ihe tcom pli-sl i vd lI y ilthe lse )of on1e f(orIm of indtler-drniiII orl
op(en dlitchi s. TIlh chief 1';fiors in dreidiiin which lmetihod to use
are' the s.otructuri e or p]lh.-sicail (.compo1)sit ion of the soil aInId top()ogriaphlV.
J elict ,. it i. ]i( -a;r\. fol r lih e to inT r i ldersta.liinl tlh subject
o'r 1 so]il physitc. be'lor" ]h (.;n 11 iliilli nly ill -i l draiV( ai s\sii t n (II.

inm -t it poll rltiit phll .'sl ci rl. Ie. disciusi-t'd nl m ll 'i oi nlly h ril'ly.
leaving the Iiiori 2 .e1ivt.t t dilt on 1 e. ll( lll subjcil to the stt lild' trrtt li.ts 4111 soil I'|lysic h\\ 1 ic h I('ulI td bIe iln i ver draiii il(a <'n-
,'.iiir r's lihra ry.


s l. AND ITS F()IO ITJIo()N


Silncet mineral -oil- or' l'.ri\-'vd from a vniritlv of rocks which
hl2ve let'l' disitle-r ed lby 'ysi li agiLe cie's. d -oll u posed !by\ cliheni-
(i llt' ; ellis lInd liix d S\ill Ihlors e :I less or-aillni I iii t lr t 'liev
\wou l b. c\xpcteld i, X;r.\ in phy.lvivl ;s ;Is ll Ias chroupertites.
A late majority of mIin.ral soils ho.ve l, ln derive-'d front Imate-
ri' ls \,iich lhav\c l i tI rali.iorted yv wild. \\;ltr d ohll r nll('cihs.
lhlenct Ilk.y ;ira r o l I' ll I t alili ld aiI' id co It'in iI i m e il 'r'll'l i ll e li ers.
Sw inI) inld marsh .-.oils hav\c hlnl d'riv,.d From ve(' litabl)e mIatrials
frowi' I in lphicre. I h ll I y ol'ten lhav, imip-irt iot ns n u dhr-riliund
.sri ;a. A lhanI,' a IIrl olf the l';It woods of' VIlori(hi is uilderlhiil wil h
(itllcr ;i "]-ha in -[pni or vhl .iy stlra l1 1. lolth of tlih<.e sulbsoil strI'tic-
IirI'(s Ir' ,-,nI i-]n irmti hlil to \witr which .1fl'lfc s t Ihe m ;l1l l' e onrll ol
-sys liIm I tn : 1 nLmh.r of' v,,\.. An\ other soil Iroperi'rty fillcftini drain-
-0,' is tlat of soil t<'extll'. )pcn. polo< is. sa+ ly .-oils do not lend
thellis lve ,-- to (l<' Ip op)ntll ditcllh ,..
'The pe t soils 4:1] Ithe v' r lirih e ., lh ve he''ln f'orl' d hv iliterllit-
ltiI1 dhl Ivyinl.. olf .ras"'ss and water ve\ 'clotionl over it v'rV lolln
period of l x ars : litctct ii i. dil in-llv 'il rous and sponi.v ill iltutrie.
Tlhy Always Ihave ;I higlih \ t;lcr hlohlindi. ] cap city. lBut lle s1ri.ctiure
of the .'*il -lriHIlIt i is rn,thl r collilituiois ;nl( of' s.- l ;h a charalt .ctt'r
titli wavltr this sl,;I 1ill0re is brokcln do\mi, hvo\\ev\r, horizontal mllovement of
waiter will rc.-ldt. It is oiln tlh's lyp-s cl' soils llh l lth "inole"
s s-tem of drai' ;i'n is l :






14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

S'BSI)DEN('E OF ORGANIC SOILS

Superficial drainage such ias was the case cf the early e.xperi-
mo ins on the peat and iiick lands of tIl- veirglades has re-ulthed
in a distinct -hrinka,(e. caused by tihe drying out and )xidIation of
thel soil dulrigll dry periods \ili ai resulltant loss of volume. If tihe
water can lie controlled properly. the shrinkage will Ibe reduced to
a rlinitiunl ilanl tlh soiil. it. tlhe, 'amle time, iiadel more pr.idintivc.
Since the l'Everglades is ;a low. flat exp:niise of land having no apple-
c.iale ';atunil \n;te r Itt iulse's. i different Iprci:le'ii ari-es in conl-
trollin.g tI.he u\\ilr thain iln inaiy p1ar1 of lthe l United States. The
(iui(stioin is i t ol.l one cf drainage hut also of definite water
ii ntrol.

('CLASSIFI'.TION OF SOILS

Mileri;l soils are composed of varving i ixtnlres of clay. sill. ,sanId.
glavel and rganic Illatter and are ciassil'fied ac cordlingi 1. the
amountiis ;' tllhe'.s- sulstoani s which Ithey coiitaiii. The defiinition-
of the mlior imipotanti soil la:ses are as foll,.ws:

1. Sa'nds contain Ill 1ore tlhan ll percentt of s:ild.
2. IJoains contain fl'tr :ill30 t)o '0 percent of e: and ain l es than
1. percent of la y.
3. (Gravellyv t>ams colt.:iiii trin 2.1 to .Mi percent of gravel. much
:aand iand little sill.
4. Sand h am; contain from .'10 to, l^'I percent of s:i nd a1d less
lhan 1 piere'n< ofi t c lay.
5-. Silt Icais contain : percentt or inor of silt. lehs than 1.
pltellc t ol clay and soI i' s1111d.
6i. ('lay loanm c-:intain f'roin 1. to .15 po clvnt of clay. much silt
and11 sonic sa d.
la\ys tcon :iin .5 i percent or more of 4 lay 1and much sill.
8. Mucks contain froin l. to 35.) peici ni of l:r.:anic matter.
9. 'Peaty loams contain from 15 to 3.i percent of organic llmatter.
a large amn unt of sad andul a little clay or silt.
10. Peat contains 31' percent or more( of (irg'anic. matter and some-
tilimes some sand. clay and silt.

The gnaater the content of clay present in tlhe soil. tlle slower
the lovlement of soil water. A knowledge of tie texture of the soil
v-ill be mator:al assista.ce, in laying drainage and irrigation
systemVs.








DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL


So, ic soils ;;r 11 ur11111ally poorly (ldrainlle. dtIe not only 1t) t llh
I11114m111 1 i: o ( cip it li)ll. i.lt I the' I uiltrul' of tlih uinlli'de roiildl
st lati:railVhy a;s \1ell as elevatiol.
'I'h ll illlpam ilng tabI; ( se pa-ie, 1I ;) -iv\ s Ian ollllillne of i ,llo
ilf lth irti iii rliail ;ta gi ri icltiral soils o' Fl;.rida. includ-
inlit ltoe natu lin'; v Ir jii'ed. He're Ipo,;r drlaina i; e t ;ns a w\\alr-
l;ile of s l hlv 1 n 1. I'vte I I nt tihe surl''ht for ;.a portin l'I o the t vYear.
S mt o'.ill t 1 lr;iirI t: it s I cI 'ssarv I r Iht 1it |>(m)rl iliai vI S' oils in
the t ;in ble.


.........

rrwrr


? -
f.r .5.:y"


Fig. S. iunlall seremt tOle wuler control piiaoiu developed sit Port Ityni.Ie
'rllrlll I 'ort Ma)'lln') .

KIN).DS ()F SO(I.I M01S'TI IH:

Air-dlridl s-oils contain a small almi:Iunt of iltoislure. ldepenldiii
(:;] ll1. lt'xtur>'t- of oil. ihuInidity anid o lthelr Ifat' ors. ''This illoistlllr
is similar to lli;th iln. uai-dritdl Ihay. 'This is known ais lhygroscopic
w\ate'r atdi has ino \ t]lu, lto plants. If ltir-dried soil is allowed to
EII, t. .'- atIIIatd \\ ilth wali'r iand ilhn allowed to train, tihe water
ahlsorl'id olr lichl i- 1::'.a\ n;i a- < aiill:irv wat.ilr. 'Ilii is llth waller
tused liv plains.
Soil \\altr. apIl\, lleI leoint of maxiIumIII calpilliry 'l.iiH-ily and
11u) to thli poil t If st'allIIurlion, is icalld gravitational watEr or fret












Soll Siniouirrllll~- --- -- ~ 1e11, Topoaiph;11) kin-ol. 1,11111
~ ~lr~r d~lr lliWIlrlllild A11:1111:1,11,11,I
l~llla 111 111111 )'lllll~y lJJ II(0IIvl(1 M:ll1il 1, lll 11 III( lovsI. ,

11111111,

1 ~; 1111 1111 1 va l ill s
F1, 1 1 1 Fdr k rk n) II Velim 1111 111 11 .,it c .lrll s T1111:11oo

III)IIo hhclk Ph1111k'. 11111111g s~:1116 1111 dIilllis Illd
lilllvt' ltuitt Io:lliviilil '
';;I l~~ill "Vl ll, floo 111 [,11 4" 10 1-101-1 1:111 1 ITI-q6 1:11111 111,li ow i i lic'Illlk,


Itt i'i'ititt'tli
Iii ps'ud fittty


W while i 'v I- i o 'n 'l rtillt. '.lerr wh ln
Il.'ll l Po l ;l l l.;i ll IIll;ili ll|:ili I rr l ini n lier is.
voln t 1.lled
1 llm k I'1111 Ilac'k 1:111.k '1:1n6l11.:ili i. l Illl Tr k
Nol'f lk l6 od l 'l )' I'llow I'rni6 l, lulli.g, Mailit, Wl l'ri inirl|ll],
__lld i 'llill.<
)l'Illlili'elll'r I il w ih n'l) I | i | ll li''llish \I, l' h -1l ni'ii ;a i 8in|
__h_ llills I' ll cI Illlll
I'n ll l 1 ,i l G ln 'ow lll r 1' 1 : i lk h i'Iy \' \ II ,:'liiy Ii ll llli Cl, II .il i':I I' I lr l iii,

l';il'lIwoi l 'lin l; k i ) I l l blV .611 l li ll. 0vl 11.i i d'a blge,

rl' 'lt,IIlla I'III oo ll;'ck lni khl > ill0y i lh, I, l (M11;'llnl l't v,< 1111 (ul
__luli'___i ,,;inil ,li rlawh rllr,<
I'lvll I'. P lll' ll I l'l ll iSl llll Irv l |'llll,< I\olngiy ,
8 r i Fd I ,k Iilv o Slrllw|10 1111
l .'l'ollt ll! 'i l' lli' 16 1; g rl)l 'l l th 'elq b sue I4ll' lli ll l Sl l t'l ,
I ____ l ,vI I ,d iillnl ld Iul III|I|IIIII',
KI)' ;iiInl
l''i'i'n~i. iiiilii'llnll 1Ii1 )lr( lr~ Ii,< c inrt ln'iiii; (I'DIVI o l ~llt D I|~I ?c'Iwf(U lly,


