• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Map showing location of citrus...














Group Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003052/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: 82 p. : ill., map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1928
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "August 1928"
General Note: "Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003052
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3525
ltuf - AKD9380
oclc - 28521780
alephbibnum - 001962703
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Map showing location of citrus trees in Florida by counties
        Page 83
Full Text

.trus Qrowing in Florida
FROM THE LIBRARY
V OF
L DAVID FAIRCHIL


A


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE
In Cooperation With University of Florida





New Series


Citrus Growing

In Florida






I





State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner

Prepared ;and published in cooperation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida,
Gainesville.


Atto-tst, 1928


13tillelhi No. 2























DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture .......Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Director, Bureau of Immigration....... Tallahassee
Phil. S. Taylor, Advertising Editor .. ..... Tallahassee
John l M. Scott, Agricultural Editor .. ....... Gainesville






CONTENTS


Int roduc t ion
Development of tlie Citrus Industry in Florida .
Citrus Production in Florida .
Citrus Plantings in Florida:
Bearing Trees by Counties .
Non-Hearing Trees by Counties . .
Summary .
Orange and Grapefruit Acreage of the unitedd Sta
Soils for Citrus .
Citrus (;rowing on the Muuck Soils .
ariet ies .
(old Protection . .
Nursery Stock... . . .
Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks for Fl
(1roves . . . .. .
Planti the Trees .
Pruning .. .
Fertilizing (itrus .
Culture . .
Cover Crops .
Cost of (rove to Bearing Age . . .
Irrigation of Citrus (roves . .
Y field .
Picking .. .
Grading . . .
Pa king .
Marketing .
Prices:
Grapefruit . .
Oranges .
Shipping .
Limes and Lemons . .
Citrons .
Satsun Oranges .. .
Diseases and Insects... . . .


tes







orida


Page
5
6
8


9
. 10
S11
S12
13
S15
S17
S18
S19


20
21
21
22
. 23
S 26
. 29
37
. 41
49
. 50
56
S . 59
64

65
. 66
67
. 69
70
. 71
82








Citrus Growing in Florida
By JOHN M. SCOTT*
With Contributions by E. F. DeBusk, R. W. Ruprecht, Frank Stirling,
L. M. Rhodes and H. G. Clayton.
HIIIS bulletin is not a scientific treatise on citrus culture.
It does, however, present facts about the citrus industry
in Florida that the more successful and practical grow-
ers of citrus have found to exist.
To the prospective settler and newcomer to Florida, the grow-
ing of citrus is usually very attractive. This is especially true
if the first trip to the State happens to be in late fall or early
winter when the citrus trees are well loaded with golden fruit.
It is, to say the least, an exceedingly attractive sight.
Citrus growing in Florida, however, is in many respects like
apple growing in other sections of the United States. That is,
it requires close attention to details. Particularly is this true
in citrus growing, for it is necessary that the citrus grower give
systematic attention to fertilizer and spraying operations. In
other words, citrus growing, to be successful, requires intelli-
gent, systematic work and everlasting vigilance.
That citrus growing has been successful in Florida is shown
by the fact that the value of the crop las increased each year
since 1S96. The returns to Florida from the 1927-28 crop have
been estimated at $51,000.000." The acreage of citrus in Florida
in 1928 is estimated at 154,956 acres of orange trees of bearing
age, 40.191 acres of orange trees of non-bearing age, 74.138
acres of grapefruit trees of bearing age, and 5,750 acres of
grapefruit trees of non-learing age, or a total of 275,035 acres.
Any industry that produces a gross return of $40,000,000 to
$50,000,000 a year to one state is worthy of the consideration
and attention of the best people in the United States.
P'repard and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture,
I'iiverrslty of Florida, Gainesville.
** Florida State Maiketing Bureau.





6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Development of the

Citrus Industry in Florida
ITRUS growing in Florida dates back about two hun-
dred years. William Bartram,* in an account of his
travels in Florida in 1773, often mentions the orange
groves along the St. Johns river from Cowford (Jacksonville)
as far south as D)eLand. Bartram also mentions passing orange
groves on his trip from the St. Johns river to the Alaehua
savanna. At all of these places he speaks of the magnificent
orange trees covered with golden fruit and fragrant blossoms.
At the time of Bartram's travels, there were but few white
people in Florida, and citrus was not grown commercially. The
only method of transportation was by water, and even for this
purpose only a few boats were available. The demand for
citrus fruit was apparently very slight in the early days.
Citrus growing did not reach a commercial scale until about
1870, or something like one hundred years after Bartram's
travels in Florida. By 1884 production had increased to ap-
proximately 600,000 boxes per year. The only citrus fruit
planted during 1870 to 1880 was oranges, and plantings were
made mainly in the territory that is now composed of Duval.
St. Johns, Volusia, Putnam, Alachua and Marion counties. In
fact, up to about 1894 the territory around Orange Lake is
said to have produced approximately 20% of the orange crop
in the State. This section not only produced a large amount
of the fruit but it also supplied a good portion of planting
stock and buds for areas farther south. These plantings were
confined to localities close to rivers, as there were few, if any,
other means of transportation. The methods of culture, pick-
ing, and packing used by the pioneer grower were very crude
when compared with the present equipment used in handling
the crop.
Some of our present citrus growers may perhaps think that
the early orange growers did not have any setbacks or dis-
couragements. However, the first freeze in Florida of which
definite record can be obtained occurred in 1835. At this time
it was cold enough at St. Augustine to kill mature seedling
trees to the ground. A second freeze occurred in 1886. at
which time the crop was injured and many young trees killed.
Then came the two freezes of 1894 and 1895 that killed a great
many orange trees. The next severe freeze occurred in 1899,
at which time a number of young trees were killed.
lnrtram. Wmn. Travels Through North and South I'arullna, (<;e.rgnl. East
and VWet Florida. 17i1.





(,r'lRIT'S GROWING IN FLORIDA 7

As a result of these freezes, citrus growing has been prac-
tically abandoned in the northern part of the State. During
the past thirty years, the citrus section of Florida has been
moving southward, and citrus growing in C(entral and South
Florida has seen a rapid development.
The experience of citrus growers with tile freezes in the
northern part of the State had a tendency to cause them to
try other crops. Truck crops of various kinds were tried, and
many of them have become important crops in the State. In
addition to truck crops, many staple farmn crops, such as corn,
cotton, peanuts, velvet beans, various hay crops, etc., were
tried and found to grow successfully. One-crop farming has
never be en entirely satisfactory th te farmers who have tried
it. VdWhere there is a diversity of crops, the labor and equip-
menet cain be muich more efficiently employed throughout the
year tlian where only onel crop is produced.
The citrus industry has profited by the experiences of the
early gro3vers, and today has been placed on a more stable
basis. Many improvements have been made in cultural methods
and in controlling diseases and insects. Perhaps the greatest
improvements have been in harvesting, packing and shipping
the crop. These improvements have made it possible to put
the fruit into the northern markets with minimum loss in
transit.





8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Citrus Production in Florida

Records of yields of citrus crops in Florida have been kept
since the season of 1884-85. Since that time there has been a
steady increase in production each year, except those years fol-
lowing frost injury. The following table gives the production
in boxes of fruit from 1884 to 1927, and the value from 1904.


PRODUCTION OF
Year
1884-85.................................
1885-86.................................
1886-87....... .....................
1887-88... ........... ........... .....
1888-89 ........... .................
1889-90...................... .........
1890-91..... ...............
1891-92.. ..........................
1892-93..............................
1893-94.. ...........................
1894-95................... ........
1895-96....................... ........
1896-97...................... ...
1897-98..-............................
1898-99...............................
1899-00................ ....... .....
1900-01................... ..............
1901-02............... ......... ....
1902-03.................................
1903-04............ .. ........ .....
1904-05.... .......... ... ..............
1905-06..... ...........................
1906-07............ ...............
1907-08..............................
1908-09................................
1909-10................................
1910-11... .. .. ....................
1911-12...................................
1912-13..............................
1913-14............................ ...
1914-15... ........................
1915-16....... ......................
1916-17...............................
1917-18.................... ...........
1918-19............................
1919-20....................... ...........
1920-21.............................
1921-22................. ...........
1922-23............... ..........
1823-24.... .........................
1924-25.............................
1925-26...................................
1926-27...............................
1927-28.................................


FLORIDA CITRUS
Valuation**


$ 4,688,683
5,463,561
5,663.719
4,807,500
7,229,040
8,174,000
7,590,000
10,497,000
15,925,000
14,541,180
13,774.000
16,405,200
15,678,000
19,030,000
35,732,640
27,675,000
29,550,000
22,450,000
31,860,000
27,759,052
23,190,000
35,550,000
30,900,000
33,698,130


* Includes oranges and grapefruit.
** Farm value.
Data supplied by State Marketing Bureau.


*

Boxes
600,000
900,000
1,260,000
1,450,000
1,950,000
2,150,000
2,450,000
2,713,180
3,450,000
5,055,367
2,808,187
147,000
218.379
358,966
252,000
274,000
352,600
974,033
1,147,491
1.954,954
2,961,192
3,794,133
3,801,101
3,250,000
4,634,000
6,100,000
4,600,000
4,750,000
8,125,000
7,946,926
9,700,000
8,370,000
7,649,049
5,581,309
8,900,000
12,500,000
13,200,000
13,300,000
16,900,000
20,400,000
19,200,000
14,700,000
16,600,000
13,635,360






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 9

Tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 give interesting information in regard to the number of
different kinds of citrus trees in the state. These tables also show the distribution
by counties of bearing and non-bearing trees, thus making it easy to see where the
larger citrus centers are located.
CITRUS PLANTINGS IN, FLORIDA*-TABLE NO. 1
Total Bearing Trees by Counties-July 1, 1928.
Slallsties Compiled by State Plant Board in Actual Inspections of Citrus Trees. 1925-26-27-28.

oO V



Alachua .I 75,358 4,3511 4,4021 7 (35 167I 3,157 87,976
Bay .... .18 1,274 72, 10 40, 70 38,064 i44.71
Bradford ............ 1.5231 341 4 .. 6 1,0111 2.57
Brevard 510.888 160.480i 28,1541 1244 2.218 08 ................. 703,492
Broward .......... 16,8771 17,96 443 1.166 1.287 69 ........... 37,23S
Calhoun 94 10, 2 ........ ..... 13 7 1,63. 1,510
Charlotte ........ 33182 15.2 ,533 100 317 52,42'
Citrus 18.6311 1,707 1421 7 348 .. ..... 20.525
(lay ....................... 4,753 278 9 .... ......... . s3 1.007 6.
Collier 12,735| 13,1061 235i 155 175 ... ....... ............... 26.406
Columlia .... ..I 7741 3(i 9! .............. 3 41 2:41 1.000
Dade ............. ...... 157.336 443.029 18,4(10 6,1 i 7.118 571i ..... 632.(
)eSoto .................. 304,.68| 106,054 36,1 ll i 714. )7 447.0.S:
D ixie ................. ... 33 13 .... . 23 . ... 1.2
Duval ............ 13.371; 827 240 331 12 997 15.4 7
Escambia ........... 3411 32 ; 47 22i 225 52,00o5 52,09
Flagler .................. .3 4 3,043 5.504 i .................. ............ 17. 22
Franklin ...... ..21 8 2 ... .... .... ...... ........... ........ ..... 180
G ad sden ............... 1i 0 1 .... ........... ....... ..... ........... ............... 250 3
Gilchrist ........... 1.0311 (i 1! ..... 13 I 24i 1.148
Glades .................. 2.7 1 i 3.027 110 2 4 1 ...... ....... .
Gulf I 1.35s, 46 1 |1 : 5 .. ...... 2.035
.llf .......... .. 1 341t1...........1 5751 2.05s
Hamilton ........... 4 ........... ..... 1 9 (
Hardee ........ 3 3.6811 63.03 47,50G7 24 9 201 6411 .... 466(i.(s2
IIendry ... ..... I 30.637; 15 1,251 55 450 ............... ................... 47.01
Hernando ...... .I 44.805 21.6951 16,123 15! 3:5 51; .......... ..... 82,72
Highlands ...... 32070 257.17. 49,1201 1.i22 2.092 508 5 743.034
Illllsorough 59 3.977 174,7841 55,7491 2.18 1,704 621 3171 827,400
I olm es .. 6 4 ........................ ......... ............. ... 285 2
Indian River..... 174.04, 250.1011 17,401i 1.8341 1,256 10 1 .......... 445.371
Jackson ............... 56141176 .................... 3 72. 19 73 5
Jefferson ........69 7.. 8 4 5. 3 1. 1 1,842
L afayette .. 57 1 1 11 .... .............. ........... 2 1
Lake ... I 86,.1251 282.5911 104.145| 1.045 1.522 007| 10 1.1 .8491 1.251.890
Lee ..... .............. 203,277 229,118 9,5421 1,102 952 8 ................. 444.071
Leon .................... 216 1841 791 60 12 271 734, 1.302
Levy ... ....... I 4.363 127| 112i 7 36 11 711 4.717
L liberty ...1..3 ...1 7 .................... 21 .. ... .... 38 .. ........ 221
M adison ............. 1091 71 ....... ....... ..... 12 2 15
Manatee ..... 198,3821 266.2651 .,455! 541| 1.419 1071 ...... .... 472,249
Marion 317.9471 43.8791 32.462: 2391 268 3901| 76] 395,861
Martin ... 32,3401 44.8961 4.3521 4.30( 8991 | ..... 86.872
Monroe** ............I 4,774 8.902 2,481 155,451 8.449 3: ............ 180,060
Nassau ............ 2601 7 2 3 ............. ..| 272
O kaloosa ....... ................. ....................... 2 ................... I 4.662 t1 4 ,673
Okaloos a. I 91|........ ........ I 4.4.2. 4.67:
Okeechobee I 15.605: 4.898' 7521 5441 872 6 ............. .... 22,677
Orange .................. 1,242.2901 223.3451 165.1791 (;10 4,702 2,03.5' 2561 1.038.487
Osceola ..................I 128.297 37,4191 19.8 21 462 2.409 414 1 188.884
Palm Beach..... 464.956 41,884 2,4561 4.109 4.9 S' .......... I . ......... 100,403
Pasco ....... .........I 183.756, 64.764 4 14.5941 438! 4371 7.084; 210 271.283
Plnellas ............... 392.5401 274,6581 45.797I 287 902 474i i 814,664
Polk ..........3,0628351,28,992 223,7101 716 801 97, 15 4,917,46
Putnam 227,018 28,732! 35,910 56 4,5 244 2.2681 294.663
St. Johns............ 30419 3205 1,342 10 230 197 703 36.106
St. Lucle. 188.3821 157.604 37,583 5,363 1,867 4071 .................. 391.206
Santa Rosa... 971 46 6 .............. 3 10 17.2011 17,363
Sarasota ........ 90.8111 7.969 2,375 1,005 159' 40! ..... 168,359
Seminole 236.9761 33,6021 42.499 4921 4001 313 116: 314.398
Sumter .................. 758361 ,176 3,299 139 437 721 341 n88. 93
Suwannee I 4901 38 24: ................. 1 671 4141 1.034
T aylor .................I 3411 4 ....................... ...I ... ...... 3 8' 37 1 39
Union ......... ......... 6071 21 8 ............... 1 ] 2031 842
Volusla .................. 499,2531 76.8531 110629 25 1,592 1 37 6341 691.54
W akulla .............. 421 20 ....... . .... i ...... .... ......... ... I 750. 81 2
W alton .................. 5251 200 3 .............. ... 061 )61 21,1571 22.077
Washington 2191 431 21 ................. .. :1: 301 7.6361 7.933
Total ............... 110,846.93215.189,6791.149.401 190,8401 52,9921 19.5551 235.503i 17.685.1o00
Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August, 1928.
** Compiled in 1925; no record kept as to age.





10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA*-TABLE NO. 2
Total Non-Bearing Trees by Counties-July 1, 1928.
Statistics Compiled by State Plant Hoard in Actual Inspections of Citrus Trees. 1925-26-27-28.

|C;

County
CHe U' &4 :. Z -:-
aci n .n a I 12,b781 78 3,1351 .................... 13; ..................I 10.o0 8 26.1 12
B a ker .................. ................................................ ....................... ......... ..... ......... ............ 78 7 78 7
B ay ..... ....2....... .. ......... ........... 29.810 31.83
B radford 7 ......... .. I ........ ....... .... .. ................... I227 315! 542
Brevard .................. 124.645 16.154 13,8602 4(j 752i i31 I 12 156,102
Broward I 22.440 !1121| 238i 211) 2.933 141 ...................I 26,756
C a lh o un ..... I........ ........ ..... 5 ... ...................... [ ... ............. ......... 4 4 0 1 4 9 5
C harlotte ........... I 10.675 2.001 2,752 1 ..................... ..................... I ...................... 15,446
C itrus ................. 1 8,449 1 6s, : 1,42 11 ................... .................... ..................... I ................ 10,555
lay .............. 1.776 ........................ I 180 25 ................... .......... .... 220 2,201
C ollier ............. ......... 2 .84 1 1 .................. ...... .............. i .................. I .............. .............. .................. 2.84 1
Col m bia .. ......I 341 71 1 .................... ....... I 22 263
D)ade ...... ... 22.319 4.317! 6.44|1 531 2.10i o 44!1! .......... I ... 35.646
DeSoto ........ 2.1 8 ( 1.343i 17.581 ............ .. 320, ................ .................... 81.307
D ixie ...... I .192 7 1 ........ ........ 10: ............. 107 317
D uval ................... 1.60!1 17: 1 ( .........9 .... 1....... .... I 90 1 1.732
Elseambia ........... I 4201 171 l l .............. ...I :3,:5 1,X 28.837 29.393
Flagler I ........ 6,.44o0 7201 4.4701 .......... ............................. I 100 11,730
F ra n k lin .................. ....................... ........................ ........................ I ............... .............. 1 1 5 2
adsden .................. 1 20 ........................ ..................... ..................... | 1,730 1,7 65
(;ilchrist .................I 191(i 28s 411 ..................... 7 .....................I 861 358
ladeses ........... I 1. 616 2!1 3 1 7 ................... .......... 2.340
G u lf ....... ......... I 8H5 ) ........................ '....... .... ......... ..... .............. ......... ..... ..................... 9( 00 1 ,8 10
H am ilton .. ... ................. ........ ................ ........ ............ ..
Ilardee ..................... 82,682 1.11 30,0511 31 341(; 781 ............ 114.911
IH endry ......... 4. 95 3 ...... .... ........ .... .... ......... . .. ............ 4.815
lernando .... 23.119) 7.93:! 19.2381 ........... ... .... ... 701 50.987
IIighlands ........ 110.02(i 38.374, 19.223 10 1.911 12' 11.9.03
IIillsborough 24:3,1. 15.8991 41,041 280 2700971 5 ......... 571,011
H olm es .. .. ... ... ............... ... .......... .... ... .. ......... ..I ...... .... 45 45
Indian River. ... 39.10541 25.53 1 7 8 11, 1.489 371 ............... 73212
Jackson ......... .. ..; 50 I......... .......... .... .............. 6. I ............. 6. 9.701 69.741
Jefferson ...... ...... 2,200 ...... ....... . ............ ... ......... ...... ..... .. 2,035 1 4.235
.na fa y e tte ............... ...................... ......... . ..... .. . ... ............. ...... .. ....... .. ..... .... .... ... . .......
Lake ....... ... I 242.1301 49.5361 48.35) 21 432' 121 693i 341.188
.ee .......... .. .. i 17.837! 2.850; 2.260I ... ... .... .... 410 ...... ....... ....... I 3.357
I.,o n .......... ................ ..................... ........................ .. i.............. ... I ..... . ........... ..................... 9 3 0 9 3 0 (

M ad ison ................. ........................ ...... ........ ...... ........................ I .... ....... ..... 17 1 75
Manatee ................. 32.84 12.43 3.33 2 2 .... 4.48
Marion .................' 160,0711 5.9721 1(.4491 22 1:( 491 4.8881 1]7,587
Martin .................. 11.1181 2.621 611 7, 12051.......... .................... 15.627
M onroe** ...... ...... ......... .. ......... ... I I. ..... .......... ... ............
N assau ... .. 2 ......... '' .... . ....... ........ .......... ... I. 26
O kaloosa ...... ......................... 4 1 2 ................ ............. ..... ... .. ,63 1 34.63
Okeechobee ............ 7.3921 7891 1.50 41 1 ... ............I 9847
Orange ........ ...... 461.716 23.348 6,86(61 1441 f,06i.8 133 .................... 560.275
Osceola ........... ......I 50.237 3.0801 12.2211 1091 3.1(0il 35 .. 68.788
P'alm Beach I 38.5351 13.8521 4.100 310. 3.74:3 .....................I .........(.... I 0.540
Pasco ........................ 71.(628 7.45)91 17.1351 ......... 2 4641 .......... 96.706
Pinellas ..................I i .0611 20.6591 1-4.5181 36l 2761 .... ......I ......... ... 98.550
Polk ................ ....I ( 382.407 106 3 371 : 2.2 21 2 50 ..................... ............... 23.530
Pu'tnam .................. 58.882 1.0221 1.245 191 45 17. 3.301 79.941
St. Johns ........... 1.928T 841 3001 ..................... 16. ..................... 1.008 3.396
St. L e................. I 7323 25.0191 18.5911 379 5191 ..................I 117.766
Santa R osa I.. 1 1 3! ..................... ........8 1 ........0...7 1 .................... .................' 0 1 81.093
Sarasota .................. 75.3041 1.723 1 ........................ ......... ........77 ..................... ....... ......... 77.027
Seminole .......... 9.719! 3.2101 21.7901 1i0 39 2! 94.770
Smter ........... 37,827' 1381 2.585 23 88 :3 2' 40.6rci
Suw annee ................ ........... ............. ....... .... ... 5...5001 5.500
Taylor ... I 4... .. 5
T a y lo r ............ ....... 4 ................ ....... ....... ......... ........... .... ... .... 4
1 nlo n ........................ 3 2 .. ...... ............... ......... ... ......... 15 0 1 8 2
Volusia ..................I 171.44 5.8 77.5771 187T 1 57 ...........I 25.019
W akulla .................. ............. ............. I 1.0001 1.000
W alton ............... 44 241 . ........ 5 ..................... 141 7.5821 7.669
W ash gin ton i ,....... .......... .......... .. .... ... .... .................I ............ I...... ......... .... 4.465 1 4.465
Total .................... .12.813.15291 402.5081 527.5i52' 2.299i 299.8681 2.(438 293.320 4.341,714


* Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August, 1928.
** See Table No. 1.







('ITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 11


CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA*-TABLE NO. 3.
SUMMARY
Shl.iing Total Numbe r of Iearing and Non-Hearing Orange, Grapefruit. Tan-
gerimn. Stsumna iand .MirscellCaneous Trees, July 1, 1!928.


lpearinlg Non-H'earing Total percentt of Total
Trees Trees Trees Citrus T'rees n111 at'


ran ge ... .. ................i ] l. 4l6.932 2.8 13.2 1 1: i ,4 i i2
';rapef'r ir ............| 5-,18),679o 402,5081 5.5.)2,.1 71 2S57%
'Tanger'in ............ 1.149.490 527,552! 1.(i77,042
Satsiuin .... 235.503' 2):,3201 528.823 2
Othir ( sCill'trus (l.3(!) O I 304,8M05 .5(i6.201 3%
Toin] 17.IT S."1100 4.341.7141 22.4126.714 1(liel/

Counties Having One-Third of a Million (or More) Orange Trees

Polk ... . ............ 44 i5.242
( ra n g e ... ... ... .... .. .... .. ... .. ... 1 .7 4 .1
Lake .......................... 1 2.255
IlillIslirolugh S.3..7.S: 11
Voluis.a .. 670.701
Itr'evnrd 3,.i3
ITighlands .... .. 42.1
Marion ............. .. ............. 47 ,01S
P'inellas ..... .. ....................... ...... 455.101
I d .. ........... ............ ................ ..... 436,363
li iSoto .... 66.754
Total .. 10.74,182
or T 7'{ of total ullnmber
of oiralnge t r e s in
Florida.

Counties Having One-Fourth of a Million (or More) Grapefruit Trees

I'olk ... ....... . ... 1.73: i.3:20
S ............ ........................... .. .. . 4 4 7 34
I'inell s ........ . .317
ak ... 332.127
Ilighlands .. ... .. 29),.901
Manatee ........... 278.(90
Ind ia n Itivel r ....2.. ................................................ 275.634
Total .. 3. 3.760.643
or 467, of total tinum)er
of grapefruit trriees in
Florida.

Counties Having Fifty Thousand (or More) Tangerine Trees

Il' k 25..5..... 2 5.!)97
(Oralnge . .. .... . ... ........... ...... 234.(045
V olu sia ......... .. .. ....... .......... ........... 1 98 .200
L a k e .............. ....................... .......... .. 15 2 .5 0 4
H illmaloroulgh ... .................. .. .. ..... .843
Hard ... .... . 77..'>5
Highlands ..68 .. ... .... ..3. 8 43
Semi nole .. ... .. . .. .... 64,289)
'lnellas .................... .............. .. .............. ....... 0,315
S t. u ci .. .. ....... ........ .............. .............74
I)lSoto .3..... ,761
'utinam 52.155
T total .... ....... .. ..... ... ...... ...... ... 1.360.198
or 811' of total iiiinimber
of tangerine trees in
Florida.
Fromii tIh foregoriig ta:l4r it will he oliserv'ed that Polk, Oran'ge, Volusla
alnd Ilke ('ounlllis cintain id(',; of tlhl total niniber of tanigerine trees in
Florida.

Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida, August, 1928.





12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT ACREAGE AS GIVEN IN
THE 1927-28 ANNUAL REPORT OF FLORIDA
CITRUS EXCHANGE


Bearing Non-Bearing Total
Acres Acres Acres
FLORIDA*
O ranges ............... .................. ....... 154,956 40,191 195,147
Grapefruit ....................................... .. 74,138 5,750 79,888
CALIFORNIA
O ranges .................................................. 185,543 15,366 200,909
G rapefruit ............................................ 6,223 4,419 10,642
TEXAS
Oranges .......... ........ ......... 2,300 22,500 24,800
G rapef-ruit ......... .................. ......... 6,200 52,500 58,700
ARIZONA
O ranges ...... .............................. 1,000 1,700 2,700
G rapefruit ..................... ..................... 1,200 2,000 3,200
ALABAMA
Oranges ......... ..... ....... ................... 4,030 7,120 11,150
ISLE OF PINES
G rapefruit ........................................ 1 000 200 1,200
PORTO RICO
G rapefruit ............. ....................... 3,145 615 3,760

TO TA L A CRE S ................................................................. ....... 592,096
*Florida estimates from Monthly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of
Florida. August, 1928.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 13

Soils for Citrus
ITRUS trees are able to adapt themselves to a wide
Strange of soil conditions. In Florida, citrus trees are
producing profitable crops on sandy soils, flatwoods
soils, hammock soils, and muck soils. This does not mean that
citrus trees will grow on all soils. They will not grow successfully
on poorly drained land or the heavy clay types of soil, although
Satsumas have been grown with a fair degree of success on
some of the clay soils. The wet, poorly drained land may,
however, be drained so that citrus will grow very successfully.
Many cases are on record where this has been accomplished.
Citrus trees will grow on any of the well-drained loamy soils
of Florida. These soils may be classed as follows: High pine.
flatwoods, high hammock, low hammock, and muck.


Fig. 1.-Trees Grown on Good Citrus Land with Liberal Fertilization and
Cultivation Produce Abundant Crops.
-Courtesy W. E. Sexton.
High pine land, as the term would indicate, is land of good
elevation and with a well drained, sandy subsoil. The original
growth consisted largely of long-leaf pine.
The flatwoods land is of lower elevation and not naturally
so well drained as the high pine land. The surface soil is of
a dark color, and not quite as sandy as the high pine. The sub-





14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

soil may be either sand, clay or hardpan. The original growth
on the land was long-leaf pine, with possibly an undergrowth
of palmetto and gallberry. A large amount of the flatwoods
soil in Florida has not been drained. Some of it cannot be
drained without excessive cost, but much of it can be easily
and cheaply drained. In some cases the hardpan is too near
the surface for citrus trees to make their best growth. Often.
however, the hardpan can be broken up by the use of dynamite
so that citrus may be grown with some degree of success.
High hammock land is similar to high pine land in many
respects. The surface soil of the high hammock land often
contains a little more humus. The original growth usually con-
sisted of oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, or perhaps some
pine trees or an occasional cabbage palmetto.
The low hammock land closely resembles the high hammock,
except that it may not be naturally as well drained as the high
hammock, or perhaps a denser growth of oak and cabbage
palmetto may have been on it. The soil usually contains more
humus than the high hammock. When the low hammock can
be thoroughly drained, it is very desirable for the growth of
citrus.
Muck lands are those that contain a large amount of organic
matter (humus). Ordinarly they are not well drained. When
drainage is possible, either by ditching or bedding up the land.
very good crops of citrus fruits may be produced. However,
the muck soils are, as a rule, colder and therefore subject to
frost more frequently than the sandy soils.





('ITRU-S GROWING IN FIOR)IIDA


Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils
BY FRANK STIRLING
General Manager, Flamingo Groves, Davie, Florida
4 XANY pages have been written on the general subject
of citrus growing, but when an attemplt is made to
prepare an article on the subject of citrus growing on
lthe muck lands. one must take into consideration all of the
characteristics pertaining to the area in question, such as cli-
mate. moisture, location, etc.
It is a well known fact that the most profitable crops can be
produced in an area provided with a fertile soil, sufficient
moisture and plenty of sunshine. In the Everglade muck lands.
nature has been most kind in supplying the soil with favorable
qualities for growing citrus. The soil contains 75 percent or-
ganic matter, which will enable a tree to grow continually and
produce fruit of an excellent quality at early maturity.
To any horticulturist, the history of citrus growing in Flor-
ida has been exceedingly interesting. When one travels over
the various producing sections of the State. attention is fre-
(quently called to the profitable returns derived from late types
of oranges. Oni muck lands where a combination of late
varieties and preferred rootstockss and other conditions occur,
thel profitable returns from practically mid-summer oranges
appear most outstanding. Investigations have shown that on
Iimuck soils, in sections properly drained, trees will produce
regular crops of a splendid quality returning a profitable reve-
inue to tlie grower, and at I cost of production per box less than
thliat from any other section or soil known to the industry.
Further research has proved the truth. of these assertions. and
has made even more clear the fact that nature has supplied
the Everglade soils with practically all of the requirements
for the satisfactory prollduction of citrus fruits.
We have all learned that in order to be successful from an
agricultural standpoint, several important conditions must he
secured. The principal ones are fertile soil. sufficient moisture.
and a congenial climate. We find these conditions prevalent
in tlie soils of the Everglades, especially near the edges of the
(lade lands and in thle Davie area. Pioneering along citrus
lines has been carried on over a period of fifteen years in this
section. In the Davie section many outstanding results have
been obtained by such pioneer growers as Messrs. C. A. Walsh,
J. C. Lange. ('has. Stoddard, and others. These growers have
put out plantings of late oranges and have brought thle groves
into full bearing without fertilization and without cultiva-
tion. At the same time. the fruit they produced has been of





16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

excellent quality and has brought the highest prices on the
Northern market.
PREPARATION OF LAND
Ordinarily the muck land is not naturally as well drained
as the rolling sandy land in the ridge section of the State.
For that reason it is advisable to plow the land in beds. The
beds are generally thirty feet wide. The idea is to get the
tops of these beds from twelve to eighteen inches above the
average land level. The bedding up of the land is for the
purpose of giving better drainage during extremely wet
periods.
It may be necessary to plow the land twice. A "'V" shaped
drag is used to advantage in ridging up the beds. The trees
are planted in the center of each ridge. This makes the tree
rows thirty feet apart, and the trees are set twenty feet apart
in the row.
COST OF PRODUCTION
It is interesting to note that cost of production per box has
been kept at a minimum in the Everglades; in fact, records
show that fruit has ordinarily been produced at a cost not
exceeding 17 cents per box on the tree. While this may sound
astounding, yet, when one realizes that the costs of planting.
tillage, etc.. are cut to the bone, it is not at all out of line.
To begin with, there is no cost of clearing the land, for all that
is necessary is to plow the open glades with a tractor, stake
the land and plant the trees. This involves a total cost of
approximately $80 per acre when using trees of five-eighths
to three-quarter inch caliper. In the Davie area, by planting
large acreages, this cost has been cut per acre by fifteen per-
cent. The trees seem to thrive without any plant food other
than that which is in the soil.
SOIL ANALYSIS
The Glades soil analyzes, according to the State Chemist.
3.17 lime, 2.17 nitrogen, 0.18 phosphoric acid, 0.13 potash, 1.47
iron oxide, 0.18 magnesia, 0.38 soda, 0.51 sulphuric acid, 75.65
organic matter, and 16.84 moisture. Many fertilizer tests have
been conducted on the Everglades land during the past ten
years, and even the most discriminating citrus men could
hardly detect any difference in the growth of the trees by the
use of fertilizer. However, it is not unlikely that after the
trees become older it may be profitable to add potash in order
to increase the size and quality of the fruit.
As the level of the average land is not exceedingly high and
as the average water table remains around three to four feet





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


below the surface of the land, a steady moisture condition
exists, giving the trees ample water and preventing damage
by drouth. This results in an almost continual growth of the
tree and gives a bearing tree in less time than usual.
During the past several months considerable plantings
have been made in the muck lands adjacent to Lake Okeecho-
bee. west of Fort Lauderdale, and in Dade county northwest
of the city of Miami. At present there are between four and
five thousand acres of citrus groves planted on Everglade
muck soils. Interest in citrus groves on muck land is growing
rapidly. So it seems to me that here may be a thing developed
which will benefit all, for if an industry develops in the Glades.
it will mean that our citrus marketing organizations may carry
on throughout practically the whole year, handling mid-winter
types in the north and central portion of the State and mid-
summer types from the Everglades, placing fruit on the mar-
ket at times that will not interfere competitively with either
section. One may hope and expect to see a new citrus section
that will materially aid in developing the rich muck lands.
To the uninitiated or even to practical citrus growers in
other sections, the statements made may seem Utopian, but to
the growers who have investigated the possibilities of growing
citrus on muck land they are obviously true.





Varieties
IIE practical grower has found from experience that no
Sone variety of citrus is grown successfully in all sections
of the world where citrus fruits are grown. A good ex-
ample of this is the Washington Navel orange which is ex-
tensively grown in California and is well adapted to California
conditions, but in Florida this variety has but little commercial
value. Several of Florida's best varieties of grapefruit are
of little commercial value in California.
Varieties best adapted to Florida for commercial growing
may be classed as early, mid-season, and late.
Early orange varieties are Parson Brown and Hamlin; mid-
season varieties are Seedlings. Pineapple, Enterprise Seedless
and Jaffa and late varieties are Valencia and Leu Gim Gong.
Kid glove oranges are Dancy Tangerine, Mandarin, King
oranges and Satsuma (Owari).
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan: mid-season,
Florida Common and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless.
2--Citrus





18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Cold Protection

SHIIE larger lakes in Florida afford a certain amount of
Protection from cold. The small lakes are not of suf-
ficient size to have much influence.
In addition to the protection obtained from lakes, the higher
elevations possess quite an advantage over lower ones. This
is due to the fact that the higher elevations have much better
air drainage. The question of air drainage is receiving much
more consideration today than in former years. Air drainage
is thought by many people to be just as important as water
protection.
In those sections of the State where citrus groves are sub-
ject to cold injury, a large number of the best citrus growers
plan to protect their groves by the use of oil pots or grove
heaters. Where cheap wood is available, wood fires are often
used between the rows of trees to keep the temperature above
the danger point. Under ideal conditions, the temperature in
a grove may be raised from two to five degrees by the use of
fire pots or open fires. This in many cases may be sufficient
to protect the trees from frost injury.


Fig. 2.-Fire Pots Used for Cold Protection.
-Courtesy of Florida Citrus Machinery Co.





CITRUS 11IIoWIN( IN FIO)RIIDA


Nursery Stock
S)UR orange and rough lemon are the most common cit-
rus stocks in use in Florida. Grapefruit and several
other stocks art used to a limited extent. Sour orange
stock is best adapted for plantings on flatwoods, hammock, or
muck soils. Rough lemon is adapted to the lighter sandy soils
and rocky types of soil where a heavy feeding root system is
necessary.
Trees budded on sour orange grow slower than those budded
on rough lemon, however, the f'ruit is as a rule of better (l quality
and can be held longer on tlie tree.
Citrus nursery stock is grown from seed and the seedlings are
usually transplanted from the seed bed to the nursery row when
about 12 inches tall. When they reach a diameter of one-half
inch or larger, they are budded. The l(budded trees normally
remain ill tile 1111nursery row for fro 1 to years, depending


Fig. 3.-Citrus Nursery. The Selection of Healthy, Well Grown Nursery Stock,
True to Name, is Important
upon the size at which they are taken up for planting. While
in the nursery, the trees are staked and pruned and properly
cared for to produce uniform, vigorous, healthy trees of good
shape.
A one to two-year-old bud. ealipering three-fourths to one







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


inch, with a three-year-old root is a very desirable tree for plant-
ing. The measurement for the diameter of nursery trees is
taken an inch or so above the bud.
Cleopatra stock is being used by a number of growers. How-
ever, there are not enough trees in bearing on Cleopatra stock
to enable one to positively determine its value. It is claimed by
some that this stock has all the virtues of both sour orange and
rough lemon, and apparently it is adapted to the same types
of soil as sour orange and rough lemon.
Trifoliate stock is also recommended by a number of people.
More information is needed before any definite statements can
be made regarding its value. Experiments are being conducted
with both Cleopatra and trifoliate stock so that in the next few
years the real value of these two stocks will be more definitely
determined.



Adaptability of the Principal

Citrus Stocks for Florida Groves
As Rated by
F. M. O'BYRNE,
Formerly State Nursery Inspector.


I
1. Rapidity of Growth ...................
2. Texture and quality of fruit
3. P rolificness .............. .. .............
4. Retention of fruit and juice
5. Resistance to cold .....................
6. Resistance to root disease.....
7. Resistance to top disease......
8. Adaptability to thirsty light
so il ....... ..... .................
9. Adaptability to heavy ham-
mock and 'reclaimed land
with clay subsoil .................
10. Adaptability to high pine
rock land in Dade county
11. Adaptability to shell ham-
m o ck .................... ............ .....


Grapefruit
Lemon Seedling
1 2
3 2
1 3
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2

1 2


3 2


3 2


Note : The relatlve adaptability of the stocks Is Indicated by figures. No. 1
Indicating the best of the three for thnt particular characteristic. No. 2 the
second best. and No. 3 the least satisfactory.


Sour
Orange
3
1
2
1
1
1
1






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Planting the Trees

IIE best time to transplant citrus trees is during Decem-
ber, .January and February. During this season of the
year the trees are dormant, or nearly so, and for that
reason stand transplanting much better. Occasionally trees
are transplanted in June or July, although the percentage
planted in Florida during these two months is every small.
When transplanting is done during June or Jul. it must be
done when the trees are not putting out a new flush growth.
Trees transplanted when in flush of growth are not likely to
live.
The distance apart to set trees is somewhat debatable. Some
growers are of the opinion that 30 by 30 feet is the most de-
sirable distance. Others advise 25 by 25 feet, while still others
claim that 25 by 30 feet is the proper spacing. The exact dis-
tance for setting the trees will depend somewhat on the char-
acter of the soil in which they are planted. If the planting is


-,~ I~j..~ -
I




S. /-,


Fig. 4.-A Planting Board. To use: First, place center notch against stake pre-
viously set to mark place for tree; second, place stakes at both ends of board; third
remove board and dig the hole; fourth, replace board and set tree as shown in illus-
tration. The board marks the level of the ground, which avoids setting the tree
too deeply.
-Courtesy Fla. Agricultural Extension Division.





22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

to be made in a sandy soil, such as is found in what is called
the "ridge section of the State," plantings should be 30 by
30 feet. If plantings are made on hammock or muck land, the
plantings may be 20 by 30 or 20 by 35 feet.
The land should be staked off before transplanting is started.
as this will facilitate the actual setting out of the trees. As
soon as actual transplanting starts, plans must be made for
watering the trees when set. It is also important to make pro-
visions for keeping the roots of the trees covered and moist
from the time they are dug or unpacked until they are planted.
A few minutes of direct sunshine on the roots of the trees may
cost the price of the trees exposed. The trees should be set
in the grove at the same depth at which they grew in the
nursery row.
After setting the trees, soil conditions should be observed
frequently. Whenever the soil around the trees becomes dry.
it will be necessary to water the trees so as to keep the soil
moist until there is sufficient rain.
It is important to give the young trees sufficient cultivation
to keep down weeds and grass. Weeds and grass will take
from the soil both plant food and moisture that should go to
the young trees. The general practice is to keep the tree rows
well cultivated the first five or six years.

Pruning
)ITRUS trees require much less pruning than do most
c ) other fruit trees, such as peaches, apples, etc. Very
little pruning is required after the citrus tree is set in
the grove.
When the citrus trees are taken from the nursery, they
should be cut back to a height of eighteen to twenty-four
inches. The chief reason for this is to have the trees headed
low. Low-headed citrus trees have several advantages. First,
fruit is more easily picked from low-headed trees; second,
there is apt to be less damage from winds; and third, the low-
headed trees shade the ground more completely, thereby check-
ing evaporation of moisture. It is also much easier to spray
and fumigate the low-headed trees.
After the young trees are pruned back and set in the grove,
they should require little or no pruning for a year or a year
and a half. If any new growth is put out below the bud union,
this should be pruned off. The only other trimming the young
trees require is to trim just enough to properly shape the trees.
that is, properly balance the top. The lower limbs should be
trimmed up just high enough to keep them off the ground
when they are loaded with fruit.






CITRUS (GROWING IN FLORIDA


Fertilizing Citrus
BY DR. R. W. RUPRECHT,
Chemist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
HIE question as to how to perfectly feed or fertilize citrus
Streets has been studied for a good many years, not only
by scientific workers, but also on a larger scale by in-
telligent growers. Despite the years of study. however, one is a
long way from being able to state just what combination of fer-
tilizer elements is necessary in order to pro luce best results.
This is largely due to the fact that citrus trees are grown on a
very wide variety of soils.
In all fertilizer practices, the action of various fertilizer in-
gredients must lle borne in mind. It must be remembered
that ammonia or nitrogen is the material that stimulates leaf
and branch growth, that phosphoric acid stimulates root
growth alnd helps in fruit formation, and that potash is essen-
tial for the formation of sugars and similar products. Potash
also helps to keep the tree in a healthy condition. Of course.
in addition to these three elements, there are a number of
others that are necessary for normal growth, such as lime,
sulphur, magnesium, etc. However. practically all of these
last are present in the fertilizers that are used. or are in the
soil, so that ordinarily it is not necessaIry to addl them to the
soil.
Citrus trees are generally fertilized three times a year, in the
early spring, midsummer, and late fall. Some growers prefer
to fertilize their young trees four times a year, and still others
fertilize their bearing grapefruit trees a fourth time.
In the spring, as soon as danger of cold is past. the trees
should be fertilized so as to start them off quickly. This is
also the time the bloom appears and the fruit is set. There-
fore the fertilizer at this time should contain a good percent-
age of anmmonia and at least two-thirds of it should Ie derived
from inorganic sources, such as nitrate of soda, sulfate of
ammonia. ILeunasaltpeter, or calcium nitrate. As a general
rule, four percent amnmonia in this application is sufficient.
with six or eight percent of available phosphoric acid, and
about four percent of potasl. In order to insure having plenty
of ammonia available before the bloom appears, it is desirable
to get tlie first application on early. It must be borne in
mind that if the tree is suffering from a lack of ammonia when
the bloom comes out, it cannot set a full erop of fruit. Am-
monia is not the only requirement at this time, for lack of
moisture may have the same detrimental effect.
In1 the summ11111er application on bearing, trees. it is safe to re-





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


duce the ammonia content to three percent, provided the trees
are in a good, thrifty condition. For young trees, a four per-
cent formula would be better, as these trees should be encour-
aged to make a good growth. Since this time of year is the
rainy season, it is advisable to have the ammonia derived about
equally from organic and inorganic sources in order to cut
down the loss from leaching. Until more is known in regard
to the phosphoric acid needs of the tree, a six or eight percent
formula should be used. The potash content should be fairly
high; a five or six percent formula should provide a sufficient
amount. The question comes up as to whether too heavy an
application of potash at this time may not delay the maturity
of early fruit. There is a possibility that this might be the
case if the summer application is put on too late, but if put
on in May or early June, it is doubtful if this danger exists.
For the fall application, a fertilizer low in ammonia is gen-
erally found best. This is especially true for citrus in the
northern section of the citrus belt. Some have gone so far
as to recommend a formula containing no ammonia at this
time. Such a formula could safely be used on the better or
richer types of soil if the trees are in very good condition. In
general, however, it will be found that a formula carrying two
percent of ammonia will be safe to use, especially if all of the
ammonia is derived for inorganic sources. In the central sec-
tion of the citrus belt, the ammonia can be safely left at three
percent, while in the extreme southern territory where freeze
danger is at a minimum even four percent could be used if
the trees show the need for it. The phosphoric acid content
should be six or eight percent as in the previous applications.
The potash should be the highest of the year, but eight per-
cent is believed to be high enough. It must be borne in mind
that a well-fed tree will withstand more cold than an under-
fed tree.
The amount of fertilizer that should be applied at each fer-
tilization will depend largely on the type of soil and the root
stock on which the tree is grown. A safe rule to follow is to
put on one pound of fertilizer at each application for each
year that the tree has been set in the grove. For instance, a
two-year-old tree should receive two pounds of fertilizer at
each application, while a four-year-old tree should receive four
pounds of fertilizer at each application. If it is found that the
leaves of the trees turn light green or yellow before the next
application of fertilizer, the amount of fertilizer should be
increased. If, on the other hand, the leaves are a rich, deep
green color and the tree is making a very vigorous growth, it
might be advisable to reduce the amount. After the trees





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


reach bearing age, the amount of fertilizer to use should be
gauged by the amount of fruit the tree is capable of producing.
The best growers in the State arc now fertilizing the produc-
ing tree according to the amount of fruit the tree is expected
to bear. The general opinion is that about four pounds of
fertilizer are required to produce a box of fruit. In addition,
the tree is expected to make more or less new growth each
year, which calls for still more fertilizer. The new growth
put on by the tree each year will ordinarily require an amount
of fertilizer equal to that required to produce the fruit. This
means that an amount of fertilizer should be applied for new
growth equal to that applied for production of the fruit. This
makes a total of eight pounds of fertilizer for each box of fruit
the tree is capable of producing. A tree capable of producing
five boxes of fruit should be given forty pounds of fertilizer
a year, applied in three or four applications. Should the trees
be fertilized four times a year, about tell pounds of fertilizer
would be applied at each application. If the trees do not pre-
sent a healthy, dark green color, it is an indication that they
need more fertilizer, especially more ammonia. On soils that
are very fertile, the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. Also,
where heavy cover crops, especially legumes, are grown, the
amount of fertilizer may be reduced. No definite rule can be
laid down to cover all conditions, as the general appearance of
the tree and seasonal conditions must be taken into considera-
tion by the grower. Therefore, the amounts as given above
may serve as a guide, especially on young trees up to eight
or ten years of age.








^eE~





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Culture
TIRRING the soil, whether it be with a plow, cultivator,
or harrow, is beneficial in the following ways:
1. It loosens the surface soil and allows the air to
penetrate deeper into the ground, thereby supplying oxygen to
the roots of the plants.
2. More plint food is liberated, as decomposition and nitri-
fication act more rapidly.
3. It pulverizes the soil, making a soil blanket that tends to
conserve the soil moisture.
4. It destroys grass and weeds which compete with the trees
for food and moisture, and is especially beneficial during the
spring months when moisture is not so plentiful.
In many localities the conservation of the soil moisture is an
important consideration during certain seasons of the year.
Since cultivation loosens the surface soil so that more of the
rainfall will sink into the ground to be used by the plants at
a later time, it is of prime importance. In short, cultivation
puts the soil in the best possible condition for citrus trees to
grow.
In Florida there are many different types of soil, and
naturally the growers have never agreed on any one plan of
cultivation as best for all orange groves. A number of the
better grove owners are inclined to insist on a thorough
preparation of the soil before planting the young trees. During
February or March the land is usually plowed and a good seed
bed prepared. Some good legume cover crop is then planted,
such as velvet beans, cowpeas, crotalaria, or beggarweed. The
cover crop selected will be largely a matter of personal choice.
depending somewhat upon which one is best adapted to your
particular soil. In the fall, generally September or October.
the cover crop is plowed under. It may be necessary to go
over the crop with a disc harrow once or twice before plowing.
After the cover crop is plowed under, go over the ground fre-
quently with either a tooth or acme harrow. This will put
the soil in the best possible condition, and at the same time
conserve the soil moisture for the young trees when set out.
In cultivating a mature grove, that is, a grove that is eight
to ten years old, or older, there is more or less difference of
opinion. A number of good growers in the State are inclined
to think that cultivation of a mature grove is not necessary.
In fact, some go so far as to say that it is a waste of time and
money. However, different soil types and other local condi-
tions must be taken into consideration and studied before defi-





_'I__ TRUS (ROWING IN FIORIDA 27

nite recommendations can be made. There are numerous
groves in the State that have not been cultivated in several
years which are still producing satisfactory crops of fruit.
The question of cultivation or non-cultivation of the mature
grove is receiving more thought and consideration today than
ever before. It is hoped that in the next few years tin question
may he more satisfactorily settled.










1."' '


Fij, 5-Part of a S Oacre CItrus Planting,


-Courtesy Holly Hill Groves,





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Cover Crops

"Would'st have abundant crops reward thy toil
And fill thy barns, 0 tiller of the soil?
Then ever keep in mind this maxim true,
Feed well the land, and 'twill in turn feed you."
-Author unknown.

F a large number of citrus groves are examined, it will
generally be found that the groves which have made the
best growth and look the best are the ones that have re-
ceived the most careful attention. These groves are most likely
to be ones in which cover crops have been grown almost con-
tinuously.
The feeding of the citrus tree is quite similar to the feeding
of other plants, such as corn, cotton, or apple trees. That is.
if citrus is grown on soils that do not supply all of the neces-
sary plant foods for maximum growth, it is necessary to add
the deficient food to the soil. The growing of a cover crop in
the citrus grove each year, especially if it is a legume, is one
of the most practical ways of increasing the efficiency of the
fertilizer that is applied from year to year.
Cover crops increase the humus of the soil, and in this way
increase the water holding capacity of the soil, which is often
an important factor in the growth of a young grovc. Then,
too, during the rainy season the cover crop pumps a lot of
surplus water out of the soil.
The experience of many successful citrus growers has been
that citrus trees do best, that is, make the best growth, look
more healthy, produce better fruit, and in general have a much
better appearance, when grown on soils well supplied with
humus. Our hammock soil is an excellent example of land well
supplied with humus. Very little of the high pine land con-
tains a sufficient amount of humus for the best growth of
citrus trees. When a liberal amount of humus is added from
year to year, the soil is kept supplied with the bacterial life
which is so very essential to plant growth.
A sandy soil on which clean culture is practiced does not
respond to fertilizers as well as a soil of the same type to which
a cover crop has been added each year. This is explained by
the fact that commercial fertilizer does not ordinarily add
bacteria to the soil. Soil without abundant bacterial life never
responds to fertilizer or cultivation to the same extent as does
the soil that is well supplied with bacteria.
Bacterial life in a soil is not only dependent upon the humus
content of the soil, but also upon the moisture content. In





30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

other words, if one is to have an abundant supply of bacterial
life in the soil, it is necessary to have a good supply of both
humus and moisture. However, as the humus content of the
soil is increased, the water holding capacity of the soil is also
increased. These are two very important factors in the pro-
duction of a crop. In many cases moisture is the limiting
factor in the production of a maximum crop. Lack of moisture
in the spring may cause a heavy dropping off of the bloom
before it sets, while lack of moisture later in the year may
cause dropping of the immature fruit.
In addition to the humus that the cover crop may add to the
soil, it also adds plant food. The legume crops, of course, add
more plant food than do the non-legumes. A number of grow-
ers state that the amount of ammonia in the fertilizer may be
reduced one or two percent when a good legume cover crop
is returned to the soil each year. Maximum crops are, as a
rule, the most economical to produce. Therefore. every effort
should be made to keel) the land in such condition that best
results will always be obtained so far as crop production is
concerned.
Sunshine and cultivation tend to destroy or burn out the
humus from the soil faster than any other factor. By keeping
the ground shaded with a cover crop during the summer, the
humus content of the soil will be conserved.
CHOICE OF COVER CROPS
The choice of a cover crop will depend largely upon the
preference of the individual grower. A number of legume
crops are suitable to Florida and are satisfactory to use as
cover crops in citrus groves. The legumes that have generally
given the most satisfactory results are velvet beans, cowpeas.
beggarweed, and crotalaria. In addition to the legumes, one
has the choice of a number of non-legumes, such as crab grass.
Natal grass, sand burs, Mexican clover (which is not
legume), and other grasses and weeds that might grow.
Velvet beans, an annual, is one of the oldest and best known
legume crops. There are four or five varieties, such as Florida
velvet, Chinese velvet, Osceola velvet, and bunch Ninety-Day
velvet, all of which are suitable to plant in citrus groves. The
velvet bean may properly be classed as a tropical plant, and
requires a long season to produce its maximum growth of vine
and production of seed. The fact that it requires a long season
for its growth is a decided advantage here in Florida. For
best results, velvet heans should be planted before the middle
of May. Tile objection is sometimes raised that velvet beans
are not desirable for citrus groves because they make such a
rank growth and climb up in the trees, particularly young






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 31

trees. To eliminate this objection, it is often advisable to go
over the young grove and cut back the velvet bean vines two
or three times so they will not interfere with the growth of the
young trees.
Beggarweed, also an annual, is another legume adapted to
conditions in Florida, and it fits in well as a cover crop for the
citrus grove. Its habit of growth is quite different from that
of velvet heans. Beggarweed is an unright growing plant that
reaches a height of four to eight feet. When the stand is thin.
the plants branch freely, but when the stand is thick, the plants
make a straight slender growth th ih many leaves. Beggar-
weed seed should be sown broadcast the last of May or early
in June.
Cowpeas is another annual legume very commonly grown in
Florida. It is a crop that matures in from 65 to 85 days, and
can be termed a short season crop. There are a large number
of varieties to choose from. The best varieties for Florida are
the Brahham and Iron. Both of these varieties are more or
less vining in habit of growth, but cowpeas do not make as
much growth of vines as the velvet beans. If the cover crop
is not planted until the middle of June, cowpeas are likely to
give better results than velvet beans as a cover crop. Cow-
peas may be planted any time from April to July.
C'rotalaria is an annual legume that makes an erect growth
of three to six feet in height. This legume seems to be gain-
ing in favor as a cover crop for citrus groves. When the stand
is thin. the plants branch freely; when planted thick, the
plants make an upright growth with few branches and a good
percentage of leaves. Crotalaria may be planted any time
from March to tihe middle of June.
HOW TO PLANT
When planting a cover crop, care and judgment must he
exercised. In young groves one to four years old, it will be
found best not to plant the cover crop np near the trees, but
a space should le left on each side of the tree row from six to
eight feet wide. This means that if your tree rows are 30 feet
apart, you will have a space 14 to 16 feet wide on which to
plant the cover crop. There are two main reasons for leaving
the space on each side of the tree rows. The first one is that
in planting the cover crop, there should be no excuse for in-
juring the trees with any implement of tillage that might be
used. The second is to leave space enough on each side of the
tree row to allow cultivation of the young trees during the
,nltire summer if necessary. As the trees become larger and
occupy more of the ground with root growth and spread of
limbs, it will not lie possible to use as much of the ground for





32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

cover crops. In the young groves it may be possible to have
four or five rows of a cover crop between each row of trees,
but in the older groves only one or two rows of a cover crop
may be advisable.
It will be found more satisfactory to plant velvet beans and
cowpeas in rows. The rows of velvet beans should be about
four feet apart and the seed dropped about a foot apart in the
row. Planting in this way, one bushel of good velvet bean
seed should plant about three acres of grove. Cowpeas should
be planted in rows two and a half to three feet apart, and the
seed drilled in the row. It will require about one bushel of
good seed to every two acres of grove. Velvet beans and cow-
peas should be given one or two cultivation after planting.
The cultivation will hasten the growth of the plants and give
them a chance to get ahead of the grass and weeds.
Beggarweed seed should be sown broadcast on a well pre-
pared seed bed and covered lightly with a harrow. Use from
15 to 20 pounds of re-cleaned seed per acre.
Crotalaria should be sown broadcast at the rate of about
eight to ten pounds of seed to the acre. Prepare a good seed
bed before sowing the seed. Cover with a light tooth harrow.
None of the above mentioned legume cover crops will grow
satisfactorily in the shade of the citrus trees. However, the
citrus grower should continue to grow a cover crop in his grove
as long as shade does not make it impossible.
Table I gives the yield of hay in tons of four legumes for
each of three years, and the average for the three years, when
grown at Gainesville, Florida. The variation in the yield of
the legumes is shown to be rather large.

TABLE I.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Gainesville, Florida.
3-Year
Crop 1924 1925 1926 Average
Beggarweed .................... 0.79 0.92 0.15 0.62
Velvet Beans ............ 0.98 0.82 0.76 0.85
Cowpeas ............................ 1.48 1.30 0.52 1.10
Crotalaria .......................... 2.59 1.90 4.18 2.89

The yield of the same legume crops when grown at Lake Al-
fred, Florida, is shown in Table II, although at Lake Alfred
records of the yield were obtained for only two years. The
average of the two years at Lake Alfred is much better than
the three-year average at Gainesville.
*SToK:s, W. E.. Agronomist. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Journal of thc Am. ricapn hr-irty o) .l.irotiomy. Vol. 19. No. 10, October. 1927.






CITRUS GROWING IN FL)RIDA 33

TABLE II.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Lake Alfred, Florida.
Crop 1925 1926 Average
Beggarw eed ........................................... 2.29 1.78 2.03
V elvet Beans .......................... ............. 1.27 1.53 1.40
Cowpeas ...... ..... .......... ................ 1.27 1.01 1.14
Crotalaria ......... ... ............ ............... 4.63 2.76 3.69


Fig. 6.-Beggarweed Cover Crop in Citrus Grove.

Gainesville is not, strictly speaking, in the citrus section of
Florida. The yields of the above legumes at Lake Alfred
would, therefore, be more typical of the citrus section, for
Lake Alfred is in the heart of the citrus section.

Table 111 gives the percentage of nitrogen in each of the four
legIolne crops grown.

TABLE Ill.-Percentage of Total Nitrogen (Dry Basis) in Crops
Grown at Gainesville, Florida.*


Crop
Beggarw eed ... ........ ....................... ..............
V elvet B ean s ............................ ..................
C ow peas ............................... ..... .......
C ro ta la ria .................... ........................ ..............


Tops
1.64
2.51
2.29
2.78


Roots
1.07
1.48
1.65
0.92


*STOKES, W. E., .\Agrr"iitmist. Florida A.gri<'ilturail ExIperimenl t Statlon.
Journal of the A m'ricanit ,Si,0ty of .\ gronmny. Vol. 19!. No. 10, October, 1927-
3 Citrus





34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Tables IV and V show how the yield of corn and sweet
potatoes was increased when different legume crops were
plowed under in comparison with a non-legume. These two
tables are given here so that an idea may be obtained as to the
value of legumes in increasing the yield of crops. No data
of this nature is available as to the yield of citrus, but it is
reasonable to expect that results with citrus fruits would be
somewhat similar to the tests with corn and sweet potatoes.
On a two-year average the legume cover crops plowed under
increased the yield of corn all the way from 3.7 to 8.0 bushels
an acre. When sweet potatoes were grown, the legume cover
crops, when plowed under, increased the yield of potatoes from
9.3 to 27 bushels an acre.

TABLE IV.-Corn Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-Legumes
and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 .................. 15.13 21.71 22.99 22.28 19.28
1926 .................. 8.40 17.65 16.66 12.90 11.75
Average .......... 11.76 19.68 19.82 17.59 15.51

TABLE V.-Sweet Potato Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-
Legumes and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 .................. 37.50 78.00 54 50 61.00 55.00
1926 ................ 26.09 39.72 34.33 33.75 27.19
Average .......... 31.79 58.86 44.41 47.37 41.09

The yield of hay per acre, percentage of nitrogen in the crop,
and the total pounds of nitrogen produced per acre by each of
the four legumes grown at Gainesville are shown in Table VI.
A cover crop that will add from 17 to 141 pounds of nitrogen
per acre each year will necessarily increase the fertility of the
soil from year to year. The citrus grower knows from actual
experience the value of nitrogen. lie knows that it is the most
expensive fertilizer element that he purchases.

TABLE VI.-Yields of Hay From Four Legumes Grown at Gainesville,
Fla., and Estimated Amount of Nitrogen in Crops Per Acre.
Yield in Tons, Pounds of
Three-Year Percentage Nitrogen
Crop Averaget of Nitrogen** Per Acre
Beggarweed .............................. 0.62 1.443 17.890
Velvet Beans ........................ 0.85 2.208 37.536
Cowpeas ............. ................ 1.10 2.015 44.330
Crotalaria ................. .... ...... 2.89 2.446 141.378
tSee Table I.
**Air-dry basis.
*STOKES. E., Agronomist. Flforida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Journal of the Aminricain .Noricty of Agronomy. Vol. 1., No. 10, October. 1927.





__CITRUS GROWING IN FIL)Ril)A 35

Not only do cover crops plowed under add nitrogen to the
soil, but they will also increase the organic matter in the soil.
Table VII shows how cover crops, when plowed under, increase
both the nitrogen and organic matter in the soil. The results
shown in Table VII were not secured in Florida, it is true, but
the test was carried on at Cairo, Georgia, on Norfolk fine sandy
loam. Since there are hundreds of citrus trees in Florida grow-
ing on Norfolk fine sandy loam soil, the results obtained in
Georgia are applicable to Florida soil of this same type. If
such results can be obtained on Norfolk fine sandy loam, it is
reasonable to expect similar results on any good soil through-
out Florida. Table VII brings out the fact that by plowing
under the cover crops, all of which were not legumes, the per-
centage of organic matter in the soil was more than doubled in
five years, and the nitrogen content was also doubled.


Fig. 7.-A Good Cover Crop of Crotalarla.





36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TABLE VII.-Analysis of Soil From a Pecan Orchard on Norfolk
Fine Sandy Loam at Cairo, Georgia, on Which Cover Crops
Were Grown at Different Seasons of the Year.*

SPercentage of
Constituents
Spring and Summer Fall and Winter |Organic
Year! Cover Crop Cover Crop IMatter Nitrogen


1918 1 Fallow ............................ Bur Clover .................. 0.64 0.031
1919 | Cow peas .......................... Oats .................................. ........... ... .. ........
1920 I Beggarweed .................... Rye ......... ....................
1921 1 Cow peas .......................... Rye .......................... .... 0.901 0.040
1922 IVelvet Beans .................. Rye and Oats ............... 1.231 0.050
1923 Velvet Beans .................. Rye and Oats ................ 1 1391 0.061

Organic matter and nitrogen are two very important factors
to have in the soil, and it is to the advantage of every citrus
grower to see that the percentage of these two constituents is
kept as high as possible in all of his land.

Table VIII shows how the water-holding capacity of the soil
is increased when organic matter is added. The table shows
that when 5 percent of organic matter is added to coarse sand,
the water-holding capacity is increased 40 percent. When 10
percent of organic matter is added, the water-holding capacity
is increased 85.7 percent.

TABLE VIII.-Effect of Organic Matter on Retention of Moisture
in Sandt


Grams of
Soil Material Water Retained Increase,
by 100 Grams Percent
II

Coarse sand ............... ........................13.31
Coarse sand with 5 percent peat ...... 18.61 40.0
Coarse sand with 10 percent peat ...... 24.71 85.7
Coarse sand with 20 percent peat ...... 40.0( 200.7
P eat .................................. .... ..... ...... 184.01 1,283.4

*'. S. R. A. Depnralnint Bulletin No. 1378. Pige 4-.3.
tSll' Phlysics and Manag nment. lb J. (;. MONIER landii A. F. (;GISTAFSON. Page
149.





CITRl'S GROWING IN FIIA)II)A 37


Fig. 8.-A good Cover Crop of Cowpeas, The Growing of a Cover Crop in the
Grove each Year Is Desirable.


Cost of Grove to Bearing Age

T usually takes about five years to bring a citrus grove
Sup to bearing age. 'The cost to do this. however, varies
so greatly in different sections of the State that it is im-
possible to give exact figures. The chief reason for this great
variation in cost is due to the difference in cost of land, difference
in cost of clearing the land, and difference in cost of day labor,
team hire, or tractor hire.
The price of land may vary from $25.00 to $200.00 an acre.
depending upon the location and character of the land. The
better types of soil located on a paved road and close to a ship-
ping point will naturally ecst more per acre than a poorer grade
of soil four or five miles from a paved road and a like distance
from a shipping point. The transportation of fruit by truck
over an unimproved road to the shipping point reduces the
profits very materially.
The cost of clearing land may vary anywhere from $15.00 to
$75.00 or more per acre. This depends on tle number of trees.
stumps, and amount of underbrush per acre that must be re-
moved.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The cost of day labor varies in different parts of the State
from $1.50 to $4.00 a day. Team and tractor hire varies in
about the same proportion; that is, from $3.50 to $7.00 a day
for a team, and from $15.00 to $30.00 a day for tractor hire.

ESTIMATED COST OF FORTY-ACRE GROVE ON HIGH
PINE LAND FOR FIRST FIVE YEARS

INITIAL OUTLAY

40 acres of land at $125........................ .................. $ 5,000.00
Clearing at $25 per acre...................... ............. 1,000.00
Fencing 320 rods at 60c.............................. ............ 192.00
528 fence posts split at 25c......................................... 132.00
Digging post holes at 2% c.................................. ..... 13.20
Setting posts at 2% c................................ ........... 13.20
Stretching and putting up wire................................ 21.00
1 man at $3.00 per day for three days
2 men at $2.00 per day for three days

$ 6,371.40
FIRST YEAR

Breaking land, 40 acres at $5.00 an acre..................$ 200.00
Discing land twice at $1.00 an acre...................... 80.00
Laying off and staking land for trees...................... 44.00
1 man at $5.00 per day for four days
2 men at $3.00 per day for four days
Stakes at 50c per hundred...................... .... ....... 11.20
2,240 trees (set 25 by 30 feet) at 75c .................... 1,680.00
Setting trees and watering at 10c each.................. 224.00
Banking trees at Ic each ..................................... 22.40
Fertilizer, 3 lbs. per tree, 6,720 lbs. at $42.00 per
ton ........................................................ ................... 141.12
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton........................ 16.80
4 waterings (wagon, pair mules, and 3 men at
$12.00 per day; 2 days each watering, or 8
days at $12.00) ..................................................... 96.00
Plowing out middles in fall at $3.25 per acre....... 130.00
Pulling down banks at Ic eadh.................................. 22.40
Four cultivations at $1.00 per acre each cultiva-
tion ............................. ................ 160.00
Two hoeings of trees and sprouting, 5 men at
$2.50 a day for 2 days............................. ............. 25.00
Replacing dead trees, 112 at 75c each.................... 84.00

$ 2,936.92
SECOND YEAR


Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre......................$
Fertilizer, 6 lbs. per tree, or 13,440 lbs at $42.00
per ton ................................................................
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ........................
25 bushels of cowpea seed for cover crop at $2.25
Replacing dead trees, 56 at 75c..................................
Planting cover crop, one man and one mule with
planter for 5 days at $4.00................................


130.00

282.24-
33.60
56.25
42.00

20.00






CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 39

Cultivating cover crop, one man and one mule 5
days at $4.00 a day for two cultivations.... .....$ 40.00
15 cultivation of tree rows with Acme harrow at
50c per acre each cultivation............................ 300.00
3 hoeings and sprouting at 50c an acre for each
hoeing ......... ........ ....................... ..... .. .... .............. 60.00
Banking trees at 2c each.......................... ....... 44.80
Discing cover crop at $2.0) an acre......... ............... 80.00

$ 1,088.89
THIRD YEAR

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre ................. $ 130.00
Fertilizer, 9 lbs. per tree, or 10.08 tons at $42.00
per ton ....... ........ .................... ........ 423.36
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 a ton ............ 50.40
Pulling down banks at Ic each .............. 22.40
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre each cultivation ............ 300.00
3 hoelngs of tree rows at 50c an acre......... 60.00
Pruning at $3.25 a day, 6 days. ............... 19.50
Banking trees at 3c each........... .................. 67.20
300 lbs. beggarweed seed at 50c .......... . 150.00
Planting beggarweed seed, 2 days at $2.25 ...... 4.50
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre ....... 80.00

$ 1,307.36
FOURTH YEAR

Discing middles at $3.25 an acre ............. $ 130.00
Fertilizer. 12 lbs. per tree, 13.44 tons at $42.00
per ton .......... .............. ...... ............. ...... 564.48
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton .............. 67.20
Pulling down banks at 1%c each...................... 33.60
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre ....... ........ .................... 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre ............ 60.00
Pruning, 8 days at $3.25 .............. ... ............ 26.00
3 spraying, each spraying 2 days at $30.00 )per
day for spraying outfit, crew and material .... 180.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre............. 80.00
Bankin, trees at 3c each ............... .. ............... .. 67.20

$ 1,448.48
FIFTH YEAR

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre... .......... 8 130.00
Fertilizer, 15 pounds per tree. 16.S tons at $42.00
per ton .............. ................ ............... ......... 705.60
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ....... ......... 84.00
Pulling down banks at 2c each...... ...... ........ 44.80
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre...... ................ ... ............ ....... 240.00
3 hopings of trey rows at 50c an acre.. .... 60.00





40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Pruning, 12 days at $3.25 ............................................$ 39.00
3 sprayings ............................................ ..................... 200.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre........... 80.00

$ 1,583.40
Less estimated returns from crop for fifth year..$.. 1,480.00

Net cost for fifth year.......................... ... ........ $ 10:.40

TOTAL NET COSTS OVER FIVE-YEAR PERIOD $13,256.45
AVERAGE COST PER ACRE...................................... 331.41

Note: Beginning with the sixth year, under ordinary conditions,
the returns from the citrus crop will more than pay operating ex-
penses.


Fig. 9.-An Ideal Setting for a Home. A Young Grove at this Stage will
begin to Bear Fruit in Two or Three Years.





('ITRU-S
Irrigation of Citrus

Groves in Florida
By E. F. DEBUSK*
Extension Specialist in Citrus Culture, Agricultural Extension Division
IITIUS grove irrigation in Florida is rapidly becoming
Sone of the major operations in citrus fruit culture.
More progress has been made along this line during
the twelve-month period ending April, 1928. than during any
five-year period of the last twenty years. The reason for such
unusual activity and interest is seen in the unprecedented
drought.
While the citrus belt of Florida has a normal annual rainfall
of around fifty inches, which is in excess of the total annual
needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of the groves suffer
from lack of moisture at some time or other during the spring
or fall of five years out of seven because of inadequlate monthly
distribution of this total annual rainfall. A study of the rain-
fall records of the Weather Bureau of the past :35 years brings
out the fact that during that period thle number of months with
insufficient rainfall wias as follows:
J.1 Ilary 10 September 2
February 16 October .10
March 24 November 23:
April 25 )December ... 10
May ....... .......... 15
The tangible results of this deficiency of moisture are drop-
ping of bloom and young fruit and dropping of fruit in the
fall and winter. But the real effects go farther than that. We
are beginning to take into consideration the effect upon size
and quality of the fruit, upon tlhe economic uses of fertilizers.
upon the cover crop and the consequent effect upon the organic
content of the soil, the permanent effect upon the tree as mani-
fested in dead branches and susceptibility to disease and in-
sect attacks. Correcting this deficiency of moisture is, there-
fore, a problem of very great economic importance to many
citrus fruit growers of the State.
Any method of applying water to an agricultural soil by
artificial means may be termed irrigation. As a guide to
proper grove irrigation, a few fundamentals should be kept in
mind. In the first place, the soil is the reservoir that holds the
'itrus Inmdustryi iily. 192N. 'Page I I.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


water for the tree. The water-holding capacity of a soil, its
field capacity, is in direct proportion to the fineness of the soil
particles and to its organic content. In order to apply irriga-
tion water effectively and economically, the water-holding
capacity of the soil and the percentage of moisture present at
the time of irrigation, or when irrigation is contemplated,
should be known. (A practicable method of making soil
moisture determination in the grove may be obtained from
the Experiment Station, Gainesville.) The depth of the tree
root system and the depth of greatest root concentration should
be determined. This may be done by digging a ditch or a few
holes in the grove and observing the distribution of the root
system. The coarser the soil particles, the more rapidly the
soil absorbs water, and in turn the more quickly it gives up
its total moisture to the tree. These facts should help to guide
the grower in the frequency of application of irrigation water
and in the proper quantity to apply.
Irrigation water in the grove is usually applied to the sur-
face or near the surface and is pulled downward through the
soil by gravity. If the moisture-holding capacity is 9 percent,
a foot of soil will absorb approximately an acre-inch of water.
The first foot gets the first acre-inch applied, and in order to
wet the soil below that depth more water must be applied.
The second acre-inch will wet the second foot, the third acre-
inch the third depth, and so on down, each additional amount
of water passing through the wetted soil, the moisture-holding
capacity of which is thoroughly satisfied. If more water is
applied than is needed to satisfy the water-holding capacity
of the soil to the depth ofthe root system, it passes on down-
ward and is lost to the tree, for the time being at least. The
soil, or reservoir, gives up its water to the "roots of the trees
and cover crop. The relative rate at which the water at differ-
ent depths is given up is in direct proportion to the root con-
centration. After a soil has been wetted to the entire depth of
the root system, one or more additional applications of water
will be needed to rewet the first 14 to 18 inches, or the area
of the highest root concentration, before additional water will
be needed in the lower root area.
In irrigation practice, we might consider that when a soil
is wetted it holds its water until it is extracted by the roots of
plants. If we depend upon capillary action to distribute water
from -wet to dry soil, in any direction, disappointment will
result. This suggests the importance of uniform distribution
of the irrigation water over the entire surface of the grove.
Anything short of this in a bearing grove cannot be considered
as highly efficient irrigation. If the soil in any part of the
grove is not wetted the roots in that area may die from lack





CITRUS (ROWING IN FLORIDA 43

of moisture while surrounding areas are wet. We cannot de-
pend on a horizontal spread of water from irrigation furrows
or ditches. From a practical standpoint, the only force or
agencies that operate in the distribution of water in the soil
are gravity, adhesion of water to soil particles and surface
tension of the water film.
IRRIGATING TIE GROVE
When to apply irrigation water to our Florida groves for
best results is a question that will require time and investiga-
tion to answer. However, our present knowledge of irrigation
in general warrants making a few fundamental recommenda-
tions. In proper irrigation, a knowledge of the water-holding
capacity and wilting point of the soil of the individual grove.
the amount of moisture present and distribution of the root
system will be needed. Irrigation water should be applied
before the trees wilt and otherwise show signs of distress.
Permanent injury may result to a tree left in a wilted condi-
tion for only a few hours. The moisture-holding capacity of
a large percentage of our citrus acreage runs from 10 to 25
percent. In most of these soils very little or no root growth
will be found under conditions of less than 2 percent moisture.
A higher moisture content is required to keep trees from wilt-
ing in the highly organic soils than in the light sandy soils.
The wilting point of the soil of the individual grove should be
known, and an effort should be made to hold the moisture con-
tent safely above that point by "replenishing the water by re-
peated irrigation as the trees take it up. It is extremely diffi-
cult to wet uniformly some of our soils after they been allowed
to "run dry." This condition is often found in Florida groves.
It is useless to try to build the moisture content of a soil to
a point above that of its moisture-iholding capacity by excessive
applications of water, as the excess water will either run down
through the soil to a point below the root system, carrying
soluble plant food with it, or be caught between impervious
strata in the subsoil, raising the water table or perhaps creat-
ing a water-logged condition injurious to the lower roots of
the trees.
The application of fertilizer should be followed by only
enough irrigation water to distribute the soluble plant food
throughout the root zone. Growers are more or less familiar
with the losses of water soluble nitrogen often incurred with
heavy rainfall immediately following an application of fer-
tilizer. The same conditions may obtain on light soil in con-
nection with heavy applications of irrigation water. From the
standpoint of conserving nitrogen at least, lower depths of soil





44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

should he wetted in the spring and fall before the applications
of fertilizer are made. Results of winter and early spring irri-
gation of the past two years indicate that winter irrigation
may be highly desirable under certain Florida conditions.
Several methods of applying irrigation water to citrus groves
are being employed throughout the State with varying degrees
of efficiency, economy and success. The prevailing method is
known as the flooding method. With the flooding method.
water is pumped from a lake or well, usually by means of a
centrifugal pump, through a permanent main to the highest
part of the grove. The main is provided with outlets through
risers, at convenient intervals, from which the water is con-
ducted through canvas hose, galvanized slip-joint conductor
pipes, or in some cases through ditches and furrows, to all parts
of the grove. With but few exceptions, an effort is made to
flood the entire surface of the grove. When the ditch or fur-
row is properly used, the surface is flooded by building dams
and making small lateral trenches with a hoc. In a few cases
the water is allowed to run in the furrow for several minutes
without being diverted or spread over the entire surface, in
which case the irrigation is found to be very low in efficiency.
In one grove where the writer studied the efficiency of this
method, four hours after the water had been allowed to flow
through an irrigation furrow for thirty minutes no appreciable
increase of moisture was present six inches from the edge of
the furrow and eleven inches below the bottom. A strip less
than twice the width of the furrow had been wetted through
the area of greatest root concentration. As only one furrow
to the middle was used we can readily see that this was very
poor irrigation. The furrow can be used satisfactorily in dis-
tributing water from the main when the slope is not great
enough to result in washing and where a large volume of water
is discharged and an effort is made to flood the entire area
penetrated by the root system of the trees.
The desirable sources of irrigation water are the thousands
of fresh water lakes scattered throughout the citrus belt as
well as the entire State: artesian wells 75 to 700 feet deep in
the coastal region, around the large interior lakes, and along
many of the rivers; the shallow wells 20 to 50 feet deep.
especially in the coastal region; and the inland rivers and
creeks. The fresh water lakes of the citrus belt alone are
capable of supplying enough pure irrigation water to irrigate
500,000 acres of grove without reducing their level to the
extent of affecting their beauty or usefulness in other ways.
Flowing wells of the artesian belt furnish an ample supply of
water for irrigation by natural flow or by the use of low-head





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 45

pumping units, operating at a very low cost per acre-inch.
Irrigation water can be delivered to more than 75 percent of
the groves of tile State under a total working head of less than
100 feet, thus assuring irrigation at a low cost.
MANY MAINS TOO SMALL
Economy in irrigation demands constant adherence to the
thought of delivering to the tree the required amount of water
at the lowest cost per gallon or acre-inch. The application of
this principle begins with the selection of the material and
equipment, and installation of the plant. To move a given
amount of water witli the minimum horsepower and at the
lowest cost per acre-inch, the pump and engine or motor must
be matched for the hiighest efficiency under the given conidi-
tions. A 3-inch pump should not be used where a larger one
will deliver water at a lower cost per unit because of higher
efficiency. Strict attention should be given to matching pul-
leys, pump and engine to the particular conditions. Pipe lines
should be laid as straight as practicable, with the minimum
number of elbows. Friction, or resistance to the flow of water,
should be reduced as nearly as practicable and economical to
the minimum. In practice, keeping down the friction has, for
the past year, been seriously interfered with by the high cost
of iron pipe in the larger sizes. The almost prohibitive price
of six-, eight-, and ten-inch pipe has been forcing growers to
use the smaller sizes in their installations. These small sizes
are in most cases inadequate for carrying the required amount
of water at a unit cost that will keep the irrigation cost within
the range of desired economy. In my judgment, 95 percent of
the 150 plants that I have inspected should have been equipped
with larger mains. This mistake no doubt would not have been
made if piping of the rlrger sizes could have been purchased
at prices in keeping with the profits from grove irrigation
through the production of citrus fruits. The condition mcen-
tioned has directed my attention and efforts toward finding a
desirable substitute for iron piping and at a lower cost. An
investigation of concrete pipe for irrigation under pressure
brought out sufficient merit to warrant laying a demonstration
line. This was done in a grove on Lake Harris in Lake county.
I have been officially requested to describe this plant and
discuss its operation in connection with this paper.

CONCRETE PIPE FOR MAINS
In the installation referred to, 8-inch concrete pipe, in 3-foot
lengths, of the ball and spigot type, was used in the main ex-
tending from the pump near the lake. under a clay road and





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


through the grove to a point at an elevation of 31 feet above
the lake. The joints were sealed with a pipe-sealing com-
pound known as "GK," over which a collar of cement mortar
was built. Concrete risers were used, fitted with 4-inch iron
tees and nipples for discharging the water into conductor pipes
and hose. One thousand feet of 5-inch conductor pipe is used.
An 8-foot, open-head standpipe was built of 10-inch concrete
pipe at the upper end of the line for forcing water through
hose to an elevation above the end of the main and as a pres-
sure relief to the line. The line was laid in a ditch 2 feet wide
and 2 feet deep, and covered soon after laying. The elastic
pipe-sealing compound was used to provide for expansion and
contraction and possible irregular settling of the line. The
cement collar was built over the sealed joints as a reinforce-
ment to the "GK" and as a further prevention of tree root
penetration. A one to two and one-half cement mortar of low
slump was used, and was held in place while setting with a
cheese cloth diaphragm. Sixty feet of 5-inch iron suction pipe
with one elbow of 45 degrees were used in the 41/2-foot lift
from the lake to the pump. The end of the pipe in the water
is equipped with a quarter-inch screen but no foot valve. A
centrifugal pump with 5-inch suction and 4-inch discharge is
used. The seven feet of 4-inch line between the pump and the
concrete line consists of nipples, 90-degree elbow, gate valve,
4i/ feet of rubber suction hose from valve to beginning of con-
crete line, and flanged unions.
While this flexible connection with the concrete line is not
essential, it is highly desirable. The pump is primed by means
of a pitcher spout pump attached to the top of the pump case
by a short line of pipe including a small valve. In priming the
centrifugal pump, the large valve in the discharge line is closed
and the small valve between the two pumps is opened. The
pitcher pump is then operated until the water flows from it.
The small valve is then closed, the centrifugal pump started,
and when going at full speed the large valve in the discharge
line is opened. About five minutes are "required to prime the
pump by the method described. This method of priming a
centrifugal pump is given in detail at this time because of the
difficulty often experienced in priming by other methods.
In the installation above described, the 8-inch main makes
it possible to operate efficiently the 4-inch pump with a
capacity of 450 gallons per minute by a 6-horsepower gasoline
engine against a total working head of 39 feet, covering 20
acres at a total cost of $1.35 per acre inch, including deprecia-
tion on equipment and interest on the investment of $40 per
acre. The price of concrete pipe makes such an installation
possible and economical.





CITRUS (GROWING IN FLORIDA


The uses of concrete pipe in citrus grove irrigation under
pressure has been sufficiently tested to warrant recommending
it to growers under reasonable conditions. Eight plants using
concrete pipe have been installed in the State within the last
few weeks. Right here I would hang up a caution sign: LAY
CONCRETE PIPE PROPERLY. .This is a job that certainly
cannot be safely turned over to unskilled or irresponsible
laborers.
CONCRETE ENDURED
In conclusion, I shall summarize by answering the often-
repeated questions coming from growers about concrete pipe
for grove irrigation: "What effect does age have on concrete
pipe?" "How does friction loss in concrete pipe compare with
that of iron pipe?" "Is there danger of citrus tree root pene-
tration and stoppage?" In answer to the first question, I shall
quote f-rom Bulletin 858, Bureau of Public Roads, U. S. D. A.:
"It is apparent from studies made of concrete pipe laid 38
years ago that there is no material decrease in the carrying
capacity." In regard to friction loss, I shall quote from the
same bulletin: "The friction loss in a mile of given size new
east iron pipe was 2.1 feet; in old cast iron pipe it was 5.17
feet. In the best concrete pipe, it was 1.91 feet." Quoting
from the same bulletin in answer to the last question: "There
is no risk of interfering with the capacity of concrete pipe on
account of roots entering them if they are properly made and
laid. There is no case on record where roots have entered
cement pipes unless they were made without being properly
pressed. or the space in making field joints were not properly
filled with mortar."
ARTESIAN WATER
The shaded portions of the map in Figure 10 show the areas
in the State where artesian water is available. This shows that
there is a considerable area along the cast coast, the lower
west coast, a narrow strip down through the ridge section,
and a large part of the Everglades where artesian water may
be secured.
The depth to the water varies in different sections, ranging
from 100 to 1,200 or 1.500 feet.





48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MAP OF STATE ARTESIAN AREAS IN
FLORIDA


Fig. 10.-Shaded Portion of Map Shows Sections of Florida where Artesian Water may be Ob-
tained at a depth of 100 to 2,000 feet.





('ITRIS .GROWING IN FLORIDA 49


Fig. 11.-An Artesian Well In a Grove is good Crop Insurance.



Yield
II K yielh of citrus fruits per acre varies as much as does
the yield of corn. There are a number of factors that in-
flience the ielhi of fruit. as tile type'( off soil, the amount
of fertilizer applied per acre, moisture. the variety, and the age
of the trees. satulre trees, those fromil ten to fit'teen years of
age. should produce an average of 200 boxes of fruit per acre.
There are many growers who. as a rule. get emuch better yields
than 200 boxes an acre because they have selected land well
suited to citrus growing; and. in addition, they have given the
groves the very best attention so I'ar as fertilization ald culti-
vation are concerned. ]However, on good citrus soil and where
the trees are given good care, a yield of 200 boxes an acre is a
fair average yield.


4- Citrus






50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Picking

ARE and judgment must be exercised in picking citrus
fruits. The fruits are very easily injured by rough or
careless handling during the picking operation. The
fruit must not be pulled from the trees, as this causes the peel, or
rind, to break so that mold and decay start very quickly. When
the rind is broken, a large amount of the fruit will decay in
transit.
Citrus fruit should be cut off with clippers. It is important
to clip the fruit with very short stems. If a long stem is left
on the fruit, there is danger of other fruits being injured by
the long stem. One must also be careful not to injure the fruit
with the clippers. Clipper cuts on fruit will cause the fruit to
rot just as quickly as any other injury.
Picking is usually paid for at so much per box. The price
varies somewhat from year to year, and is also partly governed
by the yield of fruit in the particular grove. Where the fruit
is scattered on the trees, the price is usually a little higher.


Fig. 12.-Different Types of Clippers for Gathering Fruit. From Cultivation
of Citrus Fruits, by H. H. Hume.
-By Permission of The Macmillan Company.






CITRUS ( RO)WIN( IN FLO)RII)A 51


Fig. 13.-Unloading Field Boxes in the Grove Preparatory to Picking the
Fruit. -Courtesy W. E. Sexton.


Fig. 14.-Transporting the Fruit from the Field to the Packing House in
Field Boxes. -Courtesy W. E. Sexton.


















































Fig, 15,-PlckIng the Crop,



















































;lt "
"

.,
~






i :
ri *
!





Y,
u
I *'* :.h

..t
)









Fip, I,-Unlolding thr FCld Boxes 1 the Picking HOUB1,






A
'__----, ,
.. .. .



,,, ,',
111 ,, ^ ,' ,' .?

, / i : ,


]1 i '^ 1 '
: ^ i ' !' ` '



'bl -
a
H


,0





















FIg, 17-One of the many Citrus Packing Houses In Florida,






















lipi





























Fig, la-Frult StirtIng through the /ashlrg Process.





56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Grading
FTER the fruit has gone through the washer, dryer, and
polisher, it passes over the grading belt. Here trained
graders separate the fruit according to texture and color.
The usual grades are Brights, Goldens, and Russetts. All culls
and bad fruits are thrown out.
The graded fruit then goes to the sizer, where it is mechani-
cally separated into the various sizes. From the sizer bins the
fruit is wrapped and packed into crates by experienced packers.
Each grade and size is packed separately.
The eating quality of the Bright, Golden, and Russett grades
may be practically the same; however, in appearance the Bright
and Golden fruit is more attractive to the eye and consequently
brings a better market price. The smallest and largest fruits
usually sell at a lower price than medium and large fruit.
Bright fruit that is of good texture and quality, which is medium
to large in size, and attractively packed, is the fruit which com-
mands the best market price.






IL NO


Fli. 1-rading Fruit,


II "IF


I

i















































Flg. N.-Frut ENrauts from Wish Tank to Dryer.





CITRI'S GROWING IN FLORIDA 59

Packing
IIERE is more to the packing of citrus fruit than merely
putting the fruit into a box or crate. A certain number
of oranges or grapefruit are packed in each container.
The number of fruit in each dependss entirely upon the size of
the fruit, as the boxes in which the fruit is packed are all of
uniform size. The inside measurements of tle containers are
12 by 12 by 24 inches.
The number of oranges in a box or crate varies from 96 to
324. When the oranges are three and a half inches in diameter,
they are packed in four layers with 96 oranges to the crate.
Oranges two inches in diameter will pack six layers of fruit, or
:124 oranges to the crate. The average size oranges pack from
126 to 216 to the crate.
As grapefruit are much larger than oranges, it is necessary to
pack a smaller number in a crate. The number of grapefruit
per crate varies from 28 to 96, the most commonn sizes packing
46, 54. 64. 72, and 80 to the crate.
Mandarin, tangerine, King and Satsuma oranges are packed
in half boxes, or "straps." It takes two half boxes to equal
one ordinary box. The number of fruit in a box varies from
48 to 216, the common sizes packing 60, 76. 90, 120, 144, 168,
and 216 per box.
There is an art in the commercial packing of citrus fruit. A
certain number of fruit of uniform size must be packed in each
container. In addition, packing must be done so that the fruits
will keep their original position in the box. If the fruit is loose
in the box, it will become more or less bruised in transit, which
will mean a heavy loss in market value.






6%J1~i






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SWEET
ORANGES





















No. an size 28:
Dia. 5 in.: Layers3





No. and size 5;
Dia. 4i in.; Layers 8


No. and size 96&
Dia. 3% in; Layers 4





No. and size 150
Dia. 3 in.; Layer 6





No. and size 216:
Dia. 2 ltH in.; Layers 6





No. and size 36;
Dia.5 in.: Layers





No. and size 64:
Dia. 4X in.; Layers 4


No. and aie 112: No. and size 16:
DiL. 3X in.: Layer4 Dia. 3S in.: Laers 5





No. and size 17: No and size 200:
Dia. 2 in.: Layers Dia. 2 f in.; Layers





No. and size 22s: No. and size 252:
Dia. 2 in.; Layers 5 Dia. 2 in.: Layers


- POMELOS

No. and size 46:
Dia. 4% in.: Layers 3





No. and size 72:
Dis. 4% in.; Layers4


No. and size 80 No. and size 96;
Die. 4 in.; Layers 4 Dia. 83 in.; Layers 4


M1UNARIN
ORANGES


No. and size 60; No. and size 76; No. and size 90;
Din. 3X In.: Layers 3 Dia. 31 in.; Layers 3 Dia. 3 n.s Layers 3





No. and size 106 No. and size 120 No. and size 144;
Dia. 2k in.; Layers 3 Dia. 21 in.; Layer 3 Dia. 23 in., Layers 4


No. and size 18f No. and size 216:
Dia. 2" in.; Layrn 4; Dia. 2M in.; Layers 4
Fig. 21.-Method of Packing Various sizes of Citrus Fruits. From Cultiva-
tion of Citrus Fruits, by H. H. Hume.
-By Permission of The Macmillan Company.













































Fig 22-Drying and Pollihing the Fruit, This Improves the Appearance,






1IIE0


1 '


Fig, 2,-From Sizer, Fruit is Wrapped and Packed,


,,i .4 i~






































Fig. 24.-Packed for Shipment.


Fig. 25.-Box Press showing top being nailed on
box of citrus fruit. From Cultivation of Citrus
Fruits, by H. H. Hume.
-By Permission of The Macmillan Company.


CITRU~S (IROWIN(r IN FLO(RIDAA





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Marketing
By L. M. RHODES, State Marketing Commissioner.

SI'UMERO'S marketing agencies are available to grow-
Sers of citrus fruit. There are a large number of in-
dependent shippers scattered throughout the State,
and packing houses are available at practically all shipping
points in the citrus belt. The Florida Citrus Exchange, with
headquarters in Tampa, Florida, is a growers' cooperative mar-
keting organization that has been functioning since 1909. This
organization at present has a membership of five or six thousand
growers with 125 local associations and twenty or more sub-ex-
changes. The Exchange maintains branch packing houses in
nearly all citrus centers and handles approximately one-third of
the citrus crop.
The Florida Citrus Exchange takes complete charge of the
fruit of all of its members on the tree, and gathers, packs, and
markets the fruit at a stipulated rate per box. The independent
shippers will either buy the fruit from the grower while it is
on the tree or f. o. b. the shipping point. Should the grower
prefer, however, he may sell his fruit on a commission basis
through one of the independent shippers, or, if he chooses, he
can market his own fruit and ship it himself.
In the early part of 1928 a movement was initiated by many
leading citrus growers to organize the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association, with headquarters at Winter
Haven, Fla. At the time this bulletin is being written, the
Clearing House has signed up approximately 85 percent of the
total citrus crop, and all preliminary requirements for organiz-
ing the Clearing House have been fulfilled. The Clearing House
provides that growers joining shall sell their fruit only through
sales agents of the Clearing House. The sales agents of the
Clearing House arc those shippers who have signed up for mem-
bership in the association, agreeing that not more than 49 per-
cent of their business will be with non-member growers of the
Clearing House Association.
The purpose of the Clearing House Association, as set forth
in its charter, is to "better promote the general interest of Flor-
ida citrus growers: (1) By improving the quality, grade and
pack; (2) By promoting a wider distribution of the volume of
Florida citrus fruit through advertising, through more equitable
freight rates, and through economic refrigeration; (3) By secur-
ing and stabilizing a systematic flow of Florida citrus fruit from
producers to consumers as efficiently and directly as possible."









Any grower of citrus fruit can become a member of tile (lear-
ing IHouse. Under the plan of organization, melber-growers
may still market through their favorite shipper, provided the
shipper has joined the Clearing House. The Florida Grower
for August, 1928, published the latest available information on
the status of the independent shippers:

"The dream of Florida fruit growers for manya years-a
marketing organization large enough to control and promote the
distribution and to get them a profitable price for their crops-
apparently has become a reality with the establishment of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association. Practi-
cally every large independent citrus sales agency in the state.
as well as a substantial majority of the smaller independent
shippers, have become affiliated by contract with the Clearing
House Association. With the added tonnage of these independ-
ent shippers, it is now estimated that the Clearing House will
control at least 85 per cent of Florida's 1928-1929 fruit crops."

Florida Monthly Farm Price of Grapefruit*
( Dollars Per Crate)

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. .1March April May


1918-1919 ... i $1.50 $1.8 $2.301 $2.42 $2.26
1919-1920 2.16' 2.11 2.001 1.8s 1.93
1920-1921 2.8S 2.06 2.761 2.76 2.30:
1921-1922 1.35 1.418 1.60 1.55 1.451
1922-1923 .. 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.951 1.65
1923-1924 ... 1.08 1.18 1.081 .95 .95
1924-1925 .... 1 20 1.30 .95 1.05; 1.25
1925-1926 2.30 2.30 1.80' 1.95 1.70'
196-1927** 2.2 2.00 1.5i5 1.4o 1.65
1927-1928** 2 25 2.17 2.30' 2.26 2.66


Average
Monthly
Price Over
Ten-Year
Period


$2.171 $2.58; $3.43
1.98: 1.60 2.14
2.42 2.21 2.38
1.58 2.28 3.52
1.70! 2.10i 232
.95| .85 1.111
1.25! 1.25 1.60
2.451 2.60 2.60
2.001 2.10 1.75
2.94' 2.91 2.88


$1.89 $1.x4 $1..S3 $1 81 $1.78 $1.94 $2.05: $2.37


*" 41llri.


I. S. D. A. Statistical Bulletin No. 16, June. 1927. Table 50, p. 112.
"These prices are the estimated prices received by producers on the 15th of
the month as currently reported in tile supplements to Crops and Markets."
**Prices for 1926. 1927. and 1!92 were firnishe.,d y Mr. H. l A Marks.
Agriculturnil Statistician. 1'. S. Department of Agri'ilturire, Orlando, Florida.


CITRUS (vll()WIN(r* IN FIAMIDA





66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

PERCENTAGE MONTHLY SHIPMENTS OF FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT

Estimated Percentage
of Crop Shipped Each
Month Month*
October .. ......... 8
November ..... ..... 12
December .................. .. ...... ..... 1
J a n u a ry .. ....... ........ .............................................. 14
February .......... ............. 14
March ..... 15
April ..... 13
M ay ..... . ... ... .. .... 8
O their M months ...... ........................... ... ....... ... 6
Calculated from monthly shipments as currently reported in Crops and
Markets over a five-year period, 1923-1828.

Florida Monthly Farm Price of Oranges*
(Dollars Per Crate)

Season Oct. | Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March I April

1918-1919 ....--- $2.68: $3.04 $2.70 $2.60 $2.64 $292 $3.00
1919-1920 ... ... 2.41 2.45! 2.40 2.26: 2.48 3.02 2.72
1920-1921 2.58 2.48 2.82 2.69 2.28 2.77[ 2.96
1921-1922 ........ 1.451 1.58 1.82 2.081 2.42i 3.18 462
1922-1923 ..........[. 2.28| 2.351 2.40| 2.45: 2.35 2.78 3.50
1923-1924 1.251 1.301 1.20: 1.10 1.30 1.051 1.35
1924-1925 1.30 1.50 1.40 1.751 2.251 3.251 4.25
1925-1926 .. 2.50 3.25' 2.50 2.35 2.35 2.75 340
1926-1927** ...... 2.45 2.201 1.65: 1.55 2.00I 2.20 2.90
1927-1928** 2.75 2.461 265 2.78 3.221 4.02' 3.94
Average Monthly
Price Over Ten-
Year Period .........; $2.16' $2.26' $2.151 $2.16 $2.331 $2.79 $3.26
U. S. D. A. Statistical Bulletin No. 16, June, 1927. Table 50, p. 111.
"These prices are the estimated prices received by producers on the 15th
of the month as currently reported in the supplements to Crops and
Markets."
** Prices for 1926, 1927 and 1928 were furnished by Mr. H. A. Marks,
Agricultural Statistician, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.

ESTIMATED MONTHLY SHIPMENTS OF FLORIDA ORANGES

Estimated Percentage
of Crop Shipped Each
Month Month*
O ctober ..... ........... ........ .................. .... 2
November ................ ...... 17
Decem ber .............. ... .... 21
January .... ....... ... 17
February .. .. ......... 15
March ... ......... ..... 14
A pril ........ ..................... .. 7
O their M months ........................ ..... .... ............. 7

Calculated from monthly shipments as currently reported in Crops and
Markets over a five-year period, 1923-1928.





('ITR[S (IRO(WING IN FLORID)A __ 67

SHIPPING
The marketing of citrus fruit may begin as early as Septem-
ber 10th or 15th, although only a small percentage of the crop,
perhaps about one percent, is marketed in September. From
two to eight percent is shipped in October, while about sixty
percent goes to market during November, December, January
and February. In other words, the bulk of the citrus crop of
Florida is shipped between November 15 and March 1.
The citrus fruit crop of Florida finds its way to market by
various routes. The bulk of the fruit is shipped by rail lo
Northern markets in carload lots, and in many cases by train-
loads. The boxes are packed in both ventilated and refrigerated
cars. Small shipments go by express, and are usually for nearby
markets. Water transportation is also used to some extent.
This method will no doubt increase very materially with im-
proved refrigeration on boats.











^ "
















V














'' i




Fig~~-Crret L~dIg ~ th Frit Eseutal o god or~t~gCoutea Flrid Gr2sr





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 69


Limes and Lemons

/I OST early writers on citrus have placed limes and
I lemons in the same class. This is probably due to
the fact that limes and lemons are used for the same
purposes; that is, for the making of beverages and for seasoning.
Limes and lemons were probably introduced into Florida by
the Spaniards. Whether these two fruits came direct from
Spain or by way of the West Indies makes but little difference,
for they were first grown in Florida a great many years ago.
Quite an extensive lemon industry had been developed in
Florida prior to the freezes of 1894 and 1895. Early records
show that as many as 140,000 boxes of lemons were shipped in
a single season.
The lime and lemon are both much more sensitive to cold than
oranges. Therefore, after the freeze the acreage in lemons de-
creased andl the acreage in oranges increased. Scab, a disease
of citrus, is more severe on lemons than oranges, which is an-
other reason the lemon acreage in this state has decreased.
Nearly all of the limes grown in Florida are produced on the
Florida Keys south of the main land. They grow and produce
better on the rocky soils of the Keys than any of the other
citrus fruits. The limes grown on the Keys are known as Key
limes and have been propagated from seed. As a result the
fruit from different trees varies widely in size, shape, flavor,
and the percentage of juice in the fruit. On some trees, the
fruit may not be larger than a medium-sized plum, while on an
adjoining tree the fruit may be as large as a good-sized lemon.
The Tahiti. a budded variety of the lime, is probably more
hardy than the Key lime and seems to be better adapted to the
mainland. The fruit of this variety is about the size of the
ordinary lemon.
The growing of limes and lemons in Florida will undoubtedly
be very limited. Anyone thinking of taking up the growing of
either should investigate thoroughly before making any definite
move in that direction.
The cultivation of the lime and lemon is almost identical with
that of oranges. The most important fact to keep in mind is
that they are more easily injured by cold than oranges or grape-
fruit and can therefore be grown successfully only in very
favorable locations.


6 I 'itris





70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Citrons
/4 IIE citron is one of the few fruits mentioned by early
writers on Florida agriculture. It is difficult to say
just when it was first introduced into Florida, but no
doubt it was brought here by the early Spanish settlers.
The citron has never become of commercial importance in
Florida. This is due to the fact that the chief value of the
citron is for the candied peel, and the demand for the candied
peel is more or less limited.
Large quantities of citron peel are imported into the United
States from other countries where it is possible to grow citrons
much cheaper than can be done in Florida. Because of this
cheap supply, it is very doubtful if citron growing will ever
become of commercial importance in Florida. The peel is
brought in both as candied peel and in brine. The brine may
be steeped out and the peel candied when needed.
The citron is more sensitive to cold than either the lemon or
lime, and can be grown only in those sections of Florida that
are seldom visited by cold weather. The culture of citrons is
very much the same as for oranges.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 71


Satsuma Oranges in

Northern and Western Florida
By H. G. CLAYTON*
HIE satsuma orange is adapted to a wide range of soils
throughout northern and western Florida. Climatic con-
ditions in these sections are favorable to the growing of
this orange, although until recently only little attention had
been given to it, except in small plantings. The satsuina has
been planted( in practically every county of Florida, but has not
been a siiccessful commercial crop in the main citrus belt of this
State. While good satsumas have been produced in southern
Florida. this variety does not grow as successfully in that sec-
tion as do .other citrus varieties. Therefore, it has little com-
mercial importance in central and southern Florida, but in
northern and western Florida it is the leading citrus variety.
The satsium'a of this area is of excellent quality and colors better
and earlier than that of southern Florida.
The satsiia usually is ripe and has sufficient sugar content
for shipping during October and November, before a large part
of the round oranges of central and southern Florida are ripe.
At this time there is a ready sale in many markets for the sat-
suma. However, in order to gain commercial iml)ortance, this
fruit must ie produced in sufficient quantities to justify carlot
shipments, although there is always a limited local demand for
it an(1 at a fair price.
When ripe the satsiumia has a fine flavor and good texture,
and is of a very fine quality. When well colored it is especially
attractive. A demand has been created for it in Southern cities.
also in (Chicago and surrounding markets. which up to the pres-
ent have been only partially supplied. It, therefore, seems ad-
visable to increase( tle plantings of' satsumas in northern and
western Florida. in order to supply distant markets and local
demands.

SELECTION OF A GROVE SITE

In setting a satsunua grove. conssiderable care should be taken
to secure a favorable site. Suitable soils and frost protection
are very important considerations, and ill the large territory
to which this fruit is adapted it is an easy matter to pick out
a location that has these advantages.

Iltlerinl froin Buhlletin 41. I'liversity of Flhrild;i. Cooperiatliver -.'xelnsion
W.ork ill .Agriculture a' 111n ll Elll n-otlltinlf..





72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Sou.s.-Satsumas do well on a variety of soils. The soils most
desirable in the territory referred to are: The rolling pine
lands with a clay subsoil 20 to 30 inches from the surface, and
well-drained high hammock lands. The better grades of flat-
woods land can be made suitable, if proper drainage is provided.
However, the average flatwoods palmetto land is not likely to
produce a good satsuma grove. Plantings made on low wet soils
have not been successful; they may start off nicely and look
promising for the first few months but will later turn yellow
and quit growing. Nor are sandy oak ridges likely to produce
good groves, as such lands are too loose and the trees will suffer
for lack of moisture during dry weather. Low hammocks
usually contain good citrus soil. However, such land is not
recommended for satsumas. due to the probability of too fre-
quent injury by cold. Particularly should one avoid the poorer
types of loose sandy soils, as satsuma trees will grow slowly
unless the soil is fairly compact and retains moisture during
drought periods.
FROST PROTECTION.-There are many locations throughout the
territory referred to where frost protection is naturally avail-
able. A difference of 5 or 10 degrees in temperature is fre-
quently recorded in a small locality, due to elevation, nearness
to a body of water, or the character of the soil. Satsuma trees
planted on high rolling land are less liable to be injured by cold
than trees planted on level or flat lands, because of the better air
drainage and air circulation of the higher land. This is due
also to a somewhat later growth during the early spring months,
which prevents the appearance of bloom and new growth until
after danger of frost is passed. It is desirable to hold back the
spring flush of growth as late as possible in order to escape
spring frosts.
We are able to secure a certain amount of frost protection by
cleaning up the ground, by plowing in November and then leav-
ing it bare through the winter, giving no further cultivation
unless weed growth becomes heavy.
In dry weather, citrus trees are more subject to cold injury
than when there is plenty of moisture in the soil, as freezing is
first a drying process. Therefore, a soil well filled with water
in winter is in itself a real help.
Windbreaks or bodies of timber adjoiining a satsuma grove
on the north and west should be opened up to allow air drain-
age, because the cold air is likely to pass over this timber and to
settle in any depression or pocket formed in the timber. North-
ern slopes usually hold back spring growth a little longer than
southern slopes.
Water protection is afforded to groves in this section by lakes.
large ponds and streams (although small bodies of water do not





CITRI' (;ROWING IN FLORII)A 73

offer a great amount of protection) and by proximity to the
Gulf of Mexico and its bays. (itrus groves planted on low
lands. having little or no water protection, are quite liable to
be frozen back or have their fruit buds injured by cold too fre-
qunently to prove profitable investments.
BANKIN(; TmRIS.-It is advisable to mound or bank 1up the
earth around the base of young trees for the winter season. These
banks should be well up above the points where the buds were
inserted. This should be done in November or December. Only
dry. clean soil, free of trash, should be used in order to avoid
injury to the te t tIrunks Ib wood lice.


Fig. 27.-Young Satsuma Trees Banked for Frost Protection before Plowing the
Orchard.

Avoid making the banks out of heavy clay, as growers in
Escaibia county y have observed that this type of bank is packed
as a result of t moment of the Iliov o he tree by wind. Because of
this mIovemlent a space into which cold air settles is left between
the tree trunk and the bank. Sandy soil will settle around the
tree trunk and leave no air space for the cold air. It is a good
idea to go over thle grove with a hoe or a rake and freshen up
Ilie earth in the banks before a freeze. Allow the banks to
remain until Mlarch when, usually. danger of frost is passe(.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


This banking will prevent the freezing of the trunk of the tree
and save the bud from cold injury.
The citrus tree is a rapid grower and should its top become
frozen, the frozen part can be cut off and a new top will soon
grow to take its place. For this reason it is probable that
there will be no loss of fruit for more than two successive years.
SIIPPING FACILITIES.-It is a decided advantage for a grove
to be near a shipping point. Long hauls are expensive and in-
convenient. When citrus fruit is to be shipped in carlots, pack-
ing house facilities are necessary. A properly constructed pack-
ing house of fair capacity can serve several hundred acres of
groves. An association owning a packing house of such capacity
can well afford to equip it with the best machinery and provide
in it only the best supervision and, thereby, be able to market
the fruit to the best advantage. Small isolated groves, where
such facilities cannot be secured, are at a considerable disad-
vantage in marketing their fruit.

SELECTING AND BUYING TREES

BUDS.-The Owari is the only kind of satsuma recommended.
This is a hardy strain and a satisfactory bearer. The trees are
thornless and grow upright. The fruit is of excellent quality.
STOCK.-Citrus Irifoliata is the only stock, so far known, upon
which satsumas should be budded. It is the hardiest stock of
the citrus group. The fruit does not dry out on trees budded
on this stock as readily as it does on trees budded on other
stock. It colors fairly well as soon as ripe, and remains in good
condition for a reasonable period after picking. This stock re-
quires a constant supply of moisture in the soil and, therefore,
is not well adapted to high dry sandy lands, which point must
not be overlooked in the selection of soils for satsumas. Trifo-
liata stock does not recover as readily when severely injured by
cold as do the sour orange and lemon stocks used in the citrus
belt. Trifoliata stock grows faster than the bud, the result
being an enlarged trunk at the bud union and below.
BuYIxo TREES.-In purchasing young trees it should be re-
membered that Florida still maintains a quarantine against the
importation.of citrus trees from outside the state. This quar-
antine is primarily for protection against citrus canker. There
are in the state a number of nurseries which handle satsuma
trees, and while unable to care for the heavy demands of the
past few years, these nurseries are preparing to take care of
future demands. To buy from only reputable concerns is as
pertinent to the citrus grower as to any other business man. In





CITRUSS (ROWING IN FLORIDA 75

most cases we must rely solely upon the honesty of the nursery-
man in securing true-to-variety, thrifty and well-grown trees.
DORMIANT BuDs.-I)uring the shortage of nursery stock for
the past few seasons some growers have set out dormant buds.
This is not a practice to be recommended. There is little to be
gained and a great chance of disappointment. The nursery
practice is to bud in the fall on one- and two-year-old stock.
These buds are allowed to grow a year before being sold (during
this time the trees are staked), the buds are kept tied to make
them grow straight, suckers that come below the buds are re-
moved, etc. Even in the nursery where the trees are closely
planted to facilitate handling, some of the buds will die, others
will get knocked out and some will make such poor development
that they will be discarded.
In view of this one can readily see that it will cost more to
care for 1,000 trees planted over 14 acres of ground than to care
for them in 1-10 acre of nursery. Then on the small area they are
more likely to get proper attention and the poor trees can be
eliminated, leaving only good sound trees for setting in grove
formation.
In actual results as seen in the field, trees with year-old buds
make a grove cheaper, more uniform and of equal or better size
at a given age than do dormant buds.
STARTING THE YOUNG GROVE
PLANTIN(.-Satsunma trees may be planted at two seasons of
the year. The most advisable time is when the trees are dor-
mant, between December 15 and March 1. They also may be
planted during the rainy season in July, but the winter season
is decidedly better. Thle trees should be set not closer than 22
feet; and a preferred distance is 25 feet each way, which gives
69 trees to the acre. While several systems of arranging the
trees may be used, the most common method is to llant in
squares.
SOIL PREPARATION.-Soil should be prepared properly before
fruit trees of any kind are planted. Wherever possible tile land
should be cleared, stumped, thoroughly plowed and grown to
some crop like velvet beans or cowpeas tile year before the trees
are to be set out. Raw land contains little or no bacterial life,
which is necessary to plant growth, and almost any crop that
will grow on it will improve tile soil for tihe succeeding citrus
crop.
Where it is not possible to follow the above plan and trees
must be planted on newly cleared land, the soil should be plowed
thoroughly; or, better, plowed thoroughly, cross plowed and
then harrowed both ways. This will put it in good condition
for tile young trees.





76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Before planting begins the ground should be measured off
carefully and a stake set where each tree is to be planted. This
will insure, first, proper distance between the trees and, second.
straight rows, both of which give the grove a better appearance
and make it more convenient to cultivate.
The trees should be set at the same depth or a little shallower
than they grew in the nursery. Planting too deeply will result
in slow growth. This point in particular should be emphasized,
as there is a tendency in setting trees in loose soil to set them too
deeply. The holes should not be dug until the trees are ready
to be planted. If they are opened much in advance of planting,
the soil will dry out. In digging the holes keep the top soil sep-
arate from the subsoil; then, when filling in around the roots,
use the top soil. The digging of big holes is to be avoided, as
the soil about plants in such a hole is likely to settle and carry
the tree downward with it. This may place the tree too low.
A planting board will be found convenient in setting the trees
in their proper places.
SETTING TREES.-If the trees must be kept out of the ground
several days, they should be heeled-in. To do this, unpack the
plants, place their roots in a furrow and cover with moist soil.
They may remain in this condition several weeks if necessary.
However, the sooner they are planted the better. Never leave
the roots exposed to the sun and wind. As soon as the trees are
unpacked, cover their roots with moist sacks. All bruised or
broken roots should be cut off before the trees are set. Where
large plantings are made a good method is to haul the trees to
the field in a barrel with the roots in water; this will keep trees
in fine condition.
In setting the tree it is important to keep the bud well above
the ground. Set the tree straight (see Fig. 4) and work the soil
around and among the roots. When the hole is filled carefully
pack the soil over the roots and pour a pail of water around the
base of the tree. After the water soaks into the ground, d'ry
earth should be raked over the wet surface to act as a mulch
and prevent evaporation. If the soil is poor, one pound of a
complete fertilizer may be mixed in with the earth at planting.
This, however, is not necessary if the soil is naturally fertile.
CARE OF YOUNG TREES
CULTURE.-The object of the grower for the first few years
is to grow healthy trees of good size upon which he will later
produce fruit.
To this end it is essential that the soil be given frequent and
shallow cultivation. Young citrus trees need a constant supply
of moisture in order to establish a good root system. A good plan
is to keel) cultivated a strip of ground about three feet wide on





'_ITRI'S GROWING IN FLORIDA 77

each side of the tree row. Cultivation should begin in March
and end about the middle of August. The aim is to make
as much growth as possible and still give it time to harden up
before cold weather. An Acme harrow used around the tree
row about every 12 days will give excellent results. Grass and
weeds should be kept hoed away from the trees since they take
up moisture and fertility which should go to the trees. This
is particularly true of the first two years. Plowing in the
young grove should be done early in the fall, care being taken
not to cut tlhe tree roots. The grove can then be harrowed and
left until spring.
lender certain conditions it may be desirable in the fall to
plow only a strip of land near the trees, leaving the middles
(to prevent the soil from blowing) until spring. Truck crops
can be grown in the middles for the first few years and will
not injure the trees unless planted too close to the tree row or
unless they take too much moisture or fertility from the trees.
Avoid siuch crops ais sweet potatoes, watermelons and peanuts
as an interc'rolp. Some cover crop should be grown during the
summer months. Bunch velvet beans, cowpeas and beggar-
weed. etc.. are good and erotalaria. a new cover crop. looks
very promising.
CUl'TIUrE or I KARING TREIE.--After trees get to be four or five
years of age all the ground should be allotted to their use.
truck and other intercrops should be discontinued. Such trees
should have clean, shallow cultivation until the rainy season
gets well started along in June or July and the grove should
then lie laid by, allowing the cover crop to grow until fall.
This cover erop lmay be mowed in September and the grove
plowed and harrowed as soon as the fruit is picked. Cultiva-
tion of a bearing grove if continued too late in the summer
may delay the maturing of the fruit for two or three weeks.
WATEaINXt.-The roots of young trees should be kept in
moist soil. Early planting is advisable in order that the roots
may be established before the dry season. If the soil becomes
very dry before the roots are established well, some of the
trees are likely to die. particularly during the first and second
years. It is a good practice to water the trees as often as is
necessary in order to keep the soil fairly moist. This will not
be necessary some seasons, while during others a number of
trees are liable to die unless they are watered regularly. It is
not likely that after the first year watering will be necessary,
only in exceptional eases, as the moisture can ,e retained by
frequent and shallow cultivation.
PJ'aNINu;.- Ieavy pruning and severe cultting-back of a
young tree is not desirable. Allow the tree to form low heads.
as it is advantageous to have the growth near the ground. Low





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


heads also afford some protection against cold. Often a mature
tree does not have for its main branches those left on it at the
nursery, as other branches may come out and make a more
vigorous growth.
Do not, by pruning, try to confine the growth of the tree
to its original nursery form but rather give the young tree a
chance to show how it is inclined to grow and then train it
accordingly. Dead growth and undesirable branches should
be cut out. Observation has indicated that trees so handled
produce more fruit than those which have had their lower
branches pruned enough to make them head rather high. Long
weak limbs may be headed back in order to keep the trees
compact and symmetrical. Do not leave stubs in pruning, but
cut close to the trunk or branch so that the cut surface will
heal over readily. Each tree should be developed with three
or four main branches
as a framework.
SIn case of cold injury
prune the trees back to
good sound wood. Do
this within a few weeks
after the freeze, or as
soon as the extent of the
damage or injury can be
determined.
During the second
year after the trees are
transplanted it is advis-
able to go through the
orchard and set new
trees for any dead and
unpromising ones. A
tree once stunted or
weakened seldom recov-
ers; such a tree should
be replaced by another.
unless it promises to re-
Fig. 28.-A Year.old Satsuma Tree. Note.
Typical Orange Dog Injury to the Leaves. cover quickly.
FERTILIZATION
STABLE 3MAN'RE.-Stable manure can be used more liberally
with satsumas than with many other varieties of oranges. It
is particularly valuable for satsuma plantings on new land.
If applied too early in the spring, it will tend to open the soil





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA 79

and make it too dry. It should be avoided late in the fall also,
as an application at this time may induce a growth to come on
too early in the spring, subjecting the trees to frost injury.
Stable manure may be used in larger quantities on heavy soil
than on light, sandy soil.
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.-No hard and fast rule can be
laid down for fertilizing citrus trees. Different soils and previ-
ous treatment of these soils, kind of cover crops grown, condi-
tion of the trees, etc., are all factors to be considered in select-
ing a fertilizer. A young orchard should have two or three
applications of a complete fertilizer each year, depending upon
the needs of the soil; a total of about two or three pounds to
the tree for the first year is usually sufficient. This fertilizer


Fig. 29.-A Two-year-old Satsuma Tree.
should analyze about 4 percent ammonia, 6 to 8 percent phos-
phoric aci(d and 3 to 5 percent potash. The first application
should be made in February or March and the second in June
or July. Sometimes it is a(visable to make a third application





80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

about August. In such cases it would be best to put on the
second application in May or early June. In the last applica-
tion the percentage of ammonia should be either reduced or
omitted entirely, as it will tend to induce early growth and,
therefore, subject the trees to greater danger of cold injury.
On bearing groves the ammonia content of the fertilizer may
be reduced and the potash raised to 6 or 8 percent.
The foregoing recommendations are for average conditions,
but exceptional cases may arise where the trees can use more
fertilizer. On the lighter soils of south Florida, young citrus
trees are fertilized with a light application about every two
months of the growing season.
SoURc(E Or AMMONIA, PIOSI'IORIC ACID AND POTASII.-Ordi-
nary corn and cotton fertilizers will not prove satisfactory for
satsuma groves because the materials used in such fertilizers
do not meet the demands of the citrus tree.
The ammonia should be derived from more than one source.
Nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, tankage, dried blood,
cottonseed meal and fish scrap are all good sources of ammonia.
But it is not best to get more than a third or a half of the am-
monia desired from the last four materials named. Phosphoric
acid may be secured from acid phosphate. It is better, how-
ever, to get a part of it from acid phosphate and a part from
steamed bone. The potash should come from sulphate of
potash.
On light soil the potash content of the fertilizer may be in-
creased as much as 2 or 3 percent over the formula recom-
mended for general use. The fertilizer should be worked well
into the soil. Distribute it as far out as the roots extend, being
careful to keep it from the immediate base of the tree. For
young trees it is particularly advisable to scatter the fertilizer
thoroughly and evenly.
The amount of fertilizer to use in subsequent years will de-
pend upon the growth of the trees. As they grow larger more
fertilizer is needed. The amount of fertilizer to apply can be
determined only by an inspection of conditions. Some groves
require twice the usual application of fertilizer, while others
produce good crops with a minimum amount of added plant
food.
APPLICATION OF LIME on citrus groves should not be made
without some consideration for the need of lime in the soil.
Lime has been found beneficial in some instances and extremely
detrimental in others. A large quantity of lime applied in a
single application is likely to be detrimental and may injure
the grove for several years. Satsuma trees do best on a slight-
ly acid soil.





CITRUS GROWING IN FLORIDA


QUALITY FRITIT

The' ideal of the satsuma grower should be to produce only
high quality fruit. To ( effort. Diseases and insects of both trees and fruit must be
kept under control. Good cultivation and proper fertilization
are also essential. Too much ammonia in the fertilizer usually
will cause coarse, rough fruit, and may cause ammoniated
fruit. Cultivation too late in the season tends to delay maturi-
ly of fruits and retards coloring. The first fruit produced by
young trees is apt to be rather coarse and of relatively poor
quality.
The best citrus growers in Florida follow a rather system-
atic plan of culture and( fertilization; they do not constantly
keep changing fertilizers and other cultural practices. A citrus
tree is a long-lived tree and a grower should be careful to do
nothing -which might react unfavorably on his trees the follow-
ing year.

PACKING AND SIIIPIING

Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with great care.
being careful not to bruise it. One decayed fruit may cause
many others to decay. In clipping oranges from the trees
clip the stems very close. A long stem may injure the fruit
with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the fruit in
the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to the packing
house in first-class condition.
Grade the fruit carefully: consider every doubtful orange as
a cull. Make two classes of fruit-- rights and russets-and
two grades of each class. Clean the fruit before packing; use
good paper; put up a good. solid, uniform, full-packed box.
Stencil each box true to name, quality and size.
It is a common practice through the citrus belt to spray with
oil emulsion a few weeks before shipping from groves heavily
infested with whliteflv this loosens the sooty mold and makes
the fruit much easier to clean.
Satsumnas are shipped in half boxes, or straps, the same as
tangerines. It was formerly the practice to fasten two straps
together for shipping, but this practice has been discontinued.
Crate material and tissue wraps should be ordered well in
advance of the time actually needed. It is necessary to do this
in order that hasty, short-order printing and the confusion
often arising therefrom may be avoided. In addition to this,
early ordering insures having these things ready when packing
time arrives.





82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Diseases and Insects
No attempt has been made in this bulletin to discuss insects
and diseases of citrus. First-hand information can he secured
from those who are actively engaged in research work on the
insects and diseases of citrus. Bulletins on insects and diseases
can be obtained from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. Gainesville. Fla., and the United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.











^c3^~

























MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF CITRUS U' I'
TREES IN FLORIDA BY COUNTIES F *



* represents 50,000 orange trees* (both bear-
ing and non-bearing). ***

o represents 50.000 grapefruit trees (both ***
bearing and non-bearing).

Trees in Northwest Florida are Satsumas. *


CLhfR





^^1




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs