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Group Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003053/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: 228 p. : ill., map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "October, 1941."
General Note: "Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
General Note: "Revised."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003053
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3526
ltuf - AME4570
oclc - 41130410
alephbibnum - 002439381
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Full Text


New Series October, 1941


Citrus Growing

In Florida


(Revised











STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


Bulletin No. 2






Contents

Page
Introduction ..................................................................................... 5
Development of the Citrus Industry in Florida............................. 6
Citrus Production in Florida....... ..................... ................ 8
Citrus Plantings in Florida.............. .............................. 10
Florida Citrus Plantings. .................. ........... ..... ...... 12
Total Florida Citrus Plantings ........... ......... ............... 13
Total Orange Production by States.................................. 14
Total Grapefruit Production by States ................ .. ........... 15
Soils for Citrus.................................. ................ 17
Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils............................................. 19
V arieties.............................................. .................... ............. 21
Frost Protection in Florida Groves and Fields............................... 22
N ursery Stock ..................................... ........................................ 25
Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks for Florida Groves.... 26
Planting the Trees ........ ... .. ...................................... 27
Pruning .................... .............. ..... .............. ....................... 28
Fertilizing C itrus ............... ... ............................. ................... 29
Culture ............................................................. ...................... 31
Boxes of Citrus Shipped by Counties in 1939-40 ............... 33
Origin and Introduction of Citrus Fruits.. ................................. 35
Citrus Propagation .............. ........ ...... ......... ............... 38
C over C rops .................. ......... .. ... ... ... ......... .............. 91
Cost of Grove to Bearing Age......... ....... .............................. 98
Costs and Returns, Crops Marketed 1931-:2 Through 1937-38 .... 103
Principal Orange Producing Countries of the World (Chart)........ 111
Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report........ ....... ......................... 112
More Grapefruit Being Produced in All Areas (Chart)............... 115
Orange Shipments, Valuations, and Other Data for 10 Years........ 116
Grapefruit Shipments, Valuations, and Other Data for 10 Years.. 117
Tangerine Shipments, Valuations, and Other Data for 10 Years.... 118
Total Citrus Shipments. Valuations, and Other Data for 10 Years 119
Carlot Equivalent Shipments of Florida Fruits and Vegetables
for 10 Y ears................................ ....................................... 120
Irrigation of Citrus Groves in Florida...... ..................................... 121
Artesian Areas in Florida (Map)... ..................... ................... 128
Y field ....... ... .. ...... ..... ..... .......... ........................... . 129
Picking ... ........................... ...................... 130
G rading.... ........ ........ .................. .. ................. .............. 135
Packing ..... ...... ... .. ............................................... 138
Method of Packing Various Sizes of Citrus Fruits (Chart)............ 139
Orange Trees. Bearing and Non-Bearing (Map).... ..................... 144
Grapefruit Trees. Bearing and Non-Bearing (Map).................... 145
M marketing .. ... ................... .... .............. ................. 146
Shipping ............... ........ ... ............................. .......... 149
Limes and Lemons..................... .. .................. 152
C itrons ....... .. .............. ...... .... .................................. 153






CONTENTS-Continued
Page
Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida........................ 153
Annual Plantings............................ .... ....... ..................... 162
Shipping and Marketing Florida's 1939-40 Citrus Crop................. 163
Florida State Auction Sales, by Auction Markets......................167, 168
Break-Even Returns ...................................... .. .... ....... 169
Yield Per Acre Necessary to Cover Production Costs (Graph)...... 170
Citrus Canning in Florida.......... ..................... ...... ........ 173
Trend in Production and Canning, Grapefruit, Florida and Texas
(G raphs) .............................. ................. ....... 176
Florida Canned Citrus Production, Past 11 Years........................ 182
Florida Canned Grapefruit Segments Production for 20 Years...... 182
Total Production Fresh Florida Grapefruit, 1920-1940............... 183
Total Production Fresh Grapefruit, United States, 1920-1940...... 183
Total Production Fresh Florida Oranges, 1929-1940...................... 184
Total Production Fresh Oranges, United States, 1929-1940.......... 184
D diseases and Insects......................................................................... 184
Canned Grapefruit Segments, Exports by Months-1931-1939.... 185
America's First Citrus Grove...................................................... 186
Crop Report for June ........... ......................... 192
Citrus Plantings in Florida................................. 193
Total Orange Trees Moved from Florida Nurseries, 1928-1940...... 195
Total Grapefruit Trees Moved from Florida Nurseries, 1928-1940 196
Total Lemon Trees Moved from Florida Nurseries, 1928-1940...... 197
Total Number Lime, Temple and Tangerine Trees Moved from
Florida Nurseries, 1928-1940................. ........ ... 198
Report of University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.. 199
U. S. Standards for Citrus Fruits............................................ 202
United States Per Capita Production of Major Fruit Crops.......... 215
Estimated Production Grapefruit in Principal Countries............... 215
Total Citrus Crop Movement ......................... ...... ..... 216
Estimated Gross Returns on Citrus Crop, F.O.B. Florida Points.... 217
Estimated Total Gross Revenue to Florida from All Citrus, and
Portion Transportation Charges........................................... 218
Estimated Production in Principal Countries of Oranges and Man-
darin .......................................... 219
Total Season's Shipments, Carriers......................... .......... 220
State of Florida, Rail, Boat and Truck Shipments.......................... 221
Florida Citrus Used-All Canners-1939-40................................. 222
Citrus Shipments in Boxes- 1900-1940.......................................... 223
Estimated Citrus Bearing Acreage and Trees, by States and Age
Groups..... ..................................224, 225
Estimated Citrus Bearing Acreage by States............................... 226
Florida Citrus Container Report............. .............. ................... 227
Disposition of Florida Citrus, 1939-40 Season................................ 228








Citrus Growing in Florida
By JOHN M. SCOTT*

With Contributions by E. F. DeBusk, R. W. Ruprecht, Frank Stirling, L. M. Rhodes,
H. G. Clayton and C. E. Felix.
THIS bulletin is not a scientific treatise on citrus culture.
It does. however, present facts about the industry in
Florida that the more successful and practical growers
have found to exist.
To the prospective settler and newcomer to Florida, the
growing of citrus is usually very attractive.
Citrus growing in Florida. however, is in many respects
like apple growing in other sections of the United States. It is
necessary that the citrus grower give systematic attention to
fertilizer and spraying operations.
The value of the citrus crop has increased each year since
1896. The returns to Florida from the 1939-40 crop. har-
vested and used. showed a gross valuation of $50.365.127.
the ten-year average being $50.112.628. From report issued
by Mr. Forrest C. Graves, State Coordinator, Oct. 5, 1934,
the total number of bearing orange trees in Florida. four years
and older, was 12.337.573: total non-bearing orange trees
2.034.242: total orange trees. bearing and non-bearing.
14.371.815. Bearing grapefruit trees, four years and older.
5,190,445: non-bearing 556,687: total bearing and non-bear-
ing grapefruit trees. 5,747.132. Total number of bearing
tangerine trees. 1.588.895: non-bearing 44.258: total bearing
and non-bearing tangerine trees. 1.633.153. Grand total all
bearing and non-bearing citrus trees 21,752.100. The total
acreage of orange trees was 225,775 acres of which 193.819
were bearing and 31,956 non-bearing. Grapefruit total acreage
90,282 of which 81.540 were bearing and 8,742 non-bearing.
Tangerine acreage 25.663 of which 24.961 were bearing and
702 non-bearing. Grand total acres of all citrus 341.720 of
which 300.320 were bearing and 41.400 non-bearing. Any
industry that produces a gross return of $40,000.000 to $70.-
000.000 a year to one state is worthy of the consideration and
attention of the best people in the United States.
SPrepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture. Uni-
versity of Florida. Gainesville.






6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Development of the Citrus Industry
In Florida
C ITRUS growing in Florida dates back about two hundred
years. William Bartram,* in an account of his travels
in Florida in 1773. often mentions the orange groves
along the St. Johns river from Cowford (Jacksonville) as far
south as DeLand. Bartram also mentions passing orange groves
on his trip from the St. Johns river to the Alachua savanna.
At all of these places he speaks of the magnificent orange trees
covered with golden fruit and fragrant blossoms. At the time
of Bartram's travels, there were but few white people in Florida.
and citrus was not grown commercially. The only method of
transportation was by water. and even for this purpose. only a
few boats were available. The demand for citrus fruit was
apparently very slight in the early days.
Citrus growing did not reach a commercial scale until about
1870. or something like one hundred years after Bartram's
travels in Florida. By 1884 production had increased to ap-
proximately 600.000 boxes per year. The only citrus fruit
planted during 1870 to 1880 was oranges, and plantings were
made mainly in the territory that is now composed of Duval.
St. Johns. Volusia. Putnam. Alachua and Marion counties. In
fact. up to about 1894 the territory around Orange Lake is said
to have produced approximately 20% of the orange crop in the
State. This section not only produced a large amount of the
fruit but it also supplied a good portion of planting stock and
buds for areas farther south. These plantings were confined to
localities close to rivers, as there were few. if any. other means
of transportation. The method of culture. picking. and pack-
ing used by the pioneer grower were very crude when com-
pared with the present equipment used in handling the crop.
Some of our present citrus growers may perhaps think that
the early orange growers did not have any setbacks or discour-
agements. However, the first freeze in Florida of which definite
record can be obtained occurred in 1835. At this time it was
cold enough at St. Augustine to kill mature seedling trees to the
ground. A second freeze occurred in 1886. at which time the
crop was injured and many young trees killed. Then came the
two freezes of 1894 and 1895 that killed a great many orange
trees. The next severe freeze occurred in 1899, at which time
a number of young trees were killed.
Bartram. Wm.. Travels Through North and South Carolina. Georgia. East and
West Florida. 1;91.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


As a result of these freezes, citrus growing has been prac-
tically abandoned in the northern part of the State. During
the past thirty years, the citrus section of Florida has been
moving southward. and citrus growing in Central and South
Florida has been a rapid development.
The experience of citrus growers with the freezes in the
northern part of the State had a tendency to cause them to try
other crops. Truck crops of various kinds were tried and many
of them have become important crops in the State. In addition
to truck crops, many staple farm crops, such as corn. cotton.
peanuts, velvet beans, various hay crops, etc., were tried and
found to grow successfully. One-crop farming has never been
entirely satisfactory to the farmers who have tried it. Where
there is a diversity of crops, the labor and equipment can be
much more efficiently employed throughout the year than where
only one crop is produced.
The citrus industry has profited by the experiences of the
early growers, and today has been placed on a more stable
basis. Many improvements have been made in cultural methods
and in controlling diseases and insects. Perhaps the greatest
improvements have been in harvesting, packing and shipping
the crop. These improvements have made it possible to put the
fruit into the northern markets with minimum loss in transit.






8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



Citrus Production in Florida

Records of yields of orange production in Florida have been
kept since the season of 1884-85. Since that time there has
been a steady increase in production each year, except those
years following frost injury.

PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA CITRUS-REVISED
(Oranges, including Tangerines)
Year Boxes
1884-85 ....................................................... 600,000
1885-86 ....................................................... 900,000
1886-87 ....................................................... 1,260,000
1887-88 .......... ............................ 1,450,000
1888-89 ....... ............... ..................... 1,950,000
1889-90 ........................ ...... .................. 2,150,000
1890-91 ....................................................... 2,450,000
1891-92 ....................................................... 2,664,791
1892-93 ............ ..... ............................... 3,357,507
1893-94 ..................... ............................ 4,163,849
1894-95 ...................... ......... ................... 2,808,474
1895-96 ................................................... 147,000
1896-97 ...................................................... 216,579
1897-98 ............. ....................................... 357,960
1898-99 ...................... ............................. 1,250,000
1899-00 ..................... .............................. 972.589
1900-01 ................ ............ ......... ............ 1,350,700
1901-02 ............................................... 972,589
1902-03 ....... .................................... ....... 1,465,306
1903-04 ............................... ..................... 1,950,823
1904-05 ........................ ......................... 2,363,058
1905-06 ........ ... ........ ............................... 2,961,195
1906-07 ..... ............ ........ ................... 2,899,390
1907-08 .... ......................................... 3,793,126
1908-09 ............. ........................................ 4,279,000
1909-10 ......... .... ........................ 4,853,000
1910-11 ....... ........................ ................... 3,749,000
1911-12 ........... ........................................ 3,648,000
1912-13 ............................... ...... .. .... 5,761,000
1913-14 ...... .... .. ............................... 6,230,000
1914-15 ..................... ................ 7,314,000
1915-16 .............................. .. .. 6,150,000
1916-17 ........... ...... ...... .. ................. 6,933,000
1917-18 ............................. ..................... 3,500,000
1918-19 ......................................... ....... 5,700,000
1919-20 .... ............. ...... .................... ... 7,533,000
1920-21 .......... ............................ 9,457,000
1921-22 .................... ............................... 8,871,000
1922-23 ........................................... ..... 10,897,000
1923-24 .... .............................................. 13,262,000
1924-25 ................... ............................ 11,639,000
1925-26 .................... ............................. 10,344.000
1926-27 ...................................................... 11,512.000
1927-28 .................................................... 9,933,000






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 9


Year Boxes
1928-29 ....... .............. ................... 15,116,000
1929-30 ....... .. .... .............. ........ 10,304,000
1930-31 .. ...................... ... 19,211,000
1931-32 .... ....... ....... .... 14,220,000
1932-33 ........... ....... .. ....... ...... 16,200,000
1933-34 ........... ...... ......... .... 18,100,000
1934-35 .. .......... ....... .................... 17,600,000
1935-36 ......... ..... ..... ....... ... .... 18,000,000
1936-37 ....... ...... .... 22,500,000
1937-38 .. .. ..... ....... ...... 26,700,000
1938-39 ... ... ....... ............... 33,300,000
1939-40 ......................... .... ......... 28,000,000
1940-41 (June 1st forecast)........................ 31,300,000
NOTE: Statistics for Seasons 1884-85 through 1918-19 represent
commercial shipments. For Seasons 1919-20 through 1940-41, figures
represent total production, including fruit shipped, consumed locally,
used for manufacturing purposes, etc.

PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA FRUIT-REVISED
(Grapefruit)
Year Boxes
1899-00 . .. ..... ..... 12,000
1909-10 ... 1,062,000
1918-19 3,200,000
1919-20 .... ...... 5,898,000
1920-21 ..... ......... .... 6,142,000
1921-22 ...... .......... .. ....... 6,644,000
1922-23 ..... .7,766,000
1923-24 8,936,000
1924-25 ....... 8,760,000
1925-26 ......... 8,316,000
1926-27 ..... 8,693,000
1927-28 ........ 8,158,000
1928-29 11,314,000
1929-30 ...... 8,274,000
1930-31 ........ 16,109,000
1931-32 ......10,786,000
1932-33 ...... .................. 11,800,000
1933-34 .. ......... 10,700,000
1934-35 ..... 15,200,000
1935-36 ............ .. 11,500,000
1936-37 .... .18,100,000
1937-38 ............ 14,600,000
1938-39 ............... .... 23,300,000
1939-40 .............. .... ...... 15,900,000
1940-41 (June 1st forecast)............... 24,600,000
NOTE: The figures represent total production including fruit used
locally, consumed on farms, for manufacturing purposes, etc., in
addition to the commercial shipments. Figures are based upon final
crop production, not preliminary estimates.

Data supplied by State Marketing Bureau and Bureau of Agricultural Economlcs.






CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
Showing Number ol Cilrus Tre by Counti s and Virileti as of November 15,1914,


Total Totl
County Onrae Trees Crap built Tres Taneriln Trees 'ts'm's Mic,'


No. NO.
arin al Brin Total Brain arina Toall


BlSrin Bsrlni
Non, Id Non. nd Non
Beiri I'rn Total Bo rli Boarl Total


Alaelua ........ 55,15 9938 0 3,09 3,741 848 4,597
IlOker...... ... 1,711 132 1,11 187 22 1011
1111y* .......... 0 11 2 1111 483 10 1113
IIrollrd ,....... 4,011 739 4,748 297 71 1118
lr rd ,,,,,,,.. 20,47.1 7i,ll1) II 9I,318 177,317 1,6?0 11H,837
lniward .....,, 84,5711 1,110 13 115 17,051 2,84:1 111,8111
I IIloui', ..... 7111 0 7011 1)1 5 i11
rlotle .,,,,..... 41,35 4,101 111,031 13,:111 398 13,8:12
IIrO .......,, 4:1.328 3.83 47 ,1 6,009 175 6,111
Cly ............ 6 :11 1,430 7,11L9 773 194 11117
CIllier ......... 14,791 2,44 17,245 12,055 K5 13,11l
('olimia ,..,,, 2,775 308 1,08 :1 275 51 :'11
)lr ....,,,,,.,,, 2.04,5i: 151885 220,42:1 345,41 11,370 350,8118
llioto ,,,,,,,, 394,11:2 211,885 418,817 871,51) 1,138 88,1117
Ilii" .....,,, :511 :13 311 II 3 12l
Dival .......... 28,10 ,824 33,3833 3,4711 1 01 4,0801
FOambia ....... 811 28 81" 470 21 1111
Flaclr ........ 20,49 1,809 22,008 1,634 274 1,1108
Friklin ........ 121 4 12!5 0 5
liadlun ......... 0 88 0110 911 48 147
Gile rist ....,,,, 1,005 238 1,3013 711 50 1iII
(i;lIde ,,,... ,,,. 3,118 1,045 4,111:1 5111 06 1111i
liIll" ,........ 1,5 1 l 41 1,5711 il 831 134
liimilloll ...., 795 :1li 811 101 II 115
Ilanlee ......... 470,10 1 37,8041 507,1111 0,03 1,134 111,5117
Ilhe lry ......... ~ il7 11,324 40.211i 14.01 08 14,111111
Ilurnado ....... 93,603 7,661 101,35 28,758 1,;77 27,8,5
Illrlds .... 595,232 111,313 : 1 11,57 305,317 11,051 3118,3118
llllsborough ..... 145,811 77,078 1,031,4811 202,770 8,1100 270j:111
Illmes ..,, ..., 087 0 1187 01 0 III
Ildn Ri,,,, 261,757 111,,446 2118,2111 374,301 51,217 425,511
J6knll'o ,... 8I05 0 811 :1112 78 4111
Jellrsonm 1,,14 ,00 1,1 2 313 241 78 411(
lAlayetll" ..... 1l11 0 110 Il 0 Ill