I'lillr 11111 1111111'11 '11/111111 Illllil 11111"'41111w III'1,;I ll






DIRAINAGE AND WATI'ER CONTROL 17

"~lIterI. Ii- is l1w ilt- watei "lieh is injuriiousii ) tplant growth and111





i 141114 44 I ti a i ii i- drilw a v The1k I.ml~1'114111 iii (1ta" 1w l-ii 4 111o4'vl

w111ter11 '-1o vl it'1114' III v 4 41 (' -1111. Ii .1141 11 ill -114411 14 l ie. f 11 lit. tll'Sil


11414 1cl I II'Il 144' ii 1111alllollll
tha I II ~llc~,~tcll Ille s illlll~ol 11calse F I





tll.;Sil 4 1 111c 11( 4 il4 11'4i l Ie slil i' i'i i" 1 of' p'ol r e I'l'1, -1114-1.
"Tllil lhdiol i~ll (1 ~ 1, the oil. ol-a lIc 1110 14.1.il l t ho soil and opellliil( ng ; ill
the soil ma i h%. cnkk It%- ti, vo I tim01*111. ;lld animalsll~'
and IlY ( r -cilyII(Iii r ol. ( If, ~l'l ll a Icll I Il~ c )a I.; I i Ile( I S, C1i Is. pv rco '.1-





loill 1i'1- 4 1 ill t' I I I ,1 .1p p ilik tl'11tIII m -. I 11a 4'11'l 11411 xvil ll4 4 41 i Ili'





1'11141. 1 II lii I 41 111' m4)I41141 li'. l i 1I II''oil- Ia l iv liti .(ill PI411114'-
Ila ll t i ll ) I' 1 1 1 4 d i I 1- 1 4 Ili 1 '1114a 11 lI' t -1 1r I I 1 111 I e1 1111 1*1111
drall agc Sitwe 1-1)111 .;ll 11 I 1111ill l Ic ill. il- ll(il (1( )! i llcv, r v lo 1l4
l~\-ilt-ol IIrIIclllIIv ill cach a oil 'hould he 1,\ 111~, 1~1 (1,(11.1 (if' lilt.

I q riI 1( .4 -C c 1'i vI d I -I I ll I )1114 -111 ;141 -a Ill ~llc II II t I w sl -a t n II


1'4,1. 11 rv o 1 1114l. soiI [ll ie( I I I k ol(I('i vil p.lllc'c c',schI(i' Io com are ;llt ll.v

4 : I' I lit. m Ii I I II I le (. )I I (lll 1 4 1.1 a ioll \% i I I I I~lll Ik., I kill 1*1.t()IlIl a H eldI




ot* and o (1;)- I -4. 11 di I lcho-, 1l .(1 1 114..4 i .1 c 4.-p e vil II,
ply ol' thal co1 l~l~cl~lll]w h d .1 IllitlJI nlilil l cx~LII lvlilst. by lll insio \.('n..








DEPARTMENT 01F AGRICULTURE


the~ lo-. oif m ater fiom ille soil thir~iiuh 4.vali.iratimi~. .\hilitv t'?
maintainit tl Ipr.~l.r Ii11;111i.' lmlNtvv1 vaioillarv %%afr avld air iii
In.he (..il liaItvns '-dIIi Iw ildimng 1proevs-- that lirvaik dluiaiin t ll- %ertica!
fib~rous initur 4)ftI (It at andi muc11k.





wa iter ill imiiik amid pteat Si1ls 44i Ithe i.xi'i g-lail'. Fl'l4idlIag i'it'uilltutral
unginvite'-s detlved~ liaitk fltticogille 11 14'l\4iclices ofj the4 14a1 andi (I(--

c11)141 lo('i eI" 1 1 141 11V il\llhtil II 11H 1'. 4 -'- I ll* -11:.- (l Iri I it'll Illg.It
IPIIanttionI in Oile Ki'.iiiiittt'4. Vali- % l nd in flit. Sani .4;luiii I eltaL
regjuiio ill Calif..riiia. 14' 4'fllii!4llllmtt ti-tul at that time %' a- rather
11'1t41c. lint b% apjilv iig 11141,14'r1l 1 calt-pi'r ila reval- 1111(1 ilt1i4r.vinig





















Fig. I. I'erl)y ty1. of -m*'ntole" pIowv. It Man blee umlodICrnize4I Il. tihe tent4
af i htoe ny ttcrarpllar earring.

