• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Frontispiece
 Main
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida crops
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003051/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida crops
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 73 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1969
Edition: Rev. ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "June 1969".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003051
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3524
ltuf - AKD9375
oclc - 15431432
alephbibnum - 001962698
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Frontispiece
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Main
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        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
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Full Text







FLORIDA CROPS

(A Revised Edition)


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


* DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner


BULLETIN NO. 177


R. JUNE 1969











4c4rsw I.464 ~4t


In order to publish such a booklet as this, we had to contact a number
of agencies for the latest available information and we wish to acknowl-
edge the courteous cooperation we received from the following offices and
departments:

Florida Agricultural Extension Service and Agriculture Experiment
Stations at the University of Florida; USDA Crop Reporting Service;
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; USDA-ASC Committee; Col-
lege of Pharmacy, University of Florida; Florida Citrus Commission;
Florida Citrus Mutual; Florida Canners Association; and the Florida State
News Bureau which furnished us with most of the pictures.



We hope that the readers will find the information enclosed in this
booklet of interest.

DOYLE CONNER


Commissioner of Agriculture






Take 4 an/oenz


Crops Grown in North Florida ......-........ ... ............... 6

Crops Grown in Central Florida .....- ----------- 9

Crops Grown in South Florida -. ..---. ..... 12

Time Table Fruit and Vegetable Shipments ..-----. ----.....---- 15

Florida Crop Production and Value ..... ......... -16

Florida State Farmers Markets
Months of Operation ...- ---.. 18

Commodities Sold ..... .. .......... .--.... ..... ....- 19

Primary List Medicinal Plants ...........-...-- 21

Secondary List Medicinal Plants .. ------ 23

Fruit and Vegetable Container Information -............... 24

Origin of Leading World Crops .. ....... .. 25

Historical Facts of Florida Fruits and Vegetables ....................... 26

Asparagus ... ... 26

Avocados .. ............................ ..-......... .................. 27

Beans ---------- - -- - 29

Lima Beans -....... .....------------------------------- ...-- ... 30


Beets -.......

Broccoli --

Brussels Sprouts -

Cabbage ..-....

Cantaloupe ..-...

Carrots --. .. --

Cauliflower ...- --

Celery ----


Collards .......--- . ------------------.......--

Corn ..-- ------

Cucumbers .- ------- ----...........


........... -...... 32

-- .... -- 33

.-..-.... -- 34

..........-....-. 36

.--.. 37

................. .. 38


... -- 41

--- 42

. ... 47







Eggplant --
Endive ... .. ----...-..----.--

Escarole -- .... - --.--
Grapefruit ......
Lettuce -..- .
Limes -- ... ---.

Mangos - ...
Okra ----

Onions ...
Oranges --
Papaya --- ----
Parsley .. ....... ...
Peas .

Peppers -.. -
Potatoes, Irish ....--...- ....-
Sweet .....

Radishes ..
Spinach -
Squash .....- -
Strawberries --
Tangerines . ---
Tomatoes ....---- ------
Turnips -...- ----.
Watercress -......
Watermelons .- --


----------


----------
----------
----------
----------









----------


............---- --.. ......... -- 48
..-------- ................-...........- 48

-- -----............. ---.. -- ... ---. 48
.- .............--- ---..... 48
---........ --------------- .-..-.... 50

------..- --- 52
---. ---- ----..... 53

... ------...---- 54
................. 54
.. ..-..-- ---. 56

-----.... 59

..... ...... 60
----------- -- ------ ----- 60

61
------ -. .------------.- 61
---- --------- 64

65
..- ....... 65
- .- -- -- -- ----- 65
-------.- ....... 66
---- 66
66

... ------ 68
.. ........... -.... ----- . 69
. .. 71
-.. ...- 71

72











x


SHADE TOBACCO






FLORIDA CROPS

What and When to Plant


SEASONS OF BEARING
The harvesting seasons for the various crops vary so greatly owing i
varying seasons as to temperature and rainfall that no definite length o
harvesting dates can be given. The same crop will last much longer whe
planted on different dates. Different varieties of the same crop differ a
to length of gathering days. Bunch beans do not bear as long as pole beamn
and pole butter beans bear longest of all.
It will be noted that the number of days from planting to maturity varic
much more in some crops than in others. Weather and soil conditions ar
the cause in the main of these variations.

CROPS GROWN IN NORTH FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED
North Florida comprises Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Calhoun, Clay
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Flagler, Gadsden, Gilchrist
Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberti
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, Suwannel
Taylor, Union, Walton, Washington, Wakulla Counties. Area 14,414,56
acres.
The number after crop indicates the number of days required to reacd
edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.


Vegetables When Planted
BEANS, POLE ... ..... .. ..- Mar.-June .................. .... .......
BEANS, LIMA .............---- Feb.-April ..............- ..
BEANS (Snap) ... ....M......ar., April, Aug., Sept......
BEETS .-------.... ...... ... Sept., March ....... ...... .. .......-......
BRUSSELS SPROUTS -....Sept ....... ............. .......-
CABBAGE --..--........... Sept to Feb. ................................
CARROTS .............- Sept., Mar. .................. ...... ......-
CASSAVA ........... ...... Mar., April-a root crop. No definite
harvest date ......... ...................
CAULIFLOWER ......- --....Jan., Feb., Aug., Oct. .......-
COLLARDS ...... ...--...... Feb., Mar., Sept., Nov. ... -
CUCUMBERS ...............Feb., Mar., April ..-- .....
EGGPLANT ....... ....---. -Feb., Mar. ...... ....-


POTATOES
KALE .....
KOHL-RABI
LEEK .........--
LETTUCE ...
MUSTARD
OKRA ... -
ONIONS ---


S...........---.....Jan., Feb. ............... -- ....
............. --. Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. ....
...............Mar., April, Oct., Nov. ..
.. ........-..... .. Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct. -................
- ...............-.... Feb., Mar., Sept. ..- ......
..........-.. _-- Sept., Oct., Jan., Feb., Mar ...........
.-....--........ Mar., April, May, Aug. ........ -
........................ .Jan., Feb. Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct.,
N ov., D ec. .... .... . .....


Days to Harvest
60 to 65
65 to 75
50 to 60
60 to 70
90 to 120
70 to 90
70 to 75

180
55 to 60
50 to 55
50 to 55
80 to 85
80 to 95
90 to 120
50 to 55
100 to 115
50 to 80
40 to 45
50 to 55

50 to 130





FLORIDA CROPS 7


Vegetables
PARSLEY
PARSNIPS .--.
EAS (English) .........
UPPERS ..
ADISHES ...... ......-
UTABAGA
INACH ....... ............
UASH ............ .
WEET POTATOES
TOMATOES ....
URNIPS .





Fruits
ANTALOUPES ....
RAPES
IG ...
EACH ... .....-
EAR ......
LUM ......
ERSIMMON -- -
ATSUMA .. ..
'ATERMELON




Field Crops
LFALFA1 ....
LYCECLOVER'
AHIAGRASS'
ERMUDAGRASS' ..
ARPETGRASS' ....
HUFAS ............-......
LOVER, CRIMSON'
LOVER, WHITE'
ORNS--.... ..
OTTON
OWPEAS .
RESCUE TALL
NDIGO, HAIRY. 2
ESPEDEZA'
.UPINE. 2 .
)ATS, FOR FORAGE'
)ATS, FOR GRAIN ..
'EAS. AUSTRIAN
WINTER2
'EANUTS ....
'EARLMILLET ....
tYE, FOR FORAGE'
tYE, FOR SEED


When Planted
......Feb., Mar. ....................... --.....
-..... Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. .... ..........
.........Jan., Feb. ............. .....
.......Feb.-M ar. ...........................................
... Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec. -.....
.......Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Oct. .....-- ...
-..... Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov. ................ ... .....
........ Mar., April, Aug. ...... .......... ..-. ....-
...... Mar., April, May, June .. ...........--
......Feb., Mar., April, Aug. ...........~....--
......Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct. ..............-- -...... ........


When Pla


......Mar., Apr. ..........

......Jan., Feb.






. Mar., Apr. ...




When Planted
Sept.-Dec. ...
Apr.-June .......-
Feb.-Nov .............-..
........Mar.-Aug........
.. Feb.-Aug ....
... Apr.-June ....
..Oct.-Dec. .. .......
.....Oct.-Dec.
Feb.-Apr ......
M ar.-Apr. .........-... -
... Apr.-July
Oct.-Nov. ....
Apr.-June ....--
...Feb.-Mar ............... .
.....Oct.-Dec. ... ...............
Sept.-Dec.
.Nov.-Dec.


Oct.-Nov. ........
Apr.-May
....Apr.-June
.. Oct.-Dec ......
Dec.-Jan. ....


Days to Harvest
90to 95
125 to 160
50 to 55
70 to 80
20 to 25
50 to 80
40 to 45
45 to 60
120 to 140
75 to 85

40 to 50


Years to
nted Production
-- .........- . 85 days
1 to 2 years
.......-.- 2 to 4 years
......... -.... 2 to 3 years
3 to 4 years
S 3 to 4 years
.. .. ...--..- 3 to 4 years
.. ....- 3 to 5 years
80 to 100 days




When Harvested
............................ Jan.-A ug.


SAug.-Oct.
Apr.-Oct.
Apr.-Oct.
Apr.-Oct.
Sept.-Dec.
Jan.-May
--. Jan.-June
June-Nov.
S Aug.-Oct.
SJune-Oct.
Sept.-Apr.
-.. Sept.-Oct.
SMay-Oct.
Jan.-Apr.
Nov.-Apr.
.. May-June

... Mar.-Apr.
Sept.-Oct.
SMay-Oct.
Nov.-Apr.
May


|1


........................
----------------------
.. .... ....
.....................

-----------
..... ... -----------
............ ----------
- ............ .........
.....................
- -----------
.... ... .... ---------





8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Field Crops
RYEGRASS'
SESBANIA2
SORGHUM, GRAIN ........
SORGHUM, FORAGE' ..
SOYBEANS ............
SUGARCANE ...................
SWEETCLOVER ......
TOBACCO ...........
VELVETBEAN .....
VETCH ..........
WHEAT FOR FORAGE'
WHEAT FOR GRAIN

Berries
BLUEBERRIES .....
BLACKBERRIES .
DEWBERRIES ............. .
STRAWBERRIES ...... ..-
YOUNGBERRIES
Nuts


When Planted
Oct.-Dec. ... ...........
Apr.-June .... ....
....Apr.-June .....
Apr.-July ....... ...
....M ay-July ..... .....
...Oct. or Feb. .
....Oct.-Dec. ............... ..
...Mar.-Apr. ...
.....Mar.-May .....
...Oct.-Dec. -....-
..Oct.-Dec. -..... ..
Nov.-Dec .......... .... .


....Dec. to Mar.
....Jan., Feb., Mar .........
-..-Jan., Feb., Mar ..............
....Sept. and Oct.
....Nov. to May ......


When Harvested
Feb.-May
Sept.-Oct.
Aug.-Oct.
Aug.-Oct.
October
Oct.-Nov.
Jan.-May
June-July
Nov.-Dec.
Mar.-Apr.
Dec.-Apr.
May-June


2 to 3 years
1 to 2 years
1 to 2 years
Mar. to June
1 to 2 years


PECANS -........................Dec. to Feb. .........
TUNG NUT ...........-....-..Dec. to Feb........
'Harvested by grazing or as hay or silage.
2Turned under as green manure.


Bell Pepper


4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years




FLORIDA CROPS 9


CROPS GROWN IN CENTRAL FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED

Central Florida comprises Brevard, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Sumter, Volusia Counties. Area, 9,164,800 acres.

The number after each crop indicates the number of days required to
reach edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.


Vegetables

BRUSSELS SPROUTS
BEANS, POLE ...........
BEANS, LIMA .............
BEANS, SNAP -..-.....
BEETS .....
CABBAGE
CANTALOUPES ..........
CASSAVA .....................
:'ARROTS ..............
CAULIFLOWER ..
CELERY ..

CUCUMBER ...... .. ...
COLLARDS

CORN ..... ....
)ASHEENS ..........
EGGPLANT ..

ESCAROLE ..............
ENGLISH PEAS
KOHL-RABI ....
[(ALE ......
,EE K .................
LETTUCE .................
MUSTARD ............
ONIONS

OKRA ... ...... ........
PARSLEY ......... ......
PARSNIPS ....... ....
PUMPKINS .... .
PEPPERS
POTATOES ...
RADISHES
RUTABAGAS .......


When Planted

.. ....Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
.... .....Aug.-Sept., Mar.-Apr. ....
...Feb., Mar., Apr.
....Feb., Mar., Sept ....----............- ...-..........
....-.. Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec ........
.... .. Jan., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. ...............
.....Feb., M ar., Apr. ........ ....
........Mar., April
.........Oct. to M ar .... ..
Jan., Oct., Nov., Dec. .......
-...... June (seed); July (seed); Aug. to
Feb. ............-------------.
.. .... Sept., Feb., M ar. .......
Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct., N ov. ... ..............- .. .... ...
... .....Feb., M arch ............... .... ...- ..........
.... ..-. M ar., April ....
... Jan., Feb. (spring crop); July, (fall
crop ) .... .......... ...-- ... .....
......Sept. to Feb ............~..............
.....Sept. to Mar. .....
.Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. ....... .
........Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec..
...----_ Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Dec. ..........
......Jan., Feb., Sept. .........................-.
--...Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. ....
... Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct.,
Nov. ---- -----
.. -. Mar., May, Aug ........--....
--..Dec., Jan. .. ....
....Feb., M ar., Nov ..... .. ..
... M ay, June ... .... .........
Jan. Feb., Mar. .. .......
Nov. to March ...... .......
Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec ..... .
.Jan., Feb., Sept. to Dec.-....... .


Days to Harvest

90 to 120
60 to 65
65 to 75
50 to 60
60 to 70
70 to 90
75 to 90
100 to 200
70 to 75
55 to 60

115 to 125
50 to 55

50 to 55
80 to 85


80 to
90 to
50 to
50 to
90 to
100 to
50 to
40 to


50 to 130
50 to 55
90to 95
125 to 160
150 to 180
70 to 80
80 to 95
20 to 25
50 to 80






10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Vegetables


When Planted


SQUASH .. ----........... ..... -- July to Mar. ............................. ............
TOMATOES -..------------..-...Sept. to March ..............-.......--- .. .......
TURNIPS .......---..--...... -- Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Nov ...........


Fruits


Days to Harvest
45 to 60
75 to 85
40 to 50


When Planted Years to Production When Harvested


AVOCADOS ....................... Sept. and Oct .......
CANTALOUPES ....... ...Feb. to Mar. ..
GRAPEFRUIT .....--......----Dec., Jan., Feb. -
GRAPES ................-..-.........---Jan. and Feb. .....
GUAVAS ...----...............----..... Oct., Nov., Feb. .
LEMONS ...-- ---------................ Dec., Jan., Feb. .........

LIMES .--------......................... Dec., Jan., Feb. ......
MANGOS --.............--------...--- Sept. and Oct.
ORANGES -.................- .... Dec., Jan., Feb ........
PAPAYA -------............---........ Feb. to June ..... -
TANGERINES ..--.....-...---. Dec., Jan., Feb. -.....
WATERMELONS ---.......--- Jan. to April ---


Berries
STRAWBERRIES


4 to 6

4 to 6
1 to 2 yrs.
2 to 4 yrs.
3 to 5

3 to 5

4 to 6
4 to 6
12 to 15 mos.
4 to 6


....May and June, Sept. and Oct. .........-.


Field Crops
ALFALFA' -----------.. Sept.-Dec. ----
ALYCECLOVER1 ......-.... Apr.-June -----------------...
BAHIAGRASSI ...--------Feb.-Nov ...........................
BERMUDAGRASS .....----- Mar.-Aug ....... ...- ... .......--
CARPETGRASS' .............. Feb.-Nov ......... ....
CHUFAS ..............------- Apr.-June --------------
CLOVER, WHITE' --....- Oct.-Dec. ................... .....
CORN -................. Feb.-Apr. ----------------
COTTON ............ ....... Mar.-Apr. .......... ....... ... ........ .....
COWPEAS' .....-.... ------ Apr.-July .....................
FESCUE, TALL'1 -- -.
INDIGO, HAIRY' ....... Apr.-June ................. .............
LESPEDEZAx ......... ..... Feb.-Mar. ----------------
LUPINE1, 2 - ...... -...... Oct.-Dec ................. .......................
OATS, FOR FORAGE ........Oct.-Dec. ----- .... ........... ............
OATS, FOR GRAIN ...... Nov.-Dec...................--..-......
PANGOLAGRASS' ---..... May-Aug. ---.........------------..........
PEANUTS .......... ...---.. Apr.-June .....-..-...........-.........-..........
PEARLMILLET' -- ..---...... Apr.-June .................... ..........
RYE, FOR FORAGE ....Oct.-Dec...... ..... ...
RYE, FOR SEED .------... .Dec.-Jan............-------
RYEGRASS' .........-......-... Oct.-Dec ---...............-..... ...........
SESBANIA2 ....- .-...-..-. Apr.-June .........-...............
SORGHUM, GRAIN ----..... Apr.-June ........................... .............
SORGHUM, FORAGE' .-....Apr.-July ----------------
SOYBEANS -- --------May-July ...................... ........
SUGARCANE ...--------- Oct. or Feb ........................................


July to January
85 days
October to May
June and July

Depends on
Variety
Depends on
Variety
June, July
October to June

October to Marc
80 to 100 days


December to Api

When Harvested
Jan.-Aug.
Aug.-Oct.
Apr.-Nov.
Apr.-Nov.
Apr.-Nov.
Sept.-Dec.
Jan.-June
June-Nov.
Aug.-Oct.
June-Oct.

Sept.-Nov.
May-Oct.
Jan.-Apr.
Nov.-Apr.
May-June
Apr.-Nov.
Aug.-Oct.
May-Oct.
Nov.-Apr.
May
Feb.-May
Aug.-Oct.
Aug.-Oct.
Aug.-Oct.
October
Oct.-Nov.





FLORIDA CROPS 11


Field Crops When Planted
'EETCLOVER' ...... ........Oct.-Dec. .......... .......... .....
IBACCO ..... ................ ... -M ar.-Apr. .... .. ....- ... -.-
:LVETBEAN ....................--Mar.-May ............... .........
HEAT FOR FORAGE' ....Oct.-Dec ................ .................
HEAT FOR GRAIN .........Nov.-Dec. ........ ----------

Nuts
JNG NUT .... ...-...........Dec. to Feb. ........-....... 4 to 6 years
:CANS .... ................ Dec. and Jan. ................ 4 to 6 years
'Harvested by grazing or as hay or silage.
2Turned under as green manure.


When Harvested
Jan.-May
June-July
Nov.-Dec.
Dec.-Apr.
May-June


October and Nov.
October and Nov.


.2


.4.'

1'

.4l


CUCUMBERS





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CROPS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA, WHEN PLANTED
AND HARVESTED


South Florida comprises Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, DeSo
Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Mart
Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie Counties. Ai
11,376,680 acres.


Vegetables When Planted
BEANS, SNAP ...... Sept. to April ..... .......
BEANS, POLE....... ......Jan., Feb. ..........
BEANS, LIMA .... ... Sept. to Apr. ... ............ .......
BEETS ......... ......... Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ...
BROCCOLI ............................Sept.-Jan. ........ ..................... ......
BRUSSELS SPROUTS ......Jan., Feb., Nov ... ................
CUCUMBERS .......................Jan., Feb .... ............
CABBAGE .... ...... ... Sept. to Jan. .... .............
CANTALOUPES ........Feb., Mar. ............... ...........
CARROTS ..........................Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ........
CAULIFLOWER ..... .........Jan., Oct., Nov., Dec. ............ .
CELERY ...... .....July to March .. ...................
COLLARDS ........ ..... Jan., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec .... ....
CORN ......... .......... ...Jan. to Feb. ................
DASHEENS ...................Jan. to April ....... ............. ......
EGGPLANT ... ............ Dec., Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Aug.,
Sept. (fall srop) .....................
ESCAROLE ...... ..... Aug. thru Jan. ............
ENGLISH PEAS ........... Sept. to Feb ..........
KALE .............. .......Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov. ........
KOHL-RABI ......... .........Nov. to Feb. ................ ..... ... .........
LETTUCE ............... .... Sept. to Jan. ................ .....................
MUSTARD .... ....................Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
OKRA ................ ...............Feb., M ar., Aug., Sept. .......................
ONIONS -........... .. ....Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
PEPPERS ...........................Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Aug. to Oct.
(fall crop) .........................
PUMPKINS ...... ........Mar., April, May ..............................
RADISHES ...... ....Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec....
RUTABAGAS ................. Oct., Nov. ................. ..........
SQUASH --........ ........... Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct. ..-
SPINACH .......................... Jan. to Apr. Sept., Oct. .....................
SWEET POTATOES ....Feb., Mar., April, May, June ............
TOM ATOES ...........................Aug. to M arch ........... .............
TURNIPS ...... .............Oct. to Feb. .................... .....
POTATOES .... ...Aug. thru Feb .


Days to Harvest
50 to 60
60 to 65
65 to 75
60 to 70
60to 70
90 to 120
50 to 55
70 to 90
75 to 90
70 to 75
55 to 60
115 to 125
50 to 55
80 to 85
85

80 to 85
90 to 95
50to 55
90 to 120
50 to 55
50 to 80
40 to 45
50 to 55
50 to 130

70 to 80
150 to 180
20 to 25
50 to 80
45 to 105
45 to 65
120 to 140
75 to 85
40 to 50
80 to 95


12





FLORIDA CROPS


Fruits


When Planted


'OCADO PEARS .......... Sept., Oct., Nov. ............... .. .....
,NANAS .. .... .. ...Any Time ....... ... --...........
kNTALOUPES -
IAYOTE .......... ... Nov. to Feb ............................. ........
)CONUTS .........-...... ...Any Time ---...............-- ............-.
IAPEFRUIT ........................Dec., Jan., Feb. ................. ..... ........
:JAVAS ......... .... .... ... ....- Oct., Nov., Feb. .. ....................
"M ONS .... .. .... .. ...Dec., Jan., Feb. ....... .... .......
M ES ...... .................. ........Dec., Jan., Feb ...............................
ANGOS ..................-. ..Sept., Oct., Nov ................. ....... .
UANGES ...................... ...Dec., Jan., Feb. ............... ......
kPAYAS .. .............. Feb. to June ..... .. .............
NEAPPLES .... Aug. and Sept. ....... ....-.........-......
kPODILLAS ............. ......Sept., Oct., Nov ............... ....
[RAWBERRIES. ... Oct.-Nov. ......-- ....
kNGERINES ....... .. .....Dec., Jan., Feb ........
ATERMELONS Feb., March .........


When Harvested
4 to 6 years
12 to 18 months

4 to 5 months
5 to 8 years
4 to 6 years
2 to 4 years
3 to 5 years
3 to 5 years
4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years
12 to 15 months
18 to 20 months
6 to 10 years
90 to 110 days
4 to 6 years
80 to 100 days


Field Crops
LFALFA' .......
AHIAGRASS' .....
ERMUDAGRASS
ARIBGRASS' .....
ARPETGRASS
LOVER, WHITE
ORN ..............
MDIGO, HAIRY ..
ATS, FOR FORAGE .
ANGOLAGRASS ......
ARAGRASS' .........
EARLMILLET ...
YE, FOR FORAGE'
,YEGRASS' ......
ESBANIA .......--.......
ORGHUM, GRAIN ....
ORGHUM, FORAGE'
T. AUGUSTINEGRASSL
UGARCANE ...........
WEETCLOVER'


.....Sept.-Dec. .
.....Jan.-Dec ....
.Mar.-Aug.
.....Mar.-Aug.
...Jan.-Dec.
Oct.-Dec ....
Jan.-Mar..
Apr.-June
......Oct.-Dec ..
Apr.-Oct. ....
Mar.-Aug. .
SApr.-June ...
Oct.-Dec. .....
Oct.-Dec. .......
...-Mar.-May .
..Apr.-July ...
...Apr.-July ....
.Mar.-Aug.
Aug.-Nov.
Oct.-Dec. .......


SHarvested by grazing or as hay or silage.
2Turned under as green manure.


................. ....... Jan.-A ug.
.... Mar.-Dec.
SMar.-Dec.
.... ............ M ar.-D c
Mar.-Dec.
Mar.-Dec.
.......... ..... ...... Jan.-June
.. .-- June-Sept.
....-..-.-....- June-Sept.
............. .... .... Nov.-Apr.
....--.- -Mar.-Dec.
.................... . M ar.-Dec.
.-.-.--.... May-Oct.
-.. ....... ...... Nov.-Apr.
...... ...... .... Feb.-M ay
...---- ..... . Aug.-Oct.
.................. ... A ug.-Oct.
........... ......... Aug.-Oct.
......-- .... .- Feb.-Dec.
....... ................ N ov.-A pr.
.......... Jan.-May







"IME TABLE OF FLORII

In the following table
)ortant products and the mo


vocados .........................
3eans, Bush .....................
leans, Pole ........................
'abbage ...........................
:abbage, Red ...................
.antaloupes ....................
:arrots .................................
'auliflower ............ ...........
,elery ............ ..........
'elery, Cabbage ...............
Corn, Green ......................
'ucum bers ............................
"ggplant ..............................
escarole .......... ..............
:rapefruit ..........................
reen s ...................................
Lettuce ... ........... .........
an gos ......... ...................
Okra ................ ...............
ranges ............................
Peas, Southern ................
Peaches ............................
Pecans ............ ........
Peppers ............. ..............
Potatoes .......................
Radishes .......................
Romaine ..........................
Squash ............... ..........
Strawberries ...................
Tangerines ..........................
Tomatoes ......................
Watercress .........................
Watermelons ....................


FLORIDA CROPS 15

)A FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SHIPMENTS

is shown names of some of Florida's most im-
nths that they are available for market.
July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
XCX'XCX ' '
X X X X X'X X
X X X'X X' X X
'X XX X' X X
'C C C '


x x
x
x x
x x




x x x x
X X X


x x
x x x x x
x x
x x


x x
x
x


x x
x


x x
x
x x


x
x
x
'C
'C


x x


x x





16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



FLORIDA'S CROP PRODUCTION
1967-68 Season


CROP Harvested Production Unit Val
Acreage

Acres Units 1,000 doll;
CITRUS
Oranges 557,600 100,500,000 Boxes $282,:
Grapefruit 87,500 32,900,000 Boxes 78,1
Limes 4,000 720,000 Boxes 3,
Tangelos 10,600 1,700,000 Boxes 5,
Tangerines 14,800 2,800,000 Boxes 12,.
Temples 18,300 4,500,000 Boxes 13,(
Total 692,800 143,120,000 Boxes 396,




VEGETABLES
AND MELONS
Lima Beans 900 69,000 Bu.
Snap Beans 48,300 5,956,000 Bu. 19,5
Cabbage 17,000 7,820,000 Crate 13,(
Celery 11,900 7,834,000 Crate 22,3
Sweet Corn 53,600 9,664,000 Crate 24,7
Cucumbers 16,600 3,808,000 Bu. 12,9
Eggplant 2,100 976,000 Bu. 3,1
Escarole 5,900 3,184,000 Crate 5,8
Lettuce 4,000 360,000 Cwt. 3,4
Green Peppers 16,200 6,572,000 Bu. 25,7
Potatoes 41,900 6,767,000 Cwt. 22,9!
Spinach 1,900 186,000 Cwt. 3
Squash 8,800 1,417,000 Bu. 6,1'
Tomatoes 47,000 21,247,000 Crate 92,1
Cantaloups 1,000 70,000 Cwt. 4
Watermelons 56,000 7,560,000 Cwt. 15,8
Other Vegetables 545,040 2,483,000 Cwt. 20,4
Total 878,140 290,2:





FIELD CROPS
Corn for Grain 449,000 22,450,000 Bu. 24,6
Cotton: Lint 10,000 7,000 Lbs. 81
Seed -3,000 Tons 1i
Hay 156,000 274,000 Tons 8,6:
Oats for Grain 11,000 407,000 Bu. 3i
Peanuts 49,000 78,890,000 Lbs. 8,8:
Soybeans 100,000 2,800,000 Bu. 7,0
Sugarcane 196,300 6,738,000 Tons 65,5.
Tobacco 16,700 31,590,000 Lbs. 32,6'
Wheat for Grain 40,000 960,000 Bu. 1,4'
Other 205,400 9,11
Total 1,233,400 159,31





FLORIDA CROPS 17


4,955
11,500
1,900
21,000
7,420
46,775


14,700
3,900,000
15,200,750
9,500


Tons
Lbs.
Lbs.
Tons


AND


TAL ALL CROPS


28.100
2,879,215


SUGAR CANE
SUGAR CANE


HER FRUITS
ND NUTS
vocados
ecans
strawberries
'ung Nuts
their
Total


2,764
1,331
4,358
618
6,651
15,722


79,384
941,370





18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

SCHEDULE OF WHEN VEGETABLE







SONIFAY

BROKER

FLORIDA CITY

FORT MYERS

FORT PIERCE

QUINCY

IMMOKALEE

PAHOKEE

PALATKA

PLANT CITY

POMPANO

SANFORD

STARKE

WAUCHULA

wCEM 1 10 13 11 9 9 10 13 14 11
OF SEASON


III111111 -- -* ---


Note: The above schedule shows only when the various markets
are in operation. Crops listed for each market on the following page
are available only when in season.




FLORIDA CROPS 19

3OLD IN STATE FARMERS MARKETS


BONIFAY

BROOK ER

FLORIDA CITY

FORT MYERS

*FORT PIERCE

OUINCY

IMMOKALEE

PAHOKEE

PALATKA

PLANT CITY

*POMPANO

*SANFORD

STARKE

WAUCHULA

COMMOO111t


Iii I


IRI



II IIIII IHI' IIIII N t li l li0II


m C-- --
E VAR1o1w OF toN"COMO 1W O


COMMUYJS NT S S MAWSET


2 !























=* .



* ** ,



..i..,./ ..,:T
\ ~'lr Y'
I;~ ~ h~' ir:kr~
\?ri~s', r.
r '"
;.r ~) I *j -.


n~~i' ~ gI **~i~-; ;*?.

I'~~,~i j '"


; 'I. $*I*,, ,,$,t: .-




"r~9 *.,
A:
t.':r~ \ '


PENU O THE: ASEML LIN





FLORIDA CROPS 21

I"tr~i" _~'r 1,


BLOOD ROOT


PRIMARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN FLORII)A
Symbols A, B, C, D, E, F, G after the name of the plant refer to the region of the
State in which this plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).
Name of Plant Common Name Locality Official
1. Aristolochia Serpentaria Snake Root D U.S.P.*
2. Betula lenta Sweet birch A U.S.P.
3. Capsicum frutescens Cayenne pepper F, G U.S.P.
4. Brassica nigra Black mustard E U.S.P.
5. Chenopodium ambrosioides
var anthelminticum American wormseed F, G U.S.P.
6. Cinnamomum camphora Camphor D. E U.S.P.
7. Cinnamomum cassia Cassia cinnamon E U.S.P.
8. Citrus medical. var. Limonum Lemon E, F, G U.S.P.
9. Citrus aurantium Sweet orange D, E, F, G U.S.P.
10. Datura Stramonium Jimson weed E, G U.S.P.
11. Gossypium herbaceum Cotton A, B, C, D U.S.P.
12. Liquidambar styracillua Sweet gum A, B, C, D, E U.S.P.
13. Mentha spicata Spearmint E U.S.P.
14. Mentha piperita Peppermint E U.S.P.
15. Monarda punctata Horsemint B, C, D, E
16. Pinus palustris and other Long leaved pine,
species loblolly pine, etc. A, B, C, D, E U.S.P.
17. Podophyllum peltatum Mandrake D, E U.S.P.
18. Prunus serotina Wild cherry A, B U.S.P.
19. Punica granatum Pomegranate E, F, G U.S.P.
20. Rhus galbra Sumac berries B U.S.P.
21. Ricinus communis Castor bean A, B, D, E U.S.P.
22. Serenoa serrulata Saw palmetto, Sabal A, B, C, D, E N.F.t
23. Spigelia marilandica Pink root
24. Stillingia sylvatica Queen's root A, B, D, E N.F.
25. Vanilla planifolia Vanilla bean D, E N.F.
26. Vera aloe E, F

*U.S.P. United States Pharmacopoeia.
tN.F.-National Formulary.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


22






FLORIDA CROPS


23


SECONDARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN FLORIDA


Symbols A, B, C, ), E, F, G, after the name of the plant means that this plant is found in the
region of the State in which the plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).


Common .ame Official Locality


Properties


I. Amanita mutscaria Fly Agari
2. Aletris farinosa Star Grass N.F.
3. Apocyvnit Cannabinumn Canadian Henmp N.I.
4. Aralia spinosa Spignet N.F.
5. Asclepias tuberosa 'lcurisy root N.F.
6. Baptisia linctoria Wild Indigo N.F.
7. Carica papaya Papasya
8. Chionanthus irginica Fringe tree N.F.
9. Cocos Iuticifera Coco palm
10. Conocarpus crecta Buittontwood
II. Cornus Florida Dogwood N.F.
12. Cymbopogon citrains I.emon grass
13. Delphininumn consolida I.arkspur N.F.
14. Dioscorea ,illosa Wild Yam N.F.
15. Drosera rotundifolia Sundew N.F.
16. Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset N.F.
17. Eryngium aquaticum Water ernygo,
Button snakeroot

18. Gelsemium senmper irens Jasmine N.F.
19. Gentiana elliottii Gentian
20. Guaiacum officinalis Cuaiac I.S.'P.
21. Hamanclis Virginiana W\itch Hazel N.F.
22. Hedcoma pulegoides I'ennyroyal
23. Hydrangea arborescens Seven barks N.F.
24. Ipomnoea pandurata Ipomoca
25. Iris versicolor Blue flag N.F.
26. Lobelia rardinalis Cardinal flower
27. Marrulbiumn vulgar Ilorchound
28. Mvrica cerifera W\ax Myrtle N.F.
29. Papaver sominifcrim Opium Poppy I.S.P.
30. I'anax quinquefoliium Ginseng
31. Phytolacca decandra I'okeroot N.F.
32. Polygala polygama Bitter Polygala ......
33. Rumcx crispius Dock N.F.
34. Salix nigra I'ussv willow U.S.I'.
35. Sambucus canadensis Eider flowers N.F.
36. Sanguinaria canadensis Blood root N.F.
37. Sassafras variifolium Sassafras N.F.
38. Scutellaria lateriafolia Skullcap N.F.
39. Senecio aureus I.ife root plant N.F.
40. Solainun carolinense Horse nettle berry N.F.
41. Tamarindus indica Tamarind N.F.
42. Trilisa odoratissitna Deer tongue
43. Ulmus fulva Slippery Elm Bark Ir.S.P.
44. Verhascum Thapsus Mullein N.F.
45. Xanlhoxvlum Clava-
I lercules Pricklv ash N.F.


B
E
A,Bl,CD,E
B,C,D.E.

.EF,G
A,B,D
E

A.B,C,D
B.E
It
A,B
E
I

1;'

AII,C,D.E
D
E
A.B.D
E
A
B,D
A.B.C.D,E
II,D,E

A,B.C.D,E
A,B,C,D,E

B
E
E

A.B.D.E.F
A,B
A.,B,C,D.E
E
1K


R.D
A
B

B,C.D.E


Antispasmodic
Uterine tonic
Diuretic, diaphoretic
Stimulant, diaphoretic
Diaphoretic, expectoran:
Stimulant
Digestant
Alteratise, germicide
Demulcent
Charcoal absorbent
Astringent, tonic
Perfume
Parasiticide
Diaphoretic
Expectorant
Stimulant, tonic

Diaphorctic

Net ine
T'onic
Altcrati\e. antisepti,
.stringent
Stimulant, emmcnagogue
Diuretic
Diuretic, cathartic
Cholagogue
Anthelmintic
Stimulant
Alterative, cholagogue
Analgesic, somniiferent
Stimulant, stomach,
Alterative
Tonic, laxative
Astringent
Cliarcoal
Carminative, diaphoretic
Stimulating expectorant
Alterative
Tonic Nervine
Stimulant, diurcti:
Tonic antitetanic
Refrigerant
Perfume, flavor
Demulcent
Pectoral, demulcent

Alternative, sialogogue


Name of Plant






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


VEGETABLE CONTAINER INFORMATION


Commodity
Lima Beans
Snap Beans
Cabbage
Celery
Endive-Escarole
Chinese Cabbage
Sweet Corn
Collards
Cucumbers


Eggplant
Lettuce:
Boston
Romaine
Iceberg
Onions, with tops
English Peas
Peppers



Potatoes
Radishes, with tops
Radishes, without tops
Squash
Tomatoes

Turnip Greens


Type of Container
Bushel hamper
Bushel basket
Bushel hamper
Bushel basket
60-lb. bags
Wirebound crate
Wirebound crate
Wirebound vegetable crate
Wirebound crate
Splint basket
Wirebound corn crate
Wirebound corn crate
Bushel basket
Bushel basket
Bushel crate
Bushel wirebound crate
Fibreboard box
Bushel basket
Bushel crate

Wirebound L&V crate
Wirebound L&V crate
Wirebound crate
Square braid splint basket
Bushel basket
Bushel hamper
Bushel basket
Bushel crate
Wirebound pepper crate
Bushel Wirebound
50-lb. bags
1-2/3 Bushel bags
Square braid splint basket
Bushel basket
Square braid splint basket
Bushel hamper
% Bushel basket
Wirebound tomato crate
Fibreboard basket
Fibreboard tomato box
Bushel basket


RR Container No.
8501
8026-8035-8050
8501
8026-8035-8050
7600-7625
5102
3601
5405
3601
8101
3730
3731
8026-8035-8050
8026-8035-8050
1236
6001
7380-7385
8026-8035-8050
1236

3803
3803
5007
8101
8026-8035-8050
8501
8026-8035-8050
1236
3965
5001
7500-7525-7550-7551
7500-7525-7550-7551
8101
8026-8035-8050
8100
8501
8028-8052
4015
6460
7010
8026-8035-8050


Source: J. T. Duncan, Manager Traffic Division, Florida F. & V. Assn., Orlando, Fla.


CITRUS CONTAINER INFORMATION

Container Estimated Shipping Weight
Container Number (Per Package in Pounds)
Orgs. Grft. Tangs.
1 -3/5 bu. WB Box 5004 93 83 88
4/5 bu. WB Box 4016 45 .. 45
4/5 bu. Nailed Box 679 50 50
4/5 bu. WB Box 3673 456 40 *
4/5 bu. Corrugated Box 64821 45% 40 *
(full telescope style)
4/5 bu. Corrugated Box 64951 45% 40
(full telescope style)
4/6 bu. Corrugated Box 6481 & 6494 45% 40
WB Master Container 3696 95d 93d
(for bags aggregating not more
than 1-3/5 bushels)
Corrugated bagmasters of any dimension,
provided not more than 8-1/16 Standard
Box bags or 5-1/10 Standard Box bags
are packed in each bagmaster:
6-1 /10 Standard Box Bags 45% 45Y
8- 1/16 Standard Box Bags 46% 43%
1/4 Standard Box Bag 22 20
1/10 Standard Box Bag 8.7 8.7
1/16 Standard Box Bag 6.6 5.2
lAfter January 1, 1964-Shaker Pack only.
dEstimated weight indicated per package will apply regardless of the number of bags, aggregating
not more than 1-3/5 bushels packed in the container, but in no case to apply when a greater number
is packed in the container.
*No published estimated weight in effeet-subject to individual packing house weight agreements.

Source: Florida Citrus Commission (Regulation No. 105-1.03), Lakeland, Florida.


Estimated
Billing Wt.
(Pounds)
40
40
36
86
51
55
60
28
59
21
42
46
26
57
57
57
20
39
39

23
24
81
11%
34
32
82
32
48
32
51
101
17
53
141%
49
29
67
11 .,
54
26





FLORIDA CROPS 25

ORIGIN OF LEADING WORLD CROPS

Edible indigenes of Asia include spices, coffee, tea, cinnamon, apricot,
rhubarb, buckwheat, radish, pistachio, licorice, peach, cucumber, almond,
olive, artichoke, garlic, mango, pomegranate, grape, soybean, yam, lychee,
citrus, rice, cotton, eggplant, black pepper, dasheen, mangosteen, endive,
barley, shallot, fig, date, English walnut, wheat and rye.
Edible Indigenes of Africa include coffee, spinach, cantaloupe, carissa,
and watermelon.
Edible Indigenes of Europe include apple, fennel (parsley family), cur-
rant, gooseberry, mustard, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, rutabaga, kohl-
rabi, broccoli, brussels sprouts, quince, pear, plum, asparagus, parsnips,
celery, leek, chestnut, filbert, carrot and lettuce.
Edible indigenes of Oceanica include coconut, breadfruit, nutmeg,
grapefruit, cinnamon and banana.
Edible indigenes of North America include corn, bean, pumpkin, cran-
berry, pecan, hickory, guava, avocado, allspice, vanilla, sapodilla, sweet
potato, chayote, blueberry, blackberry, dewberry, chestnut, hazelnut, pa-
paya (West Indies) and monistera deliciosa (West Indies).
Edible indigenes of South America include corn, Irish potatoes, toma-
toes, peanut, cocoa, cassava, pineapple, lima beans, mate, herbaceous pepper,
natal plum, cashew and surinam cherry.





26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

HISTORICAL FACTS OF FLORIDA FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES
(Courtesy of United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association)

ASPARAGUS
HISTORY There are about 150 species of asparagus spread
throughout the world in temperate as well as tropical regions.
All are perennials and many species are grown for ornamental
purposes. The asparagus we know today, asparagus oficinalis,
is only one of several species of this vegetable that are edible,
but it is the most important and has been popular for many
centuries. It is believed to be native to the eastern Mediterranean
lands and Asia Minor. It grows wild over much of that area
today and also in the trans-Caucasus, Europe and even in the
U. S. where it has escaped from cultivation. The ancient Greeks
used it in the wild form. They probably received it from the
Phoenicians, the first "traveling salesmen."
Asparagus was a popular appetizer at ancient Roman dinners.
As early as 200 B.C. Cato gave detailed gardening instructions
that would be considered good today, except that he recom-
mended the use of seed from the wild plants. Some early writers
praised the wild forms because they were sweeter in taste.
Some 300 years later, however, cultivated forms were consis-
tently as good as the best wild kinds. The Romans were so fond
of asparagus that they dried the shoots to eat "out of season."
Preparation was so simple that Emperor Augustus is supposed to
have originated a saying, "quicker than you can cook asparagus."
Northern Europeans and the English have been eating as-
paragus since the beginning of their recorded history. In Eng-
land, apparently, this vegetable was as popular raw as cooked.
The 16th century writer, Evelyn, records in his diary that "sper-
age" was "delicious eaten raw with oyl and vinegar." It is
assumed to have been brought to the New World by the earliest
voyagers.
Our name for asparagus is the Latinized form of the Greek
asparagos, and it is easily recognized in most other modern
languages as the same origin: asperge (French and Dutch),
spargel (German) and esparrago (Spanish). About the 17th
century the word was corrupted to "sparrowgrass," but since
the 18th century this form has been confined to the uneducated.
However, from the English and American colloquialisms "spara-
grass" or "sparrowgrass," asparagus has come to be known in
the trade as "grass."





FLORIDA CROPS 27

Asparagus has been valued for medicinal qualities as long
as it has been known. It was supposed to be good for anything
from the prevention of bee stings to heart trouble, dropsy and
toothache. As recently as 1949 it was discovered that asparagus
is one of the richest sources of rutin, a drug originally isolated
in tobacco. Its chief value is strengthening the walls of the
capillaries, thus preventing hemorrhaging. Rutin increases in
asparagus in the autumn when the stalks are too tough to be
edible. Modern medicine also uses the root as a diuretic.
AVOCADOS
HISTORY When Cortez first tasted the fruit of ahuacatl in
November 1519 at the festive boards of Montezuma II, at Teno-
chtitlan (Mexico City), the capital of the Aztecs, this tropical
fruit had long been cultivated by the great Indian civilizations
of Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Primi-
tive bowls shaped like avocados have been found among the
temples of Mayas, Toltecs and Aztecs. A fine treasure of the
great period of pre-Incan civilization, about 900 A. D., found at
the mound of Chan Chan in Peru is a water bowl in the shape of
two avocados, back to back. The first written report to the
Old World was made by the soldier-writer Martin Fernandez de
Enciso, who tasted the fruit in Colombia. Other historians of
the period soon sent in descriptions of this new gourmet's dis-
covery. The news spread rapidly from the court of Charles V
of Spain to other European countries. Unlike many of the popu-
lar new fruits and vegetables found in the New World, the avo-
cado did not spread as rapidly to other tropical areas of the
world. This was due primarily to difficulty in propagation. How-
ever, it was growing in the Hawaiian Islands by 1825 and since
then has been widely distributed in Africa and Polynesia, and
today is growing in most parts of the world where the climate is
suitable. Apparently it was not growing in the West Indies until
the Spaniards introduced it from the mainland. Both Enciso and
the historian Oviedo (1526) referred to it as a "native of the
mainland." As early as 1590, Acosta, another soldier-scholar,
distinguished between the main types of avocados. (See RACES
AND VARIETIES.) W. Hughes, physician of the English
crown, in 1672 pronounced it to be "one of the most rare and
pleasant fruits of the island (Jamaica). It nourisheth and
strengtheneth the body, corroborating the vital spirits and pro-
curing vigor exceedingly." His is the first reference to this fruit




















;4












44













AVOCADO





FLORIDA CROPS 29

in English. George Washington, in 1751, found the avocado to
be the most popular fruit in the Barbados Islands.
The avocado was introduced into the United States in 1883
by Henry Perrine, who sent trees from Mexico to be planted
south of Miami. It seems probable that the Mission Fathers
might have first brought this tropical delight to California. How-
ever, the earliest reference appears in the Report of the Visiting
Committee of the California State Agricultural Society in 1856.
According to this, an avocado tree was imported from Nicaragua
by a Dr. Thomas J. White who lived near Los Angeles. In 1871,
three trees were introduced by Judge R. B. Ord of Santa Bar-
bara. This planting served to stimulate interest in the fruit and
many trees were planted. Some were imported from Mexico and
other countries of Central America. Others were started from
seeds brought into California by travelers. The 1890's found
other pioneers who further advanced interest in growing the
avocado on a commercial scale. Some enterprising nursery men
began in 1910 to explore Mexico and Guatemala for new va-
rieties. The U. S. Department of Agriculture undertook in 1911
to assist the new industry by exploring the avocado growing
areas thoroughly. This cooperative search lasted nine years.

GREEN OR WAX SNAP BEANS

HISTORY Before the discovery of America the Old World was
familiar with many types of beans but not with our "common
bean." Snap beans are believed to have originated in Central
America and were distributed widely over both Americas by the
Indians, probably along the same routes as were lima beans.
Because of its greater range of cultivation over the Americas at
the time of discovery, and its greater diversity in North America,
it is probable that its culture is even older than that of the lima
bean. They were introduced into Europe and Asia soon after
their discovery and became popular very early. They were men-
tioned in Europe about 1542 and by 1616 a large number of
varieties of different types were described. The English first
used the name "kidney bean" in 1551 to distinguish our Ameri-
can common bean from the Old World types. It has been only in
the last 100 years that truly stringless, nearly fiberless, tender-
podded varieties, such as we know today, were developed. An
interest in early bean varieties with stringless pods gave the





80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


















;~-1




i-,. -,
* "' ." s f

I 1. .
BEANS ON POMPANO STATE FARMERS MARKET-BEING LOADED INTO TRUCK
initial impetus to American bean breeding about 1890. Before
that seed companies had paid little attention to bean breeding.
They merely introduced a kind grown by some farmer or a va-
riety that had become common in some farming community.

LIMA BEANS
HISTORY Lima beans were believed native to Brazil. Evidence
now points to Guatemala. Wild primitive beans along with a di-
versity of cultivated forms have been found in Guatemala. Their
distribution has been traced by the various "prehistoric varie-
ties" left along Indian trade routes. One route of the bean mi-
gration extended up through Mexico into our Southwest, east-
ward to spread from Florida to Virginia. Those grown by the
Indian tribes varied from the present small types used by the
Hopi Indians in the Southwest to the Sieva type found in the
east.





FLORIDA CROPS


Another "trade route" was down through Central America
into Peru, where the large-seeded, large podded types were de-
veloped in the coastal areas. The name "Lima" obviously came
from Lima, Peru, one point at which the species was found by
early European explorers. A third branch of development spread
through the West Indies and southward toward the mainland of
South America. This Caribbean branch contains types that tend
to develop poisonous quantities of cyanide under certain con-
ditions but the other branches have not shown this tendency.
The explorers and slavers of the early 1500's found limas ideal
for replenishing their ship's stores. Supplies were obtained
from the Indians in numerous places in the Americas and were
carried to all parts of the earth-Europe, Africa, the East In-
dies, India and the Philippines. By the late 1700's there were
many records of lima beans in all those places. Apparently limas
were recorded in Europe about 1591. The Sieva type was intro-
duced into the United States about 1700 and the large lima about
1824. The bush varieties are of recent development (since 1875),
although the dwarf mutation on which they are based had
doubtless recurred many times before anyone thought of making
use of it. There is a report that a few hundred pounds of bean
seed were purchased from a tramp steamer in Santa Barbara
about 1865 by Henry Lewis. These beans had been purchased
in Peru by the captain of the ship. Within a few years this seed
was being grown generally in the Carpinteria and Ventura areas
and formed the basis of the dry lima bean industry which still
flourishes in Southern California.
Lima Beans are referred to sometimes in the South and other
sections of the country as "butter beans," although this col-
loquialism is sometimes used in New England to refer to yellow-
podded ("wax") varieties of snap beans.

BEETS

HISTORY Beets grown for their leaves, such as Swiss Chard,
have been known in Europe since any definite records of food
plants there have existed. Beets of the type that produce large
fleshy, edible roots were unknown before the Christian Era.
The ancients used the root of the wild beet or chard apparently
for medicinal purposes only. Beets originated in the Mediter-
ranean area and apparently spread eastward in prehistoric


31




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


times, with a secondary region of development in the Near East.
First recipes for cooking the edible roots appeared in the writ-
ings of Roman Epicures in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The next
record of the use of beet roots appeared in English recipes of
the 14th century. The red beet with a turnip-like root was
described first as a food plant in Germany in 1558 and was a
rarity at that time in Northern Europe. The improved beet
was called "Roman beet" in the 16th century in Northern Europe
and France, indicating its introduction from Italy. Garden beets
remained relatively unimportant during the 17th and 18th cen-
turies, but after 1800 grew more in popularity on Continental
Europe than in the British Isles. It is known when they were
introduced into the United States, but only one variety was listed
in 1806.
Cultivation of beets for sugar was established in France and
Germany about 1810. Sugar beets are cultivated extensively in
the United States, and have also been used in northern states as
winter vegetables, sliced and fried and served with meat. Stock
beets or mangel-wurzels are a coarser variety and are used for
cattle fodder. Sugar beets are usually yellowish-white, and
garden beets range in color from extremely dark purplish red
to bright vermilion and to white. Those commonly grown for
commercial fresh market are the red varieties.

BROCCOLI
HISTORY Although the first notice of broccoli appears in Mil-
ler's Dictionary, edition of 1724, in which he says it was a
stranger in England until "within these five years," and was
called 'sprout coli-flower,' or Italian asparagus, Sturtevant be-
lieves that the Romans knew the sprouting broccoli as well as
other forms at least as early as the beginning of the Christian
era. Two excerpts from Pliny's writings, second century A.D.,
indicate to Sturtevant that the sprouting broccoli (cyma) was
highly favored. Dr. Victor Boswell in "Our Vegetable Travelers,"
The National Geographic Magazine, August 1949, also states that
sprouting broccoli was known for more than 2,000 years in parts
of Europe. In 1729 Switzer described several kinds of broccolis
that he had had growing in his garden near London, "these
past two years," including sprouting broccoli. Sturtevant com-
ments that "since the seeds of the plants described by Switzer
came from Italy and came mixed, we may assume that varietal





FLORIDA CROPS 33

distinctions had not as yet become recognized, and that hence
all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated from
Italy."
McMahon's list of vegetables grown in American gardens,
1806, is the first mention of the broccolis, including sprouting
broccoli, in the U. S. Dr. Boswell says, "It must have been known
here for many years before that," and he further expresses
surprise that such an excellent vegetable failed to become popu-
lar until comparatively recently. Its use was confined to a few
Italian families in the New York and Boston areas prior to the
1920's. In 1923 D'Arrigo Bros. Company planted trial fields of
Italian sprouting broccoli in Santa Clara Valley, near San Jose,
and shipped a few crates by express to Boston. The first ice
pack broccoli was shipped to eastern markets in mixed cars in
the fall of 1924, and by 1925 straight car loads were loaded at
San Jose for the East. Acreages were limited at first, but by
1927 more planters and packers became interested and for awhile
supplies increased faster than demand. In 1929 D'Arrigo Bros.
Company started what is thought to be the first direct adver-
tising program for broccoli through a cooperative radio program
in Italian and in some Italian newspapers. Development of the
industry was rapid and in 1932 a pre-cooler was built at Castro-
ville for broccoli only. The growing season was extended in this
area through development of new strains, and by 1939 quality
packs became of importance. Grading and bunching was moved
into the packing houses and bunching machines were developed
and installed at Castroville. These were picked up by other broc-
coli shippers and are now commonly used by most broccoli
shippers.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

HISTORY The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea bullata gem-
mifera) is a form of cabbage which, instead of making a large
single head, produces a number of small heads along its stem
where the leaves are attached. By pulling away the lower leaves
these heads are given room to develop. This form apparently
did not come into existence until about 400 years ago. The 1937
Yearbook of Agriculture states that this plant was not mentioned
by the early writers prior to 1759, but by 1793 Brussels sprouts
were an article of international commerce and its origin is gen-
erally ascribed to Belgium.





34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Some authors of last century said that they had been grown
"from time immemorial about Brussels, Belgium." Sturtevant's
Notes on Edible Plants, edited by U. P. Hedrick of the New York
State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, re-
futes this by saying, "if this be so, it is strange that they escaped
the notice of the early botanists who would have certainly
noticed a common plant of such striking appearance." The
Notes give further explanation as to how some authors may
have been convinced that some of the earlier botanists were
describing Brussels sprouts. An early cabbage, after the true
head is removed, will frequently develop small cabbages in the
leaf axils. Dalechamp, 1587, described such a phenomenon and
gave this form the name B. capitata polycephalos. Bauhin 1623,
describes B. ex capitibus pluribus, saying that "some plants bear
50 heads the size of an egg." Because of Bauhin's reference to
Dalechamp, Sturtevant believed he was referring to the same
plant. Lobel, 1655, refers to a cabbage like the B. polycephalos
but he had not seen it. Ray, 1686, also refers to a "like cab-
bage." Sturtevant ascribed the origin of this vegetable to "a
suddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage type" at some
time scarcely before the 1700's. By 1821 they were commonly
cultivated near Brussels and were probably in general use in
gardens in France. Booth, 1874, said they were not generally
known in England until after 1854, but a correspondent of the
"Gardeners' Chronicle," 1850, refers to tall sorts as generally
preferred to the dwarf by market gardeners near London. Mc-
Mahon, 1806, mentioned them in this country for the first time
but did not include them in his list of garden vegetables for
America. Thorburn's catalog for 1828 offered seed for one
variety and in 1881 two varieties. Sturtevant, writing prior
to 1887 said that "this vegetable, in this country" was grown
"only in gardens of amateurs, yet (is) deserving more esteem."
The 1925 Yearbook of Agriculture said that these were not
grown extensively for market "until recently when a large in-
dustry developed in the Delta region of Louisiana."

CABBAGE
HISTORY There is historical and botanical evidence that cab-
bage has been in cultivation for more than 4,000 years. Sturte-
vant says "views as to the origin of various types of cabbage
must be considered as largely speculative." Even the origin of





FLORIDA CROPS


CABBAGE
the name "cabbage" is clouded in confusion. The name ap-
parently is derived from the Latin "caput," meaning "head,"
although Dr. Victor R. Boswell, USDA, in "Our Vegetable
Travelers," says the word is an Anglicized form of the French
"caboche," also meaning "head." The cabbage is of the genus
"Brassica oleracea," and the modern heading-types common to
this country are classified as "Brassica oleracea capitata." It is
a member of the mustard family, but is botanically separated
from the mustards in that it has a distinct family of its own,
including the cauliflowers, the broccolis, Brussels sprouts, kales
and kohlrabi.
Evidence points to the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor
as the place of origin of the species, but Dr. Boswell says "the
Celts of Central and Western Europe had much to do with the
distribution and popularization of cabbage as a food plant." Its
introduction into Europe has been generally ascribed to the





36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Romans, but here again Dr. Boswell says "it seems probable that
the Celts introduced it even earlier." He points out that the
Celts invaded Mediterranean lands repeatedly from about 600
B. C., reached into Asia Minor around 278 B. C., and into the
British Isles in the fourth century A.D. The Romans did not
spread into northern Europe and Britain until shortly before
the beginning of the Christian Era. "In view of these move-
ments," says Dr. Boswell, "it is not surprising that the history
of the development of the cabbage-like group of vegetables has
been confused between the Mediterranean and Asia Minor, on the
one hand, and northern and western Europe on the other."
There is no mention of there having been a hard-heading
variety of cabbage in ancient Rome. These varieties apparently
were unknown until after the time of Charlemagne, who died
A. D. 814. Albert of Cologne referred to hard-heading cabbage
in the 13th century, and it was referred to again in the 14th
century by writers citing a distinction between heading and non-
heading cabbages (coleworts). Unmistakably clear descriptions
of hard-heading cabbage were recorded in Europe in 1536.
Sturtevant says cabbage was first introduced into America
by Jacques Cartier in 1541-42, who planted it in Canada on his
third voyage. There is no written record of its being planted
in what is now the United States until 1699, although Dr. Bos-
well says "it was doubtless planted by some of the earliest
colonists." In 1779 cabbages were mentioned as among the
Indian crops around Geneva, N. Y., and in 1806, B. McMahon in
his "The American Gardener's Calendar" mentioned early and
late varieties for American gardens. Thorburn's "American Seed
House Catalog" published in New York listed 18 varieties in 1828.


CANTALOUPE

HISTORY When is a cantaloupe not a cantaloupe? The "true"
cantaloupe variety of muskmelon is grown in Europe and is not
known in America. The European cantaloupe was named for
the Castle of Cantalupo, the country seat of a sixteenth century
Pope, in whose gardens a variety of muskmelon brought from
Armenia was first cultivated. In America "cantaloupe" has be-
come the generic name of all the small, oval, heavily netted
musk-scented muskmelon. All cantaloupes are muskmelons, but
not all muskmelons are cantaloupes.





FLORIDA CROPS 37

The netted or nutmeg muskmelon which has become known
as cantaloupe in America originated in Persia and adjacent areas.
A secondary center of origin is southern Asia where it grew
spontaneously from the foot of the Himalayas to Cape Comorin
and the northwest provinces of India, Kashmir and Afghanistan.
It also grew wild in Egypt, and inferior varieties were cultivated
at a very early date. The oldest record of the muskmelon is an
Egyptian picture of 2400 B.C. in which a fruit identified by some
experts as a muskmelon appears.
The muskmelon was introduced in China and also the Medi-
terranean areas of Europe at the beginning of the Christian era.
Pliny the Elder describes "a new form of cucumber . called
Melopepo which grows on the ground in a round form and . .
although not suspended, yet the fruit separates from the stem
at maturity." Galen, the Greek physician, wrote during the
second century of its medicinal qualities, and Roman writers of
the third century gave directions for cultivating and "preparing
it with spices for eating." By the fifteenth century, the musk-
melon was well known in Spain, and Charles VIII of France is
credited with introducing it into northern and central Europe
from Rome about the same time.
The muskmelon was an "early settler" in the New World.
Columbus brought the seed on his second voyage, and in 1494
he had it planted on Isabela Island. It quickly spread to both
American continents and was grown by the Indians in both South
and North America early in the sixteenth century. Between 1534
and 1584, reference to the muskmelon was made in literature and
letters in such widely separated areas as the St. Lawrence, New
Mexico area, Haiti and Virginia. The fruit was also grown in
Massachusetts early in its colonization. Early in the 17th cen-
tury it appeared along the Hudson and in the New England reg-
ion and was introduced into Bermuda in 1609. In 1683 the
Spaniards introduced it into California.
Directions for cultivating the muskmelon appeared in books
in 1693. One written in France at that time was translated for
use in England, Holland, Germany and many other countries for
almost a century afterwards. One of the earliest books on its
cultivation published in America appeared in 1769.
CARROTS
HISTORY The carrot (Daucus carota) gets its name from the
French word "carotte," which in turn comes from the Latin





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


"carota," says Dr. Victor R. Boswell, USDA, in "Our Vegetable
Travelers." It is believed to have originated in Afghanistan
and adjacent Asiatic areas . and later was introduced into
North and South America, China and Cochin China, according
to Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Just when cultivation
started is vague, but Sturtevant says "we believe the carrot was
cultivated by the ancients." The wild plant is believed to be the
original of the domestic variety, which was improved through
cultivation and selection. Galen, a Greek physician of the second
century, implied cultivation in his writings, and by the 16th
century the carrot had become well established throughout a
large portion of the world.
First mention of carrots in the New World was at Margarita
Island, off the coast of Venezuela, in 1565 (which Sturtevant
says "indicates they were well known in England at that date.")
Carrots were grown by the Colonists at Jamestown, Va., in 1609,
and in Massachusetts in 1629. They were mentioned in Brazil
in 1647. George C. Conover in his "Early History of Geneva
(N. Y.)" says "carrots were among the Indian foods destroyed
by General John Sullivan near Geneva in 1779."
"Our common carrot is called the Mediterranean type," says
Dr. Boswell, "because it has long been known there and was
probably developed from types carried from Asia Minor." Types
developed in other parts of the world, such as the Japanese
carrot that is commonly three feet long or more, are not grown
here.
HISTORICAL NOTES When carrots were first brought to Eng-
land from Holland, stylish ladies used the feathery leaves to deco-
rate their hair ... In Germany, a substitute for coffee was made
from carrots chopped into small pieces and browned . In the
Hebrides, off the coast of Scotland, they were collected by the
young women and distributed as dainties among their acquain-
tances on Sundays and at their dances . In some parts of
Europe sugar was made from carrots but its manufacture was
not found profitable . In 1855 surveyors for the Pacific Rail-
road reported that Flathead Indians in Oregon were so fond
of carrots they would steal them from the fields, although strictly
honest as to other articles.
CAULIFLOWER
HISTORY Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) is a member
of the cabbage family and is so closely related to sprouting





FLORIDA CROPS 39

broccoli that both are designated as the same botanical variety,
"botrytis," from a Greek word meaning "a cluster." It is de-
fined as an annual variety of cabbage, in which the head con-
sists of the condensed and thickened flower cluster instead of
the leaves. Both cauliflower and broccoli have much the same
early history. The parent of these cabbages is native to the
Mediterranean area and Asia Minor, says Dr. Victor R. Boswell,
USDA, in a treatise on "Our Vegetable Travelers."
The word "cauliflower" comes from the Latin terms "caulis,"
which means stem, stalk or cabbage, and "floris" (flower). "Cau-
lis," was changed to "caul," later in German it became "kohl,"
in Danish "kaale," and in Irish "cal." Thus literally cauliflower
is "cabbage flower" or "stalk flower."
The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th cen-
tury B. C. The Roman naturalist Pliny wrote about it in the
second century after Christ. In the 12th century three varieties
were described in Spain as introduced from Syria, where it had
doubtless been grown for more than a thousand years. In
England in 1586 cauliflower was referred to as "Cyprus Cole-
worts," suggesting introduction from the Island of Cyprus.
Cauliflower was on the London vegetable market as early as
1619. It was grown in France around 1600, where it was known
as "chou fleur."
It is uncertain when and how cauliflower (sprouting broccoli)
was introduced into this country, but Dr. Boswell says it has
been grown for "perhaps 200 years in America." Americans of
Italian origin, he said, had grown it for generations in the vi-
cinity of New York and Boston before it was generally appre-
ciated for its attractive qualities. B. McMahon in "The American
Gardner's Calendar," published in Philadelphia in 1806, mentions
early and late cauliflower varieties, as does Thomas Bridgeman in
his "Young Gardener's Assistant," published in New York in
1832. Fearing Burr, Jr., Boston, described 10 varieties in 1836.
The Vilmorin (Paris, France) "Catalog of Seed Houses" de-
scribed 16 varieties in 1870.
Although grown in Europe for centuries both broccoli and
cauliflower have become important vegetable crops in this
country only since 1925. Because of their fine appearance and
delicate flavor they have become increasingly popular with
American consumers. They have been called the "true aristo-
crats of the cabbage family," and Mark Twain once defined cauli-
flower as "cabbage with a college education."




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


AN ABUNDANT


HARVEST OF CELERY POURS FROM FLORIDA TO THE
NATION'S PRODUCE COUNTERS


CELERY
HISTORY Celery belongs to the same family of plants as the
carrot, parsley, fennel, caraway and anise. The characteristic
flavor and odor of the members of this family are due to the
presence of volatile oils in the stems and leaves and especially
in the seeds. It originated in the Mediterranean countries. Wild
celery grows in wet places over Europe, the Mediterranean lands,
Asia Minor, the Caucasus and southeastward toward the Hima-
layas. Smallage, a plant now cultivated in gardens for flavoring
purposes, is apparently "wild" celery, and this has been known
in the Mediterranean lands for thousands of years.
Celery was mentioned in Homer's Odyssey about 850 B.C.
as "selinon." The French name, "celeri," from which the Eng-
lish is derived, was first mentioned in a 9th century poem written





FLORIDA CROPS 41

in France or Italy, giving the medicinal uses and merits of the
plant. Dioscorides, Greek medical writer of about the 1st cen-
tury, recommended eating celery for a sedative effect (The vola-
tile oil obtained from ripe celery seeds is used in medicine today
as a sedative). Another use the ancient Greeks made of celery
was as an award to winners of sports contests.
It was still a primitive plant when first cultivated in Italy
and northern Europe and grown for medicinal purposes only.
Use as food was first recorded in France in 1623, and for about
a hundred years thereafter its food use was confined to flavor-
ings. Not until the middle of the 17th century were the little
stalks and leaves eaten with an oil dressing in France and Italy.
Improvement of the plant was not undertaken until the late 17th
and early 18th centuries in Italy, France and England. By mid-
18th century it was discovered that much of the strong flavor
could be eliminated by growing the plants in late summer and
fall, then keeping them into the winter. This brought celery into
its place as a salad plant.
It is not known when celery was first brought to America, but
four cultivated varieties were listed here in 1806. Celery growing
as an industry in the U.S. dates from about 1880 when the
White Plume and the Golden Self Blanching varieties were intro-
duced. Prior to that certain of the older green types were grown
in home and market gardens mainly for local consumption.
Credit for the early commercial development of the industry is
largely due to a group of Holland-American gardeners in the
vicinity of Kalamazoo, Michigan who grew it as early as 1874
and offered it for sale to passengers on the trains passing through
Kalamazoo. Later it was sold on the Michigan Central Railroad
trains to passengers and to people along the route, and a demand
for the delicately blanched product was rapidly created.


COLLARDS

HISTORY The collard with its close relative kale is one of the
most primitive and oldest members of the cabbage family. It is
native to the eastern Mediterranean countries or to Asia Minor.
It has been under cultivation for so long and has been so shifted
about by prehistoric traders and migrating tribes that it is not
certain which of these regions is the home of the species. Wild
cabbage, from which the collard and more highly developed





42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

horticultural forms arose, is still growing along the coastal re-
gions of Europe and northern Africa. Its use by man as food
antedates written history, and it is believed to have been in
common use for more than 4000 years. All principal forms of
collards known today have been cultivated for at least 2.000
years. Well before the Christian era the Greeks and Romans
grew this plant. "Coles" (collards and kales) were described by
European writers in the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 13th centuries.
The Romans may have taken the coles to Britain and France.
On the other hand, it seems probable that the Celts may have
introduced them to these countries. They invaded Mediter-
ranean lands repeatedly from about 600 B.C. and reached into
the British Isles in the 4th century B.C. The English name is
a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "coleworts" or "colewyrts,"
meaning literally "cabbage plants."
The first mention of collards in America was in 1669, but
because of their popularity in European gardens, it is probable
that they were introduced somewhat earlier. (See "Our Vege-
table Travellers" by Dr. Victor R. Boswell, National Geographic
Magazine, August 1949.)

SWEET CORN
HISTORY Indian corn (Zea mays L.) was cultivated in the
two Americas, from Canada to Patagonia, long before Columbus
reached the shores of the New World. The first written record
of corn in North America is found in Icelandic sagas. Karlsefne,
in 1006, found corn at Hop (presumably in the vicinity of
Taunton River, Mass.). Maize and its uses are described by
Columbus in 1492 as "a kind of grain called maize of which was
made a very well-tasted flour." It was also brought to Columbus
in 1498 in Venezuela. DeSoto in the 1540 invasion found it
cultivated in Florida, Alabama and northern Mississippi. Evi-
dence of pre-Columbian maize has been found in excavations in
the "Four Corners" area, where Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and
New Mexico meet. The "Basket Makers" were growing maize,
both field and sweet, apparently as far back as the 600's A.D. or
earlier. According to Dr. Edgar Anderson in Corn Before Colum-
bus, literally bushels of pre-Columbian corn have been found
from this area and in the extremely arid region around southern
Peru and northern Chile. Not only cobs but some nearly perfect
ears have been found. Tassels, stalks, leaves and jars of kernels





FLORIDA CROPS


SWEET CORN

have been excavated. At Arica (northern Chile, bordering on
Peru), popped corn has been found. Only a few burned cobs of
pre-Conquest corn have been found in Mexico, but water bowls
and funerary urns used by the prehistoric Zapotecs of southern
Mexico are decorated with ears of corn that apparently were
cast from the original ears. "They are so realistic, even in
trifling details," says Dr. Anderson, "it seems fairly certain
they are cast directly from actual prehistoric ears of corn."
Maize was bound closely to the rise of the great Indian civili-
zations, such as the Inca of Peru, the Maya of Central America
and the Aztec of Mexico. It provided food, currency, fuel, smok-
ing silk, jewelry and building material. It was an important con-
tribution to taxes in Mexico as evidenced by pre-Conquest tax
lists of the Aztec emperor, Montezuma (or Moctezuma). It
loomed large in art, decorating temples, homes, ceramics, toys
and funerary urns. It was inextricably tied to the religious
ceremonies of Indians, both South and North American. There
are probably as many legends about the origin of corn as there
are Indian Tribes. These range from simple nature stories to
more complex histories of the origin of the Indians and the begin-
nings of their cultural development. Maize still plays a part in
certain of the festive and religious ceremonies of present-day





44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Indians. New York Indians have been known to destroy an en-
tire crop of corn to be used in religious ceremonies because the
shadow of a white man had fallen upon the fields.
The Indian, from eastern North America through South
South America, apparently had to be on constant lookout for
thieves in the cornfield-be they feathered, four-legged or
human. Thomas White, official artist associated with Thomas
Hariot in Sir Walter Raleigh's colony, has a picture of an Indian
cornfield in the town of Secota on Roanoke Island, off the coast
of North Carolina, in which he shows a house for the watchman.
Dr. Paul Weatherwax in Indian Corn in Old America says that,
"in the vicinity of Quito, Ecuador an Indian who might be en-
tirely honest in other ways would have no hesitation about
stealing corn from a white man, his justification being that corn
is inherently the property of the Indian anyhow. In some places
in the Andes, sweet corn is especially attractive to thieves and
a common way of concealing it is to plant a block of it in the
middle of a field of ordinary corn. . An old Mexican law
ordered special plantings of corn to be made along the roads for
the use of the traveler and he was permitted to take up to
seven ears. . But for malicious trespass or damage to the
cornfields, or for taking more than enough for immediate needs,
the penalty was death by hanging. One clause of this law ...:
the poor were exempt from the penalty."
Maize apparently went through its first great period of de-
velopment in the Andes, probably in southern Peru, where primi-
tive forms are still grown by the Indians. Within a radius of
100 miles of the old Inca capital of Cuzco there is probably more
variety in maize than in all North America. No one has suc-
ceeded in finding wild maize or the wild parent from which maize
was derived. The only close relative is "teosinte," a weed in
fields and abandoned areas in Mexico and Central America. This
is believed to have been derived from crosses between maize and
rripsacum, a native American grass, and hence originated from
maize rather than being its "wild" ancestor. Later hybridization
between South American maize and teosinte is believed to have
brought about the development of the modern types of corn-
pointed popcorn, dents, flours and flints-all widespread in
North America by Columbian times.
Indian corn has never achieved the popularity in Europe it
enjoys in the Western Hemisphere. The four-letter Anglo-
Saxon word "corn" is used in Europe as a generic name for all





FLORIDA CROPS 45

grains or it may apply to the special grain of the country. In
England "corn" is wheat and in Scotland and Ireland rye. All
nationalities, however, recognize the word "maize" for Indian
corn.
The early Spanish and Portuguese travelers spread Indian
corn or maize throughout the Orient. The presence of distinc-
tive strains and distinctive uses of maize among aboriginal
tribes in southeastern Asia raises the possibility that this race
of maize may have crossed the Pacific in pre-Columbian times.
This Asiatic maize is of a type that was grown in South America
in pre-Inca times and at a time when it was the only kind. (See
"Maize among the Hill Peoples of Assam," Annals of the Missouri
Botanical Garden, 36:355-404, Sept. 1949, by C. R. Stonor and
Edgar Anderson.)
The first written account of sweet corn, by Bordley in 1801,
describes it as "having a white shriveled grain when ripe, as
yielding richer juice in the stalks than common corn." Later
records show that members of the 1779 expedition against the
Six Nations of New York under General Sullivan found Indians
cultivating sweet corn west of the Susquehanna. Lt. Richard
Bagnoll introduced it to Plymouth, and it gradually became
common as a kitchen garden vegetable. Interest in Sweet corn
began around 1850 and some 30 varieties were listed in seed
catalogs by 1880.
Sweet corn has a long history, although for some time it was
assumed by American corn experts that sweet corn originated
with the North American Indians and possibly was not grown
in pre-Columbian times. This belief was fostered by the use of
sweet corn in the U. S. exclusively as green corn and since no
sweet corn used as green corn was found below the border it
was assumed that there was no sweet corn in Latin America.
Sweet corn as a distinctive and appreciated variety apparently
originated somewhere in South America, probably among the
high civilizations of the Andes. The Indians of Ecuador, Peru
and Bolivia have a native name for sweet corn, sara chulpi,
which dates back to pre-Conquest days, and since the Conquest
the name maiz chulpi has been applied. This indicates that these
Indians have had sweet corn for a long time. In civilizations
that did not have sugar cane, this "freak" was a source of
sugar. Other varieties of maize were grown for green corn. In
highland Peru and Bolivia there is still grown the ancient variety
of sweet corn which the Incas used in making their high-quality





46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

maize beer of chichaa." (One seed catalog published in the U. S.
today lists a variety, "Quinche," as the "original Inca corn from
the Andean highlands .handed down for untold centuries." The
catalog further says: "while it has excellent food value for
cattle, it is also used in Ecuador as green corn and has a de-
licious flavor as 'corn-on-the-cob'.")
"Chicha" is still a common drink in the Andes. In pre-Colum-
bian times, in the absence of sugar cane, the Indians added a meal
made from ground toasted sweet corn to increase the sugar
content and to give chichaa" its extra kick. Survivals of ancient
drinks made from ground roasted sweet corn may still be found
in Guatemala and Mexico-fermented and unfermented. In
Mexico "maiz dulce" (sweet corn) is used, as a source of sugar,
mixed with peanuts and squash seeds in a primitive crackerjack
called "ponteduro" or toasted and ground into a fine powder,
mixed with anise or chocolate or cinnamon and stirred up into a
sweetish drink called "pinole." The Mexican sweet corn is too
gummy when cooked for use as green corn.
The Peruvian sugary corn has ears nearly as wide as they
are high, big as an orange, with a thick heavy cob, numerous
irregular rows of kernels, tapering to somewhat of a point and
smoothly rounded into a basin at the butt. The kernels are con-
siderably larger than present-day hybrid sweet corn kernels.
In color they range from lemon yellow, orange yellow and various
shades of orange red to a deep Chinese red. According to Dr.
Edgar Anderson, in Man, Plants and Life, this ancient South
American variety has moved slowly north, century after century,
mixing with the ordinary corn of the country enough to adapt
itself to the new growing conditions and yet so protected by its
inherent recessivity that in all these years it has not yet lost
all of its distinctive South American appearance. Among the
Plains Indians of North America there are varieties (Nuetta
sweet corn, for instance) which are almost like our Golden Ban-
tam except their kernels are a variety of dilute Chinese reds.
The sweet corn of the Hopi Indians, who have retained as much
of their ancient culture as any Indians in the United States, is one
of the traditional sacred corns used in their summer festivals.
In many of the ears there is still a strong resemblance to the
original South American variety. The Hopi have grown their
sweet corn for so long that they say its origin is unknown ..
or that it had no origin because it had always been in existence.
The five ways sweet corn is used in Mexico (toasted, pinole,





FLORIDA CROPS


ponteduro, etc.) and the seven ways it was used by the Six
Nations (boiling, roasting, scraped, etc.) are in no way alike.
The Hopi however used it in a number of ways, some similar to
those used in Mexico and some of those used by the Six Nations.
According to Dr. Anderson, by the time sweet corn reached the
Plains and became adapted to conditions in North America, the
gumminess characteristic of the sweet corn of western Mexico
had disappeared and sweet corn became an ideal variety for use
as green corn.
Sweet corn was primarily a minor or local crop for fresh
market until after World II. During the 1940's there was a phe-
nomenol growth in the cultivation of sweet corn for fresh market.
Among the important factors that contributed to this expansion
are: (1) the breeding of new hybrids suitable for culture in the
South and the West, for local use and for shipment over long
distances; (2) the availability of new synthetic insecticides for
control of corn earworm and other insects; and (3) the develop-
ment of improved packing and shipping materials, equipment
and methods. The most outstanding among these has been the
improvement and extension of precooling and refrigeration fa-
cilities to reduce loss of eating quality of sweet corn before it
can be delivered to the consumer.
CUCUMBERS
HISTORY The cucumber is supposedly a native of India, al-
though plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild
prototype. Cucumbers have been cultivated since earliest an-
tiquity. Reliable records indicate they were used as food in
ancient Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and
Romans. They are one of the few vegetables mentioned in the
Bible: see Numbers 11:5. A Chinese ambassador in 200 B. C.
travelled as far as Persia where he saw cucumbers for the first
time. He introduced them into China. At a much later date an
English sea-captain, returning from the West Indies, brought
back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this
period, cucumbers were being grown in England.
Occasionally in a collection of old glass a plain glass tube or
cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will
turn up. This may be an English cucumber glass, says the Wise
Encyclopedia of Cookery. This was a device used at one time
to make cucumbers grow straight. George Stephenson, inven-
tor of the locomotive, is credited with this invention.





48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

In England a special forcing type of slicing cucumber is
grown in greenhouses. The fruits attain length-over two feet
in some varieties. American consumers, however, do not like the
huge English type any better than they like our smaller slicing
cukes.

EGGPLANT

HISTORY An annual plant of the potato family, native to
India, where it has been grown since remote antiquity. Has
large white to dark purple fleshy fruit, sometimes six or eight
inches in diameter. The Chinese and Arabs grew eggplant as
early as the ninth century, and it is supposed to have been in-
troduced into Europe by the early invaders.
According to available records, the early types had small
fruits of ovoid shape, perhaps accounting for the name eggplant,
British traders brought eggplant to the London market from
West Africa in the 17th century, calling it "guinea squash."
Eggplant is prepared by baking it in the skin, boiling it in
water, stewing it in oil or broth as they do in the Near East,
slicing and frying in batter, or barbecuing with meat.

ENDIVE ESCAROLE

HISTORY Native to the East Indies. It was introduced into
Egypt and Greece at a very early period and references to it ap-
pear in their history. The plant was brought to America by
colonists. Endive is closely related botanically to chicory and
the two names are sometimes incorrectly used as synonyms.
Escarole is another name for a type of endive with broad leaves
and a well-blanched heart. The word "endive" is reserved to
designate plants with narrow finely divided curly leaves.

GRAPEFRUIT

HISTORY Cultivated upwards of 2,000 years in India and Ma-
laysia. The fruit was brought to Florida by the Spaniards in the
16th century. However, the commercial grapefruit industry in
Florida was based on seedling trees very much like the Duncan
variety and now known as Florida Common. A Spanish settler,
Don Phillippe, is reported to have brought grapefruit and orange





FLORIDA CROPS


U(aeF


EGGPLANT





50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

seeds from Cuba in 1842 and made the plantings at Safety
Harbor. The orange trees died from neglect but the grapefruit
trees thrived. The variety was introduced and propagated by
A. L. Duncan of Dunnedin about 1892 and it is still the favorite
among the seedy varieties.
Credit for bringing grapefruit to the attention of the public
belongs to a group of enterprising Florida citrus growers who
shipped the first grapefruit from Florida to Philadelphia and
New York markets between 1880 and 1885. The recognition in
Florida of the grapefruit as an appetizing breakfast dish started
its culture on a commercial basis. Cultivation expanded until
grapefruit production has become an important industry in
Florida, Texas, California and Arizona.

LETTUCE
HISTORY Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is believed to be
native to the Mediterranean and Near Eastern centers of origin
of cultivated plants. Wild and cultivated lettuces are still found
in the Near East, which includes inner Asia Minor, the whole of
Transcaucasia, Persia (Iran) and the Alpine Turkoman Republic.
A species of Lactuca (stem lettuce) is native to China. (Source:
Botanical-Geographic Principles of Selection, N. I. Vavilov, trans-
lated in 1946 by Mrs. Eugenia Artschwager USDA.)
Modern forms of lettuce are believed by most botanists to be
derived from a wild form which grows as a weed in most areas
where lettuce is found. Lactuca scariola or prickly lettuce is
a familiar weed over much of this country. It is also edible. It
grows from two to five feet high. The leaves twist or turn edge-
wise to the sun and it is sometimes called Compass Plant for
that reason. The lower part of the stem and the midrib of the
leaves are covered with weak prickles. The leaves clasp the stem
with earlike projections. Their margins are sharp-toothed, al-
most bristle-tipped. The plant is a biennial or sometimes an
annual. It can be found in fields, waste places and roadsides.
When a few inches high, it may be cut for salads or as a pot-
herb. The young leaves are very tender and are used as a salad.
As a potherb, it needs very little cooking. It is gathered in
the spring or early summer. (Edible Wild Plants, Oliver Perry
Medsger, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1954.)
Although lettuce has been cultivated for more than 2,000
years and its culture was widespread in ancient times, it is




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