6,056 703 6.7159 1863 3,217 97768
25 2 27 23,055 7211 2O,0
(11 II 11 118,1235 317 17,780
82 8 11 51,1131 541 21,178
42,1,4 1,31 4,1130 100 11,031 014,812
11,612 1,815 8,4111 112 15,71 170,51
31 II 31 :,551 1111 4,401
5,711 1117 5,87 23 6,1103 72.457
4,731 15 4,751 1,1163 2,885 62,704
378 10:1 481 ,724 1,210 50,1
2211 4 224 Ill 3,Mt 34,537
57 II 11:1 l 411 ,111
211,871 2,118 !1,2511 1)18 274,107 881,025
12,508 4118 4:1,0011 858 16,1111 i 7,030
2 II 3 3i1 4 460
91185 1,017 ,7110 ;,,117 ,17
44 0 44 73,711 1,711 71670
9,047 157 9,2041 558 2" 3380
0 0 0 4 7 141
28 0 28 3,3111 3,794 8,020
II 3 22 3 21 1:11 1,102
180 13 112 1 1,5311 0,53
10 5 24 1,3115 i11 3,188
14 II 14 1,1110 117 2287
52,755 1511 53,211 855 15,8111 639,438
1,299 :1 1,31:1 11 8,710 65,311
01,280 11110 00I4 31i,9li 2,140 226,297
812,93 2' 1111 ,192 3111 47,301 1,000,747
110,558 l:1 81,312 2,020 108,070 1,496,810
25 2 27 1,1117 15 5,547
35,1111 1,1111 36,780 20 7,40:1 707,032
830: II 1 174,25 1711 175,818
1l 0 111 ,7l15 13,372 41.82
II 2 :17 10 725


Lke ........... 1,187,711 182,8.8 1,370,019 418,8118 41,432 188,I 165,67 8,111117174,31T 11, 8 36,3011 2,601,001







CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA-Cotinued


Total Total
County Orane Tris GrapefruitTrees Tangerine Trees S'l'ms Mic,'

Bearing Bearing
Non. Non Non. and Non. ad Non.
Bealil Bearing Total Berin Beriaing Total Bering B'nl Total Beari tal Total
I12 : .... .... I 1N., 1 ,7I 5 ll l, :1:, 5 ll: 110 0 ,11 \ i211 ;i1';, 171 7,79111 fi 114,7111 44119i,
lpon" ... .. 11911 178 87;1 23 1 i; 11 llli ; 1 8 1,,1 '1 217 4,901 0
Ll" ...... ,, 1 ,11 1 ;1,1 lI 13" 1i 1I8 10 :1 108 110 :18 4,111H ,
IrlrIty' ,,,,,,, '!2 2,4 '710M l1 2 li 2 1, 7I 1 1,350
MhIliom.on ..... 1,57 11 il 1,111 $1 5 1' 11 II 41 1,117 1ll; 3, 73,
ialte ,,,..,,,, 745 28, 11 11 ,478 2918:18 4,870 ,J l 7l 8,3!:3 4' 8,4:18 1115 2'1118 1117,815
Marion .. -11,010 107,l 13 l llll, S: 3. 11;,9 33 18 5 i .8301 117 54,8 11,000 1101108 809.031
Marlini .......... 51,8811 9 ,7968 i1l.I1,1 ) 37,3 1 4113 ;7 11 3.080 I 3 ,l li:.1 I H I: 119.081
S ....... 4.111 :18 .718 3,3:111 : 3 11' 1,811 71 1.81i I 1411.. 156.5 0
*ia,"a ......... 2 \ ;I H *I ;],;]; r ; Ini, i i. i "
N a l ... ,, 158 87 :, : 11 3 :1 1, I :110 l 1!) :1711 5,5i 8 I
Oklloo .,,,,,,, 1811 1 187 1!i) 4 I! 4 0 8,171 I2 ;:19, 01I 0
Ok illo'be ,, 5,783 1,238 i 7,i l 5,9 l 1:111 ,11 1 1,888 Il 21 8,!11 44,38
Oraniic ,,,,,, 1,752,41ll I2 ,1100 1, '0 11 1 2:1 11 1,411 211",117 217,5 11 ,3'5 242,88 1,03 : 1 ,;11 i 15,1100 1
O~ola .,,,,,,, 2760,103 27,I10 l 111,510 11,7 ,1 .1 21 7,,1113 51,538 11i8 52,2' 111 ll3 11,1: 4146,375
I'lnl Iail,,,, 5.5,111 1133112 3 .1.11.7 2i 7: 1 81, 11. 8 1 721 71310 2:,8 130,001
I'r ,, ,,,., 7 28.11;. :813 811,711186 88c,i 1811 :!I.,1II :: 42111i.11 '!,0 33:1: 1 527,3311
I'nellas .. 430,042 22. 7 4. 11 ,i 1i1 1 5311,7i 7 i 1ll1 41,53il 2 44,845 1,1518 3:1,7,11 1,0682.6;,
I'lk ...,,.,., :1.43510 1:11,234 ,11 81:111 1.7110:11:1 8ln:.13 li 11 ,02 P11018 11110 3 4 1 0 14:31111) 5,911,.453
I'llnan ... ,,,,,, 279.48 ,7, !19H 311 1 2,1 i ,111 31181 18.03 I, lI:ll 1 31 1 51 1 7 ;i:l ,.,1 400,370
SI, Johls ,,,,,,, ;l 5,li10 1,11111 13,3111 l :1,7 11 1; ,,,61 1,7118 ;1,88 IN4 80,140
itt, ir ,,e ,,,,, ..... 8 71 I,1114 :10,1118 232,!51 2,117:1 111lll, t 11 4,I ,017 6li, '1 8 18,I110 75,271
Smlitla l aa ...... 4 61II I 1 11 0 8 I 8H 101,1118 i1 41,91
Snraonta ,..,,, 1', il 1,t1 1117,.il 74,811' 1,11,05 7,lll. 2 i241 1 17' 11:1 11 8 17: 55,15
Siniilole ...,,,,, 78,717 78,706 87, I 47,71110 ,1171 .11111 57,911 .181 li2,l I,': 14i 1,I111 9116
Somnler (, 10 l,4113 1 ,.117 9,j1111 736 11o,71', ,1 11, 4:111 t ill I 11i i ,l1111l 146,087
Sltan let 2,7 1 3,1: 3 11: Ill :11 1l lll III :l,;l ; :11, li" 71,1131
Taylor" ..... I l 7, 1:1 ,', I I I II I '8 :11 8I:I
I'll ... ,..... 1.817 446 i ,l 1 188 81 l1]l I4i I ll 1,11 3 11 3 5:,3)8
V'llsia 7,, .. 11,111183 0 ,38 8011,017 84,50 11),887 118IH,3 111i;5,:l ll 171,1|0 1 1,11: 11,'11 1,0"0,01
Wi .llll .." .. i3 46 18 11 I 1 IN ] I 1 1 1,21 13 1, 2 1
W llio ,,,..... 1,0 I li 1,0111 i :1 li II 1, 1 )3 :111 12,0i 1
Watliiiiloii Ii 0 1111 1111 a Iil III 11 I 1, 21 1 1 1 1 784
TOTAL ..... 1,,,, 1,41,75 ll,12, .ll,l7 1, '.9;6i). l 1 ll, 91. 11 ,11 ,1 b ll,11 ll. ,,1 9.. 1,89,1 l r11 l ,5, 1"1, ,1 ,8 A1, 6,1 1 .173

Includll liniotn, Rougil IAlio Linmi, alll K niimuial, ('irrollu vril l i n l 'oi rlte. F irlns sll i own are finr 1i311, IDe. 1,i, 1934.)

















FLORIDA CITRUS PLANTINGS

Shiowln, in percetai, the relaliv proportion of Iron u of various nge of mturllty

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT TANGERINES
Tree As Farly I Frly TOTAL
Inclusive Mid-samon lte Totll id.iswon Iate Total Total ALL
'Pe, Pet, I't, I'Il, I', P1't Pet. Pet,
l yrs, & 'e ,, ....... 2 1 7,1 18,1 4,5 1,8 18,0 10,:1 17,1
Il o 19 yr ,,,............., 11.5 15.7 13.1 11, 11,l 311, 11,0 1511
1 Ito yrs ,. .... ....... 20.,1 "1,! i :1. 21,7 I:ll 32,7 24,
Io 10 yrs ................... 1.1 2l8.4 2,:1 11.1 't,7 17,2 37.3 22,1
I i 5 yn .. ........., .... 7.14 $ 7,9 1 t l .11 8.0 61. 7.8
Ikrirgu ......... ...... ...., 85. 81,9 858 1:.1 84.8 p,:I 7, 87.9
on- arin ............,....... 15,0 13.1 14. l, 1i,2 117 !.7 12,1

100,0 1,0 1 00,0 100, 10(,0 110,0 100,0 100,0
Nol Full Biiirin 10 yenrs
il1d yIouIllt e, .... ..... 415 48.0 '14.4 lS 54. :1,11 46,0 42,0







TOTAL FLORIDA CITRUS PLANTINGS
Compiled by The Associated Citrus Growers & Shippers of Florida, from Report of Forrest C, Graves, State Co.ordinator, issued Oct. 5,
1931, covering survey made during the late summer months and ear fall of 1914,


ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT


TANCE.


Early A Early & RINES
COUNTY Mid.-eason Late Total Mid-season Late Total TOTAL
Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees Trees


AlaeIua ......,., ...., 591,:91;i 2235 I(lI131 4,10!
lirlr rd .......... ...... ..... :1 ,li 3 111,51 1 111,111 137,824
llro ardl ,............ .... 1 2 :14. 8 207,203 23 1,5'.1 ,6 l
tCharlolle ........ ....... 28,730: 10,1113 3,3 : 11:1 ,3'25
Cilrus .................... ... 44.1"7 4,003 48,785 5,005
C llirr .......,,,,.......... 4,349 5,15 11.507 11,307
Dade .............. ....... 11,031 110,0 6i 11l,1ll17 17 .1411
DeSolo ......... ... . 274,518 10),111 383,1129 711,1 11)
;li;ler ... ... ...... ...... 10, 5 3,11 13.1 41 (1198
G;ldes ........ .......... 1,04, 804 1,8117 '73
lltrdile ..... .... ..... .. 1. 7,251 15:1,767 59l1,010 44,i291
Ihlridry .............. ..... 6 17 7 311,13:3 10, 111
lHernando ................... 471,19 2;,5911 73.550 "1l'0511
llidllands ,.. .......... 1,118 373536 53,754 190,16li
Ilillabhorougi ... ..,. 07,055 400,51 007,57 211,
Indiain River.... .......... 018 120,849 200,597 143,152
1,loa ........... ......... 855,1 63 418,1111 1,341.774 211 I,121I
Ire ,,........ ........... 7,577 08,305 17l1,8 120,314
lI ,vy .. ............... 1,171 .... 1,171 liS
M:analer ......,.....,.... 111,492 12?,861 2137,31:1 21i10,89
lMario ..................... 577.17 47,7 4 115,41 42,2 1
lirlin ..... ................ 50.1148 1.065 51,71;3 1 ',1l:.i
Orange .................... 1,140,57 IM92349 1,8312,870 151,il1:
Osevola ... ............ .. 133.175 57.871 101,0,16 15,7 11
Palm;l11 B h .................. 17,f01 28,130 45o i l 5 II 03
Pime ... ..................,. 1i4,2 172,84 301,5'10 19,'!73
I'inllus ...,............... 175,111:1 312,933 138,546 11 ,0111
Poli ....................... 1, 1 ,0 79 2,058,281 3,2100,00 1,151,000
I'llnir .................... 1 .110 40,195 2511,:141 22,13
Saraoloa ............,..,.,,, .5,741 06,338 142,079 27,427
SRminolb .................,. :13,7113 77,846 410,009 ;11,1i11
St, I.1eie, ................... 130,211 232,282 382,498 11,1810
Sl. Johns.. ................ 15,4117 2,036 17,$ 33 1,0411
Stnmier .................... 1001,187 12,8 1 1191,018 51,41
Volusia ... .. .. ....., 525,096 212,256 73352 70,712?


1511 4,2'51
83:1,402 21,221
5,57,1 1,20;6
1.7,8 11,13:1
48 Ili :3
1110 11,407
2,151 174,105
11,905 83,02,
109 800
10 283
6,871 51,167
76H 11,232
4,0311 25.695
117,691 307,806
113,124 2110,013
232,717 371,542
23:5,41 497.,57
45,17, 165,900
4I,
)3.880 323,30111
13,107 55,370

77,:035 229,308
11,148 46,11:14
15,2111 21,294
4100'113 00,912
206,,413 518,4112
618,754 1,76911,754
4,437 27,2.50
38,777 110,204
15,571 55,43.
119,009 241,479
175 1,321
2,8111 8,188
17,745, 88,3(17


7,987 73.170
34,051 1107,471
11,755 3i51,511
5,394 55,440
.192,7 59,365 "
3 20,917
15,170 303,172
41,120 507,774
7,2411 22,077
7.1 2,204
411301 601,486
397 47,7160
64.015 163.297
54.82s 902,438
77,181 1,204,659
28,519 625,658
159,l10i 1,99,137
5,,15 318,230
42 1,29 58
6.058 560.740
47,891 728.727
1.574 76.514
208,161 2,270,435
30,171 ?2t,8152 0
1,125 73.180 0
33,377 4130,7091
37,11i:1 9144,71
:171,.!27 5.431,93
13,358 329,943
688 208,971
47.908 5241,02
57,013 1161,010
532 19,2811
5,345 132,681
104.114 989,833
,633,153 21152,100
25.663 341720
1.6 1.8
rae No. Acre,.... 10.3


Total Trei, ,.....,, .. ,1175,496 0,3911,31 0 14,371,815 3,133,S1l 2.113,002 5,747,13 1
Tonh Arewr....... .. ........ 100,483 2775 .i 7-11 33,200 900.28
Estimated hose I tree ....... 15 1,? 1.4 :1.1 2.3 2.8
Total Grove Projirlies,., 33,201 Averare No, Trees lIr 'ro'rty .... .155 Ave






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


UNITED STATES: Total Orange Production by States, Census
Years 1889, 1899, 1909 and Yearly 1919 to 1939-40
and Estimated 1940-41 Production
Calif. *Fla. Tex. Ariz. Ala. La. Miss. Totals
Shipping
Season 1.000 1,000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1.000 1.000 1,000
Bjxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
1889-90.... 1,245 3,147 .............. .. ...... .... 4,392
1899-00.... 5,882 273 ........ 11 .... 1 .... 6,167
1909-10.... 14,440 4,888 11 33 1 152 5 19,350
1919-20.... 17,073 7,533 9 80 20 37 31 24,783
1920-21.... 22,547 9,457 5 60 82 42 25 32,218
1921-22.... 13,921 8,371 5 80 82 50 30 22,539
1922-23.... 21,286 10,987 10 81 190 60 45 32,659
1923-24.... 24,324 13,725 6 86 225 75 55 38,496
1924-25.... 18,535 11,639 17 60 2 75 .... 30,328
1925-26.... 24,200 10,044 10 86 130 100 27 34,597
Average.... 20,453 10,953 10 79 126 72 31 31,721
1926-27.... 28,167 11,512 41 75 75 150 42 40,062
1927-28.... 22,737 9,487 70 54 110 200 50 32,708
1928-29.... 38,994 15,588 115 99 85 220 30 55,131
1929-30.... 21,483 10,304 261 137 212 187 37 32,621
1930-31.... 35,470 19,211 250 139 3 287 2 55.362
Average.... 29,370 13,221 147 101 97 209 32 43.177
1931-32.... 34,900 14,220 520 145 80 245 54 50,164
1932-33... 34,265 16,200 325 147 120 278 80 51,415
1933-34.... 28,439 18,100 430 155 3 245 2 47,374
1934-35.... 45,047 17,600 650 170 140 293 88 63,988
1935-36.... 32,809 18,000 777 240 2 244 1 52,073
Average.... 35,092 16,824 541 171 69 261 45 53,003
1936-37.... 29,827 22,500 2,000 220 56 309 26 54,938
1937-38.. 45,914 26,700 1,440 350 76 238 67 74,785
1938-39.... 41,420 33,300 2,815 430 96 385 85 78,531
1939-40.... 44,404 28,000 2,360 520 75 228 59 75,646
1940-41t.. 44,350 31,300 2,850 500 1 253 .... 79,254
Average... 41,183 28,360 2,293 404 61 283 47 72,631
*Includes tangerines. indicated production as forecast June 1, 1941.

Florida Production Segregated-Early and Mis-season Valencias and
Tangerines

Early and Total
Mid-season Valencias Tangerines Production
Season
1,000 Bxs. 1,000 Bxs. 1,000 Bxs. 1,000 Bxs.
1933-34................. 9,600 6,500 2,000 18,100
1934-35................ 10,700 4,900 2,000 17,600
1935-36................. 9,600 6,300 2,100 18,000
1936-37.................. 12,000 7,500 3,000 22,500
1937-38.................. 13,700 10,700 2,300 26,700
1938-39................. 17,150 12,750 3,400 33,300
1939-40................. 15,600 10,000 2,400 28,000
1940-41.... ............. 16,500 12,000 2,800 31,300






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


UNITED STATES: Total Grapefruit Production by States, Census
Years 1889, 1899, 1909 and Yearly 1919 to 1939-40
and Estimated 1940-41 Production
FLA. TEXAS CALIF. ARIZ. TOTALS


Shipping
Season


1899-90............
1899-00...............
1909-10...............
1919-20..............
1920-21...............
1921-22...............
1922-23...............
1923-24...............
1924-25.............
1925-26................
Average ............
1926-27... .
1927-28.........
1928-29................
1929-30.. ..........
1930-31... ........
Average ...........
1931-32.. ..........
1932-33..............
1933-34..... ..
1934-35..............
1935-36.................
Average ....... .
1936-37.....
1937-38...
1938-39 ...........
1939-40...
1940-41*.. .
Average .......


1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1,000
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
10 ............. .. .... 10
12 .......... 18 1 31
1,062 .......... 123 1 1,186
5,898 3 363 29 6,293
6,142 5 395 34 6,576
6,644 8 360 35 7,047
7,766 35 394 60 8,255
8,936 65 363 95 9,459
9,177 301 387 105 9,970
7,660 200 600 150 8,610
8.036 122 421 89 8,668
8,693 361 672 120 9,846
8,158 524 720 176 9,578
11,314 753 972 211 13,250
8,274 1,530 1,000 365 11,169
16,109 1.135 1,290 400 18,934
10,510 860 931 254 12.555
10,786 2.4180 1,431 450 15,147
11,800 1,385 1,350 614 15.149
10,700 1,140 1,713 800 14,353
15,200 2,760 2,167 1,240 21,367
11.500 2.762 2,267 1,800 18,329
11,997 2.105 1,786 981 16.869
18.100 9,630 1,310 1,400 30.440
11,600 11,800 1,943 2,750 31,093
23,300 15,670 1,924 2,700 43,594
15.900 14,400 1,975 2,900 35,175
2.1,600 14,100 1,863 2.800 43,663
19.300 13.180 1.803 2.510 36.793


Indicated production as forecast Junr, I. 1941.


Florida Production Segregated-Seedless and Other Varieties
Total
Shipping Seedless Others Production
Season -
1,000 Bxs. 1,000 Bxs. 1,000 Bxs.
1933-34........... ..... .... .... 2,800 7,900 10,700
1934-35.................... .............. 4,100 11.100 15,200
1935-36............ ........... 4,000 7,500 11,500
1936-37.................... ..... .......... 6.000 12,100 18,100
1937-38................... .................. 5.500 9,100 14,600
1938-39...................................... 7,800 15,500 23,300
1939-40................ ................ 6,500 9,400 15,900
1940-41................. .................... 8,300 16,300 24,600




















































PortloI ol 5,000cmro [rove.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 17


Soils for Citrus
CITRUS trees are able to adapt themselves to a wide range
of soil conditions. In Florida, citrus trees are produc-
ing profitable crops on sandy, soils, flatwoods soils,
hammock soils, and muck soils. This does not mean that citrus
trees will grow on all soils. They will not grow successfully
on poorly drained land or the heavy clay types of soil, although
Satsumas have been grown with a fair degree of success on
some of the clay soils. The wet, poorly drained land may,
however, be drained so that citrus will grow very successfully.
Many cases are on record where this has been accomplished.
Citrus trees will grow on any of the well-drained loamy
soils of Florida. These soils may be classed as follows: High
pine, flatwoods, high hammock, low hammock, and muck.


Trees grown on good citrus land with liberal fertilization and cultivation produce
abundant crops.

High pine land, as the term would indicate, is land of good
elevation and with a well-drained, sandy subsoil. The original
growth consisted largely of long-leaf pine.
The flatwoods land is of lower elevation and not naturally





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


so well drained as the high pine land. The surface soil is of
a dark color, and not quite as sandy as the high pine. The sub-
soil may be either sand, clay or hardpan. The original growth
on the land was long-leaf pine, with possibly an undergrowth
of palmetto and gallberry. A large amount of the flatwoods
soil in Florida has not been drained. Some of it cannot be
drained without excessive cost, but much of it can be easily
and cheaply drained. In some cases the hardpan is too near
the surface for citrus trees to make their best growth. Often,
however, the hardpan can be broken up by the use of dynamite
so that citrus may be grown with some degree of success.
High hammock land is similar to high pine land in many
respects. The surface soil of the high hammock land often
contains a little more humus. The original growth usually
consisted of oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, or perhaps some
pine trees or an occasional cabbage palmetto.
The low hammock land closely resembles the high ham-
mock, except that it may not be naturally as well drained as the
high hammock, or perhaps a denser growth of oak and cab-
bage palmetto may have been on it. The soil usually contains
more humus than the high hammock. When the low hammock
can be thoroughly drained, it is very desirable for the growth
of citrus.
Muck lands are those that contain a large amount of organic
matter (humus). Ordinarily they are not well drained. When
drainage is possible, either by ditching or bedding up the land,
very good crops of citrus fruits may be produced. However.
the muck soils are, as a rule, colder and therefore subject to
frost more frequently than the sandy soils.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 19


Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils
By FRANK STIRLING
General Manager, Flamingo Groves, Davie, Florida
ANY pages have been written on the general subject
of citrus growing, but when an attempt is made to
prepare an article on the subject of citrus growing on
the muck lands, one must take into consideration all of the
characteristics pertaining to the area in question, such as climate,
moisture, location, etc.
It is a well known fact that the most profitable crops can
be produced in an area provided with a fertile soil, sufficient
moisture and plenty of sunshine. In the Everglades muck lands,
nature has been most kind in supplying the soil with favor-
able qualities for growing citrus. The soil contains 75 percent
organic matter, which will enable a tree to grow continually
and produce fruit of an excellent quality at early maturity.
To any horticulturist, the history of citrus growing in
Florida has been exceedingly interesting. When one travels
over the various producing sections of the State, attention is
frequently called to the profitable returns derived from late
types of oranges. On muck lands where a combination of late
varieties and preferred rootstocks and other conditions occur,
the profitable returns from practically mid-summer oranges
appear most outstanding. Investigations have shown that on
muck soils, in sections properly drained, trees will produce
regular crops of a splendid quality returning a profitable revenue
to the grower, and at a cost of production per box less than
that from any other section or soil known to the industry.
Further research has proved the truth of these assertions, and
has made even more clear the fact that nature has supplied the
Everglades soils with practically all of the requirements for the
satisfactory production of citrus fruits.
We have all learned that in order to be successful from
an agricultural standpoint, several important conditions must
be secured. The principal ones are fertile soil. sufficient mois-
ture. and a congenial climate. We find these conditions preva-
lent in the soils of the Everglades, especially near the edges
of the Glade lands in the Davie area. Pioneering along citrus
lines has been carried on over a period of fifteen years in this
section. In the Davie section many outstanding results have
been obtained by such pioneer growers as Messrs. C. A. Walsh,
J. C. Lange, Chas. Stoddard, and others. These growers have
put out plantings of late oranges and have brought the groves
into full bearing without fertilization and without cultivation.





20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

At the same time, the fruit they produced has been of excellent
quality and has brought the highest prices on the Northern
market.
PREPARATION OF LAND
Ordinarily the muck land is not naturally as well drained
as the rolling sandy land in the ridge section of the State. For
that reason it is advisable to plow the land in beds. The beds
are generally thirty feet wide. The idea is to get the tops of
these beds from twelve to eighteen inches above the average
land level. The bedding up of the land is for the purpose of
giving better drainage during extremely wet periods.
It may be necessary to plow the land twice. A "V" shaped
drag is used to advantage in ridging up the beds. The trees
are planted in the center of each ridge. This makes the tree
rows thirty feet apart, and the trees are set twenty feet apart
in the row.
COST OF PRODUCTION
It is interesting to note that cost of production per box
has been kept at a minimum in the Everglades: in fact records
show that fruit has ordinarily been produced at a cost not
exceeding 17 cents per box on the tree. While this may sound
astounding, yet, when one realizes that the cost of planting,
tillage, etc., are cut to the bone. it is not at all out of line. To
begin with, there is no cost of clearing the land. for all that
is necessary is to plow the open glades with a tractor, stake
the land and plant the trees. This involves a total cost of
approximately $80 per acre when using trees of five-eighths to
three-quarter inch caliper. In the Davie area, by planting large
acreages, this cost has been cut per acre by fifteen percent. The
trees seem to thrive without any plant food other than that
which is in the soil.
SOIL ANALYSIS
The Glades soil analyzes, according to the State Chemist.
3.17 lime, 2.17 nitrogen, 0.18 phophoric acid. 0.13 potash,
1.47 iron oxide, 0.18 magnesia, 0.38 soda. 0.51 sulphuric
acid, 75.65 organic matter, and 16.84 moisture. Many fer-
tilizer tests have been conducted on the Everglades land dur-
ing the past ten years, and even the most discriminating citrus
men could hardly detect any difference in the growth of the
trees by the use of fertilizer. However, it is not unlikely that
after the trees become older it may be profitable to add potash
in order to increase the size and quality of the fruit.
As the levet of the average land is not exceedingly high
and as the average water table remains around three to four





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 21

feet below the surface of the land, a steady moisture condition
exists, giving the trees ample water and preventing damage by
drought. This results in an almost continual growth of the
tree and gives a bearing tree in less time than usual.
During the past several months considerable plantings have
been made in the muck lands adjacent to Lake Okeechobee,
west of Fort Lauderdale, and in Dade county northwest of
the city of Miami. At present there are between four and
five thousand acres of citrus groves planted on Everglades muck
soils. Interest in citrus groves on muck land is growing
rapidly. So it seems to me that here may be a thing developed
which will benefit all, for if an industry develops in the Glades,
it will mean that our citrus marketing organizations may carry
on throughout practically the whole year, handling mid-winter
types in the north and central portion of the State and mid-
summer types from the Everglades, placing fruit on the market
at times that will not interfere competitively with either sec-
tion. One may hope and expect to see a new citrus section that
will materially aid in developing the rich muck lands.
To the uninitiated or even to practical citrus growers in
other sections, the statements made may seem Utopian, but to
the growers who have investigated the possibilities of growing
citrus on muck land they are obviously true.


Varieties
THE practical grower has found from experience that no
one variety of citrus is grown successfully in all sections
of the world where citrus fruits are grown.
A good example of this is the Washington Navel orange
which is extensively grown in California and is well adapted
to California conditions. Several of Florida's best varieties of
grapefruit are of little commercial value in California.
Varieties best adapted to Florida for commercial growing
may be classed as early, mid-season, and late.
Early orange varieties are Parson Brown and Hamlin: mid-
season varieties are Seedlings. Pineapple, Enterprise Seedless
and Jaffa: and late varieties are Valencia and Leu Gim Gong.
Kid glove oranges are Dancy Tangerine, Mandarin, King
oranges and Satsuma (Owari).
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season
Florida Common and Walters: and late, Marsh Seedless.





22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Frost Protection in Florida Groves
and Fields
By W. H. ANDERSON
W HILE Florida is favored with a climate sub-tropical in
character, we frequently experience winter and spring
temperatures sufficiently low to cause severe damage to
both citrus and winter vegetable crops. Prior to the "big freeze"
in 1895 very little attention was paid to frost protection in this
state, but since the disaster of that winter firing of groves and
fields as a protection against frost has become increasingly im-
portant. Wood has been the principal fuel used for this pro-
tection but, with the depletion of supply, other types of fuel
have been used or are coming into general use.
Firing of groves on a large scale has been practiced in some
sections, California particularly, for many years. The earliest
methods of heating included the burning of coal or coke in


Grove heater used for cold protection. (Courtesy of Gulf Fertilizer Co.)

small baskets hung in the trees and small metal containers in
which crude oil was burned. Both of these methods have long
since passed due to the high labor costs involved and the un-
certainty of results to be obtained.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 23


Rapid strides have been made in the design of heating
equipment during the past twenty-five years and today growers
have available to them at reasonable prices the latest scientifically
designed equipment which provides ample and adequate pro-
tection.
Few if any sections are entirely free from the danger of
low winter and spring temperatures and every fruit and vege-
table crop of commercial importance is subject to occasional
losses from this cause. The greatest and most frequent losses
occur with the sub-tropical fruits on account of their susceptibil-
ity to frost damage. This is particularly true of citrus and
avocados, which never enter a state of complete dormancy and
which mature their crops during the winter and spring months.
With such types of trees, losses may arise not only from the
destruction of a part or all of the crop but from the killing of
the fruit bearing wood as well. On mature trees the damage to
the fruit bearing wood may be sufficient to delay fruit pro-
duction for several years and young trees are frequently killed
outright.
In the citrus industry at least, the danger of losses from low
winter temperatures is widely recognized, and the protection
of the groves against such losses is now generally conceded to be
economically sound. Losses to the community are no less serious
than the losses to the grower. They include decreased employ-
ment among those engaged in the industry as well as reduction
of the general community income and often result in cancella-
tion of orders for materials used in the picking, packing, and
shipping of the crop.
The old belief that smoke in itself was a sufficient protec-
tion against frost damage has been largely abandoned and dur-
ing the past several years every effort has been turned to the
production of heating equipment that produces a maximum in
combustion and a minimum amount of smoke. Oil burning
heaters with radiant stacks have attracted more attention than
any other type of equipment and when this heater is installed
in sufficient number very little if any loss of fruit or fruit
bearing wood is experienced. Growers who have installed suf-
ficient heaters feel that the results obtained well justify the cost
incurred and, that even though there may be no necessity for
firing the heaters more than once in every five years the invest-
ment is sound and the insurance relatively low.
During the past several years State and Federal governments
have maintained a corps of specially trained meteorologists in
the State. whose work has included: (1) predicting the lowest
temperatures to be expected each night in the district where













































This orange tree, according to early history of the citrus growing industry, is the largest and oldest tree in North America. It is said that
it is more than eighty years old and has successfully withstood the most serious and devastating freezes of Florida,






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 25

operations are conducted: (2) giving expert advice to growers
in connection with grove and field heating; (3) conducting
experimental work in connection with frost and fruit protec-
tion. This service, under the direction of Meteorologist E. S.
Ellison, has been outstanding and of inestimable value to Flor-
ida growers.

Nursery Stock
OUR orange and rough lemon are the most common citrus
stocks in use in Florida. Grapefruit and several other
stocks are used to a limited extent. Sour orange stock is
best adapted for plantings on flatwoods, hammock, or muck
soils. Rough lemon is adapted to the higher sandy soils and


Citrus Nursery.


rocky types
essary.


Ssa w n sa
W'o';~


The selection of healthy, well grown nursery stock, true to name,
is important.

of soil where a heavy feeding root system is nec-


Trees budded on sour orange grow slower than those
budded on rough lemon; however, the fruit is as a rule of
better quality and can be held longer on the tree.
Citrus nursery stock is grown from seed and the seedlings
are usually transplanted from the seed bed to the nursery row






26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

when about 12 inches tall. When they reach a diameter of
one-half inch or larger, they are budded. The budded trees
normally remain in the nursery row for from 1 to 3 years,
depending upon the size at which they are taken up for plant-
ing. While in the nursery, the trees are staked and pruned and
properly cared for to produce uniform, vigorous, healthy trees
of good shape.
A one to two-year-old bud, calipering three-fourths to one
inch. with a three-year-old root is a very desirable tree for
planting. The measurement for the diameter of nursery trees
is taken an inch or so above the bud.
Cleopatra stock is being used by a number of growers.
However, there are not enough trees in bearing on Cleopatra
stock to enable one to positively determine its value. It is
claimed by some that this stock has all the virtues of both sour
orange and rough lemon, and apparently it is adapted to the
same types of soil as our sour orange and rough lemon.
Trifoliate stock is also recommended by a number of people.
More information is needed before any definite statements can
be made regarding its value.

Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks
for Florida Groves
As Rated by
F. M. O'BYRNE,
Formerly State Nursery Inspector
Grapefruit Sour
Lemon Seedling Orange
1. Rapidity of Growth 1 2 3
2. Texture and quality of fruit 3 2 1
3. Prolificness ......... 1 3 2
4. Retention of fruit and juice 3 2 1
5. Resistance to cold.. ... 3 2 1
6. Resistance to root disease... 3 2 1
7. Resistance to top disease... 3 2 1
8. Adaptability of thirsty light
soil ... 1 2 3
9. Adaptability to heavy ham-
mock and reclaimed land
with clay subsoil ...... 3 2 1
10. Adaptability to high pine
rock land in Dade county 1 2 3
11. Adaptability to shell ham-
m ock ..... ....... 3 2 1
Note: The relative adaptability of the stocks is indicated by figures. No. 1
indicating the best of the three for that particular characteristic: No. 2 the second
best. and No. 3 the least satisfactory.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Planting the Trees
THE best time to transplant citrus trees is during Decem-
ber. January and February. During this season of the
year the trees are dormant, or nearly so, and for that
reason stand transplanting much better. Occasionally trees are
transplanted in June or July, although the percentage planted
in Florida during these two months is very small. When tran-
planting is done during June or July, it must be done when
the trees are not putting out a new flush growth. Trees trans-
planted when in flush of growth are not likely to live.
The distance apart to set trees is somewhat debatable. Some
growers are of the opinion that 30 by 30 feet is the most
desirable distance. Others advise 25 by 25 feet. while still others
claim that 25 by 30 feet is the proper spacing. The exact
distance for setting the trees will depend somewhat on the
character of the soil in which they are planted. If the planting
is to be made in a sandy soil, such as is found in what is called
the "ridge section of the State." plantings should be 30 by 30
feet. If plantings are made on hammock or muck land, the
plantings may be 20 by 30 or 20 by 35 feet.
The land should be staked off before transplanting is started,
as this will facilitate the actual setting out of the trees. As
soon as actual transplanting starts, plans must be made for
watering the trees when set. It is also important to make pro-
visions for keeping the roots of the trees covered and moist
from the time they are dug or unpacked until they are planted.
A few minutes of direct sunshine on the roots of the trees
may cost the price of the trees exposed. The trees should be
set in the grove at the same depth at which they grew in the
nursery row.
After setting the trees, soil conditions should be observed
frequently. Whenever the soil around the trees becomes dry,
it will be necessary to water the trees so as keep the soil moist
until there is sufficient rain.
It is important to give the young trees sufficient cultiva-
tion to keep down weeds and grass. Weeds and grass will take
from the soil both plant food and moisture that should go to
the young trees. The general practice is to keep the tree rows
well cultivated the first five or six years.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Pruning
CITRUS trees require much less pruning than do most
other fruit trees, such as peaches, apples, etc. Very
little pruning is required after the citrus trees are set
in the grove.
When the citrus trees are taken from the nursery they should
be cut back to a height of eighteen to twenty-four inches. The
chief reason for this is to have the trees headed low. Low-
headed citrus trees have several advantages. First, fruit is more
easily picked from low-headed trees; second, there is apt to
be less damage from winds; and third, the low-headed trees
shade the ground more completely, thereby checking evapora-




















Pruning citrus trees.

tion of moisture. It is also much easier to spray and fumigate
the low-headed trees.
"5" '" "
Pruning citrus trees.
tion of moisture. It is also much easier to spray and fumigate
the low-headed trees.
After the young trees are pruned back and set in the grove,
they should require little or no pruning for a year or a year
and a half. If any new growth is put out below the bud
union, this should be pruned off. The only other trimming
the young trees require is to trim just enough to properly shape
the trees, that is, properly balance the top. The lower limbs
should be trimmed up just high enough to keep them off the
ground when they are loaded with fruit.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Fertilizing Citrus
By DR. R. W. RUPRECHT,
Chemist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
HE question as to how to perfectly feed or fertilize citrus
trees has been studied for a good many years not only
by scientific workers, but also on a large scale by in-
telligent growers. Despite the years of study, however, one
is a long way from being able to state, just what combination
of fertilizer element is necessary in order to produce best re-
sults. This is largely due to the fact that citrus trees are grown
on a very wide variety of soils.
In all fertilizer practices. the action of various fertilizer
ingredients must be borne in mind. It must be remembered
that ammonia or nitrogen is the material that stimulates leaf
and branch growth, that phosphoric acid stimulates root growth
and helps in fruit formation, and that potash is essential for
the formation of sugars and similar products. Potash also
helps to keep the tree in a healthy condition. Of course, in
addition to these three elements, there are a number of others
that are necessary for normal growth, such as lime, sulphur,
magnesium, etc. However, practically all of these last are pres-
ent in the fertilizers that are used or are in the soil. so that
ordinarily it is not necessary to add them to the soil.
Citrus trees are generally fertilized three times a year. in
the early spring, midsummer, and late fall. Some growers pre-
fer to fertilize their young trees four times a year, and still
others fertilize their bearing grapefruit trees a fourth time.
In the spring, as soon as danger of cold is past. the trees
should be fertilized so as to start them off quickly. This is
also the time the bloom appears and the fruit is set. Therefore
the fertilizer at this time should contain a good percentage of
ammonia and at least two-thirds of it should be derived from
inorganic sources, such as nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia.
Leunasaltpeter, or calcium nitrate. As a general rule, four per-
cent ammonia in this application is sufficient, with six or eight
percent of available phosphoric acid, and about four precent
of potash. In order to insure having plenty of ammonia avail-
able before the bloom appears, it is desirable to get the first
application on early. It must be borne in mind that if the tree
is suffering from a lack of ammonia when the bloom comes
out, it cannot set a full crop of fruit. Ammonia is not the only
requirement at this time, for lack of moisture may have the
same detrimental effect.





30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

In the summer application on bearing trees, it is safe to re-
duce the ammonia content to three percent, provided the trees
are in a good thrifty condition. For young trees, a four per-
cent formula would be better, as these trees should be en-
couraged to make a good growth. Since this time of year is the
rainy season, it is advisable to have the ammonia derived about
equally from organic and inorganic sources in order to cut down
the loss from leaching. Until more is known in regard to the
phosphoric acid needs of the tree, a six or eight percent formula
should be used. The potash content should be fairly high: a
five or six percent formula should provide a sufficient amount.
The question comes up as to whether too heavy an application
of potash at this time may not delay the maturity of early fruit.
There is a possibility that this might be the case if the summer
application is put on too late, but if put on in May or early
June, it is doubtful if this danger exists.
For the fall application, a fertilizer low in ammonia is gen-
erally found best. This is especially true for citrus in the north-
ern section of the citrus belt. Some have gone as far as to rec-
ommend a formula containing no ammonia at this time. Such
a formula could safely be used on the better or richer types of
soil if the trees are in very good condition. In general, how-
ever, it will be found that a formula carrying two percent of
ammonia will be safe to use, especially if all of the ammonia
is derived from inorganic sources. In the central section of the
citrus belt. the ammonia can be safely left at three percent, while
in the extreme southern territory where freeze danger is at a
minimum even four percent could be used if the trees show the
need for it. The phosphoric acid content should be six or eight
per cent as in the previous applications. The potash should be
the highest of the year. but eight percent is believed to be high
enough. It must be borne in mind that a well-fed tree will
withstand more cold than an under-fed tree.
The amount of fertilizer that should be applied at each
fertilization will depend largely on the type of soil and the
root stock on which the tree is grown. A safe rule to follow
is to put on one pound of fertilizer at each application for each
year that the tree has been set in the grove. For instance, a
two-year-old tree should receive two pounds of fertilizer at each
application, while a four-year-old tree should receive four
pounds of fertilizer at each application. If it is found that the
leaves of the trees turn light green or yellow, before the next
application of fertilizer, the amount of fertilizer should be in-
creased. If, on the other hand, the leaves are a rich, deep green
color and the tree is making a very vigorous growth, it might
be advisable to reduce the amount. After the trees reach bear-





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 31


ing age. the amount of fertilizer to use should be gauged by the
amount of fruit the tree is capable of producing.
The best growers in the State are now fertilizing the pro-
ducing tree according to the amount of fruit the tree is expected
to bear. The general opinion is that about four pounds of
fertilizer are required to produce a box of fruit. In addition,
the tree is expected to make more or less new growth each year,
which calls for still more fertilizer. The new growth put on
by the tree each year will ordinarily require an amount of fer-
tilizer equal to that required to produce the fruit. This means
that an amount of fertilizer should be applied for new growth
equal to that applied for production of the fruit. This makes
a total of eight pounds of fertilizer for each box of fruit the
tree is capable of producing. A tree capable of producing five
boxes of fruit should be given forty pounds of fertilizer a year,
applied in three or four applications. Should the trees be fer-
tilized four times a year. about ten pounds of fertilizer would
be applied at each application. If the trees do not present a
healthy, dark green color, it is an indication that they need more
fertilizer, especially more ammonia. On soils that are very
fertile, the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. Also. where
heavy cover crops, especially legumes are grown the amount of
fertilizer may be reduced. No definite rule can be laid down
to cover all conditions, as the general appearance of the tree and
seasonal conditions must be taken into consideration by the
grower. Therefore, the amounts as given above may serve as
a guide, especially on young trees up to eight or ten years of age.


Culture
TIRRING the soil. whether it be with a plow, cultivator.
or harrow, is beneficial in the following ways:
1. It loosens the surface soil and allows the air to pene-
trate deeper into the ground, thereby supplying oxygen to the
roots of the plants.
2. More plant food is liberated, as decomposition and
nitrification act more rapidly.
3. It pulverizes the soil. making a soil blanket that tends
to conserve the soil moisture.
4. It destroys grass and weeds which compete with the
trees for food and moisture, and is especially beneficial during
the spring months when moisture is not so plentiful.
In many localities the conservation of the soil moisture is
an important consideration during certain seasons of the year.
Since cultivation loosens the surface soil so that more of the






32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

rainfall will sink into the ground to be used by the plants at
a later time, it is of prime importance. In short, cultivation
puts the soil in the best possible condition for citrus trees to
grow.
In Florida there are many different types of soil, and nat-
urally the growers have never agreed on any one plan of cul-
tivation as best for all orange groves. A number of the better
grove owners are inclined to insist on a thorough preparation
of the soil before planting the young trees. During February
or March the land is usually plowed and a good seed bed pre-
pared. Some good legume cover crop is then planted, such as
velvet beans, cowpeas, crotalaria, or beggarweed. The cover
crop selected will be largely a matter of personal choice, de-
pending somewhat upon which one is best adapted to your par-
ticular soil. In the fall, generally September or October. the
cover crop is plowed under. It may be necessary to go over the
crop with a disc harrow once or twice before plowing. After
the cover crop is plowed under, go over the ground frequently
with either a tooth or acme harrow. This will put the soil
in best possible condition, and at the same time conserve the
soil moisture for the young trees when set out.
In cultivating a mature grove, that is, a grove that is eight
to ten years old, or older, there is more or less difference of
opinion. A number of good growers in the State are inclined
to think that cultivation of a mature grove is not necessary.
In fact, some go so far as to say that it is a waste of time and
money. However. different soil types and other local condi-
tions must be taken into consideration and studied before defi-
nite recommendations can be made. There are numerous groves
in the State that have not been cultivated in several years which
are still producing satisfactory crops of fruit.
The question of cultivation or non-cultivation of the ma-
ture grove is receiving more thought and consideration today
than ever before. It is hoped that in the next few years the
question may be more satisfactorily settled.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 33


BOXES OF CITRUS SHIPPED IN 1939-40
CERTIFIED COUNTY SHIPMENTS FROM SEPTEMBER 1, 1939,
THROUGH JUNE 30, 1940, AS RELEASED BY CITRUS
INSPECTION BUREAU-(1-3/5's BUSHEL BOXES)


COUNTY Grapefruit


Alachua ......
Brevard .... .
Broward ......
Citrus ..........
Collier ........
Dade ............
DeSoto ........
Duval ..........
Hardee ........
Hernando ....
Highlands ..
Iillsborough
Indian River
Lake ............
Lee ........... .
Manatee ...
Marion ......
Martin ........
Orange ........
Osceola .
Palm Beach.
Pasco .........
Pinellas ......
P olk ............
Putnam .
St. Johns......
St. Lucie.....
Sarasota
Seminole ....
Sumter ........
Volusia ......
Miscellaneous


Oranges Tangerines


1,267 38,583 1,396
302,260 603,430 19,177
10,047 99,281 937
882 6,631 258
10,347 0 0
90,671 87,890 1,712
40,814 337,434 31,128
113,011 350,190 55,746
2,518 41,207 3,730
3,775 53,902 37,638
226,136 463,266 48,774
185,711 761,648 45,475
561,508 184,082 27,615
364,595 1,762,333 152,927
139,548 98,778 2,860
284,456 109,667 2,184
62,337 893,213 19,223
0 9,582 0
496,513 4,549,591 591,894
37,076 131,583 15,244
25,643 31,933 5,920
148,721 351,715 28,842
487,712 379,404 29,554
1,898,170 5,756,163 667,626
11,845 104,741 23,986
1,454 34,101 321
600,199 473,299 45,483
45,914 121,917 0
89,237 709,516 85,869
663 17.216 217
56,045 362,246 89,897
895 1,937 308


State-wide
Totals........ 6,299,970 18,926,479 2,035,941 27,262,390 6,672,269

NOTE: Citrus fruit transported by express or parcel post, or used for
charity, and relief purposes, is exempt from certification and
is, therefore, not shown in the above shipping report.


Boxes
Totals Col. Added
41,246 4,524
924,867 18,094
110,265 0
7,771 0
10,347 0
180,273 3,132
409,376 122,093
518,947 78,562
47,455 11,305
95,315 15,252
738,176 114,945
992,834 249,768
773,205 1,344
2,279,855 812,786
241,186 10,946
396,307 30,098
974,773 355,294
9,582 0
5,637,998 2,017,721
183,903 72,443
63,496 44
529,278 76,668
896,670 121,807
8,321,959 2,166,280
140,572 8,515
35,876 11,156
1,118,981 16,969
167.831 37,816
884,622 275,571
18,096 0
508,188 39,136
3,140 0













































Fi, a2-FieiY of bodied Irmo. loutuy Glen St. Mary Nuiorie,)





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 35


Origin and Introduction of Citrus Fruits
By CHARLES ABBOTT,
Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida, Gainesville.
It is not possible to give the exact date of introduction of
all citrus fruits in question because the date of their introduc-
tion into America is merely a matter of conjecture.
SWEET ORANGE (Citrus sinensis, Osbeck.) A native of
southeastern Asia. Introduced into Florida from Europe by
early Spanish settlers, probably about 1530, some thirty-five
years before the founding of St. Augustine. (The exact date
of introduction not known).
SOUR ORANGE (Citrus aurantium. Linn.) Sour. Bigarade,
or Seville Orange. Native to southern Asia. Introduced into the
West Indies Islands by Columbus. Introduced into Florida by
early Spanish explorers, probably as early as 1515. (Exact
date not known.)
PARSON BROWN. Sweet Orange (C. sinensis. Osbeck.)
Originated as a seedling tree near Webster. Florida. on a place
owned by Parson Brown. a Methodist minister. It was propa-
gated and introduced to the public by J. i.. Carney of Lake
Weir, Florida in 1874. It matures its fruit early in the season.
HAMLIN. Sweet Orange (C. sinensis. Osbeck.) Originated
as a budded tree in a grove planted in 1879 by Isaac Stone. near
Glenwood. Florida. in Volusia County, Florida. for Mrs. Mary
H. Payne. The grove later came into the possession of A. G.
Hamlin, Mrs. Payne's son-in-law, who discovered the trees
(three trees in all) and who sold the fruit on the DeLand
market first as Hamlin's Favorite and later as Hamlin's Im-
proved Pineapple. Glen Saint Mary Nurseries propagated and
introduced it to the public in 1913 as the Hamilin orange. It
is an early variety maturing its fruit in October and November.
LUE GIM GONG. Sweet Orange hybrid. Originated as a
hybrid, resulting from hand pollination of Hart's Late
(Valencia) with pollen from the Mediterranean Sweet. made
in 1886 near DeLand. Florida by a Chinaman named Lue
Gim Gong. This variety was first introduced and offered for
sale to the public by Glen Saint Mary Nurseries in 1912.
It is a late variety maturing its fruit from April to June.
KING ORANGE (Citrus nobilis.) It is native to Cochin
China (Indo-China). It was introduced into California from
China in 1882 by R. Magee of Riverside. It was introduced
into Florida from California during the same year by John
Storin of Winter Park. Florida.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SATSUMA (Citrus nobilis, var. Unshiu.) It is native to
China. It was first introduced into Florida from Japan in
1876 by George B. Hall, and a second introduction was made
in 1878 by Mrs. Van Valkenburg. Season is October and
November.
TEMPLE (hybrid). The exact origin of the Temple orange
is not known. It is thought to be a hybrid between a sweet
orange and some variety of the Mandarin group. The original
tree was a budded tree but no one knew where the bud :ame
from. The original tree stood on the old W. C. Temple place
near Winter Park, Florida, and was named for William Chase
Temple. The Temple orange was propagated and introduced
to the public by the Buckeye Nurseries Company of Tampa,
Florida, in 1917. (The Buckeye Nurseries Company of Tampa,
Florida is no longer in existence). Season is from December
to February.
KUMQUAT: Nagami Kumquat (Fortunella margarita,
Swingle.) Native to China. Introduced into Europe (England)
by Robert Fortune in 1846. Introduced into the United States
through northern nurseries about 1850. It was sent to Florida
shortly after being introduced. Other introductions were made
directly from Japan by G. L. Taber of Glen Saint Mary
Nurseries and Reasoner Brothers Nursery of Oneco in 1885.
THE MARUMI KUMQUAT (Fortunella japonica. Swingle.)
Introduced directly from Japan by Reasoner Brothers of Oneco
in 1890.
LEMON (Citrus Limonia). Native of southeastern Asia.
Exact date of introduction into Florida not known, but is
thought to have been introduced by the early Spanish settlers
at St. Augustine.
CALAMONDIN (Citrus mitis.) It is a native of the Philippine
Islands. It was first introduced into Panama and from Panama
into Florida by the United States Department of Agriculture.
It bears a small tangerine-like acid fruit of fine quality which
is often used in place of the lemon and lime.
LIMEQUAT (hybrid). Produced by the U. S. D. A. by
crossing the Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) X Marumi
kumquat (Fortunella japonica). It was introduced to the pub-
lic in 1923. There are two main varieties, the Eustis and the
Lakeland.
TANGERINE: Dancy Tangerine (Citrus nobilis, var. deli-
ciosa). Thought to have originated as a seedling in the Moragne
grove near Palatka prior to 1843. It was introduced to the
public by Colonel George L. Dancey in 1871 or 1872.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 37

MANDARIN (Citrus nobilis). Native to the region around
Canton, China. Introduced into England from Canton, China, by
Abraham Hume in 1805, and into continental Europe about
1828. It was first introduced into the United States by the
Italian Consul at New Orleans between 1840 and 1850. The
trees were planted across the river opposite New Orleans. It
was brought to Florida from Louisiana by Major Atwood
of Palatka. The exact date is not known but it was subsequent
to 1850.
TANGELO (hybrid). Resulting from crossing the tangerine
X grapefruit.
There are many tangelos, some of which have been pro-
duced by the United States Department of Agriculture and
others by individuals and at different dates. Therefore, I cannot
give you much information on them unless I knew the variety
that you have.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Citrus Propagation
By A. F. CAMP
Horticulturist in Charge, Citrus Experiment Station
THE growing of citrus fruits in Florida began with seedling
trees. As the industry developed the superiority of budded
stock over the seedling tree became apparent and led prac-
tically to the abandonment of the seedling method of propaga-
tion. Fortunately, the propagation of citrus by budding and
grafting is very easy and its practice has extended beyond the
nurseryman to the grove owner himself. Today many citrus
growers, even including those with only a few trees in their
dooryards, have acquired the skill necessary for the budding of
nursery stock and the top-working of older trees.
The discussion of nursery practice given herein is based on
the best commercial practices of today, together with knowledge
gained in experimental work. A number of procedures are
listed that are not in general commercial use but which have a
certain amount of interest to growers at large. In addition to
the discussion of propagation itself, some notes are included on
the choice of rootstocks, their adaptability and comparative
values. It should be remembered that there is still considerable
difference of opinion concerning the choice of rootstocks and
their relative merits. For this reason no attempt has been made
to give the last word on this interesting if complicated subject,
but only to give what seems to be sound opinion based upon
our present knowledge.

ROOTSTOCKS
Probably no horticultural crop has as complicated a root-
stock problem as is found in the citrus industry of Florida.
Several factors combine to bring about this situation. The
great variability of soils and the peculiar suitability of certain
rootstocks to certain soil conditions probably largely account
for it, though the modifying influence exerted by rootstocks on
some varieties also is a contributing factor.
Two citrus rootstocks, sour orange and rough lemon, are
at present widely used in this state. Several others, including
sweet orange, grapefruit and Poncirus trifoliata, are used to a
lesser extent but in some cases have been utilized quite exten-
sively in the past. Recently the Cleopatra mandarin has been
developed as a rootstock and is now being tried extensively.
A number of hybrids such as citranges, tangelos, and citrange-
quats also are being used experimentally.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 39

SOUR ORANGE
The sour orange (Citrus aurantium, Linn.) was the first of
the citrus family introduced into Florida. After it was brought
here by the Spaniards it escaped from cultivation and grew in
thickets in the hammocks. It is well adapted to the moist
hammock soils and grows with such freedom as to lead many
people to believe that it is a native. It also grows well on
moist flatwood soils where the water table does not come too
close to the surface. It is extremely resistant to root and crown
diseases and particularly to foot rot, this being one of the fac-
tors that has led to its great success on moist soils where other
species of citrus are severely attacked by this disease. The
quality of fruit produced on sour orange stock is excellent and,
in the opinion of many growers, is better than that produced
by any other. It has been well established as a particularly
desirable stock for Parson Brown and Temple oranges, both
of which show poor adaptation to rough lemon stock and light
soils: it is generally considered an unsatisfactory stock for Sat-
sumas, kumquats, limequats and limes.
The sour orange is very resistant to cold and, to some ex-
tent, conveys this characteristic to the scion, probably because it
induces a more intense dormancy during the winter months.
Nursery stock on sour orange has been observed to stand cold
weather better than stock in adjoining rows on rough lemon.
The chief difficulty with this stock lies in its inability to
make a tree at a satisfactory rate on the more sandy soils. This
difficulty has led practically to the elimination of this rootstock
on such soils, since young trees on this stock may require sev-
eral years to become sufficiently established to produce satis-
factory crops, and in tests on very sandy soils production has
been below that of trees on rough lemon. Also it is less satis-
factory in the nursery than rough lemon, due to the fact that
it does not make a tree as quickly or grow quite so vigorously.

ROUGH LEMON
The rough lemon (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) is a vigorous
grower, produces trees very rapidly in the nursery and brings
grove trees to size and bearing quickly. It grows well on the
extremely light and sandy soils where sour orange stock will
fail to produce trees in a reasonable length of time. It is not
as resistant to foot rot and similar diseases as sour orange, but
is less susceptible thereto than most of the other rootstocks.
On sandy soils there is less danger from foot rot and similar
diseases than on the heavier soils and little difficulty is experi-





40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

enced with this trouble if rough lemon roots are planted in the
first named.
Opinions are widely held that rough lemon produces a
quality of fruit inferior to that from sour orange, the rind being





























A4


Fig. 3.-Rough lemon fruits and foliage.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 41

tougher, the texture coarser and the tendency greater to drying
out at the stem end. This conclusion is borne out by experi-
mental evidence derived from trees planted side by side. The
effect on quality is particularly noticeable on light sandy soils
and is greatest with tangerines and Temple oranges and least
with grapefruit. The general opinion of these differences is
somewhat exaggerated, however, due to the fact that rough
lemon is used generally on light sandy soils and sour orange
on heavier soils so that when planted side by side the differences
are frequently not as great as would commonly be expected.
Numerous groves on rough lemon stock on heavier soils have
a reputation for the high quality of fruit produced. In all cases
these are groves of considerable age, and observations would in-
dicate that the quality of fruit produced by trees budded on


4.. 6




... ,,_ _. i ,..,,
4p




Fig. 1.-One method of insertion.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


rough lemon stock improves as the trees become older. The
coarseness of fruit on young trees is probably due in part to the
very vigorous growth of the trees when budded on this stock.
Rough lemon seedlings are less resistant to cold than sour
orange seedlings and trees budded on rough lemon stock seem
to flush a little quicker with the advent of warm weather than
do trees budded on sour orange. This tendency to start growth
early sometimes results in damage in nurseries due to spring
frosts.
Generally speaking, the chief advantage possessed by the
rough lemon stock is the rapidity with which it will produce
a tree and its adaptability to very light soils. It is not to be
recommended for the heavier soils upon which sour orange is
a satisfactory rootstock.

TRIFOLIATE ORANGE
The trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, Raf,) is used
chiefly as the rootstock for Satsuma oranges and kumquats. It
is deciduous and highly resistant to cold. Seedling trees of this
species are very thorny, and are relatively slow growers. The
addition of the evergreen top by budding, however, appears to
increase the vigor of the root system, though there is usually
some stunting of the top. Outside of the northern portion of
the state, where it is used extensively for Satsumas on account
of the cold hazard, it is very little used except as a stock for
kumquats, although some of the older groves have other varie-
ties budded on it. Generally speaking, it is probably much
better adapted to the northern section of Florida than to the
central and southern sections. Fruit from trees budded on this
rootstock is usually of a very excellent quality and particularly
smooth.
GRAPEFRUIT
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, Macf.) was used as a rootstock
to a considerable extent several years ago but is very little used
at present. Its use was probably the result of observations as
to the vigorous growth of seedling grapefruit trees. In many
cases on lighter soils it has proved unsatisfactory as a stock due
to difficulty in getting trees budded thereon to bear properly.
On the heavier soils this may be overcome, at least partially, by
increased fertilization but on light soils this has not been very
effective. It is less cold resistant than sour or sweet orange.

SWEET ORANGE
The early groves in this state were planted to seedling sweet
oranges (Citrus sinensis, Osbeck) and these groves have been





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


among the most vigorous growers and producers. They are,
however, subject to foot rot and as the groves have become
older there has been considerable difficulty in maintaining them
in a healthy condition. Numerous groves of budded trees have
been planted in which this rootstock was used. and it is found
to produce a very excellent tree that grows vigorously and yields
a very fine quality of fruit. It has come into greater promi-
nence in recent years as a substitute for rough lemon on the
light sandy soils where foot rot is less common and probably
would never constitute such a serious menace as it did on the
moist flatwoods and hammock soils. On the sandy soils, young
trees on this stock have generally been somewhat slower in
growth and lower in production than trees on rough lemon but
have increased in both vigor and production with age. The
quality of fruit on this stock is exceptionally good and with
such fruits as tangerines the period of edibility has been con-
siderably extended due to delayed drying out. While there are
relatively few groves on sweet orange located on very light sandy
soils it seems to hold a great deal of promise as a stock, for
tangerines and oranges in particular.
It is more cold resistant than rough lemon or grapefruit and
less resistant than sour orange. It should never be used as a
rootstock where the sour orange will grow satisfactorily, as the
danger from foot rot is too great and no advantages appear to
be gained by using this rootstock in preference to sour orange.
where the latter is adapted.

MISCELLANEOUS ROOTSTOCK
A number of other rootstocks have been tried to some extent
but have not come into wide use so far. The Cleopatra man-
darin has been widely recommended and tried during the last
few years and within a few years more it will be possible to
gain a fairly good idea as to its desirability from the existing
plantings. It is a good grower, makes a good nursery tree. both
as to union and growth, and seems to be well adapted to the
light soils, but has a tendency to make tops budded on it slow
in coming into bearing.
Commercial lemon is frequently found as the rootstock of
occasional trees in groves presumably budded on rough lemon.
The seed in these cases probably were mixed accidentally with
the rough lemon seed, as it is not considered to be a desirable
rootstock due to its lack of disease resistance and the short life
of trees budded on it.
At present a number of hybrids such as citranges and tan-





44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

gelos are being tried as rootstocks, primarily in the hope of
finding a substitute for the trifoliate orange. A number of
these hybrids exceed the trifoliate orange in vigor and make


Fig. 4.-Seeds of various species of Citrus and Poncirus.

satisfactory unions, but it will take some time to determine
their suitability in other respects.
CITRUS SEEDS
The extraction of sour orange seeds has been a sizable in-
dustry in Florida, with considerable amounts of seeds shipped






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 45

to Texas. Arizona, and California for use in nurseries there.
The sour oranges are obtained largely from the wild thickets
in the hammocks and from scattered trees in groves and in rem-
nants of commercial plantings which have been very severely
damaged by cold.
The seeds are commonly separated from the pulp by cutting
the fruits in half and removing them by hand or by using some
sort of power reamer similar to a juice extractor. Final sepa-
ration of the seeds from the pulp is usually made in water,
where they can be quite easily removed from other materials.
The seeds are washed clean of the gelatinous matter that sur-
rounds them and are dried in the shade on cloth trays. After
the seeds have been dried they germinate more irregularly and
very much more slowly than fresh seeds. Drying is necessary,
however, in order to preserve the seeds and it is only in the case
of local nurseries that fresh seeds can be planted. Seeds should
be planted as soon as possible after removal from the fruit but
where they have to be held for several months they can be
mixed with powdered charcoal and dry sand. This latter pre-
caution is not necessary in the case of shipments of seeds for
use during the current season unless the period between extrac-
tion and planting is unusually long.
Fig. 4 shows the seeds of some of the commonest species of
citrus. Most of the seeds have a white interior but in the case
of the Mandarin group, the interior of the seed is tinted with
green. Each of the species has a fairly distinctive seed. A
pound of sour orange seeds contains about 3.500 seeds and
other species of citrus more or less according to the size of the
seeds.
Citrus seeds may produce more than one seedling per seed
through the development of extra embryos. This condition is
called polyembryony. From each seed there can be produced
only one seedling that is a result of pollination and the remain-
ing seedlings can be considered in the same status as cutting or
buds in that they will reproduce the parent tree. This factor
has probably played a considerable role in the development of
seedling groves in this state and would help to account for the
uniform quality of fruit obtained in such groves. Unfortunate-
ly, it is impossible to separate the seedlings that are a result of
pollination from the asexual seedlings in the seedbed unless the
sexual seedlings have resulted from cross-pollination with an-
other variety having a definitely different type of foliage which
shows up in the seedling.
THE SEEDBED
The seedbed should be located on good soil that is well
drained and capable of producing first-class growth of the seed-











































Fi, S,-Nursery adbd, (Courtey Glen St, Mary Nuerie,)






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


lings. It should be provided with irrigation, preferably of the
overhead type, and some nurserymen prefer to cover it with a
lath shade, although this is not necessary and the majority of
seedbeds are planted in the open. The lath shade has a tendency
to increase the amount of seedling diseases and makes the seed-
bed difficult to handle from this standpoint but minimizes the
moisture problem (see Figs. 5, 6 and 7). The location se-
lected should be well protected from cold and the soil should
be well drained as this will reduce the trouble from seedling
diseases. A fertile soil is of course desirable but it is sometimes
necessary to sacrifice soil quality somewhat for the sake of good
cold protection and good drainage. It is also desirable to use
new land whenever possible and not to plant a bed the second
time without letting it "lay-out" for a while. The same rules
apply to the selection of land for nursery rows.
A small amount of fertilizer is needed in making up the
seedbed. This fertilizer should have a high percentage of nitro-
gen, largely derived from organic sources. The fertilizer should
be added several weeks before the seeds are planted and worked
thoroughly into the soil.
Where only a small seedbed is desired the seeds are planted
in rows wide enough for hand cultivation, but where a large
number of seedlings is being grown the rows are laid out wide
enough for horse cultivation. The seeds are planted thickly
in the row and are covered with two to three inches of soil.
Sour orange, sweet orange, grapefruit and rough lemon seeds
are planted after the danger of frost is over, as very young
seedlings are killed when frozen to the ground. Poncirus tri-
foliata seedlings are not completely killed by being frozen off.
but sprout up from below ground: consequently its seeds can
be planted whenever they are ready.
The number of days required for germination of citrus seeds
will depend upon the soil temperature and moisture and the
condition of the seeds when planted. Experiments with fresh
seeds have shown that the optimum soil temperature for germi-
nation is about 90 F. Near the optimum temperature, fresh
seeds will sometimes germinate in two weeks but when the soil
temperature is below 900 F. a longer time is required for germi-
nation. In this connection attention should be called to the
fact that during the winter and spring the soil temperature is
much lower than that indicated as the optimum and the time
required for germination is correspondingly longer. The seed-
lings, however, are usually up in from three weeks to a month
if the soil has been kept moist and the weather is not too cold.
After the seedlings have come up it is necessary to cultivate
sufficiently to keep down weeds and to water enough to keep


47























z





.7 10



r. C

':'r r H







ri. .~usryiededad ed~n~ lms rd t toopot o useyro.(Ci~tsyGenS. ar ureie,






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 49

the plants growing well but not so much as to cause damping-
off fungi to attack the seedlings. During the growing season
two or three applications of fertilizer having a high nitrogen
content should be made. Before the seedlings are removed from
the seedbed. cultivation and fertilization should be stopped to
allow the seedlings to harden up.


Fig. 7.-Citrus nursery seedbed under shade. (Courtesy Glen St. Mary Nurseries.)

About one year from the September following the planting
of the seed, making about 18 months in the seedbed, the seed-
lings are transplanted to the nursery row for further growth
and budding. Seedlings are frequently transplanted after a
much shorter period in the seedbed but are harder to handle in
the nursery row because of their small size. The seedlings can
be removed by cutting the tap root 8 to 12 inches below the
surface with a nursery spade, after which the seedlings can be
easily lifted. The seedbed should be well watered just before
the seedlings are removed. At least twice as many seedlings
should be grown as it is intended to plant and only the best
seedlings used.
In transplanting seedbed stock to the nursery row the soil
is usually opened with a spade. Care should be practiced to



















































Fig 1,l41ru1 mt elingi In tho nuriry tow mady to bud.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 51

prevent the doubling up of roots, particularly the taproot, when
planting. If necessary, prune back the roots before attempting
to plant. Watering at the time of planting is highly desirable
if the soil is even slightly dry.
The nursery rows are usually 3 to 4 feet apart and the
trees are planted about 12 inches apart in the row, the distance
varying in different nurseries (see Fig. 8). Generally speaking,
the rows should be wide enough to permit the use of a horse
or mule in cultivating and the trees should be far enough apart
in the row to permit the free use of a hoe between the trees.
The trees are grown in the nursery row for about one year
before being budded. Budding is usually done in the fall-
September, October and November-but may be done also in
the spring or summer.

BUDDING NURSERY STOCK
The standard method of propagating citrus nursery stock is
by budding. While the seedlings can be readily grafted by sev-
eral different methods, these are never used in practice because
budding is so much simpler, quicker and more economical of
budwood than is any method of grafting. Citrus can be
budded whenever the bark will "slip." that is, whenever it will
separate readily from the wood. This condition exists during
most of the spring, summer and fall, but in nursery practice it
is customary to do most of the budding during the fall. Bud-
ding at this time is called dormant budding because the buds
do not start into growth until the following spring. When
the stock is large enough to bud in the fall a delay until spring
will result in three to four weeks loss of growing time in the
budded tree.
Budding in citrus is accomplished by the insertion of a
shield-shaped bud into a "T" slot cut in the bark of the stock.
The leg of the "T" is parallel with the axis of the stock and
the top of the "T" across the stock at either the top or bottom,
thus making either an erect or inverted "T" as desired. The
buds are cut from wood about the size of a pencil or a little
smaller, which has outgrown its angular condition and will
usually be of the flush previous to the one occurring about the
time the budding is done. In Fig. 9 are shown two types of
budwood, namely, the angled wood which is considered unsuit-
able except for certain special types of budding, and the round
wood which is desirable. The tree from which the budwood is
selected should bear satisfactory crops of fruit true to the varietal
type. In nursery practice, buds are commonly taken from blocks
of nursery stock of the desired variety. When the block records





52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE













1 /































Fig. 9.-Citrus budwood. The wood on the left is too angular; that on the right
is of better quality.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


are accurate and where the practice of obtaining new budding
material from bearing trees frequently is followed, this prac-
tice is not as bad as it would at first appear. A certain number
of off-type trees will appear but they may also appear in blocks
budded from bearing trees. This practice is quite common and
aside from other considerations has been followed because of the
difficulty in obtaining large amounts of suitable budwood from
bearing trees. If, as has happened in some cases, buds are ob-
tained only from nursery trees and several generations of trees
are produced entirely by transfer of buds from one block to
another, it may easily happen that a considerable number of off-
type trees may appear and if care is not continually practiced,
some mixing of varieties may occur. If buds taken direct from
parent trees are not obtainable in sufficient quantity, it is better
to bud a small block of nursery trees each year from suitable
bearing trees and to use buds from these for larger blocks the
following year. The constant reference back to bearing trees
in this way more nearly approximates the ideal system of ob-
taining all buds from bearing trees.
For the benefit of those just starting in the nursery business
and for those who are raising trees for their own groves, it
should be pointed out that there is considerable variation in
citrus varieties in Florida. In selecting bearing trees as a source
of budwood it is not sufficient to take any tree that has been
casually identified as belonging to a variety. Budwood should
be obtained from trees that have a record of good production
of true-to-type fruit and the greatest care should be used in
this selection. Trees that produce poor or freakish fruit usually
will transmit these characteristics to trees budded from them.
Certain work has indicated also that gummosis might be trans-
mitted by budding, and as a precaution trees should not be
used as sources of budwood if they show any gummosis or
have a history of having been affected by this disease. It is
well to remember at all times that the trees are not likely to
be any better than the tree from which the budwood was
obtained.
For convenience in budding, the budwood is usually cut into
pieces from 8 to 12 inches long, each piece carrying several
buds. The budwood should be of good normal growth, well
rounded and hardened sufficiently to handle well. As soon as
the budwood is cut from the tree it should be defoliated by
cutting the leaves off with a knife or pruning shears, leaving a
piece of each petiole attached to the wood. When it is necessary
to store the budwood until stock is ready for budding, the sticks
can be packed in cypress sawdust or in damp sphagnum moss






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 10.-Initial steps in the budding process. A, making the vertical cut; the cutting
stroke is usually downward but may be made upward if desired. B, making the cross
cut at the bottom of the vertical slit; note tilt of knife blade. C, cutting the bud shield
from the bud stock. (Cf. Fig 11.)





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 55

and held in a cool place. If stored in sawdust it will be neces-
sary to repack occasionally.
A knife having a blade of the very finest steel and with a
rounded end is necessary. The blade should be made of steel
comparable in quality to razor steel and carefully ground and
honed to a smooth, thin edge. Many very careful workers
prefer to finish sharpening the knife with a strop similar to a
razor strop. Unless the knife is of very fine quality and very
carefully sharpened, it is impossible to make smooth cuts and to
open up the bark without leaving loose shreds which interfere
with the insertion of the bud. Standard budding knives are
commonly made with a bone handle with a flat, wedged end
for opening up the bark where necessary, but the handle is
seldom used by specialists in budding.
Budding tape for wrapping the buds is made from thin
bleached muslin put up in rolls 6 to 8 inches long and 1 to 2
inches in diameter. These are impregnated with a grafting
wax that will not harden. Of a large number of formulae for
the wax, the one below, taken from Hume's "Cultivation of
Citrus Fruits." is considered very satisfactory for use under
Florida conditions:

Resin .......... ... . . I lb.
Beeswax ......... ..... 4 lbs.
Raw pine gum .. .3 tblsps.

The grafting wax is heated over the fire until melted, a large
iron kettle generally being used, and the rolls are immersed in
it until thoroughly impregnated. The wax must not be too
hot during this procedure and a good practice is to bring the
wax to a boil so it can be skimmed, then allow it to cool some-
what before immersing the rolls of cloth. Plenty of time should
be allowed so as to obtain thorough penertation and the pro-
cedure can be helped by moving the rolls around in the melted
wax. If the rolls of cloth are too large, the wax will not pene-
trate and the diameter, therefore, should be kept below 2 inches.
To secure better penetration, many workers tear the muslin in
36" squares and fold these into smaller squares for ease in han-
dling prior to impregnation. These are immersed in the melted
wax and unfolded with sticks to make sure of even impregna-
tion. The sheets are then stretched on bamboo poles to drain
and dry. After the cloth is cool it can be torn off in strips the
proper width for use, as needed.
Any number of variations of this procedure have been sug-
gested or adopted by various budders, according to personal





56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

preferences. A good grade of muslin, put up in proper rolls and
thoroughly impregnated with wax, can be torn to any width
desired, whereas tapes and other materials made a definite width
beforehand lack the flexibility in handling afforded by the
above method of preparation. The cloth should be capable of
withstanding considerable pull and the wax should be one that
will retain a certain softness and not harden on exposure.
Budding in the nursery usually is carried out on seedling
trees from the size of a pencil up to an inch in diameter, but
trees Y2" to 34" caliper are most desirable; trees that are too


Budding citrus trees.


small should be discarded. The trunk of the seedling is pruned
clean of thorns and limbs, ahead of the budder so as to save
time, and the soil is scraped away if the bud is to be placed
close to the soil. With the knife grasped in the right hand and
the edge of the blade downward, a downward cut is made about
an inch and a half long (Fig. 10A). This is a vertical cut
through the bark but no farther into the wood than is necessary
to be certain that the bark has been completely cut. If desired,
this cut can be made upward instead of downward. The knife
is now used to make a cross cut at the bottom of the vertical
cut, thus making an inverted "T" (Fig. 10B). In making





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 57


* r F, 1-


:4


CZ'* *


'0~


LU


'UI~'


Fig. 11.-The final steps in the budding process. D, inserting bud shield in stock; bud
is being held on knife blade. E, bud shield in place in stock; note that it is entirely within
the flaps of bark. F, a closer view of the shield bud in place. G, taping the bud; taping
is started at the bottom in inverted "T" budding and at the top in erect "T" budding.
H, taping finished; end of tape is brought back on tape wraps so that it will stick.
(Cf. Fig. 10.)


;c(p


s -d-
"^`~
E *. '- ,





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


this cut, the back of the knife blade is tilted slightly downward
so that the cut is a little upward as well as across the stock.
At the finish of the cut, the knife blade is tilted slightly upward
and given a slight twist to open the bark at the junction of the
horizontal and vertical cuts.
The bud is now cut from a stick of budwood held as in Fig.
10C, with the basal end away from the operator. The cut is
toward the operator and is made as nearly as possible parallel
with the axis of the budwood, and with a slight rotating mo-
tion. The knife is held with the blade almost parallel to the
axis of the budwood and the thumb of the knife hand used to
steady the budwood in making the cut. This will give a shield-
shaped piece of bark and wood about Y to 1 inch long with a
flat, smooth cut surface. The bud should not be scooped out
as this will cause too much wood to be taken with the bud. As
the cut is finished, the thumb retains the bud on the blade of the
budding knife and at the lower end of the shield. Using this
method of holding the bud, with thumb and knife blade, the
upper end of the bud is inserted in the stock as in Fig. 11D,
Fig. 1 (page 41) showing another method of insertion. The
bud shield when inserted is entirely beneath the bark and
should be pushed far up into the vertical cut (Fig. 11E and F
and Fig. 1). The bud should be handled very carefully so as
not to injure it during the procedure; inexperienced operators
may tear up the edge of the shield in the process of inserting it
under the bark and sometimes will use the point of the knife
to push it into place and badly injure the bud in this way. Con-
siderable practice is necessary to carry out the procedure rapidly
and smoothly so as to insert the bud into place with the edges
of the shield smooth and untorn and the bud uninjured, but
unless this is done the bud has a poor chance of "taking." The
inexperienced worker in watching the experienced budder fre-
quently gets the impression that the work can be rapidly and
carelessly done, whereas the speed really comes from a great
deal of practice so that all operations are done accurately as
well as rapidly.
Taping is started below the bud and the tape wrapped
firmly but not too tightly around the trunk of the tree up to
above the top of the vertical cut (Fig. 11G and H). As the
wrapping is finished the end of the tape should be brought back
onto the cloth, as this will make it adhere more firmly. For
wrapping buds, it is usually found desirable to tear the cloth
in about three-quarter inch strips, but the size of the stock and
other conditions will influence this considerably. It is impor-
tant that the wrapping be sufficiently tight to prevent the en-
trance of water into the wound and to hold the bud and the





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 59










4



















.4

Nd



I..













* .*,* f ,.



Fig. 12.--"Lopped" seedIing, showing bud that has just "taken."





60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

stock closely together so that callousing will start and a union
be formed. After 10 days to two weeks the buds can be ex-
amined and if still green and showing callous formations in-
dicating that they have "taken," the tape can be removed.


Fig. 13.-Nursery trees staked and tied-wooden stakes.

The type of budding here illustrated is described as inverted
"T" incision. In California the erect "T" is used, that is, the
cross cut is made at the top of the vertical cut instead of at
the bottom as in the Florida method. It is claimed that the
inverted "T" method keeps out moisture better and allows the
bud to "drain," although the real reason is probably to be
found in custom, as either method will work satisfactorily.
When the erect "T" is used, the wrapping is started at the top,
that is, at the point of intersection of the two cuts.
The distance of the bud from the ground must be deter-
mined by conditions under which the trees are to be used. Sweet
orange scions on sour orange stocks can be affected with foot
rot if water or mud stands above the bud union just as readily
as seedling sweet oranges can be attacked. Where the budded
trees are to be planted in moist locations, the buds should be






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


high above the ground but when they are to be planted on drier
lands the bud may be within two or three inches of the ground
to facilitate protection against cold by banking. Under Florida
conditions, the buds usually are placed as close to the soil as
it is convenient to work, that is, 2 to 3 inches.
When the bud starts to grow the seedling top is cut off
smoothly just above the bud, thus throwing the growth to the
bud. Dormant budded nursery trees are cut back in January
or February before spring growth starts. When the seedling
is very large at time of budding the top is sometimes "lopped"
when the bud starts, by cutting it partially through. This helps
to start the bud and at the same time leaves some top to sup-
port the roots (Fig. 12). Lopping reduces the chances of the bud
being flooded or drowned by excessive sap flow which may occur
if a vigorously growing top is entirely removed. The cut should
be on the same side as the bud. After the bud shoot has grown
6 to 12 inches high, the old seedling top is entirely removed
with a pair of sharp clippers, making the cut close to the bud.
Lopping is seldom practiced in nurseries where normal seed-
lings are being budded but is sometimes used where seedlings
that have remained too long in the nursery row are being
worked.
As soon as the buds start to grow it will be necessary to
put a stake at each tree and to tie the shoot to the stake from
time to time with raffia or coarse string (see Fig. 13). The
stakes may be of good heart pine or cypress 3j to 1 inch square
and 4 feet long, or they may be of heavy galvanized wire. If
old stakes are used they should be free of termite and ant col-
onies. Many nurserymen using wooden stakes make it a prac-
tice to place the stake on the north side of the scion to give a
little protection from the north winds. The best practice is to
place the stake in the angle formed by the scion and the stock.
The stake is close to the scion, making training easy, and out
of the way of the cultivator. If the stake is placed on the
opposite side of the stock from the bud. the scion will be bent
in training. When the shoot is from 1 to 3 feet high, it is
usually topped, thus starting the formation of a framework for
the tree. The height for topping is determined by the operator
to produce the type of tree desired.
A large number of other methods of budding can be used
but are not ordinarily necessary in citrus. Some of these, such
as ring or patch budding, are particularly adapted to some trees
that are budded with considerable difficulty, usually due to
a thick and brittle bark, and which will not respond readily
to shield budding, but these methods are not used in citrus.
Some variations of the shield bud are used in working stocks





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


that are too hard or in utilizing budwood that is too angled to
permit of the cutting of satisfactory shields of the usual type.
Two of these methods are illustrated in Fig. 14. These two
pictures represent types of what is called side budding, this
method being sometimes used on stocks that are too hard for























Fig. 14.-Side budding with curved incision on left and angled incision on right. Either
shield can be cut from angular budwood to better advantage than can the ordinary shield.

the usual method of shield budding. Note in particular the
shape of the bud shield with the bud eye on the side of the
shield instead of in the center. This type of shield can be
readily cut from very angular budwood. Except for the shape
of the bud shield and the method of making the incision in
the stock the procedure to be followed is the same as that fol-
lowed in "T" or inverted "T" budding. Occasionally with
either of these types of side budding a small sprig of budwood
with 3 to 5 buds on it is substituted for a shield bud. This type
of procedure is frequently used in experimental work where the
wood available is too small for shields to be cut from it.
In budding large blocks of nursery stock the pruner usually
cleans off the leaves, thorns, and limbs where the bud is to be
inserted, ahead of the budder, and the pruner or another helper





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 63

will scrape away the soil, if this is necessary. The budder has
a tier working with him who wraps the buds. Under such con-
ditions a good budder may put in as high as 1,500 or more
buds in a day, his efforts being entirely devoted to the highly
skilled operation of cutting and inserting the buds. In nursery
practice the tier always uses budding tape but where small
amounts of work are being done other methods of holding the
bud in place are sometimes used. The bud may be tied in with
raffia or string and the whole wound painted over with melted
paraffin and carnauba wax. In case this method is to be used,
a special lantern containing an alcohol lamp and a cup in which
the wax is melted should be obtained. Special wide rubber
bands also are used occasionally for tying.
In dormant budding it is sometimes necessary to protect the
bud from cold. This can be done by banking the trees with
soil after the wraps are removed, plowing a furrow to each side
of the row. This soil is removed after the danger of frost is past.

HANDLING BUDDED TREES
Cultivation and fertilization of budded trees should be such
as to promote thrifty growth. The nursery rows are cultivated
frequently to keep down weeds and grass, a horse-drawn culti-
vator being used for cultivating the middles and the rows being
hoed out by hand. In the fall cultivation is reduced so as to
harden the trees before frost. The amount and type of fertilizer
will depend greatly on the type of soil. A fertilizer analyzing
4 to 5 per cent nitrogen. 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 4 to
6 percent potash is suitable. Three applications of fertilizer per
season should be made, the first just prior to the start of growth
in the spring, the second in June and the third in late August
or early September. The amounts will vary from 500 to 1.500
pounds per acre per application, depending on the fertility of
the soil. The applications may be made broadcast and worked
in with the cultivator but usually the first is applied by "barring
off" the rows (plowing a furrow away from each side of the row
with a small turning plow) and placing the fertilizer in the
furrow and covering it by plowing the soil back into the fur-
row. Too much fertilization and cultivation should be avoided
as an excess tends to produce too rank and soft a growth.
As pointed out previously, the scion must be tied to the
stake from time to time so that it will have a straight trunk.
The height at which it is to be topped to form the framework
of the tree will depend on the type of tree desired. Of late years
the tendency has been to the growing of low-headed trees and
the scions are usually topped at about 18 to 24 inches. In addi-











'4x


t
11
Y;
i
n\ rS


Fig, 15,-Digging nursery Ire. A tree rely for dillingl B, pruning bick with lopping itrm prelliiary to dillin, (Cl, Fip, 18 nd 7I,)


IMP "


'1





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


tion to the work of training the scion, sprouts must be removed
from both stock and scion occasional. When the tree has
developed a strong trunk the stake is removed so that it will not
be in the way when the trees are dug.
Budded trees are allowed to grow at least one year in the
nursery row before being placed in the grove. The grading of
nursery stock after off-type and freak trees are eliminated is
usually done by caliper (i. e.. the diameter of the trunk two
inches above the union is measured) and by the age of the trees
from budding. Trees for planting should preferably caliper
5'" or over after one year from budding. Two-year trees should
be larger. Trees that failed to make satisfactory growth the
first year are commonly left for another year's growth. Some
nurserymen prefer to cut back such trees to the bud and make
an entirely new top the second year but trees that are badly
stunted should be discarded.
DIGGING NURSERY TREES
Nursery trees are dug as ordered and the selection of the
trees is based on the size desired to fill the order. In digging
nursery trees the foreman of the crew usually selects the trees
to be dug and prunes them back with long-handled shears to a
framework or a stub. according to instructions (Figs. 15 and
16C). The remaining leaves and twigs are cut off with a knife
or pruning shears and the lateral roots are cut off in a circle
around the tree by means of long-bladed nursery spades (Fig.
16D). A hole is then dug on one side of the tree so that the
spade can be driven under the tree at the proper depth to cut
the taproot (Fig. 17E). The tree is then "lifted" with the
help of the spade and the roots are immediately covered to
prevent drying out (Figs 17F and I7G). The trees may be
loosened as in Fig. 17E but have the roots still left in the soil
until the truck or wagon comes and then the trees can be quickly
lifted and placed under cover. It is very important that the
roots should not be allowed to dry out before planting. This
applies not only to the process of digging but also to the haul-
ing and handling of trees. particularly when they are to be
removed by truck or wagon directly to the field where they are
to be planted.
The practice of handling citrus nursery stock "bare rooted"
is universal in Florida. In California. however, the trees are
"balled" that is. dug with a ball of earth containing the roots
and this is wrapped with burlap. Difficulties attached to han-
dling trees in this way in the light Florida soils are obvious.
Moreover, the trees grow so readily when transplanted under
Florida conditions that this procedure is found to be unneces-
sary.















41

r '


1 I
4r.
S1
s.I' . I-


Fi., 1,-Diging nursery trees, C, tree pruned back for digging, D, digging the tree The man on the right is cutting the lateral roots with a
spade; the one on the left is cleaning oi the eaves and twigs remaining after pruning. (Cf. Figi, I5 and 17),


I~ Y


;i:,


~T[ 1"


1:~i~ Y-










S, )


'I


h7~


4.;A
A


FI|, 1,-Dilllng nursery tree, E, cutting taproot of tree with a spid; nole depth to which spite thrust into soil. F, "lilling" a urery
ree; the worker'i right hand hol the handle of the spae and with hi had and knee he is uing the spade to help pry the Ire up. G th
nurry tree lifted Ire of the soil; note the hne root svilm Ir1. Fip. 15 and 1.)


'LI





68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

PACKING NURSERY STOCK FOR SHIPMENT
Nursery trees are packed in various ways for shipment by
freight, express or mail. A larger proportion of the trees now
move by truck direct to the grove site and for short hauls are
commonly dug in the morning and planted in the afternoon.
If the trees are wet down as they are loaded onto the truck
and covered with a wet canvas or burlap cover they can be
handled nicely for short hauls but for longer hauls it is desir-
able to pack the roots in moist sawdust or other materials and
also to cover with a canvas to protect the top from the drying
wind. All methods of long distance shipment make use of some
sort of protection for the roots-such as moist sphagnum moss
or "shingletow" (sawdust from cypress shingle mills). In Fig.
18A is shown a standard crate for the shipment of nursery
trees. As shown in the figure, the crate is lying on its side
and it is placed in this position when the trees are packed in
it. The 2"x2" framing piece for the open side is removed and
the box lined with paper before the packing starts. A layer
of moss or shingletow is placed for the roots and excelsior is
used at the top of the box to protect the trunks against rub-
bing and to keep the packing for the roots in place. The trees
are packed in tightly with alternate layers of packing material
and finally covered with a layer of packing material and paper.
The framing piece is then nailed back in place and a piece of
l"x3" placed across the center of the open side and nailed to
the sides to help hold the trees in place. The side boards are
then nailed on and the box stood on end ready for receiving the
burlap covering to protect the tops of the trees (Fig. 18B).
The tops of the trees are now covered with burlap which is
attached to the crate by means of lath strips nailed to the top
frame and securely sewed (Fig. 18C). The crates shown are
usually 30" high but the side dimensions may vary from
12"x12" to much larger.
Smaller quantities of trees may be shipped in bales and three
types of bales are shown in Fig. I 8D. These vary from a paper
covered bale for mail order shipments to coverings of corru-
gated paper and wrapping paper or burlap for express ship-
ments. In all cases the trees are packed in the proper packing
material in much the same manner as described for the crates.
Regardless of the type of package the packing must be done
carefully to avoid drying out of the trees while in transit. For
local shipments, shingletow is commonly used around the roots
but trees to be shipped to distant points are usually packed in
spahgnum moss.
TOP-WORKING
It is often desirable or necessary to top-work grove trees
because of cold damage or when it is desired to substitute a




CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 69


.-


Ai
" I


Fig. 18.-Shipping nursery stock. A, shipping crate, with end and one side (up) left
open to facilitate packing. B, nursery stock crated and ready for burlap covering over
the tops. C, crated for shipment. D, four types of packages for shipping citrus nursery
stock. In the background the crate, on the left the paper-wrapped parcel for mail ship-
ment, center corrugated paper and paper, and right burlap covering for express shipment.


*.. ''I .'





70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

new variety for an undesirable one. Top-working large trees,
while tedious, takes advantage of the root system already pres-
ent and brings a tree into production more quickly than can
be done by planting young trees. Frequently it is desired to
work over trees in yards so as to give additional varieties for
home use and this is sometimes done by budding or grafting
more than one variety on the same tree. The common methods
for the top-working of trees are: Budding sprouts or shoots
resulting from cutting back. budding old branches and then
cutting them back. bark grafting or cleft grafting. The method
used almost exclusively in this state is the budding of new
shoots, some of the work being done on the shoots produced
when trees are "hatracked," and some on sprouts from the root-
stock produced when trees are cut off at the bud union.
The budding of rootstock sprouts will be necessary when
budded trees are killed to the bud by cold and the rebuilding
of the orchard depends on the rootstock sending up sprouts
which can be budded. In top-working relatively young trees
this procedure is often more convenient and efficient than re-
working the tops since there are no trunks and limbs left to
produce sorouts of the original variety and relatively little time
is lost. Moreover, in the case of tangerines which have brittle
wood and a tendency to split in the limb crotches and Temple
oranges which are dwarf in habit and also have brittle wood,
the use of top-working on a framework is of doubtful value.
both due to the effect of the old top on the new top and also
due to the danger of breaking up of the framework after a
heavy top of grapefruit or orange is developed on it. Even old
trees of tangerine or Temple are commonly worked over to
other varieties by cutting back to the bud union.
The procedure for working over young trees (six years old
or less) by this method, is to cut the tree off smoothly at or
just below the bud union. It is usually desirable to start the
cut on the side toward which it is desired to have the tree fall,
cutting about a fourth to a third through and then finishing
it off with a cut from the other side so as to avoid excessive
splitting of the stump. The stump is then dressed to a smooth
cut and it is desirable to cover it with a good wound dressing.
The sprouts that come up are thinned to a suitable number
arising close to the stump. On a very small tree one sprout can
be left. but on stumps more than two inches in diameter leave
two or more according to the size of the stump. Enough sprouts
should be left so that the stump will ultimately heal over well
and several sprouts also tend to grow together at the base and
support each other. After the sprouts have hardened up they
can be budded, using the procedure for nursery stock, but the






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 71


work of budding should not be done too soon. After the buds
have started they will have to be staked and trained. A nice
piece of work of this type can be seen in Fig. 19.


0 a


p q


i
. r .


\. .-~'


*~ ~ .


Fig. 19.-Budded sprouts from the rootstock of a tree which was cut off at the ground.
This is one method of top-working.


/A N


6;.
c ~ ~

'c;i;c.- -





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Frequently it is desirable to work large tangerines in this
way on account of the possible danger of splitting of the frame-
work later. In such cases the shock to the root system when
a large top is suddenly removed is extremely severe and may
result in considerable damage. A better, but slightly more
laborious system, is to cut the stump about 2/3 through and
tip the tree over, leaving it attached to the stump (Fig. 20).
The top may be held in place by fastening it to a large stake
and this will prevent the top from being rolled around by heavy
winds. The sprouts that come up on the cut side are properly
thinned and budded in the usual way and after they are firmly
established the cut is finished and the top removed. After this
is done, another sprout or two may be worked at the point
where the final cut was made in order to round out the new
top and to help the process of callousing over the old stump. In
acreage to be handled in this way the trees of adjoining rows can
be felled toward each other and one stake used for two trees and
the alternate middles kept clear while the first sprouts are being
budded and started. The old tops will produce some fruit dur-
ing the period while they are left attached to the tree.


Fig. 20.-Tree partially cut through, felled and staked so as to support root system
while sprouts are being worked.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Trees budded on Poncirus trifoliata should not be cut off at
the bud, since this rootstock will frequently fail to send up
sprouts. Other common rootstocks usually send up sprouts
quite readily.
The common method of top-working old trees is to cut
them back to a framework, commonly called "hatracking," and
then to bud the sprouts which start on the limbs. On large trees
it is common to cut back to a point where the cuts are through
limbs about three inches or more in diameter but the exact
point has to be determined by the wishes of the operator. The
larger the framework left the more buds will have to be put
in and the more old framework present which will have to be
kept free of sprouts after the new top develops. On the other
hand, the more limbs left the shorter the time necessary to


Lii


Fig. 21.-Large tree severely cut back preparatory to top-working. Sprouts protected
by burlap shade.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


get a new top on the tree. To keep down the amount of bud-
ding necessary and also to reduce the work of keeping the
framework free of sprouts later, the cuts are usually made in
large wood so as to leave four to seven large stubs and some
time is sacrificed in getting the tree back into production.
(Fig. 21).
To reduce the shock to the root system an excellent practice
is to cut back about half the limbs and to work these over and
get the buds well started before cutting back the rest of the
limbs. In doing this, it is best to cut a large limb on one side
to permit access to the middle of the tree and then to cut off
the central limbs (Fig. 22). After these have been worked to
the new variety and a good top started (one to two years) the
remainder of the old top can be cut back and worked without
danger of breaking up the new top while removing the limbs.
This procedure is not usually followed as the grower is anxious
to get the new top into production and considers it too much
delay. It has the advantage, however, of keeping the root sys-
tem in better condition and producing some fruit during the
period while the new top is being developed. While this method


Fig. 22.-Large tree partially cut back preparatory to top-working in two stages.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


is very seldom used its advantages are such that it recommends
itself highly as a general method for top-working.
In cutting back to a framework for top-working, the same
general rules hold as for cutting back to the bud. Large limbs
should be cut partially through on the side toward which they
are to fall and the cut finished on the other side, as this pre-
vents splitting. An alternative is to cut the limb off one to
three feet above the point where the final cut is to be made
and then to make the final cut at the proper point. The cut
surface should be smoothed over and painted with grafting wax
or a good wound dressing. The exposed framework and trunk
should be painted with whitewash to protect it from the sun.
otherwise the bark will be killed on the tops of the limbs. In
addition, some growers protect the framework and the new
sprouts with some sort of shade. This is usually a piece of sack-
ing supported on some sticks tied to the framework (Fig. 21).
Even when this is done the framework should be whitewashed.
White'washes which will stay on a tree trunk or limb in this
climate are difficult to make. Formulae for several durable
whitewashes may be obtained from the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station at Gainesville or from the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. A very good formula is as follows:
Quicklime 50 lbs.
Water .... 10 gals.
Salt . 4! lbs.
Slake the lime with the water in such way as to prevent
burning of the lime and then add the salt. This may be diluted
to a suitable consistency for application. If it is to be used in
a sprayer it will have to be strained through a screen and diluted
more than would be necessary for brush application. Attention
has been called recently by Mr. W. F. Ward to the fact that
the California formula which makes use of a water extract of
cactus in slaking the lime can be successfully used. While they
use there an extract of a particular variety of cactus which does
not grow here the common local prickly pear has proven quite
satisfactory.
Make a water extract by placing prickly pear stems in a
tub or bucket and adding sufficient water to more than cover
them, bruise and break them up thoroughly and allow the mix-
ture to set for at least 24 hours and then pour off the water.
Carefully slake the quicklime with water and cactus extract.
using about 2 gallons of water to 1 gallon of extract, strain the
paste when cool through a screen and dilute to the desired con-
sistency with water and extract. This makes a very smooth
whitewash with great adhesiveness.





76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The limbs will sprout freely and after the sprouts have
hardened up they can be budded by following the same pro-
cedure as for nursery stock. Not all of the sprouts should be
budded and some thinning will have to be done. Always bud
some sprouts near the cut end of the branch so that they will aid
in healing the cut surface, and other sprouts can be budded along
the limbs, selecting such as will help in forming a well shaped
head on the new tree. After the buds have started the unused
sprouts can be thinned.
Some difficulty may be experienced if the buds are put in
before the sprouts have hardened up sufficiently. The large
root system tends to push the growth vigorously and the buds
may be easily "drowned" if the wood is too soft. Generally, it
is safer to lop the top of the sprout after the bud has taken and
to make the final cut later. It is also good practice to snip off
the tip of the sprout at the time the bud is put in. After the
buds have started it will usually be necessary to provide some
support to keep them from being broken off.
When trees are cut back it is common to have the new
growth develop "frenching." If any signs of frenching appear.
it is wise to spray the trees with the usual zinc spray recom-
mended for this purpose. Proper formulae for this purpose
should be obtained from current spray programs.
A number of other methods can be used in top-working but
the use of budding is generally preferred on account of the fact
that a great many workers can do good budding but very few
are familiar with the methods of grafting adaptable to citrus.
These other methods are useful at times and for this reason a
discussion of them will be given here.
When working large limbs, budding can be used directly on
the limb if the workman is careful. In case the bark is reason-
ably soft and pliable, some form of shield budding can be used
as previously described. Often the curved or angled incision
will be found superior to the "T" for this purpose. When the
bark is thick and will not "work" without splitting, it can be
shaved and scraped to remove the outer hard layers and the
inner bark left for "working." If the buds are slow to "take,"
a partial girdling of the limb above the bud or cutting back
the top of the branch will help. This sort of budding is difficult
and not recommended for ordinary use.
Bark grafting is occasionally used in working over stumps
and large limbs. Its chief difficulty lies in a mechanical weak-
ness of the union that may continue for some years. Like cleft
grafting, it gains a year of time on sprout budding. For this
type of grafting the stump or limb is cut off at a right angle





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 77

to the axis and the cut surface smoothed up with a knife. Small
scions up to six or eight inches long are given a long slanting
cut at the butt end and the sharp end shoved under the bark
with the cut surface facing the wood of the stump(Fig. 23A).
Wherever possible, a concave place in the contour of the stump
should be used. If the bark is at all pliable the scion can usually
be shoved under the bark easily but where the bark is hard it
may be necessary to make a short downward cut through the
bark with the knife and to open the bark a little at the top
before the scion is inserted. A brad or small nail may be used
to help hold the scion in place. The stump is taped around so
as to hold the scions firmly in place and the cut surface of the


Fig. 23.-Bark grafting. A, scions in place; a brad driven through the scion into the
trunk will help to hold the scion in place. B, bark graft taped and ready to be waxed.





78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


stump covered with paraffin or grafting wax* to exclude air
(Fig 23B). Several scions can be inserted, the number depend-
ing upon the size of the stump. This method is very con-
venient for working seedlings that have grown too long in the
nursery and young trees that have been frozen to the ground.
The new growth should be staked and saved from too much
mechanical stress until a strong union is established.
Cleft grafting is a standard method of top-working for
many types of trees and the results are excellent, but the work
is slow and tedious by comparison with other methods of work-
ing citrus. It has one advantage in that the work can be done
when the bark will not "slip." For this work a grafting iron
is needed with which to split the stub of the limb or trunk
(Fig. 24A and B). The cut is made squarely across and
smoothed up as for bark grafting. It is then split longitudinally
with the iron and a mallet. Orangewood does not always split
smoothly and in careful work it is desirable to make a cut
through the bark and into the wood on each side of the stub
with a knife, giving a smooth cut where the scion is to be
inserted. This can be easily done by placing the edge of the
knife as in Fig. 24A and hitting it a sharp blow with a mallet.
Care must be taken to get the cuts on the opposite sides of the
stub accurately in line if two scions are to be used. The graft-
ing knife is then placed across the stub, lined up with the two
initial cuts and the splitting is accomplished with the aid of
a mallet (Fig. 24B). The split is then wedged open by the
use of the wedged end of the mallet or a wooden wedge cut
for the purpose. The scions should be six or eight inches long
and cut with a budding knife to a long wedge at the butt end
(Fig. 24C). These wedges should be slightly thicker on one
side than on the other. The scions are inserted in the split and
the cambium of the scion and the cambium of the stock care-
fully placed to gether with the wood of the scion against the
*Humc gives the following formulae for grafting waxes:
(1) Resin, 6 pounds: beeswax. 2 pounds: linseed oil. 1 pint.
(2) Resin, 4 pounds: beeswax, 2 pounds: tallow. 1 pound.
Directions for preparing them are briefly as follows:
Break the resin into small pieces, cut up the beeswax and place the two to-
gether in a suitable iron pot. Pour the linseed oil over them. or, in case recipe No. 2
is used. place the tallow on top. Set the pot over a slow fire and allow the materials
to melt. Afterward remove from the fire, pour into cold water, grease the hands
and pull until it is light colored.
If a liquid wax is desired, take 1 pound of resin. 2 ounces of tallow, melt them
together and mix thoroughly. Remove from the fire, cool slightly and add slowly
6 ounces alcohol and 1 ounce spirits turpentine. Keep tightly corked in a wide-
mouthed bottle. Apply with a brush.
Paraffin is very convenient to use instead of grafting wax and a portable lamp
or lantern is manufactured which will keep a small pot of It in the melted condition.
Paraffin is frequently of too low a melting point for satisfactory use in the open
in Florida. This difficulty can be corrected by adding 3 % to 65% of carnauba wax to
the paraffin. For application, the paraffin should be just hot enough to keep it
melted: if too hot it will injure the tissues of the plant.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 79


*~ d


Fig. 24.-Cleft grafting. A, splitting the stub down the side; this gives a smooth cut
for insertion of scion. B, splitting the stub. C, inserting scions. D, scions inserted
and stub taped and ready for waxing.


u4

.1





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


wood of the stock. The thick edge of the wedge should be the
one lined up with the cambium, as this will bring the pressure
at the point where it is needed. After the scions are in place
the wedge is removed, the stub taped and the cut end covered
with grafting wax or paraffin (Fig. 24D).
This type of grafting gives the union a great deal of mechan-
ical strength from the start and on this account is sometimes
used in working over large trees. Frequently the pressure exerted
on the scion will be so great in large stubs as to tend to pinch
the scion off. Where this is likely to happen, a wooden wedge
should be left in the split to help ease the pressure on the scion.
Success in any of the methods of grafting lies in the careful
carrying out of certain basic principles. Once the cutting is
started finish up as rapidly as possible so that the cut surface
will not dry out. Be sure that the cambium of the scion and
the cambium of the stock are held firmly in contact. Seal the
wound thoroughly with grafting wax or paraffin. Do the work
when the tree is in active growth; even cleft grafting is more
successful under these conditions. If these things are done
carefully the work will give good results.

INARCHING
Difficulties sometimes develop that make it necessary to give
a tree a new root system. This need occasionally is the result
of an attempt to grow a variety on an uncongenial rootstock
but more often the result of foot rot or some other disease
that girdles or partially girdles the trunk. It is possible under
such circumstances to inarch seedlings or sprouts into the trunk
and thus save the tree. This work is sometimes difficult and
is not usually attempted unless the tree to be saved is valuable.
Where the root system is sound and of a desirable type and
sprouts can be induced to grow, these are to be preferred. Where
this is not possible, seedlings can be planted around the tree
and after they are established they may be inarched into the
trunk. Seedlings are hard to start under the shade of large trees
and will require considerable nursing.
Where the trouble is not caused by a disease, as in the case
of an undesirable rootstock, the inarching should be done as
close to the ground as possible (Fig. 25A), but where it is a
matter of saving a tree attacked by foot rot the work should
be done well above the lesion (Fig. 25B). Foot rot is com-
monest on old seedling trees and under such conditions sour
orange seedlings are to be preferred for inarching and sprouts
from the sweet orange root should not be used as they are
susceptible to the disease. If the tree to be inarched is headed
low, the seedlings may be worked into the limbs instead of





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 81

the trunk but it will be desirable to trim the trees up as much
as possible to let light into the seedling while it is becoming
established.
Inarching is accomplished by making an inverted "T" in-
cision in the trunk of the tree and opening the flaps of bark



-0.







-, ,











LC-_ Y.

Fig. 25.-Trees saved by inarching. A, Temple orange tree on rough lemon root inarched
with Cleopatra Mandarin; the inarch at left was close to the ground and of a fine type;
fruit borne on limbs above the inarch showed favorable influence of new root system.
B, old seedling orange tree attacked by foot rot successfully inarched with sour orange.

slightly with the wedge on the budding knife. The sprout
or seedling is then cut with a long slanting cut at such a height
that when it is inserted into the "T" slot the cut surface will
be entirely within the bark and in contact with the wood of
the trunk. The insertion is made by "springing" the stem
of the seedling or sprout sufficiently so that the tip can be
inserted under the flaps of bark and when the stem is straight-
ened the tip will come to the proper position. As the stock
tends to spring away from the trunk of the tree it is necessary
in most instances to secure it to the tree with a small nail or
brad. This should be driven in so that the cut surface of the
-It



















brad. This should be driven in so that the cut surface of the





82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

stock and the wood of the tree trunk are held tightly together.
The whole is then wrapped with budding tape, raffia or string
to help hold it in place and the wound sealed with grafting wax
or paraffin (Fig. 26A and B).
The work will have to be done when the bark will slip and


















Fig. 26.-Inarching. A, seedling inserted in inverted "T" slot and bradded. B, inarched
tied and paraffined.

even then more or less difficulty will be experienced in working
the bark. Scraping or shaving the bark to make it more pliable
will help somewhat. If the work is done carefully and the
wound thoroughly sealed, it will usually "take" and after sev-
eral weeks the wraps can be cut but the seal of wax or paraffin
should not be disturbed.
Variations of the above method have been employed but in
general most of these cause the wood of the stock and the
wood of the trunk or limbs to be at a sharp angle to each other
(Fig. 27) and results do not seem to be as good as with the
above method. Observations indicate that best results are ob-
tained where the stock and trunk are nearly parallel. This may
be the result of a more natural flow of sap in such unions.
Inarching is one of the most difficult phases of citrus propa-
gation and requires a great deal of practice. The beginner should
not be too sanguine of success when starting. A considerable
amount of practice will be necessary before success can be con-
sistently attained.







CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 83


*


- '-


Fig. 27.-Inarched seedling put in at an angle to the axis of trunk, a procedure that
is not recommended


-1


r.. .*-





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ROOTING OF CUTTINGS
The rooting of cuttings as a method of citrus propagation
has been chiefly a matter of scientific interest in this country
but it is reported that some groves have been produced by this
method in South Africa. While all varieties of citrus can
probably be rooted with proper equipment and care. lemon and
particularly cuttings of rough lemon root more readily than


1+

j
''
I
I


Fig. 28.-Plants produced from rough lemon cutting (left) and seedling rough lemon
of same age (one year). (Courtesy J. H. Jefferies.)






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 85































































Fig. 29.-Plant produced by rooting a leaf of rough lemon.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


* 11Mb:. .
ra lZaind7flratCC-a
I~~--~~LL~urn CC rc


g. 30.-Electrically heated cutting bed (See Annual Report of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station for 1928, pp. 57-59).
other varieties tried. Figure 28 shows a plant of rough lemon
produced by rooting a cutting as compared with a seedling. In
Fig. 29 is shown a small rough lemon plant produced by plac-
ing a leaf with only the petiole attached to it in the cutting box.
In propagating citrus by
cuttings, some sort of bottom
heat is required in the cutting
box and the atmosphere sur-
rounding the cuttings should
be very moist. An electrically
heated cutting bed, such as is
illustrated in Fig. 30 is very
useful for this work. It will
be found desirable to leave
part of the leaves on the cut-
S s stings when they are placed
in the bed. Considerable time
is required for the develop-
R ment of a root system.
A modification of the
rooting of cuttings is some-
times used in producing a
new root system on old trees
that are almost girdled by
foot rot or other trouble. A
Fig. 31.-Young tree put on its own roots frame about 8 or 10 feet
by being girdled and having soil packed square and a foot or more
around the trunk. high is built around the base
Courtesy . Jefri. of the tree and filled in with
clay or a soil containing a large percentage of clay. This soil
should be kept moist during dry weather. If the tree is still
vigorous it will in time put out roots above the girdle and






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 87

eventually develop a new root system sufficient to support the
tree. This same system can be used in putting a tree on its own
root if the rootstock on which it is budded is not congenial.
In doing this the trunk is partially girdled at the bud union and
soil is packed around it until a new root system forms. Fig 3 1
shows a small tree treated in this way with the resultant de-
velopment of a root system.
Good sized roots of most species of citrus if cut off and the
cut end pulled to the surface of the soil will start a top and
occasionally trees are produced in this way. This procedure
has had no commercial application but may be used under
special conditions.
TRANSPLANTING LARGE CITRUS TREES
The moving of large trees has become increasingly popular
during the last few years and considerable acreage has been
planted in this way. When done on a considerable scale, oper-
ators advise that they can
transplant 10 to 15 year
old trees for from $1.00
to $1.50 per tree. While
it involves considerable
work. the large trees will - .
come into bearing much
sooner than young trees. ".-
Generally. however, the- <
transplanting of large
trees is limited to replace-
ments in groves and for
yard plantings.
Large citrus trees can
be transplanted very eas-
ily if the proper precau-
tions are taken, and there
is practically no danger
:f failure. The amount of
root system to be trans-
planted will depend upon
the facilities for moving
the trees and the trees
should be dug with as
little damage to the root
system as possible. As Fig. 32.-Severing tap root after all lateral
soon as the tree is dug the roots have been cut. Whitewash has been ap-
roots should be protected plied as soon as the tree was cut back.
from drying out by wet burlap or other covering and kept pro-
tected until planted. The new hole should be large enough to






88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

contain the root system easily and should be dug just before the
tree is planted so that it will not have a chance to dry out. If
possible, the surface soil and subsoil should be kept separate and
some well decomposed compost and ground steamed bone meal
should be added to the soil as the tree is planted. Injured roots
should be pruned off. The soil should be placed about the roots
so as to leave them in normal position and not bunched up.


Fig. 33.-Tree being lifted by means of wrecking crane. If the tree is
to be moved any distance the roots should be wet down and covered
with a tarpaulin.

Water should be added as the soil is filled in; the soil should be
made firm about the roots, and a heavy final watering given.
The tree should be given plenty of water until it is thoroughly
established.
Methods of digging trees vary considerably, but the follow-
ing method has been found very convenient. After topping the
tree dig a trench around it 18 to 24 inches deep, depending on


r





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 89


Fig. 34.-Water being used to wash soil around the roots and thus avoid air pockets.
The use of plenty of water greatly enhances the possibility of the tree surviving.

the size of the tree. cutting all lateral roots (Fig. 32). From
some point in the trench dig deeply under the tree to cut the
tap root at a level 2 feet or more below the bottom of the
trench. Then, by using a crane or by hand. loosen the tree
so that it can be lifted from the hole. (Fig.33). The new
hole is excavated evenly to the depth of the trench used in
removing the tree and a post hole digger or shovel used to
make a hole in the center of it for the taproot. When the tree
is let down into this hole the lower lateral roots will rest on
undisturbed soil so that there will be less tendency for the tree
to settle later. (Fig. 34). There is also less disturbance of
the subsoil than in the ordinary methods of excavation.
Trees can be moved during the winter when they are fairly
dormant. in which case care will have to be used in keeping
them watered during the dry spring weather. Trees can also
be moved at the beginning of the summer rainy season and will
usually become established by winter.





90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The amount that the top will have to be cut back will de-
pend upon the extent of the root system moved and the care
taken in moving. If only a comparatively small root system is
moved it is well to cut the top back to a framework and protect
the limbs from sunburning with whitewash. Where large root
systems are moved, less cutting back of the limbs will be re-
quired. Trees have been moved under favorable conditions
without cutting back of any kind but the cost is too great for
this to be generally practical.
Where it is desired to move large numbers of trees an auto-
mobile wrecking crane mounted on a truck is very convenient
or a simpler crane may be devised that can be attached to the
ordinary truck. The arm of the crane can be attached to the
trunk of the tree, with the bark protected by padding. As
soon as the digging is completed, the tree can be lifted and
a tarpaulin or large burlap covering wrapped around the roots
and the tree moved quickly to the new location. It is easy to
back the truck up to the new hole and let the tree down and
hold it at he proper level while the dirt is being filled in.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 91


Cover Crops
"Would'st have abundant crops reward thy toil
And fill thy barns. 0 tiller of the soil?
Then ever keep in mind this maxim true,
Feed well the land, and 'twill in turn feed you."
-Author unknown
F A large number of citrus groves are examined, it will gen-
erally be found that the groves which have made the best
growth and look the best are the ones that have received
the most careful attention. These groves are most likely to be
the ones in which cover crops have been grown almost con-
tinuously.
The feeding of the citrus tree is quite similar to the feeding
of other plants, such as corn, cotton, or apple trees. That is,
if citrus is grown on soils that do not supply all of the neces-
sary plant foods for maximum growth, it is necessary to add
the deficient food to the soil. The growing of a cover corp in
the citrus grove each year. especially if it is a legume. is one of
the most practical ways of increasing the efficiency of the fer-
tilizer that is applied from year to year.
Cover crops increase the humus of the soil, and in this way
increase the water holding capacity of the soil. which is often
an important factor in the growth of a young grove. Then,
too, during the rainy season the cover crop pumps a lot of sur-
plus water out of the soil.
The experience of many successful citrus growers has been
that citrus trees do best. that is. make the best growth. look
more healthy. produce better fruit, and in general have a much
better appearance when grown on soils well supplied with
humus. Our hammock soil is an excellent example of land
well supplied with humus. Very little of the high pine land
contains a sufficient amount of humus for the best growth of
citrus trees. When a liberal amount of humus is added from
year to year. the soil is kept supplied with the bacterial life
which is so very essential to plant growth.
A sandy soil on which clean culture is practiced does not
respond to fertilizer as well as a soil of the same type to which
a cover crop has been added each year. This is explained by
the fact that commercial fertilizer does not ordinarily add bac-
teria to the soil. Soil without abundant bacterial life never
responds to fertilizer or cultivation to the same extent as does
the soil that is well supplied with bacteria.
Bacterial life in a soil is not only dependent upon the humus





92 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

content of the soil, but also upon the moisture content. In
other words, if one is to have an abundant supply of bacterial
life in the soil, it is necessary to have a good supply of both
humus and moisture. However, as the humus content of the
soil is increased, the water holding capacity of the soil is also
increased. These are two very important factors in the pro-
duction of a crop. In many cases moisture is the limiting fac-
tor in the production of a maximum crop. Lack of moisture
in the spring may cause a heavy dropping off of the bloom be-
fore it sets, while lack of moisture later in the year may cause
dropping of the immature fruit.
In addition to the humus that the cover crop may add to
the soil, it also adds plant food. The legume crops, of course,
add more plant food than do the non-legumes. A number
of growers state that the amount of ammonia in the fertilizer
may be reduced one or two percent when a good legume cover
crop is returned to the soil each year. Maximum crops are, as
a rule, the most economical to produce. Therefore, every
effort should be made to keep the land in such condition that
best results will always be obtained so far as crop production
is concerned.
Sunshine and cultivation tend to destroy or burn out the
humus from the soil faster than any other factor. By keeping
the ground shaded with a cover crop during the summer, the
humus content of the soil will be conserved.

CHOICE OF COVER CROPS
The choice of a cover crop will depend largely upon the
preference of the individual grower. A number of legume
crops are suitable to Florida and are satisfactory to use as cover
crops in citrus groves. The legumes that have generally given
the most satisfactory results are velvet beans, cowpeas, beggar-
weed, and crotalaria. In addition to the legumes, one has the
choice of a number of non-legumes, such as crab grass, Natal
grass, sand burs, Mexican clover (which is not a legume), and
other grasses and weeds that might grow.
Velvet beans, an annual, is one of the oldest and best known
legume crops. There are four or five varieties, such as Florida
velvet, Chinese velvet, Osceola velvet, and bunch Ninety-Day
velvet, all of which are suitable to plant in citrus groves. The
velvet bean may properly be classed as a tropical plant, and re-
quires a long season to produce its maximum growth of vine
and production of seed. The fact that it requires a long season
for its growth is a decided advantage here in Florida. For best






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


results, velvet beans should be planted before the middle of
May. The objection is sometimes raised that velvet beans are
not desirable for citrus groves because they make such a rank
growth and climb up in the trees, particularly young trees. To
eliminate this objection, it is often advisable to go over the
young grove and cut back the velvet bean vines two or three
times so they will not interfere with the growth of the young
trees.
Beggarweed, also an annual, is another legume adapted to
conditions in Florida, and it fits in well as a cover crop for the
citrus grove. Its habit of growth is quite different from that
of velvet beans. Beggarweed is an upright growing plant that
reaches a height of four to eight feet. When the stand is thin,
the plants branch freely, but when the stand is thick, the plants
make a straight slender growth with many leaves. Beggarweed
seed should be sown broadcast the last of May or early in June.
Cowpeas is another annual legume very commonly grown
in Florida. It is a crop that matures in from 65 to 85 days,
and can be termed a short season crop. There are a large num-
ber of varieties to choose from. The best varieties for Florida
are the Brabham and Iron. Both of these varieties are more
or less vining in habit of growth, but cowpeas do not make
as much growth of vines as the velvet beans. If the cover crop
is not planted until the middle of June, cowpeas are likely to
give better results than velvet beans as a cover crop. Cowpeas
may be planted any time from April to July.
Crotalaria is an annual legume that makes an erect growth
of three to six feet in height. The legume seems to be gaining
in favor as a cover crop for citrus groves. When the stand is
thin, the plants branch freely: when planted thick, the plants
make an upright growth with few branches and a good per-
centage of leaves. Crotalaria may be planted any time from
March to the middle of June.

HOW TO PLANT
When planting a cover crop, care and judgment must be
exercised. In young groves one to four years old, it will be
found best not to plant the cover crop up near the trees, but
a space should be left on each side of the tree row from six to
eight feet wide. This means that if your tree rows are 30 feet
apart, you will have a space 14 to 16 feet wide on which to
plant the cover crop. There are two main reasons for leaving
the space on each side of the tree rows. The first one is that
in planting the cover crop, there should be no excuse for in-
juring the trees with any implement of tillage that might be






94 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

used. The second is to leave space enough on each side of the
tree row to allow cultivation of the young trees during the
entire summer if necessary. As the trees become larger and oc-
cupy more of the ground with root growth and spread of limbs,
it will not be possible to use as much of the ground for cover
crops. In the young groves it may be possible to have four or
five rows of a cover crop between each row of trees, but in the
older groves only one or two rows of a cover crop may be
advisable.
It will be found more satisfactory to plant velvet beans
and cowpeas in rows. The rows of velvet beans should be
about four feet apart and the seed dropped about a foot apart
in the row. Planting in this way, one bushel of good velvet
bean seed should plant about three acres of grove. Cowpeas
should be planted in rows two and a half to three feet apart,
and the seed drilled in the row. It will require about one
bushel of good seed to every two acres of grove. Velvet beans
and cowpeas should be given one or two cultivations after
planting. The cultivation will hasten the growth of the plants
and give them a chance to get ahead of the grass and weeds.
Beggarweed seed should be sown broadcast on a well pre-
pared seed bed and covered lightly with a harrow. Use from
15 to 20 pounds of re-cleaned seed per acre.
Crotalaria should be sown broadcast at the rate of about
eight to ten pounds of seed to the acre. Prepare a good seed
bed before sowing the seed. Cover with a light tooth harrow.
None of the above mentioned legume cover crops will grow
satisfactorily in the shade of the citrus trees. However, the
citrus grower should continue to grow a cover crop in his grove
as long as shade does not make it impossible.
Table I gives the yield of hay in tons of four legumes for
each of three years, and the average for the three years, when
grown at Gainesville, Florida. The variation in the yield of
the legumes is shown to be rather large.
TABLE I.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Gainesville, Florida.
Crop 1924 1925 1926 3-Year
Average
Beggarweed ................... 0.79 0.92 0.15 0.62
Velvet Beans ................ 0.98 0.82 0.76 0.85
Cowpeas .......................... 1.48 1.30 0.52 1.10
Crotalaria .................... 2.59 1.90 4.18 2.89
The yield of the same legume crops when grown at Lake
Alfred, Florida, is shown in Table II, although at Lake Alfred
records of the yield were obtained for only two years. The
*Stokes, W. E.. Agronomist. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal
of the American Society of Agronomy, Vol. 19, No. 10. October, 1927.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 95


average of the two years at Lake Alfred is much better than the
three-year average at Gainesville.
TABLE II.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air Dry
Material Per Acre at Lake Alfred, Florida.
Crop 1925 1926 Average
Beggarweed .......... .. .............. 2.29 1.78 2.03
Velvet Beans .............. ................. 1.27 1.53 1.40
Cow peas ........ .... ............ .... .. 1.27 1.01 1.14
Crotalaria ........................................ 4.63 2.76 3.69
Gainesville is not, strictly speaking, in the citrus section of
Florida. The yields of the above legumes at Lake Alfred would,
therefore, be more typical of the citrus section, for Lake Alfred
is in the heart of the citrus section.
Table III gives the percentage of nitrogen in each of the
four legume crops grown.
TABLE III.-Percentage of Total Nitrogen (Dry Basis) in Crops
Grown at Gainesville, Florida.*
Crop Tops Roots
Beggarw eed .... ........ ......... ..- .. ..... 1.64 1.07
V elvet Beans ............ ........ ... ................. 2.51 1.48
Cowpeas. ................................... 2.29 1.65
Crotalaria ................ ...... .. .... ... 2.78 0.92
*Stokes, W. E.. Agronomist, 'lorida Agricultural Experiment Station. Journal
of the American Society of Agronomy, Vol. 19. No. 10, October, 1927.


A good cover crop of crotalaria.





96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Tables IV and V show how the yield of corn and sweet
potatoes was increased when different legume crops were plowed
under in comparison with a non-legume. These two tables
are given here so that an idea may be obtained as to the value
of legumes in increasing the yield of crops. No data of this
nature is available as to the yield of citrus, but it is reasonable
to expect that results with citrus fruits would be somewhat
similar to the tests with corn and sweet potatoes.
On a two-year average the legume cover crops plowed under
increased the yield of corn all the way from 3.7 to 8.0 bushels
an acre. When sweet potatoes were grown, the legume cover
crops, when plowed under, increased the yield of potatoes from
9.3 to 27 bushels an acre.
TABLE IV.-Corn Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-Legume
and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 ............ 15.13 21.71 22.99 22.28 19.28
1926 ............ 8.40 17.65 16.66 12.90 11.75
Average ...... 11.76 19.68 19.82 17.59 15.51
TABLE V.-Sweet Potato Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following
Non-Legumes and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 ............ 37.50 78.00 54.50 61.00 55.00
1926 ........... 26.09 39.72 34.33 33.75 27.19
Average ...... 31.79 58.86 44.41 47.37 41.09
The yield of hay per acre, percentage of nitrogen in the
crop, and the total pounds of nitrogen produced per acre by
each of the four legumes grown at Gainesville are shown in
Table VI. A cover crop that will add from 17 to 141 pounds
of nitrogen per acre each year will necessarily increase the fer-
tility of the soil from year to year. The citrus grower knows
from actual experience the value of nitrogen. He knows that it
is the most expensive fertilizer element that he purchases.
TABLE VI.-Yields of Hay From Four Legumes Grown at Gaines-
ville, Fla., and Estimated Amount of Nitrogen in Crops Per Acre.
Yields in Tons Pounds of
Three-Year Percentage Nitrogen
Crop Averaget of Nitrogenf Per Acre
Beggarweed ............ 0.62 1.443 17,890
Velvet Beans .............. 0.85 2.208 37,536
Cowpeas .................... 1.10 2.015 44,330
Crotalaria .................. 2.89 2.446 141,378
Table VII shows how cover crops, when plowed under, in-
+See Table I.
*U. S. D. A. Department Bulletin No. 1378. Pages 4.5.
tAir-Dry basis.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 97


crease both the nitrogen and organic matter in the soil. The
results shown in Table VII were not secured in Florida, it is
true. but the test was carried on at Cairo. Georgia, on Norfolk
fine sandy loam. Since there are hundreds of citrus trees in
Florida growing on Norfolk fine sandy loam soil. the results
obtained in Georgia are applicable to Florida soil of this same
type. If such results can be obtained on Norfolk fine sandy
loam, it is reasonable to expect similar results on any good soil
throughout Florida. Table VII brings out the fact that by
plowing under the cover crops. all of which were not legumes.
the percentage of organic matter in the soil was more than
doubled in five years, and the nitrogen content was also doubled.
TABLE VII.-Analysis of Soil From a Pecan Orchard on Norfolk
Fine Sandy Loam at Cairo, Georgia, on Which Cover Crops
Were Grown at Different Seasons of the Year.*
Percentage of
S Spring and Summer Fall and Winter Constituents
Cover Crop Cover Crop Organic Nitro-
Matter gen
1918 Fallow ........... Bur (lover. 0.64 0.031
1919 Cowpeas........ ..... Oats ...... .. ........
1920 Beggarweed ......... Rye .......... .. ....... ..........
1921 1 Cowpeas ........... Rye .... .......... 0.90 0.040
1922 i Velvet Beans...... ... Rye and Oats.... 1.23 0.050
1923 Velvet Beans.. .... Rye and Oats .. 1.39 0.061
*U. S. I). A. Department Hulletin No. 137S. Pages 1-5.
Organic matter and nitrogen are two very important factors
to have in the soil. and it is to the advantage of every citrus
grower to see that the percentage of these two constituents is
kept as high as possible in all of his land.
Table VIII shows how the water-holding capacity of the
soil is increased when organic matter is added. The table shows
that when 5 percent of organic matter is added to coarse sand
the water-holding capacity is increased 40 percent. When 10
percent of organic matter is added, the water-holding capacity
is increased 85.7 percent.
TABLE VIII.-Effect of Organic Matter on Retention of Moisture
in Sand.*
Grams of Increase
Soil Material Water Retained erce
By 100 grams
Coarse Sand . ................ ......... 13.3
Coarse sand with 5 percent peat 18.6 40.0
Coarse sand with 10 percent peat. 24.7 85.7
Coarse sand with 20 percent peat.. 40.0 200.7
Peat .................. ............184.0 1,283.4
Soil Physics and Manaugoment. by J. (. Mv.si.r and A. F. (;ustafson. Page 1.19.





98 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


A good cover crop of cowpeas. The growing of a cover crop in the grove each
year is desirable.


Cost of Grove to Bearing Age
IT USUALLY takes about five years to bring a citrus grove
up to bearing age. The cost to do this, however, varies so
greatly in different sections of the State that it is impossible
to give exact figures. The chief reason for this great variation
in cost is due to the difference in cost of land, difference in cost
of clearing the land, and difference in cost of day labor, team
hire, or tractor hire.
The price of land may vary from $25.00 to $200.00 an
acre, depending upon the location and character of the land.
The better types of soil located on a paved road and close to a
shipping point will naturally cost more per acre than a poorer
grade of soil four or five miles from a paved road and a like
distance from a shipping point. The transportation of fruit
by truck over an unimproved road to the shipping point re-
duces the profits very materially.
The cost of clearing land may vary anywhere from $15.00
to $75.00 or more per acre. This depends on the number of
trees, stumps, and amount of under brush per acre that must be
removed.






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 99


The cost of day labor varies in different parts of the State
from $1.50 to $4.00 a day. Team and tractor hire varies in
about the same proportion; that is, from $3.50 to $7.00 a day
for a team, and from $15.00 to $30.00 a day for tractor hire.

ESTIMATED COST OF FORTY-ACRE GROVE ON HIGH PINE
LAND FOR THE FIRST FIVE YEARS
INITIAL OUTLAY
40 acres of land at $125.... ............. ..... ...$ 5,000.00
Clearing at $25 per acre ................ .... 1,000.00
Fencing 320 rods at 60c............................... 192.00
528 fence posts split at 25 ....... ............... 132.00
Digging post holes at 2c....... ................. 13.20
Setting posts at 2 ',c ............. .......... 13.30
Stretching and putting up wire ...... ...... 21.00
1 man at $3.00 per day for three days
2 men at $2.00 per day for three days
$ 6,371.50
FIRST YEAR
Breaking land, 40 acres at $5.00 an acre........$ 200.00
Discing land twice at $1.00 an acre................... 80.00
Laying off and staking land for trees ................ 44.00
1 man at $5.00 per day for four days
2 men at $3.00 per day for four days
Stakes at 50c per hundred............................... 11.20
2,240 trees (set 25 by 30 feet) at 75c................ 1,680.00
Setting trees and watering at 10c each............ 224.00
Banking trees at Ic each... ................. ........... 22.40
Fertilizer, 3 lbs. per tree, 6,720 lbs. at $42.00
per ton ................................. ........ 141.12
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton................. 16.80
4 waterings (wagon, pair mules, and 3 men at
$12.00 per day; 2 days each watering, or 8
days at $12.00) .......... ........................ 96.00
Plowing out middles in fall at $3.25 per acre.... 13.00
Pulling down banks at Ic each.......................... 22.40
Four cultivations at $1.00 per acre each culti-
vation .................................. ... ...... 160.00
Two hoeings of trees and sprouting, 5 men at
$2.50 a day for 2 days....... .................. 25.00
Replacing dead trees, 112 at 75c each..... ....... 84.00
$ 2,936.92
SECOND YEAR


Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre................$
Fertilizer, 6 lbs. per tree, or 13,440 lbs. at
$42.00 per ton.............. .............. ........
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton................
25 bushels cowpea seed for cover crop at $2.25
Replacing dead trees, 56 at 75c........................
Planting cover crop, one man and one mule
with planter for 5 days at $4.00................


130.00
282.24
33.60
56.25
42.00

20.00





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Cultivating cover crop, one man and one mule
5 days at $4.00 a day for two cultivations.. 40.00
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c per acre each cultivation................ 300.00
3 hoeings and sprouting at 50c an acre for
each hoeing ...................... ............. 60.00
Banking trees at 2c each................................. 44.80
Discing cover crop at $2.00 an acre.................... 80.00

$ 1,088.89

THIRD YEAR
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre............... 130.00
Fertilizer, 9 lbs. per tree, or 10.08 tons at
$42.00 per ton.......................... ............ 423.36
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 a ton..................... 50.40
Pulling down banks at Ic each........................... 22.40
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre, each cultivation.................. 300.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre................ 60.00
Pruning at $3.25 a day, 6 days.......................... 19.50
Banking trees at 3c each................................. 67.20
300 Ibs. beggarweed seed at 50c...................... 150.00
Planting beggarweed seed, 2 days at $2.25..... 4.50
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre........ 80.00

$ 1,307.36

FOURTH YEAR

Discing middles at $3.25 an acre........ ............$ 130.00
Fertilizer, 12 Ibs. per tree, 13.44 tons at $42.00
per ton ........................................................ 564.48
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton.................... 67.20
Pulling down banks at 1 1ic each....................... 33.60
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre........................................... 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre............... 60.00
Pruning, 8 days at $3.25.................................. 26.00
3 sprayings, each spraying 2 days at $30.00 per
day for spraying outfit, crew and material 180.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre........ 80.00
Banking trees at 3c each .............................. 67.20

$ 1,448.48


FIFTH YEAR
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre...............
Fertilizer, 15 pounds per tree, 16.8 tons at
$42.00 per ton............................................
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton.................
Pulling down banks at 2c each..........................
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre...........................................
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.................
Pruning, 12 days at $3.25..............................


130.00

705.60
84.00
44.80

240.00
60.00
39.00




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