A pmerfid tract.-T..(l~ i, 11tilizvol t., 1,1111 the thei II~url lh
rela iti\ i'l i% i e I 0 imick ill pi-at ei It- a vin fro'imi 18 tq) I

1lu11i-m-1i \lijhil grav italii'llaI fla.'r mo. a- i- iiulv ace. ) inlliIss
Nvthel(. lis.t of fils' drail-. V\1p'Iivill5'ilt V 4*i' \11.11.k. tI.iiig \art11im,



1,14)11 i Ia"l(' ruI oil ir' .\t t '' 1






1)I.\INAG\(: AND W\AT:RIt 'ONTRIOL 19

l4r1 |x il i,,ii l ll \ l ii\< l.l.i |i.,, ,iii ii ., l -t it .l 'l i, i I i ll .ih i lir, .: -i ,'air,.iti |h;iil il ii, i n F lo rin li hi-I al ,; ,.i i
llii- illt ,n1 l l'Ir I ,. 11, 1 ;IIIllIri \ii :; 4.1l\ l .1iin ;I ,' 11' -1 1. ilI .I k ;11ii
lo',ta -, ill 'I 'll : r ('<,r: i|,;. Ill i. v; ir\ ,v .
allnd c. fill h14. i4. i,, 1 .4. alrl l, r l- )I' f a, lilh '.l. In I'i \.( ir>. \ilxii.
a i 'c i .. +;, a % .


"I'i. 10. ss "nole" ltrnin ctinchtnraing Inln so Inlsernll dillch. The I-fool
trnith l rinrrtreie tilr isn.ried in endl ,f ilrnint retrlrd rtling lif the haink.
This drniln li ns hern In |tlprnalltin tfour iearx n. 'The ntrresei. litll toff to I hir
ri i i r, ril
'T l, s l lS| cil .f1, <,I Il ma l a i is ,l I'>,(t,. l llatera, lil cith S. w\ which
( Iflaa ri' \\ ilfi Iki ,' aIt I l i. -ll) I' pp! iillil .ll.'ti i 1 .;l l|llls ;l') ,( 4 1 :!t ilti 'lr-
\;I l ,t' ii -l' 1iirlh li l li'h i l i it.. i-\ tit)l i '. II I \\ -l l it ; Il ,i in|i t: i t.I-'
\ihI t, I lliill il lll l hll \l < \ ,.ItT l ll. hll lll ll e lhll \\ l llr a t;l litp, .1. -
-;itv 1 fir, l i i l ,|ll\ 1. 1,," l -t'.': I.;ll,' :, \ ,ll I-II I I ,ll- t .ll r ,,l u1al ,.a
1\ lIIi'l i1li i \ .i111 ,i -th i l lit l i itil, xi il'aj Il l; ii I I it II i tilt: I il .

SI-I..a I..\N 1 1 1 111 {. I .\N l;

I lill ai i, l l ll h lli '] i~ 1 hl Inti ll till (i .t 11'la i lla (< 114 il i i, l lat
\ ill l ,'-, lli ll tll \1\;ll:'a r i l l1 >t i l l lit llil ll al 4 li l l,', <> \lr; riI -lll tl'All*cl ch ial ili\ lila l.'t lf bv I-lall-
lisl dI l I r 1. ; iii \ ilr -: i' O I'l'r 1 i| liii l i, >l ,iw i l T li,1 (;iia


\a ~-.
*: ~" d~';"






DEPAIITM ENT OF AGR ICULTURE


in~ ; ~!. ished by foJllllo%% ~\\il" s rslell a l lc ('ld raill tc law., ill desiml-
li*citi .lcvric avva Jl (1i-. f landii ill ill. eorderlly 111(1 $sxt-1ellatis lflalills'r.

sill li ,rilir 14) rt'e' vi e'.eeii-ie'itvnt and r'e'ztilar fill%%


llttfle (lll'it cat, w~lc' call Ii.i sai ihlet('olilV v 1'4illip1d1$hed bYivlleJllls of
I'ViavI v. I "I It midicl'i t'ciillit iocli$ exis't ill- illf low. flat laildss it is
II 'e Cc;r! --ai I~lc i\c. ii'l~. I;I',(i-e ;II )JI4'IIV. lcc,~ -lit I pilullljciii tIlllt ill ici'slei'
ill (1e;2t' ; iiioiitciut IT \% ill cillevwti. 11 elilclice' :1ii'l (liaJI'~.













l'ig. II. %tmaarenne field cinder "hlic the -anlre- x)sttem of clrnlnnage EM
uned. 'Ihbe Canal Point plain of the Southern %uwar conapunms In mee
In the background.

()Illl~~~ ,' t~lis t\-11(- .;I' cl1,lilljl~re (;Is; \\t,11 .1. i --i ticl \li' j
ScO ('lc(1 vI 'sciateditc \\itlIt it ) ar' fltiltierill~. Open Sl-tuilact' dlitchic
p ay. uuiccs i~llciptliailI Itilici jll ill tlic' liccalci fields o, 1li4. H~astintgs
hl'%t AI', i ii ifccrei aIcel 111141', II:11. i.4 I pI icullall. illfrlve'' alidt(
cIs i illal iagge .111ci irright icmn h It'v c'e'c-4t ivcl v alicemilplicl hcd by
liucan 44 tilt- 4rali S. 111 111.11iiv of the-;l- ac';c- t-; rtv'siii wauiter Is
hlvailaiicle' 111111 is li-ieile 1\ illall. li t' iiici', ill. tile
cinJ HIl \\Ii (.ih hlave' lici e so 1lai that inIt wt $i'tiaolli$ 1h c'v' serve to
r('llttbv vw\v4ss waeler h-ircc thec 1.1114i. hlii tl(.Il dahiiilla"igi .\' sVtiifls



l*:~' WN~ M.'S 01"I NI) I IIAiNA(;i


i~('ci~lieilith cllclv I la iI'iiietlandasi rlctth (d, th i Ill'i'jai';st' i i
is Ic'-. 1111ii capital iutyc-te dI. tile systemll im a thilillti(.e.~ i'ei'' of
htccw effivejelltIvY The clirnillagie ys~tonl fimtiii'teli..

A vonei-civat ive'v e'-iiiat' -e4 the jiterva-ed grnwss reveillic' \Iish title
IJuld will Jarecf~iiie a-, a oeu fci water colut rcl Ahcilcl Ihe iua(Ie
preNferalbiii ill 'ollipanscil we~i 1thi i nelv'li'te'( -i'(ss revenues ohitaiile('(







I)DRAINAGEI ANI) WATIEI CONTROL 21



fujll 1( I,% ((did i llL' 11410o i ll -rc.r income1 IIt, ((ost (o1 n I 1n ill',I .1 Tol).
Nvt income14 ItvIr M1144 1(j) H lTh4k Il ll" v114411411 144111i it) the laiId-

SM 114 1% ;A. -I It -I-,I Iv 1 1 4 f l tie I % 1 I I 1t .144% 1o11' 1441.Il14 ,l clitO1. 1V





i%% I r. I' a1 I1 Ij01 I I I 1 4 % A '1 v j -1111 X% I I (l it41 vl l ct 11iI 1) do~i v
4 11 1 t I 1 1 11 it cost o 1" 4 11 11 111 114 )1 14 S4 I I I I I c4 1 hl;II
w l I( I I :Sl 4 Illl 1de I. I i le 4 1 nii11, is l (Ifc' t-4l lot a I c( Ist \v i I 1 4 x ( .4 lio





(\i'g 12. *I'suilt allnm"I himIlvk.1a IItt trn eit \ ,I' lierI l aramalm (a, d 11-













It tur po.va Iuailpu p'l r Fkw i '; ;I hNid as Isroil iS 44 11 t~ ill. en iequipi lt i,.
1441 111 11 1I1:II I4 I I a 111- .1114. r ,14 \X i 1( it ( 1I I4 .;1 11 c44 I v. v 1 1'1'.
















11-I1I1.\ ;I I it 4 c I t-1I-' wI11141 41 1 r1('I I444.I~iik 41 4114I I 1411I1


4-f


it lose% so h'llplto ibripise lller 41ri lt en by at Fiord enocine "hit-is Intlltll
ilowessid-4i ill 31 fill .11314-k.

"1`1116 Type )I* P/111111N,!: Almill., Ow Hrl.l p~lll~llp- i) lit, llsed
ill Florilfil l I'or artlili'icciol dra.;illa.-cc \\v'Iv col.r l ilI ion1, Y known o';.l ii


I In ich-1cd .1141 ti'ca dvd ord I'mick M, (II111tI, 0111ollio (li' ,


All~ll' I' 41cilliI'1 II cl operalillle cJllarnc.l'lvrl lic 1111de~r :-Ilch lond co(.(lllidl
I iolls. Tllv bow propol It,1,( 1 l. a. p 1aci-1' 1 i 11 llv v cild of,' a c.ll vc('.1 or a





2 2 DEI'PA1TNIEN- OF AGIICULTUIRE

woodell4i botx and the. drive shaftt. coniiected to) the (.e-ligiv thibllol1 a


'I lii' eI rii \\eI lil e' I v of \k I .Y. l o( w ffivellcY. 11;\(' ph(ointed4
11la('1I' i I l, e 14) 11 ll 41(4v1 l.. -lowilt. h li t a it bY i lle eno t elivmlt














o.'i.* or 4111 cifuI 'IlM lin, IKlalll at llt- pr4'1 opr trsime c Il f cn s lO1ae1\






li~a il dlegivlie eli~ilig t. the h'- iut.liaIrn.-ge ii 4ahly el 04l the'






1 h llc.C~c-i lnl X. 1t. o e11 W. 4 '. 1 A111 i 1114 1 4n1111 ii -ulD






u If I (i, m u if r I I *h rr/. iii vai p -i 1 ail ti I- f.'in le\v le1e 1 Wit-'e Iliii di'ai
IIeI auiek rall4'' .1'lri .lg i riniit o l I ati-lv a ie





(eiet .14- 1 iti'4'ale' niaI1 Io i 1a in rI i' 1014 I Ihit cit 1114 r ei 'l fiig I I)II)
rly. II.Lh I I-V %. 1~111114., .!1o~lo IIrtIrorA be a f v wIO-r r



li-lc~t \\i ar, mom iial.! l~ ot(' kilI. fi 'll- popularity .)I* i~lle cll tr I1iI-a,

J111111111. Mil~l('(l I... m 11.' ()11ch il 1l('IIgh1I lit-c Jr

Ilp-ratiollk \ sim plicit v of' con:T 1.114.1 il Ill and its a c.Ill ;l rc.i li1 v \\l- I forevil






DRAINAGE AND WATER CONTROL 23

to develop a cilpa.city muiih greater than its rated capacity. It is
('ffi.ciit if properly dhlsigiled for the conditions indier which it, is
opera ed.
A cl elp hut fairly efficient form of( c(.tllril'ugal. pump that was
lnuuh used ;i few ears ag.o is thle vertical-sharft. wood-bx 11pu1)p.
Ma1I.y rIt(, still in ulse but of Illte they liav-e "iven way to more sub-
sta n1ill puiips made i(|i> tiretly of i metal. 'Thlee older pumpss u1si llllv
were dlriv en by a qu<4;rl'-1t irn l belt or roi drive that does not plro\v
entirely s llisf nirly o iivuntldr l'itld conditions. TheI mior mllodern
planits are li illy I 'ot hint tcld lo htI ptiinip sl i'l I li i ati.,i/i t he lost's ]init' 1-lly o.(.-tii-
rill.- Il'-l; I '1. o r ',:pc drive.











I'ig. 1-. Itiner tI, Ipe overlleadl spra.v irriglaion on. five-stlre pepper field
sit White Ielt *nirry- near Miami.

//igh-/lItd Cl C'.rilf i .!ln/ I'u llnmp: ('ll nri full i,)umpi s a re well
a.daptd tfolr ni'o wIlhni irrilg ionl ;In4d frost contiirol are tI'e oilv
r'ell isl s. Tl'y may Ibe u.-d lon th high l ti plessiire systems neceis-
sarv for ithe mI.n lyps 1of overlihead si5)r ;' syste'lls now e li)inll in-
stalled iln .l |ltats of Floridta Mainy- of the dif'l'ferent makes of
dcubiihle-s.clio'I nll ctrifnl i pumps itain ti'efficiencies as high as 75
lnd 80) percentn. Se I"igure 1-t.
,'le'l ion of a pump llhat ill I f lthe p[a-sihle lknown f;t'tors ill the problem he
known fully hIifor' thit pnimp is ortdlred lo apply to thfl ov'rholtld

1. .\ A 'rf'l d ltrllilln; ioll should be idh of tih( friction los.ose
octll-riillg in hlit pipt lile fromiii I li' I pllll]) o Illt' imosi r lllote nozZle
to I' sbe Srved. A s;atisfailorl friction heil liable will hel fIurnishted I)v
11ny r'spolncsible pu)llni) Inll il utllfr'cr. A saf' fi gln' to a.ssIlin' in
ilny pip lil ilts lo.s1 nol rt eat er tha(l il' i fet i per 1)00) I'f t of ]iipe
sed. 11 iis ntmuch bltel r to ii y olt al ferw dolhl.'s i11ore ill tlih ori'in'il
pipe iiisiAl.l1tion Ihmn ito continued to ]wy throughout a period of
y' lis in exc.-ssiv' .:asoline. ifuel oil or ,lec iric power )ills. 'T'hIc
motor Inev.c'ss'llry to drive 111 puip) for ia sYstelI often nnV e)(' rv-







24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

trile(.1 ma Ila rse-llh:Wmer 1). Ny substtit itin, ii siZ or two hi rgel.r 'Ipe'
111,1 wai s ri-i fl& J selected.

Beit -1141 that I 14'(. suction ItItl iA niot -reilte'r t liau the PIIIUI) is
d'114l t-si- lit In(t Several I tile' have (c(sel' olmup ill the past wh1iere it
W as 1It.itte %-II 1i)o I4V the 111114 into 0 11 pit bleallsvIllv t wea'uter le've'l
had heevi l lawn ilti% \I iil0w tlii limit of flle pulip's abihil ) t lifIt
wvalt~. ol' of, the wel F.

3l. It is well it) I-ncilclilr that Illa.II Ii .ilvrh e -"-I what i1.o pay f,
when hin all\-i og av k tind of* p ill-Ilg eqipriolietit. The cheapelIr he
lIIII) I114V Iv,., feii' it is likely to be.





face or sib-irri-ated project ill exc4lli(lt Cas-hioni. lThe type
1i1111111 to isvi' is IuiallY det em i Ii led b the smirce iJ watier Sl pplv.

















I'Ig. I.N.. Tw'o :1o-h4IrmeIIower eleeta-ic lutotorm lamed to tfrli e woirtlaington,
A~fpmCFC'. pui)Upm lot IltleIr I'urntm. Inc14.. went or I3eertlemI. cuelo1 iiUnhP
dlchlierx X.10411 gunlusmof %%savemlr per nemrnate anxnint not N-foot henud.

\\herv fhelua. supplyv is taken from ;cantal ori ( lake where
1Uu1411 iirl andi Purwii- matter will 6.ve ('II lllterl'd it i, ct414.1 better.
it) sacrifice a f(-\\. p44i~lit in ficecyt a Io leel de'sign1 oft
I wa r1l v al~l ma~iii n~ e u I 1('1uer ol' co'llt ri fI'll -. Iprullup. -Nat 111ra I I v 114'e11111.'
efc'ij'elit pullips. arv' (h'i-igle41 withli naro limIits aild( cearanciies'
alev les.. with the ro-sult that mnone dil,11iciilh w ~ill hot enr1olltiltered ill
ca;se.s whn'rev -ritt v. di it-laden iliwter is to)14 ha 14f14'1. hciw've. the'
i14laeiniiahlatu, 11 i- Illadle where the walier sIuppl v i:s relatively ftive
frIu).01(11 such ijs ;1114(1 the doiihhe-siietioii. ehase- Ill peker celitritiigal






DRAINAGE AND WATI:R CONTROL 25

pujmip fits hlle (condilio)ll of service equally well and the hlorsepower
to drive ilh IIliIp will hbe mIllatri;illy reduced.
Wheniever i t ir riigation
sistclt is to lhe peI-rmain ietly
install'll at olI poinil froni
Veal' to t'rli. it will he fonlid
that al i i r .v t l Y co- n lec l
pill which r1 e c i \ o s its-


poiwer lit tr ill- lte Ill.irill' m -
to) or ome' t\ .])i of iit'; ii te'a alL



in ij stl I ll isfl lt..r i Eixiilp ri- '
('1c s of ( ]h, 1 ) a s 1 indicate
ihl 0 he flt, 'e'r -" i. lit iduall

e lluilpmfn with \ h6 e hl'a ill

drive Ithe Ipp' will fiii' l thit
1h lie ,(t thl e i rii c' l i jllst aS :z
n tlch i or tle' I (' llivi at iolln i)o
hi s 'r -.s ;Is 1h (lit' d s I r iII p- II
l -". ua I nill i r ,i I I h I'ig. *16. Motor redui ctilon gi enr aind
I il j V )i lit'c ; l cu(. l l tktic'r nutomntsiti contrtolI panel for n 42-
inch Alnericaln I'ell 1'orks ecntrifu-
I:l '. ,i;i l Hi ]ills ' 1 ('iig i 10 gll in ;i lip olo t(' d on fliile iirnt iunit
rlive lh,' li ll ii ; lll I l li ;' rt sid l he n hokee I)rninna e l imitrlct
drilve I n'sll l \\;ls;n ll 1ll t ; ne<; l ldil'>r 1 .oke.

!i l eI' l lho1;' i, h 1 p 1u lllt i I I qolipi It t lhe 1d l t l t iu.\ ii'ittle n uni.

/HorioulI (-th!;tiu/l /I'.ut.: ('tll'cillugal draiii-e plumps
viviih ho'rizonic l 'ha 'l s in.m lliv h ii e i tioll anid di i lschart pil
.lhiich. \vilh IIth' pullim ilform ti 'i ph. n i with I1 lrw pulmp thie op 11 a
ct livellic ntiu-iI l'Il Il 1f r x mimi j li'c iand foi r r'ltpair. alrij tionlI inl
111v loictl ofi sitp tion a d discht c ll c it l s do od t I ffe lt tilhe pimnn
il 1lhe lift is l s\ci\ e lll l ti the l It al' dile i i. ce ofI Ilev'. while
othe ih l d l tl pulnip 1s n t dev hlop C-olsist of lhe <1;1li(" lift plus i thel
vt'ril fri. in I .. 1 s in the puum p anld pipin.g.
1aoll'Zolintal (nd I "Frdi.l .'. :crrw I',11 i.ps: Screw pu] Ips have be((ii
d(,\ opeh i r ilr l 1 to P? kvie, iln li;iml ter, lh h largest havin-l"

M0 ma l 1.5 l'e't. A combiratioln .emdritu' al-l s.r t Pum1 ) h ..z ien
developed thIat i. esliciall '- v suih'd it hbe iriven hv c'lh'iric I"motors
or ilterval c, 1lhu is] io ln ,i .. .l]ect ric motors o' full l)i ) ,
(eiin.ine.'si are islu lly i)pliild to intstillhtiins of tlh l 'iri' r types. The
bl lcs of lhlis tpv le' of pti p ole so desigie lI hlt lit loadi is prac-
tica llv (conlstil froini ;i inimti till oll ) ic miiaxiiiuml lift when ruInling
a>1 a onssi r.1 sF'I'd. \\'Wheln elc .ri(;lly driving. a vrti(-al ,le(tlrie





D)EPA\RTME FNT OF* AGRICULTURE


IlIctois lI- tia'ii, v elillplo ,ed. livin g diriectl v Iotneed1 the( veitie'a
Aoll ]fri: Ille pil!. 111)~~!(~. Ille ~ (i7(.l.((I11'1' I1)11( .l~i'l
~.1) ,t N1 1 i Im) 1leti linhillat illt Ithe 1i f fictI I t v (ii hadt iu (0' I
s' Il tllSse jIllips, wvithi 11, 'izsontal power units.




r I
















lugj. I7. lTwogs of the flire i-l-Inch %%qpod mere%% punsipm Inuatalletcd at thIe
Ilare Ifnuien pumpinslmupc mlad Ion of South I"orldso ('Conserliancy I)Istrlct.

I'',, I11,v1 Sco's's, PI'iioij I usfts: "Sv~ inll pumpII hllihldvr- ill Fl~ou-ita

11) point.lt ill ille' fiv~lds 11i. illv Simple exped,(c/ic'lt of back-~lill", a Ira;ilerl
111 1s) t1 he I,41I1k of I us' ea;cIm1. 1liclk i Iu 1h I ill lilp II 1- 1111 ita I Id lill -
i In, it o44 a s's" oc I i~ t )I1 I \\ lit- 's'. Iv ;1 1 l'' -N *~~ c iiilt i I i it i". Sol il 1 lace't
Ii uli andiiil l''sIlcil 4111(1 1 1 iai Forii 511wrl41 j 1 415is il .I iia,
I 1u'I10 411 1 hel "liv t s 'sie ilols phiia III is 14'iv s''s44cl 1hat 114'l 1,111111v' ''iI!
b'lill l i1-ri's slioVll 14s a ll 1 4411. 1 o111 tlllil1i2 44111 a 1111d Ia- avonl,-o fill'llde








Ill4< wai p a colore sivi Il a.e o I li i'\% e 'Il~ V ia s 'lle lll-w

ein'l1411se wilh Iu 'il oeje V 'l 11111 di'fsi'il,' of 111)1. wlll-Ii a it eteli cand
'ira of' Ilit( pipe at (11t- Iwol siols. Ha'lalge II); ;II''a at tiese vaids.
thes 1555 i thev vvs'leiIV a1114 4'l~t'l-\ I. v alic vies s4l'. Forit tlii






DRAINAGIE AND) NATER CONTROL 27



w hili ple i ie l la- iii. lo h l sIi luvd ui 111ai ligh aill is t Ill)\%- 114-illp
















vol-Y !v ,or;llv alulllilldI l I- vd () a lillo llllph 4 11'scrip tio lls (It' such plants. illr~




1 1 ;1 v I I( I r v v v lo. ) I I I llc'l4.l' lll ival pros. \.~ ci~i! i Il1~.(1

I1-'I. I S. :10-imn le Wl 1iood I r- i tenablei IumtlI f or perlim .', i i i on an I rri i
l iters itimua set Port %Ia3 :I.n.

hIlli I ctt 1v.v I ie dw t v ir liet It,, ha -itallk hi e cll i iial I al hi
01.93 of Il lie o c \ la4;u I at :0 fi ell v id ii l I let i itin 91; of Ow 1-:uu
-il.ri el I I I:\lm-ilhiit1it S~aiiolth. UI ivIj-I1jI lot Illinisi. (uillhaiihi vv'
dvnciiu Iiui thisi los- oft vifici j ic-vi s 1- lo hit'li '11 a g--ssa v ll
of .61 T w li~vwrl, ,- is lilil I lttlil li. ho l at 11l4. iuid of the
i l i -h a Ig ~I it I ( I Ia I t I I t I t )I I I 1 1i i o i i4 4 1i l ie t v 1 m ll a1i4 .t4 li I u i l ,I
:1I hc' Iii Ie I a I- I li a Itlt ivild liv
:11 a i I w itIIIIII I tI I i II Ii at a con~ a I IIIt Iae I h r I xlo ii I e I u I i a Il.,a Ie
Ii i-eli rum' xv ll. Iiit s. I !I k )1i ulli a- Ivat ;I~ I % i pi it 1 C4i Ioni1i
s-i Z I I i s, -11. 1 '. I-- 1 xa;1rV ;I I(IsI aI lae n. r It ia viocijlx So tilt,-

Tvil it. iI Ii ae ic I ll[-i 111;0ii 1-ii t ft iltI'' i ii hi li I ii tl is ii III ulaw ~illt

F ,,ii 1t I. Itis ;i- u--irdii Ii;. I1le ii iP i i!-p mp fa .g., aiti ili-siguitil lor
k(.i : r goliii2 1) 1 I lli7, ioti 11 d i'l Iiwt c l. n h Il I-Inca ii vviovii I v is 1) efot


S( )Il 'V~S(I 01' PowI-A FM? IT1M PI NG VIN I.1s


tio m111 x lhichi -i i ii ie l.iililmhc x~i le 1114. Ilil'.ivoi s f I- Ii r (-I h -




28 Ism
28


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


templated. Much care should be exercised in the selection of the
motive equipment necessary or the operation of the pumping sta-
tion. In some cases it may he found advisable to use some form
of internal conlmbustic : engine. However. where electric trans-
mission lines are available it is often possible to take advantage of
much simplified design in tlie reclamation plan. since with electric
service it is possible to extend lines to Iinlts where tlhe chest ad-
vantage nmvy be taken of natural grades to :*.cure a more positive
control of the water-lable within the district.
1Jilder the elect ricll ven .- dr ---- -r-
pump plan of reclamation it is --
not necessary to expend large -- -
sums of money in digging
drainage canals to bring water -" ---
from the whole district to a -
sin.le pumping station. It is --- ~V
fi-ireqently advantageous to -
consult with yolir local electric .. "-'-
service .colj)any to ascertain /
whether satisfactory arrange- ---
ments '-an i e made for the u i
electrificat ion of the project t -
you have under consideration. o0
Some of the public utility ...
companies in the state have 1 1f
trained engineers who may -
render valuable assistance to 5 --
you in the solution of your
water control problem. And
always remember that your '-o w-< s- s< '-
county agricultural agent is in Diaweter of Opening
a position to give vyu worth- FI-I. ,1L 1n...ntiau the. 98- -e.
S- *ileaney due to expanduil anuectom i n
while counsel. dischargee pipe .

ACK N )WLEDI(; M NTS
In securing material for this bulletin the author has frequently
consulted not only the publications mentioned but persons in the
state who are in positions to know what is correct and hest and
modern in the field of drainage and water control. Among those
who have bieen consulted aire Forrest 1. annning. agricultural
engineer for the Flo ida I Pwer ard ighL\ Co. Dr. 0. C. Bryan,
agronomnist and soil expert. and Frazier Rogers. agricultural en-
gineer. both of the Floridi College of Agriculture. 1. manning
and Ir. Bryan read and criticized the manuscript.




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