Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture,, new ser., no. 2
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003054/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture,, new ser., no. 2
Physical Description: 87 p. : ill., map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M.
Scott, John M. (John Marcus)
Florida. Dept. of Agriculture.
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1931.
Subject: Citrus -- Florida.
Citrus fruits -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida.
Florida -- 12000   ( ceeus )
Abstract: This bulletin presents facts about the citrus industry in Florida that the more successful and practical growers of citrus have found to exist.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Nov., 1931"
General Note: "Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. Dept. of Agriculture) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003054
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002439333
notis - AAA3527
notis - AME4521
oclc - 41130435
oclc - 49684405
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
Full Text
, Citrus Growing in Florida-
4 & N. 5. (131)

01n \\)i \III TI N I ()I

+------ ---------------------------------

S Bulletin No. 2 New Series Nov., 1931

o 9
* 9


Citrus Growing I

In Florida

9I 9

9 9

\ ~~~~NATITAN' MAYO.<,nin.,.,~

4------------------------- --------.----.

* 9;
9 9

0' 9
9 6-------------------


Introduction .....................................
Development of the Citrus Industry in Florida.......
Citrus Production in Florida ......................
Citrus Plantings in Florida:
Bearing Trees by Counties ....................
Non-Bearing Trees by Counties ...............
Sum m ary ..................................
Orange and Grapef'ruit Acreage of the United States..
Soils for Citrus ................................
Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils ..................
V a rieties . .... . ... .. . .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. ..
C old P protection .................................
N nursery Stock .................................
Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks for Florida
G roves ..............................

Planting the Trees .............
P running .....................
Fertilizing Citrus .............
C culture ......................
Cover Crops ................. .
Cost of Grove to Bearing Age ..
Irrigation of (it rus Groves .
Yield ........ ........... ..
P icking ......................
Grading ...................
Packing ...................
M marketing ....................

G( rape fruit ...................................
O ra ng es .................. .............. ...
S h ip p in g ........ ............. ....... ..... .....
Limes and Lemons ..............................
C itro n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Satsuma Oranges ...............................
World Product ion of Citrus Fruits ..................
A annual Plantings ............................. ..
C a n n in g . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. . ... ... .. .
D diseases and Insects ............................

.. ..............
. . I . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

(itrus Qrowing in ilorida

'3y John c29.. Scott*

With Contributionls by E. F. I)llusk, I. l. Ruprcclat, I'rlnk Stirling,
L. M. Ithodes nl d1 II. G. 4:.iayon

SIIIS bulletin is not a scientific treatise on citrus
culture. It does, however, present facts about
the citrus industry in Florida that the more
successful and practical growers of citrus
have found to exist.
To the prospective settler and newcomer to Florida, the
growing of citrus is usually very attractive. This is es-
pecially true if the first trip to the State happens to be in
late fall or early winter when the citrus trees are well
loaded with golden fruit. It is. to say the least, an ex-
ceedingly attractive sight.
Citrus growing in Florida, however, is in many respects
like apple growing in other sections of the United States.
That is, it requires close attention to details. Particularly
is this true in citrus growing, for it is necessary that the
citrus grower give systematic attention to fertilizer and
spraying operations. In other words, citrus growing to be
successful, requires intelligent, systematic work and ever-
lasting vigilance.
That citrus growing has been successful in Florida is
shown by the fact that the value of the crop has increased
each year since 1896. The returns to Florida from the
1927-28 crop have been estimated at $51,000,000.** The
acreage of citrus in Florida in 1928 is estimated at 154,-
956 acres of orange trees of bearing age, 40,191 acres of
orange trees of non-bearing age, 74,138 acres of grape-
fruit trees of bearing age, and 5,750 acres of grapefruit
trees of non-bearing age, or a total of 275,035 acres. Any
industry that produces a gross return of $40,000,000 to
$50,000,000 a year to one state is worthy of the considera-
tion and attention of the best people in the United States.
Prepared and published in cooperation wilh tlhe College of Agriculture, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville.
** Florida State Marketing Bureau.


Development of the Citrus Industry
In Florida

ITRUS growing in Florida dates back about two
hundred years. William Bartram,* in an ac-
Scount of his travels in Florida in 1773, often
mentions the orange groves along the St. Johns river from
Cowford (Jacksonville) as far south as DeLand. Bar-
tram also mentions passing orange groves on his trip from
the St. Johns river to the Alachua savanna. At all of these
places he speaks of the magnificent orange trees covered
with golden fruit and fragrant blossoms. At the time of
Bartram's travels, there were but few white people in Flor-
ida, and citrus was not grown commercially. The only meth-
od of transportation was by water, and even for this pur-
pose only a few boats were available. The demand for
citrus fruit was apparently very slight in the early days.

Citrus growing did not reach a commercial scale until
about 1870, or something like one hundred years after Bar-
tram's travels in Florida. By 1884 production had in-
creased to approximately 600,000 boxes per year. The only
citrus fruit planted during 1870 to 1880 was oranges, and
plantings were made mainly in the territory that is now
composed of Duval, St. Johns, Volusia, Putnam, Alachua
and Marion counties. In fact, up to about 1894 the terri-
tory around Orange Lake is said to have produced ap-
proximately 20% of the orange crop in the State. This
section not only produced a large amount of the fruit but
it also supplied a good portion of planting stock and buds
for areas farther south. These plantings were confined to
localities close to rivers, as there were few, if any, other
means of transportation. The method of culture, picking,
and packing used by the pioneer grower were very crude
when compared with the present equipment used in hand-
ling the crop.

Some of our present citrus growers may perhaps think
that the early orange growers did not have any setbacks or
discouragements. However, the first freeze in Florida of
which definite record can be obtained occurred in 1835. At
Bartram. Wm., Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
West Florida. 1791.


this time it was cold enough at St. Augustine to kill mature
seedling trees to the ground. A second freeze occurred in
1886, at which time the crop was injured and many young
trees killed. Then came the two freezes of 1894 and 1895
that killed a great many orange trees. The next severe
freeze occurred in 1899, at which time a number of young
trees were killed.
As a result of these freezes, citrus growing has been prac-
tically abandoned in the northern part of the State. During
the past thirty years, the citrus section of Florida has
been moving southward, and citrus growing in Central and
South Florida has been a rapid development.
The experience of citrus growers with the freezes in the
northern part of the State had a tendency to cause them to
try other crops. Truck crops of various kinds were tried
and many of them have become important crops in the
State. In addition to truck crops, many staple farm crops,
such as corn, cotton, peanuts, velvet beans, various hay
crops, etc., were tried and found to grow successfully. One-
crop farming has never been entirely satisfactory to the
farmers who have tried it. Where there is a diversity of
crops, the labor and equipment can be much more efficient-
ly employed throughout the year than where only one crop
is produced.
The citrus industry has profited by the experiences of
the early growers, and today has been placed on a more
stable basis. Many improvements have been made in cul-
tural methods and in controlling diseases and insects. Per-
haps the greatest improvements have been in harvesting,
packing and shipping the crop. These improvements have
made it possible to put the fruit into the northern markets
with minimum loss in transit.


Citrus Production in Florida

Records of yields of citrus crops in Florida have been
kept since the season of 1884-85. Since that time there has
been a steady increase in production each year, except those
years following frost injury. The following table gives the
production in boxes of fruit from 1884 to 1927, and the
value from 1904.
Year Valuation** Boxes
1884-85 ................ 600,000
1885-86 ................ 900,000
1886-87. .............. 1,260,000
1887-88 ................ 1,450,000
1888-89................ 1,950,000
1889-90 ................ 2,150,000
1890-91 ................ 2,450,000
1891-92 ................ 2,713,180
1892-93. .............. 3,450,000
1893-94 ................ 5,055,367
1894-95... ............. 2,808,187
1895-96 ................ 147,000
1896-97................ 218,379
1897-98 ... .. .......... 358,966
1898-99 ................ 252,000
1899-00 ................ 274,000
1900-01 ................ 352,600
1901-02................ 974,033
1902-03 ................ 1,147,491
1903-04 ................ 1,954,954
1904-05................ $ 4,688,683 2,961,192
1905-06................ 5,463,561 3,794,133
1906-07................ 5,663,719 3,801,101
1907-08 ................ 4,807,500 3,250,000
1908-09 ................ 7,229,040 4,634,000
1909-10 ................ 8,174,000 6,100,000
1910-11 ................ 7,590,000 4,600,000
1911-12 ................ 10,497,000 4,750,000
1912-13. ................ 15,925,000 8,125,000
1913-14................ 14,541,180 7,946,926
1914-15................. 13,774,000 9,700,000
1915-16................ 16,405,200 8,370,000
1916-17................ 15,678,000 7,649,049
1917-18................ 19,030,000 5,581,309
1918-19.... ........... 35,732,640 8,900,000
1919-20 ................ 27,675,000 12,500,000
1920-21 ................ 29,550,000 13,200,000
1921-22 ................ 22,450,000 13,300,000
1922-23 ................ 31,860,000 16,900,000
1923-24................ 27,759,052 20,400,000
1924-25 ................ 23,190,000 19,200,000
1925-26................. 35,550,000 14,700,000
1926-27................. 30,900,000 16,600,000
1927-28................ 33,698,130 13,625,360
Includes oranges and grapefruit.
** Farm value.
Data supplied by State Marketing Bureau.


Tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 give interesting information in regard to the number of different kinds
of citrus trees in the State. These tables also show the distribution by counties' of bearing and non-
bearing trees, thus making it easy to see where the larger citrus centers are located.
Totnl ltHen4 ing 'rees by Counlie -Juily 1. 1f928.
Statistics compiled by State I'lant hoard in actual inspection of Citrus Trees. 1925-26-27-28

County U

Alac a ...... .. 75,35S 4.551
Baker .........1 4 60
Bay. .. ........ .. 5.11 1,274
Bradford ......... 1,523 3
Brevard .......... .. 510.SS8 160,480
Broward ...... ...... 16,b77 17,391
Calhoun ...... 91 10
Charlotte ... .... 33, 1 2. 15.222
Citrus........ IS.31 1.7117
Clay. ..... .,753 27S
Collier . . 12,735, 13.10ti
Columbia. ......... 77-1 3;
)Dale.. 157.331' 113.3 1 ;
I)e Soto 301 ,56' 106,051
Dixir ... ... 15s 33
I)uval... .. ....... I 13.371 '27
Escamhia .. 341 32!)
Flagler............ U,31 3, 043'
Franklin . .... ... 162 sI
Gadsden.... 90 15
Gilhlri's .. 1.1131 t10
Glades.......... 2.751 3 01127
Gulf .... . ,35s IG1
Hamilton . .. 2
Hardee .... .. .. 3.53,,l 63.4 3
Hendry.......... 30.037 15,511i
Hernando .. ........ 44 ,05 21 ,l95
Highlands ....... -32.17 257,617
Iillsboroughl ..... 593.9771 171,7S1,
H olm es.............. ; iij .'
Indian River ...... ... 171, i4 25 ,1 11
Jackson.... ..... 501 17-6
Jefferson... ....... 69 7s,
Lafayette . ... 57 1,
Lake................ 86I0,125 2 2.591'
Le...... ... 203,277 22!. 11S
Leon .. .. 206 1i t
Levy .... .. ... .1,303 127
Liberty........... 173 .......
Madison.. 109 7
Manatee 198,32 266,265
Marion.... .. 317,917 43,.S79
M artin....... ... 32,340 41,1
Monroe**. .... 1,771 ,902
Nassau .. .. ... 260 7
Okaloosa ... .. 9 . .
Okeechohee.. ..... 15 605 4 .s
Orange ........... .. 1,2.122901 223:315
O( ceola..... . 128,2971 37, 119
Palm Beach...... 16(,9513 -11 .bS1
Pasco................ 183,756' 4,764
Pinellas .......... ... 392,540! 371,65S
Polk ................. -. n ? '? I '?q I'l?
Putnam .. . ... ..7 Wl .- ..
St. Johl. 30,119 3.205
St. Lucie............. 188,382 157,604
Santa Rosa ....... .. 97 441
Sarasota....... ... 0,8l1 73,969
Seminole.... .... . 236,976 33,.02
Sumter........ .. 75.,36 9.176
Suwannec .......... 190 3S
Taylor .. 341 4
Union... 607 21
Volusia....... ..... 499.253 76,853
Wakulla. ........ . 12 20
W alton....... ..... 525 204)
Washington ....... 219 43

Total.......... 10,846,9325,189,679 1

EI Is E g

15 ........ 23 1,756 2,018

28,151 1.211 2,21 5 ....... 703, 2
443, 1,1166 1.2,7 619: 37.238
23 .. 1 71 1,313 1,510
3,533 100l 317 11 li.52423
1, 7 33 . 1 20,525
451 .. 3 3 1.017 1. 1, 3
235 1 75155 17 . 21 101i
9l 3 23 1 .0260
IS461) 61.1411 7.11, 57o 1632.691
36,111 139 7111 97 447,6,3
13 23 . 1.235
219' s 33 1 1 7 15.1197
17 111 22 52,115 52.914
5,501 .. .. . . 17,922

5 250 31.10
l .. ...... .. .10 l l'i

1 ; 13 1 24 1,1)1

1t I fI s
11 -99 . I I 1 ,3
S 3 5 555 2575 2,1051

7,507 2911 921 641 .. .. 4111 4152
1.251 5 .. . 17 901
16,123 15i 35 5 . 2.7211
9,1201 1.r1221 2. 1 12 501) 5 713034
55,791 21 1,701 21 3i17 27,400i
.. ... 2 5. 2,95
17,406, 1,31 1.250 71 11........ 4. 5.371
24 ... 2 3 72.919 73,15;,
.. .... 35 1, 56 1,S 42
1 .. .. 2 61
101.115' 1,015 1.52b! 607 1,.191 1,251,'90
9,542 1,1112 952' SO . 11.1071
79 60 12 27 731 1.302
112; 7 31 1 71 4,717
2 ........ 3 ..... 221
1 . .. 12 21 155
5,.155 511 1,499 107 ..... 172,219
32,462 2391 26S 390 676, 39.5,.8'1
4.352 4.3.S) 4.99 5 1: .,,s72
2.451 155.451' S. 141 3: .. 0 ISO,O
2 3 272
...... 2 ..... .(62 4 ,673
7521 511i .72 6 . 22,i77
165,17t! lf11 1 1,7021 2.035 25)1 1,13,.l74
19,8S2 462' 2,409 411 1 1,S.,l 1
2,45Gl .1 ,0 1.998. . 1110 103
14,591 13' 437 7,0l 210 271,2,83
45.797 2S7 902 174 61 S14.664
223,710 716 S01 397 15 41,17,466i
35.9110 511 435 244 2,26iS 291.6113
1,342 10 230 197 703 36i. 106
37,553 5,363 1,S67 41)7 .. 391,21li
li .. 3 10 17,2111 17,.363
2,375' 1.0) 15) .t ...... 108,359
42,499 1 492 1001 313 116. 314,3l8
3,299' 139 137 72 34 88,913
24 ........ 1 67 414 1.034
....... .. . 3! 37 393
S2' 1 203 842
110,629 256 1,592 1,837 6314 91,051
........ ....... .. . 750 8 12
3 ..... 6i 96 21,157 22,077
2 ..... 3 30 7,6361 7.933

.149,490 190,849 52,1192 1i.555 235,503 17iS5,000

SMonthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August. 1928.
** Compiled in 1925; no record kept as to age.


Total Non-le-lrilng Treex by Countlef-.Inly 1, 192-.
Statistics compiled by State Plant Board in actual inspection of Citrus Trees. 1925-26-27-28

County b

Bay ..
Bradford .
Brevard. ..
Broward ...
Citrus ......
C ollier ....... . ..
Columbia . I .
Dade ...... ..
D ixie ....... ...
Eseambia ... ..
Flagler ...... .
Franklin...... ..
Gadsden .... ......
Gilchrist ........ ..
G ulf......... .....
Ham ilton............
Hard. ...........
Hendry .....
Hernando ........
Highlands. ..... .
Hillsborough ... ..
Holmes...... . ..
Indian River... ..
Jackson........ .
Lake......... ...
Leon....... .
Levy... ....... .
Liberty ... ..
Madison ......
Manatee ......
Marion..... .
M artin.........
Monroe** ...
N assau ..............
Okaloosa. .
Okeechobee.. .
Orange,..... .
Osceola ..... .
Palm Beach... ..
Pinellas ........ .
Putnam......... .
St. Johns ......... .
St. Lucie...... .
Santa Rosa.........
Seminole........ .
Sumter ........
Taylor. ......
Volusia ...........
W alton........















6 |

"lli151 13,8621 46
912 238 2191
55 .. . ....
2.000 2.752 1
5 1,421 ........
... 180 25

4,317 6,442 53
1,343 17,658 ...... .
7 1.
d7 I .. .....
17, 16 ........
17 66:....
720! 4,470 ........
... ... .0 .I.: .::::::::
201 '........ ........
28 41 ......
6161 2 3i

. . . . . . . . . .
1.511 30,051 243
3. .. .. .. .. .. ..
7.930 19,238 .......
38,374 19,223 10
15,809 41,094 280
". . . . .. .. . .
25,533 7,088 11

49.536 48.359 216
2.850 2,260 ........
...... 1 33.. 1

12,643 3,332 2
5,972 16,449 22
2,626 611 (67













......I ....I..... I

Total ........... 12.s13,52 402,508 527,552 2.299

Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, Aug
** See Table No. 1.


E ,E

..... 3151
2.933 14 26,756

S 2.841
>jas;P ^- tcri f-i-

S13 .... S 26.112
.77 787

2. 106 4. ....... 35.646
320 .. ....... 81.507
10( 107 317
. . 9) 1,732
35 1 28,237 29,393
.......2 4. 100 1351,730

.. 1.525 1,525
1,730 1,765
1 37 . 1732.340
351 I 2S37! 2.il,3

1,391 12 169,036
.... . 96) ).. i 1 .810

270,097 5 571,011
...... 45 45
1,489 37! ..... 73,212

5 137 824
s5 .... . 85
175 175
64; 20' . 49,485
136 4! 4,8S6 187,587
1,205 .. . .. 15,627
.. . . . .. . . .. . . . . 2
.. .. .3 . 31.1; 31 34,636
10 ..... 9,847
6,06.O 133 560,275
3.106 35 68,788
3,73 ........ .... 060,540
20 464 96.706
276 ...... 98,550
2,506 .. .. 523.530
455 17 ,301 79,941
16 ........ l,0( 3,396
519 25........ 117,766
8 . 1,071 81,003
39 2 ........ 94,770
K8s 3 2 40.666
5.500 5,500
........ .. ..... 5,500 6,500
.. . . . . .. 4
150 182
361 575 ........ 256,019
..... 1,000 1,000
.... ... 14 7.582 7,669
.... ....... 4,465 4,465

299.868 2,638 293,3204.341,714

:ust, 1928.



Showing Total Number of Bearing and Non-Bearing Orange, Grape-
fruit, Tangerine, Satsuma and Miscellaneous Trees, July 1, 1928.

Bearing Non-Bearing Total Percent of Total
Treras 'Trtl s Tr.-.s ('itrus 'ree
ill State
Orange ................. 10,S46.932 2. .1:1,529 13,601; ..411 62'
(;rapt.fruit ........... 5,41;i 1i7- 4 2.50 5.592.1 -7 25
Tangerine ............ 1,1.41..49 527,552 1.677.1142
Satsnma ... .......... . 25,503: 2T:,320 52S.-2:3 2'
Other Citrus. ........ 26 ,396 :1) 1,S1) 56,,201 ,
Total ............. 17.6,.5,n00 13 11,711 22,026.71 I 100l)'

Counties Having One-Third of a Million (or More) Orange Trees

Polk ............. ... ........ . ......... 3,115 212
Orange ............... ........ ........... 1.70 l.lll
Lak ....... ....... ....... ...... ... 1102,255
H ills roughh ...... .. .............. . (. 7,613
Volusia ............. .................... 70,701
Brevard ............. ... .. ....... t5.:133
Sighlalnd .. ......... ... ...... .... ... 12.
M ari,.n ................. .............. . 17; 1;
Pirilla1f ...... .......... ...... ....... 5 .
liardee........ .... .... ......... ;3i.3 3
DeSoto ............. . . . ......... 3 6,7

Total .... .............. ......... 1i1.;71.1,2
or 7',; of to:lal nuib.r of
orange lre'e in "lorida.

Counties Having One-Fourth of ai Million (or More) Grapefruit Trees

Polk .................. . .. .... . 1.7:35.:20
Uade ................... . ......... . 1.17.316
P inellas ............ .. ... .......... 3 5.31 7
I ake ............... ..... .. ...... 332,127
Hlighland l ......... ... ... .......... 295.991
Manatee ......... .. . .............. 27S.90S
Indian Riv .... ............ .......... 275,634

total ............. ...... ........... .7 0,6 1
or I>7' of total number of
grapcfruil IreCs iln F'lorida.

Counties Having Fifty Thousand (or More) Tangerine Trees

P'lk ....................................... 2.997
O range ........... ....................... 2:3 1. 15
Volusia .... ............................... 18..210;
L ake ....................................... 152,50
H illshorough ............................... !.96.3i. .
Hard ...................................... 5.., .RiS
H ighlands .................................. 6... ,;.:1
Sum inole ...... ............................ 6. 12. 9
i'inella .................................... 60.31., 1
St. .Lucia .................................. 56.. .171
D)e S l 1i .................................. ..... 5: .7i;
Iut.imm ..................... ............. .. 2.155

T tIal .................................. .31; ,.1
or i'; of lolal number of
tangerine tr, Ies in Florida.

From the fortegoing tabhE it will be obstervd that Polk. Orange. Volusia andi Lake
Counties contain ,11t' of thl tolal number of tanrierin trees in Florida.

Monthly Bullbtin of the State Plant Board of Florida. Augvuo. 1-2s.


Orange and Grapefruit Acreage As Given In
The 1927-28 Annual Report of Florida
Citrus Exchange

Oranges ............
Grapefruit ..........

Oranges ............
Grapefruit ..........

Oranges ............
Grapefruit ..........

Oranges ............
Grapefruit ..........

Oranges ............

Grapefruit ..........

Grapefruit ..........

















TOTAL ACRES .................... 592,096
Florida estimates from Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida.
August, 1928.










Soils for Citrus

ITRUS trees are able to adapt themselves to a
wide range of soil conditions. In Florida, citrus
Streets are producing profitable crops on sandy
soils, flatwoods soils, hammock soils, and muck soils. This
does not mean that citrus trees will grow on all soils. They
will not grow successfully on poorly drained land or the
heavy clay types of soil, although Satsumas have been
grown with a fair degree of success on some of the clay
soils. The wet, poorly drained land may, however, be drain-
ed co that citrus will grow very successfully. Many cases
are on record where this has been accomplished.
Citrus trees will grow on any of the well-drained loamy
soils of Florida. These soils may be classed as follows:
High pine, flatwoods, high hammock, low hammock, and

Fig. I.-T''rees Growvn on Good Citrus Land iwith Liberal Fertilizntion
anld Cultivtivaton Prodllue Abundalnt Crops.--'ollrtesy W. E. Sexton.

High pine land, as the term would indicate, is land of
good elevation and with a well-drained, sandy subsoil. The
original growth consisted largely of long-leaf pine.


The flatwoods land is of lower elevation and not natur-
ally so well drained as the high pine land. The surface soil
is of a dark color, and not quite as sandy as the high pine.
The sub-soil may be either sand, clay or hardpan. The
original growth on the land was long-leaf pine, with pos-
sibly an undergrowth of palmetto and gallberry. A large
amount of the flatwoods soil in Florida has not been drain-
ed. Some of it cannot be drained without excessive cost, but
much of it can be easily and cheaply drained. In some cases
the hardpan is too near the surface for citrus trees to make
their best growth. Often, however, the hardpan can be
broken up by the use of dynamite so that citrus may be
grown with some degree of success.
High hammock land is similar to high pine land in many
respects. The surface soil of the high hammock land often
contains a little more humus. The original growth usually
consisted of oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, or perhaps
some pine trees or an occasional cabbage palmetto.
The low hammock land closely resembles the high ham-
mock, except that it may not be naturally as well drained
as the high hammock, or perhaps a denser growth of oak
and cabbage palmetto may have been on it. The soil usually
contains more humus than the high hammock. When the
low hammock can be thoroughly drained, it is very desira-
ble for the growth of citrus.
Muck lands are those that contain a large amount of
organic matter (humus). Ordinarily they are not well
drained. When drainage is possible, either by ditching or
bedding up the land, very good crops of citrus fruits may
be produced. However, the muck soils are, as a rule, colder
and therefore subject to frost more frequently than the
sandy soils.


Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils
<>-nieral 1.ll=iatger, Fla'lniigzai G;rov
/ANY pages have been written on the general
/t subject of citrus growing, but when an attempt
J y is made to prepare an article on the subject
of citrus growing on the muck lands, one must take into
consideration all of the characteristics pertaining to the
area in question, such as climate, moisture, location, etc.
It is a well known fact that the most profitable crops can
be produced in an area provided with a fertile soil, suffi-
cient moisture and plenty of sunshine. In the Everglade
muck lands, nature has been most kind in supplying the
soil with favorable qualities for growing citrus. The soil
contains 75 percent organic matter, which will enable a
tree to grow continually and produce fruit of an excellent
quality at early maturity.
To any horticulturist, the history of citrus growing in
Florida has been exceedingly interesting. When one travels
over the various producing sections of the State, attention
is frequently called to the profitable returns derived from
late types of oranges. On muck lands where a combination
of late varieties and preferred rootstocks and other con-
ditions occur, the profitable returns from practically mid-
summer oranges appear most outstanding. Investigations
have shown that on muck soils, in sections properly
drained, trees will produce regular crops of a splendid qual-
ity returning a profitable revenue to the grower, and at
a cost of production per box less than that from any other
section or soil known to the industry. Further research has
proved the truth of these assertions, and has made even
more clear the fact that nature has supplied the Everglade
soils with practically all of the requirements for the satis-
factory production of citrus fruits.
We have all learned that in order to be successful from
an agricultural standpoint, several important conditions
must be secured. The principal ones are fertile soil, suffi-
cient moisture, and a congenial climate. We find these con-
ditions prevalent in the soils of the Everglades, especially
near the edges of the Glade lands and in the Davie area.
Pioneering along citrus lines has been carried on over a
period of fifteen years in this section. In the Davie section
many outstanding results have been obtained by such pio-
neer growers as Messrs. C. A. Walsh, J. C. Lange, Chas.
Stoddard, and others. These growers have put out plantings


of late oranges and have brought the groves into full bear-
ing without fertilization and without cultivation. At the
same time, the fruit they produced has been of excellent
quality and has brought the highest prices on the Northern
Ordinarily the muck land is not naturally as well drained
as the rolling sandy land in the ridge section of the State.
For that reason it is advisable to plow the land in beds.
The beds are generally thirty feet wide. The idea is to get
the tops of these beds from twelve to eighteen inches above
the average land level. The bedding up of the land is for
the purpose of giving better drainage during extremely
wet periods.
It may be necessary to plow the land twice. A "V"
shaped drag is used to advantage in ridging up the beds.
The trees are planted in the center of each ridge. This
makes the tree rows thirty feet apart, and the trees are
set twenty feet apart in the row.

It is interesting to note that cost of production per box
has been kept at a minimum in the Everglades; in fact,
records show that fruit has ordinarily been produced at
a cost not exceeding 17 cents per box on the tree. While
this may sound astounding, yet, when one realizes that
the cost of planting, tillage, etc., are cut to the bone, it
is not at all out of line. To begin with, there is no cost of
clearing the land, for all that is necessary is to plow the
open glades with a tractor, stake the land and plant the
trees. This involves a total cost of approximately $80 per
acre when using trees of five-eighths to three-quarter inch
caliper. In the Davie area, by planting large acreages, this
cost has been cut per acre by fifteen percent. The trees
seem to thrive without any plant food other than that
which is in the soil.
The Glades soil analyzes, according to the State Chem-
ist, 3.17 lime, 2.17 nitrogen, 0.18 phosphoric acid, 0.13
potash, 1.47 iron oxide, 0.18 magnesia, 0.38 soda, 0.51 sul-
phuric acid, 75.65 organic matter, and 16.84 moisture.
Many fertilizer tests have been conducted on the Ever-
glades land during the past ten years, and even the most
discriminating citrus men could hardly detect any differ-
ence in the growth of the trees by the use of fertilizer.


However, it is not unlikely that after the trees become older
it may be profitable to add potash in order to increase the
size and quality of the fruit.
As the level of the average land is not exceedingly high
and as the average water table remains around three to
four feet below the surface of the land, a steady moisture
condition exists, giving the trees ample water and prevent-
ing damage by drought. This results in an almost con-
tinual growth of the tree and gives a bearing tree in less
time than usual.
During the past several months considerable plantings
have been made in the muck lands adjacent to Lake Okee-
chobee, west of Fort Lauderdale, and in Dade county north-
west of the city of Miami. At present there are between
four and five thousand acres of citrus groves planted on
Everglade muck soils. Interest in citrus groves on muck
land is growing rapidly. So it seems to me that here may
be a thing developed which will benefit all, for if an in-
dustry develops in the Glades, it will mean that our citrus
marketing organizations may carry on throughout prac-
tically the whole year. handling mid-winter types in the
north and central portion of the State and mid-summer
types from the Everglades, placing fruiit on the market at
times that will not interfere competitively with either sec-
tion. One may hope and expect to set a new citrus section
that will materially aid in developing the rich muck lands.
To the uninitiated or even to practical citrus growers in
other sections, the statements made may seem Utopian, but
to the growers who have investigated the possibilities of
growing citrus on muck land they are ol viously true.


HE practical grower has found from experience
6 that no one variety of citrus is grown successfully
in all sections of the world where citrus fruits
are grown.
A good example of this is the Washington Navel orange
which is extensively grown in California and is well adapt-
ed to California conditions, but in Florida this variety has
but little commercial value. Several of Florida's best varie-
ties of grapefruit are of little commercial value in Cali-
Varieties best adapted to Florida for commercial grow-
ing may be classed as early, mid-season, and late.


Early orange varieties are Parson Brown and Hamlin;
mid-season varieties are Seedlings, Pineapple, Enterprise
Seedless and Jaffa; and late varieties are Valencia and Leu
Gim Gong.
Kid glove oranges are Dancy Tangerine, Mandarin, King
oranges and Satsuma (Owari).
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season,
Florida Common and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless.

Cold Protection

HE larger lakes in Florida afford a certain amount
of protection from cold. The small lakes are not
of sufficient size to have much influence.
In addition to the protection obtained from lakes, the
higher elevations possess quite an advantage over lower
ones. This is due to the fact that the higher elevations have
much better air drainage. The question of air drainage is
receiving much more consideration today than in former
years. Air drainage is thought by many people to be just
as important as water protection.

Fig. 2.-Fire PotM Used for Cold Protection.
-Courtesy of Florida Citrus Machinery Co.


In those sections of the State where citrus groves are
subject to cold injury, a large number of the best citrus
growers plan to protect their groves by the use of oil pots
or grove heaters. Where cheap wood is available, wood
fires are often used between the rows of trees to keep the
temperature above the danger point. Under ideal condi-
tions, the temperature in a grove may be raised from
two to five degrees by the use of fire pots or open fires.
This in many cases may be sufficient to protect the trees
from frost injury.

Nursery Stock
OUR orange and rough lemon are the most com-
mon citrus stocks in use in Florida. Grapefruit and
several other stocks are used to a limited extent.
Sour orange stock is best adapted for plantings on flat-
woods, hammock, or muck soils. Rough lemon is adapted
to the lighter sandy soils and rocky types of soil where
a heavy feeding root system is necessary.

Fig. 3.-Citrus Nur.sery. The Selteiioin of lienith. W StoLk, True to ~N:iame. is limportlanlt.

Trees budded on sour orange grow slower than those
budded on rough lemon; however, the fruit is as a rule
of better quality and can be held longer on the tree.
Citrus nursery stock is grown from seed and the seed-
lings are usually transplanted from the seed bed to the
nursery row when about 12 inches tall. When they reach


a diameter of one-half inch or larger, they are budded.
The budded trees normally remain in the nursery row
for from 1 to 3 years, depending upon the size at which
they are taken up for planting. While in the nursery, the
trees are staked and pruned and properly cared for to pro-
duce uniform, vigorous, healthy trees of good shape.
A one to two-year-old bud, calipering three-fourths to
one inch, with a three-year-old root is a very desirable tree
for planting. The measurement for the diameter of nursery
trees is taken an inch or so above the bud.
Cleopatra stock is being used by a number of growers.
However, there are not enough trees in bearing on Cleo-
patra stock to enable one to positively determine its value.
It is claimed by some that this stock has all the virtues of
both sour orange and rough lemon, and apparently it is
adapted to the same types of soil as our sour orange and
rough lemon.
Trifoliate stock is also recommended by a number of
people. More information is needed before any definite
statements can be made regarding its value. Experiments
are being conducted with both Cleopatra and trifoliate
stock so that in the next few years the real value of these
two stocks will be more definitely determined.

Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks
for Florida Groves

A Ranted by
Formerly State Nursery Inspector

lemon Seedling
1 2
3 2
1 3
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2

1. Rapidity of Growth.........
2. Texture and quality of fruit..
3. Prolificness ................
4. Retention of fruit and juice..
5. Resistance to cold ..........
6. Resistance to root disease ....
7. Resistance to top disease.....
8. Adaptability of thirsty light
soil ....................
9. Adaptability to heavy ham-
mock and reclaimed land
with clay subsoil .........
10. Adaptability to high pine rock
land in Dade county ......
11. Adaptability to shell ham-
m ock ...................


1 2 3

3 2 1

2 3

3 2 1

Note: The relative adaptability of the stocks is indicated by figures, No. 1 indicat-
ing the best of the three for that particular characteristic; No. 2 the second best, and
No. 8 the least satisfactory.


Planting the Trees

/ liH best time to transplant citrus trees is during
December, January and February. During this sea-
son of the year the trees are dormant, or nearly so,
and for that reason stand transplanting much better. Occa-
sionally trees are transplanted in June or July, although the
percentage planted in Florida during these two months is
very small. When transplanting is done during June or
July, it must be done when the trees are not putting out a
new flush growth. Trees transplanted when in flush of
growth are not likely to live.
The distance apart to set trees is somewhat debatable.
Some growers are of the opinion that :0 by 30 feet is the
most desirable distance. Others advise 25 by 25 feet, while
still others claim that 25 by 30 feet is the proper spacing.
The exact distance lfo setting the trees will depend some-
what on the character of the soil in which they are planted.
If tile planting is to be,( made in a sandy soil, such as is
found iln what is called the "ridge section of the State,"
plantings should he 30 by 30 feet. If plantings are made
on hammock or muck land, the plantings may be 20 by 30
or 20 by 35 feet.
The land should be staked off Ibefre transplanting is
started, as this will facilitate the actual setting out of the
trees. As soon as actual transplanting starts, plans must
be made for watering the trees when set. It is also impor-
tant to make provisions for keeping the roots of the trees
covered anid moist from tile time they are dug or unpacked
until they arte planted. A feAw minutes of direct sunshine on
tile roots of the trees may cost the price of the trees ex-
posed. The trees should be set ill the grove at the same
depth at which they grew in the nursery row.
After setting the trees, soil conditions should be observed
frequently. Whenever the soil around tile trees becomes
dry, it will be necessary to water the trees so as to keel)
the soil moist until there is sufficient rail.
It is important to give the young trees sufficient culti-
vation to keep down weeds and grass. Weeds and grass will
take from the soil both plant food and moisture that should
go to the young trees. The general practice is to keep the
tree rows well cultivated the first five or six years.


ITRUS trees require much less pruning than do
most other fruit trees, such as peaches, apples,
Setc. Very little pruning is required after the
citrus trees are set in the grove.
When the citrus trees are taken from the nursery they
should be cut back to a height of eighteen to twenty-four
inches. The chief reason for this is to have the trees headed
low. Low-headed citrus trees have several advantages.
First, fruit is more easily picked from low-headed trees;
second, there is apt to be less damage from winds; and
third, the low-headed trees shade the ground more com-
pletely, thereby checking evaporation of moisture. It is also
much easier to spray and fumigate the low-headed trees.
After the young trees are pruned back and set in the
grove, they should require little or no pruning for a year
or a year and a half. If any new growth is put out below the
bud union, this should be pruned off. The only other trim-
ming the young trees require is to trim just enough to
properly shape the trees, that is, properly balance the top.
The lower limbs should be trimmed up just high enough to
keep them off the ground when they are loaded with fruit.

Fertilizing Citrus
Ckemist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
3 HE question as to how to perfectly feed or fertilize
citrus trees has been studied for a good many years
not only by scientific workers, but also on a large
scale by intelligent growers. Despite the years of study,
however, one is a long way from being able to state, just
what combination of fertilizer element is necessary in order
to produce best results. This is largely due to the fact that
citrus trees are grown on a very wide variety of soils.
In all fertilizer practices, the action of various fertilizer
ingredients must be borne in mind. It must be remembered
that ammonia or nitrogen is the material that stimulates
leaf and branch growth, that phosphoric acid stimulates
root growth and helps in fruit formation, and that potash
is essential for the formation of sugars and similar prod-
ucts. Potash also helps to keep the tree in a healthy con-
dition. Of course, in addition to these three elements, there
are a number of others that are necessary for normal


growth, such as lime, sulphur, magnesium, etc. However,
practically all of these last are present in the fertilizers
that are used or are in the soil, so that ordinarily it is not
necessary to add them to the soil.
Citrus trees are generally fertilized three times a year,
in the early spring, midsummer, and late fall. Some grow-
ers prefer to fertilize their young trees four times a year,
and still others fertilize their bearing grapefruit trees a
fourth time.
In the spring, as soon as danger of cold is past, the trees
should be fertilized so as to start them off quickly. This is
also the time the bloom appears and the fruit is set. There-
fore the fertilizer at this time should contain a good per-
centage of ammonia and at least two-thirds of it should be
derived from inorganic sources, such as nitrate of soda,
sulphate of ammonia, Leunasaltpeter, or calcium nitrate.
As a general rule, four percent ammonia in this application
is sufficient, with six or eight percent of available phos-
phoric acid, and about four percent of potash. In order to
insure having plenty of ammonia available before the bloom
appears, it is desirable to get the first application on early.
It must be borne in mind that if the tree is suffering from
a lack of ammonia when the bloom comes out, it cannot
set a full crop of fruit. Ammonia is not the only require-
ment at this time, for lack of moisture may have the same
detrimental effect.
In the summer application on bearing trees, it is safe to
reduce the ammonia content to three percent, provided the
trees are in a good, thrifty condition. For young trees, a
four percent formula would be better, as these trees should
be encouraged to make a good growth. Since this time of
year is the rainy season, it is advisable to have the ammo-
nia derived about equally from organic and inorganic
sources in order to cut down the loss from leaching. Until
more is known in regard to the phosphoric acid needs of
the tree, a six or eight percent formula should be used. The
potash content should be fairly high; a five or six percent
formula should provide a sufficient amount. The question
comes up as to whether too heavy an application of potash
at this time may not delay the maturity of early fruit.
There is a possibility that this might be the case if the
summer application is put on too late, but if put on in May
or early June, it is doubtful if this danger exists.
For the fall application, a fertilizer low in ammonia is
generally found best. This is especially true for citrus in
the northern section of the citrus belt. Some have gone as


far as to recommend a formula containing no ammonia at
this time. Such a formula could safely be used on the bet-
ter or richer types of soil if the trees are in very good
condition. In general, however, it will be found that a for-
mula carrying two percent of ammonia will be safe to use,
especially if all of the ammonia is derived from inorganic
sources. In the central section of the citrus belt, the am-
monia can be safely left at three percent, while in the ex-
treme southern territory where freeze danger is at a mini-
mum even four percent could be used if the trees show the
need for it. The phosphoric acid content should be six or
eight percent as in the previous applications. The potash
should be the highest of the year, but eight percent is be-
lieved to be high enough. It must be borne in mind that a
well-fed tree will withstand more cold than an underfed
The amount of fertilizer that should be applied at each
fertilization will depend largely on the type of soil and the
root stock on which the tree is grown. A safe rule to follow
is to put on one pound of fertilizer at each application for
each year that the tree has been set in the grove. For in-
stance, a two-year-old tree should receive two pounds of
fertilizer at each application, while a four-year-old tree
should receive four pounds of fertilizer at each application.
If it is found that the leaves of the trees turn light green
or yellow before the next application of fertilizer, the
amount of fertilizer should be increased. If, on the other
hand, the leaves are a rich, deep green color and the tree
is making a very vigorous growth, it might be advisable
to reduce the amount. After the trees reach bearing age,
the amount of fertilizer to use should be gauged by the
amount of fruit the tree is capable of producing.
The best growers in the State are now fertilizing the
producing tree according to the amount of fruit the tree is
expected to bear. The general opinion is that about four
pounds of fertilizer are required to produce a box of fruit.
In addition, the tree is expected to make more or less new
growth each year, which calls for still more fertilizer. The
new growth put on by the tree each year will ordinarily
require an amount of fertilizer equal to that required to
produce the fruit. This means that an amount of fertilizer
should be applied for new growth equal to that applied for
production of the fruit. This makes a total of eight pounds
of fertilizer for each box of fruit the tree is capable of pro-
ducing. A tree capable of producing five boxes of fruit
should be given forty pounds of fertilizer a year, applied


in three or four applications. Should the trees be fertilized
four times a year, about ten pounds of fertilizer would be
applied at each application. If the trees do not present a
healthy, dark green color, it is an indication that they need
more fertilizer, especially more ammonia. On soils that are
very fertile, the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. Also,
where heavy cover crops, especially legumes are grown,
the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. No definite rule
can be laid down to cover all conditions, as the general ap-
pearance of the tree and seasonal conditions must be taken
into consideration by the grower. Therefore, the amounts
as given above may serve as a guide, especially on young
trees ul) to eight or ten years of age.


TIIRRING the soil, whether it he with a plow, cul-
tivator, or harrow, is hbeneticial in the following
-* ways :
1. It loosens the surface soil and allows the air to pene-
trate deeper into tie ground, thereby supplying oxygen to
the roots of the plants.
2. More plant food is liberated, as decomposition and
nitrification act more rapidly.
3. It pulverizes the soil, making a soil blanket that tends
to conserve the soil moisture.
1. It destroys grass and weeds which compete with the
trees for food and moisture, and is especially beneficial
during the spring months when moisture is not so plentiful.
In many localities the conservation of the soil moisture
is an important consideration during certain seasons of the
year. Since cultivation loosens the surface soil so that
more of the rainfall will sink into the ground to be used
by the plants at a later time, it is of prime importance.
In short, cultivation l)uts the soil in the best possible con-
dition for citrus trees to grow.
In Florida there are many different types of soil, and
naturally the growers have never agreed on any one plan
of cultivation as best for all orange groves. A number of the
better grove owners are inclined to insist on a thorough
preparation of the soil before planting the young trees.
During February or March the land is usually plowed and a
good seed bed prepared. Some good legume cover crop is


then planted, such as velvet beans, cowpeas, crotalaria, or
beggarweed. The cover crop selected will be largely a mat-
ter of personal choice, depending somewhat upon which
one is best adapted to your particular soil. In the fall, gen-
erally September or October, the cover crop is plowed under.
It may be necessary to go over the crop with a disc harrow
once or twice before plowing. After the cover crop is plowed
under, go over the ground frequently with either a tooth
or acme harrow. This will put the soil in best possible
condition, and at the same time conserve the soil moisture
for the young trees when set out.
In cultivating a mature grove, that is, a grove that is
eight to ten years old, or older, there is more or less differ-
ence of opinion. A number of good growers in the State
are inclined to think that cultivation of a mature grove is
not necessary. In fact, some go so far as to say that it is
a waste of time and money. However, different soil types
and other local conditions must be taken into consideration
and studied before definite recommendations can be made.
There are numerous groves in the State that have not been
cultivated in several years which are still producing sat-
isfactory crops of fruit.
The question of cultivation or non-cultivation of the
mature grove is receiving more thought and consideration
today than ever before. It is hoped that in the next few
years the question may be more satisfactorily settled.

Fig, lI.- rl of an 5,I.0a re (lrui Planting,

r ~m' * U' -,h ~1

-(i'nurb ie. IIiIIy 11 (;rn'eN


Cover Crops
"Would'st have abundant crops reward thy toil
And fill thy barns, 0 tiller of the soil?
Then ever keep in mind this maxim true,
Feed well the land, and 'twill in turn feed you."
-Author unknown.
F a large number of citrus groves are examined,
Sit will generally be found that the groves which
have made the best growth and look the best are
the ones that have received the most careful attention.
These groves are most likely to be the ones in which cover
crops have been grown almost continuously.
The feeding of the citrus tree is quite similar to the feed-
ing of other plants, such as corn, cotton, or apple trees. That
is, if citrus is grown on soils that do not supply all of the
necessary plant foods for maximum growth, it is neces-
sary to add the deficient food to the soil. The growing of
a cover crop in the citrus grove each year, especially if it
is a legume, is one of the most practical ways of increas-
ing the efficiency of the fertilizer that is applied from
year to year.
Cover crops increase the humus of the soil, and in this
way increase the water holding capacity of the soil, which
is often an important factor in the growth of a young
grove. Then, too, during the rainy season the cover crop
pumps a lot of surplus water out of the soil.
The experience of many successful citrus growers has
been that citrus trees do best, that is, make the best
growth, look more healthy, produce better fruit, and in
general have a much better appearance when grown on
soils well supplied with humus. Our hammock soil is an
excellent example of land well supplied with humus. Very
little of the high pine land contains a sufficient amount of
humus for the best growth of citrus trees. When a liberal
amount of humus is added from year to year, the soil is
kept supplied with the bacterial life which is so very es-
sential to plant growth.
A sandy soil on which clean culture is practiced does not
respond to fertilizer as well as a soil of the same type to
which a cover crop has been added each year. This is ex-
plained by the fact that commercial fertilizer does not
ordinarily add bacteria to the soil. Soil without abundant
bacterial life never responds to fertilizer or cultivation to
the same extent as does the soil that is well supplied with


Bacterial life in a soil is not only dependent upon the
humus content of the soil, but also upon the moisture con-
tent. In other words, if one is to have an abundant supply
of bacterial life in the soil. it is necessary to have a good
supply of both humus and moisture. However. as the hu-
mus content of the soil is increased, the water holding
capacity of the soil is also increased. These are two very
important factors in the production of a crop. In many
cases moisture is the limiting factor in the production of
a maximum crop. .Lack of moisture in the spring may cause
a heavy dropping off of the bloom before it sets, while lack
of moisture later in the year may cause dropping of the
immature fruit.
In addition to the humus that the cover crop may add to
the soil. it also adds plant food. The legunle crops. of course.
add more plant food than do the non-hlr'gmets. A number
of growers state that the amount ift ammonia in the fer-
tilizer may be reduced one or t wo percent when a good le-
gume cover crop is returned to the soil each year. Maxi-
mum crops are, as a rule. thei must cmini mical to produce.
Therefore. every effort should th. m:;ol. i,,t keep llit land in
such condition that best results will always be obtained so
far as crop production is concerned.
Sunshine and cultivation tend to destroy (or Iburn'u out the
humus from the soil faster t1han any Bither factor. Iy keep-
ing the ground shaded with a ci in\, criip during thle sum-
mer. the humniu content of the -,il \\ill Ie c, onserv\ d.

The choice of a cover crop will depend largely upon the
preference of the individual grower. A number o1 f legume
crops are suitable to Florida and are satisfactory to use as
cover crops in citrus groves. The legumes that have gener-
ally given the most satisfactory results are velvet bIeans.
cowpeas, beggarweed. and crotalaria. In addition to the
legumes, one has the choice of a number of non-legumes.
such as crab grass. Natal grass. sand burs. Mexican clover
(which is not a legume). and other grasses and weeds that
might grow.
Velvet beans, an annual, is one of thie oldest and best
known legume (crops. There are fou r ,or i\e varieties. such
as Florida velvet. Chinese velvet. ()Oseila velvet, and unlnch
Ninety-Day velvet, all of which are suitable to plant in cit-
rus groves. 'I'he velvet bean may properly be classed as a
tropical plant. and requires a long season to produce its
maximum growth of vine and production (of seed. The fact


that it requires a long season for its growth is a decided
advantage here in Florida. For best results, velvet beans
should be planted before the middle of May. The objection
is sometimes raised that velvet beans are not desirable for
citrus groves because they make such a rank growth and
climb up in the trees, particularly young trees. To elimi-
nate this objection, it is often advisable to go over the young
grove and cut back the velvet bean vines two or three times
so they will not interfere with the growth of the young
Beggarweed, also an annual, is another legume adapted
to conditions in Florida, and it fits in well as a cover crop
for the citrus grove. Its habit of growth is quite different
from that of velvet beans. Beggarweed is an upright grow-
ing plant that reaches a height of four to eight feet. When
the stand is thin, the plants branch freely, but when the
stand is thick, the plants make a straight slender growth
with many leaves. Beggarweed seed should be sown broad-
cast the last of May or early in June.
Cowpeas is another annual legume very commonly grown
in Florida. It is a crop that matures in from 65 to 85 days,
and can be termed a short season crop. There are a large
number of varieties to choose from. The best varieties for
Florida are the Brabham and Iron. Both of these varieties
are more or less vining in habit of growth, but cowpeas do
not make as much growth of vines as the velvet beans. If
the cover crop is not planted until the middle of June, cow-
peas are likely to give better results than velvet beans as
a cover crop. Cowpeas may be planted any time from April
to July.
Crotalaria is an annual legume that makes an erect
growth of three to six feet in height. This legume seems to
be gaining in favor as a cover crop for citrus groves. When
the stand is thin, the plants branch freely; when planted
thick, the plants make an upright growth with few branches
and a good percentage of leaves. Crotalaria may be planted
any time from March to the middle of June.

When planting a cover crop, care and judgment must be
exercised. In young groves one to four years old, it will be
found best not to plant the cover crop up near the trees,
but a space should be left on each side of the tree row from
six to eight feet wide. This means that if your tree rows
are 30 feet apart, you will have a space 14 to 16 feet wide
on which to plant the cover crop. There are two main rea-


sons for leaving the space on each side of the tree rows.
The first one is that in planting the cover crop, there should
be no excuse for injuring the trees with any implement of
tillage that might be used. The second is to leave space
enough on each side of the tree row to allow cultivation
of the young trees during the entire summer if necessary.
As the trees become larger and occupy more of the ground
with root growth and spread of limbs, it will not be possible
to use as much of the ground for cover crops. In the young
groves it may be possible to have four or five rows of a
cover crop between each row of trees, but in the older
groves only one or two rows of a cover crop may be advis-
It will be found more satisfactory to plant velvet beans
and cowpeas in rows. The rows of velvet beans should be
about four feet apart and the seed dropped about a foot
apart in the row. Planting in this way, one bushel of good
velvet bean seed should plant about three acres of grove.
Cowpeas should be planted in rows two and a half to three
feet apart, and the seed drilled in the row. It will require
about one bushel of good seed to every two acres of grove.
Velvet beans and cowpeas should be given one or two cul-
tivations after planting. The cultivation will hasten the
growth of the plants and give them a chance to get ahead
of the grass and weeds.
Beggarweed seed should be sown broadcast on a well
prepared seed bed and covered lightly with a harrow. Use
from 15 to 20 pounds of re-cleaned seed per acre.
Crotalaria should be sown broadcast at the rate of about
eight to ten pounds of seed to the acre. Prepare a good seed
bed before sowing the seed. Cover with a light tooth harrow.
None of the above mentioned legume cover crops will
grow satisfactorily in the shade of the citrus trees. Iow-
ever, the citrus grower should continue to grow a cover crop
in his grove as long as shade does not make it impossible.
Table I gives the yield of hay in tons of four legumes for
each of three years, and the average for the three years,
when grown at Gainesville, Florida. The variation in the
yield of the legumes is shown to be rather large.
TABLE I.*--Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Gainesville. Florida.
Crop 1924 1925 1926 Average
Beggarweed ........ 0.79 0.92 0.15 0.62
Velvet Beans ....... 0.98 0.2 0.7; 0.85
Cowpeas ........... 1.48 1.30 0.52 1.10
Crotalaria .......... 2.59 1.90 .1.18 2.89
*Stokhs. W. E.. Agrmonmin Ilorida Arricuil ural \': -t.rim,,t Stati,,.o ournal of
the American Society of Agronomy. Vol. 19. No. 10. Octlb.r. 1927.


The yield of the same legume crops when grown at Lake
Alfred, Florida, is shown in Table II, although at Lake Al-
fred records of the yield were obtained for only two years.
The average of the two years at Lake Alfred is much better
than the three-year average at Gainesville.
TABLE II.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Lake Alfred, Florida.
Crop 1925 1926 Average
Beggarweed .................... 2.29 1.78 2.03
Velvet Beans ................... 1.27 1.53 1.40
Cowpeas ....................... 1.27 1.01 1.14
Crotalaria ...................... 4.63 2.76 3.69

Fig. 5.--Beggarweed Cover Crop In Citrus Grove.
Gainesville is not, strictly speaking, in the citrus section
of Florida. The yields of the above legumes at Lake Alfred,
would, therefore, be more typical of the citrus section, for
Lake Alfred is in the heart of the citrus section.
Table III gives the percentage of nitrogen in each of the
four legume crops grown.
TABLE III.-Percentage of Total Nitrogen (Dry Basis) in Crops
Grown at Gainesville, Florida.*
Crop Tops Roots
Beggarweed ................................ 1.64 1.07
Velvet Beans ............................... 2.51 1.48
Cowpeas ................................ 2.29 1.65
Crotalaria .................................. 2.78 0.92
Stokes, W. E., ARronomist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal
of the American Society of Agronomy. Vol. 19, No. 10, October, 1927.


Tables IV and V show how the yield of corn and sweet
potatoes was increased when different legume crops were
plowed under in comparison with a non-legume. These two
tables are given here so that an idea may be obtained as to
the value of legumes in increasing yield of crops. No data
of this nature is available as to the yield of citrus, but it is
reasonable to expect that results with citrus fruits would be
somewhat similar to the tests with corn and sweet potatoes.
On a two-year average the legume cover crops plowed
under increased the yield of corn all the way from 3.7 to
8.0 bushels an acre. When sweet potatoes were grown, the
legume cover crops, when plowed under, increase the yield
of potatoes from 9.3 to 27 bushels an acre. *
TABLE IV.-Corn Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-Legume
and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 ........ 15.13 21.71 22.99 22.28 19.28
1926 ........ 8.40 17.65 16.66 12.90 11.75
Average ..... 11.76 19.68 19.82 17.59 15.51
TABLE V.--Sweet Potato Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-
Legumes and Legumes Turned l'ndl.r."
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 ........ 37.50 78.00 54.50 61.00 55.00
1926 ........ 26.09 39.72 34.33 33.75 27.19
Average ..... 31.79 58.86 44.41 47.37 41.09

The yield of hay per acre, percentage of nitrogen in the
crop, and the total pounds of nitrogen produced per acre
by each of the four legumes grown at Gainesville are shown
in Table VI. A cover crop that will add from 17 to 141
pounds of nitrogen per acre each year will necessarily in-
crease the fertility of the soil from year to year. The citrus
grower knows from actual experience the value of nitro-
gen. He knows that it is the most expensive fertilizer ele-
ment that he purchases.
TABLE VI.-Yields of Hay From Four Legumes Grown at Gainesville,
Fla., and Estimated Amount of Nitrogen in Crops Pet Acre.
Yield in Tons, Pounds of
Three-Year Percentage Nitrogen
Crop Average' of Nitrogen** Per Acre
Beggarweed ............ 0.62 1.413 17,890
Velvet Beans ........... 0.85 2.208 37,536
Cowpeas ............... 1.10 2.015 44,330
Crotalaria .............. 2.89 2.446 1-11,378
I See Table I.
** Air-dry basis.
*Stokelu W. E., Agronmist. Florida Agriclltural Ext l rimnt Station ,Jornal of
the American Society of Agronomy. Vol. n19. 0, Octoe-r, 1927.


Table VII shows how cover crops, when plowed under,
increase both the nitrogen and organic matter in the soil.
The results shown in Table VII were not secured in Flor-
ida, it is true, but the test was carried on at Cairo, Geor-
gia, on Norfolk fine sandy loam. Since there are hun-
dreds of citrus trees in Florida growing on Norfolk fine
sandy loam soil, the results obtained in Georgia are appli-
cable to Florida soil of this same type. If such results can
be obtained on Norfolk fine sandy loam, it is reasonable to
expect similar results on any good soil throughout Florida.
Table VII brings out the fact that by plowing under the
cover crops, all of which were not legumes, the percentage
of organic matter in the soil was more than doubled in five
years, and the nitrogen content was also doubled.

FIg. 0.--. Good Cover Crop of Crotalaria.


TABLE VII.-Analysis of Soil From a Pecan Orchard on Norfolk Fine
Sandy Loam at Cairo, Georgia, on Which Cover Crops Were
Grown at Different Seasons of the Year.*

Spring and Summer
Cover Crop

Fallow ............
Cowpeas ...........
Beggarweed ........
Cowpeas ............
Velvet Beans .......
Velvet Beans .......

Fall and Winter
Cover Crop

Percentage of

Organic Nitro-
Matter gen

Bur Clover ....... 0.64 I 0.031
Oats ............. .................
Rye ................... ... .........
Rye .............. 0.90 0.040
Rye and Oats ...... 1.23 0.050
Rye and Oats ..... 1.30 0.061

Organic matter and nitrogen are two very important
factors to have in the soil, and it is to the advantage of
every citrus grower to see that the percentage of these two
constituents is kept as high as possible in all of his land.
Table VIII shows how the water-holding capacity of the
soil is increased when organic matter is added. The table
shows that when 5 percent of organic matter is added to
coarse sand, the water-holding capacity is increased 40 per-
cent. When 10 percent of organic matter is added, the
water-holding capacity is increased 85.7 percent.

TABLE VIII. Effect of Organic Matter on Retention of Moisture
in Sand.f

Soil Material

Grams of
Water Retained
by 100 grams

Coarse Sand ....................
Coarse sand with 5 percent peat.
Coarse sand with 10 percent peat..
Coarse sand with 20 percent peat..
Peat ................. .......... I




* U. S. D. A. Department Bulletin No. 1378. Pages 4-5.
t Soil Physics and Management, by J. G. Mosier and A. F. Gustafson. Page 149.



* .t *t.

t ~
'' '" :r ~ -- :-, I i

~~-~ i

t~,C~ r YL I-b -

Fig. 7-A Good Cover Crop of Cowpeam. The Growing of a Cover Crop
In the Grove Each Year is Desirable.

Cost of Grove to Bearing Age

T usually takes about five years to bring a citrus
grove up to bearing age. The cost to do this, how-
ever, varies so greatly in different sections of the
State that it is impossible to give exact figures. The chief
reason for this great variation in cost is due to the differ-
ence in cost of land, difference in cost of clearing the land,
and difference in cost of day labor, team hire, or tractor hire.
The price of land may vary from $25.00 to $200.00 an
acre, depending upon the location and character of the land.
The better types of soil located on a paved road and close
to a shipping point will naturally cost more per acre than
a poorer grade of soil four or five miles from a paved road
and a like distance from a shipping point. The transporta-
tion of fruit by truck over an unimproved road to the ship-
ing point reduces the profits very materially.
The cost of clearing land may vary anywhere from $15.00
to $75.00 or more per acre. This depends on the number of
trees, stumps, and amount of underbrush per acre that
must be removed.


The cost of day labor varies in different parts of the
State from $1.50 to $4.00 a day. Team and tractor hire
varies in about the same proportion; that is, from $3.50
to $7.00 a day for a team, and from $15.00 to $30.00 a day
for tractor hire.

40 acres of land at $125. .................... .$ 5,000.00
Clearing at $25 per acre ................... .. 1,000.00
Fencing 320 rods at 60c ....................... 192.00
528 fence posts split at 25c ................... 132.00
Digging post holes at 2'2c. ................... 13.20
Setting posts at 2',2c ........................ 13.30
Stretching and putting up wire. ............... 21.00
1 man at S3.00 per day for three days
2 men at .2.00 per day for three days

$ 6,371.50
Breaking land, 40 acres at 85.00 an acre ......$ 200.00
Discing land twice at $1.00 an acre.......... .. . 80.00
Laying off and staking land for trees.......... 44.00
1 man at $5.00 per day for four days
2 men at $3.00 per day for four days
Stakes at 50c per hundred ................... .. 11.20
2,240 trees (set 25 by 30 feet) at 75c........... 1,680.00
Setting trees and watering at 10c each ........ 224.00
Banking trees at Ic each .................... 22.40
Fertilizer, 3 lbs. per tree, 6,720 lbs. at $42.00 per
ton .................................... 141.12
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ............ 16.80
4 waterings (wagon, pair mules, and :3 men at
$12.00 per day; 2 days each watering, or 8
days at $12.00) ......................... 96.00
Plowing out middles in fall at 83.25 per acre.... 130.00
Pulling down banks at Ic each. ................ 22.40
Four cultivation at $1.00 per acre each cultiva-
tion .................................... 160.00
Two hoeings of trees and sprouting, 5 men at
$2.50 a (lay for 2 days .................... 25.00
Replacing dead trees, 112 at 75e each .......... 84.00

S 2,9306.92

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre ...........
Fertilizer, 6 lhs. per tree, or 13,440 lbs. at $42.00
per ton ............. .................
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ............
25 bushels of cowpea seed for cover crop at $2.25
Replacing dead trees, 56 at 75 ................
Planting cover crop, one man and one mule with
planter for 5 days at $4.00 ................





Cultivating cover crop, one man and one mule 5
days at $4.00 a day for two cultivations.... $ 40.00
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c per acre each cultivation.............. 300.00
3 hoeings and sprouting at 50c an acre for each
hoeing .................................. 60.00
Banking trees at 2c each .................... 44.80
Discing cover crop at $2.00 an acre............ 80.00

$ 1,088.89
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre......... $ 130.00
Fertilizer, 9 lbs. per tree, or 10.08 tons at $42.00
per ton ................................ 423.36
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 a ton.............. 50.40
Pulling down banks at Ic each................ 22.40
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre, each cultivation............ 300.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.......... 60.00
Pruning at $3.25 a day, 6 days................ 19.50
Banking trees at 3c each..................... 67.20
300 lbs. beggarweed seed at 50c............... 150.00
Planting beggarweed seed, 2 days at $2.25...... 4.50
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre...... 80.00

$ 1,307.36
Discing middles at $3.25 an acre...............$ 130.00
Fertilizer, 12 lbs. per tree, 13.44 tons at $42.00
per ton ................................ 564.48
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton............ 67.20
Pulling down banks at 1 /c each .............. 33.60
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c an acre ............................. 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.......... 60.00
Pruning, 8 days at $3.25 ..................... 26.00
3 sprayings, each spraying 2 days at $30.00 per
day for spraying outfit, crew and material. 180.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre....... 80.00
Banking trees at 3c each ..................... 67.20

$ 1,448.48

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre........... $
Fertilizer, 15 pounds per tree, 16.8 tons at $42.00
per ton ........... ...................
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton............
Pulling down banks at 2c each................
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c an acre ................... .........
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre..........
Pruning, 12 days at $3.25 ....................




3 spraying ................................. 200.00
)iscing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre ....... 80.00

$ 1.5s3..10
I.ess estimated returns from crop for fifth year..$ 1..1S(0.0t

Net cost folr ifth year ............ ..... .. .... 10;..10

AVERA(;GE (CO)ST PER A('C E ............... . 33 ; 1:..l1

Note: Beginning i with the sixth year. under orCilnary conditions.
tlie retturnl- frIoIn the crtrIu cIrop1 will Imre tihlan ):pay (i'itrat.lt g e(xp)Cnses.

Pi'a. ',.-%isu Idealm %Celfing~ 1,,r it Ilmove'.'.%e eeee'es Groeee sit 'limit S.lemge
%% till Iteaizmm I., Iteamr Frumil lm. Iice ir Thre~e I eamr%.


Irrigation of Citrus Groves in Florida
Extentlon Speciallit In Citrus Culture, Agricultural Extension Diviion
ITRUS grove irrigation in Florida is rapidly be-
coming one of the major operations in citrus fruit
Culture. More progress has been made along this
line during the twelve-month period ending April, 1928,
than during any five-year period of the last twenty years.
The reason for such unusual activity and interest is seen
in the unprecedented drought.
While the citrus belt of Florida has a normal annual
rainfall of around fifty inches, which is in excess of the
total annual needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of
the groves suffer from lack of moisture at some time or
other during the spring or fall of five years out of seven
because of inadequate monthly distribution of this total
annual rainfall. A study of the rainfall records of the
Weather Bureau of the past 35 years brings out the fact
that during that period the number of months with insuf-
ficient rainfall was as follows:
January ............. 10 September ........... 2
February ............ 16 October .............. 10
March ............... 24 November ........... 23
April....... ........ 25 December ........... 10
M ay ................ 15

The tangible results of this deficiency of moisture are
dropping of bloom and young fruit and dropping of fruit
in the fall and winter. But the real effects go farther than
that. We are beginning to take into consideration the effect
upon size and quality of the fruit, upon the economic uses
of fertilizers, upon the cover crop and the consequent effect
upon the organic content of the soil, the permanent effect
upon the tree as manifested in dead branches and suscep-
tibility to disease and insect attacks. Correcting this defi-
ciency of moisture is, therefore, a problem of very great
economic importance to many citrus fruit growers of the
Any method of applying water to an agricultural soil by
artificial means may be termed irrigation. As a guide to
proper grove irrigation, a few fundamentals should be kept
in mind. In the first place, the soil is the reservoir that
holds the water for the tree. The water-holding capacity
of a soil, its field capacity, is' in direct proportion to the
Citrus Industry, July, 1928, Page 11.


fineness of the soil particles and to its organic content.
In order to apply irrigation water effectively and econom-
ically, the water-holding capacity of the soil and the per-
centage of moisture present at the time of irrigation, or
when irrigation is contemplated, should be known. (A prac-
ticable method of making soil moisture determination in
the grove may be obtained from the Experiment Station.
Gainesville.) The depth of the tree root system and the
depth of greatest root concentration should be determined.
This may be done by digging a ditch or a few holes in the
grove and observing the distribution of the root system.
The coarser the soil particles, the more rapidly the soil
absorbs water, and in turn the more quickly it gives up its
total moisture to the tree. These facts should help to guide
the grower in the frequency of application of irrigation
water and in proper quantity to apply.
Irrigation water in the grove is usually applied to the
surface or near the surface and is pulled downward through
the soil by gravity. If the moisture-holding capacity is 9
percent, a foot of soil will absorb approximately an acre-
inch of water. The first foot gets the first acre-inch applied
and in order to wet the soil below that depth more water
must be applied. The second acre-inch will wet the second
foot, the third acre-inch the third depth, and so on down,
each additional amount of water passing through the wet-
ted soil, the moisture-holding capacity of which is thorough-
ly satisfied. If more water is applied than is needed to
satisfy the water-holding capacity of the soil to the depth
of the root system, it passes on downward and is lost to
the tree, for the time being at least. The soil, or reservoir,
gives up its water to the roots of the tree and cover crop.
The relative rate at which the water at different depths
is given up is in direct proportion to the root concentra-
tion. After a soil has been wetted to the entire depth of
the root system, one or more additional applications of
water will be needed to rewet the first 14 to 18 inches, or
the area of the highest root concentration, before addition-
al water will be needed in the lower root area.
In irrigation practice, we might consider that when a
soil is wetted it holds its water until it is extracted by the
roots of plants. If we depend upon capillary action to dis-
tribute water from wet to dry soils, in any direction, dis-
appointment will result. This suggests the importance of
uniform distribution of the irrigation water over the en-
tire surface of the grove. Anything short of this in a bear-
ing grove cannot be considered as highly efficient irriga-


tion. If the soil in any part of the grove is not wetted the
roots in that area may die from lack of moisture while sur-
rounding areas are wet. We cannot depend on a horizontal
spread of water from irrigation furrows or ditches. From
a practical standpoint, the only force or agencies that oper-
ate in the distribution of water in the soil are gravity, ad-
hesion of water to soil particles and surface tension of the
water film.
When to apply irrigation water to our Florida groves
for best results is a question that will require time and in-
vestigation to answer. However, our present knowledge of
irrigation in general warrants making a few fundamental
recommendations. In proper irrigation, a knowledge of the
water-holding capacity and wilting point of the soil of the
individual grove, the amount of moisture present and dis-
tribution of the root system will be needed. Irrigation water
should be applied before the trees wilt and otherwise show
signs of distress. Permanent injury may result to a tree
left in a wilted condition for only a few hours. The mois-
ture-holding capacity of a large percentage of our citrus
acreage runs from 10 to 25 percent. In most of these soils
very little or no root growth will be found under conditions
of less than 2 percent moisture. A higher moisture content
is required to keep trees from wilting in the highly organic
soils than in the light sandy soils. The wilting point of the
soil of the individual grove should be known, and an effort
should be made to hold the moisture content safely above
that point by replenishing the water by repeated irrigation
as the trees take it up. It is extremely difficult to wet uni-
formly some of our soils after they have been allowed to
"run dry." This condition is often found in Florida groves.
It is useless to try to build the moisture content of a soil
to a point above that of its moisture-holding capacity by
excessive applications of water, as the excess water will
either run down through the soil to a point below the root
system, carrying soluble plant food with it, or be caught
between impervious strata in the subsoil, raising the water
table or perhaps creating a water-logged condition injuri-
ous to the lower roots of the trees.
The application of fertilizer should be followed by only
enough irrigation water to distribute the soluble plant food
throughout the root zone. Growers are more or less famil-
iar with the losses of water soluble nitrogen often incurred
with heavy rainfall immediately following an application
of fertilizer. The same conditions may obtain on light soil


in connection with heavy applications of irrigation water.
From the standpoint of conserving nitrogen at least, lower
depths of soil should be wetted in the spring and fall be-
fore the applications of fertilizer are made. Results of
winter and early spring irrigation of the past two years
indicate that winter irrigation may be highly desirable
under certain Florida conditions.
Several methods of applying irrigation water to citrus
groves are being employed throughout the State with vary-
ing degrees of efficiency, economy and success. The pre-
vailing method is known as the flooding method. With the
flooding method, water is pumped from a lake or well,
usually by means of a centrifugal pump, through a 1perma-
nent main to the highest part of the grove. The main is
provided with outlets through risers, at convenient inter-
vals, from which the water is conducted through canvas
hose, galvanized slip-joint conductor lpilpes, or in some cases
through ditches and furrows, to all parts of the grove.
With but few exceptions, an effort is made to flood the
entire surface of the grove. When the ditch or furrow is
properly used, the surface is flooded by building dams and
making small lateral trenches with a hoe. In a few cases
the water is allowed to run in the furrow for several min-
utes without being diverted or spread over the entire sur-
face, in which case the irrigation is found to be very low
in efficiency. In one grove where the writer studied the
efficiency of this method, four hours after tlhe water had
been allowed to flow through an irrigation furrow for
thirty minutes no appreciable increase of moisture was
present six inches from the edge of the furrow and eleven
inches below the bottom. A strip less than twice the width
of the burrow had been wetted through the area of great-
est root concentration. As only one furrow to the middle
was used we can readily see that this was very poor irri-
gation. The furrow can he used satisfactorily in distribut-
ing water from the main when the slope is not great enough
to result in washing and where a large volume of water is
discharged and an effort is made to flood the entire area
penetrated by the root system of the trees.
The desirable sources of irrigation water are the thous-
sands of fresh water lakes scattered throughout the citrus
belt as well as the entire State: artesian wells 75 to 700
feet deep) in the coastal region, around the large interior
lakes, and along many of the rivers; the shallow wells 20
to 50 feet deep, especially in the coastal region: and the
inland rivers and creeks. The fresh water lakes of the cit-


rus belt alone are capable of supplying enough pure irriga-
tion water to irrigate 500,000 acres of grove without re-
ducing their level to the extent of affecting their beauty
or usefulness in other ways. Flowing wells of the artesian
belt furnish an ample supply of water for irrigation by
natural flow or by the use of low-head pumping units, op-
erating at a very low cost per acre-inch. Irrigation water
can be delivered to more than 75 percent of the groves of
the State under a total working head of less than 100 feet,
thus assuring irrigation at a low cost.


Economy in irrigation demands constant adherence to
the thought of delivering to the tree the required amount
of water at the lowest cost per gallon or acre-inch. The
application of this principle begins with the selection of
the material and equipment, and installation of the plant.
To move a given amount of water with the minimum horse-
power and at the lowest cost per acre-inch, the pump and
engine or motor must be matched for the highest efficiency
under the given conditions. A 3-inch pump should not
be used where a larger one will deliver water at a lower
cost per unit because of higher efficiency. Strict attention
should be given to matching pulleys, pump and engine to
the particular conditions. Pipe lines should be laid as
straight as practicable, with the minimum number of el-
bows. Friction, or resistance to the flow of water, should
be reduced as nearly as practicable and economical to the
minimum. In practice, keeping down the friction has, for
the past year, been seriously interfered with by the high
cost of iron pipe in the larger sizes. The almost prohibitive
price of six, eight, and ten-inch pipe has been forcing
growers to use the smaller sizes in their installations. These
small sizes are in most cases inadequate for carrying the
required amount of water at a unit cost that will keep the
irrigation cost within the range of desired economy. In my
judgment, 95 percent of the 150 plants that I have inspect-
ed should have been equipped with larger mains. This mis-
take no doubt would have not been made if piping of the
larger sizes could have been purchased at prices in keeping
with the profits from grove irrigation through the produc-
tion of citrus fruits. The condition mentioned has directed
my attention and efforts toward finding a desirable sub-
stitute for iron piping and at a lower cost. An investiga-
tion of concrete pipe for irrigation under pressure brought
out sufficient merit to warrant laying a demonstration


line. This was done in a grove on Lake Harris in Lake
county. I have been officially requested to describe this
plant and discuss its operations in connection with this


In the installation referred to, 8-inch concrete pipes, in
3-foot lengths, of the ball and spigot type, was used in the
main extending from the pump near the lake, under a clay
road and through the grove to a point at an elevation of
31 feet above the lake. The joints were sealed with a pipe-
sealing compound known as "GK," over which a collar of
cement mortar was built. Concrete risers were used, fitted
with 4-inch iron tees and nipples for discharging the water
into conductor pipes and hose. One thousand feet of 5-inch
conductor pipe is used. An 8-foot, open-head standpipe was
built of 10-inch concrete pipe at the upper end of the line
for forcing water through hose to an elevation above the
end of the main and as a pressure relief to the line. The
line was laid in a ditch 2 feet wide and 2 feet deep, and
covered soon after laying. The elastic pipe-sealing com-
pound was used to provide for expansion and contraction
and possible irregular settling of the line. The cement col-
lar was built over the sealed joints as a reinforcement to
the "GK" and as a further prevention of tree root pene-
tration. A one to two and one-half cement mortar of low
slump was used, and was held in place while setting with a
cheese cloth diaphragm. Sixty feet of 5-inch iron suction
pipe with one elbow of 15 degrees were used in the 41/>-
foot lift from the lake to the pump. The end of the pipe in
the water is equipped with a quarter-inch screen hut no
foot valve. A centrifugal pump with 5-inch suction and 4-
inch discharge is used. The seven feet of 4-inch line be-
tween the pump and the concrete line consists of nipples,
90-degree elbow, gate valve, 4 I feet of rubber suction hose
from valve to beginning of concrete line, and flanged unions.
While this flexible connection with the concrete line is
not essential, it is highly desirable. The pump is primed by
means of a pitcher spout pump attached to the top of the
pump case by a short line of pipe including a small valve.
In priming the centrifugal pump, the large valve in the
discharge line is closed and the small valve between the
two pumps is opened. The pitcher pump is then operated
until the water flows from it. The small valve is then
closed, the centrifugal pump started, and when going at


full speed the large valve in the discharge line is opened.
About five minutes are required to prime the pump by the
method described. This method of priming a centrifugal
pump is given in detail at this time because of the difficulty
often experienced in priming by other methods.
In the installation above described, the 8-inch main makes
it possible to operate efficiently the 4-inch pump with a
capacity of 450 gallons per minute by a 6-horsepower gaso-
line engine against a total working head of 39 feet, cover-
ing 20 acres at a total cost of $1.35 per acre inch, including
depreciation on equipment and interest on the investment
of $40 per acre. The price of concrete pipe makes such an
installation possible and economical.
The uses of concrete pipe in citrus grove irrigation
under pressure has been sufficiently tested to warrant
recommending it to growers under reasonable conditions.
Eight plants using concrete pipe have been installed in
the State within the last few weeks. Right here I would
hang up a caution sign: LAY CONCRETE PIPE PROP-
ERLY. This is a job that certainly cannot be safely turned
over to unskilled or irresponsible laborers.

In conclusion, I shall summarize by answering the often-
repeated questions coming from growers about concrete
pipe for grove irrigation: "What effect does age have on
concrete pipe?" "How does friction loss in concrete pipe
compare with that of iron pipe?" "Is there danger of citrus
tree root penetration and stoppage ?" In answer to the first
question, I shall quote from Bulletin 858, Bureau of Public
Roads, U. S. D. A.: "It is apparent from studies made of
concrete pipe laid 38 years ago that there is no material
decrease in the carrying capacity." In regard to friction
loss, I shall quote from the same bulletin: "The friction
loss in a mile of given size new cast iron pipe was 2.1 feet;
in old cast iron pipe it was 5.17 feet. In the best concrete
pipe, it was 1.91 feet." Quoting from the same bulletin in
answer to the last question: "There is no risk of interfer-
ing with the capacity of concrete pipe on account of roots
entering them if they are properly made and laid. There is
no case on record where roots have entered cement pipes
unless they were made without being properly pressed, or
the space in making field joints were not properly filled
with mortar."


The shaded portion of the map in Figure 9 shows the
areas in the State where artesian water is available. This
shows that there is a considerable area along the east coast,
the lower west coast, a narrow strip down through the ridge
section, and a large part of the Everglades where artesian
water may be secured.
The depth to the water varies in different sections, rang-
ing from 10o to 1.200 or 1.500 feet.



Fig. U.-Nhadled Iorllon of Manp Sho4,wmN rtlion of Florida Where Arter-
Inn Water May lie Obtained at a Depth of 100 to 2.000 Feet.


iix. IO.-An .Arlt-I ;l "Vell in t Gironv i.s Goil (Crop Insuranver.


HE yield of citrus fruits per acre varies as much
as does the yield of corn. There are a number of
factors that influence the yield of fruit, as the
type of soil, the amount of fertilizer applied per acre, mois-
ture, the variety, and the age of the trees. Mature trees,
those from ten to fifteen years of age, should produce an
average of 200 boxes of fruit per acre. There are many
growers who, as a rule, get much better yields than 200
boxes an acre because they have selected land well suited
to citrus growing; and, in addition, they have given the
groves the very best attention so far as fertilization and
cultivation are concerned. However, on good citrus soil
and where the trees are given good care. a yield of 200
boxes an acre is a fair average yield.


/ ARE and judgment must be exercised in pick-
ing citrus fruits. The fruits are very easily
Injured by rough or careless handling during
the picking operation. The fruit must not be pulled from
the trees, as this causes the peel, or rind, to break so
that mold and decay start very quickly. When the rind is
broken, a large amount of the fruit will decay in transit.
Citrus fruit should be cut off with clippers. It is im-
portant to clip the fruit with very short stems. If a long
stem is left on the fruit, there is danger of other fruits
being injured by the long stem. One must also be careful
not to injure the fruit with the clippers. Clipper cuts on
fruit will cause the fruit to rot just as quickly as any other
Picking is usually paid for at so much per box. The
price varies somewhat from year to year, and is also partly
governed by the yield of fruit in the particular grove.
Where the fruit is scattered on the trees the price is
usually a little higher.

Fig. 11.--l)lferent Typex of Clippers for Gathering Fruit. Front Culti-
vation of Citrus Fruits, by H. H. Hume.
-By Permission of the Macmillan Company.


lig. 12.--I ,Ioalding P14-'l Ioxes In (the (Grove IPrelitrntory Vto Ih'Iki.ng
the I'r1lit.-Co('urte of "'. E. S4et" nl.

--- --

Fig. 13:.-'l'ranportlinK the Fruit from.. the Field to the lP'I;klig Hlouse
in Fihld Io%%.s(.-' urte.y V". E. Sexton.


~~t~ idL i



Fig Io-Mi'ikng th Crop,



- I

~r~.`. ; r:

/ ~

FI, 15.-'nloading Ihe Fleld Bom n t alh Pckln Ilouier,

Fi. 18-Ont of the Mir Citru Palklng Houses li Florld,

I'ir, 1;,1l'n111 Slnrlllll'l'hnlah Ihr ~nlhillE I'nnn~



FTER the fruit has gone through the washer, dry-
er, and polisher, it passes over the grading belt.
Here trained graders separate the fruit according
to texture and color. The usual grades are Brights, Goldens,
and Russets. All culls and bad fruit are thrown out.
The graded fruit then goes to the sizer, where it is me-
chanically separated into the various sizes. From the sizer
bins the fruit is wrapped and packed into crates by experi-
enced packers. Each grade and size is packed separately.
The eating quality of the Bright, Golden, and Russet
grades may be practically the same; however, in appear-
ance the Bright and Golden fruit is more attractive to the
eye and consequently brings a better market price. The
smallest and largest fruits usually sell at a lower price than
medium and large fruit. Bright fruit that is of good tex-
ture and quality, which is medium to large in size, and
attractively packed, is the fruit that commands the best
market price.




Fig. IK-Grading FrIll,

Fi. 1l,-Frnll En IHi~ul From Wunmh T'nk to I)ryr,





IHREIt : is mre to the packing of citrus fruit than
merely putting the fruit into a I,,x or crate. A
certain numlbe'r ( oranges or grapefruit are
packed in each container. The number )of fruit in each de-
pends entirely ul)on the size of the fruit, as the boxes in
which tlie fruit is packed are all do uniform size. The in-
side measurements ,of the containers ar 12 by 12 2 by 2-1
The number of oranges in a )box or crate varies from 96
to 2:12 When the (oranges are three and a half inches in
diameter, I hey are packed in four lawyers with 96 (1lranges
to the crate. ( rangt txw inches inl diameter will pack six
layers of fruit. or S321 oranges ti the crate. Tlhet average
size oranges pack from 126 to 216 to the crate.
As grapefruit are much larger than oranges, it is neces-
sary tio pack a .imalltr number in a cral,. Tile number of
grapefruit lpr cratei varit. fli-im 2S t1 9'. tile mist com-
mon sizes packing 16;. 51, t 1. 72, and 5o) I,, the crate.
Mandarin, tangerine, King and Satsuiia oranges are
packed in half boxes. or "straps." 11 lakes two half boxes
to equal one. ordinary. Th number ,If fruit in a box varies
from IS to 21t. thoe common >iztes making 61r. 76. 91i. 120.
1 14. 168. and 216 per Ibox.
There is an art in tlhe commercial packing of citrus
fruit. A certain number of fruit of uniform size must be
packed in each container. In addition. packing must be
done so that thie fruits will keep their originall position in
the box. If thli fruit is loose ill thl Ibox. it will become more
or less bruised in transit, which will mean a heavy loss in
market value.



No am| i .- *;
Ii. ".' n i: La.A .rs3

No. and slzo M4;
Dia. 4 j 11.; l yiert 3

IN... a4 ainLsr. 10

Dia. La r.

NanI zo 36:
I, Iin Y.. La.r3

Plan. 4 j In.: La r.en

No. sad sisi 112. No. and ..w MI:
hA~. i3( in.; Layers 4 V. 3D- Ps Layer.

No. and ise 1-4: No and iw 23D:
lh. 2t H ia.. L"yer, 5 Di.. 2 11 in.; Lakenus

No. and I" 226 N.o and .iu s5:
Dian. 2 ?s Lwm 5 DLia 1in.L~sn


N. aod sit. -W

No awl in,.-12.
Di. 411 In.; Layens 4

No. and ire- HON No. and Nlr. 9
ILa. 4 in.i Layer I 1)Di. 3I1 In.; Layero I


Na and i r at No. and Ir.- 7( N.,. and .l1woW
In. 3a in,.; L ytm3 Iia. 3%in.;La 1)... 3 III.; Layors3

n III&~ No. and .i, ]:k No. and l.o 144.
D.K. 1).". 214 ,.; 1 3 Pi. 2'j inl.. Layorsnl

No. aonI i.- W. No. And T
via.>, iI..m, 4. I. D i i-.. La.,. 4

I'Ig. 20.-1111411114141 frit 4lI'bl I linrxlou St.urm 4f C'itrn FruItf. F**roIwn (uli-
%allon .. Cirtr IFrulit. by It. If. #unic..
-11) PermIssnIon of The Mammillan Companni.


, il

Fig, l2,-I)rylng ndI PIllshing Ihe Iruil Thl Iniproiv Ihe \llppenrne,

m e


400 0',
71 1 k 'A

Fig. 22.-Irim Slimr Fruit to WrpI' d miid Paeked,


I'ij. 24-Ihox P'ress Showvingl Topnjl IncgnjC Nailed
On Ioi of Citrus F~rtzit. From (Cultivatlion of
S ion of thie Marm.mii lla Colau inll.y.

Fig. 23-Paeked for Shipment.


By L. .1. RIHODES, State Marketing Conmntnlsnoner.

UMEROUS marketing agencies are available
Sto growers of citrus fruit. There are a large
Number of independent shippers scattered
throughout the State, and packing houses are available at
practically all shipping points in the citrus belt. The Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange, with headquarters in Tampa, Flor-
ida, is a growers' cooperative marketing organization that
has been functioning since 1909. This organization at pres-
ent has a membership of five or six thousand growers with
125 local associations and twenty or more sub-exchanges.
The exchange maintains branch packing houses in nearly
all citrus centers and handles approximately one-third of
the citrus crop.
The Florida Citrus Exchange takes complete charge of
the fruit of all of its members on the tree, and gathers,
packs, and markets the fruit at a stipulated rate per box.
The independent shippers will either buy the fruit from
the grower while it is on the tree or f. o. b. the shipping
point. Should the grower prefer, however, he may sell his
fruit on a commission basis through one of the indepen-
dent shippers, or, if he chooses, he can market his own
fruit and ship it himself.
In the early part of 1928 a movement was initiated by
many leading citrus growers to organize the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association, with headquarters
at Winter Haven, Fla. At the time this bulletin is being
written, the Clearing House has signed up approximately
85 percent of the total citrus crop, and all preliminary re-
quirements for organizing the Clearing House have been
fulfilled. The Clearing House provides that growers join-
ing shall sell their fruit only through sales agents of the
Clearing House. The sales agents of the Clearing House
are those shippers who have signed up for membership in
the association, agreeing that not more than 49 per cent
of their business will be with non-member growers of the
Clearing House Association.
The purpose of the Clearing House Association, as set
forth in its charter, is to "better promote the general in-
terest of Florida citrus growers: (1) By improving the
quality, grade and pack; (2) By promoting a wider dis-
tribution of the volume of Florida citrus fruit through ad-
vertising, through more equitable freight rates, and through
economic refrigeration; (3) By securing and stabilizing


a systematic flow of Florida citrus fruit from producers
to consumers as efficiently and directly as possible."
Any grower of citrus fruit can become a member of the
Clearing House. Under the plan of organization, member-
growers may still market through their favorite shipper,
provided the shipper has joined the Clearing House. The
Florida Grower for August, 1928, published the latest avail-
able information on the status of the independent shippers:
"The dream of Florida fruit growers for many years-a
marketing organization large enough to control and pro-
mote the distribution and to get them a profitable price
for their crops-apparently has become a reality with the
establishment of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association. Practically every large independent
citrus sales agency in the State, as well as a substantial
majority of the smaller independent shippers, have become
affiliated by contract with the Clearing House Association.
With the added tonnage of these independent shippers, it
is now estimated that the Clearing House will control at
least 85 percent of Florida's 1928-1929 fruit crops."

Florida Monthly Farm Price of Grapefruit*
(Dollars Per Crate)

Season g I
CC Z -

1918-1919 $1.50' $1.80 $2.30 82.42 $2.26 $2.17 $2.58 $3.43
1919-1920 2.16 2.11 2.00 1.88 1.93 1.98 1.60 2.14
1920-1921 2.88 2.06 2. 2 '2.76' 2.301 2.42' 2.21 2.38
1921-1922 1.35 1.48' 1.60 1.55' 1.45' 1.58 2.281 3.52
1922-1923 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.95 1.65' 1.70' 2.101 2.32
1923-1924 1.08' 1.18 1.08' .95 .95 .95' .85' 1.10
1924-1925 1.20' 1.30 .05' 1.05 1.25 1.25 1.25' 1.60
1925-1926 2.30' 2.30 1.80' 1.5 1.70 2.45 2.60 2.60
1926-1927'* 2.20' 2.00' 1.55' 1.40 1.65 2.00' 2.10' 1.75
1927-1928** 2.25 2.17' 2.30 2.26' 2.661 2.94' 2.94 2.88
Average Monthly
Price Over
Period I 81.89 $1.84' $1.83 81.81! S1.78i $1.94' $2.05' $2.37
1. S. D. A. Statisti cal Bulletin No. 16. June. 1927. Table 50, p. 112, "These
prices are the estimated prices received by ptrodt errs on the 15th of the month as
currently reIported in the supplements to C'rops and Markets."
**Prices for 192(.. 1927 and 192S were furnished by Mr. 11. A. Marks, Agricultural
Statistician, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Orlando. Flurida.


Estimated Percentage
of crop shipped each
Month Month*
O ctober ................................. 8
N ovem ber ............................... 12
D ecem ber ............................... 10
January ................................ 14
February ................................ 14
M arch .................................. 15
A pril ................................... 13
M ay .................................... 8
Other m months ........................... 6
Calculated from monthly shipments as currently reported in Crops and Markets
over a five-year period, 1923-1928.
Florida Monthly Farm Price of Oranges*
(Dollars Per Crate)


1918-.19 ............ $2.68 $3.04 $2.70 $2.60 $2.64 $2.921 $3.00
1919-1920 ............2.41 2.45 2.40 2.26 2.48 3.02 2.72
1920-1921 ............ 2.58 2.48 2.82 2.69 2.28 2.77 2.96
1921-1922 ............ 1.45 1.58 1.82 2.08 2.42 3.18 4.62
1922-1923 ............ 2.28 2.35 240 2.45 2.35 2.78 3.50
1923-1924 ............ 1.25 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.30 1.05 1.35
1924-1925 ............ 1.30 1.50 1.40 1.75 2.25 3.25 4.25
1925-1926 ............ 2.50 3.25 2.50 2.35 2.35 2.75 3.40
1926-1927** .......... 2.45 2.20 1.65' 1.55 2.00 2.20 2.90
1927-1928** .......... 2.75 2.46 2.65 2.78 3.22 4.02 3.94
Average Monthly
Price Over Ten-
Year Period ........ $2.16 $2.26 $2.15 $2.16 $2.33 $2.79 $3.26
U. S. D. A. Statistical Bulletin No. 16, June, 1927, Table 50, p. 111, "These prices
are the estimated prices received by producers on the 15th of the month as currently
reported in the supplements to Crops and Markets."
**Prices for 1926, 1927, and 1928 were furnished by Mr. II. A. Marks, Agricultural
Statistician, U. S. D. A., Orlando, Florida.
Estimated Percentages
of crop shipped each
Month Month*
October ................................. 2
N ovem ber ............................... 17
D ecem ber ............................... 21
January ................................. 17
February ................................ 15
March ............................... 14
April .................................. 7
Other months ........................... 7
Calculated from monthly shipments as currently reported in Crops and Markets
over a five-year period, 1923-1928.



The marketing of citrus fruit may begin as early as
September 10th or 15th, although only a small percentage
of the crop, perhaps about one percent, is marketed in
September. From two to eight percent is shipped in Oc-
tober, while about sixty percent goes to market during
November, December, January and February. In other
words, the bulk of the citrus crop of Florida is shipped
between November 15 and March 1.
The citrus fruit crop of Florida finds it way to market
by various routes. The bulk of the fruit is shipped by rail
to Northern markets in carload lots, and in many cases by
trainloads. The boxes are packed in both ventilated and
refrigerated cars. Small shipments go by express, and are
usually for nearby markets. Water transportation is also
used to some extent. This method will no doubt increase
very materially with improved refrigeration on boats.

~ Il~I~i ~


Fig.~~~~~~~1 25Cr.tlaigo h ri nEetu t udiu~~~g-ore lri ru


Limes and Lemons

'I' OST early writers on citrus have placed limes
and lemons in the same class. This is proba-
(A f bly due to the fact that limes and lemons are
used for the same purposes; that is, for the making of
beverages and for seasoning.
Limes and lemons were probably introduced into Flor-
ida by the Spaniards. Whether these two fruits came direct
from Spain or by the way of the West Indies makes but
little difference for they were first grown in Florida a great
many years ago.
Quite an extensive lemon industry had been developed
in Florida prior to the freezes of 189.1 and 1895. Early
records show that as many as 140.000 boxes of lemons were
shipped in a single season.
The lime and lemon are both much more sensitive to cold
than oranges. Therefore, after the freeze the acreage in
lemons decreased and the acreage in oranges increased.
Scab, a disease of citrus is more severe on lemons than
oranges, which is another reason the lemon acreage in this
State has decreased.
Nearly all of the limes grown in Florida are produced
on the Florida Keys south of the mainland. They grow
and prodLuce better on the rocky soils of the Keys than any
of the other citrus fruits. The limes grown on the Keys are
known as Key limes and have been propagated from seed.
As a result the fruit from different trees varies widely in
size, shape, flavor, and the percentage of juice in the fruit.
On some trees, the fruit may not )e larger than a medium-
sized plum, while on an adjoining tree the fruit may be as
large as a good-sized lemon.
The Tahiti, a budded variety of the lime, is probably
more hardy than the Key lime and seems to be better
adapted to the mainland. The fruit of this variety is about
the size of the ordinary lemon.
The growing of limes and lemons in Florida will un-
doubtedly be very limited. Anyone thinking of taking up
the growing of either should investigate thoroughly be-
fore making any definite move in that direction.
The cultivation of the lime and lemon is almost identi-
cal with that of oranges. The most important fact to
keep in mind is that they are more easily injured by cold
than oranges or grapefruit and can therefore be grown
successfully only in very favorable locations.


HE citron is one of the few fruits mentioned by
early writers on Florida agriculture. It is difficult
to say just when it was first introduced into Flor-
ida, but no doubt it was brought here by the early Spanish
The citron has never become of commercial importance
in Florida. This is due to the fact that the chief value
of the citron is for the candied peel, and the. demand for
the candied peel is more or less limited.
Large quantities of citron peel are imported into the
United States from other countries where it is possible to
grow citrons much cheaper than can be done in Florida.
Because of this cheap supply, it is very doubtful if citron
growing will ever become of commercial importance in
Florida. The peel is brought in both as candied peel and in
brine. The brine may be steeped out and the peel candied
when needed.
The citron is more sensitive to cold than either the lemon
or lime, and can be grown only in those sections of Florida
that are seldom visited by cold weather. The culture of
citrons is very much the same as for oranges.


Satsuma Oranges in Northern and
Western Florida
t IHE satsuma orange is adapted to a wide range of
soils throughout northern and western Florida.
Climatic conditions in these sections are favor-
able to the growing of this orange, although until recently
only little attention had been given to it, except in small
plantings. The satsuma has been planted in practically
every county in Florida, but has not been a successful com-
mercial crop in the main citrus belt of this State. While
good satsumas have been produced in southern Florida,
this variety does not grow as successfully in that section
as do other citrus varieties. Therefore, it has but little com-
mercial importance in central and southern Florida, but
in northern and western Florida it is the leading citrus
variety. The satsuma of this area is of excellent quality
and colors better and earlier than that of southern Florida.
The satsuma usually is ripe and has sufficient sugar con-
tent for shipping during October and November, before a
large part of the round oranges of central and southern
Florida are ripe. At this time there is a ready sale in many
markets for the satsuma. However, in order to gain com-
mercial importance, this fruit must be produced in suffi-
cient quantities to justify carlot shipments, although there
is always a limited local demand for it and at a fair price.
When ripe the satsuma has a fine flavor and good tex-
ture, and is of a very fine quality. When well colored it is
especially attractive. A demand has been created for it in
Southern cities, also in Chicago and surrounding markets,
which up to the present have been only partially supplied.
It, therefore, seems advisable to increase the plantings of
satsumas in northern and western Florida, in order to sup-
ply distant markets and local demands.

In setting a satsuma grove, considerable care should be
taken to secure a favorable site. Suitable soils and frost
protection are very important considerations, and in the
large territory to which this fruit is adapted it is an easy
matter to pick out a location that has these advantages.
*Reprint from Bulletin 41, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Work
in Agriculture and Home Economics.


SoILs.-Satsumas do well on a variety of soils. The soils
most desirable in the territory referred to are: The rolling
pine lands with a clay subsoil 20 to 30 inches from the sur-
face, and well-drained high hammock lands. The better
grades of flatwoods land can be made suitable, if proper
drainage is provided. However, the average flatwoods pal-
metto land is not likely to produce a good satsuma grove.
Plantings made on low wet soils have not been successful;
they may start off nicely and look promising for the first
few months but will later turn yellow and quit growing.
Nor are sandy oak ridges likely to produce good groves, as
such lands are too loose and the trees will suffer for lack
of moisture during dry weather. Low hammocks usually
contain good citrus soil. However, such land is not recom-
mended for satsumas, due to the probability of too fre-
quent injury by cold. Particularly should one avoid the
poorer types of loose sandy soils, as satsuma trees will
grow slowly unless the soil is fairly compact and retains
moisture during drought periods.
FROST PROTECTION.-There are many locations through-
out the territory referred to where frost protection is nat-
urally available. A difference of 5 or 10 degrees in tem-
perature is frequently recorded in a small locality, due to
elevation, nearness to a body of water, or the character of
the soil. Satsuma trees planted on high rolling land are less
liable to be injured by cold than trees planted on level or
flat lands, because of the better air drainage and air cir-
culation of the higher land. This is due also to a somewhat
later growth during the early spring months, which pre-
vents the appearance of bloom and new growth until after
danger of frost is passed. It is desirable to hold back the
spring flush of growth as late as possible in order to escape
spring frosts.
We are able to secure a certain amount of frost protection
by cleaning up the ground, by plowing in November and
then leaving it bare through the winter, giving no further
cultivation unless weed growth becomes heavy.
In dry weather, citrus trees are more subject to cold in-
jury than when there is plenty of moisture in the soil, as
freezing is first a drying process. Therefore, a soil well
filled with water in winter is in itself a real help.
Windbreaks or bodies of timber adjoining a satsuma
grove on the north and west should be opened up to allow
air drainage, because the cold air is likely to pass over this
timber and to settle in any depression or pocket formed in
the timber. Northern slopes usually hold back spring
growth a little longer than southern slopes.


Water protection is afforded to groves in this section
by lakes, large ponds and streams (although small bodies
of water do not offer a great amount of protection) and
by proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and its bays. Citrus
groves planted on low lands, having little or no water pro-
tection, are quite liable to be frozen back or have their fruit
buds injured by cold too frequently to prove profitable in-
BANKING TREES.-It is advisable to mound or bank up
the earth around the base of young trees for the winter
season. These banks should be well up above the points
where the buds were inserted. This should be done in No-
vember or December. Only dry, clean soil, free of trash,
should be used in order to avoid injury to the tree trunks
by wood lice.
Avoid making the banks out of heavy clay, as growers
in Escambia County have observed that this type of bank
is packed as a result of the movement of the tree by wind.
Because of this movement a space into which cold air set-
tles is left between the tree trunk and the bank. Sandy soil
will settle around the tree trunk and leave no air space for
the cold air. It is a good idea to go over the grove with a
hoe or a rake and freshen up the earth in the banks before
a freeze. Allow the banks to remain until March when,
usually, danger of frost is passed. This banking will pre-
vent the freezing of the trunk of the tree and save the bud
from cold injury.
The citrus tree is a rapid grower and should its top be-
come frozen, the frozen part can be cut off and a new top
will soon grow to take its place. For this reason it is pos-
sible that there will be no loss of fruit for more than two
successive years.
SHIPPING FACILITIES.-It is a decided advantage for a
grove to be near a shipping point. Long hauls are expen-
sive and inconvenient. When citrus fruit is to be shipped
in carlots, packing house facilities are necessary. A prop-
erly constructed packing house of fair capacity can serve
several hundred acres of groves. An association owning a
packing house of such capacity can well afford to equip it
with the best machinery and provide in it only the best
supervision and, thereby, be able to market the fruit to the
best advantage. Small isolated groves, where such facilities
cannot be secured, are at a considerable disadvantage in
marketing their fruit.


BUDs.-The Owari is the only kind of satsuma recom-
mended. This is a hardy strain and a satisfactory bearer.
The trees are thornless and grow upright. The fruit is of
excellent quality.
STOCK.-Citrus trifoliata is the only stock, so far known,
upon which satsumas should be budded. It is the hardiest
stock of the citrus group. The fruit does not dry out on
trees budded on this stock as readily as it does on trees
budded on other stock. It colors fairly well as soon as ripe,
and remains in good condition for a reasonable period
after picking. This stock requires a constant supply of
moisture in the soil and, therefore, is not well adapted to
high dry sandy lands, which point must not be overlooked
in the selection of soils for satsumas. Trifoliata stock does
not recover as readily when severely injured by cold as do
the sour orange and lemon stocks used in the citrus belt.
Trifoliata stock grows faster than the bud, the result be-
ing an enlarged trunk at the bud union and below.
BUYING TREES.-In purchasing young trees it should be
remembered that Florida still maintains a quarantine
against the importation of citrus trees from outside the
State. This quarantine is primarily for protection against
citrus canker. There are in the state a number of nurseries
which handle satsuma trees, and while unable to care for
the heavy demands of the past few years, these nurseries
are preparing to take care of future demands. To buy from
only reputable concerns is as pertinent to the citrus grow-
er as to any other business man. In most cases we must
rely solely upon the honesty of the nurseryman in securing
true-to-variety, thrifty and well-grown trees.
DORMANT BUDs.-During the shortage of nursery stock
for the past few seasons some growers have set out dor-
mant buds. This is not a practice to be recommended. There
is little to be gained and a great chance of disappointment.
The nursery practice is to bud in the fall on one- and two-
year-old stock. These buds are allowed to grow a year before
being sold (during this time the trees are staked), the buds
are kept tied to make them grow straight, suckers that come
below the buds are removed, etc. Even in the nursery
where the trees are closely planted to facilitate handling,
some of the buds will die, others will get knocked out and
some will make such poor development that they will be


In view of this one can readily see that it will cost more
to care for 1,000 trees planted over 14 acres of ground
than to care for them in 1-10 acre of nursery. Then on the
small area they are more likely to get proper attention and
the poor trees can be eliminated, leaving only good sound
trees for setting in grove formation.
In actual results as seen in the field, trees with year-old
buds make a grove cheaper, more uniform and of equal or
better size at a given age than do dormant buds.

PLANTIN(;.-Satsunma trees may be planted at two sea-
sons of the year. The most advisable time is when the trees
are dormant, between December 15 and March 1. They
also may be planted during the rainy season in July, but
the winter season is decidedly better. The trees should be
set not closer than 22 feet; and a preferred distance is 25
feet each way. which gives 69 trees to the acre. While sev-
eral systems of arranging the trees may be used. the most
common method is to plant in squares.
SoIL PREPARATION.-Soil should be prepared properly be-
fore fruit trees of any kind are planted. Wherever possible
the land should be cleared, stumped, thoroughly plowed and
grown to some crop like velvet beans or cowpeas the year
before the trees are to be set out. Raw land contains little
or no bacterial life, which is necessary to plant growth, and
almost any crop that will grow on it will improve the soil
for the succeeding citrus crop.
Where it is not possible to follow the above plan and
trees must be planted on newly cleared land, the soil should
be plowed thoroughly: or, better, plowed thoroughly,
cross plowed and then harrowed both ways. This will put
it in good condition for the young trees.
Before planting begins the ground should be measured
off carefully and a stake set where each tree is to be planted.
This will insure, first, proper distance between the trees
and, second, straight rows, both of which give the grove a
better appearance and make it more convenient to cultivate.
The trees should be set at the same depth or a little shal-
lower than they grew in the nursery. Planting too deep will
result in slow growth. This point in particular should be
emphasized, as there is a tendency in setting trees in loose
soil to set them too deeply. The holes should not be dug
until the trees are ready to be planted. If they are opened
much in advance of planting, the soil will dry out. In dig-


going the holes keep the top soil separate from the subsoil;
then, when filling in around the roots, use the top soil. The
digging of big holes is to be avoided, as the soil about plants
in such a hole is likely to settle and carry the tree down-
ward with it. This may place the tree too low. A planting
board will be found convenient in setting the trees in their
proper places.
SETTING TREES. If the trees must be kept out of the
ground several days, they should be heeled-in. To do this,
unpack the plants, place their roots in a furrow and cover
with moist soil. They may remain in this condition several
weeks if necessary. However, the sooner they are planted
the better. Never leave the roots exposed to the sun and
wind. As soon as the trees are unpacked, cover their roots
with moist sacks. All bruised or broken roots should be cut
off before the trees are set. Where large plantings are
made a good method is to haul the trees to the field in a
barrel with the roots in water; this will keep trees in fine
In setting the tree it is important to keep the bud well
above the ground. Set the tree straight (see Fig. 4) and
work the soil around and among the roots. When the hole
is filled carefully pack the soil over the roots and pour a
pail of water around the base of the tree. After the water
soaks into the ground, dry earth should be raked over the
wet surface to act as a mulch and prevent evaporation. If
the soil is poor, one pound of a complete fertilizer may be
mixed in with the earth at planting. This, however, is not
necessary if the soil is naturally fertile.


CULTURE.-The object of the grower for the first few
years is to grow healthy trees of good size upon which he
will later produce fruit.
To this end it is essential that the soil be given fre-
quent and shallow cultivation. Young citrus trees need a
constant supply of moisture in order to establish a good
root system. A good plan is to keep cultivated a strip of
ground about three feet wide on each side of the tree row.
Cultivation should begin in March and end about the mid-
dle of August. The aim is to make as much growth as pos-
sible and still give it time to harden up before cold weather.
An acme harrow used around the tree row about every 12
days will give excellent results. Grass and weeds should be
hoed away from the trees since they take up moisture and


fertility which should go to the trees. This is particularly
true of the first two years. Plowing in the young grove
should be done early in the fall, care being taken not to
cut the tree roots. The grove can then be harrowed and
left until spring.
Under certain conditions it may be desirable in the fall
to plow only a strip of land near the trees, leaving the mid-
dles (to prevent soil from blowing) until spring. Truck
crops can be grown in the middles for the first few years
and will not injure the trees unless planted too close to the
tree row or unless they take too much moisture or fertility
from the trees. Avoid such crops as sweet potatoes, water-
melons and peanuts as an intercrop. Some cover crop should
be grown during the summer months. Bunch velvet beans,
cowpeas and beggarweed, etc., are good and crotalaria, a
new cover crop, looks very promising.
CULTURE OF BEARING TREES.-After trees get to be four
or five years of age all the ground should be allotted to
their use, truck and other intercrops should be discontinu-
ed. Such trees should have clean, shallow cultivation until
the rainy season gets well started along in June or July and
the grove should then be laid by, allowing the cover crop
to grow until fall. This cover crop may be mowed in Sep-
tember and the grove plowed and harrowed as soon as the
fruit is picked. Cultivation of a bearing grove if continued
too late in the summer may delay the maturing of the fruit
two or three weeks.
WATERING.-The roots of young trees should be kept in
moist soil. Early planting is advisable in order that the
roots may be established before the dry season. If the
soil becomes very dry before the roots are established well,
some of the trees are likely to die, particularly during the
first and second years. It is a good practice to water the
trees as often as is necessary in order to keep the soil fairly
moist. This will not be necessary some seasons, while dur-
ing others a number of trees are liable to die unless they
are watered regularly. It is not likely that after the first
year watering will be necessary, only in exceptional cases,
as the moisture can be retained by frequent and shallow
PRUNING.-Heavy pruning and severe cutting-back of
a young tree is not desirable. Allow the tree to form low
heads, as it is advantageous to have the growth near the
ground. Low heads also afford some protection against


cold. Often a mature tree does not have for its main
branches those left on it at the nursery, as other branches
may come out and make a more vigorous growth.
Do not, by pruning, try to confine the growths of the tree
to its original nursery form but rather give the young tree
a chance to show how it is inclined to grow and then train
it accordingly. Dead growth and undesirable branches
should be cut out. Observation has indicated that trees so
handled produce more fruit than those which have had
their lower branches pruned enough to make them head
rather high. Long weak limbs may be headed back in order
to keep the trees compact and symmetrical. Do not leave
stubs in pruning, but cut close to the trunk or branch so
that the cut surface will heal over readily. Each tree
should be developed with three or four main branches as
a framework.
In case of cold injury prune the trees back to good sound
wood. Do this within a few weeks after the freeze, or as
soon as the extent of the damage or injury can be deter-
During the second year after the trees are transplanted
it is advisable to go through the orchard and set new trees
for any dead unpromising ones. A tree once stunted or
weakened seldom recovers; such a tree should be replaced
by another, unless it promises to recover quickly.

STABLE MANURE.-Stable manure can be used more lib-
erally with satsumas than with many other varieties of
oranges. It is particularly valuable for satsuma plantings
on new land. If applied too early in the spring, it will tend
to open the soil and make it too dry. It should be avoided
late in the fall also, as an application at this time may in-
duce a growth to come on too early in the spring, subject-
ing the trees to frost injury. Stable manure may be used
in larger quantities on heavy soil than on light, sandy soil.
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.-No hard and fast rule can
be laid down for fertilizing citrus trees. Different soils and
previous treatment of these soils, kind of cover crops
grown, condition of the trees, etc., are all factors to be con-
sidered in selecting a fertilizer. A young orchard should
have two or three applications of a complete fertilizer each
year, depending upon the needs of the soil; a total of about
two or three pounds to the tree for the first year is usually
sufficient. This fertilizer should analyze about 4 percent


ammonia, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 3 to 5 per-
cent potash. The first application should be made in Febru-
ary or March and the second in June or July. Sometimes
it is advisable to make a third application about August.
In such cases it would be best to put on the second appli-
cation in May or early June. In the last application the
percentage of ammonia should be either reduced or omit-
ted entirely, as it will tend to induce early growth and,
therefore, subject the trees to greater danger of cold in-
On bearing groves the ammonia content of the fertilizer
may be reduced and the potash raised to 6 or 8 percent.
The foregoing recommendations are for average con-
ditions, but exceptional cases may arise where the trees
can use more fertilizer. On the lighter soils of south Flor-
ida, young citrus trees are fertilized with a light applica-
tion about every two months of the growing season.
Sources of Ammonia, Phosphoric Acid and Potash.-
Ordinary corn and cotton fertilizer will not prove satis-
factory for satsuma groves because the materials used in
such fertilizers do not meet the demands of the citrus tree.
The ammonia should be derived from more than one
source. Nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, tankage,
dried blood, cottonseed meal and fish scrap are all good
sources of ammonia. But it is not best to get more than a
third or a half of the ammonia desired from the last four
materials named. Phosphoric acid may be secured from
acid phosphate. It is better, however, to get a part of it
from acid phosphate and a part from steamed bone. The
potash should come from sulphate of potash.
On light soil the potash content of the fertilizer may
be increased as much as 2 or 3 percent over the formula
recommended for general use. The fertilizer should be
worked well into the soil. Distribute it as far out as the
roots extend, being careful to keep it from the immediate
base of the tree. For young trees it is particularly advis-
able to scatter the fertilizer thoroughly and evenly.
The amount of fertilizer to use in subsequent years will
depend upon the growth of the trees. As they grow larger
more fertilizer is needed. The amount of fertilizer to ap-
ply can be determined only by an inspection of conditions.
Some groves require twice the usual application of fertiliz-
er, while others produce good crop with a minimum amount
of added plant food.


APPLICATION OF LIME on citrus groves should not be
made without some consideration for the need of lime in
the soil. Lime has been found beneficial in some instances
and extremely detrimental in others. A large quantity of
lime applied in a single application is likely to be detri-
mental and may injure the grove for several years. Sat-
suma trees do best on a slightly acid soil.

The ideal of the satsuma grower should be to produce
only high quality fruit. To do this requires constant
thought and effort. Diseases and insects of both trees and
fruit must be kept under control. Good cultivation and fer-
tilization are also essential. Too much ammonia in the
fertilizer usually will cause coarse, rough fruit, and may
cause ammoniated fruit. Cultivation too late in the season
tends to delay maturity of fruits and retards coloring. The
first fruit produced by young trees is apt to be rather coarse
and of relatively poor quality.
The best citrus growers in Florida follow a rather sys-
tematic plan of culture and fertilization; they do not con-
stantly keep changing fertilizers and other cultural prac-
tices. A citrus tree is a long-lived tree and a grower should
be careful to do nothing which might react unfavorably on
his trees the following year.


Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with great
care, being careful not to bruise it. Once decayed fruit
may cause many others to decay. In clipping oranges from
the trees clip the stems very close. A long stem may in-
jure the fruit with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the fruit
in the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to the
packing house in first-class condition.
Grade the fruit carefully; consider every doubtful orange
as a cull. Make two classes of fruit-brights and russets-
and two grades of each class. Clean the fruit before pack-
ing; use good paper; put up a good, solid, uniform, ful!-
packed box. Stencil each box true to name, quality and size.
It is a common practice through the citrus belt to spray
with oil emulsion a few weeks before shipping from groves
heavily infested with whitefly; this loosens the sooty mold
and makes the fruit much easier to clean.
Satsumas are shipped in half boxes, or straps, the same
as tangerines. It was formerly the practice to fasten two
straps together for shipping, but this practice has been
Crate material and tissue wraps should be ordered well
in advance of the time actually needed. It is necessary to do
this in order that hasty, short-order printing and the con-
fusion often arising therefrom may be avoided. In addition
to this, early ordering insures having these things ready
when packing time arrives.


World Production of Citrus Fruits

'HE following tables taken from the May, 1930,
issue of the "Florida Grower" give some interest-
ing information that should be of value to all
citrus growers at the present time and to the prospective
growers as well.
From this it will be seen that the United States, Spain
and Italy are the three main citrus producing countries. At
the present time the United States seems to produce about
45 percent of the citrus crop of the world. Whether or not
the United States will continue to be the largest producer
will depend upon the increased planting in other countries
as compared with the increase here in the United States.
Coming closer home the production of oranges and tan-
gerines in the United States shows that on an average for
the ten-year period, 1919 to 1928, Florida growers produc-
ed 30.7 percent grown in the United States.
In the production of grapefruit in the United States, Flor-
ida takes a long lead, producing 90 percent.
The farm price of Florida oranges and grapefruit for the
period. 1919-20 to 1928-29, has averaged for oranges $2.52
per box and for grapefruit the average was $1.90 per box.
On first thought no doubt the question will arise, "Why
grow grapefruit when oranges command a higher price on
the market?" Perhaps the best answer would be that the
market price is only one of several factors that must be
taken into consideration. The type of soil, the age of the
trees, and the production per tree will all have an influence
on the returns that may be expected.
Average Annual Production of Citrus Fruits in 14 Leading Citrus-
Producing Countries of the World for Which Data Are Available.-
Taken from Florida Grower, May, 1930.
(In thousands of boxes)
No. Period Grape-
Country of Years Ending Oranges fruit Lemons Total
United States ........ 5 1929 38.463 9,483 6.930 54,876
Spain ............... 4 1928 28,715 .. 1.322 30,037
Italy ............... 14 1928 7.432 .. . 11,368 18,800
Japan ............... 6 1927 8,330t ..... .... 8,330
Australia ........... 9 1928 1,826 .. 313 2,139
Palestine* ........... 9 1929 1,354 ... .. ... . 1,354
Algeria ............. 7 1928 943 ..... 218 1,161
Porto Rico* ......... 585 ..... 585
Union of So. Africa*.. 9 1929 553 20 ... 573
Brazil* .............. 4 1926 394 .... ..... 394
Isle of Pines* ........ 7 1929 .. 182 ..... 182
Tunis ............... 7 1922 38 ..... 35 73
France .............. 15 1928 19 ..... 33 52
New Zealand ........ 9 1928 2 ..... 10 12
SExports only.
SIncludes mandarins and both swret and bitter orangev.


Production of Oranges and Tangerines in the United States for the
Ten-Year Period, 1919 to 1928*--''aken from Florida (rower, May,
(In thousands of boxes)
Other from
Year California Florida States Total Florida
1919. ................. 15,265 7,000 198 22,463 31.2
1920 ................. 21,296 8,100 292 29,688 27.3
1921 ................ 12,640 7,300 325 20,265 36.0
1922 ................. 20,106 10,200 540 30,846 33.1
1923 ................. 24.137 12,900 672 37.709 3-1.2
1924 ................. 18,100 11,600 14, 29.848 38.9
1925 ................. 24.200 9,100 423 33,723 27.0
1926 ................. 28,167 10,700 437 39,304 27.2
1927 ................. 23,000 8,200 50-1 31,704 25.9
1928 .. .. ......... .1,000 13,000 420 44.420 29.3
Average. ............ 21,791 9.810 39; 31.997 30.7

I-',r th -at.. n I- bEgiiiiI in thv full f thl( year -.h,-l

Production of Grapefruit in the United States for the Ten-Year Period
1919 to 1928 Taken from Florida (rower, May. 1930.
(In thousands of boxes)
Cali- Other from
Year Floirida fornia Texas States Total Florida
1919 .............. 5.500 263 3 29 5,795 94.9
1920 .............. 5,100 304 ... :: 5.439 93.8
1921 ........... .. 6.000 360 . 36 6.396 93.8
1922 .............. 7.600 39. 35 15 8.074 94.1
1923 .. ......... .. .8400 363 65 66 8.891 94.4
1924 .............. 8,600 387 211 67 9,265 92.8
1925 .............. 7,300 600 200 91 8,191 89.1
1926 .............. 7,800 650 340 76 8,866 88.0
1927 ........... .. 7.200 720 490 176 8.586 83.9
1928 ............. 9.000 800 750 186 10.736 83.8
Average ........ 7,250 484 209 81 8.024 90.4

*I-F'r tin. eason I.-rinlnll in the fall of the year shown.


Annual Plantings

HE plantings of citrus in Florida from 1921-22 to
1926-27 show that in 1922-23 and 1923-24 there
was a very marked increase in the number of trees
planted. During the remainder of the period, the plantings
were nearly the same each year.
In Texas things were different in that there was an in-
crease in plantings each year, the plantings in 1926-27 be-
ing seven and a half times those in 1921-22.
In California the plantings were nearly the same each
These figures are of great importance in that they show
there are a lot of citrus trees that will come into bearing
during the next three or four years.
Will our demand for citrus fruits keep pace with the
prospect of our increased production? Prospective citrus
growers should study these figures and determine for them-
selves the facts in the case.
Farm Prices of Florida Oranges and Grapefruit for the Seasons
1919-1920 to 1928-1929.-Taken from Florida Grower, May, 1930.
(Price per box)
Season Oranges Grapefruit
1919-20 ................... $2.64 $1.99
1920-21 ................... 2.70 2.47
1921-22 ................... 2.88 1.87
1922-23 ................... 2.74 2.00
1923-24 ................... 1.31 1.02
1924-26 ................... 2.58 1.23
1925-26 ................... 2.80 2.21
1926-27 ................... 2.19 1.83
1927-28 ................... 3.35 2.55
1928-29 ................... 2.01 1.80
Average ................. 2.52 1.90

Annual Plantings of Citrus Trees from the Nursery to the Grove in
Florida, Texas and California.-Taken from Florida Grower, May,
(In thousands of trees)
Season Florida Texas California
1921-22 .............. 1,591 200 404
1922-23 .............. 2,884 244 478
1923-24 .............. 2,663 440 378
1924-25 .............. 1,665 1,000 365
1925-26 .............. 1,519 1,200 572
1926-27 .............. 1,426 1,500 457



SHE progress made during the past ten years in the
canning of grapefruit and grapefruit juice to say
the least has been a wonderful development. In
fact, most of this progress has been made during the past
five years.
Prior to the canning of grapefruit, there was always a
certain percentage of the crop that had little real market
value. This does not mean that poor quality fruit is used
for canning, for such is not the case. It does mean that
fruits of large size, fruits that are misshapen, and that
may be disfigured in some way have a low market value;
yet at the same time they are of good quality and when
placed in a can have a market value.
Everyone familiar with growing citrus fruit knows there
is always a certain amount of so-called cull fruit. There is
nothing unusual about this. The apple grower or the peach
grower each has a certain amount of cull fruit that must
be disposed of in some way. Prior to the canning of grape-
fruit, a large amount of this cull fruit was hauled to a
waste pile. This is not only a loss of the fruit itself but also
a loss of time of washing and handling of the fruit.

About four years ago the canning of sound. canner grade
grapefruit reached a commercial scale, and the industry
has continued to grow, without the aid of any national
advertising, until last year when one million cases of can-
ned grapefruit were produced in Florida. It has been es-
timated, by some who are in a position to know, that this
year one million five hundred thousand cases of grapefruit
and grapefruit juice will be canned in the State.
In addition to canned grapefruit. remarkable progress
has been made in the canning of grapefruit juice. This
juice product has created an additional demand for canner
grade fruit. To date the total production of canned grape-
fruit juice in Florida has been about 300,000 cases. The
reader should remember that it requires a lot of fruit to
produce 300.000 cases of juice.
The canning of grapefruit and juice has increased the
length of the marketing season for the Florida grapefruit
growers from a six months marketing season to a twe!ve


The canners of grapefruit and grapefruit juice will have
a much larger territory in which to market their product
than is possible for the shipper of fresh fruit. These can-
ned products can be put into any country and the remote
parts of our own country wherever transportation is avail-
able. Refrigeration is not necessary during transportation
or when stored in the warehouse.


Diseases and Insects

No attempt has been made in this bulletin to discuss in-
sects and diseases of citrus. First-hand information can
be secured from those who are actively engaged in re-
search work on the insects and diseases of citrus. Bulle-
tins on insects and diseases can be obtained from the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla., and
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs